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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Mar 2023 at 01:56 Created:

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-03-20

Beckmann-Wübbelt A, Türk L, Almeida I, et al (2023)

Climate change adaptation measures conflicted with the recreational demands on city forests during COVID-19 pandemic.

npj urban sustainability, 3(1):17.

Recurrent droughts in southwest Germany threaten the city and community-owned forests (CCF). At the same time, the COVID-19 pandemic has increased the demand for recreation in CCF of southwest Germany. We interviewed stakeholders from different interest groups to critically analyze their opinion on how the high recreation demand on CCF due to the pandemic can be ensured along with implementing climate change adaptation measures in CCF in Karlsruhe, Germany. We found that stakeholders particularly highlighted the importance of the recreational function of the CCF during the pandemic. However, the behavior of visitors was criticized by the stakeholders. We showed that demand for the recreational use of CCF conflicted with climate change adaptation measures such as sanitary and forest restoration actions, creating a dilemma among stakeholders. Therefore, enhancing citizens' knowledge of forests' recreation functions and the need for climate change adaptation through communication and education should be prioritized.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

The Era of Climate Change Medicine-Challenges to Health Care Systems.

The Ochsner journal, 23(1):7-8.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Xu W, Jiang J, Lin HY, et al (2023)

Assessment of the impact of climate change on endangered conifer tree species by considering climate and soil dual suitability and interspecific competition.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01338-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change results in the habitat loss of many conifer tree species and jeopardizes species biodiversity and forest ecological functions. Delineating suitable habitats for tree species via climate niche model (CNM) is widely used to predict the impact of climate change and develop conservation and management strategies. However, the robustness of CNM is broadly debated as it usually does not consider soil and competition factors. Here we developed a new approach to combine soil variables with CNM and evaluate interspecific competition potential in the niche overlapping areas. We used an endangered conifer species - Chamaecyparis formosensis (red cypress) - as a case study to predict the impact of climate change. We developed a novel approach to integrate the climate niche model and soil niche model predictions and considered interspecific competition to predict the impacts of climate change on tree species. Our results show that the suitable habitat for red cypress would decrease significantly in the future with an additional threat from the competition of an oak tree species. Our approach and results may represent significant implications in making conservation strategies and evaluating the impacts of climate change, and providing the direction of the refinement of the ecological niche model.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Vo TPT, Ngo HH, Guo W, et al (2023)

Influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on climate change summit negotiations from the climate governance perspective.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01552-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant disruptions to the world since 2020, with over 647 million confirmed cases and 6.7 million reported deaths as of January 2023. Despite its far-reaching impact, the effects of COVID-19 on the progress of global climate change negotiations have yet to be thoroughly evaluated. This discussion paper conducts an examination of COVID-19's impact on climate change actions at global, national, and local levels through a comprehensive review of existing literature. This analysis reveals that the pandemic has resulted in delays in implementing climate policies and altered priorities from climate action to the pandemic response. Despite these setbacks, the pandemic has also presented opportunities for accelerating the transition to a low-carbon economy. The interplay between these outcomes and the different levels of governance will play a crucial role in determining the success or failure of future climate change negotiations.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Garcia-Bustos V, Cabañero-Navalon MD, Ruiz-Gaitán AC, et al (2023)

Climate change, animals, and Candida auris: insights into the ecological niche of a new species from a one health approach.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(23)00132-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: One of the most puzzling traits of Candida auris is the recent simultaneous and independent emergence of five genetically distinct clades on three continents. Global warming has been proposed as a contributing factor for this emergence due to C. auris high thermotolerance compared to phylogenetically close Candida species. This hypothesis postulates that climate change induced an environmental ancestor to become pathogenic through thermal adaptation and was then globally disseminated by an intermediate host.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to compile the current knowledge on the emergence and ecological environmental niches of C. auris, and highlight the potential role of animals in transmission.

SOURCES: A literature search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from May 2022 to January 2023.

CONTENT: We discuss the up-to-date data on the ecological niches of this fungus and its mechanisms of emergence, transmission cycle in nature, and worldwide dissemination. We highlight the possibility of an originally intermediate host possibly related to marine or freshwater ecosystems on the basis of recent molecular and microbiological evidence from a One Health perspective. The consequences of harmful human impacts on the environment in the raise of new fungal pathogenic species such as C. auris are also analysed and compared to other animal precedents.

IMPLICATIONS: The present knowledge can prompt the generation of new evidence on the ecological reservoirs of C. auris and its original mechanisms of environmental or interspecies transmission. Further research on the highlighted gaps will help to understand the importance of the relationships between human, animal, and ecosystem health, as factors involved in the raise and spread of emerging fungal pathogenic species.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Gumuła-Kawęcka A, Jaworska-Szulc B, Szymkiewicz A, et al (2023)

Impact of climate change on groundwater recharge in shallow young glacial aquifers in northern Poland.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01520-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We investigated the influence of climate change in the period 1951-2020 on shallow aquifers in the Brda and Wda outwash plains (Pomeranian Region, Northern Poland). There was a significant temperature rise (0.3 °C/10 years), which accelerated after 1980 (0.66 °C/10 years). Precipitation became increasingly irregular - extremely rainy years occurred right after or before extremely dry years, and intensive rainfall events became more frequent after 2000. The groundwater level decreased over the last 20 years, even though the average annual precipitation was higher than in the previous 50 years. We carried out numerical simulations of water flow in representative soil profiles for the years 1970-2020 using the HYDRUS-1D model, developed and calibrated during our earlier work at an experimental site in the Brda outwash plain (Gumuła-Kawęcka et al., 2022). We used a relationship between the water head and flux at the bottom of the soil profiles (the third-type boundary condition) to reproduce groundwater table fluctuations caused by recharge variability in time. The calculated daily recharge showed a decreasing linear trend for the last 20 years (0.05-0.06 mm d[-1]/10 years), and dropping trends in water table level and soil water content in the entire profile of vadose zone. Field tracer experiments were performed to estimate impact of extremely rain events on water flux in vadose zone. The results suggest that tracer travel times are strongly determined by water content in the unsaturated zone which is determined by precipitation amount in span of weeks, rather than extremely high precipitation events.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Baustian MM, Liu B, Moss LC, et al (2023)

Climate change mitigation potential of Louisiana's coastal area: Current estimates and future projections.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal habitats can play an important role in climate change mitigation. As Louisiana implements its climate action plan and the restoration and risk reduction projects outlined in its 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan, it is critical to consider potential greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in coastal habitats. This study estimated the potential climate mitigation role of existing, converted, and restored coastal habitats for years 2005, 2020, 2025, 2030, and 2050, which align with the Governor of Louisiana's GHG reduction targets. An analytical framework was developed that considered 1) available scientific data on net ecosystem carbon balance fluxes per habitat and 2) habitat areas projected from modeling efforts used for the 2017 Louisiana Coastal Master Plan to estimate the net GHG flux of coastal area. The coastal area was estimated as net GHG sinks of -38.4 ± 10.6 and - 43.2 ± 12.0 Tg CO2 equivalents (CO2 e) in 2005 and 2020, respectively. The coastal area was projected to remain a net GHG sink in 2025 and 2030, both with and without implementation of Coastal Master Plan projects (means ranged from -25.3 to -34.2 Tg CO2 e). By 2050, with model-projected wetland loss and conversion of coastal habitats to open water due to coastal erosion and relative sea level rise, Louisiana's coastal area was projected to become a net source of greenhouse gas emissions both with and without the Coastal Master Plan projects. However, at year 2050, Louisiana Coastal Master Plan project implementation was projected to avoid the release of +8.8 ± 1.3 Tg CO2 e compared to an alternative with no action. Reduction in current and future stressors to coastal habitats, including impacts from sea level rise, as well as the implementation of restoration projects could help to ensure coastal areas remain a natural climate solution.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Colelli FP, Wing IS, E Cian (2023)

Scientific reports, 13(1):4413.

We elucidate mid-century climate change impacts on electricity demand accounting for endogenous adoption of residential air-conditioning (AC) in affluent, cooler countries in Europe, and in poorer, hotter states in India. By 2050, in a high-warming scenario (SSP585) AC prevalence grows twofold in Europe and fourfold in India, reaching around 40% in both regions. We document a mitigation-adaptation tradeoff: AC expansion reduces daily heat exposures by 150 million and 3.8 billion person degree-days (PDDs), but increases annual electricity demand by 34 TWh and 168 TWh in Europe and India, respectively (corresponding to 2% and 15% of today's consumption). The increase in adoption and use of AC would result in an additional 130 MMTCO2, of which 120 MMTCO2 in India alone, if the additional electricity generated were produced with today's power mix. The tradeoff varies geographically and across income groups: a one PDD reduction in heat exposure in Europe versus India necessitates five times more electricity (0.53 kWh vs 0.1 kWh) and two times more emissions (0.16 kgCO[Formula: see text] vs 0.09 kgCO[Formula: see text]), on average. The decomposition of demand drivers offers important insights on how such tradeoff can be moderated through policies promoting technology-based and behavioral-based adaptation strategies.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Camacho AM, Perotto-Baldivieso HL, Tanner EP, et al (2023)

The broad scale impact of climate change on planning aerial wildlife surveys with drone-based thermal cameras.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4455.

Helicopters used for aerial wildlife surveys are expensive, dangerous and time consuming. Drones and thermal infrared cameras can detect wildlife, though the ability to detect individuals is dependent on weather conditions. While we have a good understanding of local weather conditions, we do not have a broad-scale assessment of ambient temperature to plan drone wildlife surveys. Climate change will affect our ability to conduct thermal surveys in the future. Our objective was to determine optimal annual and daily time periods to conduct surveys. We present a case study in Texas, (United States of America [USA]) where we acquired and compared average monthly temperature data from 1990 to 2019, hourly temperature data from 2010 to 2019 and projected monthly temperature data from 2021 to 2040 to identify areas where surveys would detect a commonly studied ungulate (white-tailed deer [Odocoileus virginianus]) during sunny or cloudy conditions. Mean temperatures increased when comparing the 1990-2019 to 2010-2019 periods. Mean temperatures above the maximum ambient temperature in which white-tailed deer can be detected increased in 72, 10, 10, and 24 of the 254 Texas counties in June, July, August, and September, respectively. Future climate projections indicate that temperatures above the maximum ambient temperature in which white-tailed deer can be detected will increase in 32, 12, 15, and 47 counties in June, July, August, and September, respectively when comparing 2010-2019 with 2021-2040. This analysis can assist planning, and scheduling thermal drone wildlife surveys across the year and combined with daily data can be efficient to plan drone flights.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Rodway GW (2023)

Climate Change in and Around the High Ranges of Asia: Consequences for Human Health.

Wilderness & environmental medicine, 34(1):1-2.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Li Q (2023)

Green financing role on climate change-supportive architectural design development: directions for green architectural designs.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of the study is to study the role of green financing in developing climate change supportive architectural design development to shift the modern world towards the idea of green architectural designs. Thus, the research estimated the nexus among green financing, green architectural development, and climate change mitigation by using the unit root analysis technique, co-integration analysis technique, bound-test estimates, auto-regressive distributive lag-error correction modeling (ARDL-ECM) technique to predict different short-run and long-run relationships, and robustness analysis technique. Following the previous study, modeling green financing index and green architectural design index are used to measure the variables. The findings of the study confirmed that green financing has significant role in supporting the climate change induction in architectural design development both in short run and long run. Moreover, green financing supports in promoting green architectural designs. By this, the viability of green financing in climate change that induces architecturally designed building is confirmed. Correspondingly, empirical results have shown that green financing contributes in climate change with 0.66, green infrastructure development with 0.72, and economic development with 0.31. While in long-run, green financing role in changing inside of climate of the architectural design is 0.74, supports in green infrastructure development with 0.67, and holds the 0.29 percent potential of contributing in economic development. These findings are robust with the 0.74 value of F-statistics, 1.89 value of t-statistics, and 110 value of Narayan standard estimate. In last, the study suggested way forward for stakeholders to promote green architectural designs to achieve SDG 8, SDG 11, and SDG 13.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Turner G, de'Donato F, Kovats S, et al (2022)

Implementation of adaptation to climate change in public health in Europe: qualitative thematic analysis.

Lancet (London, England), 400 Suppl 1:S81.

BACKGROUND: Increasingly, climate change policies are emerging across Europe. Policies addressing adaptation (adjusting the effects of climate change on public health) are being implemented after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to identify issues in climate adaptation implementation for public health and understand the health implications from responses after COVID-19.

METHODS: Key informant interviews were undertaken with decision makers in international, national, and local governments across 20 European countries (Norway, England, Cyprus, Spain, Ireland, Finland, Lithuania, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Latvia, Italy, Estonia, Austria, Croatia, France, Germany, Hungary, Denmark, and Scotland). A WHO stakeholder analytical framework was followed for developing the interview themes. Participants were recruited if based in European governments, working in public or environmental health, and involved in climate adaptation policy. Participants were recruited through known networks and geographical coverage was obtained (eight per European region). An interview schedule with key themes (barriers, public health agenda, levers, networks, evidence needs, and COVID-19 recovery) was used. Interviews were conducted online, recorded, transcribed, and analysed through Nvivo.

FINDINGS: 32 interviews were completed between June and October, 2021; four international stakeholders, five national-level decision makers, 23 city-level decision makers or network representatives. Most reported inadequate resources for health adaptation implementation (funding, training, and personnel) and the marginal role of health in climate adaptation policy. A key reported challenge was limited departmental cross-collaboration across governance levels, because city-level stakeholders were less aware of the public health role in climate change policy. COVID-19 recovery strategies were not perceived as opportunistic for future adaptation. However, several respondents identified benefits for health system resilience, for example improved emergency planning and disaster management.

INTERPRETATION: Across Europe, there is varied progress in the implementation of climate change and health adaptation. Providing appropriate resource, inter-departmental collaboration, knowledge mobilisation, and multi-level governance support will facilitate climate and health policy implementation. Overcoming these barriers and learning from COVID-19 through strengthened emergency planning and responses to climate events can strengthen UK public health system resilience and beyond.

FUNDING: This project has received part-funding from the Enhancing Belmont Research Action to support EU policy making on climate change and health project, which is part of the EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (grant agreement number 101003966). The research was part-funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Environmental Change and Health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in partnership with Public Health England, the Met Office, and University College London (grant number PHSEZT6210). The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, the Department of Health and Social Care or PHE.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Bethke K, Kropidłowska K, Stepnowski P, et al (2023)

Review of warming and acidification effects to the ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms in the era of climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01445-6 [Epub ahead of print].

An increase in the temperature and the acidification of the aquatic environment are among the many consequences of global warming. Climate change can also negatively affect aquatic organisms indirectly, by altering the toxicity of pollutants. Models of climate change impacts on the distribution, fate and ecotoxicity of persistent pollutants are now available. For pharmaceuticals, however, as new environmental pollutants, there are no predictions on this issue. Therefore, this paper organizes the existing knowledge on the effects of temperature, pH and both stressors combined on the toxicity of pharmaceuticals on aquatic organisms. Besides lethal toxicity, the molecular, physiological and behavioral biomarkers of sub-lethal stress were also assessed. Both acute and chronic toxicity, as well as bioaccumulation, were found to be affected. The direction and magnitude of these changes depend on the specific pharmaceutical, as well as the organism and conditions involved. Unfortunately, the response of organisms was enhanced by combined stressors. We compare the findings with those known for persistent organic pollutants, for which the pH has a relatively low effect on toxicity. The acid-base constant of molecules, as assumed, have an effect on the toxicity change with pH modulation. Studies with bivalves have been were overrepresented, while too little attention was paid to producers. Furthermore, the limited number of pharmaceuticals have been tested, and metabolites skipped altogether. Generally, the effects of warming and acidification were rather indicated than explored, and much more attention needs to be given to the ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals in climate change conditions.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

García-Portela L, D Maraun (2023)

Overstating the effects of anthropogenic climate change? A critical assessment of attribution methods in climate science.

European journal for philosophy of science, 13(1):17.

Climate scientists have proposed two methods to link extreme weather events and anthropogenic climate forcing: the probabilistic and the storyline approach. Proponents of the first approach have raised the criticism that the storyline approach could be overstating the role of anthropogenic climate change. This issue has important implications because, in certain contexts, decision-makers might seek to avoid information that overstates the effects of anthropogenic climate change. In this paper, we explore two research questions. First, whether and to what extent the storyline approach overstates the effects of anthropogenic climate change. Second, whether the objections offered against the storyline approach constitute good reasons to prefer the probabilistic approach. Concerning the first question, we show that the storyline approach does not necessarily overstate the effects of climate change, and particularly not for the reasons offered by proponents of the probabilistic approach. Concerning the second question, we show, independently, that the probabilistic approach faces the same or very similar objections to those raised against the storyline approach due to the lack of robustness of climate models and the way events are commonly defined when applying the probabilistic approach. These results suggest that these objections might not constitute good reasons to prefer the probabilistic approach over the storyline approach.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Huang P, Zheng XT, Li X, et al (2023)

More complex interactions: Continuing progress in understanding the dynamics of regional climate change under a warming climate.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 4(2):100398.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Schneider A, Atar D, S Agewall (2023)

RESPONSE: Climate Change and Health: Challenges, Opportunities, and the Need for Action.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 81(11):1130-1132.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Khraishah H, Ganatra S, SG Al-Kindi (2023)

Climate Change, Environmental Pollution, and the Role of Cardiologists of the Future.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 81(11):1127-1132.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Jurgilevich A, Käyhkö J, Räsänen A, et al (2023)

Factors influencing vulnerability to climate change-related health impacts in cities - A conceptual framework.

Environment international, 173:107837 pii:S0160-4120(23)00110-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change will have adverse impacts on human health, which are amplified in cities. For these impacts, there are direct, indirect, and deferred pathways. The first category is well-studied, while indirect and deferred impacts are not well-understood. Moreover, the factors moderating the impacts have received little attention, although understanding these factors is critical for adaptation. We developed a conceptual framework that shows the pathways of climate impacts on human health, focusing specifically on the factors of urban environment moderating the emergence and severity of these health impacts. Based on the framework and literature review, we illustrate the mechanisms of direct, indirect, and deferred health impact occurrence and the factors that exacerbate or alleviate the severity of these impacts, thus presenting valuable insights for anticipatory adaptation. We conclude that an integrated systemic approach to preventing health risks from climate change can provide co-benefits for adaptation and address multiple health risks. Such an approach should be mainstreamed horizontally to all sectors of urban planning and should account for the spatiotemporal aspects of policy and planning decisions and city complexity.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Sales LP, MM Pires (2023)

Identifying climate change refugia for South American biodiversity.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Ferguson T, Curtis R, Fraysse F, et al (2023)

Weather associations with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep patterns of Australian adults: a longitudinal study with implications for climate change.

The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity, 20(1):30.

BACKGROUND: Weather is a potentially important influence on how time is allocated to sleep, sedentary behaviour and physical activity across the 24-h day. Extremes of weather (very hot, cold, windy or wet) can create undesirable, unsafe outdoor environments for exercise or active transport, impact the comfort of sleeping environments, and increase time indoors. This 13-month prospective cohort study explored associations between weather and 24-h movement behaviour patterns.

METHODS: Three hundred sixty-eight adults (mean age 40.2 years, SD 5.9, 56.8% female) from Adelaide, Australia, wore Fitbit Charge 3 activity trackers 24 h a day for 13 months with minute-by-minute data on sleep, sedentary behaviour, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) collected remotely. Daily weather data included temperature, rainfall, wind, cloud and sunshine. Multi-level mixed-effects linear regression analyses (one model per outcome) were used.

RESULTS: Ninety thousand eight hundred one days of data were analysed. Sleep was negatively associated with minimum temperature (-12 min/day change across minimum temperature range of 31.2 °C, p = 0.001). Sedentary behaviour was positively associated with minimum temperature (+ 12 min/day, range = 31.2 oC, p = 0.006) and wind speed (+ 10 min/day, range = 36.7 km/h, p< 0.001), and negatively associated with sunshine (-17 min/day, range = 13.9 h, p < 0.001). LPA was positively associated with minimum temperature (+ 11 min/day, range = 31.2 °C, p = 0.002), cloud cover (+ 4 min/day, range = 8 eighths, p = 0.008) and sunshine (+ 17 min/day, range = 13.9 h, p < 0.001), and negatively associated with wind speed (-8 min/day, range = 36.7 km/h, p < 0.001). MVPA was positively associated with sunshine (+ 3 min/day, range = 13.9 h, p < 0.001) and negatively associated with minimum temperature (-13 min/day, range = 31.2 oC, p < 0.001), rainfall (-3 min/day, range = 33.2 mm, p = 0.006) and wind speed (-4 min/day, range = 36.7 km/h, p < 0.001). For maximum temperature, a significant (p < 0.05) curvilinear association was observed with sleep (half-U) and physical activity (inverted-U), where the decrease in sleep duration appeared to slow around 23 °C, LPA peaked at 31 oC and MVPA at 27 °C.

CONCLUSIONS: Generally, adults tended to be less active and more sedentary during extremes of weather and sleep less as temperatures rise. These findings have the potential to inform the timing and content of positive movement behaviour messaging and interventions.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was prospectively registered on the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: ACTRN12619001430123).

RevDate: 2023-03-15

DeAngelo J, Saenz BT, Arzeno-Soltero IB, et al (2023)

Author Correction: Economic and biophysical limits to seaweed farming for climate change mitigation.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Del Ponte A, Masiliūnas A, N Lim (2023)

Information about historical emissions drives the division of climate change mitigation costs.

Nature communications, 14(1):1408.

Despite worsening climate change, the international community still disagrees on how to divide the costs of mitigation between developing countries and developed countries, which emitted the bulk of historical carbon emissions. We study this issue using an economic experiment. Specifically, we test how information about historical emissions influences how much participants pay for climate change mitigation. In a four-player game, participants are assigned to lead two fictional countries as members of either the first or the second generation. The first generation produces wealth at the expense of greater carbon emissions. The second generation inherits their predecessor's wealth and negotiates how to split the climate change mitigation costs. Here we show that when the second generation knows that the previous generation created the current wealth and mitigation costs, participants whose predecessor generated more carbon emissions offered to pay more, whereas the successors of low-carbon emitters offered to pay less.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Dunne H, Jones A, M Okorie (2023)

Combatting climate change using education and training in pharmacology and therapeutics.

British journal of clinical pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

The climate crisis has implications for the physical and mental health of people worldwide, while, paradoxically, healthcare itself contributes significant greenhouse gas emissions. Healthcare professionals need to be prepared to both mitigate the impacts of climate change and also manage the health effects of the climate crisis. Widespread adoption of sustainable healthcare models is required, with sustainability-driven improvements in clinical pharmacology intrinsically linked to this. Recognizing that education and training are essential steps to equip medical professionals with the knowledge to face the unprecedented challenges that the climate crisis presents, here, with reference to pharmacology and therapeutics, we discuss how the theme of Education for Sustainable Healthcare (ESH) can be integrated into undergraduate and postgraduate teaching programmes and how barriers to successful implementation can be tackled. We support the use of the Principles of Sustainable Clinical Practice as a framework to guide educational interventions and draw upon examples of our own practice at Brighton and Sussex Medical School where ESH has become a core component of medical education in our undergraduate curriculum.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Weber D, McGrail RK, Carlisle AE, et al (2023)

Climate change alters slug abundance but not herbivory in a temperate grassland.

PloS one, 18(3):e0283128 pii:PONE-D-22-24545.

Climate change will significantly impact the world's ecosystems, in part by altering species interactions and ecological processes, such as herbivory and plant community dynamics, which may impact forage quality and ecosystem production. Yet relatively few field experimental manipulations assessing all of these parameters have been performed to date. To help fill this knowledge gap, we evaluated the effects of increased temperature (+3°C day and night, year-round) and precipitation (+30% of mean annual rainfall) on slug herbivory and abundance and plant community dynamics biweekly in a pasture located in central Kentucky, U.S.A. Warming increased slug abundance once during the winter, likely due to improving conditions for foraging, whereas warming reduced slug abundance at times in late spring, mid-summer, and early fall (from 62-95% reduction depending on month). We found that warming and increased precipitation did not significantly modify slug herbivory at our site, despite altering slug abundance and affecting plant community composition and forage quality. Climate change will alter seasonal patterns of slug abundance through both direct effects on slug biology and indirect effects mediated by changes in the plant community, suggesting that pasture management practices may have to adapt.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

D'Amato G, M D'Amato (2023)

Climate change, air pollution, pollen allergy and extreme atmospheric events.

Current opinion in pediatrics pii:00008480-990000000-00080 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Respiratory allergy correlates strictly with air pollution and climate change. Due to climate change, the atmospheric content of trigger factors such as pollens and moulds increase and induce rhinitis and asthma in sensitized patients with IgE-mediated allergic reactions.Pollen allergy is frequently used to evaluate the relationship between air pollution and allergic respiratory diseases. Pollen allergens trigger the release of immunomodulatory and pro-inflammatory mediators and accelerate the onset of sensitization to respiratory allergens in predisposed children and adults. Lightning storms during pollen seasons can exacerbate respiratory allergy and asthma not only in adults but also in children with pollinosis. In this study, we have focalized the trigger (chemical and biologic) factors of outdoor air pollution.

RECENT FINDINGS: Environmental pollution and climate change have harmful effects on human health, particularly on respiratory system, with frequent impact on social systems.Climate change is characterized by physic meteorological events inducing increase of production and emission of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) into the atmosphere. Allergenic plants produce more pollen as a response to high atmospheric levels of CO2. Climate change also affects extreme atmospheric events such as heat waves, droughts, thunderstorms, floods, cyclones and hurricanes. These climate events, in particular thunderstorms during pollen seasons, can increase the intensity of asthma attacks in pollinosis patients.

SUMMARY: Climate change has important effects on the start and pathogenetic aspects of hypersensitivity of pollen allergy. Climate change causes an increase in the production of pollen and a change in the aspects increasing their allergenic properties. Through the effects of climate change, plant growth can be altered so that the new pollen produced are modified affecting more the human health. The need for public education and adoption of governmental measures to prevent environmental pollution and climate change are urgent. Efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, chemical and biologic contributors to air pollution are of critical importance. Extreme weather phenomena such as thunderstorms can trigger exacerbations of asthma attacks and need to be prevented with a correct information and therapy.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Brennan MM, Herlihy A, Kelly S, et al (2023)

Treat Climate Change like the Public Health Emergency it is.

Irish medical journal, 116(No.1):4.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Petrescu-Mag RM, Petrescu DC, Ivan A, et al (2023)

An intergenerational reading of climate change-health concern nexus: a qualitative study of the Millennials' and Gen Z participants' perceptions.

BMC public health, 23(1):484.

BACKGROUND: The study of climate change through a generational lens is meaningful when one considers the distinct attitudes, behaviors, values, and motivations of each generation. Individuals born between 1980 and 1999, referred to as the Millennial Generation (Millennials) and individuals born up to five years before or after 2000, referred to as Generation Z (Gen Z), may differ widely in their views, values, attitudes, and behaviors. This may lead to conflicts between these two cohorts. As Gen Z enters the labor market, their first-level supervisors will be, in many cases, the Millennials, who may view the topic of climate change-health concern nexus very differently than their Gen Z subordinates. Considering the perspectives of each generation may offer insights on how to engage them to act in an environmentally responsible way to counteract climate change effects.

OBJECTIVE: The study reveals similarities and differences in how Millennials and Gen Z perceive the climate change-health concern nexus, which illuminates the understanding of the potential generational conflicts and the critical points where intervention is needed.

METHOD: Interview data from 41 participants were analyzed via thematic analysis using the Quirkos software program. Reporting is in accordance with the COREQ guidelines.

RESULTS: The interview questions elicited responses related to five dimensions: (i) Views of individual and community health; (ii) Knowledge around climate change; (iii) Perceived health impact; (iv) Attitudes towards climate change; (v) Behaviors related to climate change. The findings revealed a set of commonalities and differences in understanding the climate change-health concern nexus between the participants representative of each of the generations examined. One main result is that while most interviewees perceived changes in summer and winter temperatures, they failed to articulate how climate change affected their health.

CONCLUSION: Thematic analysis revealed that the commonalities of views outweigh the differences between the two generations. A relevant remark is that participants can be described rather as "observers" than "players" since they do not tend to see themselves (through their behavior and their contribution) as active participants in the goal to fight climate change. Consequently, both generations undergo what Stephen Gardiner [1] called "intergenerational buck-passing."

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Bagambilana FR, WM Rugumamu (2023)

Determinants of Farmers' Adaptation Intent And Adoption of Adaptation Strategies To Climate Change And Variability In Mwanga District, Tanzania.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Mi C, Ma L, Yang M, et al (2023)

Global Protected Areas as refuges for amphibians and reptiles under climate change.

Nature communications, 14(1):1389.

Protected Areas (PAs) are the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation. Here, we collated distributional data for >14,000 (~70% of) species of amphibians and reptiles (herpetofauna) to perform a global assessment of the conservation effectiveness of PAs using species distribution models. Our analyses reveal that >91% of herpetofauna species are currently distributed in PAs, and that this proportion will remain unaltered under future climate change. Indeed, loss of species' distributional ranges will be lower inside PAs than outside them. Therefore, the proportion of effectively protected species is predicted to increase. However, over 7.8% of species currently occur outside PAs, and large spatial conservation gaps remain, mainly across tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, and across non-high-income countries. We also predict that more than 300 amphibian and 500 reptile species may go extinct under climate change over the course of the ongoing century. Our study highlights the importance of PAs in providing herpetofauna with refuge from climate change, and suggests ways to optimize PAs to better conserve biodiversity worldwide.

RevDate: 2023-03-13
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Jouberton A, Miles ES, Shaw TE, et al (2023)

Reply to Yang et al.: Global warming and black carbon simultaneously lead to glacier mass decline over the southeastern Tibetan Plateau.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(12):e2301467120.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Gaston SA, Singh R, CL Jackson (2023)

The Need to Study the Role of Sleep in Climate Change Adaptation, Mitigation, and Resiliency Strategies across the Life Course.

Sleep pii:7076720 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Choi SH, Beer J, A Charrow (2023)

Climate change and the displaced person: how vectors and climate are changing the landscape of infectious diseases among displaced and migrant populations.

BACKGROUND: As the climate crisis grows, so does the global burden of displacement. Displacement, whether a direct or indirect consequence of natural disaster, can lead to dire health sequelae. Skin health is no exception to this, with dermatologic disease being a leading concern reported by those who care for displaced persons. Health professionals who provide dermatologic care for displaced persons benefit from understanding how climate change impacts the global profile of infectious agents.

METHODS: This review was performed using PubMed and Google Scholar. Search terms included climate change, displaced person, internally displaced person, and refugee, as well as searches of infectious disease dermatology and the specific diseases of interest. Case reports, case series, reviews, and original research articles were included in this review. Non-English studies were not included.

RESULTS: In this manuscript several key infectious agents were identified, and we discuss the skin manifestations and impact of climate change on cutaneous leishmaniasis, dengue, chikungunya, zika, malaria, pediculosis, cutaneous larva migrans, cholera, and varicella zoster.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change plays a significant role in the challenges faced by displaced persons, including their skin health. Among the many consequences of climate change is its altering of the ecological profile of infectious agents and vectors that impact displaced persons. Being familiar with this impact can improve dermatologic care for this vulnerable population.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Lubin RE, Edmondson D, MW Otto (2023)

Climate change views examined through a behavioral medicine frame: are there potential target mechanisms for change beyond political ideology?.

Psychology, health & medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The threat of climate change is associated with both profound health consequences and failures by many individuals to take preventive actions. Behavioral science research on health behavior engagement may serve as a lens through which to better understand attitudes associated with the threat of climate change. This study was designed to examine individual differences in attitudinal responses to climate change, understanding the degree to which these responses can be predicted by both political beliefs and more readily modified psychological factors commonly associated with health behavior engagement: locus of control, anxiety sensitivity, delay discounting, and intolerance of uncertainty. Participants (N = 234) were US adults (62% male; 57% Non-Hispanic White; 44% Democrat) who completed an online survey. Stepwise multiple linear regressions examined which variables provided non-redundant prediction in models of climate change beliefs and concerns. In addition to providing support for the role of political affiliation and related ideology in climate change views (9-23% variance), this study underscores the importance of a behavioral health frame in understanding climate change concerns and beliefs. Known risk factors for negative health behaviors - prominently, locus of control, anxiety sensitivity, and delay discounting - contributed strongly to the understanding of these views, accounting for 4-28% of variance. Our findings encourage greater attention to health behavior-related constructs for understanding attitudes relevant to climate change action.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Atwoli L, El Adawy M, Erhabor GE, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the World.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Posocco L, JR McNeill (2023)

Climate change: Comparing "green" and "polluting" nation-states.

Frontiers in sociology, 8:1133333.

Some nation-states, i.e., Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, repeatedly score the highest in environmental indicators such as the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) and the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI). Their cities win environmental awards; they have well-developed recycling systems; they perform well with biodegradable waste; and their citizens show awareness of environmental problems, protesting publicly and even sueing their governing bodies if they don't do the same. For these and other reasons, recent scholarship defined these countries as "exemplary" green nation-states. The question is, which factors pushed them toward the green transition faster than others? And overall, what stops top polluting countries such as China, the United States and Russia from walking the same path? This article attempts to answer these questions by looking at climate change through a theoretical framework based on theories of nationalism and case studies of green nation-states. It compares three of said top polluting countries, China, the United States, and Russia, with "exemplary" green nation-states, and argues that the pace of greener nation-states rests on (1) a tradition of ecologism and environmentalism rooted in the long run, (2) the lock in of "green nationalism," a form of nationalism grounded on sustainability, (3) free and effective environmental movements, (4) inclusivity and welfare, and (5) a sense of national pride in environmental achievements. The available evidence seems to suggest that top polluting nation-states lack one or more of these factors.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Naguib HM, Zaki EG, Abdelsattar DE, et al (2023)

Environmentally Friendly Polymer Concrete: Polymer Treatment, Processing, and Investigating Carbon Footprint with Climate Change.

ACS omega, 8(9):8804-8814.

Climate change is being currently faced globally; controlling the plastic waste and gas emission is aimed to reduce their hazardous effects. In this work, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer wastes are used as fillers to calcium silicate. Chemical treatment was performed to get the best efficiency of the binder material with the treated PET (TPET) and treated PVC (TPVC). The used silicate, new nonhydraulic dicalcium silicate, was synthesized by sintering. A new environmentally friendly polymer concrete, based on different concentrations of PET-/TPET-/PVC-/TPVC-dicalcium silicate composites, was prepared and cured by carbonation. FTIR analysis confirms that the treatment gave functional groups on the polymer surface; also, the hydrophilicity was increased after treatment. SEM photos show that the treated polymers have a rougher surface, which led to improved attachment with cement. The structures of the prepared and cured cement materials are proved by XRD, FTIR analysis, and SEM, through the change of calcium silicate to carbonate. Carbon footprint is used to analyze the environmental implications of the prepared composites. After the treatment reaction, the TPET-cement and TPVC-cement composites showed improved compression and flexural properties and more stability against water absorption. The novelty arises from recycling this plastic waste in the proposed low-energy dicalcium silicate cement, for the first time, to give improved environmentally friendly composites after converting CO2 gas to carbonates, with the reduced carbon footprint.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world.

African health sciences, 22(3):vi-viii.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Pereira Campos C, Bitar SDB, C Freitas (2023)

Uncertainties regarding the natural mortality of fish can increase due global climate change.

PeerJ, 11:e14989.

The increase in temperature resulting from global climate change can directly affect the survival of fish and therefore population parameters such as natural mortality (M). The estimation of this parameter and the understanding of the uncertainties in its estimates are enormous challenges for studies that evaluate fish stocks. In addition, the effects of increases in temperature may be associated with life strategies. Therefore, the fuzzy set theory was used to evaluate the effects of temperature increase on the natural mortality of fish, considering different life strategies. The model showed that the increase in temperature increased the uncertainties in M estimates for all species, regardless of the life strategy. However, opportunistic species present greater uncertainties in estimates of M compared to equilibrium species. The patterns found in uncertainties of M associated with species groupings by life strategies can be used in holistic approaches for the assessment and management of recently exploited fisheries resources or for those with limited biological data.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

D'Amore C, Grimaldi P, Ascione T, et al (2022)

West Nile Virus diffusion in temperate regions and climate change. A systematic review.

Le infezioni in medicina, 31(1):20-30.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Japanese encephalitis serocomplex, which was first described in 1937 as neurotropic virus in Uganda in 1937. Subsequently, WNV was identified in the rest of the old-world and from 1999 in North America. Birds are the primary hosts, and WNV is maintained in a bird-mosquito-bird cycle, with pigs as amplifying hosts and humans and horses as incidental hosts. WNV transmission is warranted by mosquitoes, usually of the Culex spp., with a tendency to spill over when mosquitoes' populations build up. Other types of transmissions have been described in endemic areas, as trough transplanted organs and transfused blood, placenta, maternal milk, and in some occupational settings. WNV infections in North America and Europe are generally reported during the summer and autumn. Extreme climate phenomena and soil degradation are important events which contribute to expansion of mosquito population and consequently to the increasing number of infections. Draught plays a pivotal role as it makes foul water standing in city drains and catch basins richer of organic material. The relationship between global warming and WNV in climate areas is depicted by investigations on 16,298 WNV cases observed in the United States during the period 2001-2005 that showed that a 5°C increase in mean maximum weekly temperature was associated with a 32-50% higher incidence of WNV infection. In Europe, during the 2022 season, an increase of WNV cases was observed in Mediterranean countries where 1,041 cases were reported based on ECDC data. This outbreak can be associated to the climate characteristics reported during this period and to the introduction of a new WNV-1 lineage. In conclusion, current climate change is causing an increase of mosquito circulation that supports the widest spread of some vector-borne virus including WNV diffusion in previously non-permissible areas. This warrant public health measures to control vectors circulation to reduce WNV and to screen blood and organ donations.

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Mesquita AF, Jesus F, Gonçalves FJM, et al (2023)

Ecotoxicological and biochemical effects of a binary mixture of pesticides on the marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii in a scenario of global warming.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01353-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Under the current scenario of global warming, it is ecologically relevant to understand how increased temperature influences the combined toxicity of pesticides to aquatic species. Hence, this work aims to: a) determine the temperature effect (15 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C) on the toxicity of two pesticides (oxyfluorfen and Copper (Cu)), on the growth of Thalassiosira weissflogii; b) assess whether temperature affects the type of toxicity interaction between these chemicals; and c) assess the temperature effect on biochemical responses (fatty acids (FA) and sugar profiles) of the pesticides on T. weissflogii. Temperature increased the tolerance of the diatoms to the pesticides with EC50 values between 3.176 and 9.929 μg L[-1] for oxyfluorfen and 42.50-230.75 μg L[-1] for Cu, respectively, at 15 °C and 25 °C. The mixtures toxicity was better described by the IA model, but temperature altered the type of deviation from dose ratio (15 °C and 20 °C) to antagonism (25 °C). Temperature, as well as the pesticide concentrations, affected the FA and sugar profiles. Increased temperature increased saturated FA and decreased unsaturated FA; it also affected the sugar profiles with a pronounced minimum at 20 °C. Results highlight effects on the nutritional value of these diatoms, with potential repercussion on food webs.

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Freitas D, Borges D, Arenas F, et al (2023)

Forecasting distributional shifts of Patella spp. in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean, under climate change.

Marine environmental research, 186:105945 pii:S0141-1136(23)00073-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Mapping species' geographical distribution is fundamental for understanding current patterns and forecasting future changes. Living on rocky shores along the intertidal zone, limpets are vulnerable to climate change, as their range limits are controlled by seawater temperature. Many works have been studying limpets' potential responses to climate change at local and regional scales. Focusing on four Patella species living on the rocky shores of the Portuguese continental coast, this study aims to predict climate change impacts on their global distribution, while exploring the role of the Portuguese intertidal as potential climate refugia. Ecological niche models combine occurrences and environmental data to identify the drivers of these species' distributions, define their current range, and project to future climate scenarios. The distribution of these limpets was mostly defined by low bathymetry (intertidal) and the seawater temperature. Independent of the climate scenario, all species will gain suitable conditions at the northern distribution edge while losing in the south, yet only the extent of occurrence of P. rustica is expected to contract. Apart from the southern coast, maintenance of suitable conditions for these limpets' occurrence was predicted for the western coast of Portugal. The predicted northward range shift follows the observed pattern observed for many intertidal species. Given the ecosystem role of this species, attention should be given to their southern range limits. Under the current upwelling effect, the Portuguese western coast might constitute thermal refugia for limpets in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Johnson DM, KJ Haynes (2023)

Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest insect populations under climate change.

Current opinion in insect science pii:S2214-5745(23)00017-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Effects of climate on forest insect populations are complex, often involving drivers that are opposing, nonlinear, and nonadditive. Overall, climate change is driving an increase in outbreaks and range shifts. Links between climate and forest insect dynamics are becoming clearer; however, the underlying mechanisms remain less clear. Climate alters forest insect population dynamics directly through life history, physiology, and voltinism, and indirectly through effects on host trees and natural enemies. Climatic effects on bark beetles, wood-boring insects, and sap suckers are often indirect, through effects on host tree susceptibility, whereas climatic effects on defoliators are comparatively more direct. We recommend process-based approaches to global distribution mapping and population models to identify underlying mechanisms and enable effective management of forest insects.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Barbosa H, Soares AMVM, Pereira E, et al (2023)

Are the consequences of lithium in marine clams enhanced by climate change?.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00418-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal areas, such as estuaries and coastal lagoons, are among the most endangered aquatic ecosystems due to the intense anthropogenic activities occurring in their vicinity. These areas are highly threatened by climate change-related factors as well as pollution, especially due to their limited water exchange. Ocean warming and extreme weather events, such as marine heatwaves and rainy periods, are some of the consequences of climate change, inducing alterations in the abiotic parameters of seawater, namely temperature and salinity, which may affect the organisms as well as the behaviour of some pollutants present in water. Lithium (Li) is an element widely used in several industries, especially in the production of batteries for electronic gadgets and electric vehicles. The demand for its exploitation has been growing drastically and is predicted a large increase in the next years. Inefficient recycling, treatment and disposal results in the release of Li into the aquatic systems, the consequences of which are poorly understood, especially when combined with climate change. Considering that a limited number of studies exist about the impacts of Li on marine species, the present study aimed to assess the effects of temperature rise and salinity changes on the impacts of Li in clams (Venerupis corrugata) collected from the Ria de Aveiro (coastal lagoon, Portugal). Clams were exposed for 14 days to 0 of Li (CTL) and 200 μg/L of Li (Li), both conditions under different climate scenarios: 3 different salinities (20, 30 and 40) at 17 °C (control temperature); and 2 different temperatures (17 and 21 °C) at salinity 30 (control salinity). Bioaccumulation capacity and biochemical alterations regarding metabolism and oxidative stress were investigated. Salinity variations had a higher impact on biochemical responses than temperature increase, even when combined with Li. The combination of Li with low salinity (20) was the most stressful treatment, provoking increased metabolism and activation of detoxification defences, suggesting possible imbalances in coastal ecosystems in response to Li pollution under extreme weather events. These findings may ultimately contribute to implement environmentally protective actions to mitigate Li contamination and preserve marine life.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Andrianarivo Andriandafiarisoa Ralison Ny A, N Ahsan (2023)

Asymmetric impact of transportation on carbon emissions influencing SDGs of climate change.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)00568-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Transportation facilities have expanded globally because of rapid industrialization and economic growth. Transportation involves substantial use of energy therefore strongly linked with environmental pollution. This study intends to explore linkages among transport from air mode, combustible renewable energy and waste, GDP, energy use, oil prices, trade expansion, and carbon releases from airline transport. The data covered in the study ranged from 1971 to 2021. For the empirical analysis, the non-linear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) methodology has been applied in order to explore the asymmetric impact of the variables of interest. Prior to this, the augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test is applied whose results demonstrate that variables included in the model contain mixed order of integration. The NARDL estimates show that the "positive shock to air transport and positive and negative shock to energy usage results in the increase of CO2 emissions per capita in the long run. While, a "positive (negative) shock" to renewable energy use and trade expansion reduces (increases) transport-related carbon discharge. The Error Correction Term (ECT) carries a negative sign implying a stability adjustment in the long run. These asymmetric components in our study can be employed in cost-benefit analysis and encompass the environmental repercussions (asymmetric) of government and management actions. The study suggests that the government of Pakistan should promote financing for renewable energy consumption and clean trade expansion to achieve the sustainable development goals (SDGs) objective 13.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Stankov U, Filimonau V, Vujičić MD, et al (2023)

Ready for Action! Destination Climate Change Communication: An Archetypal Branding Approach.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(5): pii:ijerph20053874.

At the destination level, destination branding may coexist with climate change communication. These two communication streams often overlap because they are both designed for large audiences. This poses a risk to the effectiveness of climate change communication and its ability to prompt a desired climate action. The viewpoint paper advocates the use of archetypal branding approach to ground and center climate change communication at a destination level while concurrently maintaining the uniqueness of destination branding. Three archetypes of destinations are distinguished: villains, victims, and heroes. Destinations should refrain from actions that would make them appear to be climate change villains. A balanced approach is further warranted when portraying destinations as victims. Lastly, destinations should aim at assuming the heroic archetypes by excelling in climate change mitigation. The basic mechanisms of the archetypal approach to destination branding are discussed alongside a framework that suggests areas for further practical investigation of climate change communication at a destination level.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Lu G, Zhang X, Li X, et al (2023)

Immunity and Growth Plasticity of Asian Short-Toed Lark Nestlings in Response to Changes in Food Conditions: Can It Buffer the Challenge of Climate Change-Induced Trophic Mismatch?.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(5): pii:ani13050860.

Passerine nestlings frequently suffer from sub-optimal food conditions due to climate change-induced trophic mismatch between the nestlings and their optimal food resources. The ability of nestlings to buffer this challenge is less well understood. We hypothesized that poor food conditions might induce a higher immune response and lower growth rate of nestlings, and such physiological plasticity is conducive to nestling survival. To test this, we examined how food (grasshopper nymphs) abundance affects the expression of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL-1β) genes, plasma IGF-1 levels, body mass, and fledging rates in wild Asian short-toed lark (Alaudala cheleensis) nestlings. Linear mixed models revealed that nymph biomass significantly influenced the expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β genes, and the level of plasma IGF-1. The expressions of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-1β genes were negatively correlated with nymph biomass and plasma IGF-1 level. Plasma IGF-1 level, nestling body mass growth rate, was positively correlated with nymph biomass. Despite a positive correlation between the nestling fledge rate and nymph biomass, more than 60% of nestlings fledged when nymph biomass was at the lowest level. These results suggest that immunity and growth plasticity of nestlings may be an adaptation for birds to buffer the negative effects of trophic mismatch.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Fu A, Gao E, Tang X, et al (2023)

MaxEnt Modeling for Predicting the Potential Wintering Distribution of Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia leucorodia) under Climate Change in China.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(5): pii:ani13050856.

Global climate change has become a trend and is one of the main factors affecting biodiversity patterns and species distributions. Many wild animals adapt to the changing living environment caused by climate change by changing their habitats. Birds are highly sensitive to climate change. Understanding the suitable wintering habitat of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia leucorodia) and its response to future climatic change is essential for its protection. In China, it was listed as national grade II key protected wild animal in the adjusted State List of key protected wild animals in 2021, in Near Threatened status. Few studies on the distribution of the wintering Eurasian Spoonbill have been carried out in China. In this study, we simulated the suitable habitat under the current period and modeled the distribution dynamics of the wintering Eurasian Spoonbill in response to climate change under different periods by using the MaxEnt model. Our results showed that the current suitable wintering habitats for the Eurasian Spoonbill are mainly concentrated in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Distance from the water, precipitation of the driest quarter, altitude, and mean temperature of the driest quarter contributed the most to the distribution model for the wintering Eurasian Spoonbill, with a cumulative contribution of 85%. Future modeling showed that the suitable distribution of the wintering Eurasian Spoonbill extends to the north as a whole, and the suitable area shows an increasing trend. Our simulation results are helpful in understanding the distribution of the wintering Eurasian Spoonbill under different periods in China and support species conservation.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Kashyap R, Kuttippurath J, P Kumar (2023)

Browning of vegetation in efficient carbon sink regions of India during the past two decades is driven by climate change and anthropogenic intrusions.

Journal of environmental management, 336:117655 pii:S0301-4797(23)00443-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Accurate estimation of carbon cycle is a challenging task owing to the complexity and heterogeneity of ecosystems. Carbon Use Efficiency (CUE) is a metric to define the ability of vegetation to sequester carbon from the atmosphere. It is key to understand the carbon sink and source pathways of ecosystems. Here, we quantify CUE using remote sensing measurements to examine its variability, drivers and underlying mechanisms in India for the period 2000-2019, by applying the principal component analyses (PCA), multiple linear regression (MLR) and causal discovery. Our analysis shows that the forests in the hilly regions (HR) and northeast (NE), and croplands in the western areas of South India (SI) exhibit high (>0.6) CUE. The northwest (NW), Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and some areas in Central India (CI) show low (<0.3) CUE. In general, the water availability as soil moisture (SM) and precipitation (P) promote higher CUE, but higher temperature (T) and air organic carbon content (AOCC) reduce CUE. It is found that SM has the strongest relative influence (33%) on CUE, followed by P. Also, SM has a direct causal link with all drivers and CUE; reiterating its importance in driving vegetation carbon dynamics (VCD) for the cropland dominated India. The long-term analysis reveals that the low CUE regions in NW (moisture induced greening) and IGP (irrigation induced agricultural boom) have an increasing trend in productivity (greening). However, the high CUE regions in NE (deforestation and extreme events) and SI (warming induced moisture stress) exhibit a decreasing trend in productivity (browning), which is a great concern. Our study, therefore, provides new insights on the rate of carbon allocation and the need of proper planning for maintaining balance in the terrestrial carbon cycle. This is particularly important in the context of drafting policy decisions for the mitigation of climate change, food security and sustainability.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Magda LN, Chan K, Bin-Hasan S, et al (2023)

Endorsement of the International Pediatric Association's declaration on the impact of climate change on children by the International Pediatric Sleep Association and World Sleep Society.

Sleep medicine, 104:56-57 pii:S1389-9457(23)00047-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Zhou S, Yu B, Y Zhang (2023)

Global concurrent climate extremes exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change.

Increases in concurrent climate extremes in different parts of the world threaten the ecosystem and our society. However, spatial patterns of these extremes and their past and future changes remain unclear. Here, we develop a statistical framework to test for spatial dependence and show widespread dependence of temperature and precipitation extremes in observations and model simulations, with more frequent than expected concurrence of extremes around the world. Historical anthropogenic forcing has strengthened the concurrence of temperature extremes over 56% of 946 global paired regions, particularly in the tropics, but has not yet significantly affected concurrent precipitation extremes during 1901-2020. The future high-emissions pathway of SSP585 will substantially amplify the concurrence strength, intensity, and spatial extent for both temperature and precipitation extremes, especially over tropical and boreal regions, while the mitigation pathway of SSP126 can ameliorate the increase in concurrent climate extremes for these high-risk regions. Our findings will inform adaptation strategies to alleviate the impact of future climate extremes.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Uddin MM, Abdul Aziz A, CE Lovelock (2023)

Importance of mangrove plantations for climate change mitigation in Bangladesh.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Mangroves have been identified as blue carbon ecosystems that are natural carbon sinks. In Bangladesh, the establishment of mangrove plantations for coastal protection has occurred since the 1960s, but the plantations may also be a sustainable pathway to enhance carbon sequestration, which can help Bangladesh meet its greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets, contributing to climate change mitigation. As a part of its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement 2016, Bangladesh is committed to limiting the GHG emissions through the expansion of mangrove plantations, but the level of carbon removal that could be achieved through the establishment of plantations has not yet been estimated. The mean ecosystem carbon stock of 5 to 42 years aged (average age: 25.5 years) mangrove plantations was 190.1 (± 30.3) Mg C ha[-1] , with ecosystem carbon stocks varying regionally. The biomass carbon stock was 60.3 (± 5.6) Mg C ha[-1] and the soil carbon stock was 129.8 (± 24.8) Mg C ha[-1] in the top one meter of which 43.9 Mg C ha[-1] was added to the soil after plantation establishment. Plantations at age 5 to 42 years achieved 53% of the mean ecosystem carbon stock calculated for the reference site (Sundarbans natural mangroves). Since 1966, the 28,000 ha of established plantations to the east of the Sundarbans have accumulated approximately 76,607 Mg C yr[-1] sequestration in biomass and 37,542 Mg C yr[-1] sequestration in soils, totaling 114,149 Mg C yr[-1] . Continuation of the current plantation success rate would sequester an additional 664,850 Mg C by 2030, which is 4.4% of Bangladesh's 2030 GHG reduction target from all sectors described in its NDC, however, plantations for climate change mitigation would be most effective 20 years after establishment. Higher levels of investment in mangrove plantations and higher plantation establishment success could contribute up to 2,098,093 Mg C to blue carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation in Bangladesh by 2030.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Akyol A, Örücü ÖK, Arslan ES, et al (2023)

Predicting of the current and future geographical distribution of Laurus nobilis L. under the effects of climate change.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(4):459.

Today, climate change affects all living things on earth. It also leads to serious losses in terms of biodiversity, ecosystem services, and human welfare. In this context, Laurus nobilis L. is a very important species for Turkey, and the Mediterranean countries. This research aimed to simulate the current distribution of the suitable habitat for L. nobilis in Turkey and to predict its possible range shifts in future climate scenarios. To predict the geographical distribution of L. nobilis, the study used the maximum-entropy algorithm-based MaxEnt 3.4.1 with seven bioclimatic variables created using the Community Climate System Model 4.0 (CCSM4) and the prediction models RCP4.5-8.5 for the years 2050-2070. The results indicated that the most important bioclimatic variables that shape the distribution of L. nobilis are BIO11-mean temperature of coldest quarter, and BIO7-annual temperature range. Two climate change scenarios predicted that the geographical distribution of L. nobilis would increase slightly and then decrease in the future. However, the spatial change analysis showed that the general geographical distribution area of L. nobilis did not change significantly, but the "moderate," "high," and "very high" suitable habitats changed towards "low" suitable habitats. These changes were particularly effective in Turkey's Mediterranean region, which shows that climate change is instrumental in determining the future of the Mediterranean ecosystem. Therefore, suitability mapping and change analysis of potential future bioclimatic habitats can help in planning for land use, conservation, and ecological restoration of L. nobilis.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Huang S, Zhang W, Hong Z, et al (2023)

Geographic distribution and impacts of climate change on the suitable habitats of Glycyrrhiza species in China.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has a major impact on the growth and distribution of plants. Glycyrrhiza is widely used in the treatment of many diseases in China. However, with the overexploitation and the growing demand for medicinal uses in of Glycyrrhiza plants. The investigation of the geographical distribution of Glycyrrhiza plants and the analysis of future climate change are of great significance for the conservation of Glycyrrhiza. In this study, combined with administrative maps of Chinese provinces, the present and future of geographical distribution and richness of six Glycyrrhiza plants in China were studied by using DIVA-GIS and MaxEnt software. A total of 981 herbarium records of these six species of Glycyrrhiza were collected to research. Results show that the change of climate in the future will lead to an increase in habitat suitability for some Glycyrrhiza species as follows: Glycyrrhiza inflata by 61.6%, Glycyrrhiza squamulosa by 47.5%, Glycyrrhiza pallidiflora by 34.0%, Glycyrrhiza yunnanensis by 49.0%, Glycyrrhiza glabra by 51.7%, and Glycyrrhiza aspera by 65.9%. Glycyrrhiza plants have considerable medicinal and economic value, so it is necessary to adopt targeted development and rational management strategies for it.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Fu L, Xu Y, Zhao D, et al (2023)

Analysis of coniferous tree growth gradients in relation to regional pollution and climate change in the Miyun Reservoir Basin, China.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Forests play a crucial role in regulating regional climate and mitigating local air pollution, but little is known about their responding to such changes. This study aimed to examine the potential responses of Pinus tabuliformis, the major coniferous tree species in the Miyun Reservoir Basin (MRB), along an air pollution gradient in Beijing. Tree rings were collected along a transect, and ring width (basal area increment, BAI) and chemical characteristics were determined and related to long-term climatic and environmental records. The results showed that Pinus tabuliformis showed an overall increase in intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at all sites, but the relationships between iWUE and BAI differed among the sites. The contribution of atmospheric CO2 concentration (ca) to tree growth was significant at the remote sites (> 90%). The study found that air pollution at these sites might have caused further stomatal closure, as evidenced by the higher δ[13]C levels (0.5 to 1‰ higher) during heavy pollution periods. The analysis of tree ring δ[15]N also revealed the potential of using δ[15]N to fingerprint major nitrogen (N) deposition, as shown in the increasing tree ring δ[15]N, and major nitrogen losses due to denitrification and leaching, as shown in the higher δ[15]N in tree rings during heavy rainfall events. Overall, the gradient analysis indicated the contributions of increasing ca, increasing water deficit and elevated air pollution to tree growth and forest development. The different BAI trajectories suggested that Pinus tabuliformis has the ability to adapt to the harsh environment in the MRB.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Mathias JM, Smith KR, Lantz KE, et al (2023)

Differences in leaf gas exchange strategies explain Quercus rubra and Liriodendron tulipifera intrinsic water use efficiency responses to air pollution and climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Trees continuously regulate leaf physiology to acquire CO2 while simultaneously avoiding excessive water loss. The balance between these two processes, or water use efficiency (WUE), is fundamentally important to understanding changes in carbon uptake and transpiration from the leaf to the globe under environmental change. While increasing atmospheric CO2 (iCO2) is known to increase tree intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE), less clear are the additional impacts of climate and acidic air pollution and how they vary by tree species. Here, we couple annually-resolved long-term records of tree ring carbon isotope signatures with leaf physiological measurements of Quercus rubra (Quru) and Liriodendron tulipifera (Litu) at four study locations spanning nearly 100 km in the eastern United States to reconstruct historical iWUE, net photosynthesis (Anet), and stomatal conductance to water (gs) since 1940. We first show 16 - 25% increases in tree iWUE since the mid-20[th] century, primarily driven by iCO2 , but also document the individual and interactive effects of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2) air pollution overwhelming climate. We find evidence for Quru leaf gas-exchange being less tightly regulated than Litu through an analysis of isotope-derived leaf internal CO2 (Ci), particularly in wetter, recent years. Modeled estimates of seasonally-integrated Anet and gs revealed a 43 - 50% stimulation of Anet was responsible for increasing iWUE in both tree species throughout 79 - 86% of the chronologies with reductions in gs attributable to the remaining 14 - 21%, building upon a growing body of literature documenting stimulated Anet overwhelming reductions in gs as a primary mechanism of increasing iWUE of trees. Finally, our results underscore the importance of considering air pollution, which remains a major environmental issue in many areas of the world, alongside climate in the interpretation of leaf physiology derived from tree rings.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Duan H, Ming X, Zhang XB, et al (2023)

China's adaptive response to climate change through air-conditioning.

iScience, 26(3):106178.

Studies have shown that the soaring demand for air conditioners in recent years is closely related to the worsening global warming; however, little evidence has been provided for China. This study uses weekly data of 343 Chinese cities to investigate how air conditioner sales respond to climate variability. We detected a U-shaped relationship between air-conditioning and temperature. An additional day with average temperature above 30°C increases weekly sales by 16.2%. Heterogeneity analysis shows that the adoption of air-conditioning is different for south and north China. By combining our estimates with shared socioeconomic pathway scenarios, we project China's mid-century air conditioner sales and the resulting electricity demand. Under the fossil-fueled development scenario, air conditioner sales in the Pearl River Delta would rise by 71% (65.7%-87.6%) in summer. On average, the per capita electricity demand for air-conditioning will surge by 28% (23.2%-35.4%) in China by mid-century.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Wubneh MA, Worku TA, BZ Chekol (2023)

Climate change impact on water resources availability in the kiltie watershed, Lake Tana sub-basin, Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 9(3):e13941.

Climate change's influence on water resource availability in watersheds must be evaluated to ensure food and water security. Using an ensemble of two global climate models (MIROC and MPI) and one regional climate model (RCA4), the impact of climate change on the availability of water in the Kiltie watershed was evaluated under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios for the year 2040s and 2070s. The flow was simulated using the HBV hydrological model, which needs fewer data and is typically employed in data-scarce settings. The model calibration and validation result, show RVE (relative volume error) of -1.27% and 6.93%, and NSE of 0.63 and 0.64 respectively. Seasonal Water Supply in the Future Under the RCP4.5 Scenario for the 2040s increased between 1.1 mm and 33.2 mm showing maximum incremental in August and a decrease in a range from 0.23 mm to 6.89 mm with a maximum decrease in September. While in the 2070s, water availability increases between 7.2 mm and 56.9 mm, with the largest increases occurring in October and the smallest reductions occurring in July by 9 mm. Future water availability increases under the RCP8.5 scenario during the 2040s period between 4.1 mm and 38.8 mm, with the highest increase occurring in August, and falls between 9.8 mm and 31.2 mm, with the maximum declines occurring in the spring seasons. Water availability in the 2070s, according to the RCP8.5 scenario, increases between 2.7 mm and 42.4 mm with the highest increments in August, and it decreases between 1.8 mm and 80.3 mm with maximum decreases in June. According to this study, climate change would make it easier to access water during the rainy season, necessitating the construction of water storage facilities so that surplus water can be used for dry farming. A watershed-level integrated water resource management strategy should be created quickly as future water supply will decline during the dry seasons.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Worischka S, Schöll F, Winkelmann C, et al (2023)

Twenty-eight years of ecosystem recovery and destabilisation: Impacts of biological invasions and climate change on a temperate river.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01294-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Most river ecosystems are exposed to multiple anthropogenic stressors affecting the composition and functionality of benthic communities. Identifying main causes and detecting potentially alarming trends in time depends on the availability of long-term monitoring data sets. Our study aimed to improve the knowledge about community effects of multiple stressors that is needed for effective, sustainable management and conservation. We conducted a causal analysis to detect the dominant stressors and hypothesised that multiple stressors, such as climate change and multiple biological invasions, reduce biodiversity and thus endanger ecosystem stability. Using a data set from 1992 to 2019 for the benthic macroinvertebrate community of a 65-km stretch of the upper Elbe river in Germany, we evaluated the effects of alien species, temperature, discharge, phosphorus, pH and abiotic conditional variables on the taxonomic and functional composition of the benthic community and analysed the temporal behaviour of biodiversity metrics. We observed fundamental taxonomic and functional changes in the community, with a shift from collectors/gatherers to filter feeders and feeding opportunists preferring warm temperatures. A partial dbRDA revealed significant effects of temperature and alien species abundance and richness. The occurrence of distinct phases in the development of community metrics suggests a temporally varying impact of different stressors. Taxonomic and functional richness responded more sensitively than the diversity metrics whereas the functional redundancy metric remained unchanged. Especially the last 10-year phase, however, showed a decline in richness metrics and an unsaturated, linear relationship between taxonomic and functional richness, which rather indicates reduced functional redundancy. We conclude that the varying anthropogenic stressors over three decades, mainly biological invasions and climate change, affected the community severely enough to increase its vulnerability to future stressors. Our study highlights the importance of long-term monitoring data and emphasises a careful use of biodiversity metrics, preferably considering also community composition.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Nourani V, Ghareh Tapeh AH, Khodkar K, et al (2023)

Assessing long-term climate change impact on spatiotemporal changes of groundwater level using autoregressive-based and ensemble machine learning models.

Journal of environmental management, 336:117653 pii:S0301-4797(23)00441-3 [Epub ahead of print].

To evaluate the long-term climate change impacts on groundwater fluctuations of the Ardabil plain, Iran, a groundwater level (GWL) modeling was proposed in this study. Accordingly, the outputs of Global Climate Models (GCMs) under the sixth report of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP6) and future scenario of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 5-8.5 (SSP5-8.5), were used as climate change forcing to the Machine learning (ML) models. The GCM data were first downscaled and projected for the future via Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). Based on the results, compared to 2014 (the last year of the base period), the mean annual temperature may increase by 0.8 °C per decade until 2100. On the other hand, the mean precipitation may decrease by about 8% compared to the base period. Then, the centroid wells of clusters were modeled by Feedforward Neural Network (FFNN), examining different input combination sets to simulate both autoregressive and non-autoregressive models. Since each of the ML models can extract different kinds of information from a dataset, after finding the dominant input set via FFNN, GWL time series were modeled via various ML methods. The modeling results indicated that the ensemble of shallow ML models could lead to a 6% more accurate outcome than the individual shallow ML models, and 4% than the deep learning models. Also, the simulation results for future GWLs illustrated that temperature can impact groundwater oscillations directly, whereas precipitation may not have uniform impacts on the GWLs. The uncertainty evolving in the modeling process was quantified and observed to be in acceptable range. Modeling results showed that the main reason for the declining GWL in the Ardabil plain could be primarily linked to the excessive exploitation of the water table, while climate change impact could be also notable.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Brilli L, Martin R, Argenti G, et al (2023)

Uncertainties in the adaptation of alpine pastures to climate change based on remote sensing products and modelling.

Journal of environmental management, 336:117575 pii:S0301-4797(23)00363-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last century, the management of pastoral systems has undergone major changes to meet the livelihood needs of alpine communities. Faced with the changes induced by recent global warming, the ecological status of many pastoral systems has seriously deteriorated in the western alpine region. We assessed changes in pasture dynamics by integrating information from remote-sensing products and two process-based models, i.e. the grassland-specific, biogeochemical growth model PaSim and the generic crop-growth model DayCent. Meteorological observations and satellite-derived Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) trajectories of three pasture macro-types (high, medium and low productivity classes) in two study areas - Parc National des Écrins (PNE) in France and Parco Nazionale Gran Paradiso (PNGP) in Italy - were used as a basis for the model calibration work. The performance of the models was satisfactory in reproducing pasture production dynamics (R[2] = 0.52 to 0.83). Projected changes in alpine pastures due to climate-change impacts and adaptation strategies indicate that: i) the length of the growing season is expected to increase between 15 and 40 days, resulting in changes in the timing and amount of biomass production, ii) summer water stress could limit pasture productivity; iii) earlier onset of grazing could enhance pasture productivity; iv) higher livestock densities could increase the rate of biomass regrowth, but major uncertainties in modelling processes need to be considered; and v) the carbon sequestration potential of pastures could decrease under limited water availability and warming.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Villa V, Bermeo N, Zazzo A, et al (2023)

Settlement dynamics, subsistence economies and climate change during the late Holocene at Nunura Bay (Sechura Desert, Peru): A multiproxy approach.

PloS one, 18(3):e0281545 pii:PONE-D-21-33364.

Long considered on the margins, far from the major cultural traditions, the Sechura Desert is situated at the crossroads between the cultures of southern Ecuador and those of the northern Peruvian coast and preserves a large number of varied archaeological sites. Despite this evidence, little is known about the societies that inhabited this region during the Holocene. Exposed to natural hazards, including El Niño events, and to major climatic changes, they were able to adapt and exploit the scarce resources that this extreme environment offered them. Because of this rich history, we have been conducting archaeological research in this region since 2012 in order to clarify the dynamics of human occupation and their links with climate oscillations and environmental changes. This paper present the results of a multidisciplinary study of Huaca Grande, a mound located on Nunura Bay, 300 m from the Pacific Ocean. The nature of the human occupations at Huaca Grande was varied, and several adjustments occurred over time. The subsistence economy was based mainly on local marine resources and a continual use of terrestrial vegetal resources. However, a major change occurred in the more recent occupations, with the apparition of non-local resources (maize and cotton) indicating that Huaca Grande was connected to trade networks. The results show two main phases of occupation separated by a long abandonment (mid-5th century CE to mid-7th century CE and mid-13th century to mid-15th century CE). The occupation of the site appears to have been influenced by changes in the local climate and by extreme El Niño events. Our results highlight the great adaptability of these human groups over the span of a millennium and their capacity to react to the climatic changes and hazards that characterise this region.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-09

Liang H, F You (2023)

Reshoring silicon photovoltaics manufacturing contributes to decarbonization and climate change mitigation.

Nature communications, 14(1):1274.

The globalized supply chain for crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) panels is increasingly fragile, as the now-mundane freight crisis and other geopolitical risks threaten to postpone major PV projects. Here, we study and report the results of climate change implications of reshoring solar panel manufacturing as a robust and resilient strategy to reduce reliance on foreign PV panel supplies. We project that if the U.S. could fully bring c-Si PV panel manufacturing back home by 2035, the estimated greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption would be 30% and 13% lower, respectively, than having relied on global imports in 2020, as solar power emerges as a major renewable energy source. If the reshored manufacturing target is achieved by 2050, the climate change and energy impacts would be further reduced by 33% and 17%, compared to the 2020 level. The reshored manufacturing demonstrates significant progress in domestic competitiveness and toward decarbonization goals, and the positive reductions in climate change impacts align with the climate target.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Henritze E, Goldman S, Simon S, et al (2023)

Moral injury as an inclusive mental health framework for addressing climate change distress and promoting justice-oriented care.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 7(3):e238-e241.

The unequal exposure to clinical conditions and other psychological responses associated with climate change and ecological degradation is due to resource access, geographical location, and other systemic factors. Ecological distress is further determined by values, beliefs, identity presentations, and group affiliations. Current models, such as climate anxiety, have made helpful distinctions between impairment and cognitive-emotional processes but obscure underlying ethical dilemmas and fundamental inequalities, restricting our understanding of accountability and the distress emerging from intergroup dynamics. In this Viewpoint, we argue that the concept of moral injury is essential because it foregrounds social position and ethics. It identifies spectrums of both agency and responsibility (guilt, shame, and anger) and powerlessness (depression, grief, and betrayal). The moral injury framework thus goes beyond an acontextual definition of wellbeing to identify how differential access to political power influences the diversity of psychological responses and conditions related to climate change and ecological degradation. A moral injury lens supports clinicians and policy makers to transform despair and stasis into care and action by delineating both the psychological and structural elements that determine the possibilities (and limits) of individual and community agency.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Zhao G, Tian S, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Quantitative assessment methodology framework of the impact of global climate change on the aquatic habitat of warm-water fish species in rivers.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01302-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change (GCC), with global warming as the main characteristic, has become a global issue widely concerned by people. GCC impacts the hydrological regime at the watershed scale and affects the hydrodynamic force and the habitat conditions of freshwater ecosystems at the river scale. The impact of GCC on water resources and the water cycle is a research hotspot. However, there are few studies on water environment ecology related to hydrology and the influence of changes in discharge and water temperature on warm-water fish habitats. This study proposes a quantitative assessment methodology framework for predicting and analyzing the impact of GCC on the warm-water fish habitat. This system integrates GCC, downscaling, hydrological, hydrodynamic, water temperature and habitat models and was applied to the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River (MLHR), where there are four major Chinese carps resource reduction problems. The results showed that the calibration and validation of the statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and the hydrological, hydrodynamic, and water temperature models were carried out using the observed meteorological factors, discharge, water level, flow velocity and water temperature data. The change rule of the simulated value was in good agreement with the observed value, and the models and methods used in the quantitative assessment methodology framework were applicable and accurate. The rise of water temperature caused by GCC will ease the problem of low-temperature water in the MLHR, and the weighted usable area (WUA) for spawning of the four major Chinese carps will appear in advance. Meanwhile, the increase in future annual discharge will play a positive role in WUA. In general, the rise in confluence discharge and water temperature caused by GCC will increase WUA, which is beneficial to the spawning ground of four major Chinese carps.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Sharma S, Sharma V, S Chatterjee (2023)

Contribution of plastic and microplastic to global climate change and their conjoining impacts on the environment - A review.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01243-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Plastics are fossil fuel-derived products. The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during different processes involved in the lifecycle of plastic-related products are a significant threat to the environment as it contributes to global temperature rise. By 2050, a high volume of plastic production will be responsible for up to 13 % of our planet's total carbon budget. The global emissions of GHG and their persistence in the environment have depleted Earth's residual carbon resources and have generated an alarming feedback loop. Each year at least 8 million tonnes of discarded plastics are entering our oceans, creating concerns regarding plastic toxicity on marine biota as they end up in the food chain and ultimately affect human health. The unsuccessful management of plastic waste and its presence on the riverbanks, coastlines, and landscapes leads to the emission of a higher percentage of GHG in the atmosphere. The persistence of microplastics is also a significant threat to the fragile and extreme ecosystem containing diverse life forms with low genetic variation, making them vulnerable to climatic change. In this review, we have categorically discussed the contribution of plastic and plastic waste to global climate change covering the current plastic production and future trends, the types of plastics and plastic materials used globally, plastic lifecycle and GHG emission, and how microplastics become a major threat to ocean carbon sequestration and marine health. The conjoining impact of plastic pollution and climate change on the environment and human health has also been discussed in detail. In the end, we have also discussed some strategies to reduce the climate impact of plastics.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Lamy K, Tran A, Portafaix T, et al (2023)

Impact of regional climate change on the mosquito vector Aedes albopictus in a tropical island environment: La Réunion.

The Science of the total environment, 875:162484 pii:S0048-9697(23)01100-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The recent expansion of Aedes albopictus across continents in both tropical and temperate regions and the exponential growth of dengue cases over the past 50 years represent a significant risk to human health. Although climate change is not the only factor responsible for the increase and spread of dengue cases worldwide, it might increase the risk of disease transmission at global and regional scale. Here we show that regional and local variations in climate can induce differential impacts on the abundance of Ae. albopictus. We use the instructive example of Réunion Island with its varied climatic and environmental conditions and benefiting from the availability of meteorological, climatic, entomological and epidemiological data. Temperature and precipitation data based on regional climate model simulations (3 km × 3 km) are used as inputs to a mosquito population model for three different climate emission scenarios. Our objective is to study the impact of climate change on the life cycle dynamics of Ae. albopictus in the 2070-2100 time horizon. Our results show the joint influence of temperature and precipitation on Ae. albopictus abundance as a function of elevation and geographical subregion. At low-elevations areas, decreasing precipitation is expected to have a negative impact on environmental carrying capacity and, consequently, on Ae. albopictus abundance. At mid- and high-elevations, decreasing precipitation is expected to be counterbalanced by a significant warming, leading to faster development rates at all life stages, and consequently increasing the abundance of this important dengue vector in 2070-2100.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Morello-Frosch R, OK Obasogie (2023)

The Climate Gap and the Color Line - Racial Health Inequities and Climate Change.

The New England journal of medicine, 388(10):943-949.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Ferreira IJM, Campanharo WA, Fonseca MG, et al (2023)

Potential aboveground biomass increase in Brazilian atlantic forest fragments with climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Fragmented tropical forest landscapes preserve much of the remaining biodiversity and carbon stocks. Climate change is expected to intensify droughts and increase fire hazard and fire intensities, thereby causing habitat deterioration, and losses of biodiversity and carbon stock losses. Understanding the trajectories that these landscapes may follow under increased climate pressure is imperative for establishing strategies for conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Here, we used a quantitative predictive modelling approach to project the spatial distribution of the above-ground biomass density (AGB) by the end of the 21st century across the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (AF) domain. To develop the models, we used the maximum entropy method with projected climate data to 2100, based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 from the fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Our AGB models had a satisfactory performance (AUC> 0.75 and p value <0.05). The models projected a significant increase of 8.5% in the total carbon stock. Overall, the projections indicated that 76.9% of the AF domain would have suitable climatic conditions for increasing biomass by 2100 considering the RCP 4.5 scenario, in the absence of deforestation. Of the existing forest fragments, 34.7% are projected to increase their AGB, while 2.6% are projected to have their AGB reduced by 2100. The regions likely to lose most AGB - up to 40% compared to the baseline - are found between latitudes 13° and 20 ° south. Overall, although climate change effects on AGB vary latitudinally for the 2071-2100 period under the RCP 4.5 scenario, our model indicates that AGB stocks can potentially increase across a large fraction of the AF. The patterns found here are recommended to be taken into consideration during the planning of restoration efforts, as part of climate change mitigation strategies in the AF and elsewhere in Brazil.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Belgrano A, M Lindmark (2023)

Biodiversity transformations in the global ocean: a climate change and conservation management perspective.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Kim HH, Laufkötter C, Lovato T, et al (2023)

Projected 21st-century changes in marine heterotrophic bacteria under climate change.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1049579.

Marine heterotrophic Bacteria (or referred to as bacteria) play an important role in the ocean carbon cycle by utilizing, respiring, and remineralizing organic matter exported from the surface to deep ocean. Here, we investigate the responses of bacteria to climate change using a three-dimensional coupled ocean biogeochemical model with explicit bacterial dynamics as part of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6. First, we assess the credibility of the century-scale projections (2015-2099) of bacterial carbon stock and rates in the upper 100 m layer using skill scores and compilations of the measurements for the contemporary period (1988-2011). Second, we demonstrate that across different climate scenarios, the simulated bacterial biomass trends (2076-2099) are sensitive to the regional trends in temperature and organic carbon stocks. Bacterial carbon biomass declines by 5-10% globally, while it increases by 3-5% in the Southern Ocean where semi-labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) stocks are relatively low and particle-attached bacteria dominate. While a full analysis of drivers underpinning the simulated changes in all bacterial stock and rates is not possible due to data constraints, we investigate the mechanisms of the changes in DOC uptake rates of free-living bacteria using the first-order Taylor decomposition. The results demonstrate that the increase in semi-labile DOC stocks drives the increase in DOC uptake rates in the Southern Ocean, while the increase in temperature drives the increase in DOC uptake rates in the northern high and low latitudes. Our study provides a systematic analysis of bacteria at global scale and a critical step toward a better understanding of how bacteria affect the functioning of the biological carbon pump and partitioning of organic carbon pools between surface and deep layers.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Korfanty G, Heifetz E, J Xu (2023)

Assessing thermal adaptation of a global sample of Aspergillus fumigatus: Implications for climate change effects.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1059238.

Aspergillus fumigatus is a common environmental mold and a major cause of opportunistic infections in humans. It's distributed among many ecological niches across the globe. A major virulence factor of A. fumigatus is its ability to grow at high temperature. However, at present, little is known about variations among strains in their growth at different temperatures and how their geographic origins may impact such variations. In this study, we analyzed 89 strains from 12 countries (Cameroon, Canada, China, Costa Rica, France, India, Iceland, Ireland, New Zealand, Peru, Saudi Arabia, and USA) representing diverse geographic locations and temperature environments. Each strain was grown at four temperatures and genotyped at nine microsatellite loci. Our analyses revealed a range of growth profiles, with significant variations among strains within individual geographic populations in their growths across the temperatures. No statistically significant association was observed between strain genotypes and their thermal growth profiles. Similarly geographic separation contributed little to differences in thermal adaptations among strains and populations. The combined analyses among genotypes and growth rates at different temperatures in the global sample suggest that most natural populations of A. fumigatus are capable of rapid adaptation to temperature changes. We discuss the implications of our results to the evolution and epidemiology of A. fumigatus under increasing climate change.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Gonçalves GSR, Cerqueira PV, Silva DP, et al (2023)

Multi-temporal ecological niche modeling for bird conservation in the face of climate change scenarios in Caatinga, Brazil.

PeerJ, 11:e14882.

BACKGROUND: Global shifts in climatic patterns have been recorded over the last decades. Such modifications mainly correspond to increased temperatures and rainfall regime changes, which are becoming more variable and extreme.

METHODS: We aimed to evaluate the impact of future changes in climatic patterns on the distribution of 19 endemic or threatened bird taxa of the Caatinga. We assessed whether current protected areas (PAs) are adequate and whether they will maintain their effectiveness in the future. Also, we identified climatically stable areas that might work as refugia for an array of species.

RESULTS: We observed that 84% and 87% of the bird species of Caatinga analyzed in this study will face high area losses in their predicted range distribution areas in future scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively). We also observed that the current PAs in Caatinga are ineffective in protecting these species in both present and future scenarios, even when considering all protection area categories. However, several suitable areas can still be allocated for conservation, where there are vegetation remnants and a high amount of species. Therefore, our study paves a path for conservation actions to mitigate current and future extinctions due to climate change by choosing more suitable protection areas.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Limaye VS, Magal A, Joshi J, et al (2023)

Air quality and health co-benefits of climate change mitigation and adaptation actions by 2030: an interdisciplinary modeling study in Ahmedabad, India.

Environmental research, health : ERH, 1(2):021003.

Climate change-driven temperature increases worsen air quality in places where coal combustion powers electricity for air conditioning. Climate solutions that substitute clean and renewable energy in place of polluting coal and promote adaptation to warming through reflective cool roofs can reduce cooling energy demand in buildings, lower power sector carbon emissions, and improve air quality and health. We investigate the air quality and health co-benefits of climate solutions in Ahmedabad, India-a city where air pollution levels exceed national health-based standards-through an interdisciplinary modeling approach. Using a 2018 baseline, we quantify changes in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution and all-cause mortality in 2030 from increasing renewable energy use (mitigation) and expanding Ahmedabad's cool roofs heat resilience program (adaptation). We apply local demographic and health data and compare a 2030 mitigation and adaptation (M&A) scenario to a 2030 business-as-usual (BAU) scenario (without climate change response actions), each relative to 2018 pollution levels. We estimate that the 2030 BAU scenario results in an increase of PM2.5 air pollution of 4.13 µg m[-3] from 2018 compared to a 0.11 µg m[-3] decline from 2018 under the 2030 M&A scenario. Reduced PM2.5 air pollution under 2030 M&A results in 1216-1414 fewer premature all-cause deaths annually compared to 2030 BAU. Achievement of National Clean Air Programme, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, or World Health Organization annual PM2.5 Air Quality Guideline targets in 2030 results in up to 6510, 9047, or 17 369 fewer annual deaths, respectively, relative to 2030 BAU. This comprehensive modeling method is adaptable to estimate local air quality and health co-benefits in other settings by integrating climate, energy, cooling, land cover, air pollution, and health data. Our findings demonstrate that city-level climate change response policies can achieve substantial air quality and health co-benefits. Such work can inform public discourse on the near-term health benefits of mitigation and adaptation.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Kandikuppa S, C Gray (2022)

Climate Change and Household Debt in Rural India.

Climatic change, 173(3-4):.

Climate change and indebtedness have been repeatedly highlighted as major causes of distress for rural households in India. However, despite the close connection between climate conditions and rural livelihoods, there has been little attempt to systematically examine the association between the two. To address this gap, we combine national-level longitudinal data from IHDS, MERRA-2, and the Indian Ministry of Agriculture to study the impact of climate anomalies on household indebtedness across rural India. Using a longitudinal approach that accounts for potential confounders at household, village, and district levels, we find pervasive effects of season-specific, five-year climate anomalies on multiple dimensions of household debt, particularly in arid and semi-arid areas. Most notably, temperature anomalies in the winter cropping season in arid and semi-arid areas are associated with increasing household indebtedness. We further find that climate change interacts with existing socioeconomic differences-caste and landholding in particular-to deepen both the size and the depth of indebtedness for rural households.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Cubelo F (2023)

Internationally educated nurses' role in climate change: sustainability and mitigation practices.

Public health nursing (Boston, Mass.) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There are three related factors affecting climate change and its relationship to the migration of IENs: 1) corporate social responsibility; 2) the code of ethics for nurses; and 3) nursing education. As the highest producer of carbon dioxide emissions, the Global North especially the Nordic Region must also consider its climate change responsibilities when recruiting nurses from the Global South.

AIM: The aim of this article is to discuss the factors affecting climate change and its relationship to the migration of IENs, as well as possible solutions to mitigate its impact.

RESULTS: Climate change is impacted indirectly by the movement of internationally educated nurses (IENs). The Nordic countries need to consider checking climate change measures in the sustainability plans for recruitment companies when approving permits allowing the recruitment of nurses.

CONCLUSION: Policymakers and decision-makers need to consider climate change and GHG emissions factors when collaborating with recruitment agencies to recruit IENs from the Global South. International nurse recruitment policies must be ethical, economically sustainable, and planet-centered.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Baecher JA, Johnson SA, Roznik EA, et al (2023)

Experimental evaluation of how biological invasions and climate change interact to alter the vertical assembly of an amphibian community.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

While biotic-abiotic interactions are increasingly documented in nature, a process-based understanding of how such interactions influence community assembly is lacking in the ecological literature. Perhaps the most emblematic and pervasive example of such interactions is the synergistic threat to biodiversity posed by climate change and invasive species. Invasive species often out-compete or prey on native species. Despite this long-standing and widespread issue, little is known about how abiotic conditions, such as climate change, will influence the frequency and severity of negative biotic interactions that threaten the persistence of native fauna. Treefrogs are a globally diverse group of amphibians that climb to complete life-cycle processes, such as foraging and reproduction, as well as to evade predators and competitors, resulting in frog communities that are vertically partitioned. Furthermore, treefrogs adjust their vertical position to maintain optimal body temperature and hydration in response to environmental change. Here, utilizing this model group, we designed a novel experiment to determine how extrinsic abiotic and biotic factors (changes to water availability and an introduced predator, respectively) interact with intrinsic biological traits, such as individual physiology and behaviour, to influence treefrogs' vertical niche. Our study found that treefrogs adjusted their vertical niche through displacement behaviours in accordance with abiotic resources. However, biotic interactions resulted in native treefrogs distancing themselves from abiotic resources to avoid the non-native species. Importantly, under altered abiotic conditions, both native species avoided the non-native species 33 $$33$$ %- 70 % $$70\%$$ more than they avoided their native counterpart. Additionally, exposure to the non-native species resulted in native species altering their tree climbing behaviours by 56 % - 78 % $$56\%\hbox{--} 78\%$$ and becoming more vertically dynamic to avoid the non-native antagonist. Our experiment determined that vertical niche selection and community interactions were most accurately represented by a biotic-abiotic interaction model, rather than a model that considers these factors to operate in an isolated (singular) or even additive manner. Our study provides evidence that native species may be resilient to interacting disturbances via physiological adaptations to local climate and plasticity in space-use behaviours that mediate the impact of the introduced predator.

RevDate: 2023-03-05

Sapkota Y, Bargu S, JR White (2023)

Temporally-displaced Mississippi River spring flood pulse shows muted aquatic ecosystem response in estuarine waters: A climate change warning for coastal foodwebs.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01239-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Mississippi River water levels typically rise in the early spring after snow melt in the extensive watershed. However, in 2016, warm air temperatures coupled with high precipitation led to a historically early river flood pulse, resulting in the opening of a flood release valve (Bonnet Carré Spillway) in early January to protect the city of New Orleans, Louisiana. The goal of this research was to determine the ecosystem response of this wintertime nutrient flood pulse on the receiving estuarine system and compare it to historical opening responses, which are generally several months later. Nutrients, TSS, and Chl a were measured along a 30 km transect in the Lake Pontchartrain estuary, before, during, and after the river diversion event. In the past, NOx concentrations were quickly reduced to below detection in the estuary in <4 weeks post-event accompanied by a moderate phytoplankton bloom. However, due to seasonal limitations (cold water temperatures and light limitation) during the 2016 event, NOx remained elevated for >2 months post-closure and Chl a values were low, indicating limited assimilation of nutrients into phytoplankton biomass. Consequently, much of the bioavailable nitrogen was denitrified by sediments and dispersed to the coastal ocean over time, limiting the transfer of nutrients into the food web by means of a spring phytoplankton bloom. An increasing warming trend in temperate and polar river watersheds is leading to earlier spring flood pulses, altering the timing of coastal nutrient transport, decoupled from conditions supporting primary production, which could significantly affect coastal food webs.

RevDate: 2023-03-05

Heffernan ME, Menker C, Bendelow A, et al (2023)

Parental Concerns about Climate Change in a Major US City.

OBJECTIVES: To examine climate change concerns among parents in Chicago - a large and diverse urban setting that experiences climate change-related weather events and rising water levels, which have the potential to affect more than 1 million children living in the city.

METHODS: We collected data through the Voices of Child Health in Chicago Parent Panel Survey from May-July 2021. Parents indicated their personal level of worry about climate change, concern about the impact of climate change on themselves and their family, and how well they understood the issue of climate change. Parents also provided demographic information.

RESULTS: Parents reported high levels of concern about climate change in general and specifically about the impact on their family. Logistic regression indicated that parents who were Latine/Hispanic (vs. White) and those who felt they understood climate change well (vs. less well) had higher odds of reporting high levels of concern. Parents with some college (vs. high school education or below) had lower odds of high concern.

CONCLUSIONS: Parents indicated high levels of concern about climate change and its potential impact on their family. These results can help inform pediatricians' discussions with families about child health in the context of a changing climate.

RevDate: 2023-03-05

Heenan M, Rychetnik L, Howse E, et al (2023)

Australia's political engagement on health and climate change: the MJA-Lancet Countdown indicator and implications for the future.

The Medical journal of Australia [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-04

Mondal N (2023)

The resurgence of dengue epidemic and climate change in India.

Lancet (London, England), 401(10378):727-728.

RevDate: 2023-03-04

Zhang X, Comes HP, Y Qiu (2023)

Did Late Quaternary climate change trigger shifts in mating system in temperate plant species of the Sino-Japanese Floristic Region? A commentary on 'Genetic and demographic signatures accompanying the evolution of the selfing syndrome in Daphne kiusiana, an evergreen shrub'.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Mohammadi S, Rydgren K, Bakkestuen V, et al (2023)

Impacts of recent climate change on crop yield can depend on local conditions in climatically diverse regions of Norway.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3633.

Globally, climate change greatly impacts the production of major crops, and there have been many attempts to model future yields under warming scenarios in recent years. However, projections of future yields may not be generalisable to all crop growing regions, particularly those with diverse topography and bioclimates. In this study, we demonstrate this by evaluating the links between changes in temperature and precipitation and changes in wheat, barley, and potato yields at the county-level during 1980-2019 in Norway, a Nordic country with a range of climates across a relatively small spatial scale. The results show that the impacts of climate variables on yield vary widely by county, and that for some crops, the strength and direction of the link depends on underlying local bioclimate. In addition, our analysis demonstrates the need for some counties to focus on weather changes during specific crucial months corresponding with certain crop growth stages. Furthermore, due to the local climatic conditions and varying projected climate changes, different production opportunities are likely to occur in each county.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Uniyal B, Kosatica E, T Koellner (2023)

Spatial and temporal variability of climate change impacts on ecosystem services in small agricultural catchments using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT).

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01136-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and anthropogenic activities alter the ecosystem which affects the ecosystem services (ES) associated with it. Therefore, the objective in this study is to quantify the impact of climate change on different regulation and provisioning ecosystem services. For this, we propose a modelling framework to simulate the impact of climate change on streamflow, nitrate loads, erosion, and crop yield in terms of ES indices for two agricultural catchments (Schwesnitz and Schwabach) located in Bavaria, Germany. The agro-hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to simulate the considered ES in past (1990-2019), near future (2030-2059) and far future (2070-2099) climatic conditions. Three different bias-corrected (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5) climate projections from five different climate models retrieved from the Bavarian State Office for Environment (~5 km) are used in this research to simulate the impact of climate change on ES. The developed SWAT models were calibrated for the major crops (1995 to 2018) present in the respective watersheds as well as for daily streamflow (1995 to 2008), which gave promising results with good PBIAS and Kling-Gupta Efficiency. The impact of climate change on erosion regulation, food and feed provisioning, and water quantity and water quality regulation were quantified in terms of indices. When using the ensemble of the five climate models, no significant impact on ES was seen due to climate change. Furthermore, the impact of climate change on different ES services from the two catchment is different. The findings of this study will be valuable for devising suitable management practices for sustainable water management at the catchment level to cope with climate change.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Chambers JE (2023)

From Mourning and Melancholia to Neurobiology in an Era of Global Warming, Pandemic Disease, and Social Chasms: Grief as a Requisite for Change.

Psychodynamic psychiatry, 51(1):45-62.

We find ourselves in a unique time in history with the confluence of a pandemic, global warming, and social chasms felt throughout the world. In this article, it is suggested that the grieving process is necessary for progress. The article addresses grief from a psychodynamic lens and progresses through the neurobiological changes that occur in the grieving process. The article discusses grief as both a result of and a necessary response to COVID-19, global warming, and social unrest. It is argued that grief is a vital process in order to fully change as a society and move forward. The role of psychiatry, and specifically psychodynamic psychiatry, is integral in paving the way to this new understanding and a new future.

RevDate: 2023-03-04

Gno-Solim Ela N, Olago D, Akinyi AD, et al (2023)

Assessment of the effects of climate change on the occurrence of tomato invasive insect pests in Uganda.

Heliyon, 9(2):e13702.

The shift in the geographical spread of invasive pests in Africa has rarely been linked directly to climate change. However, it is predicted that environmental changes play a significant role in spreading and expanding pests. The occurrence of new tomato invasive insect pests has been increasing in Uganda during the past century. Assessing the impact of temperature, rainfall, relative humidity, and windspeed on the occurrence of invasive tomato insect pests, gives a better understanding of managing and limiting the bio-invasion process sustainably. We used the Mann Kendall trend Test to establish trends in climate variables from 1981 to 2020 and to document the trend in the occurrence of new invasive pests. The relationship between climate variables and pests occurrence is analyzed using Pearson's correlation and the Generalized Linear Model (GLM-quasi-Poisson) in R-software. The results showed that temperature and windspeed have significantly increased in both Kampala and Namutumba by 0.049 °C, 0.005 m [s-1]and by 0.037 °C, 0.003 m [s-1] per year respectively while in Mbale there was no change in wind speed pattern and a non-significant decrease in temperature. There was an overall rainfall increase in Kampala (p = 0.029) by 0.241 mm, Mbale (p = 0.0011) by 9.804 mm, and Namutumba (p = 0.394) by 0.025 mm. On the other hand, humidity has decreased both in Kampala (p = 0.001) by 13.3% and in Namutumba (p = 0.035) by 13.2% while there was a no significant change in Mbale. The results of GLM showed that each variable, taken individually, had a direct effect on the pests' occurrence in all three districts. However, with all these climate variables taken together, the effect on the pests' occurrence varied with each of the three districts; Kampala, Mbale, and Namutumba. This study demonstrated that pest occurrence is different from one agroecology to another. Our findings suggest that climate change is a driver that favors bio-invasion of tomato invasive insect pests occurrence in Uganda. It calls for awareness to policymakers and stakeholders to consider climate-smart pest management practices and policies to deal with bio-invasion.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Xin Y, Yang Z, Du Y, et al (2023)

Vulnerability of protected areas to future climate change, land use modification and biological invasions in China.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic climate change, land use modifications, and alien species invasions are major threats to global biodiversity. Protected areas (PAs) are regarded as the cornerstone of biodiversity conservation, however, few studies have quantified the vulnerability of PAs to these global change factors together. Here, we overlay the risks of climate change, land use change, and alien vertebrate establishment within boundaries of a total of 1,020 PAs with different administrative levels in China to quantify their vulnerabilities. Our results show that 56.6% of PAs will face at least one stress factor, and 21 PAs are threatened under the highest risk with three stressors simultaneously. PAs designed for forest conservation in Southwest and South China are most sensitive to the three global change factors. In addition, wildlife and wetland PAs are predicted to mainly experience climate change and high land use anthropogenetic modifications, and many wildlife PAs can also provide suitable habitats for alien vertebrate establishment. Our study highlights the urgent need for proactive conservation and management planning of Chinese PAs by considering different global change factors together.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Xu H, Zhong T, Chen Y, et al (2023)

How to simulate future scenarios of urban stormwater management? A novel framework coupling climate change, urbanization, and green stormwater infrastructure development.

The Science of the total environment, 874:162399 pii:S0048-9697(23)01015-X [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change, urbanization, and green stormwater infrastructure (GSI) planning policies lead to uncertainties in future urban sustainability. Coupling multiple influencing factors such as climate change, urbanization, and GSI development, this study proposes a novel framework for simulating future scenarios of urban stormwater. Subsequently, the changes in annual surface runoff and runoff pollutants in Shanghai's new and old urban areas were compared and analyzed based on 35 typical future and seven baseline scenarios. The following results were obtained: 1) The runoff control rate of the new urban area was significantly higher than that of the old urban area before GSI construction. After GSI construction, both areas could control stormwater runoff and pollutants, while the decline in efficiency in GSI facilities enormously impacted the old area. 2) Surface runoff in the new urban area was mainly affected by urbanization, while climate change was a major factor in the old urban area; runoff pollutants in new and old urban areas were mainly affected by urbanization, and the change in pollutants in new areas was more pronounced. 3) GSI facilities were unlikely to guarantee the quantity and quality of water resources, especially in scenarios where the efficiency of GSI facilities decreases. In old urban areas, the more extreme climate change and urbanization were, the more significant the effect of improving stormwater management facilities. Our findings showed that future studies on stormwater management should specifically consider the different characteristics of new and old urban regions, pay attention to the maintenance and management of GSI facilities, and build adaptive strategies to cope with climate change, urbanization, and GSI facility destruction.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Ramadani L, Khanal S, M Boeckmann (2023)

Climate change and health in school-based education: A scoping review protocol.

PloS one, 18(3):e0282431.

Taking into account the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, the importance of increasing knowledge and gaining essential skills is necessary to mitigate and adapt to its impacts and protect human health. Researchers and experts are urging for more research in the climate-health nexus, as well as calling for efforts that establish climate and health educational goals. They encourage the development of agreed upon, articulated science-based curricula and resources addressing climate-health issues. This review aims to map out the current state of integration of climate change education in school-based education across the world and identify the human health topics included. Furthermore, it aims to explore the extents to which levels of prevention and health co-benefits of climate mitigation and adaptation are covered within the framework of school-based climate change education. Five electronic databases will be searched for peer reviewed articles in English, from year 2000-to May 2022. The findings from the study will be useful to school curricula developers looking to expand climate change education. This review will also highlight potential research gaps in education on climate change-related health in schools. The scoping review was preregistered with the Open Science Framework [registration DOI: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/8U5GK].

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Biswas SS (2023)

Potential Use of Chat GPT in Global Warming.

Climate change is a major global challenge that requires the integration of many different scientific disciplines, including atmospheric science, oceanography, and ecology. The complexity and scale of the problem require sophisticated tools and techniques to understand, model, and project future climate conditions. Artificial intelligence and natural language processing technologies, such as ChatGPT, have the potential to play a critical role in advancing our understanding of climate change and improving the accuracy of climate projections. ChatGPT can be used in a variety of ways to aid climate research, including in model parameterization, data analysis and interpretation, scenario generation, and model evaluation. This technology provides researchers and policy-makers with a powerful tool for generating and analyzing different climate scenarios based on a wide range of data inputs, and for improving the accuracy of climate projections. The author acknowledges asking chatGPT questions regarding its uses for Climate Change Research. Some of the uses that it states are possible now and some are potentials for the future. The author has analyzed and edited the replies of chat GPT.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Souza PGC, Aidoo OF, Farnezi PKB, et al (2023)

Author Correction: Tamarixia radiate global distribution to current and future climate using the climate change experiment (CLIMEX) model.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3397 pii:10.1038/s41598-023-30319-2.

RevDate: 2023-03-01
CmpDate: 2023-03-01

Bretter C, F Schulz (2023)

Why focusing on "climate change denial" is counterproductive.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(10):e2217716120.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Liebig MA, Bergh EL, DW Archer (2023)

Variation in methodology obscures clarity of cropland global warming potential estimates.

Journal of environmental quality [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming potential (GWP) estimates from agroecosystems are valuable for understanding management effects on climate regulation services. However, GWP estimates are complex, including attributes with high spatiotemporal variability. Published GWP estimates from cropland were compiled and methodological attributes known to influence GWP were extracted. Results revealed considerable variation in approaches to estimate GWP. Among carbon balance methods, respiration methods were used most frequently (33%), followed by soil carbon stock change over time (30%). Twenty six percent of studies did not account for carbon change in GWP estimates. Duration of gas flux measurements ranged from 0.5 to 60 months, with weekly and sub-weekly sampling most common (34 and 33%, respectively). Carbon dioxide equivalent conversion factors generally aligned with IPCC recommendations through 2014 but diverged thereafter. This review suggests the need for increased transparency in how GWP estimates are derived and communicated. Presentation of key metadata alongside GWP estimates are recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Lu K, Ban J, Wang Q, et al (2023)

Protocol for estimating exposure to compound heat wave and ozone pollution under future climate change.

STAR protocols, 4(1):102090 pii:S2666-1667(23)00048-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Here we describe the procedure for estimating exposure to the compound heatwave and ozone pollution under future climate scenarios. We first apply the daily-level temperature and ozone concentration across the world and perform bias correction by comparing the distribution of the modeled temperature and ozone concentration to the distribution of historical observation. Then we identify the heatwaves, ozone pollution events, and compound events. Finally, we combine the future exposure and population to identify the high-risk regions and populations. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ban et al. (2022).[1].

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Kariuki T, Omumbo J, Ciugu K, et al (2023)

The interconnected global emergencies of climate change, food security and health: a call to action by the Science for Africa Foundation.

Open research Africa, 6:1.

The evidence is clear that climate change is the greatest challenge facing mankind today. Africa is disproportionately burdened by multiple direct and cascading impacts of the climate crisis. Global investments for climate change adaptation, however, have not prioritized Africa adequately and there is a significant knowledge gap in understanding the context and science of climate change and sustainable solutions for the continent's adaptation. Solutions for adaptation and resilience are made complex by an urgent need for accelerated economic growth, rapid population expansion and urbanization, habitat and biodiversity loss and dwindling financing. There are also challenges in matching policies, wavering commitments and actions with good science that focuses on sustainable lives, livelihoods and ecosystem preservation. The solutions must come from where the impacts are felt. The Science for Africa Foundation supports African researchers and institutions to lead in the science that addresses African priority development areas and has set climate change as a strategic priority. This call to action, by the SFA Foundation, outlines key areas that its strategy addresses through programs that support African scientific excellence, leadership and the best of Africa's research to understand the science of climate change and its impacts; collate and assess evidence for policy; grow high level technical capacity on the continent; and create innovative priority actions for Africa.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Azeem S, Cheema HA, Shahid A, et al (2023)

Devastating floods in South Asia: The inequitable repercussions of climate change and an urgent appeal for action.

Public health in practice (Oxford, England), 5:100365.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Derville S, Torres LG, Newsome SD, et al (2023)

Long-term stability in the circumpolar foraging range of a Southern Ocean predator between the eras of whaling and rapid climate change.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(10):e2214035120.

Assessing environmental changes in Southern Ocean ecosystems is difficult due to its remoteness and data sparsity. Monitoring marine predators that respond rapidly to environmental variation may enable us to track anthropogenic effects on ecosystems. Yet, many long-term datasets of marine predators are incomplete because they are spatially constrained and/or track ecosystems already modified by industrial fishing and whaling in the latter half of the 20th century. Here, we assess the contemporary offshore distribution of a wide-ranging marine predator, the southern right whale (SRW, Eubalaena australis), that forages on copepods and krill from ~30°S to the Antarctic ice edge (>60°S). We analyzed carbon and nitrogen isotope values of 1,002 skin samples from six genetically distinct SRW populations using a customized assignment approach that accounts for temporal and spatial variation in the Southern Ocean phytoplankton isoscape. Over the past three decades, SRWs increased their use of mid-latitude foraging grounds in the south Atlantic and southwest (SW) Indian oceans in the late austral summer and autumn and slightly increased their use of high-latitude (>60°S) foraging grounds in the SW Pacific, coincident with observed changes in prey distribution and abundance on a circumpolar scale. Comparing foraging assignments with whaling records since the 18th century showed remarkable stability in use of mid-latitude foraging areas. We attribute this consistency across four centuries to the physical stability of ocean fronts and resulting productivity in mid-latitude ecosystems of the Southern Ocean compared with polar regions that may be more influenced by recent climate change.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Urhan B, Hoştut S, Güdekli İA, et al (2023)

Climate change and marketing: a bibliometric analysis of research from 1992 to 2022.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change with adverse impacts on the environment, economy, and society requires marketing to change current attitudes and behaviors towards sustainable production and consumption, and thus climate change is interrelated to marketing. However, no body of literature has comprehensively investigated the connections and relationships between climate change and marketing. This study examined such connections and relationships from a bibliometric approach using Web of Science and Scopus databases from 1992 to 2022. The search strategy utilized topic and title/abstract/keyword search. The search query retrieved 1723 documents. VOSviewer and Biblioshiny were utilized to analyze data on authors, keywords, institutions, countries, sources, citations, and co-citations. The findings showed an upward trend in the annual number of publications with the top three most productive countries being the USA, the UK, and Australia and the most productive institutions in the USA, New Zealand, and the UK. The top three author keywords were climate change, sustainability, and marketing. The Sustainability journal ranked first in terms of productivity while Energy Policy in terms of citations. International collaborations were mostly between developed countries also known as Global North Countries, and collaborations between these countries and developing and developed countries should be encouraged. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of documents increased, and research themes altered. Research on energy, innovation, insect farming, and carbon management is a top priority. The results proved that most studies were conducted outside the field of marketing.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Qin SY, Zuo ZY, Guo C, et al (2023)

Phylogenomic insights into the origin and evolutionary history of evergreen broadleaved forests in East Asia under Cenozoic climate change.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The evergreen versus deciduous leaf habit is an important functional trait for adaptation of forest trees and has been hypothesized to be related to the evolutionary processes of the component species under paleoclimatic change, and potentially reflected in the dynamic history of evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs) in East Asia. However, knowledge about the shift of evergreen versus deciduous leaf with the impact of paleoclimatic change using genomic data remains rare. Here, we focus on the Litsea complex (Lauraceae), a key lineage with dominant species of EBLFs to gain insights into how evergreen versus deciduous trait shifted, providing insights into the origin and historical dynamics of EBLFs in East Asia under Cenozoic climate change. We reconstructed a robust phylogeny of the Litsea complex using genome-wide single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) with eight clades resolved. Fossil-calibrated analyses, diversification rate shifts, ancestral habit, ecological niche modeling and climate niche reconstruction were employed to estimate its origin and diversification pattern. Taking into accounts of studies on other plant lineages dominating EBLFs of East Asia, it was revealed that the prototype of EBLFs in East Asia probably emerged in the Early Eocene (55-50 Ma), facilitated by the greenhouse warming. As a response to the cooling climate in the Middle to Late Eocene (48-38 Ma), deciduous habits were evolved in the dominant lineages of the EBLFs in East Asia. Up to the Early Miocene (23 Ma), the prevailing of East Asian monsoon increased the extreme seasonal precipitation and accelerated the emergence of evergreen habits of the dominant lineages, and ultimately shaped the vegetation resembling that of today.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Lee AS, Aguilera J, Efobi JA, et al (2023)

Climate change and public health: The effects of global warming on the risk of allergies and autoimmune diseases: The effects of global warming on the risk of allergies and autoimmune diseases.

EMBO reports [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change and extreme weather events are associated with epigenetic modifications in immune cells, leading to the possible increased risk and prevalence of allergies and autoimmune diseases.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world: Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

Oxford open immunology, 3(1):iqac008.

ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )

New Science

Weird Science

Science Policy & Funding

Biodiversity

Paleontology

Astronomy

Paleoanthropology

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