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Bibliography on: CRISPR-Cas

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 19 Nov 2019 at 01:37 Created: 

CRISPR-Cas

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR, pronounced crisper) are segments of prokaryotic DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences. Each repetition is followed by short segments of "spacer DNA" from previous exposures to foreign DNA (e.g a virus or plasmid). The CRISPR/Cas system is a prokaryotic immune system that confers resistance to foreign genetic elements such as those present within plasmids and phages, and provides a form of acquired immunity. CRISPR associated proteins (Cas) use the CRISPR spacers to recognize and cut these exogenous genetic elements in a manner analogous to RNA interference in eukaryotic organisms. CRISPRs are found in approximately 40% of sequenced bacterial genomes and 90% of sequenced archaea. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III crRNA complex in the above diagram. CRISPR/Cas genome editing techniques have many potential applications, including altering the germline of humans, animals, and food crops. The use of CRISPR Cas9-gRNA complex for genome editing was the AAAS's choice for breakthrough of the year in 2015.

Created with PubMed® Query: "CRISPR.CAS" OR "crispr/cas" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-11-18

Vink JNA, Martens KJA, Vlot M, et al (2019)

Direct Visualization of Native CRISPR Target Search in Live Bacteria Reveals Cascade DNA Surveillance Mechanism.

Molecular cell pii:S1097-2765(19)30799-3 [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas systems encode RNA-guided surveillance complexes to find and cleave invading DNA elements. While it is thought that invaders are neutralized minutes after cell entry, the mechanism and kinetics of target search and its impact on CRISPR protection levels have remained unknown. Here, we visualize individual Cascade complexes in a native type I CRISPR-Cas system. We uncover an exponential relation between Cascade copy number and CRISPR interference levels, pointing to a time-driven arms race between invader replication and target search, in which 20 Cascade complexes provide 50% protection. Driven by PAM-interacting subunit Cas8e, Cascade spends half its search time rapidly probing DNA (∼30 ms) in the nucleoid. We further demonstrate that target DNA transcription and CRISPR arrays affect the integrity of Cascade and affect CRISPR interference. Our work establishes the mechanism of cellular DNA surveillance by Cascade that allows the timely detection of invading DNA in a crowded, DNA-packed environment.

RevDate: 2019-11-18
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Tsui CK, Barfield RM, Fischer CR, et al (2019)

CRISPR-Cas9 screens identify regulators of antibody-drug conjugate toxicity.

Nature chemical biology, 15(10):949-958.

Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) selectively deliver chemotherapeutic agents to target cells and are important cancer therapeutics. However, the mechanisms by which ADCs are internalized and activated remain unclear. Using CRISPR-Cas9 screens, we uncover many known and novel endolysosomal regulators as modulators of ADC toxicity. We identify and characterize C18ORF8/RMC1 as a regulator of ADC toxicity through its role in endosomal maturation. Through comparative analysis of screens with ADCs bearing different linkers, we show that a subset of late endolysosomal regulators selectively influence toxicity of noncleavable linker ADCs. Surprisingly, we find cleavable valine-citrulline linkers can be processed rapidly after internalization without lysosomal delivery. Lastly, we show that sialic acid depletion enhances ADC lysosomal delivery and killing in diverse cancer cell types, including with FDA (US Food and Drug Administration)-approved trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in Her2-positive breast cancer cells. Together, these results reveal new regulators of endolysosomal trafficking, provide important insights for ADC design and identify candidate combination therapy targets.

RevDate: 2019-11-18
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Tso FY, West JT, C Wood (2019)

Reduction of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency Using CRISPR-Cas9 To Edit the Latency-Associated Nuclear Antigen Gene.

Journal of virology, 93(7): pii:JVI.02183-18.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), an AIDS-defining cancer in HIV-1-infected individuals or immune-suppressed transplant patients. The prevalence for both KSHV and KS are highest in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV-1 infection is also epidemic. There is no effective treatment for advanced KS; therefore, the survival rate is low. Similar to other herpesviruses, KSHV's ability to establish latent infection in the host presents a major challenge to KS treatment or prevention. Strategies to reduce KSHV episomal persistence in latently infected cells might lead to approaches to prevent KS development. The CRISPR-Cas9 system is a gene editing technique that has been used to specifically manipulate the HIV-1 genome but also Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) which, similar to KSHV, belongs to the Gammaherpesvirus family. Among KSHV gene products, the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) is absolutely required in the maintenance, replication, and segregation of KSHV episomes during mitosis, which makes LANA an ideal target for CRISPR-Cas9 editing. In this study, we designed a replication-incompetent adenovirus type 5 to deliver a LANA-specific Cas9 system (Ad-CC9-LANA) into various KSHV latent target cells. We showed that KSHV latently infected epithelial and endothelial cells transduced with Ad-CC9-LANA underwent significant reductions in the KSHV episome burden, LANA RNA and protein expression over time, but this effect is less profound in BC3 cells due to the low infection efficiency of adenovirus type 5 for B cells. The use of an adenovirus vector might confer potential in vivo applications of LANA-specific Cas9 against KSHV infection and KS.IMPORTANCE The ability for Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the causative agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), to establish and maintain latency has been a major challenge to clearing infection and preventing KS development. This is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of using a KSHV LANA-targeted CRISPR-Cas9 and adenoviral delivery system to disrupt KSHV latency in infected epithelial and endothelial cell lines. Our system significantly reduced the KSHV episomal burden over time. Given the safety record of adenovirus as vaccine or delivery vectors, this approach to limit KSHV latency may also represent a viable strategy against other tumorigenic viruses and may have potential benefits in developing countries where the viral cancer burden is high.

RevDate: 2019-11-18
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Sun B, Zheng A, Jiang M, et al (2018)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of homologous genes in Chinese kale.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16786.

The clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeat-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system has developed into a powerful gene-editing tool that has been successfully applied to various plant species. However, studies on the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to cultivated Brassica vegetables are limited. Here, we reported CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) for the first time. A stretch of homologous genes, namely BaPDS1 and BaPDS2, was selected as the target site. Several stable transgenic lines with different types of mutations were generated via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, including BaPDS1 and BaPDS2 double mutations and BaPDS1 or BaPDS2 single mutations. The overall mutation rate reached 76.47%, and these mutations involved nucleotide changes of fewer than 10 bp. The clear albino phenotype was observed in all of the mutants, including one that harbored a mutation within an intron region, thereby indicating the importance of the intron. Cleavage in Chinese kale using CRISPR/Cas9 was biased towards AT-rich sequences. Furthermore, no off-target events were observed. Functional differences between BaPDS1 and BaPDS2 were also assessed in terms of the phenotypes of the respective mutants. In combination, these findings showed that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated targeted mutagenesis can simultaneously and efficiently modify homologous gene copies of Chinese kale and provide a convenient approach for studying gene function and improving the yield and quality of cultivated Brassica vegetables.

RevDate: 2019-11-18
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Kang J, Kang Y, Kim YW, et al (2019)

LRF acts as an activator and repressor of the human β-like globin gene transcription in a developmental stage dependent manner.

Biochemistry and cell biology = Biochimie et biologie cellulaire, 97(4):380-386.

Leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF; a hematopoietic transcription factor) has been suggested to repress fetal γ-globin genes in the human adult stage β-globin locus. Here, to study the role of LRF in the fetal stage β-globin locus, we knocked out its expression in erythroid K562 cells, in which the γ-globin genes are mainly transcribed. The γ-globin transcription was reduced in LRF knock-out cells, and transcription factor binding to the β-globin locus control region hypersensitive sites (LCR HSs) and active histone organization in the LCR HSs were disrupted by the depletion of LRF. In contrast, LRF loss in the adult stage β-globin locus did not affect active chromatin structure in the LCR HSs and induced the fetal γ-globin transcription. These results indicate that LRF may act as an activator and repressor of the human β-like globin gene transcription in a manner dependent on developmental stage.

RevDate: 2019-11-16

Lee SS, Park J, Heo YB, et al (2020)

Case study of xylose conversion to glycolate in Corynebacterium glutamicum: Current limitation and future perspective of the CRISPR-Cas systems.

Enzyme and microbial technology, 132:109395.

RNA-guided genome engineering technologies have been developed for the advanced metabolic engineering of microbial cells to enhance the production of value-added chemicals in Corynebacterium glutamicum as an industrial host. Here, we described the biotransformation of xylose to glycolate using engineered Corynebacterium glutamicum, a well-known industrial amino acid producer. A synthetic pathway involving heterologous D-tagatose 3-epimerase and L-fuculose kinase/aldolase reactions was introduced in C. glutamicum, resulting in 9.9 ± 0.01 g/L glycolate from 20 g/L xylose at a yield of 0.51 g/g (equal to 1.0 mol/mol). Additional glyoxylate reduction pathway developed by CRISPR-Cas12a recombineering has been introduced and attempted to increase the maximum theoretical molar yield of 2.0 (mol/mol). Due to the limitation of the CRISPR-Cas12a recombineering with TTTV PAM sites, advanced CRISPR-Cas systems were suggested for the next-round metabolic engineering for improving the glycolate yield to overcome the current genome-editing tool for metabolic engineering in C. glutamicum.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Liu Q, Zhang H, X Huang (2019)

Anti-CRISPR proteins targeting the CRISPR-Cas system enrich the toolkit for genetic engineering.

The FEBS journal [Epub ahead of print].

CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune defense systems, which are widely distributed in bacteria and Archaea, can provide sequence-specific protection against foreign DNA or RNA in some cases. However, the evolution of defense systems in bacterial hosts did not lead to the elimination of phages, and some phages carry anti-CRISPR genes that encode products that bind to the components mediating the defense mechanism and thus antagonize CRISPR-Cas immune systems of bacteria. Given the extensive application of CRISPR-Cas9 technologies in gene editing, in this review, we focus on the anti-CRISPR proteins (Acrs) that inhibit CRISPR-Cas systems for gene editing. We describe the discovery of Acrs in immune systems involving type I, II and V CRISPR-Cas immunity, discuss the potential function of Acrs in inactivating type II and V CRISPR-Cas systems for gene editing and gene modulation, and provide an outlook on the development of important biotechnology tools for genetic engineering using Acrs.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Medvedeva S, Liu Y, Koonin EV, et al (2019)

Virus-borne mini-CRISPR arrays are involved in interviral conflicts.

Nature communications, 10(1):5204 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-13205-2.

CRISPR-Cas immunity is at the forefront of antivirus defense in bacteria and archaea and specifically targets viruses carrying protospacers matching the spacers catalogued in the CRISPR arrays. Here, we perform deep sequencing of the CRISPRome-all spacers contained in a microbiome-associated with hyperthermophilic archaea of the order Sulfolobales recovered directly from an environmental sample and from enrichment cultures established in the laboratory. The 25 million CRISPR spacers sequenced from a single sampling site dwarf the diversity of spacers from all available Sulfolobales isolates and display complex temporal dynamics. Comparison of closely related virus strains shows that CRISPR targeting drives virus genome evolution. Furthermore, we show that some archaeal viruses carry mini-CRISPR arrays with 1-2 spacers and preceded by leader sequences but devoid of cas genes. Closely related viruses present in the same population carry spacers against each other. Targeting by these virus-borne spacers represents a distinct mechanism of heterotypic superinfection exclusion and appears to promote archaeal virus speciation.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Manghwar H, Lindsey K, Zhang X, et al (2019)

CRISPR/Cas System: Recent Advances and Future Prospects for Genome Editing.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(19)30243-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Genome editing (GE) has revolutionized biological research through the new ability to precisely edit the genomes of living organisms. In recent years, various GE tools have been explored for editing simple and complex genomes. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has widely been used in GE due to its high efficiency, ease of use, and accuracy. It can be used to add desirable and remove undesirable alleles simultaneously in a single event. Here, we discuss various applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in a range of important crops, compare it with other GE tools, and review its mechanism, limitations, and future possibilities. Various newly emerging CRISPR/Cas systems, including base editing (BE), xCas9, and Cas12a (Cpf1), are also considered.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Liao C, Slotkowski RA, CL Beisel (2019)

CRATES: A one-step assembly method for Class 2 CRISPR arrays.

Methods in enzymology, 629:493-511.

CRISPR-Cas systems naturally rely on CRISPR arrays to achieve immunity against multiple foreign invaders, where these arrays are also being utilized for multiplexed targeting as part of CRISPR technologies. However, CRISPR arrays have proven difficult to synthesize or assemble to-date due to the repetitive DNA repeats in each array. To overcome this barrier, we recently reported a cloning method we term CRATES (CRISPR Assembly through Trimmed Ends of Spacers) for the single-step, efficient generation of large Class 2 CRISPR arrays. CRATES generates CRISPR arrays through assembly of multiple repeat-spacer subunits using defined junction sequences within the trimmed portion of the CRISPR spacers. These arrays can be utilized by single-effector nucleases associated with Class 2 CRISPR-Cas systems, such as Cas9, Cas12a/Cpf1, or Cas13a/C2c2. Here, we describe in detail the steps for generating arrays utilized by Cas9 and Cas12a as well as composite arrays co-utilized by both nucleases. We also generate a representative three-spacer array and demonstrate multiplexed DNA cleavage through plasmid-clearance assays in Escherichia coli. This method is expected to simplify the study of natural CRISPR arrays and facilitate multiplexed targeting with programmable nucleases from Class 2 Cas nucleases across the myriad applications of CRISPR technologies.

RevDate: 2019-11-15

Choi BD, Yu X, Castano AP, et al (2019)

CRISPR-Cas9 disruption of PD-1 enhances activity of universal EGFRvIII CAR T cells in a preclinical model of human glioblastoma.

Journal for immunotherapy of cancer, 7(1):304 pii:10.1186/s40425-019-0806-7.

Despite remarkable success in the treatment of hematological malignancies, CAR T-cell therapies for solid tumors have floundered, in large part due to local immune suppression and the effects of prolonged stimulation leading to T-cell dysfunction and exhaustion. One mechanism by which gliomas and other cancers can hamper CAR T cells is through surface expression of inhibitory ligands such as programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Using the CRIPSR-Cas9 system, we created universal CAR T cells resistant to PD-1 inhibition through multiplexed gene disruption of endogenous T-cell receptor (TRAC), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) and PD-1 (PDCD1). Triple gene-edited CAR T cells demonstrated enhanced activity in preclinical glioma models. Prolonged survival in mice bearing intracranial tumors was achieved after intracerebral, but not intravenous administration. CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing not only provides a potential source of allogeneic, universal donor cells, but also enables simultaneous disruption of checkpoint signaling that otherwise impedes maximal antitumor functionality.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Lindel F, Dodt CR, Weidner N, et al (2019)

TraFo-CRISPR: Enhanced Genome Engineering by Transient Foamy Virus Vector-Mediated Delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 Components.

Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids, 18:708-726 pii:S2162-2531(19)30302-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The adaptation of CRISPR/Cas technology for use in mammals has revolutionized genome engineering. In particular with regard to clinical application, efficient expression of Cas9 within a narrow time frame is highly desirable to minimize the accumulation of off-target editing. We developed an effective, aptamer-independent retroviral delivery system for Cas9 mRNAs that takes advantage of a unique foamy virus (FV) capability: the efficient encapsidation and transfer of non-viral RNAs. This enabled us to create a FV vector toolbox for efficient, transient delivery (TraFo) of CRISPR/Cas9 components into different target tissues. Co-delivery of Cas9 mRNA by TraFo-Cas9 vectors in combination with retroviral, integration-deficient single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression enhanced efficacy and specificity of gene-inactivation compared with CRISPR/Cas9 lentiviral vector systems. Furthermore, separate TraFo-Cas9 delivery allowed the optional inclusion of a repair matrix for efficient gene correction or tagging as well as the addition of fluorescent negative selection markers for easy identification of off-target editing or incorrect repair events. Thus, the TraFo CRISPR toolbox represents an interesting alternative technology for gene inactivation and gene editing.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Creutzburg SCA, Swartjes T, J van der Oost (2019)

Medium-throughput in vitro detection of DNA cleavage by CRISPR-Cas12a.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.) pii:S1046-2023(19)30101-X [Epub ahead of print].

Quantifying DNA cleavage by CRISPR-Cas nucleases is usually done by separating the cleaved products from the non-cleaved target by agarose gel electrophoresis. We devised a method that eliminates the quantification from band intensity on agarose gel, and uses a target with a fluorescent dye on the one end and a biotin on the other. Cleavage of the target will separate the dye from the biotin, and cause the dye to stay in solution when streptavidin beads are introduced. All non-cleaved target will be eliminated from solution and no longer contribute to detectable fluorescence. Cleavage will therefore increase the fluorescent signal. A control, which has no streptavidin treatment, is taken along to correct for any errors that might have been introduced by pipetting, inactivation of the fluorescent dye or release of the biotin during several steps of the procedure. With this method we were able to quantify the fraction of active Cas12a in a purification sample and assess the cleavage rate.

RevDate: 2019-11-14

Zetsche B, Strecker J, Abudayyeh OO, et al (2019)

A Survey of Genome Editing Activity for 16 Cas12a Orthologs.

The Keio journal of medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The class 2 CRISPR-Cas endonuclease Cas12a (previously known as Cpf1) offers several advantages over Cas9, including the ability to process its own array and the requirement for just a single RNA guide. These attributes make Cas12a promising for many genome engineering applications. To further expand the suite of Cas12a tools available, we tested 16 Cas12a orthologs for activity in eukaryotic cells. Four of these new enzymes demonstrated targeted activity, one of which, from Moraxella bovoculi AAX11_00205 (Mb3Cas12a), exhibited robust indel formation. We also showed that Mb3Cas12a displays some tolerance for a shortened PAM (TTN versus the canonical Cas12a PAM TTTV). The addition of these enzymes to the genome editing toolbox will further expand the utility of this powerful technology.

RevDate: 2019-11-13

Garcia B, Lee J, Edraki A, et al (2019)

Anti-CRISPR AcrIIA5 Potently Inhibits All Cas9 Homologs Used for Genome Editing.

Cell reports, 29(7):1739-1746.e5.

CRISPR-Cas9 systems provide powerful tools for genome editing. However, optimal employment of this technology will require control of Cas9 activity so that the timing, tissue specificity, and accuracy of editing may be precisely modulated. Anti-CRISPR proteins, which are small, naturally occurring inhibitors of CRISPR-Cas systems, are well suited for this purpose. A number of anti-CRISPR proteins have been shown to potently inhibit subgroups of CRISPR-Cas9 systems, but their maximal inhibitory activity is generally restricted to specific Cas9 homologs. Since Cas9 homologs vary in important properties, differing Cas9s may be optimal for particular genome-editing applications. To facilitate the practical exploitation of multiple Cas9 homologs, here we identify one anti-CRISPR, called AcrIIA5, that potently inhibits nine diverse type II-A and type II-C Cas9 homologs, including those currently used for genome editing. We show that the activity of AcrIIA5 results in partial in vivo cleavage of a single-guide RNA (sgRNA), suggesting that its mechanism involves RNA interaction.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Sun Y, Liu D, Shi M, et al (2019)

[ADRB2 Gene Knockout in Human Primary T Cells by Multiple sgRNAs Construced using CRISPR/Cas9 Technology].

Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi, 27(5):1682-1690.

OBJECTIVE: To knockout ADRB2 gene rapidly and efficiently in human primary T cells by using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and multiple sgRNAs strategy.

METHODS: Six paired-sgRNAs, which were designed to target the 5' constitutive coding exons of ADRB2 gene, were cloned into pGL3-U6-sgRNA-PGK-Puro vector separately. The expre-ssion vectors containing the single sgRNAs were constructed and transiently co-transfected into HEK-293T cell line with Cas9 expression vector. The sgRNA-mediated cleavage efficiency was tested by T7EN I digestion assay. Concatenating four highly efficient paired sgRNAs were cloned into pGL3-U6-sgRNA-ccdB-EF1α-Puro expression vector. The reco-mbinant plasmid allows the cells to express 4 sgRNAs, which target different sites on the ADRB2 genomic locus. The cleavage efficiency and mutation model were tested by T7EN I digest assay and T-A cloning technique. Multiple sgRNAs plasmid and Cas9 plasmid was transiently transferred into human primary T cells by electroporation. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the knockout efficiency of β2 adrenergic receptor (β2-AR).

RESULTS: The results of T7EN I digestion and TA cloning sequencing showed that the multiple sgRNAs strategy could obtain more abundant mutation types and higher gene editing efficiency than single sgRNA. In addition to the deletion and insertion of bases, large fragment DNA deletions and inversions could be observed. All of the random 10 TA clones for detection were genetically modified, thus the mutation efficiency was as high as 100%. FCM assay showed that 43.09% of the cells in the control T cells were β2-AR positive, but the proportion of β2-AR positive cells in the multiple sgRNAs electrotransformed T cells decreased to 25.61%.

CONCLUSION: A method, which is simple and operable, for knocking out β2-AR in human primary T cells has been established preliminarily. The results are helpful for the further study of the role of β2-AR in human T cells.

RevDate: 2019-11-13
CmpDate: 2019-11-13

Filipiak WE, Hughes ED, Gavrilina GB, et al (2019)

Next Generation Transgenic Rat Model Production.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2018:97-114.

The next generation of new genetically engineered rat models by microinjection is described. Genome editors such as CRISPR/Cas9 have greatly increased the efficiency with which the rat genome can be modified to generate research models for biomedical research. Pronuclear microinjection of transgene DNA into rat zygotes results in random multicopy transgene integration events that use exogenous promoters to drive expression. Best practices in transgenic animal design indicate the use of precise single copy transgene integration in the genome. This ideal can be achieved by repair of CRISPR/Cas9 chromosome breaks by homology directed repair. The most effective way to achieve this type of transgenic rat model is to deliver genome modification reagents to rat zygotes by pronuclear microinjection. The keys to success in this process are to obtain fertilized eggs (zygotes) from the rat strain of choice, to purify the microinjection reagents, to deliver the reagents to the eggs by pronuclear microinjection, to use the surgical transfer of microinjected eggs to pseudopregnant rats to obtain G0 founder animals that carry the novel genetic modification. Ultimately the success of new rat models is measured by changes in gene expression as in the expression of a new reporter protein such as eGFP, Cre recombinase, or other protein of interest.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Koeppel I, Hertig C, Hoffie R, et al (2019)

Cas Endonuclease Technology-A Quantum Leap in the Advancement of Barley and Wheat Genetic Engineering.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(11): pii:ijms20112647.

Domestication and breeding have created productive crops that are adapted to the climatic conditions of their growing regions. Initially, this process solely relied on the frequent occurrence of spontaneous mutations and the recombination of resultant gene variants. Later, treatments with ionizing radiation or mutagenic chemicals facilitated dramatically increased mutation rates, which remarkably extended the genetic diversity of crop plants. However, a major drawback of conventionally induced mutagenesis is that genetic alterations occur simultaneously across the whole genome and at very high numbers per individual plant. By contrast, the newly emerging Cas endonuclease technology allows for the induction of mutations at user-defined positions in the plant genome. In fundamental and breeding-oriented research, this opens up unprecedented opportunities for the elucidation of gene functions and the targeted improvement of plant performance. This review covers historical aspects of the development of customizable endonucleases, information on the mechanisms of targeted genome modification, as well as hitherto reported applications of Cas endonuclease technology in barley and wheat that are the agronomically most important members of the temperate cereals. Finally, current trends in the further development of this technology and some ensuing future opportunities for research and biotechnological application are presented.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Cai J, Huang S, Yi Y, et al (2019)

Ultrasound microbubble-mediated CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of C-erbB-2 in HEC-1A cells.

The Journal of international medical research, 47(5):2199-2206.

OBJECTIVE: Epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (C-erbB-2) is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in human tumors. We aimed to evaluate the knockout efficiency of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) technology using ultrasound microbubble transfection to target C-erbB-2 in human endometrial cancer (HEC)-1A cells.

METHODS: Three single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) targeting C-erbB-2 were designed and used to construct CRISPR/CRISPR-associated (Cas)9-C-erbB-2 plasmids. The constructed plasmids were transfected into HEC-1A cells using ultrasound microbubbles. C-erbB-2 knockout cloned cells were identified by green fluorescence. C-erbB-2 mRNA and protein expression was measured by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting, respectively.

RESULTS: RT-PCR showed that C-erbB-2 mRNA expression was significantly lower in sgRNA1-transfected cells (0.57 ± 0.06) than in blank (1.00 ± 0.09) and negative-control groups (1.02 ± 0.12). Western blotting revealed C-erbB-2 protein expression to be significantly lower in sgRNA1-transfected cells (0.269 ± 0.033) than in blank (0.495 ± 0.059) and negative-control groups (1.243 ± 0.281). However, there was no significant difference in C-erbB-2 protein and mRNA expression in sgRNA2- and sgRNA3-transfected cells compared with controls.

CONCLUSION: Ultrasound microbubbles can mediate plasmid transfer into HEC-1A cells to interfere with gene expression and knockout C-erbB-2.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Gao XD, Rodríguez TC, EJ Sontheimer (2019)

Adapting dCas9-APEX2 for subnuclear proteomic profiling.

Methods in enzymology, 616:365-383.

Genome organization and subnuclear protein localization are essential for normal cellular function and have been implicated in the control of gene expression, DNA replication, and genomic stability. The coupling of chromatin conformation capture (3C), chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing, and related techniques have continuously improved our understanding of genome architecture. To profile site-specifically DNA-associated proteins in a high-throughput and unbiased manner, the RNA-programmable CRISPR-Cas9 platform has recently been combined with an enzymatic labeling system to allow proteomic landscapes at repetitive and nonrepetitive loci to be defined with unprecedented ease and resolution. In this chapter, we describe the dCas9-APEX2 experimental approach for specifically targeting a DNA sequence, enzymatically labeling local proteins with biotin, and quantitatively analyzing the labeled proteome. We also discuss the optimization and extension of this pipeline to facilitate its use in understanding nuclear and chromosome biology.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Liu MS, Gong S, Yu HH, et al (2019)

Kinetic characterization of Cas9 enzymes.

Methods in enzymology, 616:289-311.

Bacterial adaptive immune systems employ clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) along with their CRISPR-associated genes (Cas) to form CRISPR RNA (crRNA)-guided surveillance complexes, which target foreign nucleic acids for destruction. Cas9 is unique in that it is composed of a single polypeptide that utilizes both a crRNA and a trans-activating crRNA (tracrRNA) or a single guide RNA to create double-stranded breaks in sequences complementary to the RNA via the HNH and RuvC nuclease domains. Cas9 has become a revolutionary tool for gene-editing applications. Here, we describe methods for studying the cleavage activities of Cas9. We describe protocols for rapid quench-flow and stopped-flow kinetics and interpretation of the results. The protocols detailed here will be paramount for understanding the mechanistic basis for specificity of this enzyme, especially in efforts to improve accuracy for clinical use.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Kissling L, Monfort A, Swarts DC, et al (2019)

Preparation and electroporation of Cas12a/Cpf1-guide RNA complexes for introducing large gene deletions in mouse embryonic stem cells.

Methods in enzymology, 616:241-263.

CRISPR-Cas12a is a bacterial RNA-guided deoxyribonuclease that has been adopted for genetic engineering in a broad variety of organisms. Here, we describe protocols for the preparation and application of AsCas12a-guide RNA ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes for engineering gene deletions in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. We provide detailed protocols for purification of an NLS-containing AsCas12a-eGFP fusion protein, design of guide RNAs, assembly of RNP complexes, and transfection of mouse ES cells by electroporation. In addition, we present data illustrating the use of pairs of Cas12a nucleases for engineering large genetic deletions and outline experimental considerations for applications of Cas12a nucleases in ES cells.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Rouillon C, Athukoralage JS, Graham S, et al (2019)

Investigation of the cyclic oligoadenylate signaling pathway of type III CRISPR systems.

Methods in enzymology, 616:191-218.

Type III CRISPR effector complexes utilize a bound CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to detect the presence of RNA from invading mobile genetic elements in the cell. This RNA binding results in the activation of two enzymatic domains of the Cas10 subunit-the HD nuclease domain, which degrades DNA, and PALM/cyclase domain. The latter synthesizes cyclic oligoadenylate (cOA) molecules by polymerizing ATP, and cOA acts as a second messenger in the cell, switching on the antiviral response by activating host ribonucleases and other proteins. In this chapter, we focus on the methods required to study the biochemistry of this recently discovered cOA signaling pathway. We cover protein expression and purification, synthesis of cOA and its linear analogues, kinetic analysis of cOA synthesis and cOA-stimulated ribonuclease activity, and small molecule detection and identification with thin-layer chromatography and mass spectrometry. The methods described are based on our recent studies of the type III CRISPR system in Sulfolobus solfataricus, but are widely applicable to other type III systems.

RevDate: 2019-11-13
CmpDate: 2019-11-13

Gasperini M, Hill AJ, McFaline-Figueroa JL, et al (2019)

A Genome-wide Framework for Mapping Gene Regulation via Cellular Genetic Screens.

Cell, 176(1-2):377-390.e19.

Over one million candidate regulatory elements have been identified across the human genome, but nearly all are unvalidated and their target genes uncertain. Approaches based on human genetics are limited in scope to common variants and in resolution by linkage disequilibrium. We present a multiplex, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL)-inspired framework for mapping enhancer-gene pairs by introducing random combinations of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated perturbations to each of many cells, followed by single-cell RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Across two experiments, we used dCas9-KRAB to perturb 5,920 candidate enhancers with no strong a priori hypothesis as to their target gene(s), measuring effects by profiling 254,974 single-cell transcriptomes. We identified 664 (470 high-confidence) cis enhancer-gene pairs, which were enriched for specific transcription factors, non-housekeeping status, and genomic and 3D conformational proximity to their target genes. This framework will facilitate the large-scale mapping of enhancer-gene regulatory interactions, a critical yet largely uncharted component of the cis-regulatory landscape of the human genome.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Mattapally S, Pawlik KM, Fast VG, et al (2018)

Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I and II Knockout Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cells: Universal Donor for Cell Therapy.

Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(23):e010239.

Background We aim to generate a line of "universal donor" human induced pluripotent stem cells (hi PSC s) that are nonimmunogenic and, therefore, can be used to derive cell products suitable for allogeneic transplantation. Methods and Results hi PSC s carrying knockout mutations for 2 key components (β2 microglobulin and class II major histocompatibility class transactivator) of major histocompatibility complexes I and II (ie, human leukocyte antigen [HLA] I/ II knockout hi PSC s) were generated using the Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) gene-editing system and differentiated into cardiomyocytes. Pluripotency-gene expression and telomerase activity in wild-type (WT) and HLAI / II knockout hi PSC s, cardiomyocyte marker expression in WT and HLAI / II knockout hi PSC -derived cardiomyocytes, and assessments of electrophysiological properties (eg, conduction velocity, action-potential and calcium transient half-decay times, and calcium transient increase times) in spheroid-fusions composed of WT and HLAI / II knockout cardiomyocytes, were similar. However, the rates of T-cell activation before (≈21%) and after (≈24%) exposure to HLAI / II knockout hi PSC -derived cardiomyocytes were nearly indistinguishable and dramatically lower than after exposure to WT hi PSC -derived cardiomyocytes (≈75%), and when WT and HLAI / II knockout hi PSC -derived cardiomyocyte spheroids were cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, the WT hi PSC -derived cardiomyocyte spheroids were smaller and displayed contractile irregularities. Finally, expression of HLA -E and HLA -F was inhibited in HLAI / II knockout cardiomyocyte spheroids after coculture with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although HLA -G was not inhibited; these results are consistent with the essential role of class II major histocompatibility class transactivator in transcriptional activation of the HLA -E and HLA-F genes, but not the HLA -G gene. Expression of HLA -G is known to inhibit natural killer cell recognition and killing of cells that lack other HLAs. Conclusions HLAI / II knockout hi PSC s can be differentiated into cardiomyocytes that induce little or no activity in human immune cells and, consequently, are suitable for allogeneic transplantation.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Wang Q, Zhang B, Xu X, et al (2018)

CRISPR-typing PCR (ctPCR), a new Cas9-based DNA detection method.

Scientific reports, 8(1):14126 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-32329-x.

This study develops a new method for detecting and typing target DNA based on Cas9 nuclease, which was named as ctPCR, representing Cas9-sgRNA- or CRISPR-typing PCR. The technique can detect and type target DNA easily, rapidly, specifically, and sensitively. This technique detects target DNA in three steps: (1) amplifying target DNA with PCR by using a pair of universal primers (PCR1); (2) treating PCR1 products with a process referred to as CAT, representing Cas9 cutting, A tailing and T adaptor ligation; (3) amplifying the CAT-treated DNA with PCR by using a pair of general-specific primers (gs-primers) (PCR2). This method was verified by detecting HPV16 and HPV18 L1 gene in 13 different high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) subtypes. This method was also verified by detecting the L1 and E6-E7 genes of two high-risk HPVs (HPV16 and 18) in cervical carcinoma cells and many clinical samples. In this method, PCR1 was performed to determine if the detected DNA sample contained the target DNA (such as virus infection), while PCR2 was performed to discriminate which genotypic target DNA was present in the detected DNA sample (such as virus subtypes). Based on these proof-of-concept experiments, this study provides a new CRISPR/Cas9-based DNA detection and typing method.

RevDate: 2019-11-13
CmpDate: 2019-11-13

Wang S, Liu Z, Ye Y, et al (2018)

Ectopic hTERT expression facilitates reprograming of fibroblasts derived from patients with Werner syndrome as a WS cellular model.

Cell death & disease, 9(9):923.

The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has provided a unique opportunity to develop disease-specific models and personalized treatment for genetic disorders, and is well suitable for the study of Werner syndrome (WS), an autosomal recessive disease with adult onset of premature aging caused by mutations in the RecQ like helicase (WRN) gene. WS-derived fibroblasts were previously shown to be able to generate iPSCs; however, it remains elusive how WS-derived iPSCs behave and whether they are able to mimic the disease-specific phenotype. The present study was designed to address these issues. Unexpectedly, we found that a specific WS fibroblast line of homozygous truncation mutation was difficult to be reprogrammed by using the Yamanaka factors even under hypoxic conditions due to their defect in induction of hTERT, the catalytic unit of telomerase. Ectopic expression of hTERT restores the ability of this WS fibroblast line to form iPSCs, although with a low efficiency. To examine the phenotype of WRN-deficient pluripotent stem cells, we also generated WRN knockout human embryonic stem (ES) cells by using the CRISPR/Cas9 method. The iPSCs derived from WS-hTERT cells and WRN-/- ESCs are fully pluripotent, express pluripotent markers and can differentiate into three germ layer cells; however, WS-iPSCs and WRN-/- ESCs show S phase defect in cell cycle progression. Moreover, WS-iPSCs and WRN-/- ESCs, like WS patient-derived fibroblasts, remain hypersensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors. Collectively, WS-derived iPSCs and WRN-/- ESCs mimic the intrinsic disease phenotype, which may serve as a suitable disease model, whereas not be good for a therapeutic purpose without gene correction.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Mkannez G, Gagné-Ouellet V, Jalloul Nsaibia M, et al (2018)

DNA methylation of a PLPP3 MIR transposon-based enhancer promotes an osteogenic programme in calcific aortic valve disease.

Cardiovascular research, 114(11):1525-1535.

Aims: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is characterized by the osteogenic transition of valve interstitial cells (VICs). In CAVD, lysophosphatidic acid (LysoPA), a lipid mediator with potent osteogenic activity, is produced in the aortic valve (AV) and is degraded by membrane-associated phospholipid phosphatases (PLPPs). We thus hypothesized that a dysregulation of PLPPs could participate to the osteogenic reprograming of VICs during CAVD.

Methods and results: The expression of PLPPs was examined in human control and mineralized AVs and comprehensive analyses were performed to document the gene regulation and impact of PLPPs on the osteogenic transition of VICs. We found that PLPP3 gene and enzymatic activity were downregulated in mineralized AVs. Multidimensional gene profiling in 21 human AVs showed that expression of PLPP3 was inversely correlated with the level of 5-methylcytosine (5meC) located in an intronic mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) element. Bisulphite pyrosequencing in a larger series of 67 AVs confirmed that 5meC in intron 1 was increased by 2.2-fold in CAVD compared with control AVs. In isolated cells, epigenome editing with clustered regularly interspersed short palindromic repeats-Cas9 system containing a deficient Cas9 fused with DNA methyltransferase (dCas9-DNMT) was used to increase 5meC in the intronic enhancer and showed that it reduced significantly the expression of PLPP3. Knockdown experiments showed that lower expression of PLPP3 in VICs promotes an osteogenic programme.

Conclusions: DNA methylation of a MIR-based enhancer downregulates the expression of PLPP3 and promotes the mineralization of the AV.

RevDate: 2019-11-12

Anderson ME, Mavica J, Shackleford L, et al (2019)

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the West Nile Virus vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say.

PloS one, 14(11):e0224857 pii:PONE-D-19-22537.

Culex quinquefasciatus Say is an opportunistic blood feeder with a wide geographic distribution which is also a major vector for a range of diseases of both animals and humans. CRISPR/Cas technologies have been applied to a wide variety of organisms for both applied and basic research purposes. CRISPR/Cas methods open new possibilities for genetic research in non-model organisms of public health importance. In this work we have adapted microinjection techniques commonly used in other mosquito species to Culex quinquefasciatus, and have shown these to be effective at generating homozygous knock-out mutations of a target gene in one generation. This is the first description of the kmo gene and mutant phenotype in this species.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Stasi A, IP Rodrigues (2019)

Dealing with Patent Fragmentation in Genetics: Can Patent Pools Facilitate the Development of CRISPR Gene-Editing Technology?.

Journal of law and medicine, 26(4):866-873.

The discovery of CRISPR systems has been one of the most exciting developments in the field of genetics in the past decade. The recent proliferation of intellectual property rights for CRISPR genome editing technology carries the risk of potential bottlenecks for further basic biological research and development of commercial products. To make CRISPR-based technology widely available, the reliance by the industry on efficient methods of collective management of intellectual property rights through patent pools seems inevitable. A packager of patent pools could be used as a mechanism to facilitate transactions in the market for technology and allow interested parties to deal with a single entity. This article argues that, while a global licensing platform could be effectively achieved in non-therapeutic applications of genome editing, it is questionable whether patent pooling would provide the ideal balance of incentive and reward for CRISPR genome editing technologies for human gene therapy.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Osei-Owusu P, Charlton TM, Kim HK, et al (2019)

FPR1 is the plague receptor on host immune cells.

Nature, 574(7776):57-62.

The causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, uses a type III secretion system to selectively destroy immune cells in humans, thus enabling Y. pestis to reproduce in the bloodstream and be transmitted to new hosts through fleabites. The host factors that are responsible for the selective destruction of immune cells by plague bacteria are unknown. Here we show that LcrV, the needle cap protein of the Y. pestis type III secretion system, binds to the N-formylpeptide receptor (FPR1) on human immune cells to promote the translocation of bacterial effectors. Plague infection in mice is characterized by high mortality; however, Fpr1-deficient mice have increased survival and antibody responses that are protective against plague. We identified FPR1R190W as a candidate resistance allele in humans that protects neutrophils from destruction by the Y. pestis type III secretion system. Thus, FPR1 is a plague receptor on immune cells in both humans and mice, and its absence or mutation provides protection against Y. pestis. Furthermore, plague selection of FPR1 alleles appears to have shaped human immune responses towards other infectious diseases and malignant neoplasms.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Liu XM, Zhou J, Mao Y, et al (2019)

Programmable RNA N6-methyladenosine editing by CRISPR-Cas9 conjugates.

Nature chemical biology, 15(9):865-871.

RNA modification in the form of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulates nearly all the post-transcriptional processes. The asymmetric m6A deposition suggests that regional methylation may have distinct functional consequences. However, current RNA biology tools do not distinguish the contribution of individual m6A modifications. Here we report the development of 'm6A editing', a powerful approach that enables m6A installation and erasure from cellular RNAs without changing the primary sequence. We engineered fusions of CRISPR-Cas9 and a single-chain m6A methyltransferase that can be programmed with a guide RNA. The resultant m6A 'writers' allow functional comparison of single site methylation in different messenger RNA regions. We further engineered m6A 'erasers' by fusing CRISPR-Cas9 with ALKBH5 or FTO to achieve site-specific demethylation of RNAs. The development of programmable m6A editing not only expands the scope of RNA engineering, but also facilitates mechanistic understanding of epitranscriptome.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Xiong X, Liu W, Jiang J, et al (2019)

Efficient genome editing of Brassica campestris based on the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG, 294(5):1251-1261.

Conventional methods for gene function study in Brassica campestris have lots of drawbacks, which greatly hinder the identification of important genes' functions and molecular breeding. The clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a versatile tool for genome editing that has been widely utilized in many plant species and has many advantages over conventional methods for gene function study. However, the application of CRISPR/Cas9 system in B. campestris remains unreported. The pectin-methylesterase genes Bra003491, Bra007665, and Bra014410 were selected as the targets of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. A single-targeting vector and a multitargeting vector were constructed. Different types of mutations were detected in T0 generation through Agrobacterium transformation. The mutation rate of the three designed sgRNA seeds varied from 20 to 56%. Although the majority of T0 mutants were chimeric, four homozygous mutants were identified. Transformation with the multitargeting vector generated one line with a large fragment deletion and one line with mutations in two target genes. Mutations in Bra003491 were stable and inherited by T1 and T2 generations. Nine mutants which did not contain T-DNA insertions were also obtained. No mutations were detected in predicted potential off-target sites. Our work demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 system is efficient on single and multiplex genome editing without off-targeting in B. campestris and that the mutations are stable and inheritable. Our results may greatly facilitate gene functional studies and the molecular breeding of B. campestris and other plants.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Kormanec J, Rezuchova B, Homerova D, et al (2019)

Recent achievements in the generation of stable genome alterations/mutations in species of the genus Streptomyces.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 103(14):5463-5482.

The bacteria of the genus Streptomyces are the most valuable source of natural products of industrial and medical importance. A recent explosion of Streptomyces genome sequence data has revealed the enormous genetic potential of new biologically active compounds, although many of them are silent under laboratory conditions. Efficient and stable manipulation of the genome is necessary to induce their production. Comprehensive studies in the past have led to a large and versatile collection of molecular biology tools for gene manipulation of Streptomyces, including various replicative plasmids. However, biotechnological applications of these bacteria require stable genome alterations/mutations. To accomplish such stable genome editing, two major strategies for streptomycetes have been developed: (1) integration into the chromosome through Att/Int site-specific integration systems based on Streptomyces actinophages (ΦC31, ΦBT1, VWB, TG1, SV1, R4, ΦJoe, μ1/6) or pSAM2 integrative plasmid; (2) integration by homologous recombination using suicidal non-replicating vectors. The present review is an attempt to provide a comprehensive summary of both approaches for stable genomic engineering and to outline recent advances in these strategies, such as CRISPR/Cas9, which have successfully manipulated Streptomyces strains to improve their biotechnological properties and increase production of natural or new gene-manipulated biologically active compounds.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Nussbacher JK, Tabet R, Yeo GW, et al (2019)

Disruption of RNA Metabolism in Neurological Diseases and Emerging Therapeutic Interventions.

Neuron, 102(2):294-320.

RNA binding proteins are critical to the maintenance of the transcriptome via controlled regulation of RNA processing and transport. Alterations of these proteins impact multiple steps of the RNA life cycle resulting in various molecular phenotypes such as aberrant RNA splicing, transport, and stability. Disruption of RNA binding proteins and widespread RNA processing defects are increasingly recognized as critical determinants of neurological diseases. Here, we describe distinct mechanisms by which the homeostasis of RNA binding proteins is compromised in neurological disorders through their reduced expression level, increased propensity to aggregate or sequestration by abnormal RNAs. These mechanisms all converge toward altered neuronal function highlighting the susceptibility of neurons to deleterious changes in RNA expression and the central role of RNA binding proteins in preserving neuronal integrity. Emerging therapeutic approaches to mitigate or reverse alterations of RNA binding proteins in neurological diseases are discussed.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Schmidt L, Heyes E, Scheiblecker L, et al (2019)

CEBPA-mutated leukemia is sensitive to genetic and pharmacological targeting of the MLL1 complex.

Leukemia, 33(7):1608-1619.

The gene encoding the transcription factor C/EBPα is mutated in 10-15% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. N-terminal CEBPA mutations cause ablation of full-length C/EBPα without affecting the expression of a shorter oncogenic isoform, termed p30. The mechanistic basis of p30-induced leukemogenesis is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the MLL1 histone-methyltransferase complex represents a critical actionable vulnerability in CEBPA-mutated AML. Oncogenic C/EBPα p30 and MLL1 show global co-localization on chromatin and p30 exhibits robust physical interaction with the MLL1 complex. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of MLL1 results in proliferation arrest and myeloid differentiation in C/EBPα p30-expressing cells. In line, CEBPA-mutated hematopoietic progenitor cells are hypersensitive to pharmacological targeting of the MLL1 complex. Inhibitor treatment impairs proliferation and restores myeloid differentiation potential in mouse and human AML cells with CEBPA mutations. Finally, we identify the transcription factor GATA2 as a direct critical target of the p30-MLL1 interaction. Altogether, we show that C/EBPα p30 requires the MLL1 complex to regulate oncogenic gene expression and that CEBPA-mutated AML is hypersensitive to perturbation of the MLL1 complex. These findings identify the MLL1 complex as a potential therapeutic target in AML with CEBPA mutations.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Shahid M, Lee MY, Piplani H, et al (2018)

Centromere protein F (CENPF), a microtubule binding protein, modulates cancer metabolism by regulating pyruvate kinase M2 phosphorylation signaling.

Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.), 17(24):2802-2818.

Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men and is the second leading cause of male cancer-related death in North America. Metabolic adaptations in malignant PC cells play a key role in fueling the growth and progression of the disease. Unfortunately, little is known regarding these changes in cellular metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that centromere protein F (CENPF), a protein associated with the centromere-kinetochore complex and chromosomal segregation during mitosis, is mechanically linked to altered metabolism and progression in PC. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we silenced the gene for CENPF in human PC3 cells. These cells were found to have reduced levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers and inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Silencing of CENPF also simultaneously improved sensitivity to anoikis-induced apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis of tyrosine phosphorylated proteins from CENPF knockout (CENPFKO) and control cells revealed that CENPF silencing increased inactive forms of pyruvate kinase M2, a rate limiting enzyme needed for an irreversible reaction in glycolysis. Furthermore, CENPFKO cells had reduced global bio-energetic capacity, acetyl-CoA production, histone acetylation, and lipid metabolism, suggesting that CENPF is a critical regulator of cancer metabolism, potentially through its effects on mitochondrial functioning. Additional quantitative immunohistochemistry and imaging analyzes on a series of PC tumor microarrays demonstrated that CENPF expression is significantly increased in higher-risk PC patients. Based on these findings, we suggest the CENPF may be an important regulator of PC metabolism through its role in the mitochondria.

RevDate: 2019-11-11

Herrera-Carrillo E, Gao Z, B Berkhout (2019)

CRISPR therapy towards an HIV cure.

Briefings in functional genomics pii:5614853 [Epub ahead of print].

Tools based on RNA interference (RNAi) and the recently developed clustered regularly short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) system enable the selective modification of gene expression, which also makes them attractive therapeutic reagents for combating HIV infection and other infectious diseases. Several parallels can be drawn between the RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9 platforms. An ideal RNAi or CRISPR-Cas9 therapeutic strategy for treating infectious or genetic diseases should exhibit potency, high specificity and safety. However, therapeutic applications of RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9 have been challenged by several major limitations, some of which can be overcome by optimal design of the therapy or the design of improved reagents. In this review, we will discuss some advantages and limitations of anti-HIV strategies based on RNAi and CRISPR-Cas9 with a focus on the efficiency, specificity, off-target effects and delivery methods.

RevDate: 2019-11-11

Tang L, Yang F, He X, et al (2019)

Efficient cleavage resolves PAM preferences of CRISPR-Cas in human cells.

Cell regeneration (London, England), 8(2):44-50 pii:S2045-9769(19)30017-3.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) of bacterial adaptive immunity have been adopted as a powerful and versatile tool for manipulation of the genome. This paradigm has been widely applied in biological research and treatments of animal or cellular disease models. A critical feature of CRISPR-Cas is the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), which dictates the DNA target recognition mechanism of Cas proteins. While, direct identifying functional PAM sequences in human cells remains a challenge. Here, we developed a positive screen system termed PAM-DOSE (PAM Definition by Observable Sequence Excision) to delineate the functional PAMs in human cells. Specifically, the PAM libraries for CRISPR-Cas (SpCas9, SpCas9-NG, FnCas12a, AsCas12a, LbCas12a and MbCas12a) were generated and the corresponding CRISPR-Cas mediated cleaved fragments with functional PAM in human cells were harvested for DNA sequencing, which could be tracked and visualized with either florescence microscopy or flow cytometry analysis. With this system, we identified the functional PAMs of CRISPR-Cas members. We also found that spacer sequence affects the PAM preference of Cas proteins. This method will facilitate identification of functional PAMs for Cas-mediated human genome editing applications.

RevDate: 2019-11-11

Li Y, N Peng (2019)

Endogenous CRISPR-Cas System-Based Genome Editing and Antimicrobials: Review and Prospects.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2471.

CRISPR-Cas systems adapt "memories" via spacers from viruses and plasmids to develop adaptive immunity against mobile genetic elements. Mature CRISPR RNAs guide CRISPR-associated nucleases to site-specifically cleave target DNA or RNA, providing an efficient genome engineering tool for organisms of all three kingdoms. Cas9, Cas12, and Cas13 are single proteins with multiple domains that are the most widely used CRISPR nucleases of the Class 2 system. However, these CRISPR endonucleases are large in size, leading to difficulty for manipulation and toxicity for cells. Most archaeal genomes and half of the bacterial genomes encode different types of CRISPR-Cas systems. Therefore, developing endogenous CRISPR-Cas systems-based genome editing will simplify manipulations and increase editing efficiency in prokaryotic cells. Here, we review the current applications and discuss the prospects of using endogenous CRISPR nucleases for genome engineering and CRISPR-based antimicrobials.

RevDate: 2019-11-11
CmpDate: 2019-11-11

Guo R, Tian Y, Jin X, et al (2019)

[Generation of a novel HBeAg transgenic mice using CRISPR/Cas9 technique].

Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University, 39(9):1017-1022.

OBJECTIVE: To generate a new strain of HBeAg transgenic mice using CRISPR/Cas9 technique.

METHODS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) HBeAg gene was cloned and inserted in the pliver-HBeAg expression frame at the site of Rosa26 gene using CRISPR/Cas9 and homologous recombination techniques to construct the pliver-HBeAg expression vector containing HBeAg gene. The linear DNA fragment containing HBeAg gene was obtained by enzyme digestion. Cas9 mRNA, gRNA and the donor vector were microinjected into fertilized eggs of C57BL/6J mice, which were then transplanted into the uterus of C57BL/6J female surrogate mice to obtain F0 generation mice. The F0 generation mice were identified by long fragment PCR to obtain F0 transgenic mice with HBeAg gene. The positive F0 generation mice were bred with wild-type C57BL/6J mice to produce the F1 mice, which were identified by PCR and sequencing. The positive F1 transgenic mice carrying HBeAg gene were backcrossed until the homozygous offspring transgenic mice were obtained. The genotypes of the offspring mice were identified. The expressions of HBeAg and HBeAb in the heterozygous and homozygous HBeAg transgenic mice were detected by automatic chemiluminescence immunoassay, immune colloidal gold technique and immunohistochemistry method.

RESULTS: A total of 56 F0 mice were obtained, and 2 of them carried homologous recombined HBeAg gene. Six positive F1 mice were obtained, from which 22 homozygous and 29 heterozygous F2 generation HBeAg transgenic mice were obtained. High concentration of HBeAg protein was detected in the peripheral blood of all the positive HBeAg transgenic mice without HBeAb expression. HBeAg expression was detected in the hepatocytes of HBeAg transgenic mice.

CONCLUSIONS: We obtained a new strain of HBeAg transgenic mice with stable expression of HBeAg in the hepatocytes and immune tolerance to HBeAg using CRISPR/Cas9 technique, which provide a new animal model for studying HBV.

RevDate: 2019-11-11
CmpDate: 2019-11-11

Gou Y, Liu W, Wang JJ, et al (2019)

CRISPR-Cas9 knockout of qseB induced asynchrony between motility and biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

Canadian journal of microbiology, 65(9):691-702.

Generally, cell motility and biofilm formation are tightly regulated. The QseBC two-component system (TCS) serves as a bridge for bacterial signal transmission, in which the protein QseB acts as a response regulator bacterial motility, biofilm formation, and virulence. The mechanisms that govern the interaction between QseBC and their functions have been studied in general, but the regulatory role of QseB on bacterial motility and biofilm formation is unknown. In this study, the CRISPR-Cas9 system was used to construct the Escherichia coli MG1655ΔqseB strain (strain ΔqseB), and the effects of the qseB gene on changes in motility and biofilm formation in the wild type (WT) were determined. The motility assay results showed that the ΔqseB strain had higher (p < 0.05) motility than the WT strain. However, there was no difference in the formation of biofilm between the ΔqseB and WT strains. Real-time quantitative PCR illustrated that deletion of qseB in the WT strain downregulated expression of the type I pili gene fimA. Therefore, we might conclude that the ΔqseB induced the downregulation of fimA, which led to asynchrony between motility and biofilm formation in E. coli, providing new insight into the functional importance of QseB in regulating cell motility and biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2019-11-11
CmpDate: 2019-11-11

Khosravi MA, Abbasalipour M, Concordet JP, et al (2019)

Targeted deletion of BCL11A gene by CRISPR-Cas9 system for fetal hemoglobin reactivation: A promising approach for gene therapy of beta thalassemia disease.

European journal of pharmacology, 854:398-405.

Hemoglobinopathies, such as β-thalassemia, and sickle cell disease (SCD) are caused by abnormal structure or reduced production of β-chains and affect millions of people worldwide. Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is a condition which is naturally occurring and characterized by a considerable elevation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) in adult red blood cells. Individuals with compound heterozygous β-thalassemia or SCD and HPFH have milder clinical symptoms. So, HbF reactivation has long been sought as an approach to mitigate the clinical symptoms of β-thalassemia and SCD. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing strategy, we deleted a 200bp genomic region within the human erythroid-specific BCL11A (B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 11A) enhancer in KU-812, KG-1, and K562 cell lines. In our study, deletion of 200bp of BCL11A erythroid enhancer including GATAA motif leads to strong induction of γ-hemoglobin expression in K562 cells, but not in KU-812 and KG-1 cells. Altogether, our findings highlight the therapeutic potential of CRISPR-Cas9 as a precision genome editing tool for treating β-thalassemia. In addition, our data indicate that KU-812 and KG-1 cell lines are not good models for studying HbF reactivation through inactivation of BCL11A silencing pathway.

RevDate: 2019-11-11
CmpDate: 2019-11-11

Kusano H, Ohnuma M, Mutsuro-Aoki H, et al (2018)

Establishment of a modified CRISPR/Cas9 system with increased mutagenesis frequency using the translational enhancer dMac3 and multiple guide RNAs in potato.

Scientific reports, 8(1):13753.

CRISPR/Cas9 is a programmable nuclease composed of the Cas9 protein and a guide RNA (gRNA) molecule. To create a mutant potato, a powerful genome-editing system was required because potato has a tetraploid genome. The translational enhancer dMac3, consisting of a portion of the OsMac3 mRNA 5'-untranslated region, greatly enhanced the production of the protein encoded in the downstream ORF. To enrich the amount of Cas9, we applied the dMac3 translational enhancer to the Cas9 expression system with multiple gRNA genes. CRISPR/Cas9 systems targeting the potato granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) gene examined the frequency of mutant alleles in transgenic potato plants. The efficiency of the targeted mutagenesis strongly increased when the dMac3-installed Cas9 was used. In this case, the ratio of transformants containing four mutant alleles reached approximately 25% when estimated by CAPS analysis. The mutants that exhibited targeted mutagenesis in the GBSSI gene showed characteristics of low amylose starch in their tubers. This result suggests that our system may facilitate genome-editing events in polyploid plants.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Campa CC, Weisbach NR, Santinha AJ, et al (2019)

Multiplexed genome engineering by Cas12a and CRISPR arrays encoded on single transcripts.

Nature methods, 16(9):887-893.

The ability to modify multiple genetic elements simultaneously would help to elucidate and control the gene interactions and networks underlying complex cellular functions. However, current genome engineering technologies are limited in both the number and the type of perturbations that can be performed simultaneously. Here, we demonstrate that both Cas12a and a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) array can be encoded in a single transcript by adding a stabilizer tertiary RNA structure. By leveraging this system, we illustrate constitutive, conditional, inducible, orthogonal and multiplexed genome engineering of endogenous targets using up to 25 individual CRISPR RNAs delivered on a single plasmid. Our method provides a powerful platform to investigate and orchestrate the sophisticated genetic programs underlying complex cell behaviors.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Choi GCG, Zhou P, Yuen CTL, et al (2019)

Combinatorial mutagenesis en masse optimizes the genome editing activities of SpCas9.

Nature methods, 16(8):722-730.

The combined effect of multiple mutations on protein function is hard to predict; thus, the ability to functionally assess a vast number of protein sequence variants would be practically useful for protein engineering. Here we present a high-throughput platform that enables scalable assembly and parallel characterization of barcoded protein variants with combinatorial modifications. We demonstrate this platform, which we name CombiSEAL, by systematically characterizing a library of 948 combination mutants of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) nuclease to optimize its genome-editing activity in human cells. The ease with which the editing activities of the pool of SpCas9 variants can be assessed at multiple on- and off-target sites accelerates the identification of optimized variants and facilitates the study of mutational epistasis. We successfully identify Opti-SpCas9, which possesses enhanced editing specificity without sacrificing potency and broad targeting range. This platform is broadly applicable for engineering proteins through combinatorial modifications en masse.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Lagziel S, Lee WD, T Shlomi (2019)

Inferring cancer dependencies on metabolic genes from large-scale genetic screens.

BMC biology, 17(1):37 pii:10.1186/s12915-019-0654-4.

BACKGROUND: Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism to survive and propagate. Thus, targeting metabolic rewiring in tumors is a promising therapeutic strategy. Genome-wide RNAi and CRISPR screens are powerful tools for identifying genes essential for cancer cell proliferation and survival. Integrating loss-of-function genetic screens with genomics and transcriptomics datasets reveals molecular mechanisms that underlie cancer cell dependence on specific genes; though explaining cell line-specific essentiality of metabolic genes was recently shown to be especially challenging.

RESULTS: We find that variability in tissue culture medium between cell lines in a genetic screen is a major confounding factor affecting cell line-specific essentiality of metabolic genes-while, quite surprisingly, not being previously accounted for. Additionally, we find that altered expression level of a metabolic gene in a certain cell line is less indicative of its essentiality than for other genes. However, cell line-specific essentiality of metabolic genes is significantly correlated with changes in the expression of neighboring enzymes in the metabolic network. Utilizing a machine learning method that accounts for tissue culture media and functional association between neighboring enzymes, we generated predictive models for cancer cell line-specific dependence on 162 metabolic genes (representing a ~ 2.2-fold increase compared to previous studies). The generated predictive models reveal numerous novel associations between molecular features and cell line-specific dependency on metabolic genes. Specifically, we demonstrate how cancer cell dependence on one-carbon metabolic enzymes is explained based on cancer lineage, oncogenic mutations, and RNA expression of neighboring enzymes.

CONCLUSIONS: Considering culture media as well as accounting for molecular features of functionally related metabolic enzymes in a metabolic network significantly improves our understanding of cancer cell line-specific dependence on metabolic genes. We expect our approach and predictive models of metabolic gene essentiality to be a useful tool for investigating metabolic abnormalities in cancer.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Savage DF (2019)

Cas14: Big Advances from Small CRISPR Proteins.

Biochemistry, 58(8):1024-1025.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Marconi C, Di Buduo CA, LeVine K, et al (2019)

Loss-of-function mutations in PTPRJ cause a new form of inherited thrombocytopenia.

Blood, 133(12):1346-1357.

Inherited thrombocytopenias (ITs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by low platelet count that may result in bleeding tendency. Despite progress being made in defining the genetic causes of ITs, nearly 50% of patients with familial thrombocytopenia are affected with forms of unknown origin. Here, through exome sequencing of 2 siblings with autosomal-recessive thrombocytopenia, we identified biallelic loss-of-function variants in PTPRJ. This gene encodes for a receptor-like PTP, PTPRJ (or CD148), which is expressed abundantly in platelets and megakaryocytes. Consistent with the predicted effects of the variants, both probands have an almost complete loss of PTPRJ at the messenger RNA and protein levels. To investigate the pathogenic role of PTPRJ deficiency in hematopoiesis in vivo, we carried out CRISPR/Cas9-mediated ablation of ptprja (the ortholog of human PTPRJ) in zebrafish, which induced a significantly decreased number of CD41+ thrombocytes in vivo. Moreover, megakaryocytes of our patients showed impaired maturation and profound defects in SDF1-driven migration and formation of proplatelets in vitro. Silencing of PTPRJ in a human megakaryocytic cell line reproduced the functional defects observed in patients' megakaryocytes. The disorder caused by PTPRJ mutations presented as a nonsyndromic thrombocytopenia characterized by spontaneous bleeding, small-sized platelets, and impaired platelet responses to the GPVI agonists collagen and convulxin. These platelet functional defects could be attributed to reduced activation of Src family kinases. Taken together, our data identify a new form of IT and highlight a hitherto unknown fundamental role for PTPRJ in platelet biogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Hudacsek V, B Gyõrffy (2018)

[Genome engineering using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and applications in cancer research].

Magyar onkologia, 62(2):119-127.

Today, we have to investigate the effects of selected mutations and molecular alterations - this is made possible by the new genome editing technologies. In these, either a section of the DNA is deleted or moved, or a targeted mutation is introduced into the cell. Here, we describe in detail the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing method. The technology is based on a feature used by bacteria to combat recurrent viral infections. At present, commencing a set of modifications, the method is functional and can be applied in eukaryotic cells as well. The method has three major steps: first, the system has to be carefully designed and constructed, then the construct has to be introduced into the target cells by transfection, and finally, the achieved effect has to be functionally validated. The reliability of the method enables multiple applications in oncology, including the detailed and efficient investigation of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal translocations and other molecular changes. At the moment, available CRISPR-Cas9 protocols enable both in vitro and in vivo application. All these already made CRISPR-Cas9 one of the basic methods required for future-proof oncology research.

RevDate: 2019-11-07

Davies B (2019)

The technical risks of human gene editing.

Human reproduction (Oxford, England) pii:5613882 [Epub ahead of print].

A recent report from Dr He Jiankui concerning the birth of twin girls harbouring mutations engineered by CRISPR/Cas nucleases has been met with international condemnation. Beside the serious ethical concerns, there are known technical risks associated with CRISPR/Cas gene editing which further raise questions about how these events could have been allowed to occur. Numerous studies have reported unexpected genomic mutation and mosaicism following the use of CRISPR/Cas nucleases, and it is currently unclear how prevalent these disadvantageous events are and how robust and sensitive the strategies to detect these unwanted events may be. Although Dr Jiankui's study appears to have involved certain checks to ascertain these risks, the decision to implant the manipulated embryos, given these unknowns, must nonetheless be considered reckless. Here I review the technical concerns surrounding genome editing and consider the available data from Dr Jiankui in this context. Although the data remains unpublished, preventing a thorough assessment of what was performed, it seems clear that the rationale behind the undertaking was seriously flawed; the procedures involved substantial technical risks which, when added to the serious ethical concerns, fully justify the widespread criticism that the events have received.

RevDate: 2019-11-07

Scott T, Urak R, Soemardy C, et al (2019)

Improved Cas9 activity by specific modifications of the tracrRNA.

Scientific reports, 9(1):16104 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-52616-5.

CRISPR/Cas is a transformative gene editing tool, that offers a simple and effective way to target a catalytic Cas9, the most widely used is derived from Streptococcus pyogenes (SpCas9), with a complementary small guide RNA (sgRNA) to inactivate endogenous genes resulting from insertions and deletions (indels). CRISPR/Cas9 has been rapidly applied to basic research as well as expanded for potential clinical applications. Utilization of spCas9 as an ribonuclearprotein complex (RNP) is considered the most safe and effective method to apply Cas9 technology, and the efficacy of this system is critically dependent on the ability of Cas9 to generate high levels of indels. We find here that novel sequence changes to the tracrRNA significantly improves Cas9 activity when delivered as an RNP. We demonstrate that a dual-guide RNA (dgRNA) with a modified tracrRNA can improve reporter knockdown and indel formation at several targets within the long terminal repeat (LTR) of HIV. Furthermore, the sequence-modified tracrRNAs improved Cas9-mediated reduction of CCR5 surface receptor expression in cell lines, which correlated with higher levels of indel formation. It was demonstrated that a Cas9 RNP with a sequence modified tracrRNA enhanced indel formation at the CCR5 target site in primary CD4+ T-cells. Finally, we show improved activity at two additional targets within the HBB locus and the BCL11A GATA site. Overall, the data presented here suggests that novel facile tracrRNA sequence changes could potentially be integrated with current dgRNA technology, and open up the possibility for the development of sequence modified tracrRNAs to improve Cas9 RNP activity.

RevDate: 2019-11-06

Xu Z, Li M, Li Y, et al (2019)

Native CRISPR-Cas-Mediated Genome Editing Enables Dissecting and Sensitizing Clinical Multidrug-Resistant P. aeruginosa.

Cell reports, 29(6):1707-1717.e3.

Despite being fundamentally important and having direct therapeutic implications, the functional genomics of the clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens is often impeded by the lack of genome-editing tools. Here, we report the establishment of a highly efficient, in situ genome-editing technique applicable in clinical and environmental isolates of the prototypic MDR pathogen P. aeruginosa by harnessing the endogenous type I-F CRISPR-Cas systems. Using this approach, we generate various reverse mutations in an epidemic MDR genotype, PA154197, and identify underlying resistance mechanisms that involve the extensive synergy among three different resistance determinants. Screening a series of "ancestor" mutant lines uncovers the remarkable sensitivity of the MDR line PA154197 to a class of small, cationic peptidomimetics, which sensitize PA154197 cells to antibiotics by perturbing outer-membrane permeability. These studies provide a framework for molecular genetics and anti-resistance drug discovery for clinically isolated MDR pathogens.

RevDate: 2019-11-06

Valetdinova KR, Ovechkina VS, SM Zakian (2019)

Methods for Correction of the Single-Nucleotide Substitution c.840C>T in Exon 7 of the SMN2 Gene.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 84(9):1074-1084.

The CRISPR/Cas technology has a great potential in the treatment of many hereditary diseases. One of the prospective models for the CRISPR/Cas-mediated therapy is spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), a disease caused by deletion of the SMN1 gene that encodes the SMN protein required for the survival of motor neurons. SMA patients' genomes contain either single or several copies of SMN2 gene, which is a paralog of SMN1. Exon 7 of SMN2 has the single-nucleotide substitution c.840C>T leading to the defective splicing and decrease in the amounts of the full-length SMN. The objective of this study was to create and test gene-editing systems for correction of the single-nucleotide substitution c.840C>T in exon 7 of the SMN2 gene in fibroblasts, induced pluripotent stem cells, and motor neuron progenitors derived from a SMA patient. For this purpose, we used plasmid vectors expressing CRISPR/Cas9 and CRISPR/Cpf1, plasmid donor, and 90-nt single-stranded oligonucleotide templates that were delivered to the target cells by electroporation. Although sgRNA_T2 and sgRNA_T3 guiding RNAs were more efficient than sgRNA_T1 in fibroblasts (p < 0.05), no significant differences in the editing efficiency of sgRNA_T1, sgRNA_T2, and sgRNA_T3 was observed in patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells and motor neuron progenitors. The highest editing efficiency in induced pluripotent stem cells and motor neuron progenitors was demonstrated by the sgRNA_T1 and 90-nt single-stranded oligonucleotide donors.

RevDate: 2019-11-06

Barman A, Deb B, S Chakraborty (2019)

A glance at genome editing with CRISPR-Cas9 technology.

Current genetics pii:10.1007/s00294-019-01040-3 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, CRISPR-Cas9 technology is widely acknowledged for having major applications in the field of biotechnology for editing genome of any organism to treat a variety of complex diseases and for other purposes. The acronym 'CRISPR-Cas' stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated genes. This genetic organization exists in prokaryotic organisms and aids in the development of adaptive immunity since a protein called Cas9 nuclease cleaves specific target nucleic acid sequences from foreign invaders and destroys them. This mode of action has gained interest of the researchers to understand the insights of CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Here, we review that CRISPR-Cas organization is restricted to two classes and possesses different protein effectors. We also review the architecture of CRISPR loci, mechanism involved in genome editing by CRISPR-Cas9 technology and pathways of repairing double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated during the process of genome editing. This review also presents the strategies to increase the Cas9 specificity and reduce off-target activity to achieve accurate genome editing. Further, this review provides information on CRISPR tools used for genome editing, databases that are required for storing data on loci, strategies for delivering CRISPR-Cas9 to cells under study and applications of CRISPR-Cas9 to various fields. Safety measures are implemented on this technology to avoid misuse or ethical issues. We also discuss about the future aspects and potential applications of CRISPR-Cas9 technology required mainly for the treatment of dreadful diseases, crop improvement as well as genetic improvement in human.

RevDate: 2019-11-06

Vats S, Kumawat S, Kumar V, et al (2019)

Genome Editing in Plants: Exploration of Technological Advancements and Challenges.

Cells, 8(11): pii:cells8111386.

Genome-editing, a recent technological advancement in the field of life sciences, is one of the great examples of techniques used to explore the understanding of the biological phenomenon. Besides having different site-directed nucleases for genome editing over a decade ago, the CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein) based genome editing approach has become a choice of technique due to its simplicity, ease of access, cost, and flexibility. In the present review, several CRISPR/Cas based approaches have been discussed, considering recent advances and challenges to implicate those in the crop improvement programs. Successful examples where CRISPR/Cas approach has been used to improve the biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and traits related to yield and plant architecture have been discussed. The review highlights the challenges to implement the genome editing in polyploid crop plants like wheat, canola, and sugarcane. Challenges for plants difficult to transform and germline-specific gene expression have been discussed. We have also discussed the notable progress with multi-target editing approaches based on polycistronic tRNA processing, Csy4 endoribonuclease, intron processing, and Drosha ribonuclease. Potential to edit multiple targets simultaneously makes it possible to take up more challenging tasks required to engineer desired crop plants. Similarly, advances like precision gene editing, promoter bashing, and methylome-editing will also be discussed. The present review also provides a catalog of available computational tools and servers facilitating designing of guide-RNA targets, construct designs, and data analysis. The information provided here will be useful for the efficient exploration of technological advances in genome editing field for the crop improvement programs.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Zlotorynski E (2019)

CRISPR-Cas in its prime.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology pii:10.1038/s41580-019-0194-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Moon SB, Kim DY, Ko JH, et al (2019)

Recent advances in the CRISPR genome editing tool set.

Experimental & molecular medicine, 51(11):130 pii:10.1038/s12276-019-0339-7.

Genome editing took a dramatic turn with the development of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated proteins (Cas) system. The CRISPR-Cas system is functionally divided into classes 1 and 2 according to the composition of the effector genes. Class 2 consists of a single effector nuclease, and routine practice of genome editing has been achieved by the development of the Class 2 CRISPR-Cas system, which includes the type II, V, and VI CRISPR-Cas systems. Types II and V can be used for DNA editing, while type VI is employed for RNA editing. CRISPR techniques induce both qualitative and quantitative alterations in gene expression via the double-stranded breakage (DSB) repair pathway, base editing, transposase-dependent DNA integration, and gene regulation using the CRISPR-dCas or type VI CRISPR system. Despite significant technical improvements, technical challenges should be further addressed, including insufficient indel and HDR efficiency, off-target activity, the large size of Cas, PAM restrictions, and immune responses. If sophisticatedly refined, CRISPR technology will harness the process of DNA rewriting, which has potential applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, and biotechnology.

RevDate: 2019-11-05

Kurilovich E, Shiriaeva A, Metlitskaya A, et al (2019)

Genome Maintenance Proteins Modulate Autoimmunity Mediated Primed Adaptation by the Escherichia coli Type I-E CRISPR-Cas System.

Genes, 10(11): pii:genes10110872.

Bacteria and archaea use CRISPR-Cas adaptive immunity systems to interfere with viruses, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. During the process of adaptation, CRISPR-Cas systems acquire immunity by incorporating short fragments of invaders' genomes into CRISPR arrays. The acquisition of fragments of host genomes leads to autoimmunity and may drive chromosomal rearrangements, negative cell selection, and influence bacterial evolution. In this study, we investigated the role of proteins involved in genome stability maintenance in spacer acquisition by the Escherichia coli type I-E CRISPR-Cas system targeting its own genome. We show here, that the deletion of recJ decreases adaptation efficiency and affects accuracy of spacers incorporation into CRISPR array. Primed adaptation efficiency is also dramatically inhibited in double mutants lacking recB and sbcD but not in single mutants suggesting independent involvement and redundancy of RecBCD and SbcCD pathways in spacer acquisition. While the presence of at least one of two complexes is crucial for efficient primed adaptation, RecBCD and SbcCD affect the pattern of acquired spacers. Overall, our data suggest distinct roles of the RecBCD and SbcCD complexes and of RecJ in spacer precursor selection and insertion into CRISPR array and highlight the functional interplay between CRISPR-Cas systems and host genome maintenance mechanisms.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Zhang K, Liu W, Liu XF, et al (2019)

[Generation of cell strains containing point mutations in HPRT1 by CRISPR/Cas9].

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 41(10):939-949.

Mutations in Hypoxanthine-guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase1 (HPRT1) gene can lead to metabolic disorder of hypoxanthine and guanine metabolism, and other severe symptoms such as hypophrenia, gout, and kidney stones, called the Lesch-Nyhan disease (LND). Although the mutations are widely distributed throughout the HPRT1 gene, there are some isolated hot spots. In this study, we aim to introduce two previously reported hot spots, c.508 C>T and c.151 C>T, which could lead to premature translational termination in HPRT1 gene. Through CRISPR/Cas9 mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) by using single-stranded oligo-deoxyribonucleotides (ssODN) as donor template, we obtained cell clones containing these two mutations in HEK293T or HeLa cells. Targeted mutation of c.508 C>T and c.151 C>T reached to 16.3% and 10%, respectively. We further detect HPRT1 protein levels with Western blot and enzyme activity with 6-TG in 5 different cell clones. HPRT1 protein and its enzymatic activity both was hardly detected in homozygous mutant cells, while reduced HPRT1 protein expression and enzymatic activity was detected in heterozygous mutant cells. Our study will be beneficial to those who working on generation of cell or animal models of HRPT1 mutations, and provides a basis for further investigations on the genetic mechanism of Lesch-Nyhan disease.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Culp EJ, Yim G, Waglechner N, et al (2019)

Hidden antibiotics in actinomycetes can be identified by inactivation of gene clusters for common antibiotics.

Nature biotechnology, 37(10):1149-1154.

Actinobacteria, which are one of the largest bacterial phyla and comprise between 13 and 30% of the soil microbiota, are the main source of antibiotic classes in clinical use1. During screens for antimicrobials, as many as 50% of actinomycete strains are discarded because they produce a known antibiotic (Supplementary Fig. 1) (ref. 2). Despite each strain likely having the capacity to produce many compounds, strains are abandoned because the already characterized antibiotic could interfere with screening for, or purification of, newly discovered compounds3. We applied CRISPR-Cas9 genome engineering to knockout genes encoding two of the most frequently rediscovered antibiotics, streptothricin or streptomycin, in 11 actinomycete strains. We report that this simple approach led to production of different antibiotics that were otherwise masked. We were able to rapidly discover rare and previously unknown variants of antibiotics including thiolactomycin, amicetin, phenanthroviridin and 5-chloro-3-formylindole. This strategy could be applied to existing strain collections to realize their biosynthetic potential.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Grünewald J, Zhou R, Iyer S, et al (2019)

CRISPR DNA base editors with reduced RNA off-target and self-editing activities.

Nature biotechnology, 37(9):1041-1048.

Cytosine or adenine base editors (CBEs or ABEs) can introduce specific DNA C-to-T or A-to-G alterations1-4. However, we recently demonstrated that they can also induce transcriptome-wide guide-RNA-independent editing of RNA bases5, and created selective curbing of unwanted RNA editing (SECURE)-BE3 variants that have reduced unwanted RNA-editing activity5. Here we describe structure-guided engineering of SECURE-ABE variants with reduced off-target RNA-editing activity and comparable on-target DNA-editing activity that are also among the smallest Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 base editors described to date. We also tested CBEs with cytidine deaminases other than APOBEC1 and found that the human APOBEC3A-based CBE induces substantial editing of RNA bases, whereas an enhanced APOBEC3A-based CBE6, human activation-induced cytidine deaminase-based CBE7, and the Petromyzon marinus cytidine deaminase-based CBE Target-AID4 induce less editing of RNA. Finally, we found that CBEs and ABEs that exhibit RNA off-target editing activity can also self-edit their own transcripts, thereby leading to heterogeneity in base-editor coding sequences.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Kwon JB, CA Gersbach (2019)

Jumping at the chance for precise DNA integration.

Nature biotechnology, 37(9):1004-1006.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Leenay RT, Aghazadeh A, Hiatt J, et al (2019)

Large dataset enables prediction of repair after CRISPR-Cas9 editing in primary T cells.

Nature biotechnology, 37(9):1034-1037.

Understanding of repair outcomes after Cas9-induced DNA cleavage is still limited, especially in primary human cells. We sequence repair outcomes at 1,656 on-target genomic sites in primary human T cells and use these data to train a machine learning model, which we have called CRISPR Repair Outcome (SPROUT). SPROUT accurately predicts the length, probability and sequence of nucleotide insertions and deletions, and will facilitate design of SpCas9 guide RNAs in therapeutically important primary human cells.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Thuronyi BW, Koblan LW, Levy JM, et al (2019)

Continuous evolution of base editors with expanded target compatibility and improved activity.

Nature biotechnology, 37(9):1070-1079.

Base editors use DNA-modifying enzymes targeted with a catalytically impaired CRISPR protein to precisely install point mutations. Here, we develop phage-assisted continuous evolution of base editors (BE-PACE) to improve their editing efficiency and target sequence compatibility. We used BE-PACE to evolve cytosine base editors (CBEs) that overcome target sequence context constraints of canonical CBEs. One evolved CBE, evoAPOBEC1-BE4max, is up to 26-fold more efficient at editing cytosine in the GC context, a disfavored context for wild-type APOBEC1 deaminase, while maintaining efficient editing in all other sequence contexts tested. Another evolved deaminase, evoFERNY, is 29% smaller than APOBEC1 and edits efficiently in all tested sequence contexts. We also evolved a CBE based on CDA1 deaminase with much higher editing efficiency at difficult target sites. Finally, we used data from evolved CBEs to illuminate the relationship between deaminase activity, base editing efficiency, editing window width and byproduct formation. These findings establish a system for rapid evolution of base editors and inform their use and improvement.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

de Waal E, Tran T, Abbondanza D, et al (2019)

An undergraduate laboratory module that uses the CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate frameshift mutations in yeast.

Biochemistry and molecular biology education : a bimonthly publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(5):573-580.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful tool for gene editing and it has become increasingly important for biology students to understand this emerging technique. Most CRISPR laboratory teaching modules use complex metazoan systems or mammalian cell culture which can be expensive. Here, we present a lab module that engages students in learning the fundamentals of CRISPR/Cas9 methodology using the simple and inexpensive model system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Students use CRISPR/Cas9 and nonhomologous end joining to generate frameshift insertion and deletion mutations in the CAN1 gene, which are easily selected for using media plates that have canavanine. DNA sequencing is also performed to determine what type of mutation occurred in gene-edited cells. This easy to implement set of experiments has been run as both a 5-week and a shorter 3-week lab module. Learning assessments demonstrate increased understanding in CRISPR-related concepts as well as increased confidence using molecular techniques. Thus, this CRISPR/Cas9 lab module can be added to an existing Genetics, Microbiology, or Molecular Biology lab course to help undergraduate students learn current gene editing techniques with limited effort and cost. © 2019 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 47(5):573-580, 2019.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Simon AJ, d'Oelsnitz S, AD Ellington (2019)

Synthetic evolution.

Nature biotechnology, 37(7):730-743.

The combination of modern biotechnologies such as DNA synthesis, λ red recombineering, CRISPR-based editing and next-generation high-throughput sequencing increasingly enables precise manipulation of genes and genomes. Beyond rational design, these technologies also enable the targeted, and potentially continuous, introduction of multiple mutations. While this might seem to be merely a return to natural selection, the ability to target evolution greatly reduces fitness burdens and focuses mutation and selection on those genes and traits that best contribute to a desired phenotype, ultimately throwing evolution into fast forward.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Rybicki EP (2019)

CRISPR-Cas9 strikes out in cassava.

Nature biotechnology, 37(7):727-728.

RevDate: 2019-11-07
CmpDate: 2019-11-07

Li T, Fang Z, Peng H, et al (2019)

Application of high-throughput amplicon sequencing-based SSR genotyping in genetic background screening.

BMC genomics, 20(1):444 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5800-4.

BACKGROUND: Host genetic backgrounds affect gene functions. The genetic backgrounds of genetically engineered organisms must be identified to confirm their genetic backgrounds identity with those of recipients. Marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB), transgenesis and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) editing are three commonly used genetic engineering techniques. However, methods for genetic background screening between genetically engineered organisms and corresponding recipients suffer from low efficiency, low accuracy or high cost.

RESULTS: Here, we improved our previously reported AmpSeq-SSR method, an amplicon sequencing-based simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping method, by selecting SSR loci with high polymorphism among varieties. Ultimately, a set of 396 SSRs was generated and applied to evaluate the genetic backgrounds identity between rice lines developed through MAB, transgenesis, and CRISPR/Cas9 editing and the respective recipient rice. We discovered that the percentage of different SSRs between the MAB-developed rice line and its recipient was as high as 23.5%. In contrast, only 0.8% of SSRs were different between the CRISPR/Cas9-system-mediated rice line and its recipient, while no SSRs showed different genotypes between the transgenic rice line and its recipient. Furthermore, most differential SSRs induced by MAB technology were located in non-coding regions (62.9%), followed by untranslated regions (21.0%) and coding regions (16.1%). Trinucleotide repeats were the most prevalent type of altered SSR. Most importantly, all altered SSRs located in coding regions were trinucleotide repeats.

CONCLUSIONS: This method is not only useful for the background evaluation of genetic resources but also expands our understanding of the unintended effects of different genetic engineering techniques. While the work we present focused on rice, this method can be readily extended to other organisms.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Ji J, Zhang C, Sun Z, et al (2019)

Genome Editing in Cowpea Vigna unguiculata Using CRISPR-Cas9.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(10): pii:ijms20102471.

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is widely cultivated across the world. Due to its symbiotic nitrogen fixation capability and many agronomically important traits, such as tolerance to low rainfall and low fertilization requirements, as well as its high nutrition and health benefits, cowpea is an important legume crop, especially in many semi-arid countries. However, research in Vigna unguiculata is dramatically hampered by the lack of mutant resources and efficient tools for gene inactivation in vivo. In this study, we used clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9). We applied the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing technology to efficiently disrupt the representative symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) gene in Vigna unguiculata. Our customized guide RNAs (gRNAs) targeting symbiosis receptor-like kinase (SYMRK) achieved ~67% mutagenic efficiency in hairy-root-transformed plants, and nodule formation was completely blocked in the mutants with both alleles disrupted. Various types of mutations were observed near the PAM region of the respective gRNA. These results demonstrate the applicability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in Vigna unguiculata, and therefore should significantly stimulate functional genomics analyses of many important agronomical traits in this unique crop legume.

RevDate: 2019-11-07
CmpDate: 2019-11-07

Raitskin O, Schudoma C, West A, et al (2019)

Comparison of efficiency and specificity of CRISPR-associated (Cas) nucleases in plants: An expanded toolkit for precision genome engineering.

PloS one, 14(2):e0211598 pii:PONE-D-18-32098.

Molecular tools adapted from bacterial CRISPR (Clustered Regulatory Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats) systems for adaptive immunity have become widely used for plant genome engineering, both to investigate gene functions and to engineer desirable traits. A number of different Cas (CRISPR-associated) nucleases are now used but, as most studies performed to date have engineered different targets using a variety of plant species and molecular tools, it has been difficult to draw conclusions about the comparative performance of different nucleases. Due to the time and effort required to regenerate engineered plants, efficiency is critical. In addition, there have been several reports of mutations at sequences with less than perfect identity to the target. While in some plant species it is possible to remove these so-called 'off-targets' by backcrossing to a parental line, the specificity of genome engineering tools is important when targeting specific members of closely-related gene families, especially when recent paralogues are co-located in the genome and unlikely to segregate. Specificity is also important for species that take years to reach sexual maturity or that are clonally propagated. Here, we directly compare the efficiency and specificity of Cas nucleases from different bacterial species together with engineered variants of Cas9. We find that the nucleotide content of the target correlates with efficiency and that Cas9 from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) is comparatively most efficient at inducing mutations. We also demonstrate that 'high-fidelity' variants of Cas9 can reduce off-target mutations in plants. We present these molecular tools as standardised DNA parts to facilitate their re-use.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Kim EK, Kim S, YS Maeng (2019)

Generation of TGFBI knockout ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive limbal epithelial stem cells by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing.

PloS one, 14(2):e0211864 pii:PONE-D-18-28516.

Corneal dystrophy is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations of the transforming growth factor β-induced (TGFBI) gene on chromosome 5q31.8. This disease is therefore ideally suited for gene therapy using genome-editing technology. Here, we isolated human limbal epithelial stem cells (ABCG2+/ABCB5+ double-positive LESCs) and established a TGFBI knockout using RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing. An LESC clone generated with a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) targeting exon 4 of the TGFBI gene was sequenced in order to identify potential genomic insertions and deletions near the Cas9/sgRNA-target sites. A detailed analysis of the differences between wild type LESCs and the single LESC clone modified by the TGFBI-targeting sgRNA revealed two distinct mutations, an 8 bp deletion and a 14 bp deletion flanked by a single point mutation. These mutations each lead to a frameshift missense mutation and generate premature stop codons downstream in exon 4. To validate the TGFBI knockout LESC clone, we used single cell culture to isolate four individual sub-clones, each of which was found to possess both mutations present in the parent clone, indicating that the population is homogenous. Furthermore, we confirmed that TGFBI protein expression is abolished in the TGFBI knockout LESC clone using western blot analysis. Collectively, our results suggest that genome editing of TGFBI in LESCs by CRISPR/Cas9 may be useful strategy to treat corneal dystrophy.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Knoppers BM, E Kleiderman (2019)

"CRISPR babies": What does this mean for science and Canada?.

CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne, 191(4):E91-E92.

RevDate: 2019-11-07
CmpDate: 2019-11-07

Wen X, Iwata K, Ikuta K, et al (2019)

NOX1/NADPH oxidase regulates the expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and maintains intracellular glutathione levels.

The FEBS journal, 286(4):678-687.

The involvement of superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase (NOX) in the cytotoxic effects of cigarette smoke extracts has been documented. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and NOX isoform involved have not been fully clarified. Among the different NADPH oxidase isoforms identified so far, NOX1 and NOX4 were found to be expressed in rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes. When H9c2 cells were exposed to acrolein or methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), major toxic components of cigarette smoke extracts, a dose-dependent decline in cell viability was observed. Unexpectedly, disruption of Nox1 as well as Nox4 significantly exacerbated cytotoxicity induced by acrolein or MVK. Compared with Nox4-disrupted cells, Nox1-disrupted cells were more vulnerable to acrolein and MVK at lower concentrations. Disruption of Nox1 markedly attenuated the levels of total and reduced glutathione (GSH) in H9c2 clones. Reduction in the cystine level in the culture medium to deplete intracellular GSH significantly exacerbated acrolein or MVK-induced cytotoxicity. Nox1 disruption neither attenuated the level of glutamate-cystine antiporter protein nor the activity of glutamate-cysteine ligase, both rate-limiting factors for GSH synthesis. On the other hand, increased expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), which mediates glutathione efflux, was demonstrated in Nox1-disrupted cells. The augmented toxicity of acrolein and MVK in these cells was partially but significantly blunted in the presence of an MRP1 inhibitor, reversan. Taken together, these results show that NOX1/NADPH oxidase regulates the expression of MRP1 to maintain intracellular GSH levels in cardiomyocytes and protect against cytotoxic components of cigarette smoke extracts. A novel crosstalk between NOX1 and MRP1 was demonstrated in this study.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Barton M, MR Meyer (2019)

Permissive Role of GPER for Arterial Hypertension.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 73(2):e9-e10.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Waghulde H, Galla S, Chakraborty S, et al (2019)

Response to Permissive Role of GPER for Arterial Hypertension.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 73(2):e11.

RevDate: 2019-11-07
CmpDate: 2019-11-07

Liu Q, Thoms JAI, Nunez AC, et al (2018)

Disruption of a -35 kb Enhancer Impairs CTCF Binding and MLH1 Expression in Colorectal Cells.

Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research, 24(18):4602-4611.

Purpose:MLH1 is a major tumor suppressor gene involved in the pathogenesis of Lynch syndrome and various sporadic cancers. Despite their potential pathogenic importance, genomic regions capable of regulating MLH1 expression over long distances have yet to be identified.Experimental Design: Here, we use chromosome conformation capture (3C) to screen a 650-kb region flanking the MLH1 locus to identify interactions between the MLH1 promoter and distal regions in MLH1-expressing and nonexpressing cells. Putative enhancers were functionally validated using luciferase reporter assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated deletion of endogenous regions. To evaluate whether germline variants in the enhancer might contribute to impaired MLH1 expression in patients with suspected Lynch syndrome, we also screened germline DNA from a cohort of 74 patients with no known coding mutations or epimutations at the MLH1 promoter.Results: A 1.8-kb DNA fragment, 35 kb upstream of the MLH1 transcription start site enhances MLH1 gene expression in colorectal cells. The enhancer was bound by CTCF and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated deletion of a core binding region impairs endogenous MLH1 expression. A total of 5.4% of suspected Lynch syndrome patients have a rare single-nucleotide variant (G > A; rs143969848; 2.5% in gnomAD European, non-Finnish) within a highly conserved CTCF-binding motif, which disrupts enhancer activity in SW620 colorectal carcinoma cells.Conclusions: A CTCF-bound region within the MLH1-35 enhancer regulates MLH1 expression in colorectal cells and is worthy of scrutiny in future genetic screening strategies for suspected Lynch syndrome associated with loss of MLH1 expression. Clin Cancer Res; 24(18); 4602-11. ©2018 AACR.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Zhao Y, Zhang Z, Gao J, et al (2018)

Arabidopsis Duodecuple Mutant of PYL ABA Receptors Reveals PYL Repression of ABA-Independent SnRK2 Activity.

Cell reports, 23(11):3340-3351.e5.

Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone controlling responses to abiotic stresses and is sensed by proteins from the PYR/PYL/RCAR family. To explore the genetic contribution of PYLs toward ABA-dependent and ABA-independent processes, we generated and characterized high-order Arabidopsis mutants with mutations in the PYL family. We obtained a pyl quattuordecuple mutant and found that it was severely impaired in growth and failed to produce seeds. Thus, we carried out a detailed characterization of a pyl duodecuple mutant, pyr1pyl1/2/3/4/5/7/8/9/10/11/12. The duodecuple mutant was extremely insensitive to ABA effects on seed germination, seedling growth, stomatal closure, leaf senescence, and gene expression. The activation of SnRK2 protein kinases by ABA was blocked in the duodecuple mutant, but, unexpectedly, osmotic stress activation of SnRK2s was enhanced. Our results demonstrate an important role of basal ABA signaling in growth, senescence, and abscission and reveal that PYLs antagonize ABA-independent activation of SnRK2s by osmotic stress.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Cunningham TJ, Lancman JJ, Berenguer M, et al (2018)

Genomic Knockout of Two Presumed Forelimb Tbx5 Enhancers Reveals They Are Nonessential for Limb Development.

Cell reports, 23(11):3146-3151.

A standard approach in the identification of transcriptional enhancers is the use of transgenic animals carrying DNA elements joined to reporter genes inserted randomly in the genome. We examined elements near Tbx5, a gene required for forelimb development in humans and other vertebrates. Previous transgenic studies reported a mammalian Tbx5 forelimb enhancer located in intron 2 containing a putative retinoic acid response element and a zebrafish tbx5a forelimb (pectoral fin) enhancer located downstream that is conserved from fish to mammals. We used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to knockout the endogenous elements and unexpectedly found that deletion of the intron 2 and downstream elements, either singly or together in double knockouts, resulted in no effect on forelimb development. Our findings show that reporter transgenes may not identify endogenous enhancers and that in vivo genetic loss-of-function studies are required, such as CRISPR/Cas9, which is similar in effort to production of animals carrying reporter transgenes.

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Kuo CY, Long JD, Campo-Fernandez B, et al (2018)

Site-Specific Gene Editing of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells for X-Linked Hyper-IgM Syndrome.

Cell reports, 23(9):2606-2616.

X-linked hyper-immunoglobulin M (hyper-IgM) syndrome (XHIM) is a primary immunodeficiency due to mutations in CD40 ligand that affect immunoglobulin class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation. The disease is amenable to gene therapy using retroviral vectors, but dysregulated gene expression results in abnormal lymphoproliferation in mouse models, highlighting the need for alternative strategies. Here, we demonstrate the ability of both the transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) platforms to efficiently drive integration of a normal copy of the CD40L cDNA delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus. Site-specific insertion of the donor sequence downstream of the endogenous CD40L promoter maintained physiologic expression of CD40L while overriding all reported downstream mutations. High levels of gene modification were achieved in primary human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), as well as in cell lines and XHIM-patient-derived T cells. Notably, gene-corrected HSCs engrafted in immunodeficient mice at clinically relevant frequencies. These studies provide the foundation for a permanent curative therapy in XHIM.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Ophinni Y, Palatini U, Hayashi Y, et al (2019)

piRNA-Guided CRISPR-like Immunity in Eukaryotes.

Trends in immunology pii:S1471-4906(19)30191-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Eukaryotic genomes contain virus-derived sequences called endogenous virus elements (EVEs). The majority of EVEs are related to retroviruses, which integrate into the host genome in order to replicate. Some retroviral EVEs encode a function; for example, some produce proteins that block infection by related viruses. EVEs derived from nonretroviral viruses - also recently found in many eukaryotic genomes - are more enigmatic. Here, we summarize the evidence that EVEs can act as templates to generate Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), whose canonical function is sequence-specific silencing of transposable elements (TEs) to maintain genomic integrity. We argue that EVEs may thus enable heritable, sequence-specific antiviral immune memory in eukaryotes - analogous to CRISPR-Cas immunity in prokaryotes.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Rusk N (2019)

Human CRISPR.

Nature methods, 16(8):677.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Schertzer MD, Thulson E, Braceros KCA, et al (2019)

A piggyBac-based toolkit for inducible genome editing in mammalian cells.

RNA (New York, N.Y.), 25(8):1047-1058.

We describe the development and application of a novel series of vectors that facilitate CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing in mammalian cells, which we call CRISPR-Bac. CRISPR-Bac leverages the piggyBac transposon to randomly insert CRISPR-Cas9 components into mammalian genomes. In CRISPR-Bac, a single piggyBac cargo vector containing a doxycycline-inducible Cas9 or catalytically dead Cas9 (dCas9) variant and a gene conferring resistance to Hygromycin B is cotransfected with a plasmid expressing the piggyBac transposase. A second cargo vector, expressing a single-guide RNA (sgRNA) of interest, the reverse-tetracycline TransActivator (rtTA), and a gene conferring resistance to G418, is also cotransfected. Subsequent selection on Hygromycin B and G418 generates polyclonal cell populations that stably express Cas9, rtTA, and the sgRNA(s) of interest. We show that CRISPR-Bac can be used to knock down proteins of interest, to create targeted genetic deletions with high efficiency, and to activate or repress transcription of protein-coding genes and an imprinted long noncoding RNA. The ratio of sgRNA-to-Cas9-to-transposase can be adjusted in transfections to alter the average number of cargo insertions into the genome. sgRNAs targeting multiple genes can be inserted in a single transfection. CRISPR-Bac is a versatile platform for genome editing that simplifies the generation of mammalian cells that stably express the CRISPR-Cas9 machinery.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Lorenzini PA, Chew RSE, Tan CW, et al (2019)

Human PRPF40B regulates hundreds of alternative splicing targets and represses a hypoxia expression signature.

RNA (New York, N.Y.), 25(8):905-920.

Altered splicing contributes to the pathogenesis of human blood disorders including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and leukemias. Here we characterize the transcriptomic regulation of PRPF40B, which is a splicing factor mutated in a small fraction of MDS patients. We generated a full PRPF40B knockout (KO) in the K562 cell line by CRISPR/Cas9 technology and rescued its levels by transient overexpression of wild-type (WT), P383L or P540S MDS alleles. Using RNA sequencing, we identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes and alternative splicing (AS) events in the KO that are rescued by WT PRPF40B, with a majority also rescued by MDS alleles, pointing to mild effects of these mutations. Among the PRPF40B-regulated AS events, we found a net increase in exon inclusion in the KO, suggesting that this splicing factor primarily acts as a repressor. PRPF40B-regulated splicing events are likely cotranscriptional, affecting exons with A-rich downstream intronic motifs and weak splice sites especially for 5' splice sites, consistent with its PRP40 yeast ortholog being part of the U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Loss of PRPF40B in K562 induces a KLF1 transcriptional signature, with genes involved in iron metabolism and mainly hypoxia, including related pathways like cholesterol biosynthesis and Akt/MAPK signaling. A cancer database analysis revealed that PRPF40B is lowly expressed in acute myeloid leukemia, whereas its paralog PRPF40A expression is high as opposed to solid tumors. Furthermore, these factors negatively or positively correlated with hypoxia regulator HIF1A, respectively. Our data suggest a PRPF40B role in repressing hypoxia in myeloid cells, and that its low expression might contribute to leukemogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Lavalou P, Eckert H, Damy L, et al (2019)

Strategies for genetic inactivation of long noncoding RNAs in zebrafish.

RNA (New York, N.Y.), 25(8):897-904.

The number of annotated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) continues to grow; however, their functional characterization in model organisms has been hampered by the lack of reliable genetic inactivation strategies. While partial or full deletions of lncRNA loci disrupt lncRNA expression, they do not permit the formal association of a phenotype with the encoded transcript. Here, we examined several alternative strategies for generating lncRNA null alleles in zebrafish and found that they often resulted in unpredicted changes to lncRNA expression. Removal of the transcription start sites (TSSs) of lncRNA genes resulted in hypomorphic mutants, due to the usage of either constitutive or tissue-specific alternative TSSs. Deletions of short, highly conserved lncRNA regions can also lead to overexpression of truncated transcripts. In contrast, knock-in of a polyadenylation signal enabled complete inactivation of malat1, the most abundant vertebrate lncRNA. In summary, lncRNA null alleles require extensive in vivo validation, and we propose insertion of transcription termination sequences as the most reliable approach to generate lncRNA-deficient zebrafish.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Bäck S, Necarsulmer J, Whitaker LR, et al (2019)

Neuron-Specific Genome Modification in the Adult Rat Brain Using CRISPR-Cas9 Transgenic Rats.

Neuron, 102(1):105-119.e8.

Historically, the rat has been the preferred animal model for behavioral studies. Limitations in genome modification have, however, caused a lag in their use compared to the bevy of available transgenic mice. Here, we have developed several transgenic tools, including viral vectors and transgenic rats, for targeted genome modification in specific adult rat neurons using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Starting from wild-type rats, knockout of tyrosine hydroxylase was achieved with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors expressing Cas9 or guide RNAs (gRNAs). We subsequently created an AAV vector for Cre-dependent gRNA expression as well as three new transgenic rat lines to specifically target CRISPR-Cas9 components to dopaminergic neurons. One rat represents the first knockin rat model made by germline gene targeting in spermatogonial stem cells. The rats described herein serve as a versatile platform for making cell-specific and sequence-specific genome modifications in the adult brain and potentially other Cre-expressing tissues of the rat.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Islam Z, Inui T, O Ishibashi (2019)

Gpr137b is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor associated with M2 macrophage polarization.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 509(3):657-663.

Macrophages are classified mainly into two subtypes, M1 and M2, which exhibit distinct phenotypes, based on their microenvironment. Although recent studies have suggested that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are associated with M1/M2 macrophage polarization, available information on GPCR-mediated macrophage polarization is still limited. In the present study, we identified Gpr137b as an orphan GPCR abundantly expressed in RAW264, a mouse macrophage cell line, and illuminated its role in M2 macrophage polarization. We generated Gpr137b-knockout (Gpr137b-KO) clones of RAW264 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system. Two independent Gpr137b-KO clones were isolated, which were demonstrated to have frameshifting 188-nucleotide deletions at a region containing the ATG start codon of Gpr137b. Consistently, qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the deleted region is not transcribed. We then treated the Gpr137b-KO and wildtype RAW264 cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) to induce M2 macrophage polarization. Microarray analysis revealed that the IL-4-induced gene expression of representative M2 macrophage markers was significantly reduced in the Gpr137b-KO cells, and this was validated by qRT-PCR analysis. By contrast, M1 macrophage marker gene expression induced by lipopolysaccharide was unaffected by Gpr137b-KO. Collectively, the current study shows that Gpr137b is a possible regulator of M2 macrophage polarization.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Zhang P, Kang B, Xie G, et al (2019)

Genomic sequencing and editing revealed the GRM8 signaling pathway as potential therapeutic targets of squamous cell lung cancer.

Cancer letters, 442:53-67.

The study sought to explore novel genetic aberration driving squamous cell lung carcinoma (LUSC). The whole exome (WES), whole genome (WGS) and target region (TS) sequencings and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing techniques were integrated to explore and validate novel targeting candidates from LUSC primary tumors and corresponding patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). Seven genes (FGFR2, GRM1,PIK3CG, PIK3CA,ZFHX4, CSMD3, GRM8) with high frequencies of both single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variants (CNVs), and two genes (CLDN1 and RIT1) only with CNVs were identified by bioinformatics analysis. The functions of these candidates were validated through CRISPR-Cas9 system in primary PDX cells. Furthermore, we focused on the genetic and functional analysis of Metabotropic glutamate receptor 8 (GRM8), whose transcriptional activation was elucidated to promote the survival of LUSC tumor cell through inhibiting cAMP pathway and activating MAPK pathway. The SNV identified in GRM8, A112G, activated downstream signaling pathway and induced cell proliferation, which could be reversed by cAMP stimulator and MEK inhibitor. In conclusion, the components of GRM8 signaling pathway could serve as potential targets of squamous cell lung cancer carrying GRM8 activating variants.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Li X, Wang Z, Tong H, et al (2018)

Effects of COL8A1 on the proliferation of muscle-derived satellite cells.

Cell biology international, 42(9):1132-1140.

Collagen type VIII alpha 1 chain (COL8A1) is a component of the extracellular matrix. Our previous studies suggested that COL8A1 is associated with the proliferation of muscle-derived satellite cells (MDSCs). Additionally, it has been demonstrated that COL8A1 promotes the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and liver cancer cells. Therefore, we predicted that COL8A1 is associated with the proliferation of bovine MDSCs, which have potential applications in research. In this study, we constructed vectors to activate and repress COL8A1 in bovine MDSCs using the CRISPR/Cas9 technique and determined the effects of COL8A1 modulation by EdU labeling, Western blotting, and dual-luciferase reporter assays. The results showed that activation of COL8A1 increased the number of EdU-positive cells and expression of the proliferation markers cyclin B1 (CCNB1) and P-AKT. The expression of P-Akt was unchanged after addition of LY294002 (a protein kinase inhibitor capable of blocking the signal transduction pathway of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase). In contrast, repression of COL8A1 reduced the number of EdU-positive cells and expression of CCNB1 and P-AKT. We also observed upregulation and downregulation of COL8A1 following the overexpression and repression of EGR1, respectively. The dual-luciferase reporter assay revealed that EGR1 regulates the promoter activity of COL8A1. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that EGR1 positively regulates the expression of COL8A1, which in turn promotes the proliferation of bovine MDSCs via the PI3 K/AKT signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2019-11-01

Jillette N, Du M, Zhu JJ, et al (2019)

Split selectable markers.

Nature communications, 10(1):4968 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-12891-2.

Selectable markers are widely used in transgenesis and genome editing for selecting engineered cells with a desired genotype but the variety of markers is limited. Here we present split selectable markers that each allow for selection of multiple "unlinked" transgenes in the context of lentivirus-mediated transgenesis as well as CRISPR-Cas-mediated knock-ins. Split marker gene segments fused to protein splicing elements called "inteins" can be separately co-segregated with different transgenic vectors, and rejoin via protein trans-splicing to reconstitute a full-length marker protein in host cells receiving all intended vectors. Using a lentiviral system, we create and validate 2-split Hygromycin, Puromycin, Neomycin and Blasticidin resistance genes as well as mScarlet fluorescent proteins. By combining split points, we create 3- and 6-split Hygromycin resistance genes, demonstrating that higher-degree split markers can be generated by a "chaining" design. We adapt the split marker system for selecting biallelically engineered cells after CRISPR gene editing. Future engineering of split markers may allow selection of a higher number of genetic modifications in target cells.

RevDate: 2019-10-31

Swarts DC (2019)

Making the cut(s): how Cas12a cleaves target and non-target DNA.

Biochemical Society transactions, 47(5):1499-1510.

CRISPR-Cas12a (previously named Cpf1) is a prokaryotic deoxyribonuclease that can be programmed with an RNA guide to target complementary DNA sequences. Upon binding of the target DNA, Cas12a induces a nick in each of the target DNA strands, yielding a double-stranded DNA break. In addition to inducing cis-cleavage of the targeted DNA, target DNA binding induces trans-cleavage of non-target DNA. As such, Cas12a-RNA guide complexes can provide sequence-specific immunity against invading nucleic acids such as bacteriophages and plasmids. Akin to CRISPR-Cas9, Cas12a has been repurposed as a genetic tool for programmable genome editing and transcriptional control in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In addition, its trans-cleavage activity has been applied for high-sensitivity nucleic acid detection. Despite the demonstrated value of Cas12a for these applications, the exact molecular mechanisms of both cis- and trans-cleavage of DNA were not completely understood. Recent studies have revealed mechanistic details of Cas12a-mediates DNA cleavage: base pairing of the RNA guide and the target DNA induces major conformational changes in Cas12a. These conformational changes render Cas12a in a catalytically activated state in which it acts as deoxyribonuclease. This deoxyribonuclease activity mediates cis-cleavage of the displaced target DNA strand first, and the RNA guide-bound target DNA strand second. As Cas12a remains in the catalytically activated state after cis-cleavage, it subsequently demonstrates trans-cleavage of non-target DNA. Here, I review the mechanistic details of Cas12a-mediated cis- and trans-cleavage of DNA. In addition, I discuss how bacteriophage-derived anti-CRISPR proteins can inhibit Cas12a activity.

RevDate: 2019-10-31

Yang G, X Huang (2019)

Methods and applications of CRISPR/Cas system for genome editing in stem cells.

Cell regeneration (London, England), 8(2):33-41 pii:S2045-9769(19)30016-1.

Genome editing technology holds great promise for genome manipulation and gene therapy. While widespread utilization, genome editing has been used to unravel the roles of specific genes in differentiation and pluripotency of stem cells, and reinforce the stem cell-based applications. In this review, we summarize the advances of genome editing technology, as well as the derivative technologies from CRISPR/Cas system, which show tremendous potential in various fields. We also highlight the key findings in the studies of stem cells and regeneration by genome editing technology.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Ortez C, Natera de Benito D, Carrera García L, et al (2019)

[Advances in the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

Medicina, 79 Suppl 3:77-81.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetically determined disease, linked to the X chromosome, c haracterized clinically by producing progressive muscle weakness, with an incidence of 1 per 3500-6000 males born. It is caused by the mutation of the DMD gene, which encodes dystrophin, a sub-sarcolemmal protein essential for structural muscle stability. The genetic defects in the DMD gene are divided into: deletions (65%) duplications (5.10%) and point mutations (10-15%). At present there is no curative treatment, the only drug that has been shown to modify the natural history of the disease (independently of the genetic mutation) are corticosteroids, currently indicated in early stages of the disease. In relation to clinical trials, in the last ten years, has experienced great advances in the field of therapeutic options, divided into two major therapeutic targets: 1) the area of gene therapies and 2) trying to reverse or block the pathophysiological processes of the disease, such as inflammation, fibrosis, muscle regeneration, etc. It is likely that an effective treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy requires combinations of therapies that address both the primary defect and its secondary pathophysiological consequences.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Chung HK, Zou X, Bajar BT, et al (2019)

A compact synthetic pathway rewires cancer signaling to therapeutic effector release.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 364(6439):.

An important goal in synthetic biology is to engineer biochemical pathways to address unsolved biomedical problems. One long-standing problem in molecular medicine is the specific identification and ablation of cancer cells. Here, we describe a method, named Rewiring of Aberrant Signaling to Effector Release (RASER), in which oncogenic ErbB receptor activity, instead of being targeted for inhibition as in existing treatments, is co-opted to trigger therapeutic programs. RASER integrates ErbB activity to specifically link oncogenic states to the execution of desired outputs. A complete mathematical model of RASER and modularity in design enable rational optimization and output programming. Using RASER, we induced apoptosis and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated transcription of endogenous genes specifically in ErbB-hyperactive cancer cells. Delivery of apoptotic RASER by adeno-associated virus selectively ablated ErbB-hyperactive cancer cells while sparing ErbB-normal cells. RASER thus provides a new strategy for oncogene-specific cancer detection and treatment.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Pluvinage JV, Haney MS, Smith BAH, et al (2019)

CD22 blockade restores homeostatic microglial phagocytosis in ageing brains.

Nature, 568(7751):187-192.

Microglia maintain homeostasis in the central nervous system through phagocytic clearance of protein aggregates and cellular debris. This function deteriorates during ageing and neurodegenerative disease, concomitant with cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms of impaired microglial homeostatic function and the cognitive effects of restoring this function remain unknown. We combined CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screens with RNA sequencing analysis to discover age-related genetic modifiers of microglial phagocytosis. These screens identified CD22, a canonical B cell receptor, as a negative regulator of phagocytosis that is upregulated on aged microglia. CD22 mediates the anti-phagocytic effect of α2,6-linked sialic acid, and inhibition of CD22 promotes the clearance of myelin debris, amyloid-β oligomers and α-synuclein fibrils in vivo. Long-term central nervous system delivery of an antibody that blocks CD22 function reprograms microglia towards a homeostatic transcriptional state and improves cognitive function in aged mice. These findings elucidate a mechanism of age-related microglial impairment and a strategy to restore homeostasis in the ageing brain.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Tang F, Min L, Seebacher NA, et al (2019)

Targeting mutant TP53 as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society, 37(3):789-798.

Mutant TP53 is a promising therapeutic target in cancers. Considering the current challenges facing the clinical treatment of cancer, as well as the urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets in osteosarcomas, we aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of mutant TP53 in osteosarcoma patients and to explore the therapeutic effect of targeting mutant TP53 in osteosarcomas. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between mutant TP53 and the overall survival of patients with osteosarcoma. A CRISPR-Cas9 system and a TP53 inhibitor, NSC59984, were also used to specifically knock-out and inhibit mutant TP53 in the human osteosarcoma cell lines, KHOS, and KHOSR2. The meta-analysis demonstrated that mutations in the TP53 gene could be used to predict a poor 2-year survival in osteosarcoma patients. We also demonstrated that the expression of mutant TP53 in human osteosarcoma cell lines can be efficiently knocked-out using CRISPR-Cas9, and this decreased the proliferation, migration, and tumor formation activity of these osteosarcoma cells. Moreover, drug sensitivity to doxorubicin was increased in these TP53 knock-out osteosarcoma cells. NSC59984 also showed similar anti-tumor effects as CRISPR-Cas9 targeted TP53 in the osteosarcoma cells in vitro. We have also demonstrated that the knock-out or inhibition of mutant TP53 decreased the expression of the oncogene IGF-1R, anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, and Survivin in osteosarcoma cells. Collectively, these results suggest that mutant TP53 is a promising therapeutic target in osteosarcomas. Therefore, further studies exploring novel strategies to target mutant TP53 may help improve the treatment outcomes of osteosarcoma patients in the clinic. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Santofimia-Castaño P, Lan W, Bintz J, et al (2018)

Inactivation of NUPR1 promotes cell death by coupling ER-stress responses with necrosis.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16999.

It was already described that genetic inhibition of NUPR1 induces tumor growth arrest. In this paper we studied the metabolism changes after NUPR1 downregulation in pancreatic cancer cells, which results in a significant decrease of OXPHOS activity with a concomitant lower ATP production which precedes the necrotic cell death. We demonstrated that NUPR1 downregulation induces a mitochondrial failure with a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, a strong increase in ROS production and a concomitant relocalization of mitochondria to the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In addition, the transcriptomic analysis of NUPR1-deficient cells shows a decrease in the expression of some ER stress response-associated genes. Indeed, in ER stressors-treated cells with thapsigargin, brefeldin A or tunicamycin, a greater increase in necrosis and decrease of ATP content was observed in NUPR1-defficent cells. Finally, in vivo experiments, using acute pancreatitis which induces ER stress as well as NUPR1 activation, we observed that NUPR1 expression protects acinar cells from necrosis in mice. Importantly, we also report that the cell death observed after knocking-down NUPR1 expression is completely reversed by incubation with Necrostatin-1, but not by inhibiting caspase activity with Z-VAD-FMK. Altogether, these data enable us to describe a model in which inactivation of NUPR1 in pancreatic cancer cells results in an ER stress that induces a mitochondrial malfunction, a deficient ATP production and, as consequence, the cell death mediated by a programmed necrosis.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Luttrell LM, Wang J, Plouffe B, et al (2018)

Manifold roles of β-arrestins in GPCR signaling elucidated with siRNA and CRISPR/Cas9.

Science signaling, 11(549): pii:11/549/eaat7650.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) use diverse mechanisms to regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2. β-Arrestins (βArr1/2) are ubiquitous inhibitors of G protein signaling, promoting GPCR desensitization and internalization and serving as scaffolds for ERK1/2 activation. Studies using CRISPR/Cas9 to delete βArr1/2 and G proteins have cast doubt on the role of β-arrestins in activating specific pools of ERK1/2. We compared the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown of βArr1/2 and reconstitution with βArr1/2 in three different parental and CRISPR-derived βArr1/2 knockout HEK293 cell pairs to assess the effect of βArr1/2 deletion on ERK1/2 activation by four Gs-coupled GPCRs. In all parental lines with all receptors, ERK1/2 stimulation was reduced by siRNAs specific for βArr2 or βArr1/2. In contrast, variable effects were observed with CRISPR-derived cell lines both between different lines and with activation of different receptors. For β2 adrenergic receptors (β2ARs) and β1ARs, βArr1/2 deletion increased, decreased, or had no effect on isoproterenol-stimulated ERK1/2 activation in different CRISPR clones. ERK1/2 activation by the vasopressin V2 and follicle-stimulating hormone receptors was reduced in these cells but was enhanced by reconstitution with βArr1/2. Loss of desensitization and receptor internalization in CRISPR βArr1/2 knockout cells caused β2AR-mediated stimulation of ERK1/2 to become more dependent on G proteins, which was reversed by reintroducing βArr1/2. These data suggest that βArr1/2 function as a regulatory hub, determining the balance between mechanistically different pathways that result in activation of ERK1/2, and caution against extrapolating results obtained from βArr1/2- or G protein-deleted cells to GPCR behavior in native systems.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Jia YL, Guo X, Lu JT, et al (2018)

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout for DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a in CHO cells displays enhanced transgenic expression and long-term stability.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 22(9):4106-4116.

CHO cells are the preferred host for the production of complex pharmaceutical proteins in the biopharmaceutical industry, and genome engineering of CHO cells would benefit product yield and stability. Here, we demonstrated the efficacy of a Dnmt3a-deficient CHO cell line created by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology through gene disruptions in Dnmt3a, which encode the proteins involved in DNA methyltransferases. The transgenes, which were driven by the 2 commonly used CMV and EF1α promoters, were evaluated for their expression level and stability. The methylation levels of CpG sites in the promoter regions and the global DNA were compared in the transfected cells. The Dnmt3a-deficent CHO cell line based on Dnmt3a KO displayed an enhanced long-term stability of transgene expression under the control of the CMV promoter in transfected cells in over 60 passages. Under the CMV promoter, the Dnmt3a-deficent cell line with a high transgene expression displayed a low methylation rate in the promoter region and global DNA. Under the EF1α promoter, the Dnmt3a-deficient and normal cell lines with low transgene expression exhibited high DNA methylation rates. These findings provide insight into cell line modification and design for improved recombinant protein production in CHO and other mammalian cells.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Tran MH, Seo E, Min S, et al (2018)

NEDD4-induced degradative ubiquitination of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α and its implication in breast cancer cell proliferation.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 22(9):4117-4129.

Phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K) family members generate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), a critical lipid regulator of diverse physiological processes. The PIP5K-dependent PIP2 generation can also act upstream of the oncogenic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Many studies have demonstrated various mechanisms of spatiotemporal regulation of PIP5K catalytic activity. However, there are few studies on regulation of PIP5K protein stability. Here, we examined potential regulation of PIP5Kα, a PIP5K isoform, via ubiquitin-proteasome system, and its implication for breast cancer. Our results showed that the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated gene 4) mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of PIP5Kα, consequently reducing plasma membrane PIP2 level. NEDD4 interacted with the C-terminal region and ubiquitinated the N-terminal lysine 88 in PIP5Kα. In addition, PIP5Kα gene disruption inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt activation and caused significant proliferation defect in breast cancer cells. Notably, PIP5Kα K88R mutant that was resistant to NEDD4-mediated ubiquitination and degradation showed more potentiating effects on Akt activation by EGF and cell proliferation than wild-type PIP5Kα. Collectively, these results suggest that PIP5Kα is a novel degradative substrate of NEDD4 and that the PIP5Kα-dependent PIP2 pool contributing to breast cancer cell proliferation through PI3K/Akt activation is negatively controlled by NEDD4.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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CRISPR-Cas

By delivering the Cas9 nuclease, complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be precisely cut at any desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. That is, the CRISPR-Cas system provides a tool for the cut-and-paste editing of genomes. Welcome to the brave new world of genome editing. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )