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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2021 at 01:32 Created: 


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-09-15

Hacker L, Dorn A, Enderle J, et al (2021)

The repair of topoisomerase 2 cleavage complexes in Arabidopsis.

The Plant cell pii:6370714 [Epub ahead of print].

DNA-protein crosslinks (DPCs) and DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs), including those produced by stalled topoisomerase 2 cleavage complexes (TOP2ccs), must be repaired to ensure genome stability. The basic mechanisms of TOP2cc repair have been characterized in other eukaryotes, but we lack information for plants. Using CRISPR/Cas-induced mutants, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana has two main TOP2cc repair pathways: one is defined by TYROSYL-DNA-PHOSPHODIESTERASE 2 (TDP2), which hydrolyzes TOP2-DNA linkages, the other by the DNA-dependent protease WSS1A (a homolog of human SPARTAN/yeast weak suppressor of smt3 [Wss1]), which also functions in DPC repair. TDP1 and TDP2 function non-redundantly in TOP1cc repair, indicating that they act specifically on their respective stalled cleavage complexes. The nuclease METHYL METHANESULFONATE AND UV SENSITIVE PROTEIN 81 (MUS81) plays a major role in global DPC repair and a minor role in TOP2cc repair. DSBs arise as intermediates of TOP2cc repair and are repaired by classical and alternative non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathways. Double mutant analysis indicates that "clean" DNA ends caused by TDP2 hydrolysis are mainly religated by classical NHEJ, which helps avoid mutation. In contrast, the mutagenic alternative NHEJ pathway mainly processes non-ligateable DNA ends. Thus, TDP2 promotes maintenance of plant genome integrity by error-free repair of TOP2cc.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

León Y, CS Faherty (2021)

Bacteriophages against enteropathogens: rediscovery and refinement of novel antimicrobial therapeutics.

Current opinion in infectious diseases, 34(5):491-499.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alarming rates of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and gastrointestinal dysbiosis associated with traditional antimicrobial therapy have led to renewed interests in developing bacteriophages as novel therapeutics. In this review, we highlight some of the recent advances in bacteriophage therapeutic development targeting important enteropathogens of the gastrointestinal tract.

RECENT FINDINGS: Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, either to utilize the bacterial machinery to produce new progeny or stably integrate into the bacterial chromosome to ensure maintenance of the viral genome. With recent advances in synthetic biology and the discovery of CRISPR-Cas systems used by bacteria to protect against bacteriophages, novel molecular applications are taking us beyond the discovery of bacteriophages and toward innovative applications, including the targeting of bacterial virulence factors, the use of temperate bacteriophages, and the production of bacteriophage proteins as antimicrobial agents. These technologies offer promise to target enteropathogens without disrupting the healthy microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the use of nanoparticle technology and other modifications are helping researchers circumvent the harsh gastrointestinal conditions that could limit the efficacy of bacteriophages against enteric pathogens.

SUMMARY: This era of discovery and development offers significant potential to modify bacteriophages and overcome the global impact of enteropathogens.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Rao GS, Jiang W, M Mahfouz (2021)

Synthetic directed evolution in plants: unlocking trait engineering and improvement.

Synthetic biology (Oxford, England), 6(1):ysab025 pii:ysab025.

Genetic variation accelerates adaptation and resilience and enables the survival of species in their changing environment. Increasing the genetic diversity of crop species is essential to improve their yield and enhance food security. Synthetic directed evolution (SDE) employs localized sequence diversification (LSD) of gene sequence and selection pressure to evolve gene variants with better fitness, improved properties and desired phenotypes. Recently, CRISPR-Cas-dependent and -independent technologies have been applied for LSD to mediate synthetic evolution in diverse species, including plants. SDE holds excellent promise to discover, accelerate and expand the range of traits of the value in crop species. Here, we highlight the efficient SDE approaches for the LSD of plant genes, selection strategies and critical traits for targeted improvement. We discuss the potential of emerging technologies, including CRISPR-Cas base editing, retron editing, EvolvR and prime editing, to establish efficient SDE in plants. Moreover, we cover CRISPR-Cas-independent technologies, including T7 polymerase editor for continuous evolution. We highlight the key challenges and potential solutions of applying SDE technologies to improve the plant traits of the value.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Wang C, Han C, Du X, et al (2021)

Versatile CRISPR-Cas12a-Based Biosensing Platform Modulated with Programmable Entropy-Driven Dynamic DNA Networks.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

In addition to their roles as revolutionary genome engineering tools, CRISPR-Cas systems are also highly promising candidates in the construction of biosensing systems and diagnostic devices, which have attracted significant attention recently. However, the CRISPR-Cas system cannot be directly applied in the sensing of non-nucleic acid targets, and the needs of synthesizing and storing different vulnerable guide RNA for different targets also increase the application and storage costs of relevant biosensing systems, and therefore restrict their widespread applications. To tackle these barriers, in this work, a versatile CRISPR-Cas12a-based biosensing platform was developed through the introduction of an enzyme-free and robust DNA reaction network, the entropy-driven dynamic DNA network. By programming the sequences of the system, the entropy-driven catalysis-based dynamic DNA network can respond to different types of targets, such as nucleic acids or proteins, and then activate the CRISPR-Cas12a to generate amplified signals. As a proof of concept, both nucleic acid targets (a DNA target with random sequence, T, and an RNA target, microRNA-21 (miR-21)) and a non-nucleic acid target (a protein target, thrombin) were chosen as model analytes to address the feasibility of the designed sensing platform, with detection limits at the pM level for the nucleic acid analytes (7.4 pM for the DNA target T and 25.5 pM for miR-21) and 0.4 nM for thrombin. In addition, the detection of miR-21 or thrombin in human serum samples further demonstrated the applicability of the proposed biosensing platform in real sample analysis.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Luo Y, Na R, Nowak JS, et al (2021)

Development of a Csy4-processed guide RNA delivery system with soybean-infecting virus ALSV for genome editing.

BMC plant biology, 21(1):419.

BACKGROUND: A key issue for implementation of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing for plant trait improvement and gene function analysis is to efficiently deliver the components, including guide RNAs (gRNAs) and Cas9, into plants. Plant virus-based gRNA delivery strategy has proven to be an important tool for genome editing. However, its application in soybean which is an important crop has not been reported yet. ALSV (apple latent spherical virus) is highly infectious virus and could be explored for delivering elements for genome editing.

RESULTS: To develop a ALSV-based gRNA delivery system, the Cas9-based Csy4-processed ALSV Carry (CCAC) system was developed. In this system, we engineered the soybean-infecting ALSV to carry and deliver gRNA(s). The endoribonuclease Csy4 effectively releases gRNAs that function efficiently in Cas9-mediated genome editing. Genome editing of endogenous phytoene desaturase (PDS) loci and exogenous 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) sequence in Nicotiana. benthamiana (N. benthamiana) through CCAC was confirmed using Sanger sequencing. Furthermore, CCAC-induced mutagenesis in two soybean endogenous GW2 paralogs was detected.

CONCLUSIONS: With the aid of the CCAC system, the target-specific gRNA(s) can be easily manipulated and efficiently delivered into soybean plant cells by viral infection. This is the first virus-based gRNA delivery system for soybean for genome editing and can be used for gene function study and trait improvement.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

van der Oost J, LO Fresco (2021)

Waive CRISPR patents to meet food needs in low-income countries.

Nature, 597(7875):178.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Socha M, Sowińska-Seidler A, Melo US, et al (2021)

Position effects at the FGF8 locus are associated with femoral hypoplasia.

American journal of human genetics, 108(9):1725-1734.

Copy-number variations (CNVs) are a common cause of congenital limb malformations and are interpreted primarily on the basis of their effect on gene dosage. However, recent studies show that CNVs also influence the 3D genome chromatin organization. The functional interpretation of whether a phenotype is the result of gene dosage or a regulatory position effect remains challenging. Here, we report on two unrelated families with individuals affected by bilateral hypoplasia of the femoral bones, both harboring de novo duplications on chromosome 10q24.32. The ∼0.5 Mb duplications include FGF8, a key regulator of limb development and several limb enhancer elements. To functionally characterize these variants, we analyzed the local chromatin architecture in the affected individuals' cells and re-engineered the duplications in mice by using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. We found that the duplications were associated with ectopic chromatin contacts and increased FGF8 expression. Transgenic mice carrying the heterozygous tandem duplication including Fgf8 exhibited proximal shortening of the limbs, resembling the human phenotype. To evaluate whether the phenotype was a result of gene dosage, we generated another transgenic mice line, carrying the duplication on one allele and a concurrent Fgf8 deletion on the other allele, as a control. Surprisingly, the same malformations were observed. Capture Hi-C experiments revealed ectopic interaction with the duplicated region and Fgf8, indicating a position effect. In summary, we show that duplications at the FGF8 locus are associated with femoral hypoplasia and that the phenotype is most likely the result of position effects altering FGF8 expression rather than gene dosage effects.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Malik D, Mahendiratta S, Kaur H, et al (2021)

Futuristic approach to cancer treatment.

Gene, 805:145906.

Cancer is becoming one of the deadliest disease in both developed as well as developing countries and continuous effort is being made to find innovative therapies for myriad types of cancers that afflict the human body. Therapeutic options for cancer have grown exponentially over the time but we are quite a way off from finding a magic bullet that can help cure cancer and based on the current evidence we may never find a catch all cure ever and it becomes crucial that we keep on innovating and find multiple ways to attack the menace of this dreaded disease. Many patients suffer recurrence of disease and require second-line or in some cases more than two lines of treatment. In this review article we have discussed the available therapies along with the newer advancements that have been made in cancer therapy. Latest developments in treatment of various cancers that have been discussed include gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9, theranostics, viral mediated therapy, artificial intelligence, tumor infiltrating lymphocyte therapy, etc.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Luff DH, Wojdyla K, Oxley D, et al (2021)

PI3Kδ Forms Distinct Multiprotein Complexes at the TCR Signalosome in Naïve and Differentiated CD4+ T Cells.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:631271.

Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) play a central role in adaptive immunity by transducing signals from the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) via production of PIP3. PI3Kδ is a heterodimer composed of a p110δ catalytic subunit associated with a p85α or p85β regulatory subunit and is preferentially engaged by the TCR upon T cell activation. The molecular mechanisms leading to PI3Kδ recruitment and activation at the TCR signalosome remain unclear. In this study, we have used quantitative mass spectrometry, biochemical approaches and CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to uncover the p110δ interactome in primary CD4+ T cells. Moreover, we have determined how the PI3Kδ interactome changes upon the differentiation of small naïve T cells into T cell blasts expanded in the presence of IL-2. Our interactomic analyses identified multiple constitutive and inducible PI3Kδ-interacting proteins, some of which were common to naïve and previously-activated T cells. Our data reveals that PI3Kδ rapidly interacts with as many as seven adaptor proteins upon TCR engagement, including the Gab-family proteins, GAB2 and GAB3, a CD5-CBL signalosome and the transmembrane proteins ICOS and TRIM. Our results also suggest that PI3Kδ pre-forms complexes with the adaptors SH3KBP1 and CRKL in resting cells that could facilitate the localization and activation of p110δ at the plasma membrane by forming ternary complexes during early TCR signalling. Furthermore, we identify interactions that were not previously known to occur in CD4+ T cells, involving BCAP, GAB3, IQGAP3 and JAML. We used CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene knockout in primary T cells to confirm that BCAP is a positive regulator of PI3K-AKT signalling in CD4+ T cell blasts. Overall, our results provide evidence for a large protein network that regulates the recruitment and activation of PI3Kδ in T cells. Finally, this work shows how the PI3Kδ interactome is remodeled as CD4+ T cells differentiate from naïve T cells to activated T cell blasts. These activated T cells upregulate additional PI3Kδ adaptor proteins, including BCAP, GAB2, IQGAP3 and ICOS. This rewiring of TCR-PI3K signalling that occurs upon T cell differentiation may serve to reduce the threshold of activation and diversify the inputs for the PI3K pathway in effector T cells.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Zoloth L (2021)

The ethical scientist in a time of uncertainty.

Cell, 184(6):1430-1439.

All of science takes place amidst a world shaken by uncertainty, social and political upheaval, and challenges to truthful testimony. Just at the moment in which increasing control over biology has been theorized, our social world has become increasingly contentious and its values more divisive. Using the example of gene drives for malaria control to explore the problem of deep uncertainty in biomedical research, I argue that profound uncertainty is an essential feature. Applying the language and presumptions of the discipline of philosophical ethics, I describe three types of uncertainty that raise ethical challenges in scientific research. Rather than mitigate these challenges with excessive precautions and limits on progress, I suggest that researchers can cultivate classic values of veracity, courage, humility, and fidelity in their research allowing science to proceed ethically under conditions of deep uncertainty.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Aprilyanto V, Aditama R, Tanjung ZA, et al (2021)

CROP: a CRISPR/Cas9 guide selection program based on mapping guide variants.

Scientific reports, 11(1):1504.

The off-target effect, in which DNA cleavage was conducted outside the targeted region, is a major problem which limits the applications of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. CRISPR Off-target Predictor (CROP) is standalone program developed to address this problem by predicting off-target propensity of guide RNAs and thereby allowing the user to select the optimum guides. The approach used by CROP involves generating substitution, deletion and insertion combinations which are then mapped into the reference genome. Based on these mapped variants, scoring and alignment are conducted and then reported as a table comprising the off-target propensity of all guide RNAs from a given gene sequence. The Python script for this program is freely available from: .

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Luo N, Li J, Chen Y, et al (2021)

Hepatic stellate cell reprogramming via exosome-mediated CRISPR/dCas9-VP64 delivery.

Drug delivery, 28(1):10-18.

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a crucial role in the progression of liver fibrosis, which can be considered as the specific therapeutic target of anti-fibrotic treatment. Targeted induction of HSCs to hepatocytes via delivery of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (dCas9) system holds promise for hepatic fibrosis treatment. Our study here revealed that CRISPR/dCas9-VP64 system encapsulated in AML12 cell-derived exosomes could efficiently and successfully be delivered into the HSCs. In turn, the CRISPR/dCas9-VP64 system loaded in the exosomes can be efficiently released into the HSCs. As a proof-of-concept study, gRNA against hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) together with the delivery of CRISPR/dCas9-VP64 system induced the HSCs to hepatocyte-like phenotype. In conclusion, our study here revealed that CRISPR/dCas9-VP64 system encapsulated in AML12 cell-derived exosomes could be functional in HSCs, emerging as a gene therapy strategy for hepatic fibrosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Mirzaei S, Paskeh MDA, Hashemi F, et al (2021)

Long non-coding RNAs as new players in bladder cancer: Lessons from pre-clinical and clinical studies.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(21)00935-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical management of bladder cancer (BC) has become an increasing challenge due to high incidence rate of BC, malignant behavior of cancer cells and drug resistance. The non-coding RNAs are considered as key factors involved in BC progression. The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are RNA molecules and do not encode proteins. They have more than 200 nucleotides in length and affect gene expression at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional phases. The lncRNAs demonstrate abnormal expression in BC cells and tissues. The present aims to identifying lncRNAs with tumor-suppressor and tumor-promoting roles, and evaluating their roles as regulatory of growth and migration. Apoptosis, glycolysis and EMT are tightly regulated by lncRNAs in BC. Response of BC cells to cisplatin, doxorubicin and gemcitabine chemotherapy is modulated by lncRNAs. LncRNAs regulate immune cell infiltration in tumor microenvironment and affect response of BC cells to immunotherapy. Besides, lncRNAs are able to regulate microRNAs, STAT3, Wnt, PTEN and PI3K/Akt pathways in affecting both proliferation and migration of BC cells. Noteworthy, anti-tumor compounds and genetic tools such as siRNA, shRNA and CRISPR/Cas systems can regulate lncRNA expression in BC. Finally, lncRNAs and exosomal lncRNAs can be considered as potential diagnostic and prognostic tools in BC.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Kruglov O, Johnson LDS, Minic A, et al (2021)

The pivotal role of cytotoxic NK cells in mediating the therapeutic effect of anti-CD47 therapy in mycosis fungoides.

Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII [Epub ahead of print].

CD47 is frequently overexpressed on tumor cells and is an attractive therapeutic target. The mechanism by which anti-CD47 immunotherapy eliminates cutaneous lymphoma has not been explored. We utilized CRISPR/Cas-9 CD47 knock-out, depletion of NK cells, and mice genetically deficient in IFN-γ to elucidate the mechanism of anti-CD47 therapy in a murine model of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL). CD47 was found to be a crucial factor for tumor progression since CD47 KO CTCL exhibited a delay in tumor growth. The treatment of CD47 WT murine CTCL with anti-CD47 antibodies led to a significant reduction in tumor burden as early as four days after the first treatment and accompanied by an increased percentage of cytotoxic NK cells at the tumor site. The depletion of NK cells resulted in marked attenuation of the anti-tumor effect of anti-CD47. Notably, the treatment of CD47 WT tumors in IFN-γ KO mice with anti-CD47 antibodies was efficient, demonstrating that IFN-γ was not required to mediate anti-CD47 therapy. We were able to potentiate the therapeutic effect of anti-CD47 therapy by IFN-α. That combination resulted in an increased number of cytotoxic CD107a + IFN-γ-NK1.1 cells and intermediate CD62L + NKG2a-NK1.1. Correlative data from a clinical trial (, NCT02890368) in patients with CTCL utilizing SIRPαFc to block CD47 confirmed our in vivo observations.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Molla KA, Sretenovic S, Bansal KC, et al (2021)

Precise plant genome editing using base editors and prime editors.

Nature plants [Epub ahead of print].

The development of CRISPR-Cas systems has sparked a genome editing revolution in plant genetics and breeding. These sequence-specific RNA-guided nucleases can induce DNA double-stranded breaks, resulting in mutations by imprecise non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair or precise DNA sequence replacement by homology-directed repair (HDR). However, HDR is highly inefficient in many plant species, which has greatly limited precise genome editing in plants. To fill the vital gap in precision editing, base editing and prime editing technologies have recently been developed and demonstrated in numerous plant species. These technologies, which are mainly based on Cas9 nickases, can introduce precise changes into the target genome at a single-base resolution. This Review provides a timely overview of the current status of base editors and prime editors in plants, covering both technological developments and biological applications.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Wang L, Sola I, Enjuanes L, et al (2021)

MOV10 Helicase Interacts with Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Protein and Has Antiviral Activity.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are emergent pathogens that may cause life-threatening respiratory diseases in humans. Understanding of CoV-host interactions may help to identify novel therapeutic targets. MOV10 is an RNA helicase involved in different steps of cellular RNA metabolism. Both MOV10 antiviral and proviral activities have been described in a limited number of viruses, but this protein has not been previously associated with CoVs. We found that during Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection, MOV10 aggregated in cytoplasmic structures colocalizing with viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. MOV10-N interaction was confirmed by endogenous MOV10 coimmunoprecipitation, and the presence of other cellular proteins was also detected in MOV10 complexes. MOV10 silencing significantly increased both N protein accumulation and virus titer, with no changes in the accumulation of viral RNAs. Moreover, MOV10 overexpression caused a 10-fold decrease in viral titers. These data indicated that MOV10 has antiviral activity during MERS-CoV infection. We postulated that this activity could be mediated by viral RNA sequestration, and in fact, RNA immunoprecipitation data showed the presence of viral RNAs in the MOV10 cytoplasmic complexes. Expression of wild-type MOV10 or of a MOV10 mutant without helicase activity in MOV10 knockout cell lines, developed by CRISPR-Cas technology, indicated that the helicase activity of MOV10 was required for its antiviral effect. Interestingly MOV10-N interaction was conserved in other mildly or highly pathogenic human CoVs, including the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), although MOV10 antiviral activity was found only in highly pathogenic CoVs, suggesting a potential role of MOV10 in the modulation of human CoVs pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses (CoVs) are emerging pathogens causing life-threatening diseases in humans. Knowledge of virus-host interactions and viral subversion mechanisms of host pathways is required for the development of effective countermeasures against CoVs. The interaction between cellular RNA helicase MOV10 and nucleocapsid (N) protein from several human CoVs is shown. Using MERS-CoV as a model, we demonstrate that MOV10 has antiviral function, requiring its helicase activity, most likely mediated by viral RNA sequestration in cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein structures. Furthermore, we found that MOV10 antiviral activity may act only in highly pathogenic human CoVs, suggesting a role for MOV10 in modulating CoVs pathogenesis. The present study uncovers a complex network of viral and cellular RNAs and proteins interaction modulating the antiviral response against CoVs.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Liang J, Teng P, Xiao W, et al (2021)

Application of the amplification-free SERS-based CRISPR/Cas12a platform in the identification of SARS-CoV-2 from clinical samples.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 19(1):273.

The control of contagious or refractory diseases requires early, rapid diagnostic assays that are simple, fast, and easy-to-use. Here, easy-to-implement CRISPR/Cas12a-based diagnostic platform through Raman transducer generated by Raman enhancement effect, term as SERS-CRISPR (S-CRISPR), are described. The S-CRISPR uses high-activity noble metallic nanoscopic materials to increase the sensitivity in the detection of nucleic acids, without amplification. This amplification-free platform, which can be performed within 30-40 min of incubation time, is then used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 derived nucleic acids in RNA extracts obtained from nasopharyngeal swab specimens (n = 112). Compared with the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), the sensitivity and specificity of S-CRISPR reaches 87.50% and 100%, respectively. In general, the S-CRISPR can rapidly identify the RNA of SARS-CoV-2 RNA without amplification and is a potential strategy for nucleic acid point of care test (POCT).

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Anonymous (2021)

Kazuto Kato: the ethics of editing humanity.

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 99(9):616-617.

Gary Humphreys talks to Kazuto Kato about the ethical and societal challenges posed by biotechnologies that allow for the editing of the human genome.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Prieto-Bermejo R, Romo-González M, Pérez-Fernández A, et al (2021)

Granuloma Formation in a Cyba-Deficient Model of Chronic Granulomatous Disease Is Associated with Myeloid Hyperplasia and the Exhaustion of B-Cell Lineage.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(16):.

Haematopoiesis is a paradigm of cell differentiation because of the wide variety and overwhelming number of mature blood cells produced daily. Under stress conditions, the organism must adapt to a boosted demand for blood cells. Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetic disease caused by inactivating mutations that affect the phagocyte oxidase. Besides a defective innate immune system, CGD patients suffer from recurrent hyper-inflammation episodes, circumstances upon which they must face emergency haematopoiesis. The targeting of Cybb and Ncf1 genes have produced CGD animal models that are a useful surrogate when studying the pathophysiology and treatment of this disease. Here, we show that Cyba-/- mice spontaneously develop granuloma and, therefore, constitute a CGD animal model to complement the existing Cybb-/- and Ncf1-/- models. More importantly, we have analysed haematopoiesis in granuloma-bearing Cyba-/- mice. These animals showed a significant loss of weight, developed remarkable splenomegaly, bone marrow myeloid hyperplasia, and signs of anaemia. Haematological analyses showed a sharped decrease of B-cells and a striking development of myeloid cells in all compartments. Collectively, our results show that granuloma inflammatory lesions dramatically change haematopoiesis homeostasis. Consequently, we suggest that besides their defective innate immunity, the alteration of haematopoiesis homeostasis upon granuloma may contribute to the dismal outcome of CGD.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Abashkin DA, Kurishev AO, Karpov DS, et al (2021)

Cellular Models in Schizophrenia Research.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(16):.

Schizophrenia (SZ) is a prevalent functional psychosis characterized by clinical behavioural symptoms and underlying abnormalities in brain function. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of schizophrenia have revealed many loci that do not directly identify processes disturbed in the disease. For this reason, the development of cellular models containing SZ-associated variations has become a focus in the post-GWAS research era. The application of revolutionary clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing tools, along with recently developed technologies for cultivating brain organoids in vitro, have opened new perspectives for the construction of these models. In general, cellular models are intended to unravel particular biological phenomena. They can provide the missing link between schizophrenia-related phenotypic features (such as transcriptional dysregulation, oxidative stress and synaptic dysregulation) and data from pathomorphological, electrophysiological and behavioural studies. The objectives of this review are the systematization and classification of cellular models of schizophrenia, based on their complexity and validity for understanding schizophrenia-related phenotypes.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Ryu AJ, Jeong BR, Kang NK, et al (2021)

Safe-Harboring based novel genetic toolkit for Nannochloropsis salina CCMP1776: Efficient overexpression of transgene via CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Knock-in at the transcriptional hotspot.

Bioresource technology, 340:125676.

Transgene expression in microalgae can be hampered by transgene silencing and unstable expression due to position effects. To overcome this, "safe harboring" transgene expression system was established for Nannochloropsis. Initially, transformants were obtained expressing a sfGFP reporter, followed by screening for high expression of sfGFP with fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS). 'T1' transcriptional hotspot was identified from a mutant showing best expression of sfGFP, but did not affect growth or lipid contents. By using a Cas9 editor strain, FAD12 gene, encoding Δ12-fatty acid desaturase (FAD12), was successfully knocked-in at the T1 locus, resulting in significantly higher expression of FAD12 than those of random integration. Importantly, the "safe harbored" FAD12 transformants showed four-fold higher production of linoleic acid (LA), the product of FAD12, leading to 1.5-fold increase in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This safe harboring principle provide excellent proof of the concept for successful genetic/metabolic engineering of microalgae and other organisms.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Matboli M, Kamel MM, Essawy N, et al (2021)

Identification of Novel Insulin Resistance Related ceRNA Network in T2DM and Its Potential Editing by CRISPR/Cas9.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(15):.

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide and is derived from an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we aimed to construct Insilco, a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network linked to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance followed by its experimental validation in patients', matched control and cell line samples, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of CRISPR/Cas9 as a potential therapeutic strategy to modulate the expression of this deregulated network. By applying bioinformatics tools through a two-step process, we identified and verified a ceRNA network panel of mRNAs, miRNAs and lncRNA related to insulin resistance, Then validated the expression in clinical samples (123 patients and 106 controls) and some of matched cell line samples using real time PCR. Next, two guide RNAs were designed to target the sequence flanking LncRNA/miRNAs interaction by CRISPER/Cas9 in cell culture. Gene editing tool efficacy was assessed by measuring the network downstream proteins GLUT4 and mTOR via immunofluorescence.

RESULTS: LncRNA-RP11-773H22.4, together with RET, IGF1R and mTOR mRNAs, showed significant upregulation in T2DM compared with matched controls, while miRNA (i.e., miR-3163 and miR-1) and mRNA (i.e., GLUT4 and AKT2) expression displayed marked downregulation in diabetic samples. CRISPR/Cas9 successfully knocked out LncRNA-RP11-773H22.4, as evidenced by the reversal of the gene expression of the identified network at RNA and protein levels to the normal expression pattern after gene editing.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the significance of this ceRNA based network and its related target genes panel both in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and as a therapeutic target for gene editing in T2DM.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Arlt B, Mastrobuoni G, Wuenschel J, et al (2021)

Inhibiting PHGDH with NCT-503 reroutes glucose-derived carbons into the TCA cycle, independently of its on-target effect.

Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry, 36(1):1282-1289.

The small-molecule inhibitor of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, NCT-503, reduces incorporation of glucose-derived carbons into serine in vitro. Here we describe an off-target effect of NCT-503 in neuroblastoma cell lines expressing divergent phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) levels and single-cell clones with CRISPR-Cas9-directed PHGDH knockout or their respective wildtype controls. NCT-503 treatment strongly reduced synthesis of glucose-derived citrate in all cell models investigated compared to the inactive drug control and independent of PHGDH expression level. Incorporation of glucose-derived carbons entering the TCA cycle via pyruvate carboxylase was enhanced by NCT-503 treatment. The activity of citrate synthase was not altered by NCT-503 treatment. We also detected no change in the thermal stabilisation of citrate synthase in cellular thermal shift assays from NCT-503-treated cells. Thus, the direct cause of the observed off-target effect remains enigmatic. Our findings highlight off-target potential within a metabolic assessment of carbon usage in cells treated with the small-molecule inhibitor, NCT-503.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Matsumoto D, W Nomura (2021)

Molecular Switch Engineering for Precise Genome Editing.

Bioconjugate chemistry, 32(4):639-648.

Genome editing technology commenced in 1996 with the discovery of the first zinc-finger nuclease. Application of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) associated protein 9 (Cas9) technology to genome editing of mammalian cells allowed researchers to use genome editing more easily and cost-effectively. However, one of the technological problems that remains to be solved is "off-target effects", which are unexpected mutations in nontarget DNA. One significant improvement in genome editing technology has been achieved with molecular/protein engineering. The key to this engineering is a "switch" to control function. In this review, we discuss recent efforts to design novel "switching" systems for precise editing using genome editing tools.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Huang H, Zhou P, Wei J, et al (2021)

In vivo CRISPR screening reveals nutrient signaling processes underpinning CD8+ T cell fate decisions.

Cell, 184(5):1245-1261.e21.

How early events in effector T cell (TEFF) subsets tune memory T cell (TMEM) responses remains incompletely understood. Here, we systematically investigated metabolic factors in fate determination of TEFF and TMEM cells using in vivo pooled CRISPR screening, focusing on negative regulators of TMEM responses. We found that amino acid transporters Slc7a1 and Slc38a2 dampened the magnitude of TMEM differentiation, in part through modulating mTORC1 signaling. By integrating genetic and systems approaches, we identified cellular and metabolic heterogeneity among TEFF cells, with terminal effector differentiation associated with establishment of metabolic quiescence and exit from the cell cycle. Importantly, Pofut1 (protein-O-fucosyltransferase-1) linked GDP-fucose availability to downstream Notch-Rbpj signaling, and perturbation of this nutrient signaling axis blocked terminal effector differentiation but drove context-dependent TEFF proliferation and TMEM development. Our study establishes that nutrient uptake and signaling are key determinants of T cell fate and shape the quantity and quality of TMEM responses.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Chen Z, Arai E, Khan O, et al (2021)

In vivo CD8+ T cell CRISPR screening reveals control by Fli1 in infection and cancer.

Cell, 184(5):1262-1280.e22.

Improving effector activity of antigen-specific T cells is a major goal in cancer immunotherapy. Despite the identification of several effector T cell (TEFF)-driving transcription factors (TFs), the transcriptional coordination of TEFF biology remains poorly understood. We developed an in vivo T cell CRISPR screening platform and identified a key mechanism restraining TEFF biology through the ETS family TF, Fli1. Genetic deletion of Fli1 enhanced TEFF responses without compromising memory or exhaustion precursors. Fli1 restrained TEFF lineage differentiation by binding to cis-regulatory elements of effector-associated genes. Loss of Fli1 increased chromatin accessibility at ETS:RUNX motifs, allowing more efficient Runx3-driven TEFF biology. CD8+ T cells lacking Fli1 provided substantially better protection against multiple infections and tumors. These data indicate that Fli1 safeguards the developing CD8+ T cell transcriptional landscape from excessive ETS:RUNX-driven TEFF cell differentiation. Moreover, genetic deletion of Fli1 improves TEFF differentiation and protective immunity in infections and cancer.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Yu H, Lin T, Meng X, et al (2021)

A route to de novo domestication of wild allotetraploid rice.

Cell, 184(5):1156-1170.e14.

Cultivated rice varieties are all diploid, and polyploidization of rice has long been desired because of its advantages in genome buffering, vigorousness, and environmental robustness. However, a workable route remains elusive. Here, we describe a practical strategy, namely de novo domestication of wild allotetraploid rice. By screening allotetraploid wild rice inventory, we identified one genotype of Oryza alta (CCDD), polyploid rice 1 (PPR1), and established two important resources for its de novo domestication: (1) an efficient tissue culture, transformation, and genome editing system and (2) a high-quality genome assembly discriminated into two subgenomes of 12 chromosomes apiece. With these resources, we show that six agronomically important traits could be rapidly improved by editing O. alta homologs of the genes controlling these traits in diploid rice. Our results demonstrate the possibility that de novo domesticated allotetraploid rice can be developed into a new staple cereal to strengthen world food security.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Wang W, Liang Z, Ma P, et al (2021)

Application of CRISPR/Cas9 System to Reverse ABC-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.

Bioconjugate chemistry, 32(1):73-81.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters can transport a wide range of antitumor drugs out of cells, which is the most common reason in the development of resistance to drugs. Currently, various therapeutic strategies are used to reverse MDR, among which CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technique is expected to be an effective way. Here, we reviewed the research progress of reversing ABC-mediated drug resistance by CRISPR/Cas9 system.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Gaudelli NM, AC Komor (2020)

Celebrating Rosalind Franklin's Centennial with a Nobel Win for Doudna and Charpentier.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 28(12):2519-2520.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Lach FP, Singh S, Rickman KA, et al (2020)

Esophageal cancer as initial presentation of Fanconi anemia in patients with a hypomorphic FANCA variant.

Cold Spring Harbor molecular case studies, 6(6):.

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a clinically heterogenous and genetically diverse disease with 22 known complementation groups (FA-A to FA-W), resulting from the inability to repair DNA interstrand cross-links. This rare disorder is characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. FANCA is the most commonly mutated gene in FA and a variety of mostly private mutations have been documented, including small and large indels and point and splicing variants. Genotype-phenotype associations in FA are complex, and a relationship between particular FANCA variants and the observed cellular phenotype or illness severity remains unclear. In this study, we describe two siblings with compound heterozygous FANCA variants (c.3788_3790delTCT and c.4199G > A) who both presented with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at the age of 51. The proband came to medical attention when he developed pancytopenia after a single cycle of low-dose chemotherapy including platinum-based therapy. Other than a minor thumb abnormality, neither patient had prior findings to suggest FA, including normal blood counts and intact fertility. Patient fibroblasts from both siblings display increased chromosomal breakage and hypersensitivity to interstrand cross-linking agents as seen in typical FA. Based on our functional data demonstrating that the c.4199G > A/p.R1400H variant represents a hypomorphic FANCA allele, we conclude that the residual activity of the Fanconi anemia repair pathway accounts for lack of spontaneous bone marrow failure or infertility with the late presentation of malignancy as the initial disease manifestation. This and similar cases of adult-onset esophageal cancer stress the need for chromosome breakage testing in patients with early onset of aerodigestive tract squamous cell carcinomas before platinum-based therapy is initiated.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Marsh S, Hanson B, Wood MJA, et al (2020)

Application of CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing for the Treatment of Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 28(12):2527-2539.

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a debilitating multisystemic disorder, caused by expansion of a CTG microsatellite repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK (dystrophia myotonica protein kinase) gene. To date, novel therapeutic approaches have focused on transient suppression of the mutant, repeat-expanded RNA. However, recent developments in the field of genome editing have raised the exciting possibility of inducing permanent correction of the DM1 genetic defect. Specifically, repurposing of the prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) system has enabled programmable, site-specific, and multiplex genome editing. CRISPR-based strategies for the treatment of DM1 can be applied either directly to patients, or indirectly through the ex vivo modification of patient-derived cells, and they include excision of the repeat expansion, insertion of synthetic polyadenylation signals upstream of the repeat, steric interference with RNA polymerase II procession through the repeat leading to transcriptional downregulation of DMPK, and direct RNA targeting of the mutant RNA species. Potential obstacles to such therapies are discussed, including the major challenge of Cas9 and guide RNA transgene/ribonuclear protein delivery, off-target gene editing, vector genome insertion at cut sites, on-target unintended mutagenesis (e.g., repeat inversion), pre-existing immunity to Cas9 or AAV antigens, immunogenicity, and Cas9 persistence.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Cheng X (2020)

Valproic Acid Thermally Destabilizes and Inhibits SpyCas9 Activity.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 28(12):2635-2641.

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 system plays an important role in prokaryotic adaptive immunity. Due to its capacity for sequence-specific gene editing, CRISPR-Cas9 has become one of the most important tools widely used for genome editing in molecular biotechnology. However, its clinical application is currently limited by unwanted mutations at off-target sites. Various strategies have been developed for precise control of Cas9 in order to reduce these off-target effects, including chemical-based approaches. From a chemical screening, I observed that valproic acid (VPA) binds to and destabilizes Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) protein in vitro, as well as in cells, while within its therapeutical concentration range under conditions of hyperthermia as demonstrated. Conditions were generated either by an external heat bag or in combination with the photothermal therapeutic agent indocyanine green activated by a near-infrared laser. Use of other histone deacetylase inhibitors failed, suggesting a histone deacetylase inhibition-independent function of VPA. Thus, this finding provides an uncomplicated thermotherapeutical approach for timely regulation of the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system at desired locations.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Khan MHU, Hu L, Zhu M, et al (2021)

Targeted mutagenesis of EOD3 gene in Brassica napus L. regulates seed production.

Journal of cellular physiology, 236(3):1996-2007.

Seed size and number are central to the evolutionary fitness of plants and are also crucial for seed production of crops. However, the molecular mechanisms of seed production control are poorly understood in Brassica crops. Here, we report the gene cloning, expression analysis, and functional characterization of the EOD3/CYP78A6 gene in rapeseed. BnaEOD3 has four copies located in two subgenomes, which exhibited a steady higher expression during seed development with differential expression among copies. The targeted mutations of BnaEOD3 gene were efficiently generated by stable transformation of the CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) vector. These mutations were stably transmitted to T1 and T2 generations and a large collection of homozygous mutants with combined loss-of-function alleles across four BnaEOD3 copies were created for phenotyping. All mutant T1 lines had shorter siliques, smaller seeds, and an increased number of seeds per silique, in which the quadrable mutants showed the most significant changes in these traits. Consequently, the seed weight per plant in the quadrable mutants increased by 13.9% on average compared with that of wild type, indicating that these BnaEOD3 copies have redundant functions in seed development in rapeseed. The phenotypes of the different allelic combinations of BnaEOD3 copies also revealed gene functional differentiation among the two subgenomes. Cytological observations indicated that the BnaEOD3 could act maternally to promote cotyledon cell expansion and proliferation to regulate seed growth in rapeseed. Collectively, our findings reveal the quantitative involvement of the different BnaEOD3 copies function in seed development, but also provided valuable resources for rapeseed breeding programs.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Di Roberto RB, Castellanos-Rueda R, Frey S, et al (2020)

A Functional Screening Strategy for Engineering Chimeric Antigen Receptors with Reduced On-Target, Off-Tumor Activation.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 28(12):2564-2576.

In recent years, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell cancer immunotherapies have advanced substantially in the clinic. However, challenges related to safety persist; one major concern occurs when CARs trigger a response to antigen present on healthy cells (on-target, off-tumor response). A strategy to ameliorate this relies on the complex relationship between receptor affinity and signaling, such that one can engineer a CAR that is only activated by tumor cells expressing high antigen levels. Here, we developed a CAR T cell display platform with stable genomic expression and rapid functional screening based on interleukin-2 signaling. Starting with a CAR with high affinity toward its target antigen, we combined CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing and deep mutational scanning to generate a library of antigen-binding domain variants. This library was subjected to multiple rounds of selection based on either antigen binding or cell signaling. Deep sequencing of the resulting libraries and a comparative analysis revealed the enrichment and depletion of specific variants from which we selected CARs that were selectively activated by tumor cells based on antigen expression levels. Our platform demonstrates how directed evolution based on functional screening and deep sequencing-guided selection can be combined to enhance the selectivity and safety of CARs.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Tran NT, Graf R, Wulf-Goldenberg A, et al (2020)

CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated ELANE Mutation Correction in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells to Treat Severe Congenital Neutropenia.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy, 28(12):2621-2634.

Severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) is a monogenic disorder. SCN patients are prone to recurrent life-threatening infections. The main causes of SCN are autosomal dominant mutations in the ELANE gene that lead to a block in neutrophil differentiation. In this study, we use CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins and adeno-associated virus (AAV)6 as a donor template delivery system to repair the ELANEL172P mutation in SCN patient-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). We used a single guide RNA (sgRNA) specifically targeting the mutant allele, and an sgRNA targeting exon 4 of ELANE. Using the latter sgRNA, ∼34% of the known ELANE mutations can in principle be repaired. We achieved gene correction efficiencies of up to 40% (with sgELANE-ex4) and 56% (with sgELANE-L172P) in the SCN patient-derived HSPCs. Gene repair restored neutrophil differentiation in vitro and in vivo upon HSPC transplantation into humanized mice. Mature edited neutrophils expressed normal elastase levels and behaved normally in functional assays. Thus, we provide a proof of principle for using CRISPR-Cas9 to correct ELANE mutations in patient-derived HSPCs, which may translate into gene therapy for SCN.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Liu Z, Liao Z, Chen Y, et al (2021)

Research on CRISPR/system in major cancers and its potential in cancer treatments.

Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico, 23(3):425-433.

Cancer is a serious public health problem in the world and the prevention and control of cancer has become one of the health strategies of governments around the world. According to the data of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), about 8 million people die of cancer every year in the world. With the continuous progress of medical technology, there are many methods to treat cancer at present. However, many treatment methods have achieved different therapeutic effects, some of them have obvious toxic and side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to study simpler and more effective new therapies for alleviating pain and prolonging lifetime of patients. In this view, we focus on the application progress of CRISPR system in some major cancers and its potential in cancer treatments.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Carballar-Lejarazú R, Kelsey A, Pham TB, et al (2020)

Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi.

BioTechniques, 68(4):172-179.

CRISPR/Cas9 technology is a powerful tool for the design of gene-drive systems to control and/or modify mosquito vector populations; however, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated nonhomologous end joining mutations can have an important impact on generating alleles resistant to the drive and thus on drive efficiency. We demonstrate and compare the insertions or deletions (indels) detection capabilities of two techniques in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles stephensi: Indel Detection by Amplicon Analysis (IDAA™) and Droplet Digital™ PCR (ddPCR™). Both techniques showed accuracy and reproducibility for indel frequencies across mosquito samples containing different ratios of indels of various sizes. Moreover, these techniques have advantages that make them potentially better suited for high-throughput nonhomologous end joining analysis in cage trials and contained field testing of gene-drive mosquitoes.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Her NG, Babic I, Yenugonda VM, et al (2020)

Cellular thermal shift analysis for interrogation of CRISPR-assisted proteomic changes.

BioTechniques, 68(4):180-184.

CRISPR-Cas9 has proven to be a versatile tool for the discovery of essential genetic elements involved in various disease states. CRISPR-assisted dense mutagenesis focused on therapeutically challenging protein complexes allows us to systematically perturb protein-coding sequences in situ and correlate them with functional readouts. Such perturbations can mimic targeting by therapeutics and serve as a foundation for the discovery of highly specific modulators. However, translation of such genomics data has been challenging due to the missing link for proteomics under the physiological state of the cell. We present a method based on cellular thermal shift assays to easily interrogate proteomic shifts generated by CRISPR-assisted dense mutagenesis, as well as a case focused on NuRD epigenetic complex.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Zhou X (2020)

Empowering chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy with CRISPR.

BioTechniques, 68(4):169-171.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Zhang K, Su L, J Wu (2020)

Recent Advances in Recombinant Protein Production by Bacillus subtilis.

Annual review of food science and technology, 11:295-318.

Bacillus subtilis has become a widely used microbial cell factory for the production of recombinant proteins, especially those associated with foods and food processing. Recent advances in genetic manipulation and proteomic analysis have been used to greatly improve protein production in B. subtilis. This review begins with a discussion of genome-editing technologies and application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system to B. subtilis. A summary of the characteristics of crucial legacy strains is followed by suggestions regarding the choice of origin strain for genetic manipulation. Finally, the review analyzes the genes and operons of B. subtilis that are important for the production of secretory proteins and provides suggestions and examples of how they can be altered to improve protein production. This review is intended to promote the engineering of this valuable microbial cell factory for better recombinant protein production.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Savadi S, Mangalassery S, MS Sandesh (2021)

Advances in genomics and genome editing for breeding next generation of fruit and nut crops.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(21)00342-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Fruit tree crops are an essential part of the food production systems and are key to achieve food and nutrition security. Genetic improvement of fruit trees by conventional breeding has been slow due to the long juvenile phase. Advancements in genomics and molecular biology have paved the way for devising novel genetic improvement tools like genome editing, which can accelerate the breeding of these perennial crops to a great extent. In this article, advancements in genomics of fruit trees covering genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, genome editing technologies (GET), CRISPR-Cas system based genome editing, potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 in fruit tree crops improvement, the factors influencing the CRISPR-Cas editing efficiency and the challenges for CRISPR-Cas9 applications in fruit tree crops improvement are reviewed. Besides, base editing, a recently emerging more precise editing system, and the future perspectives of genome editing in the improvement of fruit and nut crops are covered.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Xia X, Ma B, Zhang T, et al (2021)

G-Quadruplex-Probing CRISPR-Cas12 Assay for Label-Free Analysis of Foodborne Pathogens and Their Colonization In Vivo.

ACS sensors [Epub ahead of print].

Foodborne pathogen infection is a key issue of food safety. Herein, we developed a label-free assay for Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) detection based on the G-quadruplex-probing CRISPR-Cas12 system (termed G-CRISPR-Cas), allowing highly sensitive detection of S. enterica and investigation of their colonization in chickens. The introduction of the G-quadruplex probe serving as the substrate of Cas 12a realized a label-free analysis for foodborne pathogens. Due to the amplification process induced by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), G-CRISPR-Cas assay can detect S. enterica as low as 20 CFU. Specificity for pathogenic gene detection was guaranteed by the dual recognition process via LAMP primers and Cas 12a-guided RNA binding. The G-CRISPR-Cas assay was applied to explore S. enterica colonization in the intestinal tract and organs of chickens and showed the risk of S. enterica infection outside of the intestinal tract. The G-CRISPR-Cas assay is promising for on-site diagnosis of the infection or contamination of foodborne pathogens outside the laboratories, such as abattoirs and markets.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Jordan WT, Currie S, RJ Schmitz (2021)

Multiplex genome editing in Arabidopsis thaliana using Mb3Cas12a.

Plant direct, 5(9):e344 pii:PLD3344.

The use of CRISPR-Cas proteins for the creation of multiplex genome engineering represents an important avenue for crop improvement, and further improvements for creation of knock-in plant lines via CRISPR-based technologies may enable the high-throughput creation of designer alleles. To circumvent limitations of the commonly used CRISPR-Cas9 system for multiplex genome engineering, we explored the use of Moraxella bovoculi 3 Cas12a (Mb3Cas12a) for multiplex genome editing in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified optimized cis-regulatory sequences for driving expression of single-transcript multiplex crRNA arrays in A. thaliana, resulting in stable germline transmission of Mb3Cas12a-edited alleles at multiple target sites. By utilizing this system, we demonstrate single-transcript multiplexed genome engineering using of up to 13 crRNA targets. We further show high target specificity of Mb3Cas12a-based genome editing via whole-genome sequencing. Taken together, our method provides a simplified platform for efficient multiplex genome engineering in plant-based systems.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Silva FSR, Erdogmus E, Shokr A, et al (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 RNA Detection by a Cellphone-Based Amplification-Free System with CRISPR/CAS-Dependent Enzymatic (CASCADE) Assay.

Advanced materials technologies pii:ADMT202100602 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-based diagnostic technologies have emerged as a promising alternative to accelerate delivery of SARS-CoV-2 molecular detection at the point of need. However, efficient translation of CRISPR-diagnostic technologies to field application is still hampered by dependence on target amplification and by reliance on fluorescence-based results readout. Herein, an amplification-free CRISPR/Cas12a-based diagnostic technology for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection is presented using a smartphone camera for results readout. This method, termed Cellphone-based amplification-free system with CRISPR/CAS-dependent enzymatic (CASCADE) assay, relies on mobile phone imaging of a catalase-generated gas bubble signal within a microfluidic channel and does not require any external hardware optical attachments. Upon specific detection of a SARS-CoV-2 reverse-transcribed DNA/RNA heteroduplex target (orf1ab) by the ribonucleoprotein complex, the transcleavage collateral activity of the Cas12a protein on a Catalase:ssDNA probe triggers the bubble signal on the system. High analytical sensitivity in signal detection without previous target amplification (down to 50 copies µL-1) is observed in spiked samples, in ≈71 min from sample input to results readout. With the aid of a smartphone vision tool, high accuracy (AUC = 1.0; CI: 0.715 - 1.00) is achieved when the CASCADE system is tested with nasopharyngeal swab samples of PCR-positive COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Piperno A, Sciortino MT, Giusto E, et al (2021)

Recent Advances and Challenges in Gene Delivery Mediated by Polyester-Based Nanoparticles.

International journal of nanomedicine, 16:5981-6002 pii:321329.

Gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of several diseases, such as chronic or viral infections, inherited disorders, and cancer. The cellular internalization of exogenous nucleic acids (NA) requires efficient delivery vehicles to overcome their inherent pharmacokinetic drawbacks, e.g. electrostatic repulsions, enzymatic degradation, limited cellular uptake, fast clearance, etc. Nanotechnological advancements have enabled the use of polymer-based nanostructured biomaterials as safe and effective gene delivery systems, in addition to viral vector delivery methods. Among the plethora of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), this review will provide a comprehensive and in-depth summary of the polyester-based nanovehicles, including poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and polylactic acid (PLA) NPs, used to deliver a variety of foreign NA, e.g. short interfering RNA (siRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and plasmid DNA (pDNA). The article will review the versatility of polyester-based nanocarriers including their recent application in the delivery of the clustered, regularly-interspaced, short palindromic repeats/Cas (CRISPR/Cas) genome editing system for treating gene-related diseases. The remaining challenges and future trend of the targeted delivery of this revolutionary genome-editing system will be discussed. Special attention will be given to the pivotal role of nanotechnology in tackling emerging infections such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): ground-breaking mRNA vaccines delivered by NPs are currently used worldwide to fight the pandemic, pushing the boundaries of gene therapy.

RevDate: 2021-09-12

Lee BC, Lozano RJ, CE Dunbar (2021)

Understanding and Overcoming Adverse Consequences of Genome Editing on Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy pii:S1525-0016(21)00456-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) gene therapies have recently moved beyond gene addition approaches to encompass targeted genome modification or correction, based on the development of zinc finger nucleases, TALENs and CRISPR/Cas technologies. Advances in ex vivo HSPC manipulation techniques have greatly improved HSPC susceptibility to genetic modification. Targeted gene editing techniques enable precise modifications at desired genomic sites. Numerous preclinical studies have already demonstrated the therapeutic potential of gene therapies based on targeted editing. However, several significant hurdles remain before broad clinical potential can be realized, related to adverse consequences of gene editing on HSPC function and genomic integrity. This review summarizes the status of HSPC gene editing, focusing on efficiency, genomic integrity, and long-term engraftment ability related to available genetic editing platforms and HSPC delivery methods. The response of long-term engrafting HSPCs to nuclease-mediated DNA breaks, with activation of p53, is a significant challenge, as are activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to editing components. Lastly, we propose alternative strategies that can overcome current hurdles to HSPC editing at various stages from cell collection to transplantation to facilitate successful clinical applications.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Sarkar H, Toms M, M Moosajee (2021)

Involvement of Oxidative and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in RDH12-Related Retinopathies.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(16):.

Retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) is expressed in photoreceptor inner segments and catalyses the reduction of all-trans retinal (atRAL) to all-trans retinol (atROL), as part of the visual cycle. Mutations in RDH12 are primarily associated with autosomal recessive Leber congenital amaurosis. To further our understanding of the disease mechanisms, HEK-293 cell lines expressing wildtype (WT) and mutant RDH12 were created. The WT cells afforded protection from atRAL-induced toxicity and oxidative stress. Mutant RDH12 cells displayed reduced protein expression and activity, with an inability to protect cells from atRAL toxicity, inducing oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, with upregulation of sXBP1, CHOP, and ATF4. Pregabalin, a retinal scavenger, attenuated atRAL-induced ER stress in the mutant RDH12 cell lines. A zebrafish rdh12 mutant model (rdh12u533 c.17_23del; p.(Val6AlafsTer5)) was generated through CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Mutant fish showed disrupted phagocytosis through transmission electron microscopy, with increased phagosome size at 12 months post-fertilisation. Rhodopsin mislocalisation and reduced expression of atg12 and sod2 indicated early signs of a rod-predominant degeneration. A lack of functional RDH12 results in ER and oxidative stress representing key pathways to be targeted for potential therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Wallace AD, Sasani TA, Swanier J, et al (2021)

CaBagE: A Cas9-based Background Elimination strategy for targeted, long-read DNA sequencing.

PloS one, 16(4):e0241253.

A substantial fraction of the human genome is difficult to interrogate with short-read DNA sequencing technologies due to paralogy, complex haplotype structures, or tandem repeats. Long-read sequencing technologies, such as Oxford Nanopore's MinION, enable direct measurement of complex loci without introducing many of the biases inherent to short-read methods, though they suffer from relatively lower throughput. This limitation has motivated recent efforts to develop amplification-free strategies to target and enrich loci of interest for subsequent sequencing with long reads. Here, we present CaBagE, a method for target enrichment that is efficient and useful for sequencing large, structurally complex targets. The CaBagE method leverages the stable binding of Cas9 to its DNA target to protect desired fragments from digestion with exonuclease. Enriched DNA fragments are then sequenced with Oxford Nanopore's MinION long-read sequencing technology. Enrichment with CaBagE resulted in a median of 116X coverage (range 39-416) of target loci when tested on five genomic targets ranging from 4-20kb in length using healthy donor DNA. Four cancer gene targets were enriched in a single reaction and multiplexed on a single MinION flow cell. We further demonstrate the utility of CaBagE in two ALS patients with C9orf72 short tandem repeat expansions to produce genotype estimates commensurate with genotypes derived from repeat-primed PCR for each individual. With CaBagE there is a physical enrichment of on-target DNA in a given sample prior to sequencing. This feature allows adaptability across sequencing platforms and potential use as an enrichment strategy for applications beyond sequencing. CaBagE is a rapid enrichment method that can illuminate regions of the 'hidden genome' underlying human disease.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Di Stazio M, Foschi N, Athanasakis E, et al (2021)

Systematic analysis of factors that improve homologous direct repair (HDR) efficiency in CRISPR/Cas9 technique.

PloS one, 16(3):e0247603.

The CRISPR/Cas9 bacterial system has proven to be an powerful tool for genetic manipulation in several organisms, but the efficiency of sequence replacement by homologous direct repair (HDR) is substantially lower than random indel creation. Many studies focused on improving HDR efficiency using double sgRNA, cell synchronization cycle, and the delivery of single-stranded oligo DNA nucleotides (ssODN) with a rational design. In this study, we evaluate these three methods' synergistic effects to improve HDR efficiency. For our tests, we have chosen the TNFα gene (NM_000594) for its crucial role in various biological processes and diseases. For the first time, our results showed how the use of two sgRNA with asymmetric donor design and triple transfection events dramatically increase the HDR efficiency from an undetectable HDR event to 39% of HDR efficiency and provide a new strategy to facilitate CRISPR/Cas9-mediated human genome editing. Besides, we demonstrated that the TNFα locus could be edited with CRISPR/Cas9 methodology, an opportunity to safely correct, in the future, the specific mutations of each patient.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Baxter PS, Márkus NM, Dando O, et al (2021)

Targeted de-repression of neuronal Nrf2 inhibits α-synuclein accumulation.

Cell death & disease, 12(2):218.

Many neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuronal misfolded protein accumulation, indicating a need for proteostasis-promoting strategies. Here we show that de-repressing the transcription factor Nrf2, epigenetically shut-off in early neuronal development, can prevent protein aggregate accumulation. Using a paradigm of α-synuclein accumulation and clearance, we find that the classical electrophilic Nrf2 activator tBHQ promotes endogenous Nrf2-dependent α-synuclein clearance in astrocytes, but not cortical neurons, which mount no Nrf2-dependent transcriptional response. Moreover, due to neuronal Nrf2 shut-off and consequent weak antioxidant defences, electrophilic tBHQ actually induces oxidative neurotoxicity, via Nrf2-independent Jun induction. However, we find that epigenetic de-repression of neuronal Nrf2 enables them to respond to Nrf2 activators to drive α-synuclein clearance. Moreover, activation of neuronal Nrf2 expression using gRNA-targeted dCas9-based transcriptional activation complexes is sufficient to trigger Nrf2-dependent α-synuclein clearance. Thus, targeting reversal of the developmental shut-off of Nrf2 in forebrain neurons may alter neurodegenerative disease trajectory by boosting proteostasis.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Amici DR, Jackson JM, Truica MI, et al (2021)

FIREWORKS: a bottom-up approach to integrative coessentiality network analysis.

Life science alliance, 4(2):.

Genetic coessentiality analysis, a computational approach which identifies genes sharing a common effect on cell fitness across large-scale screening datasets, has emerged as a powerful tool to identify functional relationships between human genes. However, widespread implementation of coessentiality to study individual genes and pathways is limited by systematic biases in existing coessentiality approaches and accessibility barriers for investigators without computational expertise. We created FIREWORKS, a method and interactive tool for the construction and statistical analysis of coessentiality networks centered around gene(s) provided by the user. FIREWORKS incorporates a novel bias reduction approach to reduce false discoveries, enables restriction of coessentiality analyses to custom subsets of cell lines, and integrates multiomic and drug-gene interaction datasets to investigate and target contextual gene essentiality. We demonstrate the broad utility of FIREWORKS through case vignettes investigating gene function and specialization, indirect therapeutic targeting of "undruggable" proteins, and context-specific rewiring of genetic networks.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Lu J, Chen A, Ma X, et al (2020)

Generation and Characterization of Cytochrome P450 2J3/10 CRISPR/Cas9 Knockout Rat Model.

Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals, 48(11):1129-1136.

Cytochrome P450 2J2 (CYP2J2) enzyme attracts more attention because it not only metabolizes clinical drugs but also mediates the biotransformation of important endogenous substances and the regulation of physiologic function. Although CYP2J2 is very important, few animal models are available to study its function in vivo In particular, a CYP2J gene knockout (KO) rat model for drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics is not available. In this report, the CRISPR/Cas9 technology was used to delete rat CYP2J3/10, the orthologous genes of CYP2J2 in humans. The CYP2J3/10 KO rats were viable and fertile and showed no off-target effect. Compared with wild-type (WT) rats, the mRNA and protein expression of CYP2J3/10 in liver, small intestine, and heart of KO rats were completely absent. At the same time, CYP2J4 mRNA expression and protein expression were significantly decreased in these tissues. Further in vitro and in vivo metabolic studies of astemizole, a typical substrate of CYP2J, indicated that CYP2J was functionally inactive in KO rats. The heart function indexes of WT and KO rats were also measured and compared. The myocardial enzymes, including creatine kinase-muscle brain type (CK-MB), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB/CK ratio, of KO rats increased by nearly 140%, 80%, and 60%, respectively. In conclusion, this study successfully developed a new CYP2J3/10 KO rat model, which is a useful tool to study the function of CYP2J in drug metabolism and cardiovascular disease. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Human CYP2J2 is involved not only in clinical drug metabolism but also in the biotransformation of important endogenous substances. Therefore, it is very important to construct new animal models to study its function in vivo. This study successfully developed a new CYP2J knockout rat model by using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This rat model provides a useful tool to study the role of CYP2J in drug metabolism and diseases.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Guan X, Zhang H, Qin H, et al (2020)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated whole genomic wide knockout screening identifies mitochondrial ribosomal proteins involving in oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion resistance.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 24(16):9313-9322.

Recanalization therapy by intravenous thrombolysis or endovascular therapy is critical for the treatment of cerebral infarction. However, the recanalization treatment will also exacerbate acute brain injury and even severely threatens human life due to the reperfusion injury. So far, the underlying mechanisms for cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury are poorly understood and effective therapeutic interventions are yet to be discovered. Therefore, in the research, we subjected SK-N-BE(2) cells to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGDR) insult and performed a pooled genome-wide CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) knockout screen to discover new potential therapeutic targets for cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury. We used Metascape to identify candidate genes which might involve in OGDR resistance. We found that the genes contributed to OGDR resistance were primarily involved in neutrophil degranulation, mitochondrial translation, and regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process and response to oxidative stress. We then knocked down some of the identified candidate genes individually. We demonstrated that MRPL19, MRPL32, MRPL52 and MRPL51 inhibition increased cell viability and attenuated OGDR-induced apoptosis. We also demonstrated that OGDR down-regulated the expression of MRPL19 and MRPL51 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that genome-scale screening with Cas9 is a reliable tool to analyse the cellular systems that respond to OGDR injury. MRPL19 and MRPL51 contribute to OGDR resistance and are supposed to be promising targets for the treatment of cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion damage.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Tan SI, Yu PJ, IS Ng (2020)

CRISPRi-mediated programming essential gene can as a Direct Enzymatic Performance Evaluation & Determination (DEPEND) system.

Biotechnology and bioengineering, 117(9):2842-2851.

Harnessing enzyme expression for production of target chemicals is a critical and multifarious process, where screening of different genes by inspection of enzymatic activity plays an imperative role. Here, we conceived an idea to improve the time-consuming and labor-intensive process of enzyme screening. Controlling cell growth was achieved by the Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPRi) system with different single guide RNA targeting the essential gene can (CRISPRi::CA) that encodes a carbonic anhydrase for CO2 uptake. CRISPRi::CA comprises a whole-cell biosensor to monitor CO2 concentration, ranging from 1% to 5%. On the basis of CRISPRi::CA, an effective and simple Direct Enzymatic Performance Evaluation & Determination (DEPEND) system was developed by a single step of plasmid transformation for targeted enzymes. As a result, the activity of different carbonic anhydrases corresponded to the colony-forming units. Furthermore, the enzymatic performance of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthetase (ALAS), which converts glycine and succinate-CoA to release a molecule of CO2 , has also been distinguished, and the effect of the chaperone GroELS on ALAS enzyme folding was successfully identified in the DEPEND system. We provide a highly feasible, time-saving, and flexible technology for the screening and inspection of high-performance enzymes, which may accelerate protein engineering in the future.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Zhang F, Cheng , Wang S, et al (2020)

Crispr/Cas9-mediated cleavages facilitate homologous recombination during genetic engineering of a large chromosomal region.

Biotechnology and bioengineering, 117(9):2816-2826.

Homologous recombination over large genomic regions is difficult to achieve due to low efficiencies. Here, we report the successful engineering of a humanized mTert allele, hmTert, in the mouse genome by replacing an 18.1-kb genomic region around the mTert gene with a recombinant fragment of over 45.5 kb, using homologous recombination facilitated by the Crispr/Cas9 technology, in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). In our experiments, with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by Crispr/Cas9 system, the homologous recombination efficiency was up to 11% and 16% in two mESC lines TC1 and v6.5, respectively. Overall, we obtained a total of 27 mESC clones with heterozygous hmTert/mTert alleles and three clones with homozygous hmTert alleles. DSBs induced by Crispr/Cas9 cleavages also caused high rates of genomic DNA deletions and mutations at single-guide RNA target sites. Our results indicated that the Crispr/Cas9 system significantly increased the efficiency of homologous recombination-mediated gene editing over a large genomic region in mammalian cells, and also caused frequent mutations at unedited target sites. Overall, this strategy provides an efficient and feasible way for manipulating large chromosomal regions.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Zhang J, Hong W, Guo L, et al (2020)

Enhancing plasmid transformation efficiency and enabling CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1-based genome editing in Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

Biotechnology and bioengineering, 117(9):2911-2917.

Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is known as a natural hyper-butyrate producer with great potentials as an excellent platform to be engineered for valuable biochemical production from renewable resources. However, limited transformation efficiency and the lack of genetic manipulation tools have hampered the broader applications of this micro-organism. In this study, the effects of Type I restriction-modification system and native plasmid on conjugation efficiency of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated through gene deletion. The deletion of Type I restriction endonuclease resulted in a 3.7-fold increase in conjugation efficiency, while the additional elimination of the native plasmid further enhanced conjugation efficiency to 6.05 ± 0.75 × 103 CFU/ml-donor, which was 15.3-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Fermentation results indicated that the deletion of those two genetic elements did not significantly influence the end-products production in the resultant mutant ΔRMIΔNP. Thanks to the increased conjugation efficiency, the CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 systems, which previously could not be implemented in C. tyrobutyricum, were successfully employed for genome editing in ΔRMIΔNP with an efficiency of 12.5-25%. Altogether, approaches we developed herein offer valuable guidance for establishing efficient DNA transformation methods in nonmodel micro-organisms. The ΔRMIΔNP mutant can serve as a great chassis to be engineered for diverse valuable biofuel and biochemical production.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Feng W, Peng H, Xu J, et al (2021)

Integrating Reverse Transcription Recombinase Polymerase Amplification with CRISPR Technology for the One-Tube Assay of RNA.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems integrated with nucleic acid amplification techniques improve both analytical specificity and sensitivity. We describe here issues and solutions for the successful integration of reverse transcription (RT), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), and CRISPR-Cas12a nuclease reactions into a single tube under an isothermal condition (40 °C). Specific detection of a few copies of a viral DNA sequence was achieved in less than 20 min. However, the sensitivity was orders of magnitude lower for the detection of viral RNA due to the slow initiation of RPA when the complementary DNA (cDNA) template remained hybridized to RNA. During the delay of RPA, the crRNA-Cas12a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) gradually lost its activity in the RPA solution, and nonspecific amplification reactions consumed the RPA reagents. We overcame these problems by taking advantage of the endoribonuclease function of RNase H to remove RNA from the RNA-cDNA hybrids and free the cDNA as template for the RPA reaction. As a consequence, we significantly enhanced the overall reaction rate of an integrated assay using RT-RPA and CRISPR-Cas12a for the detection of RNA. We showed successful detection of 200 or more copies of the S gene sequence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA within 5-30 min. We applied our one-tube assay to 46 upper respiratory swab samples for COVID-19 diagnosis, and the results from both fluorescence intensity measurements and end-point visualization were consistent with those of RT-qPCR analysis. The strategy and technique improve the sensitivity and speed of RT-RPA and CRISPR-Cas12a assays, potentially useful for both semi-quantitative and point-of-care analyses of RNA molecules.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Verosloff MS, Shapiro SJ, Hawkins EM, et al (2021)

CRISPR-Cas enzymes: The toolkit revolutionizing diagnostics.

Biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

The programmable nature of sequence-specific targeting by CRISPR-Cas nucleases has revolutionized a wide range of genomic applications and is now emerging as a method for nucleic acid detection. We explore how the diversity of CRISPR systems and their fundamental mechanisms have given rise to a wave of new methods for target recognition and readout. These cross-disciplinary advances found at the intersection of CRISPR biology and engineering have led to the ability to rapidly generate solutions for emerging global challenges like the COVID-19 pandemic. We further discuss the advances and potential for CRISPR-based detection to have an impact across a continuum of diagnostic applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Stellon D, Tran MTN, Talbot J, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas-Mediated Knock-in of Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Biosensors into the AAVS1 Locus of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) [Epub ahead of print].

Genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors (GEFBs) enable researchers to visualize and quantify cellular processes in live cells. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be genetically engineered to express GEFBs via integration into the Adeno-Associated Virus Integration Site 1 (AAVS1) safe harbor locus. This can be achieved using CRISPR/Cas ribonucleoprotein targeting to cause a double-strand break at the AAVS1 locus, which subsequently undergoes homology-directed repair (HDR) in the presence of a donor plasmid containing the GEFB sequence. We describe an optimized protocol for CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in of GEFBs into the AAVS1 locus of human iPSCs that allows puromycin selection and which exhibits negligible off-target editing. The resulting iPSC lines can be differentiated into cells of different lineages while retaining expression of the GEFB, enabling live-cell interrogation of cell pathway activities across a diversity of disease models.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Ghanta KS, Ishidate T, CC Mello (2021)

Microinjection for precision genome editing in Caenorhabditis elegans.

STAR protocols, 2(3):100748 pii:S2666-1667(21)00455-X.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, targeted genome editing techniques are now routinely used to generate germline edits. The remarkable ease of C. elegans germline editing is attributed to the syncytial nature of the pachytene ovary which is easily accessed by microinjection. This protocol describes the step-by-step details and troubleshooting tips for the entire CRISPR-Cas genome editing procedure, including gRNA design and microinjection of ribonucleoprotein complexes, followed by screening and genotyping in C. elegans, to help accessing this powerful genetic animal system. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Ghanta and Mello (2020).

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Toledo-Hernández M, Lander TA, Bao C, et al (2021)

Genome-edited tree crops: mind the socioeconomic implementation gap.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(21)00225-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The discussion about CRISPR/Cas genome editing is focused mostly on technical aspects to improve productivity and climate resilience in major tree crops such as cocoa, coffee, and citrus. We suggest a solution to the largely ignored socioeconomic impacts for farmers, when new genome-edited varieties are introduced from the laboratory to the field.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Lyu R, Ahmed S, Fan W, et al (2021)

Engineering Properties of Sweet Potato Starch for Industrial Applications by Biotechnological Techniques including Genome Editing.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(17): pii:ijms22179533.

Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is one of the largest food crops in the world. Due to its abundance of starch, sweet potato is a valuable ingredient in food derivatives, dietary supplements, and industrial raw materials. In addition, due to its ability to adapt to a wide range of harsh climate and soil conditions, sweet potato is a crop that copes well with the environmental stresses caused by climate change. However, due to the complexity of the sweet potato genome and the long breeding cycle, our ability to modify sweet potato starch is limited. In this review, we cover the recent development in sweet potato breeding, understanding of starch properties, and the progress in sweet potato genomics. We describe the applicational values of sweet potato starch in food, industrial products, and biofuel, in addition to the effects of starch properties in different industrial applications. We also explore the possibility of manipulating starch properties through biotechnological means, such as the CRISPR/Cas-based genome editing. The ability to target the genome with precision provides new opportunities for reducing breeding time, increasing yield, and optimizing the starch properties of sweet potatoes.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Arango D, Bittar A, Esmeral NP, et al (2021)

Understanding the Potential of Genome Editing in Parkinson's Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(17): pii:ijms22179241.

CRISPR is a simple and cost-efficient gene-editing technique that has become increasingly popular over the last decades. Various CRISPR/Cas-based applications have been developed to introduce changes in the genome and alter gene expression in diverse systems and tissues. These novel gene-editing techniques are particularly promising for investigating and treating neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, for which we currently lack efficient disease-modifying treatment options. Gene therapy could thus provide treatment alternatives, revolutionizing our ability to treat this disease. Here, we review our current knowledge on the genetic basis of Parkinson's disease to highlight the main biological pathways that become disrupted in Parkinson's disease and their potential as gene therapy targets. Next, we perform a comprehensive review of novel delivery vehicles available for gene-editing applications, critical for their successful application in both innovative research and potential therapies. Finally, we review the latest developments in CRISPR-based applications and gene therapies to understand and treat Parkinson's disease. We carefully examine their advantages and shortcomings for diverse gene-editing applications in the brain, highlighting promising avenues for future research.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Anonymous (2021)

License CRISPR patents for free to share gene editing globally.

Nature, 597(7875):152.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Shen H, Qileng A, Yang H, et al (2021)

"Dual-Signal-On" Integrated-Type Biosensor for Portable Detection of miRNA: Cas12a-Induced Photoelectrochemistry and Fluorescence Strategy.

Analytical chemistry, 93(34):11816-11825.

The abnormal expression of microRNA (miRNA) can affect the RNA transcription and protein translation, leading to tumor progression and metastasis. Currently, the accurate detection of aberrant expression of miRNA, particularly using a portable detection system, remains a great challenge. Herein, a novel dual-mode biosensor with high sensitivity and robustness for miR-21 detection was developed based on the cis-cleavage and trans-cleavage activities of Cas12a. miRNA can be combined with hairpin DNA-horseradish peroxidase anchored on a CdS/g-C3N4/B-TiO2 photoelectrode, thus the nonenzymatic amplification was triggered to form numerous HRP-modified double-stranded DNA (HRP-dsDNA). Then, HRP-dsDNA can be specifically recognized and efficiently cis-cleaved by Cas12a nucleases to detach HRP from the substrate, while the remaining HRP on HRP-dsDNA can catalyze 4-chloro-1-naphthol (4-CN) to form biocatalytic precipitation (BCP) on the surface of the photoelectrode, and thus the photocurrent can be changed. Meanwhile, the trans-cleavage ability of Cas12a was activated, and nonspecifically degrade the FQ-reporter and a significant fluorescence signal can be generated. Such two different kinds of signals with independent transmission paths can mutually support to improve the performance of the detection platform. Besides, a portable device was constructed for the point-of-care (POC) detection of miR-21. Moreover, the dual-mode detection platform can be easily expanded for the specific detection of other types of biomarkers by changing the sequence of hairpin DNA, thereby promoting the establishment of POC detection for early cancer diagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Liu M, Zhang W, Xin C, et al (2021)

Global detection of DNA repair outcomes induced by CRISPR-Cas9.

Nucleic acids research, 49(15):8732-8742.

CRISPR-Cas9 generates double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) to activate cellular DNA repair pathways for genome editing. The repair of DSBs leads to small insertions or deletions (indels) and other complex byproducts, including large deletions and chromosomal translocations. Indels are well understood to disrupt target genes, while the other deleterious byproducts remain elusive. We developed a new in silico analysis pipeline for the previously described primer-extension-mediated sequencing assay to comprehensively characterize CRISPR-Cas9-induced DSB repair outcomes in human or mouse cells. We identified tremendous deleterious DSB repair byproducts of CRISPR-Cas9 editing, including large deletions, vector integrations, and chromosomal translocations. We further elucidated the important roles of microhomology, chromosomal interaction, recurrent DSBs, and DSB repair pathways in the generation of these byproducts. Our findings provide an extra dimension for genome editing safety besides off-targets. And caution should be exercised to avoid not only off-target damages but also deleterious DSB repair byproducts during genome editing.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Doerfler PA, Feng R, Li Y, et al (2021)

Activation of γ-globin gene expression by GATA1 and NF-Y in hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin.

Nature genetics, 53(8):1177-1186.

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) ameliorates β-hemoglobinopathies by inhibiting the developmental switch from γ-globin (HBG1/HBG2) to β-globin (HBB) gene expression. Some forms of HPFH are associated with γ-globin promoter variants that either disrupt binding motifs for transcriptional repressors or create new motifs for transcriptional activators. How these variants sustain γ-globin gene expression postnatally remains undefined. We mapped γ-globin promoter sequences functionally in erythroid cells harboring different HPFH variants. Those that disrupt a BCL11A repressor binding element induce γ-globin expression by facilitating the recruitment of nuclear transcription factor Y (NF-Y) to a nearby proximal CCAAT box and GATA1 to an upstream motif. The proximal CCAAT element becomes dispensable for HPFH variants that generate new binding motifs for activators NF-Y or KLF1, but GATA1 recruitment remains essential. Our findings define distinct mechanisms through which transcription factors and their cis-regulatory elements activate γ-globin expression in different forms of HPFH, some of which are being recreated by therapeutic genome editing.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Wu QW, JP Kapfhammer (2021)

Conditional gene silencing via a CRISPR system in cerebellar Purkinje cells.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects, 1865(6):129869.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Li Y, Xian H, Xu Y, et al (2021)

Fine tuning the glycolytic flux ratio of EP-bifido pathway for mevalonate production by enhancing glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf) and CRISPRi suppressing 6-phosphofructose kinase (PfkA) in Escherichia coli.

Microbial cell factories, 20(1):32.

BACKGROUND: Natural glycolysis encounters the decarboxylation of glucose partial oxidation product pyruvate into acetyl-CoA, where one-third of the carbon is lost at CO2. We previously constructed a carbon saving pathway, EP-bifido pathway by combining Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas Pathway, Pentose Phosphate Pathway and "bifid shunt", to generate high yield acetyl-CoA from glucose. However, the carbon conversion rate and reducing power of this pathway was not optimal, the flux ratio of EMP pathway and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) needs to be precisely and dynamically adjusted to improve the production of mevalonate (MVA).

RESULT: Here, we finely tuned the glycolytic flux ratio in two ways. First, we enhanced PPP flux for NADPH supply by replacing the promoter of zwf on the genome with a set of different strength promoters. Compared with the previous EP-bifido strains, the zwf-modified strains showed obvious differences in NADPH, NADH, and ATP synthesis levels. Among them, strain BP10BF accumulated 11.2 g/L of MVA after 72 h of fermentation and the molar conversion rate from glucose reached 62.2%. Second, pfkA was finely down-regulated by the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) system. The MVA yield of the regulated strain BiB1F was 8.53 g/L, and the conversion rate from glucose reached 68.7%.

CONCLUSION: This is the highest MVA conversion rate reported in shaken flask fermentation. The CRISPRi and promoter fine-tuning provided an effective strategy for metabolic flux redistribution in many metabolic pathways and promotes the chemicals production.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Wang Q, Zhao Q, Liu Q, et al (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in Penicillium oxalicum and Trichoderma reesei using 5S rRNA promoter-driven guide RNAs.

Biotechnology letters, 43(2):495-502.

OBJECTIVE: To construct convenient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing systems in industrial enzyme-producing fungi Penicillium oxalicum and Trichoderma reesei.

RESULTS: Employing the 5S rRNA promoter from Aspergillus niger for guide RNA expression, the β-glucosidase gene bgl2 in P. oxalicum was deleted using a donor DNA carrying 40-bp homology arms or a donor containing no selectable marker gene. Using a markerless donor DNA as editing template, precise replacement of a small region was achieved in the creA gene. In T. reesei, the A. niger 5S rRNA promoter was less efficient than that in P. oxalicum when used for gene editing. Using a native 5S rRNA promoter, stop codons were introduced into the lae1 coding region using a markerless donor DNA with an editing efficiency of 36.67%.

CONCLUSIONS: Efficient genome editing systems were developed in filamentous fungi P. oxalicum and T. reesei by using heterologous or native 5S rRNA promoters for guide RNA expression.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Lu C, Zhang Y, Qin Y, et al (2021)

Human X chromosome exome sequencing identifies BCORL1 as contributor to spermatogenesis.

Journal of medical genetics, 58(1):56-65.

BACKGROUND: Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples worldwide with male infertility being responsible for approximately 50% of cases. Although accumulating evidence demonstrates the critical role of the X chromosome in spermatogenesis during the last few decades, the expression patterns and potential impact of the X chromosome, together with X linked genes, on male infertility are less well understood.

METHODS: We performed X chromosome exome sequencing followed by a two-stage independent population validation in 1333 non-obstructive azoospermia cases and 1141 healthy controls to identify variant classes with high likelihood of pathogenicity. To explore the functions of these candidate genes in spermatogenesis, we first knocked down these candidate genes individually in mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) using short interfering RNA oligonucleotides and then generated candidate genes knockout mice by CRISPR-Cas9 system.

RESULTS: Four low-frequency variants were identified in four genes (BCORL1, MAP7D3, ARMCX4 and H2BFWT) associated with male infertility. Functional studies of the mouse SSCs revealed that knocking down Bcorl1 or Mtap7d3 could inhibit SSCs self-renewal and knocking down Armcx4 could repress SSCs differentiation in vitro. Using CRISPR-Cas9 system, Bcorl1 and Mtap7d3 knockout mice were generated. Excitingly, Bcorl1 knockout mice were infertile with impaired spermatogenesis. Moreover, Bcorl1 knockout mice exhibited impaired sperm motility and sperm cells displayed abnormal mitochondrial structure.

CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that the X-linked genes are associated with male infertility and involved in regulating SSCs, which provides a new insight into the role of X-linked genes in spermatogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-09-10
CmpDate: 2021-09-10

Zhang J, Y You (2020)

CRISPR-Cas13a system: a novel approach to precision oncology.

Cancer biology & medicine, 17(1):6-8.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Rao MJ, L Wang (2021)

CRISPR/Cas9 technology for improving agronomic traits and future prospective in agriculture.

Planta, 254(4):68.

MAIN CONCLUSION: In this review, we have focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for improving the agronomic traits in plants through point mutations, knockout, and single base editing, and we highlighted the recent progress in plant metabolic engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has immense power to reproduce plants with desired characters and revolutionizing the field of genome engineering by erasing the barriers in targeted genome editing. Agriculture fields are using this advance genome editing tool to get the desired traits in the crops plants such as increase yield, improve product quality attributes, and enhance resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses by identifying and editing genes of interest. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas-based gene knockout for trait improvement and single base editing to boost yield, quality, stress tolerance, and disease resistance traits in crops. Use of CRISPR/Cas9 system to facilitate crop domestication and hybrid breeding are also touched. We summarize recent developments and up-gradation of delivery mechanism (nanotechnology and virus particle-based delivery system) and progress in multiplex gene editing. We also shed lights in advances and challenges of engineering the important metabolic pathways that contain a variety of dietary metabolites and phytochemicals. In addition, we endorsed substantial technical hurdles and possible ways to overcome the unpredictability of CRISPR/Cas technology for broader application across various crop species. We speculated that by making a strong interconnection among all genomic fields will give a gigantic bunt of knowledge to develop crop expressing desired traits.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Zhou Y, Zhang L, Xie YH, et al (2021)

Advancements in detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection for confronting COVID-19 pandemics.

Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology [Epub ahead of print].

As one of the major approaches in combating the COVID-19 pandemics, the availability of specific and reliable assays for the SARS-CoV-2 viral genome and its proteins is essential to identify the infection in suspected populations, make diagnoses in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals, and determine clearance of the virus after the infection. For these purposes, use of the quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for detection of the viral nucleic acid remains the most valuable in terms of its specificity, fast turn-around, high-throughput capacity, and reliability. It is critical to update the sequences of primers and probes to ensure the detection of newly emerged variants. Various assays for increased levels of IgG or IgM antibodies are available for detecting ongoing or past infection, vaccination responses, and persistence and for identifying high titers of neutralizing antibodies in recovered individuals. Viral genome sequencing is increasingly used for tracing infectious sources, monitoring mutations, and subtype classification and is less valuable in diagnosis because of its capacity and high cost. Nanopore target sequencing with portable options is available for a quick process for sequencing data. Emerging CRISPR-Cas-based assays, such as SHERLOCK and AIOD-CRISPR, for viral genome detection may offer options for prompt and point-of-care detection. Moreover, aptamer-based probes may be multifaceted for developing portable and high-throughput assays with fluorescent or chemiluminescent probes for viral proteins. In conclusion, assays are available for viral genome and protein detection, and the selection of specific assays depends on the purposes of prevention, diagnosis and pandemic control, or monitoring of vaccination efficacy.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Cui Y, Liu ZL, Li CC, et al (2021)

Role of juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant 1 in silkworm larval brain development and domestication.

Zoological research, 42(5):637-649.

The insect brain is the central part of the neurosecretory system, which controls morphology, physiology, and behavior during the insect's lifecycle. Lepidoptera are holometabolous insects, and their brains develop during the larval period and metamorphosis into the adult form. As the only fully domesticated insect, the Lepidoptera silkworm Bombyx mori experienced changes in larval brain morphology and certain behaviors during the domestication process. Hormonal regulation in insects is a key factor in multiple processes. However, how juvenile hormone (JH) signals regulate brain development in Lepidoptera species, especially in the larval stage, remains elusive. We recently identified the JH receptor Methoprene tolerant 1 (Met1) as a putative domestication gene. How artificial selection on Met1 impacts brain and behavioral domestication is another important issue addressing Darwin's theory on domestication. Here, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of Bombyx Met1 caused developmental retardation in the brain, unlike precocious pupation of the cuticle. At the whole transcriptome level, the ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone, 20E) signaling and downstream pathways were overactivated in the mutant cuticle but not in the brain. Pathways related to cell proliferation and specialization processes, such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction and tyrosine metabolism pathways, were suppressed in the brain. Molecular evolutionary analysis and in vitro assay identified an amino acid replacement located in a novel motif under positive selection in B. mori, which decreased transcriptional binding activity. The B. mori MET1 protein showed a changed structure and dynamic features, as well as a weakened co-expression gene network, compared with B. mandarina. Based on comparative transcriptomic analyses, we proposed a pathway downstream of JH signaling (i.e., tyrosine metabolism pathway) that likely contributed to silkworm larval brain development and domestication and highlighted the importance of the biogenic amine system in larval evolution during silkworm domestication.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Wu Y, Dong Y, Shi Y, et al (2021)

CRISPR-Cas12-Based Rapid Authentication of Halal Food.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 69(35):10321-10328.

The halal food market is globally growing along with the increased risk of adulteration. We proposed an amplification-free and mix-to-read CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid analytical strategy allowing rapid identification and analysis of pork components, thus enriching the toolbox for ensuring halal food authenticity. We designed and optimized guide RNA (gRNA) targeting the pork cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. gRNA allowed specific identification of the target Cyt b gene from pork components followed by activation of Cas12 protein to abundantly cleave single-stranded DNA probes with terminally labeled fluorophore and quencher groups, thus turning on fluorescence. The presence of the pork Cyt b gene thus can be mix-and-read- and only-one-step-detected, which may indicate the risk of halal food adulteration. The method allowed specific discrimination of pork meat from beef, mutton, and chicken and yielded a detection limit of 2.7 ng/μL of total DNA from pork meat. The reliability of the method was tested using the following processed meat products: halal foods beef luncheon meat and spiced beef and non-halal foods sausage and dried pork slices. The CRISPR-Cas12-based nucleic acid test strategy is promising for rapid food authentication.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Santa-Inez DC, Fuziwara CS, Saito KC, et al (2021)

Targeting the Highly Expressed microRNA miR-146b with CRISPR/Cas9n Gene Editing System in Thyroid Cancer.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(15):.

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and the characterization of the genetic alterations in coding-genes that drive thyroid cancer are well consolidated in MAPK signaling. In the context of non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that, when deregulated, cooperate to promote tumorigenesis by targeting mRNAs, many of which are proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In thyroid cancer, miR-146b-5p is the most overexpressed miRNA associated with tumor aggressiveness and progression, while the antisense blocking of miR-146b-5p results in anti-tumoral effect. Therefore, inactivating miR-146b has been considered as a promising strategy in thyroid cancer therapy. Here, we applied the CRISPR/Cas9n editing system to target the MIR146B gene in an aggressive anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cell line. For that, we designed two single-guide RNAs cloned into plasmids to direct Cas9 nickase (Cas9n) to the genomic region of the pre-mir-146b structure to target miR-146b-5p and miR-146b-3p sequences. In this plasmidial strategy, we cotransfected pSp-Cas9n-miR-146b-GuideA-puromycin and pSp-Cas9n-miR-146b-GuideB-GFP plasmids in KTC2 cells and selected the puromycin resistant + GFP positive clones (KTC2-Cl). As a result, we observed that the ATC cell line KTC2-Cl1 showed a 60% decrease in the expression of miR-146b-5p compared to the control, also showing reduced cell viability, migration, colony formation, and blockage of tumor development in immunocompromised mice. The analysis of the MIR146B edited sequence shows a 5 nt deletion in the miR-146b-5p region and a 1 nt deletion in the miR-146b-3p region in KTC2-Cl1. Thus, we developed an effective CRISPR/Cas9n system to edit the MIR146B miRNA gene and reduce miR-146b-5p expression which constitutes a potential molecular tool for the investigation of miRNAs function in thyroid cancer.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Li H, Wu S, Ma X, et al (2021)

Co-editing PINK1 and DJ-1 Genes Via Adeno-Associated Virus-Delivered CRISPR/Cas9 System in Adult Monkey Brain Elicits Classical Parkinsonian Phenotype.

Neuroscience bulletin, 37(9):1271-1288.

Whether direct manipulation of Parkinson's disease (PD) risk genes in the adult monkey brain can elicit a Parkinsonian phenotype remains an unsolved issue. Here, we used an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9)-delivered CRISPR/Cas9 system to directly co-edit PINK1 and DJ-1 genes in the substantia nigras (SNs) of two monkey groups: an old group and a middle-aged group. After the operation, the old group exhibited all the classic PD symptoms, including bradykinesia, tremor, and postural instability, accompanied by key pathological hallmarks of PD, such as severe nigral dopaminergic neuron loss (>64%) and evident α-synuclein pathology in the gene-edited SN. In contrast, the phenotype of their middle-aged counterparts, which also showed clear PD symptoms and pathological hallmarks, were less severe. In addition to the higher final total PD scores and more severe pathological changes, the old group were also more susceptible to gene editing by showing a faster process of PD progression. These results suggested that both genetic and aging factors played important roles in the development of PD in the monkeys. Taken together, this system can effectively develop a large number of genetically-edited PD monkeys in a short time (6-10 months), and thus provides a practical transgenic monkey model for future PD studies.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Xue C, EC Greene (2021)

DNA Repair Pathway Choices in CRISPR-Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 37(7):639-656.

Many clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9)-based genome editing technologies take advantage of Cas nucleases to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at desired locations within a genome. Further processing of the DSBs by the cellular DSB repair machinery is then necessary to introduce desired mutations, sequence insertions, or gene deletions. Thus, the accuracy and efficiency of genome editing are influenced by the cellular DSB repair pathways. DSBs are themselves highly genotoxic lesions and as such cells have evolved multiple mechanisms for their repair. These repair pathways include homologous recombination (HR), classical nonhomologous end joining (cNHEJ), microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) and single-strand annealing (SSA). In this review, we briefly highlight CRISPR-Cas9 and then describe the mechanisms of DSB repair. Finally, we summarize recent findings of factors that can influence the choice of DNA repair pathway in response to Cas9-induced DSBs.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Feng CW, Burnet G, Spiller CM, et al (2021)

Identification of regulatory elements required for Stra8 expression in fetal ovarian germ cells of the mouse.

Development (Cambridge, England), 148(5): pii:dev.194977.

In mice, the entry of germ cells into meiosis crucially depends on the expression of stimulated by retinoic acid gene 8 (Stra8). Stra8 is expressed specifically in pre-meiotic germ cells of females and males, at fetal and postnatal stages, respectively, but the mechanistic details of its spatiotemporal regulation are yet to be defined. In particular, there has been considerable debate regarding whether retinoic acid is required, in vivo, to initiate Stra8 expression in the mouse fetal ovary. We show that the distinctive anterior-to-posterior pattern of Stra8 initiation, characteristic of germ cells in the fetal ovary, is faithfully recapitulated when 2.9 kb of the Stra8 promoter is used to drive eGFP expression. Using in vitro transfection assays of cutdown and mutant constructs, we identified two functional retinoic acid responsive elements (RAREs) within this 2.9 kb regulatory element. We also show that the transcription factor DMRT1 enhances Stra8 expression, but only in the presence of RA and the most proximal RARE. Finally, we used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutation studies to demonstrate that both RAREs are required for optimal Stra8 expression levels in vivo.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Liu X, Liu X, Zhou C, et al (2021)

Engineered FnCas12a with enhanced activity through directional evolution in human cells.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 296:100394.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat-Cas12a has been harnessed to manipulate the human genome; however, low cleavage efficiency and stringent protospacer adjacent motif hinder the use of Cas12a-based therapy and applications. Here, we have described a directional evolving and screening system in human cells to identify novel FnCas12a variants with high activity. By using this system, we identified IV-79 (enhanced activity FnCas12a, eaFnCas12a), which possessed higher DNA cleavage activity than WT FnCas12a. Furthermore, to widen the target selection spectrum, eaFnCas12a was engineered through site-directed mutagenesis. eaFnCas12a and one engineered variant (eaFnCas12a-RR), used for correcting human RS1 mutation responsible for X-linked retinoschisis, had a 3.28- to 4.04-fold improved activity compared with WT. Collectively, eaFnCas12a and its engineered variants can be used for genome-editing applications that requires high activity.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Wang G, Li C, He S, et al (2021)

Mosaic CRISPR-stop enables rapid phenotyping of nonsense mutations in essential genes.

Development (Cambridge, England), 148(5): pii:dev.196899.

CRISPR-stop converts protein-coding sequences into stop codons, which, in the appropriate location, results in a null allele. CRISPR-stop induction in one-cell-stage zygotes generates Founder 0 (F0) mice that are homozygous mutants; this avoids mouse breeding and serves as a rapid screening approach for nonlethal genes. However, loss of function of 25% of mammalian genes causes early lethality. Here, we induced CRISPR-stop in one of the two blastomeres of the zygote, a method we name mosaic CRISPR-stop, to produce mosaic Atoh1 and Sox10 F0 mice; these mice not only survived longer than regular Atoh1/Sox10 knockout mice but also displayed their recognized cochlear phenotypes. Moreover, by using mosaic CRISPR-stop, we uncovered a previously unknown role of another lethal gene, Rbm24, in the survival of cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs), and we further validated the importance of Rbm24 in OHCs by using our Rbm24 conditional knockout model. Together, our results demonstrated that mosaic CRISPR-stop is reliable and rapid, and we believe this method will facilitate rapid genetic screening of developmentally lethal genes in the mouse inner ear and also in other organs.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Shoesmith JR, Solomon CU, Yang X, et al (2021)

APETALA2 functions as a temporal factor together with BLADE-ON-PETIOLE2 and MADS29 to control flower and grain development in barley.

Development (Cambridge, England), 148(5): pii:dev.194894.

Cereal grain develops from fertilised florets. Alterations in floret and grain development greatly influence grain yield and quality. Despite this, little is known about the underlying genetic control of these processes, especially in key temperate cereals such as barley and wheat. Using a combination of near-isogenic mutant comparisons, gene editing and genetic analyses, we reveal that HvAPETALA2 (HvAP2) controls floret organ identity, floret boundaries, and maternal tissue differentiation and elimination during grain development. These new roles of HvAP2 correlate with changes in grain size and HvAP2-dependent expression of specific HvMADS-box genes, including the B-sister gene, HvMADS29 Consistent with this, gene editing demonstrates that HvMADS29 shares roles with HvAP2 in maternal tissue differentiation. We also discovered that a gain-of-function HvAP2 allele masks changes in floret organ identity and grain size due to loss of barley LAXATUM.A/BLADE-ON-PETIOLE2 (HvBOP2) gene function. Taken together, we reveal novel pleiotropic roles and regulatory interactions for an AP2-like gene controlling floret and grain development in a temperate cereal.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Zhang Y, Held MA, Kaur D, et al (2021)

CRISPR-Cas9 multiplex genome editing of the hydroxyproline-O-galactosyltransferase gene family alters arabinogalactan-protein glycosylation and function in Arabidopsis.

BMC plant biology, 21(1):16.

BACKGROUND: Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a class of hydroxyproline-rich proteins (HRGPs) that are heavily glycosylated (> 90%) with type II arabinogalactans (AGs). AGPs are implicated in various plant growth and development processes including cell expansion, somatic embryogenesis, root and stem growth, salt tolerance, hormone signaling, male and female gametophyte development, and defense. To date, eight Hyp-O-galactosyltransferases (GALT2-6, HPGT1-3) have been identified; these enzymes are responsible for adding the first sugar, galactose, onto AGPs. Due to gene redundancy among the GALTs, single or double galt genetic knockout mutants are often not sufficient to fully reveal their biological functions.

RESULTS: Here, we report the successful application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing/multiplexing technology to generate higher-order knockout mutants of five members of the GALT gene family (GALT2-6). AGPs analysis of higher-order galt mutants (galt2 galt5, galt3 galt4 galt6, and galt2 galt3 galt4 galt5 gal6) demonstrated significantly less glycosylated AGPs in rosette leaves, stems, and siliques compared to the corresponding wild-type organs. Monosaccharide composition analysis of AGPs isolated from rosette leaves revealed significant decreases in arabinose and galactose in all the higher-order galt mutants. Phenotypic analyses revealed that mutation of two or more GALT genes was able to overcome the growth inhibitory effect of β-D-Gal-Yariv reagent, which specifically binds to β-1,3-galactan backbones on AGPs. In addition, the galt2 galt3 galt4 galt5 gal6 mutant exhibited reduced overall growth, impaired root growth, abnormal pollen, shorter siliques, and reduced seed set. Reciprocal crossing experiments demonstrated that galt2 galt3 galt4 galt5 gal6 mutants had defects in the female gametophyte which were responsible for reduced seed set.

CONCLUSIONS: Our CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing/multiplexing approach provides a simpler and faster way to generate higher-order mutants for functional characterization compared to conventional genetic crossing of T-DNA mutant lines. Higher-order galt mutants produced and characterized in this study provide insight into the relationship between sugar decorations and the various biological functions attributed to AGPs in plants.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Voigt O, Knabe N, Nitsche S, et al (2020)

An advanced genetic toolkit for exploring the biology of the rock-inhabiting black fungus Knufia petricola.

Scientific reports, 10(1):22021.

Microcolonial black fungi are a group of ascomycetes that exhibit high stress tolerance, yeast-like growth and constitutive melanin formation. They dominate a range of hostile natural and man-made environments, from desert rocks and salterns to dishwashers, roofs and solar panels. Due to their slow growth and a lack of genetic tools, the underlying mechanisms of black fungi's phenotypic traits have remained largely unexplored. We chose to address this gap by genetically engineering the rock-inhabiting fungus Knufia petricola (Eurotiomycetes, Chaetothyriales), a species that exhibits all characteristics of black fungi. A cell biological approach was taken by generating K. petricola strains expressing green or red fluorescent protein variants. By applying: (1) traditional gene replacement; (2) gene editing and replacement via plasmid-based or ribonucleoprotein (RNP)-based CRISPR/Cas9, and (3) silencing by RNA interference (RNAi), we constructed mutants in the pathways leading to melanin, carotenoids, uracil and adenine. Stable single and double mutants were generated with homologous recombination (HR) rates up to 100%. Efficient, partially cloning-free strategies to mutate multiple genes with or without resistance cassettes were developed. This state-of-the-art genetic toolkit, together with the annotated genome sequence of strain A95, firmly established K. petricola as a model for exploring microcolonial black fungi.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Zhang L, Jiang X, Pfau D, et al (2021)

Type I interferon signaling mediates Mycobacterium tuberculosis-induced macrophage death.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 218(2):.

Macrophages help defend the host against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the major cause of tuberculosis (TB). Once phagocytized, Mtb resists killing by macrophages, replicates inside them, and leads to their death, releasing Mtb that can infect other cells. We found that the death of Mtb-infected mouse macrophages in vitro does not appear to proceed by a currently known pathway. Through genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening, we identified a critical role for autocrine or paracrine signaling by macrophage-derived type I IFNs in the death of Mtb-infected macrophages in vitro, and blockade of type I IFN signaling augmented the effect of rifampin, a first-line TB drug, in Mtb-infected mice. Further definition of the pathway of type I IFN-mediated macrophage death may allow for host-directed therapy of TB that is more selective than systemic blockade of type I IFN signaling.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Kayesh MEH, Amako Y, Hashem MA, et al (2020)

Development of an in vivo delivery system for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeting of hepatitis B virus cccDNA.

Virus research, 290:198191.

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection constitutes a global health issue with limited current therapeutic efficacy owing to the persistence of viral episomal DNA (cccDNA). The CRISPR/Cas9 system, a newly developed, powerful tool for genome editing and potential gene therapy, requires efficient delivery of CRISPR components for successful therapeutic application. Here, we investigated the effects of lentiviral- or adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) vector-mediated delivery of 3 guide (g)RNAs/Cas9 selected from 16 gRNAs. These significantly suppressed HBV replication in cells, with WJ11/Cas9 exhibiting highest efficacy and chosen for in vivo study. AAV2/WJ11-Cas9 also significantly inhibited HBV replication and significantly reduced cccDNA in the tested cells. Moreover, AAV2/WJ11-Cas9 enhanced entecavir effects when used in combination, indicative of different modes of action. Notably, in humanized chimeric mice, AAV2/WJ11-Cas9 significantly suppressed HBcAg, HBsAg, and HBV DNA along with cccDNA in the liver tissues without significant cytotoxicity; accordingly, next generation sequencing data showed no significant genomic mutations. To our knowledge, this represents the first evaluation of the CRISPR/Cas9 system using an HBV natural infection mode. Therefore, WJ11/Cas9 delivered by comparatively safer AAV2 vectors may provide a new therapeutic strategy for eliminating HBV infection and serve as an effective platform for curing chronic HBV infection.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Shariati K, Pappalardo Z, Chopra DG, et al (2020)

Selective monitoring of insulin secretion after CRISPR interference in intact pancreatic islets despite submaximal infection.

Islets, 12(3):59-69.

Virus-mediated gene knockdown in intact pancreatic islets is technically challenging due to poor infection of the center of the islet. Because the cells that do not have knockdown have normal insulin secretion, measuring changes in insulin secretion after gene knockdown is challenging. We describe a method to monitor insulin secretion from only the beta cells with knockdown of a gene of interest in intact islets using a single lentivirus containing a guide RNA, a luciferase insulin secretion reporter and a dCas9-KRAB cassette. This method allows rapid and inexpensive monitoring of insulin secretion from only those beta cells with knockdown, circumventing the problem of incomplete islet infection.

RevDate: 2021-09-09
CmpDate: 2021-09-09

Wang H, Wang P, Liang X, et al (2020)

Down-regulation of endothelial protein C receptor promotes preeclampsia by affecting actin polymerization.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 24(6):3370-3383.

Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy-related disease that is found in 3%-5% of pregnancies worldwide and is primarily related to the decreased proliferation and invasion of trophoblast cells and abnormal uterine spiral artery remodelling. However, studies on the pathogenesis of placental trophoblasts are insufficient, and the aetiology of PE remains unclear. Here, we report that endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), a transmembrane glycoprotein, was down-regulated in placentas from preeclamptic patients. Moreover, lack of EPCR significantly reduced the trophoblast cell proliferation, invasion and tube formation capabilities. Microscale thermophoresis analysis showed that EPCR directly bound to protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR-1), a G protein-coupled receptor. This change resulted in a substantial reduction in active Rac1 and caused excessive actin rearrangement. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified role of EPCR in the regulation of trophoblast proliferation, invasion and tube formation through promotion of actin polymerization, which is required for normal placental development.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Amendola M, Bedel A, Buj Bello A, et al (2021)

Recent progress in genome editing for gene therapy applications: the French perspective.

Human gene therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advances in genome editing tools, especially the novel developments in the clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats associated protein (CRISPR/Cas)-derived editing machinery have revolutionized not only basic science but, importantly, also the gene therapy field. Their flexibility and ability to introduce precise modifications in the genome in order to disrupt or correct genes or insert expression cassettes in safe harbors in the genome underlines their potential applications as a medicine of the future to cure many genetic diseases. In this review, we give an overview of the recent progress made by French researchers in the field of therapeutic genome editing while putting their work in the general context of advances made in the field. We focus on recent hematopoietic stem cell gene editing strategies for blood diseases affecting the red blood cells or blood coagulation as well as lysosomal storage diseases. We report on a genome editing based therapy for a muscular dystrophy and the potency of T cell gene editing to increase anti-cancer activity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells to combat cancer. We will also discuss technical obstacles and side-effects such as unwanted editing activity that need to be surmounted on the way towards a clinical implementation of genome editing. We propose here improvements developed today, including by French researchers to overcome the editing related genotoxicity and improve editing precision by the use of novel recombinant nuclease-based systems such as nickases, base editors and prime editors. Finally, a solution is proposed to resolve the cellular toxicity induced by the systems employed for gene editing machinery delivery.

RevDate: 2021-09-08
CmpDate: 2021-09-08

Aquino-Jarquin G (2021)

Recent progress on rapid SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 detection by CRISPR-Cas13-based platforms.

Drug discovery today, 26(8):2025-2035.

The limitations of conventional diagnostic procedures, such as real-time PCR-based methods and serological tests, have led the scientific community to innovate alternative nucleic acid detection approaches for SARS-CoV-2 RNA, thereby addressing the dire need for increased testing. Such approaches aim to provide rapid, accurate, cost-effective, sensitive, and high-throughput detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA, on multiple specimen types, and without specialized equipment and expertise. The CRISPR-Cas13 system functions as a sequence-specific RNA-sensing tool that has recently been harnessed to develop simplified and flexible testing formats. This review recapitulates technical advances in the most recent CRISPR-Cas13-based methods for SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 diagnosis. The challenges and opportunities for implementing mass testing using these novel CRISPR-Cas13 platforms are critically analyzed.

RevDate: 2021-09-08
CmpDate: 2021-09-08

Ronayne CT, Jonnalagadda SK, Jonnalagadda S, et al (2021)

Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel anticancer agent CBISC that induces DNA damage response and diminishes levels of mutant-p53.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 562:127-132.

A novel nitrogen mustard CBISC has been synthesized and evaluated as an anticancer agent. CBISC has been shown to exhibit enhanced cell proliferation inhibition properties against mutant p53 cell lines colorectal cancer WiDr, pancreatic cancer (MIAPaCa-2 and PANC-1), and triple negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468). In vitro mechanism of action studies revealed perturbations in the p53 pathway and increased cell death as evidenced by western blotting, immunofluorescent microscopy and MTT assay. Further, in vivo studies revealed that CBISC is well tolerated in healthy mice and exhibited significant in vivo tumor growth inhibition properties in WiDr and MIAPaCa-2 xenograft models. These studies illustrate the potential utility of CBISC as an anticancer agent.

RevDate: 2021-09-08
CmpDate: 2021-09-08

Lavrov AV, Varenikov GG, MY Skoblov (2020)

Genome scale analysis of pathogenic variants targetable for single base editing.

BMC medical genomics, 13(Suppl 8):80.

BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide variants account for approximately 90% of all known pathogenic variants responsible for human diseases. Recently discovered CRISPR/Cas9 base editors can correct individual nucleotides without cutting DNA and inducing double-stranded breaks. We aimed to find all possible pathogenic variants which can be efficiently targeted by any of the currently described base editors and to present them for further selection and development of targeted therapies.

METHODS: ClinVar database (GRCh37_clinvar_20171203) was used to search and select mutations available for current single-base editing systems. We included only pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants for further analysis. For every potentially editable mutation we checked the presence of PAM. If a PAM was found, we analyzed the sequence to find possibility to edit only one nucleotide without changing neighboring nucleotides. The code of the script to search Clinvar database and to analyze the sequences was written in R and is available in the appendix.

RESULTS: We analyzed 21 editing system currently reported in 9 publications. Every system has different working characteristics such as the editing window and PAM sequence. C > T base editors can precisely target 3196 mutations (46% of all pathogenic T > C variants), and A > G editors - 6900 mutations (34% of all pathogenic G > A variants).

CONCLUSIONS: Protein engineering helps to develop new enzymes with a narrower window of base editors as well as using new Cas9 enzymes with different PAM sequences. But, even now the list of mutations which can be targeted with currently available systems is huge enough to choose and develop new targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Chen HY, Hu Y, Xu XB, et al (2021)

Upregulation of oncogene Activin A receptor type I by Helicobacter pylori infection promotes gastric intestinal metaplasia via regulating CDX2.

Helicobacter [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Activin A receptor type I (ACVR1) is involved in tumorigenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of ACVR1 in gastric cancer (GC) and its association with Helicobacter pylori remained unclear.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA) database were utilized to explore the ACVR1 expression in GC and normal control and its association with survival. The ACVR1 was knocked out using CRISPR/Cas-9; RNA sequencing analysis was performed in AGS cells with ACVR1 knockout and normal control. Functional experiments (CCK-8, colony-forming, and transwell assays) were conducted to demonstrate the role of ACVR1 in cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. H. pylori-infected C57/BL6 models were established. ACVR1, p-Smad1/5, and CDX2 were detected in AGS cells cocultured with H. pylori strains. The CDX2 and key elements of BMP signaling pathway were detected in AGS cells with ACVR1 knockout and normal control. In addition, Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the ACVR1 and CDX2 expression in gastric samples.

RESULTS: ACVR1 expression was higher in GC than normal control from TCGA, GEPIA, and samples collected from our hospital (p < 0.05). ACVR1 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Both cagA+ and cagA- H. pylori could upregulate the expression ACVR1 (p < 0.05). Downregulation of ACVR1 inhibited the H. pylori-induced cell proliferation, migration, and invasion (p < 0.05). H. pylori increased the expression of p-Smad 1/5 and CDX2. The CDX2 and key elements of BMP signaling pathway were downregulated in AGS cells with ACVR1 knockout. ACVR1 and CDX2 were upregulated in the stage of intestinal metaplasia (IM). Moreover, ACVR1 and CDX2 expressions were higher in H. pylori-positive group than H. pylori-negative group (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that H. pylori infection increases ACVR1 expression, promoting gastric IM via regulating CDX2, which is an essential step in H. pylori carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Duan C, Cao H, Zhang LH, et al (2021)

Harnessing the CRISPR-Cas Systems to Combat Antimicrobial Resistance.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:716064.

The emergence of antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria has become one of the most serious threats to global health, necessitating the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) system, known as a bacterial adaptive immune system, can be repurposed to selectively target and destruct bacterial genomes other than invasive genetic elements. Thus, the CRISPR-Cas system offers an attractive option for the development of the next-generation antimicrobials to combat infectious diseases especially those caused by AMR pathogens. However, the application of CRISPR-Cas antimicrobials remains at a very preliminary stage and numerous obstacles await to be solved. In this mini-review, we summarize the development of using type I, type II, and type VI CRISPR-Cas antimicrobials to eradicate AMR pathogens and plasmids in the past a few years. We also discuss the most common challenges in applying CRISPR-Cas antimicrobials and potential solutions to overcome them.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Hoffert M, Anderson RE, Reveillaud J, et al (2021)

Genomic Variation Influences Methanothermococcus Fitness in Marine Hydrothermal Systems.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:714920.

Hydrogenotrophic methanogens are ubiquitous chemoautotrophic archaea inhabiting globally distributed deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystems and associated subseafloor niches within the rocky subseafloor, yet little is known about how they adapt and diversify in these habitats. To determine genomic variation and selection pressure within methanogenic populations at vents, we examined five Methanothermococcus single cell amplified genomes (SAGs) in conjunction with 15 metagenomes and 10 metatranscriptomes from venting fluids at two geochemically distinct hydrothermal vent fields on the Mid-Cayman Rise in the Caribbean Sea. We observed that some Methanothermococcus lineages and their transcripts were more abundant than others in individual vent sites, indicating differential fitness among lineages. The relative abundances of lineages represented by SAGs in each of the samples matched phylogenetic relationships based on single-copy universal genes, and genes related to nitrogen fixation and the CRISPR/Cas immune system were among those differentiating the clades. Lineages possessing these genes were less abundant than those missing that genomic region. Overall, patterns in nucleotide variation indicated that the population dynamics of Methanothermococcus were not governed by clonal expansions or selective sweeps, at least in the habitats and sampling times included in this study. Together, our results show that although specific lineages of Methanothermococcus co-exist in these habitats, some outcompete others, and possession of accessory metabolic functions does not necessarily provide a fitness advantage in these habitats in all conditions. This work highlights the power of combining single-cell, metagenomic, and metatranscriptomic datasets to determine how evolution shapes microbial abundance and diversity in hydrothermal vent ecosystems.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Özcan A, Krajeski R, Ioannidi E, et al (2021)

Programmable RNA targeting with the single-protein CRISPR effector Cas7-11.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas interference is mediated by Cas effector nucleases that are either components of multisubunit complexes-in class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems-or domains of a single protein-in class 2 systems1-3. Here we show that the subtype III-E effector Cas7-11 is a single-protein effector in the class 1 CRISPR-Cas systems originating from the fusion of a putative Cas11 domain and multiple Cas7 subunits that are derived from subtype III-D. Cas7-11 from Desulfonema ishimotonii (DiCas7-11), when expressed in Escherichia coli, has substantial RNA interference effectivity against mRNAs and bacteriophages. Similar to many class 2 effectors-and unique among class 1 systems-DiCas7-11 processes pre-CRISPR RNA into mature CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and cleaves RNA at positions defined by the target:spacer duplex, without detectable non-specific activity. We engineered Cas7-11 for RNA knockdown and editing in mammalian cells. We show that Cas7-11 has no effects on cell viability, whereas other RNA-targeting tools (such as short hairpin RNAs and Cas13) show substantial cell toxicity4,5. This study illustrates the evolution of a single-protein effector from multisubunit class 1 effector complexes, expanding our understanding of the diversity of CRISPR systems. Cas7-11 provides the basis for new programmable RNA-targeting tools that are free of collateral activity and cell toxicity.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Simhadri VL, Hopkins L, McGill JR, et al (2021)

Cas9-derived peptides presented by MHC Class II that elicit proliferation of CD4+ T-cells.

Nature communications, 12(1):5090.

CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing offers unprecedented opportunities for treating human diseases. There are several reports that demonstrate pre-existing immune responses to Cas9 which may have implications for clinical development of CRISPR-Cas9 mediated gene therapy. Here we use 209 overlapping peptides that span the entire sequence of Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a cohort of donors with a distribution of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) alleles comparable to that in the North American (NA) population to identify the immunodominant regions of the SaCas9 protein. We also use an MHC Associated Peptide Proteomics (MAPPs) assay to identify SaCas9 peptides presented by MHC Class II (MHC-II) proteins on dendritic cells. Using these two data sets we identify 22 SaCas9 peptides that are both presented by MHC-II proteins and stimulate CD4+ T-cells.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Gold A, Levanon EY, E Eisenberg (2021)

The New RNA-Editing Era - Ethical Considerations.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 37(8):685-687.

The characteristics of RNA editing, including the lower risk compared with genome editing, may loosen the ethical barriers that are currently imposed on genetic engineering, thus opening new possibilities for research, therapy, and human enhancement. We should start considering the future ethical and social implications of this new and promising technology.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Bier E, V Nizet (2021)

Driving to Safety: CRISPR-Based Genetic Approaches to Reducing Antibiotic Resistance.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 37(8):745-757.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has reached critical levels, skyrocketing in hospitals and the environment and posing a major threat to global public health. The complex and challenging problem of reducing antibiotic resistance (AR) requires a network of both societal and science-based solutions to preserve the most lifesaving pharmaceutical intervention known to medicine. In addition to developing new classes of antibiotics, it is essential to safeguard the clinical efficacy of existing drugs. In this review, we examine the potential application of novel CRISPR-based genetic approaches to reducing AR in both environmental and clinical settings and prolonging the utility of vital antibiotics.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )