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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2021 at 01:32 Created: 


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-06-15

Bhattacharjee G, Gohil N, Lam NL, et al (2021)

CRISPR-based diagnostics for detection of pathogens.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 181:45-57.

The improved sensitivity and superior specificity associated with the use of molecular assays has improved the fate of disease diagnosis by bestowing the clinicians with outcomes that are both rapid and precise. In recent years, CRISPR has made considerable progress in in vitro diagnostic platform which has paved its way for developing rapid and sensitive CRISPR-based diagnostic tools. Improved perception and better understanding of diverse CRISPR-Cas systems has broadened the reach of CRISPR applications for not just early detection of pathogens but also for early onset of diseases such as cancer. The inherent allele specificity of CRISPR is the predominant reason for its application in designing a diagnostic-tool that is field-deployable, portable, sensitive, specific and rapid. In this chapter, we highlight various CRISPR-based diagnostic platforms, its applications, challenges and future prospects of the CRISPR-Cas system.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Rodríguez TC, Dadafarin S, Pratt HE, et al (2021)

Genome-wide detection and analysis of CRISPR-Cas off-targets.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 181:31-43.

The clustered, regularly interspersed, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) technology is revolutionizing biological studies and holds tremendous promise for treating human diseases. However, a significant limitation of this technology is that modifications can occur on off-target sites lacking perfect complementarity to the single guide RNA (sgRNA) or canonical protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sequence. Several in vivo and in vitro genome-wide off-target profiling approaches have been developed to inform on the fidelity of gene editing. Of these, GUIDE-seq has become one of the most widely adopted and reproducible methods. To allow users to easily analyze GUIDE-seq data generated on any sequencing platform, we developed an open-source pipeline, GS-Preprocess, that takes standard base-call output in bcl format and generate all required input data for off-target identification using bioconductor package GUIDEseq for off-target identification. Furthermore, we created a Docker image with GS-Proprocess, GUIDE-seq, and all its R and system dependencies already installed. The bundled pipeline will empower end users to streamline the analysis of GUIDE-seq data and motivate their use of higher throughput sequencing with increased multiplexing for GUIDE-seq experiments.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Mani I (2021)

Genome editing in cardiovascular diseases.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 181:289-308.

Genetic modification at the molecular level in somatic cells, germline, and animal models requires for different purposes, such as introducing desired mutation, deletion of alleles, and insertion of novel genes in the genome. Various genome-editing tools are available to accomplish these alterations, such as zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated (Cas) system. CRISPR-Cas system is an emerging technology, which is being used in biological and medical sciences, including in the cardiovascular field. It assists to identify the mechanism of various cardiovascular disease occurrence, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (ACM). Furthermore, it has been advantages to edit various genes simultaneously and can also be used to treat and prevent several human diseases. This chapter explores the use of the scientific and therapeutic potential of a CRISPR-Cas system to edit the various cardiovascular disease-associated genes to understand the pathways involved in disease progression and treatment.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Bayarsaikhan D, Bayarsaikhan G, B Lee (2021)

Recent advances in stem cells and gene editing: Drug discovery and therapeutics.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 181:231-269.

The recently introduced genome editing technology has had a remarkable impact on genetic medicine. Zinc finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas nucleases are the three major platforms used for priming of stem cells or correction of mutated genes. Among these nucleases, CRISPR/Cas is the most easily applicable. Various CRISPR/Cas variants such as base editors, prime editors, mad7 nucleases, RESCUE, REPAIR, digenome sequencing, and SHERLOCK are being developed and considered as a promising tool for gene therapy and drug discovery. These advances in the CRISPR/Cas platform have enabled the correction of gene mutations from DNA to RNA level and validation of the safety of genome editing performance at a very precise level by allowing the detection of one base-pair mismatch. These promising alternatives of the CRISPR/Cas system can benefit millions of patients with intractable diseases. Although the therapeutic effects of stem cells have been confirmed in a wide range of disease models, their safety still remains an issue. Hence, scientists are concentrating on generating functionally improved stem cells by using programmable nucleases such as CRISPR. Therefore, in this chapter, we have summarized the applicable options of the CRISPR/Cas platforms by weighing their advantages and limitations in drug discovery and gene therapy.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Mani I, Arazoe T, V Singh (2021)

CRISPR-Cas systems for genome editing of mammalian cells.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 181:15-30.

In the past decade, ZFNs and TALENs have been used for targeted genome engineering and have gained scientific attention. It has demonstrated huge potential for gene knockout, knock-in, and indels in desired locations of genomes to understand molecular mechanism of diseases and also discover therapy. However, both the genome engineering techniques are still suffering from design, screening and validation in cell and higher organisms. CRISPR-Cas9 is a rapid, simple, specific, and versatile technology and it has been applied in many organisms including mammalian cells. CRISPR-Cas9 has been used for animal models to modify animal cells for understanding human disease for novel drug discovery and therapy. Additionally, base editing has also been discussed herewith for conversion of C/G-to-T/A or A/T-to-G/C without DNA cleavage or donor DNA templates for correcting mutations or altering gene functions. In this chapter, we highlight CRISPR-Cas9 and base editing for desired genome editing in mammalian cells for a better understanding of molecular mechanisms, and biotechnological and therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Singh V (2021)

An introduction to CRISPR-Cas systems for reprogramming the genome of mammalian cells.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 181:1-13.

In the past few decades, it has been possible to introduce unprecedented mutations in genes of the mammalian cells owing to the development of advanced technologies/methods/assays. Sometimes, these mutations occurring at the cellular level may even cost the life of organisms. A number of diseases in mammals have shown to leave some serious impact on their lives. There are no drugs or medicines available in market for the correction or repair of these mutated genes in order to reverse gene function. A pressing need therefore arises to develop a next generation technology that cannot just corrects gene mutations but also restores gene function. Recent advances in CRISPR-Cas9 technology play a key role for correction of defective genes in wide range of mammalian cells. This chapter highlights CRISPR-Cas systems for basic, biomedical, biotechnological and therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2021-06-14

Backes N, GJ Phillips (2021)

Repurposing CRISPR-Cas Systems as Genetic Tools for the Enterobacteriales.

EcoSal Plus [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last decade, the study of CRISPR-Cas systems has progressed from a newly discovered bacterial defense mechanism to a diverse suite of genetic tools that have been applied across all domains of life. While the initial applications of CRISPR-Cas technology fulfilled a need to more precisely edit eukaryotic genomes, creative "repurposing" of this adaptive immune system has led to new approaches for genetic analysis of microorganisms, including improved gene editing, conditional gene regulation, plasmid curing and manipulation, and other novel uses. The main objective of this review is to describe the development and current state-of-the-art use of CRISPR-Cas techniques specifically as it is applied to members of the Enterobacteriales. While many of the applications covered have been initially developed in Escherichia coli, we also highlight the potential, along with the limitations, of this technology for expanding the availability of genetic tools in less-well-characterized non-model species, including bacterial pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-06-14

Dovgan T, Golghalyani V, Zurlo F, et al (2021)

Targeted CHO cell engineering approaches can reduce HCP-related enzymatic degradation and improve mAb product quality.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

Host cell proteins (HCP) that co-purify with biologics produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells have been shown to impact product quality through proteolytic degradation of recombinant proteins, leading to potential product losses. Several problematic HCPs can remain in the final product even after extensive purification. Each recombinant cell line has a unique HCP profile that can be determined by numerous upstream and downstream factors, including clonal variation and the protein sequence of the expressed therapeutic molecule. Here, we worked with recombinant cell lines with high levels of copurifying HCPs, and showed that in those cell lines even modest downregulation (≤50%) of the difficult to remove HCP Cathepsin D, through stable shRNA interference or monoallelic deletion of the target gene using CRISPR-Cas 9, is sufficient to greatly reduce levels of co-purifying HCP as measured by high throughput targeted LC-MS. This reduction led to improved product quality by reducing fragmentation of the drug product in forced degradation studies to negligible levels. We also show the potential of cell engineering to target other undesired HCPs and relieve the burden on downstream purification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Ahmar S, Mahmood T, Fiaz S, et al (2021)

Advantage of Nanotechnology-Based Genome Editing System and Its Application in Crop Improvement.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:663849.

Agriculture is an important source of human food. However, current agricultural practices need modernizing and strengthening to fulfill the increasing food requirements of the growing worldwide population. Genome editing (GE) technology has been used to produce plants with improved yields and nutritional value as well as with higher resilience to herbicides, insects, and diseases. Several GE tools have been developed recently, including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) with nucleases, a customizable and successful method. The main steps of the GE process involve introducing transgenes or CRISPR into plants via specific gene delivery systems. However, GE tools have certain limitations, including time-consuming and complicated protocols, potential tissue damage, DNA incorporation in the host genome, and low transformation efficiency. To overcome these issues, nanotechnology has emerged as a groundbreaking and modern technique. Nanoparticle-mediated gene delivery is superior to conventional biomolecular approaches because it enhances the transformation efficiency for both temporal (transient) and permanent (stable) genetic modifications in various plant species. However, with the discoveries of various advanced technologies, certain challenges in developing a short-term breeding strategy in plants remain. Thus, in this review, nanobased delivery systems and plant genetic engineering challenges are discussed in detail. Moreover, we have suggested an effective method to hasten crop improvement programs by combining current technologies, such as speed breeding and CRISPR/Cas, with nanotechnology. The overall aim of this review is to provide a detailed overview of nanotechnology-based CRISPR techniques for plant transformation and suggest applications for possible crop enhancement.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Gonzalez-Avila LU, Vega-López JM, Pelcastre-Rodríguez LI, et al (2021)

The Challenge of CRISPR-Cas Toward Bioethics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:657981.

Since determining the structure of the DNA double helix, the study of genes and genomes has revolutionized contemporary science; with the decoding of the human genome, new findings have been achieved, including the ability that humans have developed to modify genetic sequences in vitro. The discovery of gene modification mechanisms, such as the CRISPR-Cas system (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) and Cas (CRISPR associated). Derived from the latest discoveries in genetics, the idea that science has no limits has exploded. However, improvements in genetic engineering allowed access to new possibilities to save lives or generate new treatment options for diseases that are not treatable by using genes and their modification in the genome. With this greater knowledge, the immediate question is who governs the limits of genetic science? The first answer would be the intervention of a legislative branch, with adequate scientific advice, from which the logical answer, bioethics, should result. This term was introduced for the first time by Van Rensselaer Potter, who in 1970 combined the Greek words bios and ethos, Bio-Ethik, which determined the study of the morality of human behavior in science. The approach to this term was introduced to avoid the natural tension that results from the scientific technical development and the ethics of limits. Therefore, associating the use of biotechnology through the CRISPR-Cas system and the regulation through bioethics, aims to monitor the use of techniques and technology, with benefits for humanity, without altering fundamental rights, acting with moral and ethical principles.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Duarte F, N Déglon (2021)

Corrigendum: Genome Editing for CNS Disorders.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:698879.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2020.579062.].

RevDate: 2021-06-14

Lin Q, Zhu Z, Liu G, et al (2021)

Genome editing in plants with MAD7 nuclease.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(21)00095-3 [Epub ahead of print].

MAD7 is an engineered nuclease of the Class 2 type V-A CRISPR-Cas (Cas12a/Cpf1) family with a low level of homology to canonical Cas12a nucleases. It has been publicly released as a royalty-free nuclease for both academic and commercial use. Here, we demonstrate that the CRISPR-MAD7 system can be used for genome editing and recognizes T-rich PAM sequences (YTTN) in plants. Its editing efficiency in rice and wheat is comparable to that of the widely used CRISPR-LbCas12a system. We developed two variants, MAD7-RR and MAD7-RVR, that increase the target range of MAD7, as well as an M-AFID (a MAD7-APOBEC fusion-induced deletion) system that creates predictable deletions from 5'-deaminated Cs to the MAD7-cleavage site. Moreover, we show that MAD7 can be used for multiplex gene editing and that it is effective in generating indels when combined with other CRISPR RNA orthologs. Using the CRISPR-MAD7 system, we have obtained regenerated mutant rice and wheat plants with up to 65.6% efficiency.

RevDate: 2021-06-14

Jia YL, Wang LR, Zhang ZX, et al (2021)

Recent advances in biotechnological production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by Yarrowia lipolytica.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Owing to the important physiological functions, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a vital role in protecting human health, such as preventing cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Specifically, Yarrowia lipolytica has been identified as the most popular non-conventional oleaginous yeast, which can accumulate the abundant intracellular lipids, indicating that has great potential as an industrial host for production of PUFAs. Notably, some novel engineering strategies have been applied to endow and improve the abilities of Y. lipolytica to synthesize PUFAs, including construction and optimization of PUFAs biosynthetic pathways, improvement of preucrsors acetyl-coA and NADPH supply, inhibition of competing pathways, knockout of β-oxidation pathways, regulation of oxidative stress defense pathways, and regulation of genes involved in upstream lipid metabolism. Besides, some bypass approaches, such as strain mating, evolutionary engineering, and computational model based on omics, also have been proposed to improve the performance of engineering strains. Generally, in this review, we summarized the recent advances in engineering strategies and bypass approaches for improving PUFAs production by Y. lipolytica. In addition, we further summarized the latest efforts of CRISPR/Cas genome editing technology in Y. lipolytica, which is aimed to provide its potential applications in PUFAs production.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Frangoul H, Ho TW, S Corbacioglu (2021)

CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing for Sickle Cell Disease and β-Thalassemia. Reply.

The New England journal of medicine, 384(23):e91.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Mehta J (2021)

CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing for Sickle Cell Disease and β-Thalassemia.

The New England journal of medicine, 384(23):e91.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Meisel R (2021)

CRISPR-Cas9 Gene Editing for Sickle Cell Disease and β-Thalassemia.

The New England journal of medicine, 384(23):e91.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Dai M, Yan G, Wang N, et al (2021)

In vivo genome-wide CRISPR screen reveals breast cancer vulnerabilities and synergistic mTOR/Hippo targeted combination therapy.

Nature communications, 12(1):3055.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients exhibit poor survival outcomes and lack effective targeted therapies. Using unbiased in vivo genome-wide CRISPR screening, we interrogated cancer vulnerabilities in TNBC and identified an interplay between oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways. This study reveals tumor regulatory functions for essential components of the mTOR and Hippo pathways in TNBC. Using in vitro drug matrix synergy models and in vivo patient-derived xenografts, we further establish the therapeutic relevance of our findings and show that pharmacological inhibition of mTORC1/2 and oncoprotein YAP efficiently reduces tumorigenesis in TNBC. At the molecular level, we find that while verteporfin-induced YAP inhibition leads to apoptosis, torin1-mediated mTORC1/2 inhibition promotes macropinocytosis. Torin1-induced macropinocytosis further facilitates verteporfin uptake, thereby greatly enhancing its pro-apoptotic effects in cancer cells. Overall, our study underscores the power and robustness of in vivo CRISPR genome-wide screens in identifying clinically relevant and innovative therapeutic modalities in cancer.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Wang X, Fu Y, Beatty WL, et al (2021)

Cryo-EM structure of cortical microtubules from human parasite Toxoplasma gondii identifies their microtubule inner proteins.

Nature communications, 12(1):3065.

In living cells, microtubules (MTs) play pleiotropic roles, which require very different mechanical properties. Unlike the dynamic MTs found in the cytoplasm of metazoan cells, the specialized cortical MTs from Toxoplasma gondii, a prevalent human pathogen, are extraordinarily stable and resistant to detergent and cold treatments. Using single-particle cryo-EM, we determine their ex vivo structure and identify three proteins (TrxL1, TrxL2 and SPM1) as bona fide microtubule inner proteins (MIPs). These three MIPs form a mesh on the luminal surface and simultaneously stabilize the tubulin lattice in both longitudinal and lateral directions. Consistent with previous observations, deletion of the identified MIPs compromises MT stability and integrity under challenges by chemical treatments. We also visualize a small molecule like density at the Taxol-binding site of β-tubulin. Our results provide the structural basis to understand the stability of cortical MTs and suggest an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of MT stabilization from the inside.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Müller I, Moroni AS, Shlyueva D, et al (2021)

MPP8 is essential for sustaining self-renewal of ground-state pluripotent stem cells.

Nature communications, 12(1):3034.

Deciphering the mechanisms that control the pluripotent ground state is key for understanding embryonic development. Nonetheless, the epigenetic regulation of ground-state mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) is not fully understood. Here, we identify the epigenetic protein MPP8 as being essential for ground-state pluripotency. Its depletion leads to cell cycle arrest and spontaneous differentiation. MPP8 has been suggested to repress LINE1 elements by recruiting the human silencing hub (HUSH) complex to H3K9me3-rich regions. Unexpectedly, we find that LINE1 elements are efficiently repressed by MPP8 lacking the chromodomain, while the unannotated C-terminus is essential for its function. Moreover, we show that SETDB1 recruits MPP8 to its genomic target loci, whereas transcriptional repression of LINE1 elements is maintained without retaining H3K9me3 levels. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that MPP8 protects the DNA-hypomethylated pluripotent ground state through its association with the HUSH core complex, however, independently of detectable chromatin binding and maintenance of H3K9me3.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Amit I, Iancu O, Levy-Jurgenson A, et al (2021)

CRISPECTOR provides accurate estimation of genome editing translocation and off-target activity from comparative NGS data.

Nature communications, 12(1):3042.

Controlling off-target editing activity is one of the central challenges in making CRISPR technology accurate and applicable in medical practice. Current algorithms for analyzing off-target activity do not provide statistical quantification, are not sufficiently sensitive in separating signal from noise in experiments with low editing rates, and do not address the detection of translocations. Here we present CRISPECTOR, a software tool that supports the detection and quantification of on- and off-target genome-editing activity from NGS data using paired treatment/control CRISPR experiments. In particular, CRISPECTOR facilitates the statistical analysis of NGS data from multiplex-PCR comparative experiments to detect and quantify adverse translocation events. We validate the observed results and show independent evidence of the occurrence of translocations in human cell lines, after genome editing. Our methodology is based on a statistical model comparison approach leading to better false-negative rates in sites with weak yet significant off-target activity.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Klitzman R (2021)

Preparing for the Next Generation of Ethical Challenges Concerning Heritable Human Genome Editing.

The American journal of bioethics : AJOB, 21(6):1-4.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Vinjamur DS, Yao Q, Cole MA, et al (2021)

ZNF410 represses fetal globin by singular control of CHD4.

Nature genetics, 53(5):719-728.

Known fetal hemoglobin (HbF) silencers have potential on-target liabilities for rational β-hemoglobinopathy therapeutic inhibition. Here, through transcription factor (TF) CRISPR screening, we identify zinc-finger protein (ZNF) 410 as an HbF repressor. ZNF410 does not bind directly to the genes encoding γ-globins, but rather its chromatin occupancy is concentrated solely at CHD4, encoding the NuRD nucleosome remodeler, which is itself required for HbF repression. CHD4 has two ZNF410-bound regulatory elements with 27 combined ZNF410 binding motifs constituting unparalleled genomic clusters. These elements completely account for the effects of ZNF410 on fetal globin repression. Knockout of ZNF410 or its mouse homolog Zfp410 reduces CHD4 levels by 60%, enough to substantially de-repress HbF while eluding cellular or organismal toxicity. These studies suggest a potential target for HbF induction for β-hemoglobin disorders with a wide therapeutic index. More broadly, ZNF410 represents a special class of gene regulator, a conserved TF with singular devotion to regulation of a chromatin subcomplex.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Inoue D, Polaski JT, Taylor J, et al (2021)

Minor intron retention drives clonal hematopoietic disorders and diverse cancer predisposition.

Nature genetics, 53(5):707-718.

Most eukaryotes harbor two distinct pre-mRNA splicing machineries: the major spliceosome, which removes >99% of introns, and the minor spliceosome, which removes rare, evolutionarily conserved introns. Although hypothesized to serve important regulatory functions, physiologic roles of the minor spliceosome are not well understood. For example, the minor spliceosome component ZRSR2 is subject to recurrent, leukemia-associated mutations, yet functional connections among minor introns, hematopoiesis and cancers are unclear. Here, we identify that impaired minor intron excision via ZRSR2 loss enhances hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. CRISPR screens mimicking nonsense-mediated decay of minor intron-containing mRNA species converged on LZTR1, a regulator of RAS-related GTPases. LZTR1 minor intron retention was also discovered in the RASopathy Noonan syndrome, due to intronic mutations disrupting splicing and diverse solid tumors. These data uncover minor intron recognition as a regulator of hematopoiesis, noncoding mutations within minor introns as potential cancer drivers and links among ZRSR2 mutations, LZTR1 regulation and leukemias.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Chen SP, Liu ZX, Chen YT, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of LW-opsin reduces the efficiency of phototaxis in the diamondback moth Plutella xylostella.

Pest management science, 77(7):3519-3528.

BACKGROUND: Opsins are crucial for animal vision. The identity and function of opsins in Plutella xylostella remain unknown. The aim of the research is to confirm which opsin gene(s) contribute to phototaxis of P. xylostella.

RESULTS: LW-opsin, BL-opsin and UV-opsin, were identified in the P. xylostella genome. LW-opsin was more highly expressed than the other two opsin genes, and all three genes were specifically expressed in the head. Three P. xylostella strains, LW-13 with a 13-bp deletion in LW-opsin, BL + 2 with a 2-bp insertion in BL-opsin, and UV-29 with a 5-bp insertion and a 34-bp deletion in UV-opsin, were established from the strain G88 using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among the three opsin-knockout strains, only male and female LW-13 exhibited weaker phototaxis to lights of different wavelengths and white light than G88 at 2.5 lx due to defective locomotion, and LW-13 was defective to sense white, green and infrared lights. The locomotion of LW-13 was reduced compared with G88 at 2.5, 10, 20, 60, 80, 100, and 200 lx under the green light, but the locomotion of LW-13 female was recovered at 80, 100 and 200 lx. The defective phototaxis to the green light of male LW-13 was not affected by light intensity, while the defective phototaxis to the green light of female LW-13 was recovered at 10, 20, 60, 80, 100, and 200 lx.

CONCLUSION: LW-opsin is involved in light sensing and locomotion of P. xylostella, providing a potential target gene for controlling the pest. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Gu Z, Liu Y, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Silencing of LINE-1 retrotransposons is a selective dependency of myeloid leukemia.

Nature genetics, 53(5):672-682.

Transposable elements or transposons are major players in genetic variability and genome evolution. Aberrant activation of long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1 or L1) retrotransposons is common in human cancers, yet their tumor-type-specific functions are poorly characterized. We identified MPHOSPH8/MPP8, a component of the human silencing hub (HUSH) complex, as an acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-selective dependency by epigenetic regulator-focused CRISPR screening. Although MPP8 is dispensable for steady-state hematopoiesis, MPP8 loss inhibits AML development by reactivating L1s to induce the DNA damage response and cell cycle exit. Activation of endogenous or ectopic L1s mimics the phenotype of MPP8 loss, whereas blocking retrotransposition abrogates MPP8-deficiency-induced phenotypes. Expression of AML oncogenic mutations promotes L1 suppression, and enhanced L1 silencing is associated with poor prognosis in human AML. Hence, while retrotransposons are commonly recognized for their cancer-promoting functions, we describe a tumor-suppressive role for L1 retrotransposons in myeloid leukemia.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Yuan S, Kawasaki S, Abdellatif IMY, et al (2021)

Efficient base editing in tomato using a highly expressed transient system.

Plant cell reports, 40(4):667-676.

KEY MESSAGE: Base editing in tomatoes was achieved by transient expression. The Solanaceae plants, particularly the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), is of huge economic value worldwide. The tomato is a unique model plant for studying the functions of genes related to fruit ripening. Deeper understanding of tomatoes is of great importance for both plant research and the economy. Genome editing technology, such as CRISPR/Cas9, has been used for functional genetic research. However, some challenges, such as low transformation efficiency, remain with this technology. Moreover, the foreign Cas9 and gRNA expression cassettes must be removed to obtain null-segregants In this study, we used a high-level transient expression system to improve the base editing technology. A high-level transient expression system has been established previously using geminiviral replication and a double terminator. The pBYR2HS vector was used for this transient expression system. nCas9-CDA and sgRNA-SlHWS were introduced into this vector, and the protein and RNA were then transiently expressed in tomato tissues by agroinfiltration. The homozygous mutant produced by base editing was obtained in the next generation with an efficiency of about 18%. nCas9-free next-generation plants were 71%. All the homozygous base-edited plants in next generation are nCas9-free. These findings show that the high-level transient expression system is useful for base editing in tomatoes.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Wijshake T, Zou Z, Chen B, et al (2021)

Tumor-suppressor function of Beclin 1 in breast cancer cells requires E-cadherin.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(5):.

Beclin 1, an autophagy and haploinsufficient tumor-suppressor protein, is frequently monoallelically deleted in breast and ovarian cancers. However, the precise mechanisms by which Beclin 1 inhibits tumor growth remain largely unknown. To address this question, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen in MCF7 breast cancer cells to identify genes whose loss of function reverse Beclin 1-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation. Small guide RNAs targeting CDH1 and CTNNA1, tumor-suppressor genes that encode cadherin/catenin complex members E-cadherin and alpha-catenin, respectively, were highly enriched in the screen. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of CDH1 or CTNNA1 reversed Beclin 1-dependent suppression of breast cancer cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Moreover, deletion of CDH1 or CTNNA1 inhibited the tumor-suppressor effects of Beclin 1 in breast cancer xenografts. Enforced Beclin 1 expression in MCF7 cells and tumor xenografts increased cell surface localization of E-cadherin and decreased expression of mesenchymal markers and beta-catenin/Wnt target genes. Furthermore, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of BECN1 and the autophagy class III phosphatidylinositol kinase complex 2 (PI3KC3-C2) gene, UVRAG, but not PI3KC3-C1-specific ATG14 or other autophagy genes ATG13, ATG5, or ATG7, resulted in decreased E-cadherin plasma membrane and increased cytoplasmic E-cadherin localization. Taken together, these data reveal previously unrecognized cooperation between Beclin 1 and E-cadherin-mediated tumor suppression in breast cancer cells.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Yarra R, L Sahoo (2021)

Base editing in rice: current progress, advances, limitations, and future perspectives.

Plant cell reports, 40(4):595-604.

KEY MESSAGE: Base editing is one of the promising genome editing tools for generating single-nucleotide changes in rice genome. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important staple food crop, feeding half of the population around the globe. Developing new rice varieties with desirable agronomic traits is necessary for sustaining global food security. The use of genome editing technologies for developing rice varieties is pre-requisite in the present scenario. Among the genome editing technologies developed for rice crop improvement, base editing technology has emerged as an efficient and reliable tool for precise genome editing in rice plants. Base editing technology utilizes either adenosine or cytidine base editor for precise editing at the target region. A base editor (adenosine or cytidine) is a fusion of catalytically inactive CRISPR/Cas9 domain and adenosine or cytidine deaminase domain. In this review, authors have discussed the different adenine and cytosine base editors developed so far for precise genome editing of rice via base editing technology. We address the current progress, advances, limitations, as well as future perspectives of the base editing technology for rice crop improvement.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Khaled M, Moustafa AS, El-Khazragy N, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9 mediated knock-out of VPREB1 gene induces a cytotoxic effect in myeloma cells.

PloS one, 16(1):e0245349.

BACKGROUND: Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a heterogeneous, hematological neoplasm that accounts 2% of all cancers. Although, autologous stem cell transplantation and chemotherapy are currently the most effective therapy, it carries a notable hazards, in addition for being non curative. Recently, the Clustered Regular Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR-cas9) has been successfully tried at the experimental level, for the treatment of several hematological malignancies.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the in-vitro effect of CRISPR-cas9-mediated knock-out of V-set pre B-cell surrogate light chain 1"VPREB1" gene on the malignant proliferation of primary cultured myeloma cells.

METHODS: Bioinformatics' analysis was performed to explore the gene expression profile of MM, and the VPREB1 gene was selected as a target gene for this study. We knocked-out the VPREB1 gene in primary cultured myeloma cells using CRISPR-cas9, the VPREB1 gene editing efficacy was verified by determining VPREB1 gene expression at both the mRNA and protein levels by qPCR and immunofluorescence, respectively. Furthermore, the cytotoxic effect on primary myeloma cells proliferation was evaluated using cytotoxicity assay.

RESULTS: There was a statistically significant reduction of both VPREB1 mRNA and protein expression levels (p<0.01). knock-out of VPREB1 gene in myeloma cell line resulted in a statistically significant reduction of myeloma cell proliferation.

CONCLUSION: CRISPR-cas9-mediated knock-out of VPREB1 gene is effective for inhibiting the proliferation of primary myeloma cells. This would provide a basis for a promising therapeutic strategy for patients with multiple myeloma.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

You H, Mayer JU, Johnston RL, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of Schistosoma mansoni acetylcholinesterase.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(1):e21205.

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing shows cogent potential for the genetic modification of helminth parasites. We report successful gene knock-in (KI) into the genome of the egg of Schistosoma mansoni by combining CRISPR/Cas9 with single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). We edited the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene of S. mansoni targeting two guide RNAs (gRNAs), X5 and X7, located on exon 5 and exon 7 of Smp_154600, respectively. Eggs recovered from livers of experimentally infected mice were transfected by electroporation with a CRISPR/Cas9-vector encoding gRNA X5 or X7 combining with/ without a ssODN donor. Next generation sequencing analysis of reads of amplicon libraries spanning targeted regions revealed that the major modifications induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in the eggs were generated by homology directed repair (HDR). Furthermore, soluble egg antigen from AChE-edited eggs exhibited markedly reduced AChE activity, indicative that programed Cas9 cleavage mutated the AChE gene. Following injection of AChE-edited schistosome eggs into the tail veins of mice, an significantly enhanced Th2 response involving IL-4, -5, -10, and-13 was detected in lung cells and splenocytes in mice injected with X5-KI eggs in comparison to control mice injected with unmutated eggs. A Th2-predominant response, with increased levels of IL-4, -13, and GATA3, also was induced by X5 KI eggs in small intestine-draining mesenteric lymph node cells when the gene-edited eggs were introduced into the subserosa of the ileum of the mice. These findings confirmed the potential and the utility of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing for functional genomics in schistosomes.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Wu W, Xia X, Tang L, et al (2021)

Normal vitreous promotes angiogenesis via activation of Axl.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(1):e21152.

Vitreous has been reported to prevent tumor angiogenesis, but our previous findings indicate that vitreous activate the signaling pathway of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, which plays a critical role in angiogenesis. The goal of this research is to determine which role of vitreous plays in angiogenesis-related cellular responses in vitro. We found that in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) vitreous activates a number of receptor tyrosine kinases including Anexelekto (Axl), which plays an important role in angiogenesis. Subsequently, we discovered that depletion of Axl using CRISPR/Cas9 and an Axl-specific inhibitor R428 suppress vitreous-induced Akt activation and cell proliferation, migration, and tuber formation of HRECs. Therefore, this line of research not only demonstrate that vitreous promotes angiogenesis in vitro, but also reveal that Axl is one of receptor tyrosine kinases to mediate vitreous-induced angiogenesis in vitro, thereby providing a molecular basis for removal of vitreous as cleanly as possible when vitrectomy is performed in treating patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Tanihara F, Hirata M, Nguyen NT, et al (2020)

Efficient generation of GGTA1-deficient pigs by electroporation of the CRISPR/Cas9 system into in vitro-fertilized zygotes.

BMC biotechnology, 20(1):40.

BACKGROUND: Xenoantigens are a major source of concern with regard to the success of interspecific xenografts. GGTA1 encodes α1,3-galactosyltransferase, which is essential for the biosynthesis of galactosyl-alpha 1,3-galactose, the major xenoantigen causing hyperacute rejection. GGTA1-modified pigs, therefore, are promising donors for pig-to-human xenotransplantation. In this study, we developed a method for the introduction of the CRISPR/Cas9 system into in vitro-fertilized porcine zygotes via electroporation to generate GGTA1-modified pigs.

RESULTS: We designed five guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting distinct sites in GGTA1. After the introduction of the Cas9 protein with each gRNA via electroporation, the gene editing efficiency in blastocysts developed from zygotes was evaluated. The gRNA with the highest gene editing efficiency was used to generate GGTA1-edited pigs. Six piglets were delivered from two recipient gilts after the transfer of electroporated zygotes with the Cas9/gRNA complex. Deep sequencing analysis revealed that five out of six piglets carried a biallelic mutation in the targeted region of GGTA1, with no off-target events. Furthermore, staining with isolectin B4 confirmed deficient GGTA1 function in GGTA1 biallelic mutant piglets.

CONCLUSIONS: We established GGTA1-modified pigs with high efficiency by introducing a CRISPR/Cas9 system into zygotes via electroporation. Multiple gene modifications, including knock-ins of human genes, in porcine zygotes via electroporation may further improve the application of the technique in pig-to-human xenotransplantation.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Li J, Wang Z, He G, et al (2020)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of TaNP1 genes results in complete male sterility in bread wheat.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao, 47(5):263-272.

Male sterile genes and mutants are valuable resources in hybrid seed production for monoclinous crops. High genetic redundancy due to allohexaploidy makes it difficult to obtain the nuclear recessive male sterile mutants through spontaneous mutation or chemical or physical mutagenesis methods in wheat. The emerging effective genome editing tool, CRISPR/Cas9 system, makes it possible to achieve simultaneous mutagenesis in multiple homoeoalleles. To improve the genome modification efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in wheat, we compared four different RNA polymerase (Pol) III promoters (TaU3p, TaU6p, OsU3p, and OsU6p) and three types of sgRNA scaffold in the protoplast system. We show that the TaU3 promoter-driven optimized sgRNA scaffold was most effective. The optimized CRISPR/Cas9 system was used to edit three TaNP1 homoeoalleles, whose orthologs, OsNP1 in rice and ZmIPE1 in maize, encode a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase and are required for male sterility. Triple homozygous mutations in TaNP1 genes result in complete male sterility. We further demonstrated that any one wild-type copy of the three TaNP1 genes is sufficient for maintenance of male fertility. Taken together, this study provides an optimized CRISPR/Cas9 vector for wheat genome editing and a complete male sterile mutant for development of a commercially viable hybrid wheat seed production system.

RevDate: 2021-06-15
CmpDate: 2021-06-15

Biswas S, Tian J, Li R, et al (2020)

Investigation of CRISPR/Cas9-induced SD1 rice mutants highlights the importance of molecular characterization in plant molecular breeding.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao, 47(5):273-280.

Although Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system has been widely used for basic research in model plants, its application for applied breeding in crops has faced strong regulatory obstacles, due mainly to a poor understanding of the authentic output of this system, particularly in higher generations. In this study, different from any previous studies, we investigated in detail the molecular characteristics and production performance of CRISPR/Cas9-generated SD1 (semi-dwarf 1) mutants from T2 to T4 generations, of which the selection of T1 and T2 was done only by visual phenotyping for semidwarf plants. Our data revealed not only on- and off-target mutations with small or lager indels but also exogenous elements in T2 plants. All indel mutants passed stably to T3 or T4 without additional modifications independent on the presence of Cas9, while some lines displayed unexpected hereditary patterns of Cas9 or some exogenous elements. In addition, effects of various SD1 alleles on rice height and yield differed depending on genetic backgrounds. Taken together, our data showed that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is effective in producing homozygous mutants for functional analysis, but it may be not as precise as expected in rice, and that early and accurate molecular characterization and screening must be carried out for generations before transitioning of the CRISPR/Cas9 system from laboratory to field.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Gratacap RL, Regan T, Dehler CE, et al (2020)

Efficient CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in a salmonid fish cell line using a lentivirus delivery system.

BMC biotechnology, 20(1):35.

BACKGROUND: Genome editing is transforming bioscience research, but its application to non-model organisms, such as farmed animal species, requires optimisation. Salmonids are the most important aquaculture species by value, and improving genetic resistance to infectious disease is a major goal. However, use of genome editing to evaluate putative disease resistance genes in cell lines, and the use of genome-wide CRISPR screens is currently limited by a lack of available tools and techniques.

RESULTS: In the current study, we developed an optimised protocol using lentivirus transduction for efficient integration of constructs into the genome of a Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshwaytcha) cell line (CHSE-214). As proof-of-principle, two target genes were edited with high efficiency in an EGFP-Cas9 stable CHSE cell line; specifically, the exogenous, integrated EGFP and the endogenous RIG-I locus. Finally, the effective use of antibiotic selection to enrich the successfully edited targeted population was demonstrated.

CONCLUSIONS: The optimised lentiviral-mediated CRISPR method reported here increases possibilities for efficient genome editing in salmonid cells, in particular for future applications of genome-wide CRISPR screens for disease resistance.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Bánfalvi Z, Csákvári E, Villányi V, et al (2020)

Generation of transgene-free PDS mutants in potato by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

BMC biotechnology, 20(1):25.

BACKGROUND: Gene editing using the CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a routinely applied method in several plant species. The most convenient gene delivery system is Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer with antibiotic selection and stable genomic integration of transgenes, including Cas9. For elimination of transgenes in the segregating progeny, selfing is applied in many plant species. This approach, however, cannot be widely employed in potato because most of the commercial potato cultivars are self-incompatible.

RESULTS: In this study, the efficiency of a transient Cas9 expression system with positive/negative selection based on codA-nptII fusion was tested. The PHYTOENE DESATURASE (PDS) gene involved in carotenoid biosynthesis was targeted. A new vector designated PROGED::gPDS carrying only the right border of T-DNA was constructed. Using only the positive selection function of PROGED::gPDS and the restriction enzyme site loss method in PCR of genomic DNA after digestion with the appropriate restriction enzyme, it was demonstrated that the new vector is as efficient in gene editing as a traditional binary vector with right- and left-border sequences. Nevertheless, 2 weeks of positive selection followed by negative selection did not result in the isolation of PDS mutants. In contrast, we found that with 3-day positive selection, PDS mutants appear in the regenerating population with a minimum frequency of 2-10%. Interestingly, while large deletions (> 100 bp) were generated by continuous positive selection, the 3-day selection resulted in deletions and substitutions of only a few bp. Two albinos and three chimaeras with white and green leaf areas were found among the PDS mutants, while all the other PDS mutant plants were green. Based on DNA sequence analysis some of the green plants were also chimaeras. Upon vegetative propagation from stem segments in vitro, the phenotype of the plants obtained even by positive selection did not change, suggesting that the expression of Cas9 and gPDS is silenced or that the DNA repair system is highly active during the vegetative growth phase in potato.

CONCLUSIONS: Gene-edited plants can be obtained from potatoes by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with 3-day antibiotic selection with a frequency high enough to identify the mutants in the regenerating plant population using PCR.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Jun S, Lim H, Chun H, et al (2020)

Single-cell analysis of a mutant library generated using CRISPR-guided deaminase in human melanoma cells.

Communications biology, 3(1):154.

CRISPR-based screening methods using single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology enable comprehensive profiling of gene perturbations from knock-out mutations. However, evaluating substitution mutations using scRNA-seq is currently limited. We combined CRISPR RNA-guided deaminase and scRNA-seq technology to develop a platform for introducing mutations in multiple genes and assessing the mutation-associated signatures. Using this platform, we generated a library consisting of 420 sgRNAs, performed sgRNA tracking analysis, and assessed the effect size of the response to vemurafenib in the human melanoma cell line, which has been well-studied via knockout-based drop-out screens. However, a substitution mutation library screen has not been applied and transcriptional information for mechanisms of action was not assessed. Our platform permits discrimination of several candidate mutations that function differently from other mutations by integrating sgRNA candidates and gene expression readout. We anticipate that our platform will enable high-throughput analyses of the mechanisms related to a variety of biological events.

RevDate: 2021-06-14
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Zhou Y, Lin L, Wang H, et al (2020)

Development of a CRISPR/Cas9n-based tool for metabolic engineering of Pseudomonas putida for ferulic acid-to-polyhydroxyalkanoate bioconversion.

Communications biology, 3(1):98.

Ferulic acid is a ubiquitous phenolic compound in lignocellulose, which is recognized for its role in the microbial carbon catabolism and industrial value. However, its recalcitrance and toxicity poses a challenge for ferulic acid-to-bioproducts bioconversion. Here, we develop a genome editing strategy for Pseudomonas putida KT2440 using an integrated CRISPR/Cas9n-λ-Red system with pyrF as a selection marker, which maintains cell viability and genetic stability, increases mutation efficiency, and simplifies genetic manipulation. Via this method, four functional modules, comprised of nine genes involved in ferulic acid catabolism and polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis, were integrated into the genome, generating the KTc9n20 strain. After metabolic engineering and optimization of C/N ratio, polyhydroxyalkanoate production was increased to ~270 mg/L, coupled with ~20 mM ferulic acid consumption. This study not only establishes a simple and efficient genome editing strategy, but also offers an encouraging example of how to apply this method to improve microbial aromatic compound bioconversion.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Vemuri S, Srivastava R, Mir Q, et al (2020)

SliceIt: A genome-wide resource and visualization tool to design CRISPR/Cas9 screens for editing protein-RNA interaction sites in the human genome.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 178:104-113.

Several protein-RNA cross linking protocols have been established in recent years to delineate the molecular interaction of an RNA Binding Protein (RBP) and its target RNAs. However, functional dissection of the role of the RBP binding sites in modulating the post-transcriptional fate of the target RNA remains challenging. CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system is being commonly employed to perturb both coding and noncoding regions in the genome. With the advancements in genome-scale CRISPR/Cas9 screens, it is now possible to not only perturb specific binding sites but also probe the global impact of protein-RNA interaction sites across cell types. Here, we present SliceIt (, a database of in silico sgRNA (single guide RNA) library to facilitate conducting such high throughput screens. SliceIt comprises of ~4.8 million unique sgRNAs with an estimated range of 2-8 sgRNAs designed per RBP binding site, for eCLIP experiments of >100 RBPs in HepG2 and K562 cell lines from the ENCODE project. SliceIt provides a user friendly environment, developed using advanced search engine framework, Elasticsearch. It is available in both table and genome browser views facilitating the easy navigation of RBP binding sites, designed sgRNAs, exon expression levels across 53 human tissues along with prevalence of SNPs and GWAS hits on binding sites. Exon expression profiles enable examination of locus specific changes proximal to the binding sites. Users can also upload custom tracks of various file formats directly onto genome browser, to navigate additional genomic features in the genome and compare with other types of omics profiles. All the binding site-centric information is dynamically accessible via "search by gene", "search by coordinates" and "search by RBP" options and readily available to download. Validation of the sgRNA library in SliceIt was performed by selecting RBP binding sites in Lipt1 gene and designing sgRNAs. Effect of CRISPR/Cas9 perturbations on the selected binding sites in HepG2 cell line, was confirmed based on altered proximal exon expression levels using qPCR, further supporting the utility of the resource to design experiments for perturbing protein-RNA interaction networks. Thus, SliceIt provides a one-stop repertoire of guide RNA library to perturb RBP binding sites, along with several layers of functional information to design both low and high throughput CRISPR/Cas9 screens, for studying the phenotypes and diseases associated with RBP binding sites.

RevDate: 2021-06-11

Usher B, Birkholz N, Beck IN, et al (2021)

Crystal structure of the anti-CRISPR repressor Aca2.

Journal of structural biology pii:S1047-8477(21)00057-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria use adaptive CRISPR-Cas immune mechanisms to protect from invasion by bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements. In response, bacteriophages and mobile genetic elements have co-evolved anti-CRISPR proteins to inhibit the bacterial defense. We and others have previously shown that anti-CRISPR associated (Aca) proteins can regulate this anti-CRISPR counter-attack. Here, we report the first structure of an Aca protein, the Aca2 DNA-binding transcriptional autorepressor from Pectobacterium carotovorum bacteriophage ZF40, determined to 1.34 Å. Aca2 presents a conserved N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain and a previously uncharacterized C-terminal dimerization domain. Dimerization positions the Aca2 recognition helices for insertion into the major grooves of target DNA, supporting its role in regulating anti-CRISPRs. Furthermore, database comparisons identified uncharacterized Aca2 structural homologs in pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that Aca2 represents the first characterized member of a more widespread family of transcriptional regulators.

RevDate: 2021-06-11

Yan J, Kang DD, Y Dong (2021)

Harnessing lipid nanoparticles for efficient CRISPR delivery.

Biomaterials science [Epub ahead of print].

The CRISPR-Cas system has revolutionized the biomedical research field with its simple and flexible genome editing method. In October 2020, Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer A. Doudna were awarded the 2020 Nobel Prize in chemistry in recognition of their outstanding contributions to the discovery of CRISPR-Cas9 genetic scissors, which allow scientists to alter DNA sequences with high precision. Recently, the first phase I clinical trials in cancer patients affirmed the safety and feasibility of ex vivo CRISPR-edited T cells. However, specific and effective CRISPR delivery in vivo remains challenging due to the multiple extracellular and intracellular barriers. Here, we discuss the recent advances in novel lipid nanomaterials for CRISPR delivery and describe relevant examples of potential therapeutics in cancers, genetic disorders, and infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Wu H, Chen Y, Yang Q, et al (2021)

A reversible valve-assisted chip coupling with integrated sample treatment and CRISPR/Cas12a for visual detection of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 188:113352.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is regarded as a major cause of seafood-associated illnesses, which has aroused widespread public concern. Here, a rapid and convenient detection method for V. parahaemolyticus detection was established by a reversible valve-assisted chip coupling with CRISPR/Cas12a. With optimized lysis buffer, loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reagents and CRISPR reagents, the whole detection process from sampling to results could be finished within 50 min. The structure of chip was simple and the cost was low. By relying on three reversible rotary valves and the rotation direction-dependent Coriolis pseudo force, the flow order of liquid and the direction of liquid flow could be precisely controlled. The LAMP amplicons were specifically and sensitively identified by CRISPR/Cas12a. Positive amplification would produce green fluorescent signal while negative amplification generated no fluorescent signal, which could be clearly distinguished by the naked eye. With 600 μL of samples processed, the limit of detection (LOD) for both pure cultured V. parahaemolyticus or spiked shrimp samples could achieve 30 copies/reaction. These illustrated the established method displayed great feasibility for real samples detection. In the future, the chip could also combine with other amplification reactions, like PCR or recombinase polymerase amplification reaction (RPA), to conduct detection by changing the corresponding lyophilized amplification reagents. Overall, the proposed detection platform displays great potential for food safety analysis and clinical diagnostics, especially in resource-limited areas.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Caron P, Pobega E, SE Polo (2021)

A molecular Rosetta Stone to decipher the impact of chromatin features on the repair of Cas9-mediated DNA double-strand breaks.

Molecular cell, 81(10):2059-2060.

Using a barcoded reporter introduced within a thousand different chromatin locations in human cells, (Schep et al., 2021) characterize repair outcomes of Cas9-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and the relative use of DSB repair pathways depending on the local chromatin context.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Ten Hacken E, Clement K, Li S, et al (2020)

High throughput single-cell detection of multiplex CRISPR-edited gene modifications.

Genome biology, 21(1):266.

CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has transformed our ability to rapidly interrogate the functional impact of somatic mutations in human cancers. Droplet-based technology enables the analysis of Cas9-introduced gene edits in thousands of single cells. Using this technology, we analyze Ba/F3 cells engineered to express single or multiplexed loss-of-function mutations recurrent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Our approach reliably quantifies mutational co-occurrences, zygosity status, and the occurrence of Cas9 edits at single-cell resolution.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Dede M, McLaughlin M, Kim E, et al (2020)

Multiplex enCas12a screens detect functional buffering among paralogs otherwise masked in monogenic Cas9 knockout screens.

Genome biology, 21(1):262.

BACKGROUND: Pooled library CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screening across hundreds of cell lines has identified genes whose disruption leads to fitness defects, a critical step in identifying candidate cancer targets. However, the number of essential genes detected from these monogenic knockout screens is low compared to the number of constitutively expressed genes in a cell.

RESULTS: Through a systematic analysis of screen data in cancer cell lines generated by the Cancer Dependency Map, we observe that half of all constitutively expressed genes are never detected in any CRISPR screen and that these never-essentials are highly enriched for paralogs. We investigated functional buffering among approximately 400 candidate paralog pairs using CRISPR/enCas12a dual-gene knockout screening in three cell lines. We observe 24 synthetic lethal paralog pairs that have escaped detection by monogenic knockout screens at stringent thresholds. Nineteen of 24 (79%) synthetic lethal interactions are present in at least two out of three cell lines and 14 of 24 (58%) are present in all three cell lines tested, including alternate subunits of stable protein complexes as well as functionally redundant enzymes.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, these observations strongly suggest that functionally redundant paralogs represent a targetable set of genetic dependencies that are systematically under-represented among cell-essential genes in monogenic CRISPR-based loss of function screens.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Sun H, Zhi S, Wu G, et al (2020)

Cost-effective generation of A-to-G mutant mice by zygote electroporation of adenine base editor ribonucleoproteins.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao, 47(6):337-340.

RevDate: 2021-06-10

Zhang B, Luo D, Li Y, et al (2021)

Mechanistic insights into the R-loop formation and cleavage in CRISPR-Cas12i1.

Nature communications, 12(1):3476.

Cas12i is a newly identified member of the functionally diverse type V CRISPR-Cas effectors. Although Cas12i has the potential to serve as genome-editing tool, its structural and functional characteristics need to be investigated in more detail before effective application. Here we report the crystal structures of the Cas12i1 R-loop complexes before and after target DNA cleavage to elucidate the mechanisms underlying target DNA duplex unwinding, R-loop formation and cis cleavage. The structure of the R-loop complex after target DNA cleavage also provides information regarding trans cleavage. Besides, we report a crystal structure of the Cas12i1 binary complex interacting with a pseudo target oligonucleotide, which mimics target interrogation. Upon target DNA duplex binding, the Cas12i1 PAM-interacting cleft undergoes a remarkable open-to-closed adjustment. Notably, a zipper motif in the Helical-I domain facilitates unzipping of the target DNA duplex. Formation of the 19-bp crRNA-target DNA strand heteroduplex in the R-loop complexes triggers a conformational rearrangement and unleashes the DNase activity. This study provides valuable insights for developing Cas12i1 into a reliable genome-editing tool.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Chon C, Chon G, Matsui Y, et al (2021)

Efficient multiplexed genome engineering with a polycistronic tRNA and CRISPR guide-RNA reveals an important role of detonator in reproduction of Drosophila melanogaster.

PloS one, 16(1):e0245454.

Genome association studies in human and genetic studies in mouse implicated members of the transmembrane protein 132 (TMEM132) family in multiple conditions including panic disorder, hearing loss, limb and kidney malformation. However, the presence of five TMEM132 paralogs in mammalian genomes makes it extremely challenging to reveal the full requirement for these proteins in vivo. In contrast, there is only one TMEM132 homolog, detonator (dtn), in the genome of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, enabling straightforward research into its in vivo function. In the current study, we generate multiple loss-of-function dtn mutant fly strains through a polycistronic tRNA-gRNA approach, and show that most embryos lacking both maternal and paternal dtn fail to hatch into larvae, indicating an essential role of dtn in Drosophila reproduction.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Panfil AR, Green PL, KE Yoder (2020)

CRISPR Genome Editing Applied to the Pathogenic Retrovirus HTLV-1.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:580371.

CRISPR editing of retroviral proviruses has been limited to HIV-1. We propose human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) as an excellent model to advance CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technologies against actively expressing and latent retroviral proviruses. HTLV-1 is a tumorigenic human retrovirus responsible for the development of both leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and a neurological disease (HAM/TSP). The virus immortalizes and persists in CD4+ T lymphocytes that survive for the lifetime of the host. The most important drivers of HTLV-1-mediated transformation and proliferation are the tax and hbz viral genes. Tax, transcribed from the plus-sense or genome strand, is essential for de novo infection and cellular immortalization. Hbz, transcribed from the minus-strand, supports proliferation and survival of infected cells in both its protein and mRNA forms. Abrogating the function or expression of tax and/or hbz by genome editing and mutagenic double-strand break repair may disable HTLV-1-infected cell growth/survival and prevent immune modulatory effects and ultimately HTLV-1-associated disease. In addition, the HTLV-1 viral genome is highly conserved with remarkable sequence homogeneity, both within the same host and even among different HTLV isolates. This offers more focused guide RNA targeting. In addition, there are several well-established animal models for studying HTLV-1 infection in vivo as well as cell immortalization in vitro. Therefore, studies with HTLV-1 may provide a better basis to assess and advance in vivo genome editing against retroviral infections.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Hoellerbauer P, Kufeld M, PJ Paddison (2020)

Efficient Multi-Allelic Genome Editing of Primary Cell Cultures via CRISPR-Cas9 Ribonucleoprotein Nucleofection.

Current protocols in stem cell biology, 54(1):e126.

CRISPR-Cas9-based technologies have revolutionized experimental manipulation of mammalian genomes. However, limitations regarding the delivery and efficacy of these technologies restrict their application in primary cells. This article describes a protocol for penetrant, reproducible, and fast CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in cell cultures derived from primary cells. The protocol employs transient nucleofection of ribonucleoprotein complexes composed of chemically synthesized 2'-O-methyl-3'phosphorothioate-modified single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) and purified Cas9 protein. It can be used both for targeted insertion-deletion mutation (indel) formation at up to >90% efficiency (via use of a single sgRNA) and for targeted deletion of genomic regions (via combined use of multiple sgRNAs). This article provides examples of the nucleofection buffer and programs that are optimal for patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cells (GSCs) and human neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs), but the protocol can be readily applied to other primary cell cultures by modifying the nucleofection conditions. In summary, this is a relatively simple method that can be used for highly efficient and fast gene knockout, as well as for targeted genomic deletions, even in hyperdiploid cells such as many cancer stem-like cells. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC Basic Protocol: Cas9:sgRNA ribonucleoprotein nucleofection for insertion-deletion (indel) mutation and genomic deletion generation in primary cell cultures.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Dettmer R, O Naujok (2020)

Design and Derivation of Multi-Reporter Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines via CRISPR/Cas9n-Mediated Homology-Directed Repair.

Current protocols in stem cell biology, 54(1):e116.

During the past decade, RNA-guided Cas9 nuclease from microbial clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9) has become a powerful tool for gene editing of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). Using paired CRISPR/Cas9 nickases (CRISPR/Cas9n) it is furthermore possible to reduce off-target effects that may typically occur with traditional CRISPR/Cas9 systems while maintaining high on-target efficiencies. With this technology and a well-designed homology-directed repair vector (HDR), we are now able to integrate transgenes into specific gene loci of PSCs in an allele conserving way. In this protocol we describe CRISPR/Cas9n design and homology directed repair vector design, transfection of human pluripotent stem cells and selection and expansion of generated cell clones. © 2020 The Authors. Basic Protocol 1: Repair template design and CRISPR/Cas9n construction Basic Protocol 2: Transfection of human pluripotent stem cells by electroporation Basic Protocol 3: Genotyping of generated cell clones.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Khatibi S, Sahebkar A, SH Aghaee-Bakhtiari (2021)

CRISPR Genome Editing Technology and its Application in Genetic Diseases: A Review.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 22(4):468-479.

Gene therapy has been a long lasting goal for scientists, and there are many optimal methods and tools to correct disease-causing mutations in humans. Recently, the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been progressively adopted for the assessment a treatment of human diseases, including thalassemia, Parkinson's disease, cystic fibrosis, glaucoma, Huntington's disease, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). CRISPR sequences belong to the bacterial immune system, which includes the nuclease Cas enzyme and an RNA sequence. The RNA sequence is unique and pathogen-specific, and identifies and binds to the DNA of invasive viruses, allowing the nuclease Cas enzyme to cut the identified DNA and destroy the invasive viruses. This feature provides the possibility to edit mutations in the DNA sequence of live cells by replacing a specific targeted RNA sequence with the RNA sequence in the CRISPR system. Previous studies have reported the improvement steps in confrontation with human diseases caused by single-nucleotide mutations using this system. In this review, we first introduce CRISPR and its functions and then elaborate on the use of CRISPR in the treatment of human diseases.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Ates KM, Wang T, Moreland T, et al (2020)

Deficiency in the endocytic adaptor proteins PHETA1/2 impairs renal and craniofacial development.

Disease models & mechanisms, 13(5):.

A critical barrier in the treatment of endosomal and lysosomal diseases is the lack of understanding of the in vivo functions of the putative causative genes. We addressed this by investigating a key pair of endocytic adaptor proteins, PH domain-containing endocytic trafficking adaptor 1 and 2 (PHETA1/2; also known as FAM109A/B, Ses1/2, IPIP27A/B), which interact with the protein product of OCRL, the causative gene for Lowe syndrome. Here, we conducted the first study of PHETA1/2 in vivo, utilizing the zebrafish system. We found that impairment of both zebrafish orthologs, pheta1 and pheta2, disrupted endocytosis and ciliogenesis in renal tissues. In addition, pheta1/2 mutant animals exhibited reduced jaw size and delayed chondrocyte differentiation, indicating a role in craniofacial development. Deficiency of pheta1/2 resulted in dysregulation of cathepsin K, which led to an increased abundance of type II collagen in craniofacial cartilages, a marker of immature cartilage extracellular matrix. Cathepsin K inhibition rescued the craniofacial phenotypes in the pheta1/2 double mutants. The abnormal renal and craniofacial phenotypes in the pheta1/2 mutant animals were consistent with the clinical presentation of a patient with a de novo arginine (R) to cysteine (C) variant (R6C) of PHETA1. Expressing the patient-specific variant in zebrafish exacerbated craniofacial deficits, suggesting that the R6C allele acts in a dominant-negative manner. Together, these results provide insights into the in vivo roles of PHETA1/2 and suggest that the R6C variant is contributory to the pathogenesis of disease in the patient.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

RevDate: 2021-06-09

Liu H, Zhu Y, Lu Z, et al (2021)

Structural basis of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 inhibition by AcrIIA14.

Nucleic acids research pii:6295537 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteriophages have evolved a range of anti-CRISPR proteins (Acrs) to escape the adaptive immune system of prokaryotes, therefore Acrs can be used as switches to regulate gene editing. Herein, we report the crystal structure of a quaternary complex of AcrIIA14 bound SauCas9-sgRNA-dsDNA at 2.22 Å resolution, revealing the molecular basis for AcrIIA14 recognition and inhibition. Our structural and biochemical data analysis suggest that AcrIIA14 binds to a non-conserved region of SauCas9 HNH domain that is distinctly different from AcrIIC1 and AcrIIC3, with no significant effect on sgRNA or dsDNA binding. Further, our structural data shows that the allostery of the HNH domain close to the substrate DNA is sterically prevented by AcrIIA14 binding. In addition, the binding of AcrIIA14 triggers the conformational allostery of the HNH domain and the L1 linker within the SauCas9, driving them to make new interactions with the target-guide heteroduplex, enhancing the inhibitory ability of AcrIIA14. Our research both expands the current understanding of anti-CRISPRs and provides additional culues for the rational use of the CRISPR-Cas system in genome editing and gene regulation.

RevDate: 2021-06-09

Vo PLH, Acree C, Smith ML, et al (2021)

Unbiased profiling of CRISPR RNA-guided transposition products by long-read sequencing.

Mobile DNA, 12(1):13.

Bacterial transposons propagate through either non-replicative (cut-and-paste) or replicative (copy-and-paste) pathways, depending on how the mobile element is excised from its donor source. In the well-characterized E. coli transposon Tn7, a heteromeric TnsA-TnsB transposase directs cut-and-paste transposition by cleaving both strands at each transposon end during the excision step. Whether a similar pathway is involved for RNA-guided transposons, in which CRISPR-Cas systems confer DNA target specificity, has not been determined. Here, we apply long-read, population-based whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to unambiguously resolve transposition products for two evolutionarily distinct transposon types that employ either Cascade or Cas12k for RNA-guided DNA integration. Our results show that RNA-guided transposon systems lacking functional TnsA primarily undergo copy-and-paste transposition, generating cointegrate products that comprise duplicated transposon copies and genomic insertion of the vector backbone. Finally, we report natural and engineered transposon variants encoding a TnsAB fusion protein, revealing a novel strategy for achieving RNA-guided transposition with fewer molecular components.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Sincennes MC, Brun CE, Lin AYT, et al (2021)

Acetylation of PAX7 controls muscle stem cell self-renewal and differentiation potential in mice.

Nature communications, 12(1):3253.

Muscle stem cell function has been suggested to be regulated by Acetyl-CoA and NAD+ availability, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report the identification of two acetylation sites on PAX7 that positively regulate its transcriptional activity. Lack of PAX7 acetylation reduces DNA binding, specifically to the homeobox motif. The acetyltransferase MYST1 stimulated by Acetyl-CoA, and the deacetylase SIRT2 stimulated by NAD +, are identified as direct regulators of PAX7 acetylation and asymmetric division in muscle stem cells. Abolishing PAX7 acetylation in mice using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis leads to an expansion of the satellite stem cell pool, reduced numbers of asymmetric stem cell divisions, and increased numbers of oxidative IIA myofibers. Gene expression analysis confirms that lack of PAX7 acetylation preferentially affects the expression of target genes regulated by homeodomain binding motifs. Therefore, PAX7 acetylation status regulates muscle stem cell function and differentiation potential to facilitate metabolic adaptation of muscle tissue.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Wang Q, Hernández-Ochoa EO, Viswanathan MC, et al (2021)

CaMKII oxidation is a critical performance/disease trade-off acquired at the dawn of vertebrate evolution.

Nature communications, 12(1):3175.

Antagonistic pleiotropy is a foundational theory that predicts aging-related diseases are the result of evolved genetic traits conferring advantages early in life. Here we examine CaMKII, a pluripotent signaling molecule that contributes to common aging-related diseases, and find that its activation by reactive oxygen species (ROS) was acquired more than half-a-billion years ago along the vertebrate stem lineage. Functional experiments using genetically engineered mice and flies reveal ancestral vertebrates were poised to benefit from the union of ROS and CaMKII, which conferred physiological advantage by allowing ROS to increase intracellular Ca2+ and activate transcriptional programs important for exercise and immunity. Enhanced sensitivity to the adverse effects of ROS in diseases and aging is thus a trade-off for positive traits that facilitated the early and continued evolutionary success of vertebrates.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Yue H, Huang M, Tian T, et al (2021)

Advances in Clustered, Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)-Based Diagnostic Assays Assisted by Micro/Nanotechnologies.

ACS nano, 15(5):7848-7859.

Clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based diagnoses, derived from gene-editing technology, have been exploited for less than 5 years and are now reaching the stage of precommercial use. CRISPR tools have some notable features, such as recognition at physiological temperature, excellent specificity, and high-efficiency signal amplification capabilities. These characteristics are promising for the development of next-generation diagnostic technologies. In this Perspective, we present a detailed summary of which micro/nanotechnologies play roles in the advancement of CRISPR diagnosis and how they are involved. The use of nanoprobes, nanochips, and nanodevices, microfluidic technology, lateral flow strips, etc. in CRISPR detection systems has led to new opportunities for CRISPR-based diagnosis assay development, such as achieving equipment-free detection, providing more compact detection systems, and improving sensitivity and quantitative capabilities. Although tremendous progress has been made, CRISPR diagnosis has not yet reached its full potential. We discuss upcoming opportunities and improvements and how micro/nanotechnologies will continue to play key roles.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Condon KJ, Orozco JM, Adelmann CH, et al (2021)

Genome-wide CRISPR screens reveal multitiered mechanisms through which mTORC1 senses mitochondrial dysfunction.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(4):.

In mammalian cells, nutrients and growth factors signal through an array of upstream proteins to regulate the mTORC1 growth control pathway. Because the full complement of these proteins has not been systematically identified, we developed a FACS-based CRISPR-Cas9 genetic screening strategy to pinpoint genes that regulate mTORC1 activity. Along with almost all known positive components of the mTORC1 pathway, we identified many genes that impact mTORC1 activity, including DCAF7, CSNK2B, SRSF2, IRS4, CCDC43, and HSD17B10 Using the genome-wide screening data, we generated a focused sublibrary containing single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting hundreds of genes and carried out epistasis screens in cells lacking nutrient- and stress-responsive mTORC1 modulators, including GATOR1, AMPK, GCN2, and ATF4. From these data, we pinpointed mitochondrial function as a particularly important input into mTORC1 signaling. While it is well appreciated that mitochondria signal to mTORC1, the mechanisms are not completely clear. We find that the kinases AMPK and HRI signal, with varying kinetics, mitochondrial distress to mTORC1, and that HRI acts through the ATF4-dependent up-regulation of both Sestrin2 and Redd1. Loss of both AMPK and HRI is sufficient to render mTORC1 signaling largely resistant to mitochondrial dysfunction induced by the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin as well as the electron transport chain inhibitors piericidin and antimycin. Taken together, our data reveal a catalog of genes that impact the mTORC1 pathway and clarify the multifaceted ways in which mTORC1 senses mitochondrial dysfunction.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Murakami K, Terakado Y, Saito K, et al (2021)

A genome-scale CRISPR screen reveals factors regulating Wnt-dependent renewal of mouse gastric epithelial cells.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(4):.

An ability to safely harness the powerful regenerative potential of adult stem cells for clinical applications is critically dependent on a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms regulating their activity. Epithelial organoid cultures accurately recapitulate many features of in vivo stem cell-driven epithelial renewal, providing an excellent ex vivo platform for interrogation of key regulatory mechanisms. Here, we employed a genome-scale clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) knockout (KO) screening assay using mouse gastric epithelial organoids to identify modulators of Wnt-driven stem cell-dependent epithelial renewal in the gastric mucosa. In addition to known Wnt pathway regulators, such as Apc, we found that KO of Alk, Bclaf3, or Prkra supports the Wnt independent self-renewal of gastric epithelial cells ex vivo. In adult mice, expression of these factors is predominantly restricted to non-Lgr5-expressing stem cell zones above the gland base, implicating a critical role for these factors in suppressing self-renewal or promoting differentiation of gastric epithelia. Notably, we found that Alk inhibits Wnt signaling by phosphorylating the tyrosine of Gsk3β, while Bclaf3 and Prkra suppress regenerating islet-derived (Reg) genes by regulating the expression of epithelial interleukins. Therefore, Alk, Bclaf3, and Prkra may suppress stemness/proliferation and function as novel regulators of gastric epithelial differentiation.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Li CY, Zheng B, Li JT, et al (2021)

Holographic Optical Tweezers and Boosting Upconversion Luminescent Resonance Energy Transfer Combined Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas12a Biosensors.

ACS nano, 15(5):8142-8154.

Taking advantage of outstanding precision in target recognition and trans-cleavage ability, the recently discovered CRISPR/Cas12a system provides an alternative opportunity for designing fluorescence biosensors. To fully exploit the analytical potential, we introduce here some meaningful concepts. First, the collateral cleavage of CRISPR/Cas12a is efficiently activated in a functional DNA regulation manner and the bottleneck which largely applicable to nucleic acids detection is broken. After selection of a representative aptamer and DNAzyme as the transduction pathways, the sensing coverage is extended to a small organic compound (ATP) and a metal ion (Na+). The assay sensitivity is significantly improved by utilizing a bead-supported enrichment strategy wherein emerging holographic optical tweezers are used to enhance imaging stability and simultaneously achieve multiflux analysis. Last, a sandwich-structured energy-concentrating upconversion nanoparticle triggered boosting luminescent resonance energy transfer mode is comined to face with complicated biological samples by skillfully confining the emitters into a very limited inner shell. Following the above attempts, the developed CRISPR/Cas12a biosensors not only present an ultrasensitive assay behavior toward these model non-nucleic acid analytes but also can serve as a formidable toolbox for determining real samples including single cell lysates and human plasma, proving a good practical application capacity.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Kleinschnitz K, Vießmann N, Jordan M, et al (2020)

Condensin I is required for faithful meiosis in Drosophila males.

Chromosoma, 129(2):141-160.

The heteropentameric condensin complexes play vital roles in the formation and faithful segregation of mitotic chromosomes in eukaryotes. While the different contributions of the two common condensin complexes, condensin I and condensin II, to chromosome morphology and behavior in mitosis have been thoroughly investigated, much less is known about the specific roles of the two complexes during meiotic divisions. In Drosophila melanogaster, faithful mitotic divisions depend on functional condensin I, but not on condensin II. However, meiotic divisions in Drosophila males require functional condensin II subunits. The role of condensin I during male meiosis in Drosophila has been unresolved. Here, we show that condensin I-specific subunits localize to meiotic chromatin in both meiosis I and II during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Live cell imaging reveals defects during meiotic divisions after RNAi-mediated knockdown of condensin I-specific mRNAs. This phenotype correlates with reduced male fertility and an increase in nondisjunction events both in meiosis I and meiosis II. Consistently, a reduction in male fertility was also observed after proteasome-mediated degradation of the condensin I subunit Barren. Taken together, our results demonstrate an essential role of condensin I during male meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Taheri F, Taghizadeh E, Pour MJR, et al (2020)

Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophy and Therapy: Insights into Cell and Gene-based Approaches.

Current gene therapy, 19(6):386-394.

The Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophies (LGMD) are genetically heterogeneous disorders, responsible for muscle wasting and severe form of dystrophies. Despite the critical developments in the insight and information of pathomechanisms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, any definitive treatments do not exist, and current strategies are only based on the improvement of the signs of disorder and to enhance the life quality without resolving an underlying cause. There is a crucial relationship between pharmacological therapy and different consequences; therefore, other treatment strategies will be required. New approaches, such as gene replacement, gene transfer, exon skipping, siRNA knockdown, and anti-myostatin therapy, which can target specific cellular or molecular mechanism of LGMD, could be a promising avenue for the treatment. Recently, genome engineering strategies with a focus on molecular tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 are used to different types of neuromuscular disorders and show the highest potential for clinical translation of these therapies. Thus, recent advancements and challenges in the field will be reviewed in this paper.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Salanga MC, Brun NR, Francolini RD, et al (2020)

CRISPR-Cas9-Mutated Pregnane X Receptor (pxr) Retains Pregnenolone-induced Expression of cyp3a65 in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Larvae.

Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology, 174(1):51-62.

Pregnane X receptor (PXR; NR1I2) is a nuclear receptor that regulates transcriptional responses to drug or xenobiotic exposure, including induction of CYP3A transcription, in many vertebrate species. PXR is activated by a wide range of ligands that differ across species, making functional studies on its role in the chemical defensome most relevant when approached in a species-specific manner. Knockout studies in mammals have shown a requirement for PXR in ligand-dependent activation of CYP3A expression or reporter gene activity. Morpholino knockdown of Pxr in zebrafish indicated a similar requirement. Here, we report on the generation of 2 zebrafish lines each carrying a heritable deletion in the pxr coding region, predicted to result in loss of a functional gene product. To our surprise, larvae homozygous for either of the pxr mutant alleles retain their ability to induce cyp3a65 mRNA expression following exposure to the established zebrafish Pxr ligand, pregnenolone. Thus, zebrafish carrying pxr alleles with deletions in either the DNA binding or the ligand-binding domains did not yield a loss-of-function phenotype, suggesting that a compensatory mechanism is responsible for cyp3a65 induction. Alternative possibilities are that Pxr is not required for the induction of selected genes, or that truncated yet functional mutant Pxr is sufficient for the downstream transcriptional effects. It is crucial that we develop a better understanding for the role of Pxr in this important biomedical test species. This study highlights the potential for compensatory mechanisms to avoid deleterious effects arising from gene mutations.

RevDate: 2021-06-09
CmpDate: 2021-06-09

Khosravi S, Ishii T, Dreissig S, et al (2020)

Application and prospects of CRISPR/Cas9-based methods to trace defined genomic sequences in living and fixed plant cells.

Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 28(1):7-17.

The 3D organization of chromatin plays an important role in genome stability and many other pivotal biological programs. Therefore, the establishment of imaging methods, which enable us to study the dynamics of chromatin in living cells, is necessary. Although primary live cell imaging methods were a breakthrough, there is a need to develop more specific labeling techniques. With the discovery of programmable DNA binding proteins, such zinc finger proteins (ZFP), transcription activator-like effectors (TALE), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), a major leap forward was made. Here, we review the applications and potential of fluorescent repressor-operator systems, programmable DNA binding proteins with an emphasis on CRISPR-based chromatin imaging in living and fixed cells, and their potential application in plant science.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Xiang X, Corsi GI, Anthon C, et al (2021)

Enhancing CRISPR-Cas9 gRNA efficiency prediction by data integration and deep learning.

Nature communications, 12(1):3238.

The design of CRISPR gRNAs requires accurate on-target efficiency predictions, which demand high-quality gRNA activity data and efficient modeling. To advance, we here report on the generation of on-target gRNA activity data for 10,592 SpCas9 gRNAs. Integrating these with complementary published data, we train a deep learning model, CRISPRon, on 23,902 gRNAs. Compared to existing tools, CRISPRon exhibits significantly higher prediction performances on four test datasets not overlapping with training data used for the development of these tools. Furthermore, we present an interactive gRNA design webserver based on the CRISPRon standalone software, both available via . CRISPRon advances CRISPR applications by providing more accurate gRNA efficiency predictions than the existing tools.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Giuffrida L, Sek K, Henderson MA, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9 mediated deletion of the adenosine A2A receptor enhances CAR T cell efficacy.

Nature communications, 12(1):3236.

Adenosine is an immunosuppressive factor that limits anti-tumor immunity through the suppression of multiple immune subsets including T cells via activation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). Using both murine and human chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, here we show that targeting A2AR with a clinically relevant CRISPR/Cas9 strategy significantly enhances their in vivo efficacy, leading to improved survival of mice. Effects evoked by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated gene deletion of A2AR are superior to shRNA mediated knockdown or pharmacological blockade of A2AR. Mechanistically, human A2AR-edited CAR T cells are significantly resistant to adenosine-mediated transcriptional changes, resulting in enhanced production of cytokines including IFNγ and TNF, and increased expression of JAK-STAT signaling pathway associated genes. A2AR deficient CAR T cells are well tolerated and do not induce overt pathologies in mice, supporting the use of CRISPR/Cas9 to target A2AR for the improvement of CAR T cell function in the clinic.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Shihong Gao D, Zhu X, B Lu (2021)

Development and application of sensitive, specific, and rapid CRISPR-Cas13-based diagnosis.

Journal of medical virology, 93(7):4198-4204.

Nucleic acid detection is a necessary part of medical treatment and fieldwork. However, the current detection technologies are far from ideal. A lack of timely and accessible testing for identifying cases and close contacts has allowed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of the ongoing coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, to spread uncontrollably. The slow and expensive detection of mutations-predictors for chronic diseases such as cancer-form a barrier to personalized treatment. A recently developed diagnostic assay is ideal and field-ready-it relies on CRISPR-Cas13. CRISPR-Cas13 works similarly to other CRISPR systems: Cas13 is guided by a crRNA to cleave next to a specific RNA target sequence. Additionally, Cas13 boasts a unique collateral cleavage activity; collateral cleavage of a fluorescent reporter detects the presence of the target sequence in sample RNA. This system forms the basis of CRISPR-Cas13 diagnostic assays. CRISPR-Cas13 assays have >95% sensitivity and >99% specificity. Detection is rapid (<2 h), inexpensive ($0.05 per test), and portable-a test using lateral flow strips is akin to a pregnancy test. The recent adaptation of micro-well chips facilitates high-level multiplexing and is high-throughput. In this review, we cover the development of CRISPR-Cas13 assays for medical diagnosis, discuss the advantages of CRISPR-Cas13-based diagnosis over the traditional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and present examples of detection from real patient samples.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Wang L, Jiang J, Li X, et al (2020)

Improved EGFR mutation detection sensitivity after enrichment by Cas9/sgRNA digestion and PCR amplification.

Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica, 52(12):1316-1324.

The detection of circulating tumor DNA is important in cancer research and clinical practice. In the present study, we aimed to improve the sensitivity of downstream mutation detection of next-generation sequencing using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system to selectively target wild-type fragments but with low or no cleavage activity to mutant fragments, followed by amplification using polymerase chain reaction. We selected different mutant sites of epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR)-exon19 deletions in patients with lung cancer and constructed mixed templates of mutant and wild-type DNA comprising ratios of 10% to 0.01% to test the effectiveness of the enrichment method. The results showed that after CRISPR/Cas9 enrichment, a low concentration of mutant DNA fragments (0.01%) could be detected by Sanger sequencing, which represented a 1000-fold increase compared with the untreated samples. We further verified the feasibility of the introduced method and obtained similar results in clinical samples from patients with non-small cell lung cancer, indicating that this method has the potential to detect low copy number mutations at the early stage.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Li Z, Wei J, Di D, et al (2020)

Rapid and accurate detection of African swine fever virus by DNA endonuclease-targeted CRISPR trans reporter assay.

Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica, 52(12):1413-1419.

The first case of African swine fever (ASF) outbreak in China was reported in a suburban pig farm in Shenyang in 2018. Since then, the rapid spread and extension of ASF has become the most serious threat for the swine industry. Therefore, rapid and accurate detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) is essential to provide effective strategies to control the disease. In this study, we developed a rapid and accurate ASFV-detection method based on the DNA endonuclease-targeted CRISPR trans reporter (DETECTR) assay. By combining recombinase polymerase amplification with CRISPR-Cas12a proteins, the DETECTR assay demonstrated a minimum detection limit of eight copies with no cross reactivity with other swine viruses. Clinical blood samples were detected by DETECTR assay and showed 100% (30/30) agreement with real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. The rapid and accurate detection of ASFV may facilitate timely eradication measures and strict sanitary procedures to control and prevent the spread of ASF.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Croci S, Carriero ML, Capitani K, et al (2020)

AAV-mediated FOXG1 gene editing in human Rett primary cells.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG, 28(10):1446-1458.

Variations in the Forkhead Box G1 (FOXG1) gene cause FOXG1 syndrome spectrum, including the congenital variant of Rett syndrome, characterized by early onset of regression, Rett-like and jerky movements, and cortical visual impairment. Due to the largely unknown pathophysiological mechanisms downstream the impairment of this transcriptional regulator, a specific treatment is not yet available. Since both haploinsufficiency and hyper-expression of FOXG1 cause diseases in humans, we reasoned that adding a gene under nonnative regulatory sequences would be a risky strategy as opposed to a genome editing approach where the mutated gene is reversed into wild-type. Here, we demonstrate that an adeno-associated viruses (AAVs)-coupled CRISPR/Cas9 system is able to target and correct FOXG1 variants in patient-derived fibroblasts, induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived neurons. Variant-specific single-guide RNAs (sgRNAs) and donor DNAs have been selected and cloned together with a mCherry/EGFP reporter system. Specific sgRNA recognition sequences were inserted upstream and downstream Cas9 CDS to allow self-cleavage and inactivation. We demonstrated that AAV serotypes vary in transduction efficiency depending on the target cell type, the best being AAV9 in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neurons, and AAV2 in iPSCs. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of mCherry+/EGFP+ transfected cells demonstrated that the mutated alleles were repaired with high efficiency (20-35% reversion) and precision both in terms of allelic discrimination and off-target activity. The genome editing strategy tested in this study has proven to precisely repair FOXG1 and delivery through an AAV9-based system represents a step forward toward the development of a therapy for Rett syndrome.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Pandelakis M, Delgado E, MR Ebrahimkhani (2020)

CRISPR-Based Synthetic Transcription Factors In Vivo: The Future of Therapeutic Cellular Programming.

Cell systems, 10(1):1-14.

Pinpoint control over endogenous gene expression in vivo has long been a fevered dream for clinicians and researchers alike. With the recent repurposing of programmable, RNA-guided DNA endonucleases from the CRISPR bacterial immune system, this dream is becoming a powerful reality. Engineered CRISPR/Cas9-based transcriptional regulators and epigenome editors have enabled researchers to perturb endogenous gene expression in vivo, allowing for the therapeutic reprogramming of cell and tissue behavior. For this technology to be of maximal use, a variety of technological hurdles still need to be addressed. Better understanding of the design principle controlling gene expression together with technologies that enable spatiotemporal control of transcriptional engineering are fundamental for rational design, improved efficacy, and ultimately safe translation to humans. In this review, we will discuss recent advances and integrative strategies that can help pave the path toward a new class of transcriptional therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Walther M, Schrahn S, Krauss V, et al (2020)

Heterochromatin formation in Drosophila requires genome-wide histone deacetylation in cleavage chromatin before mid-blastula transition in early embryogenesis.

Chromosoma, 129(1):83-98.

Su(var) mutations define epigenetic factors controlling heterochromatin formation and gene silencing in Drosophila. Here, we identify SU(VAR)2-1 as a novel chromatin regulator that directs global histone deacetylation during the transition of cleavage chromatin into somatic blastoderm chromatin in early embryogenesis. SU(VAR)2-1 is heterochromatin-associated in blastoderm nuclei but not in later stages of development. In larval polytene chromosomes, SU(VAR)2-1 is a band-specific protein. SU(VAR)2-1 directs global histone deacetylation by recruiting the histone deacetylase RPD3. In Su(var)2-1 mutants H3K9, H3K27, H4K8 and H4K16 acetylation shows elevated levels genome-wide and heterochromatin displays aberrant histone hyper-acetylation. Whereas H3K9me2- and HP1a-binding appears unaltered, the heterochromatin-specific H3K9me2S10ph composite mark is impaired in heterochromatic chromocenters of larval salivary polytene chromosomes. SU(VAR)2-1 contains an NRF1/EWG domain and a C2HC zinc-finger motif. Our study identifies SU(VAR)2-1 as a dosage-dependent, heterochromatin-initiating SU(VAR) factor, where the SU(VAR)2-1-mediated control of genome-wide histone deacetylation after cleavage and before mid-blastula transition (pre-MBT) is required to enable heterochromatin formation.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Klepsch V, Pommermayr M, Humer D, et al (2020)

Targeting the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F6 in T cells primes tumors for immune checkpoint therapy.

Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 18(1):8.

BACKGROUND: NR2F6 has been proposed as an alternative cancer immune checkpoint in the effector T cell compartment. However, a realistic assessment of the in vivo therapeutic potential of NR2F6 requires acute depletion.

METHODS: Employing primary T cells isolated from Cas9-transgenic mice for electroporation of chemically synthesized sgRNA, we established a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated acute knockout protocol of Nr2f6 in primary mouse T cells.

RESULTS: Analyzing these Nr2f6CRISPR/Cas9 knockout T cells, we reproducibly observed a hyper-reactive effector phenotype upon CD3/CD28 stimulation in vitro, highly reminiscent to Nr2f6-/- T cells. Importantly, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Nr2f6 ablation prior to adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of autologous polyclonal T cells into wild-type tumor-bearing recipient mice in combination with PD-L1 or CTLA-4 tumor immune checkpoint blockade significantly delayed MC38 tumor progression and induced superior survival, thus further validating a T cell-inhibitory function of NR2F6 during tumor progression.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that Nr2f6CRISPR/Cas9 knockout T cells are comparable to germline Nr2f6-/- T cells, a result providing an independent confirmation of the immune checkpoint function of lymphatic NR2F6. Taken together, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated acute Nr2f6 gene ablation in primary mouse T cells prior to ACT appeared feasible for potentiating established PD-L1 and CTLA-4 blockade therapies, thereby pioneering NR2F6 inhibition as a sensitizing target for augmented tumor regression. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Xu H, Fang T, Omran RP, et al (2020)

RNA sequencing reveals an additional Crz1-binding motif in promoters of its target genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

Cell communication and signaling : CCS, 18(1):1.

BACKGROUND: The calcium/calcineurin signaling pathway is mediated by the transcription factors NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) in mammals and Crz1 (calcineurin-responsive zinc finger 1) in yeasts and other lower eukaryotes. A previous microarray analysis identified a putative Crz1-binding motif in promoters of its target genes in Candida albicans, but it has not been experimentally demonstrated.

METHODS: An inactivation mutant for CaCRZ1 was generated through CRISPR/Cas9 approach. Transcript profiling was carried out by RNA sequencing of the wild type and the inactivation mutant for CaCRZ1 in response to 0.2 M CaCl2. Gene promoters were scanned by the online MEME (Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation) software. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis were used for in vitro and in vivo CaCrz1-binding experiments, respectively.

RESULTS: RNA sequencing reveals that expression of 219 genes is positively, and expression of 59 genes is negatively, controlled by CaCrz1 in response to calcium stress. These genes function in metabolism, cell cycling, protein fate, cellular transport, signal transduction, transcription, and cell wall biogenesis. Forty of these positively regulated 219 genes have previously been identified by DNA microarray analysis. Promoter analysis of these common 40 genes reveals a consensus motif [5'-GGAGGC(G/A)C(T/A)G-3'], which is different from the putative CaCrz1-binding motif [5'-G(C/T)GGT-3'] identified in the previous study, but similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScCrz1-binding motif [5'-GNGGC(G/T)CA-3']. EMSA and ChIP assays indicate that CaCrz1 binds in vitro and in vivo to both motifs in the promoter of its target gene CaUTR2. Promoter mutagenesis demonstrates that these two CaCrz1-binding motifs play additive roles in the regulation of CaUTR2 expression. In addition, the CaCRZ1 gene is positively regulated by CaCrz1. CaCrz1 can bind in vitro and in vivo to its own promoter, suggesting an autoregulatory mechanism for CaCRZ1 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: CaCrz1 differentially binds to promoters of its target genes to regulate their expression in response to calcium stress. CaCrz1 also regulates its own expression through the 5'-TGAGGGACTG-3' site in its promoter. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Godehardt AW, Fischer N, Rauch P, et al (2020)

Characterization of porcine endogenous retrovirus particles released by the CRISPR/Cas9 inactivated cell line PK15 clone 15.

Xenotransplantation, 27(2):e12563.

The infection of human transplant recipients by porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) is a safety issue for xenotransplantation (XTx). CRISPR/Cas9 technology has enabled the generation of pigs free of functional PERVs, and the susceptibility of these animals to reinfection by PERVs remains unclear. To assess virological safety, we characterized a cell line in which PERVs have been inactivated by CRISPR/Cas9 (PK15 clone 15) for its susceptibility to infectious PERV. First, basal expression of PERV pol, the porcine PERV-A receptor (POPAR), and reverse transcriptase (RT) activity of PERV were determined. PK15 clone 15 cells were inoculated with PERV and monitored post infection for virus expression and RT activity. Particles were visualized by electron microscopy. Our data show that PK15 clone 15 cells still produce viral proteins that assemble to produce impaired viral particles. These virions have an irregular morphology that diverges from that of mature wild type. The particles are no longer infectious when tested in a downstream infection assay using supernatants of PK15 clone 15 cells to infect susceptible swine testis-IOWA (ST-IOWA) cells. The expression of POPAR was quantified to exclude the possibility that lack of susceptibility to reinfection, for PERV-A, is caused by absence of viral host receptor(s). PK15 and PK15 clone 15 cells do, in fact, express POPAR equally. PERV RT inactivation mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 does not compromise virus assembly but affects virion structure and proviral integration. The constitutive virion production seems to maintain cellular resistance to superinfection and possibly indicates a protective side effect of this specific CRISPR/Cas9 mediated RT inactivation.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Maximiano MR, Távora FTPK, Prado GS, et al (2021)

CRISPR Genome Editing Technology: A Powerful Tool Applied to Developing Agribusiness.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The natural increase of the world's population implies boosting agricultural demand. In the current non-optimistic global scenario, where adverse climate changes come associated with substantial population growth, the main challenge in agribusiness is food security. Recently, the CRISPR/Cas system has emerged as a friendly gene editing biotechnological tool, enabling a precise manipulation of genomes and enhancement of desirable traits in several organisms. This review highlights the CRISPR/Cas system as a paramount tool for the improvement of agribusiness products and brings up-to-date findings showing its potential applications in improving agricultural-related traits in major plant crops and farm animals, all representing economic-relevant commodities responsible for feeding the world. Several applied pieces of research have successfully demonstrated the CRISPR/Cas ability in boosting interesting traits in agribusiness products, including animal productivity and welfare, crop yield growth, and seed quality, reflecting positive impacts in both socioeconomics and human health aspects. Hence, the CRISPR/Cas system has revolutionized bioscience and biotechnology, and its concrete application in agribusiness goods is on the horizon.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Hu L, Feng S, Liang G, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9-induced β-carotene hydroxylase mutation in Dunaliella salina CCAP19/18.

AMB Express, 11(1):83.

Dunaliella salina (D. salina) has been exploited as a novel expression system for the field of genetic engineering. However, owing to the low or inconsistent expression of target proteins, it has been greatly restricted to practical production of recombinant proteins. Since the accurate gene editing function of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system, β-carotene hydroxylase gene was chosen as an example to explore D. salina application with the purpose of improving expression level of foreign genes. In this paper, based on pKSE401 backbone, three CRISPR/Cas9 binary vectors were constructed to targeting exon 1 and 3 of the β-carotene hydroxylase of D. salina CCAP19/18 (Dschyb). D. salina mutants were obtained by salt gradient transformation method, and the expression of Dschyb gene were identified through real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Moreover, carotenoids content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography at different time points after high intensity treatment. Compared with wild type strains, the β-carotene levels of mutants showed a significant increase, nearly up to 1.4 μg/ml, and the levels of zeaxanthin decreased to various degrees in mutants. All the results provide a compelling evidence for targeted gene editing in D. salina. This study gave a first successful gene editing of D. salina which has a very important practical significance for increasing carotene yield and meeting realistic industry demand. Furthermore, it provides an approach to overcome the current obstacles of D. salina, and then gives a strong tool to facilitates the development and application of D. salina system.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Gong J, Kan L, Zhang X, et al (2021)

An enhanced method for nucleic acid detection with CRISPR-Cas12a using phosphorothioate modified primers and optimized gold-nanopaticle strip.

Bioactive materials, 6(12):4580-4590 pii:S2452-199X(21)00225-5.

CRISPR-Cas12a system has been shown promising for nucleic acid diagnostics due to its rapid, portable and accurate features. However, cleavage of the amplicons and primers by the cis- and trans-activity of Cas12a hinders the attempts to integrate the amplification and detection into a single reaction. Through phosphorothioate modification of primers, we realized onepot detection with high sensitivity using plasmids of SARS-CoV-2, HPV16 and HPV18. We also identified the activated Cas12a has a much higher affinity to C nucleotide-rich reporter than others. By applying such reporters, the reaction time required for a lateral-flow readout was significantly reduced. Furthermore, to improve the specificity of the strip-based assay, we created a novel reporter and, when combined with a customized gold-nanopaticle strip, the readout was greatly enhanced owing to the elimination of the nonspecific signal. This established system, termed Targeting DNA by Cas12a-based Eye Sight Testing in an Onepot Reaction (TESTOR), was validated using clinical cervical scrape samples for human papillomaviruses (HPVs) detection. Our system represents a general approach to integrating the nucleic acid amplification and detection into a single reaction in CRISPR-Cas systems, highlighting its potential as a rapid, portable and accurate detection platform of nucleic acids.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Taylor HN, Laderman E, Armbrust M, et al (2021)

Positioning Diverse Type IV Structures and Functions Within Class 1 CRISPR-Cas Systems.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:671522.

Type IV CRISPR systems encode CRISPR associated (Cas)-like proteins that combine with small RNAs to form multi-subunit ribonucleoprotein complexes. However, the lack of Cas nucleases, integrases, and other genetic features commonly observed in most CRISPR systems has made it difficult to predict type IV mechanisms of action and biological function. Here we summarize recent bioinformatic and experimental advancements that collectively provide the first glimpses into the function of specific type IV subtypes. We also provide a bioinformatic and structural analysis of type IV-specific proteins within the context of multi-subunit (class 1) CRISPR systems, informing future studies aimed at elucidating the function of these cryptic systems.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Tambong JT, Xu R, Gerdis S, et al (2021)

Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Isolates From Necrotic Wheat Leaf Lesions Caused by Xanthomonas translucens, and Description of Three Putative Novel Species, Sphingomonas albertensis sp. nov., Pseudomonas triticumensis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas foliumensis sp. nov.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:666689.

Xanthomonas translucens is the etiological agent of the wheat bacterial leaf streak (BLS) disease. The isolation of this pathogen is usually based on the Wilbrink's-boric acid-cephalexin semi-selective medium which eliminates 90% of other bacteria, some of which might be novel species. In our study, a general purpose nutrient agar was used to isolate 49 bacterial strains including X. translucens from necrotic wheat leaf tissues. Maximum likelihood cluster analysis of 16S rRNA sequences grouped the strains into 10 distinct genera. Pseudomonas (32.7%) and Pantoea (28.6%) were the dominant genera while Xanthomonas, Clavibacter and Curtobacterium had 8.2%, each. Erwinia and Sphingomonas had two strains, each. BLAST and phylogenetic analyses of multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of specific housekeeping genes taxonomically assigned all the strains to validly described bacterial species, except three strains (10L4B, 12L4D and 32L3A) of Pseudomonas and two (23L3C and 15L3B) of Sphingomonas. Strains 10L4B and12L4D had Pseudomonas caspiana as their closest known type strain while strain 32L3A was closest to Pseudomonas asturiensis. Sphingomonas sp. strains 23L3C and 15L3B were closest to S. faeni based on MLSA analysis. Our data on MLSA, whole genome-based cluster analysis, DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight, chemotaxonomy and phenotype affirmed that these 5 strains constitute three novel lineages and are taxonomically described in this study. We propose the names, Sphingomonas albertensis sp. nov. (type strain 23L3CT = DOAB 1063T = CECT 30248T = LMG 32139T), Pseudomonas triticumensis sp. nov. (type strain 32L3AT = DOAB 1067T = CECT 30249T = LMG 32140T) and Pseudomonas foliumensis sp. nov. (type strain 10L4BT = DOAB 1069T = CECT 30250T = LMG 32142T). Comparative genomics of these novel species, relative to their closest type strains, revealed unique repertoires of core secretion systems and secondary metabolites/antibiotics. Also, the detection of CRISPR-Cas systems in the genomes of these novel species suggests an acquired mechanism for resistance against foreign mobile genetic elements. The results presented here revealed a cohabitation, within the BLS lesions, of diverse bacterial species, including novel lineages.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Valente S, Piombo E, Schroeckh V, et al (2021)

CRISPR-Cas9-Based Discovery of the Verrucosidin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster in Penicillium polonicum.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:660871.

Penicillium polonicum, commonly found on food matrices, is a mycotoxigenic species able to produce a neurotoxin called verrucosidin. This methylated α-pyrone polyketide inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and thereby causes neurological diseases. Despite the importance of verrucosidin as a toxin, its biosynthetic genes have not been characterized yet. By similarity analysis with the polyketide synthase (PKS) genes for the α-pyrones aurovertin (AurA) and citreoviridin (CtvA), 16 PKS genes for putative α-pyrones were identified in the P. polonicum genome. A single PKS gene, verA, was found to be transcribed under verrucosidin-producing growth conditions. The annotated functions of the genes neighboring verA correspond to those required for verrucosidin biosynthesis. To prove the involvement of verA in verrucosidin biosynthesis, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPR) technology was applied to P. polonicum. In vitro reconstituted CRISPR-Cas9 was used to induce targeted gene deletions in P. polonicum. This approach allowed identifying and characterizing the verrucosidin biosynthetic gene cluster. VerA deletion mutants were no longer able to produce verrucosidin, whereas they were displaying morphological characteristics comparable with the wild-type strain. The available CRISPR-Cas9 technology allows characterizing the biosynthetic potential of P. polonicum as a valuable source of novel compounds.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Sarma H, Islam NF, Prasad R, et al (2021)

Enhancing phytoremediation of hazardous metal(loid)s using genome engineering CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

Journal of hazardous materials, 414:125493.

Rapid and drastic changes in the global climate today have given a strong impetus to developing newer climate-resilient phytoremediation approaches. These methods are of great public and scientific importance given the urgency of this environmental crisis. Climate change has adverse effects on the growth, outputs, phenology, and overall productivity of plants. Contamination of soil with metal(loid)s is a major worldwide problem. Some metal(loids) are carcinogenic pollutants that have a long half-life and are non-degradable in the environment. There are many instances of the potential link between chronic heavy metal exposure and human disease. The adaptation of plants in the changing environment is, however, a major concern in phytoremediation practice. The creation of climate-resistant metal hyperaccumulation plants using molecular techniques could provide new opportunities to mitigate these problems. Consequently, advancements in molecular science would accelerate our knowledge of adaptive plant remediation/resistance and plant production in the context of global warming. Genome modification using artificial nucleases has the potential to enhance phytoremediation by modifying genomes for a sustainable future. This review focuses on biotechnology to boost climate change tolerant metallicolous plants and the future prospects of such technology, particularly the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system, for enhancing phytoremediation of hazardous pollutants.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Lin Z, Li H, He L, et al (2021)

Efficient genome editing for Pseudomonas aeruginosa using CRISPR-Cas12a.

Gene, 790:145693.

The CRISPR-Cas12a system has been demonstrated as an attractive tool for bacterial genome engineering. In particular, FnCas12a recognizes protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sites with medium or low GC content, which complements the Cas9-based systems. Here we explored Francisella novicida Cas12a (FnCas12a) for genome editing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By using a two-plasmid system expressing the constitutive FnCas12a nuclease, the inducible λRed recombinase, a CRISPR RNA (crRNA), we achieved gene deletion, insertion and replacement with high efficiency (in most cases > 75%), including the deletion of large DNA fragments up to 15 kb and the serial deletion of duplicate gene clusters. This work should provide a useful and complementary addition to the genome engineering toolbox for the study of P. aeruginosa biology and physiology.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Zhao Y, Karan R, F Altpeter (2021)

Error-free recombination in sugarcane mediated by only 30 nucleotides of homology and CRISPR/Cas9 induced DNA breaks or Cre-recombinase.

Biotechnology journal, 16(6):e2000650.

Precision genome editing by homology directed repair has tremendous potential for crop improvement. This study describes in planta homologous recombination mediated by CRISPR/Cas9 induced DNA double strand break in proximity to a single short (∼30 nt) homology arm. The efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated recombination between two loxP sites was compared with Cre (Cyclization recombination enzyme) and codon-optimized Cre-mediated site-specific recombination in sugarcane. A transgenic locus was generated with a selectable nptII coding sequence with terminator between two loxP sites located downstream of a constitutive promoter and acting as transcription block for the downstream promoter-less gusA coding sequence with terminator. Recombination between the two loxP sites resulted in deletion of the transcription block and restored gus activity. This transgenic locus provided an efficient screen for identification of recombination events in sugarcane callus following biolistic delivery of Cre, codon-optimized Cre, or the combination of sgRNA and Cas9 targeting the 5' loxP site. The Cre codon optimized for sugarcane displayed the highest efficiency in mediating the recombination that restored gus activity followed by cre and CRISPR/Cas9. Remarkably the short region of homology of the loxP site cleaved by Cas9 (30 nt)-mediated error-free recombination in all 21 events from three different experiments that were analyzed by Sanger sequencing consistent with homology directed repair. These findings will inform rational design of strategies for precision genome editing in plants.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Meng Q, Wang X, Wang Y, et al (2021)

Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 D614G mutation using engineered Cas12a guide RNA.

Biotechnology journal, 16(6):e2100040.

Detection of pathogens with single-nucleotide variations is indispensable for the disease tracing, but remains technically challenging. The D614G mutation in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein is known to markedly enhance viral infectivity but is difficult to detect. Here, we report an effective approach called "synthetic mismatch integrated crRNA guided Cas12a detection" (symRNA-Cas12a) to detect the D614 and G614 variants effectively. Using this method, we systemically screened a pool of crRNAs that contain all the possible nucleotide substitutions covering the -2 to +2 positions around the mutation and identify one crRNA that can efficiently increase the detection specificity by 13-fold over the ancestral crRNA. With this selected crRNA, the symRNA-Cas12a assay can detect as low as 10 copies of synthetic mutant RNA and the results are confirmed to be accurate by Sanger sequencing. Overall, we have developed the symRNA-Cas12a method to specifically, sensitively and rapidly detect the SARS-CoV-2 D614G mutation.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Qiu M, Li Y, Ye W, et al (2021)

A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in situ complementation method for Phytophthora sojae mutants.

Molecular plant pathology, 22(3):373-381.

Phytophthora sojae is an important model species for oomycete functional genomics research. Recently, a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-editing technology has been successfully established in P. sojae, which has been rapidly and widely applied in oomycete research. However, there is an emerging consensus in the biological community that a complete functional gene research system is needed such as developed in the investigations in functional complementation carried out in this study. We report the development of an in situ complementation method for accurate restoration of the mutated gene. We targeted a regulatory B-subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PsPP2Ab1) to verify this knockout and subsequent complementation system. We found that the deletion of PsPP2Ab1 in P. sojae leads to severe defects in vegetative hyphal growth, soybean infection, and loss of the ability to produce sporangia. Subsequently, the reintroduction of PsPP2Ab1 into the knockout mutant remedied all of the deficiencies. This study demonstrates the successful implementation of an in situ complementation system by CRISPR/Cas9, which will greatly accelerate functional genomics research of oomycetes in the post-genomic era.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Gasanov EV, Jędrychowska J, Pastor M, et al (2021)

An improved method for precise genome editing in zebrafish using CRISPR-Cas9 technique.

Molecular biology reports, 48(2):1951-1957.

Current methods of CRISPR-Cas9-mediated site-specific mutagenesis create deletions and small insertions at the target site which are repaired by imprecise non-homologous end-joining. Targeting of the Cas9 nuclease relies on a short guide RNA (gRNA) corresponding to the genome sequence approximately at the intended site of intervention. We here propose an improved version of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing that relies on two complementary guide RNAs instead of one. Two guide RNAs delimit the intervention site and allow the precise deletion of several nucleotides at the target site. As proof of concept, we generated heterozygous deletion mutants of the kcng4b, gdap1, and ghitm genes in the zebrafish Danio rerio using this method. A further analysis by high-resolution DNA melting demonstrated a high efficiency and a low background of unpredicted mutations. The use of two complementary gRNAs improves CRISPR-Cas9 specificity and allows the creation of predictable and precise mutations in the genome of D. rerio.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Binnie A, Fernandes E, Almeida-Lousada H, et al (2021)

CRISPR-based strategies in infectious disease diagnosis and therapy.

Infection, 49(3):377-385.

PURPOSE: CRISPR gene-editing technology has the potential to transform the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, but most clinicians are unaware of its broad applicability. Derived from an ancient microbial defence system, these so-called "molecular scissors" enable precise gene editing with a low error rate. However, CRISPR systems can also be targeted against pathogenic DNA or RNA sequences. This potential is being combined with innovative delivery systems to develop new therapeutic approaches to infectious diseases.

METHODS: We searched Pubmed and Google Scholar for CRISPR-based strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Reference lists were reviewed and synthesized for narrative review.

RESULTS: CRISPR-based strategies represent a novel approach to many challenging infectious diseases. CRISPR technologies can be harnessed to create rapid, low-cost diagnostic systems, as well as to identify drug-resistance genes. Therapeutic strategies, such as CRISPR systems that cleave integrated viral genomes or that target resistant bacteria, are in development. CRISPR-based therapies for emerging viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2, have also been proposed. Finally, CRISPR systems can be used to reprogram human B cells to produce neutralizing antibodies. The risks of CRISPR-based therapies include off-target and on-target modifications. Strategies to control these risks are being developed and a phase 1 clinical trials of CRISPR-based therapies for cancer and monogenic diseases are already underway.

CONCLUSIONS: CRISPR systems have broad applicability in the field of infectious diseases and may offer solutions to many of the most challenging human infections.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Brinton LT, Zhang P, Williams K, et al (2020)

Synergistic effect of BCL2 and FLT3 co-inhibition in acute myeloid leukemia.

Journal of hematology & oncology, 13(1):139.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous and complex disease, and treatments for this disease have not been curative for the majority of patients. In younger patients, internal tandem duplication of FLT3 (FLT3-ITD) is a common mutation for which two inhibitors (midostaurin and gilteritinib) with varied potency and specificity for FLT3 are clinically approved. However, the high rate of relapse or failed initial response of AML patients suggests that the addition of a second targeted therapy may be necessary to improve efficacy. Using an unbiased large-scale CRISPR screen, we genetically identified BCL2 knockout as having synergistic effects with an approved FLT3 inhibitor. Here, we provide supportive studies that validate the therapeutic potential of the combination of FLT3 inhibitors with venetoclax in vitro and in vivo against multiple models of FLT3-ITD-driven AML. Our unbiased approach provides genetic validation for co-targeting FLT3 and BCL2 and repurposes CRISPR screening data, utilizing the genome-wide scope toward mechanistic understanding.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Niu G, Jin Z, Zhang C, et al (2020)

An effective vaginal gel to deliver CRISPR/Cas9 system encapsulated in poly (β-amino ester) nanoparticles for vaginal gene therapy.

EBioMedicine, 58:102897.

BACKGROUND: Gene therapy has held promises for treating specific genetic diseases. However, the key to clinical application depends on effective gene delivery.

METHODS: Using a large animal model, we developed two pharmaceutical formulations for gene delivery in the pigs' vagina, which were made up of poly (β-amino ester) (PBAE)-plasmid polyplex nanoparticles (NPs) based two gel materials, modified montmorillonite (mMMT) and hectorite (HTT).

FINDINGS: By conducting flow cytometry of the cervical cells, we found that PBAE-GFP-NPs-mMMT gel was more efficient than PBAE-GFP-NPs-HTT gel in delivering exogenous DNA intravaginally. Next, we designed specific CRISPR/SpCas9 sgRNAs targeting porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) and evaluated the genome editing efficacy in vivo. We discovered that PERV copy number in vaginal epithelium could be significantly reduced by the local delivery of the PBAE-SpCas9/sgRNA NPs-mMMT gel. Comparable genome editing results were also obtained by high-fidelity version of SpCas9, SpCas9-HF1 and eSpCas9, in the mMMT gel. Further, we confirmed that the expression of topically delivered SpCas9 was limited to the vagina/cervix and did not diffuse to nearby organs, which was relatively safe with low toxicity.

INTERPRETATION: Our data suggested that the PBAE-NPs mMMT vaginal gel is an effective preparation for local gene therapy, yielding insights into novel therapeutic approaches to sexually transmitted disease in the genital tract.

FUNDING: This work was supported by the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of science and technology of China (No. 2018ZX10301402); the National Natural Science Foundation of China (81761148025, 81871473 and 81402158); Guangzhou Science and Technology Programme (No. 201704020093); National Ten Thousand Plan-Young Top Talents of China, Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (17ykzd15 and 19ykyjs07); Three Big Constructions-Supercomputing Application Cultivation Projects sponsored by National Supercomputer Center In Guangzhou; the National Research FFoundation (NRF) South Africa under BRICS Multilateral Joint Call for Proposals; grant 17-54-80078 from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Sunitha S, CD Rock (2020)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis of TAS4 and MYBA7 loci in grapevine rootstock 101-14.

Transgenic research, 29(3):355-367.

Pierce's disease (PD) of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) is caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa and is vectored by xylem sap-sucking insects, whereas Grapevine Red Blotch Virus (GRBV) causes Red Blotch Disease and is transmitted in the laboratory by alfalfa leafhopper Spissistilus festinus. The significance of anthocyanin accumulations in distinct tissues of grapevine by these pathogens is unknown, but vector feeding preferences and olfactory cues from host anthocyanins may be important for these disease etiologies. Phosphate, sugar, and UV light are known to regulate anthocyanin accumulation via miR828 and Trans-Acting Small-interfering locus4 (TAS4), specifically in grape by production of phased TAS4a/b/c small-interfering RNAs that are differentially expressed and target MYBA5/6/7 transcription factor transcripts for post-transcriptional slicing and antisense-mediated silencing. To generate materials that can critically test these genes' functions in PD and GRBV disease symptoms, we produced transgenic grape plants targeting TAS4b and MYBA7 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We obtained five MYBA7 lines all with bi-allelic editing events and no off-targets detected at genomic loci with homology to the guide sequence. We obtained two independent edited TAS4b lines; one bi-allelic, the other heterozygous while both had fortuitous evidences of bi-allelic TAS4a off-target editing events at the paralogous locus. No visible anthocyanin accumulation phenotypes were observed in regenerated plants, possibly due to the presence of genetically redundant TAS4c and MYBA5/6 loci or absence of inductive environmental stress conditions. The editing events encompass single base insertions and di/trinucleotide deletions of Vvi-TAS4a/b and Vvi-MYBA7 at expected positions 3 nt upstream from the guideRNA proximal adjacent motifs NGG. We also identified evidences of homologous recombinations of TAS4a with TAS4b at the TAS4a off-target in one of the TAS4b lines, resulting in a chimeric locus with a bi-allelic polymorphism, supporting independent recombination events in transgenic plants associated with apparent high Cas9 activities. The lack of obvious visible pigment phenotypes in edited plants precluded pathogen challenge tests of the role of anthocyanins in host PD and GRBV resistance/tolerance mechanisms. Nonetheless, we demonstrate successful genome-editing of non-coding RNA and MYB transcription factor loci which can serve future characterizations of the functions of TAS4a/b/c and MYBA7 in developmental, physiological, and environmental biotic/abiotic stress response pathways important for value-added nutraceutical synthesis and pathogen responses of winegrape.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Lee EY, Yu JY, Paek AR, et al (2020)

Targeting TJP1 attenuates cell-cell aggregation and modulates chemosensitivity against doxorubicin in leiomyosarcoma.

Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany), 98(5):761-773.

Tight junction protein 1 (TJP1) is a membrane-associated cytosolic protein important for cell-cell communication in intercellular barriers in epithelial and non-epithelial cells. Here, we explored the functional involvement of TJP1 in non-epithelial tumors such as soft tissue sarcoma, especially in leiomyosarcoma (LMS). TJP1 expression in soft tissue sarcoma was analyzed in normal and tumor tissues as well as from public datasets such as the TCGA provisional dataset, in which TJP1 expression was compared with other subtypes such as undifferentiated sarcomas, and myxofibrosarcomas. SK-LMS-1 cell lines with reduced TJP1 expression showed attenuated anchorage-independent colony formation as well as reduced intercellular aggregation on non-coated culture plates compared with control as well as parental SK-LMS-1 cells. Transcriptome profiling following TJP1 knockdown in SK-LMS-1 cells suggested the involvement of several signaling pathways, including NF-κB pathway and growth factor receptor signaling. In addition, TJP1 downregulation induced enhanced response against anti-cancer agents, doxorubicin and gefitinib. Taken together, these results suggest that TJP1 contributes to sarcoma genesis and might be useful therapeutic target. KEY MESSAGES: • TJP1 expression at RNA level higher in tumor than in normal tissues of sarcoma. • Targeting TJP1 attenuates cell-cell aggregation and anchorage-independent growth. • Targeting TJP1 is beneficial in anti-cancer therapy in LMS.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Li J, Wang L, Hua X, et al (2020)

CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated miR-29b Editing as a Treatment of Different Types of Muscle Atrophy in Mice.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 28(5):1359-1372.

Muscle atrophy is the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength in response to diverse catabolic stimuli. At present, no effective treatments except exercise have been shown to reduce muscle atrophy clinically. Here, we report that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing through local injection into gastrocnemius muscles or tibialis anterior muscle efficiently targets the biogenesis processing sites in pre-miR-29b. In vivo, this CRISPR-based treatment prevented the muscle atrophy induced by angiotensin II (AngII), immobilization, and denervation via activation of the AKT-FOXO3A-mTOR signaling pathway and protected against AngII-induced myocyte apoptosis in mice, leading to significantly increased exercise capacity. Our work establishes CRISPR/Cas9-based gene targeting on miRNA as a potential durable therapy for the treatment of muscle atrophy and expands the strategies available interrogating miRNA function in vivo.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Han HA, Pang JKS, BS Soh (2020)

Mitigating off-target effects in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated in vivo gene editing.

Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany), 98(5):615-632.

The rapid advancement of genome editing technologies has opened up new possibilities in the field of medicine. Nuclease-based techniques such as the CRISPR/Cas9 system are now used to target genetically linked disorders that were previously hard-to-treat. The CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing approach wields several advantages over its contemporary editing systems, notably in the ease of component design, implementation and the option of multiplex genome editing. While results from the early phase clinical trials have been encouraging, the small patient population recruited into these trials hinders a conclusive assessment on the safety aspects of the CRISPR/Cas9 therapy. Potential safety concerns include the lack of fidelity in the CRISPR/Cas9 system which may lead to unintended DNA modifications at non-targeted gene loci. This review focuses modifications to the CRISPR/Cas9 components that can mitigate off-target effects in in vitro and preclinical models and its translatability to gene therapy in patient populations.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Watson CJ, Monstad-Rios AT, Bhimani RM, et al (2020)

Phenomics-Based Quantification of CRISPR-Induced Mosaicism in Zebrafish.

Cell systems, 10(3):275-286.e5.

Genetic mosaicism can manifest as spatially variable phenotypes that vary from site to site within an organism. Here, we use imaging-based phenomics to quantitate phenotypes at many sites within the axial skeleton of CRISPR-edited G0 zebrafish. Through characterization of loss-of-function cell clusters in the developing skeleton, we identify a distinctive size distribution shown to arise from clonal fragmentation and merger events. We quantitate the phenotypic mosaicism produced by somatic mutations of two genes, plod2 and bmp1a, implicated in human osteogenesis imperfecta. Comparison of somatic, CRISPR-generated G0 mutants to homozygous germline mutants reveals phenotypic convergence, suggesting that CRISPR screens of G0 animals can faithfully recapitulate the biology of inbred disease models. We describe statistical frameworks for phenomic analysis of spatial phenotypic variation present in somatic G0 mutants. In sum, this study defines an approach for decoding spatially variable phenotypes generated during CRISPR-based screens.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Li R, Zeng W, Ma M, et al (2020)

Precise editing of myostatin signal peptide by CRISPR/Cas9 increases the muscle mass of Liang Guang Small Spotted pigs.

Transgenic research, 29(1):149-163.

Myostatin (MSTN), a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily, is a negative regulator of muscle growth and development. Disruption of the MSTN gene in various mammalian species markedly promotes muscle growth. Previous studies have mainly focused on the disruption of the MSTN peptide coding region in pigs but not on the modification of the signal peptide region. In this study, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) system was used to successfully introduce two mutations (PVD20H and GP19del) in the MSTN signal peptide region of the indigenous Chinese pig breed, Liang Guang Small Spotted pig. Both mutations in signal peptide increased the muscle mass without inhibiting the production of mature MSTN peptide in the cells. Histological analysis revealed that the enhanced muscle mass in MSTN+/PVD20H pig was mainly due to an increase in the number of muscle fibers. The expression of MSTN in the longissimus dorsi muscle of MSTN+/PVD20H and MSTNKO/PVD20H pigs was significantly downregulated, whereas that of myogenic regulatory factors, including MyoD, Myogenin, and Myf-5, was significantly upregulated when compared to those in the longissimus dorsi muscle of wild-type pigs. Meanwhile, the mutations also activated the PI3K/Akt pathway. The results of this study indicated that precise editing of the MSTN signal peptide can enhance porcine muscle development without markedly affecting the expression of mature MSTN peptide, which could exert other beneficial biological functions in the edited pigs.

RevDate: 2021-06-03
CmpDate: 2021-06-03

Klatt D, Cheng E, Hoffmann D, et al (2020)

Differential Transgene Silencing of Myeloid-Specific Promoters in the AAVS1 Safe Harbor Locus of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Myeloid Cells.

Human gene therapy, 31(3-4):199-210.

Targeted integration into a genomic safe harbor, such as the AAVS1 locus on chromosome 19, promises predictable transgene expression and reduces the risk of insertional mutagenesis in the host genome. The application of gamma-retroviral long terminal repeat (LTR)-driven vectors, which semirandomly integrate into the genome, has previously caused severe adverse events in some clinical studies due to transactivation of neighboring proto-oncogenes. Consequently, the site-specific integration of a therapeutic transgene into a genomic safe harbor locus would allow stable genetic correction with a reduced risk of insertional mutagenesis. However, recent studies revealed that transgene silencing, especially in case of weaker cell type-specific promoters, can occur in the AAVS1 locus of human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and can impede transgene expression during differentiation. In this study, we aimed to correct p47phox deficiency, which is the second most common cause of chronic granulomatous disease, by insertion of a therapeutic p47phox transgene into the AAVS1 locus of human induced PSCs (iPSCs) using CRISPR-Cas9. We analyzed transgene expression and functional correction from three different myeloid-specific promoters (miR223, CatG/cFes, and myeloid-related protein 8 [MRP8]). Upon myeloid differentiation of corrected iPSC clones, we observed that the miR223 and CatG/cFes promoters achieved therapeutically relevant levels of p47phox expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity, whereas the MRP8 promoter was less efficient. Analysis of the different promoters revealed high CpG methylation of the MRP8 promoter in differentiated cells, which correlated with the transgene expression data. In summary, we identified the miR223 and CatG/cFes promoters as cell type-specific promoters that allow stable transgene expression in the AAVS1 locus of iPSC-derived myeloid cells. Our findings further indicate that promoter silencing can occur in the AAVS1 safe harbor locus in differentiated hematopoietic cells and that a comparison of different promoters is necessary to achieve optimal transgene expression for therapeutic application of iPSC-derived cells.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Ghogare R, Williamson-Benavides B, Ramírez-Torres F, et al (2020)

CRISPR-associated nucleases: the Dawn of a new age of efficient crop improvement.

Transgenic research, 29(1):1-35.

The world stands at a new threshold today. As a planet, we face various challenges, and the key one is how to continue to produce enough food, feed, fiber, and fuel to support the burgeoning population. In the past, plant breeding and the ability to genetically engineer crops contributed to increasing food production. However, both approaches rely on random mixing or integration of genes, and the process can be unpredictable and time-consuming. Given the challenge of limited availability of natural resources and changing environmental conditions, the need to rapidly and precisely improve crops has become urgent. The discovery of CRISPR-associated endonucleases offers a precise yet versatile platform for rapid crop improvement. This review summarizes a brief history of the discovery of CRISPR-associated nucleases and their application in genome editing of various plant species. Also provided is an overview of several new endonucleases reported recently, which can be utilized for editing of specific genes in plants through various forms of DNA sequence alteration. Genome editing, with its ever-expanding toolset, increased efficiency, and its potential integration with the emerging synthetic biology approaches hold promise for efficient crop improvement to meet the challenge of supporting the needs of future generations.

RevDate: 2021-06-05

Jia N, DJ Patel (2021)

Structure-based functional mechanisms and biotechnology applications of anti-CRISPR proteins.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR loci and Cas proteins provide adaptive immunity in prokaryotes against invading bacteriophages and plasmids. In response, bacteriophages have evolved a broad spectrum of anti-CRISPR proteins (anti-CRISPRs) to counteract and overcome this immunity pathway. Numerous anti-CRISPRs have been identified to date, which suppress single-subunit Cas effectors (in CRISPR class 2, type II, V and VI systems) and multisubunit Cascade effectors (in CRISPR class 1, type I and III systems). Crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy structural studies of anti-CRISPRs bound to effector complexes, complemented by functional experiments in vitro and in vivo, have identified four major CRISPR-Cas suppression mechanisms: inhibition of CRISPR-Cas complex assembly, blocking of target binding, prevention of target cleavage, and degradation of cyclic oligonucleotide signalling molecules. In this Review, we discuss novel mechanistic insights into anti-CRISPR function that have emerged from X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy studies, and how these structures in combination with function studies provide valuable tools for the ever-growing CRISPR-Cas biotechnology toolbox, to be used for precise and robust genome editing and other applications.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )