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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 19 Aug 2018 at 01:37 Created: 

Symbiosis

Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: symbiosis NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2018-08-18

Pfeilmeier S, George J, Morel A, et al (2018)

Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana immune receptor EFR in Medicago truncatula reduces infection by a root pathogenic bacterium, but not nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbiosis.

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

Interfamily transfer of plant pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) represents a promising biotechnological approach to engineer broad-spectrum, and potentially durable, disease resistance in crops. It is however unclear whether new recognition specificities to given pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) affect the interaction of the recipient plant with beneficial microbes. To test this in a direct reductionist approach, we transferred the Brassicaceae-specific PRR ELONGATION FACTOR-THERMO UNSTABLE RECEPTOR (EFR), conferring recognition of the bacterial EF-Tu protein, from Arabidopsis thaliana to the legume Medicago truncatula. Constitutive EFR expression led to EFR accumulation and activation of immune responses upon treatment with the EF-Tu-derived elf18 peptide in leaves and roots. The interaction of M. truncatula with the bacterial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is characterized by the formation of root nodules that fix atmospheric nitrogen. Although nodule numbers were slightly reduced at an early stage of the infection in EFR-Medicago when compared to control lines, nodulation was similar in all lines at later stages. Furthermore, nodule colonization by rhizobia, and nitrogen fixation were not compromised by EFR expression. Importantly, the M. truncatula lines expressing EFR were substantially more resistant to the root bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum. Our data suggest that the transfer of EFR to M. truncatula does not impede root nodule symbiosis, but has a positive impact on disease resistance against a bacterial pathogen. In addition, our results indicate that Rhizobium can either avoid PAMP recognition during the infection process, or is able to actively suppress immune signaling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-08-18

Aliverdi A, G Ahmadvand (2018)

Herbicide Toxicity to Soybean-Rhizobium Symbiosis as Affected by Soil pH.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-018-2417-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The current study examined whether soil pH could influence the toxicity of herbicides to soybean-rhizobium symbiosis. This can be useful for farmers to minimize the toxicity of them to crop-rhizobium symbiosis via applying their reduced doses. The toxicity of bentazon, metribuzin, and trifluralin to soybean-rhizobium symbiosis was investigated in pH 6.4, 7.2, and 8 soils. Seed inoculation decreased shoot:root (S:R) ratio but increased height, shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), shoot nitrogen content (SNC), root nitrogen content (RNC), and nitrogen fixation effectiveness (NFE) in the pH 7.2 soil without herbicide application. All herbicides decreased NFE in all soil pH regimes except metribuzin in the pH 6.4 soil. Unlike trifluralin, the toxicity of bentazon and metribuzin to soybean-rhizobium symbiosis was influenced by the soil pH. It can be concluded that soil acidification and alkalization, which can rapidly occur in agroecosystems, can decrease and increase the toxicity of bentazon and metribuzin to soybean-rhizobium symbiosis, respectively.

RevDate: 2018-08-18

Xu CC, Zhang D, Hann DR, et al (2018)

Biochemical properties and in planta effects of NopM, a rhizobial E3 ubiquitin ligase.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:RA118.004444 [Epub ahead of print].

Nodulation outer protein M (NopM) is an IpaH family type three (T3) effector secreted by the nitrogen-fixing nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium sp. strain NGR234. Previous work indicated that NopM is an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for an optimal symbiosis between NGR234 and the host legume Lablab purpureus Here, we continued to analyze the function of NopM. Recombinant NopM was biochemically characterized using an in vitro ubiquitination system with Arabidopsis thaliana proteins. In this assay, NopM forms unanchored polyubiquitin chains and possesses auto-ubiquitination activity. In a NopM variant lacking any lysine residues, auto-ubiquitination was not completely abolished, indicating non-canonical auto-ubiquitination of the protein. In addition, we could show intermolecular ubiquitin transfer from NopM to C338A (enzymatically inactive NopM form) in vitro. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis provided clues about NopM-NopM interactions at plasma membranes in planta NopM but not C338A expressed in tobacco cells induced cell death, suggesting that E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of NopM induced effector-triggered immunity responses. Likewise, expression of NopM in Lotus japonicus caused reduced nodule formation whereas expression of C338A showed no obvious effects on symbiosis. Further experiments indicated that serine residue 26 of NopM is phosphorylated in planta and that NopM can be phosphorylated in vitro by salicylic-acid-induced protein kinase (NtSIPK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of tobacco. Hence, NopM is a phosphorylated T3 effector that can interact with itself, with ubiquitin and with MAPKs.

RevDate: 2018-08-18

Judd AM, Matthews MK, Hughes R, et al (2018)

Bacterial Methionine Metabolism Genes Influence Drosophila melanogaster Starvation Resistance.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 84(17): pii:AEM.00662-18.

Animal-associated microorganisms (microbiota) dramatically influence the nutritional and physiological traits of their hosts. To expand our understanding of such influences, we predicted bacterial genes that influence a quantitative animal trait by a comparative genomic approach, and we extended these predictions via mutant analysis. We focused on Drosophila melanogaster starvation resistance (SR). We first confirmed that D. melanogaster SR responds to the microbiota by demonstrating that bacterium-free flies have greater SR than flies bearing a standard 5-species microbial community, and we extended this analysis by revealing the species-specific influences of 38 genome-sequenced bacterial species on D. melanogaster SR. A subsequent metagenome-wide association analysis predicted bacterial genes with potential influence on D. melanogaster SR, among which were significant enrichments in bacterial genes for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids and B vitamins. Dietary supplementation experiments established that the addition of methionine, but not B vitamins, to the diets significantly lowered D. melanogaster SR in a way that was additive, but not interactive, with the microbiota. A direct role for bacterial methionine metabolism genes in D. melanogaster SR was subsequently confirmed by analysis of flies that were reared individually with distinct methionine cycle Escherichia coli mutants. The correlated responses of D. melanogaster SR to bacterial methionine metabolism mutants and dietary modification are consistent with the established finding that bacteria can influence fly phenotypes through dietary modification, although we do not provide explicit evidence of this conclusion. Taken together, this work reveals that D. melanogaster SR is a microbiota-responsive trait, and specific bacterial genes underlie these influences.IMPORTANCE Extending descriptive studies of animal-associated microorganisms (microbiota) to define causal mechanistic bases for their influence on animal traits is an emerging imperative. In this study, we reveal that D. melanogaster starvation resistance (SR), a model quantitative trait in animal genetics, responds to the presence and identity of the microbiota. Using a predictive analysis, we reveal that the amino acid methionine has a key influence on D. melanogaster SR and show that bacterial methionine metabolism mutants alter normal patterns of SR in flies bearing the bacteria. Our data further suggest that these effects are additive, and we propose the untested hypothesis that, similar to bacterial effects on fruit fly triacylglyceride deposition, the bacterial influence may be through dietary modification. Together, these findings expand our understanding of the bacterial genetic basis for influence on a nutritionally relevant trait of a model animal host.

RevDate: 2018-08-17

Li Y, Liew YJ, Cui G, et al (2018)

DNA methylation regulates transcriptional homeostasis of algal endosymbiosis in the coral model Aiptasia.

Science advances, 4(8):eaat2142 pii:aat2142.

The symbiotic relationship between cnidarians and dinoflagellates is the cornerstone of coral reef ecosystems. Although research has focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying this symbiosis, the role of epigenetic mechanisms, that is, the study of heritable changes that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence, is unknown. To assess the role of DNA methylation in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis, we analyzed genome-wide CpG methylation, histone associations, and transcriptomic states of symbiotic and aposymbiotic anemones in the model system Aiptasia. We found that methylated genes are marked by histone 3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3) and show significant reduction of spurious transcription and transcriptional noise, revealing a role of DNA methylation in the maintenance of transcriptional homeostasis. Changes in DNA methylation and expression show enrichment for symbiosis-related processes, such as immunity, apoptosis, phagocytosis recognition, and phagosome formation, and reveal intricate interactions between the underlying pathways. Our results demonstrate that DNA methylation provides an epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional homeostasis that responds to symbiosis.

RevDate: 2018-08-17

Taerum SJ, de Beer ZW, Marincowitz S, et al (2018)

Ophiostoma quercus: An unusually diverse and globally widespread tree-infecting fungus.

Fungal biology, 122(9):900-910.

Ophiostoma quercus (Ascomycota, Ophiostomatales) is a globally widespread, insect-vectored fungus that colonizes a wide diversity of hardwood and conifer hosts. Although the fungus is considered to be non-pathogenic, it is closely related to the fungi that cause Dutch elm disease. We examined the global diversity of O. quercus based on a ribosomal RNA marker and three unlinked gene regions. The fungus exhibited substantial morphological diversity. In addition, O. quercus had high genetic diversity in every continent from which it was collected, although the fungus was most diverse in Eurasia. There was no evidence of geographical clustering of haplotypes based on phylogenetic and network analyses. In addition, the phylogenetic trees generated based on the different markers were non-congruent. These results suggest that O. quercus has been repeatedly moved around the globe, because of trade in wood products, and that the fungal species most likely outcrosses regularly. The high genetic diversity of the fungus, as well as its ability to utilize a wide variety of arthropod vectors and colonize a tremendous diversity of tree host species makes O. quercus truly unique among ophiostomatoid fungi.

RevDate: 2018-08-16

Filée J (2018)

Giant viruses and their mobile genetic elements: the molecular symbiosis hypothesis.

Current opinion in virology, 33:81-88 pii:S1879-6257(18)30024-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Among the virus world, Giant viruses (GVs) compose one of the most successful eukaryovirus families. By contrast with other eukaryoviruses, GV genomes contain a wide array of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) that encompass diverse, mostly prokaryotic-like, transposable element families, introns, inteins, restriction-modification systems and enigmatic classes of mobile elements having little similarities with known families. Interestingly, several of these MGEs may be beneficial to the GVs, fulfilling two kinds of functions: (1) degrading host or competing virus/virophage DNA and (2) promoting viral genome integration, dissemination and excision into the host genomes. By providing fitness advantages to the virus in which they reside, these MGEs compose a kind of molecular symbiotic association in which both partners benefit from the presence of each other's. Thus, protective effects provided by some of these MGEs may have generated an arm race between competing GVs in order to encode the most diverse arsenal of anti-viral weapons, explaining the unusual abundance of MGEs in GV genomes by a kind of ratchet effect.

RevDate: 2018-08-16

Niehs S, Dose B, Scherlach K, et al (2018)

Genomics-Driven Discovery of a Symbiont-Specific Cyclopeptide from Bacteria Residing in the Rice Seedling Blight Fungus.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus harbors endosymbiotic bacteria (Burkholderia rhizoxinica) that produce the virulence factor rhizoxin and control host development. Genome mining indicated a massive inventory of cryptic non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes, which have not yet been linked to any natural products. We report the discovery and full characterization of a novel cyclopeptide from endofungal bacteria. In silico analysis of an orphan, symbiont-specific NRPS predicted the structure of a nonribosomal peptide, which was targeted by LC-MS/MS profiling of wild type and engineered null mutants. NMR and chemical derivatization elucidated the structure of the bacterial cyclopeptide. Phylogenies revealed the relationship starter C domains for rare N-acetyl capped peptides. Heptarhizin is produced under symbiotic conditions in geographically constrained strains from the Pacific clade, indicating a potential ecological role of the peptide.

RevDate: 2018-08-16
CmpDate: 2018-08-16

Putnam HM, Barott KL, Ainsworth TD, et al (2017)

The Vulnerability and Resilience of Reef-Building Corals.

Current biology : CB, 27(11):R528-R540.

Reef-building corals provide the foundation for the structural and biological diversity of coral-reef ecosystems. These massive biological structures, which can be seen from space, are the culmination of complex interactions between the tiny polyps of the coral animal in concert with its unicellular symbiotic algae and a wide diversity of closely associated microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses). While reef-building corals have persisted in various forms for over 200 million years, human-induced conditions threaten their function and persistence. The scope for loss associated with the destruction of coral reef systems is economically, biologically, physically and culturally immense. Here, we provide a micro-to-macro perspective on the biology of scleractinian corals and discuss how cellular processes of the host and symbionts potentially affect the response of these reef builders to the wide variety of both natural and anthropogenic stressors encountered by corals in the Anthropocene. We argue that the internal physicochemical settings matter to both the performance of the host and microbiome, as bio-physical feedbacks may enhance stress tolerance through environmentally mediated host priming and effects on microbiome ecological and evolutionary dynamics.

RevDate: 2018-08-16
CmpDate: 2018-08-16

Horai R, Sen HN, RR Caspi (2017)

Commensal microbiota as a potential trigger of autoimmune uveitis.

Expert review of clinical immunology, 13(4):291-293.

RevDate: 2018-08-16
CmpDate: 2018-08-16

Slomka V, Hernandez-Sanabria E, Herrero ER, et al (2017)

Nutritional stimulation of commensal oral bacteria suppresses pathogens: the prebiotic concept.

Journal of clinical periodontology, 44(4):344-352.

AIM: To identify potential oral prebiotics that selectively stimulate commensal, albeit beneficial bacteria of the resident oral microbial community while suppressing the growth of pathogenic bacteria.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using Phenotype MicroArrays as a high-throughput method, the change in respiratory activity of 16 oral bacteria in response to 742 nutritional compounds was screened. Most promising prebiotic compounds were selected and applied in single species growth and biofilm formation assays, as well as dual species (beneficial-pathogen) competition assays.

RESULTS: Increased respiratory activity could not always be related to an increase in growth or biofilm formation. Six compounds were used in dual species competition assays to directly monitor if selective nutritional stimulation of the beneficial bacterium results in the suppression of the pathogenic bacterium. Two compounds, beta-methyl-d-galactoside and N-acetyl-d-mannosamine, could be identified as potential oral prebiotic compounds, triggering selectively beneficial oral bacteria throughout the experiments and shifting dual species biofilm communities towards a beneficial dominating composition at in vitro level.

CONCLUSION: Our observations support the hypothesis that nutritional stimulation of beneficial bacteria by prebiotics could be used to restore the microbial balance in the oral cavity and by this promote oral health.

RevDate: 2018-08-16
CmpDate: 2018-08-16

Galley JD, Parry NM, Ahmer BMM, et al (2017)

The commensal microbiota exacerbate infectious colitis in stressor-exposed mice.

Brain, behavior, and immunity, 60:44-50.

Exposure to a prolonged restraint stressor disrupts the colonic microbiota community composition, and is associated with an elevated inflammatory response to colonic pathogen challenge. Since the stability of the microbiota has been implicated in the development and modulation of mucosal immune responses, we hypothesized that the disruptive effect of the stressor upon the microbiota composition directly contributed to the stressor-induced exacerbation of pathogen-induced colitis. In order to establish a causative role for stressor-induced changes in the microbiota, conventional mice were exposed to prolonged restraint to change the microbiota. Germfree mice were then colonized by microbiota from either stressor-exposed or non-stressed control mice. One day after colonization, mice were infected with the colonic pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. At six days post-infection, mice that received microbiota from stressor-exposed animals had significant increases in colonic pathology and pro-inflammatory cytokine (e.g. IL-1β) and chemokine (e.g. CCL2) levels after C. rodentium infection in comparison with mice that received microbiota from non-stressed mice. 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that microbial communities from stressed mice did not have any detectable Bifidobacterium present, a stark contrast with the microbial communities from non-stressed mice, suggesting that stressor-induced alterations in commensal, immunomodulatory Bifidobacterium levels may predispose to an increased inflammatory response to pathogen challenge. This study demonstrates that the commensal microbiota directly contribute to excessive inflammatory responses to C. rodentium during stressor exposure, and may help to explain why gastrointestinal disorders are worsened during stressful experiences.

RevDate: 2018-08-10
CmpDate: 2018-08-10

De Moraes CM, MC Mescher (2016)

Editorial overview: Biotic interactions: Communicative interactions of plants: plant biology in the age of information.

Current opinion in plant biology, 32:iv-vi.

RevDate: 2018-08-15

Karmakar K, Kundu A, Rizvi AZ, et al (2018)

Transcriptomic analysis with the progress of symbiosis in 'crack-entry' legume Arachis hypogaea highlights its contrast with 'infection thread' adapted legumes.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

In root-nodule symbiosis, rhizobial invasion and nodule organogenesis is host controlled. In most legumes, rhizobia enter through infection-threads and nodule primordium in the cortex is induced from a distance. But in dalbergoid legumes like Arachis hypogaea, rhizobia directly invade cortical cells through epidermal cracks to generate the primordia. Herein we report the transcriptional dynamics with the progress of symbiosis in A. hypogaea at 1dpi: invasion; 4dpi: nodule primordia; 8dpi: spread of infection in nodule-like structure; 12dpi: immature nodules containing rod-shaped rhizobia; and 21dpi: mature nodules with spherical symbiosomes. Expression of putative orthologue of symbiotic genes in 'crack-entry' legume A. hypogaea was compared with infection thread adapted model legumes. The contrasting features were (i) higher expression of receptors like LYR3, EPR3 as compared to canonical NFRs (ii) late induction of transcription factors like NIN, NSP2 and constitutive high expression of ERF1, EIN2, bHLH476 and (iii) induction of divergent pathogenesis responsive PR-1 genes. Additionally, symbiotic orthologues of SymCRK, ROP6, RR9, SEN1 and DNF2 were not detectable and microsynteny analysis indicated the absence of RPG homologue in diploid parental genomes of A. hypogaea. The implications are discussed and a molecular framework that guide 'crack-entry' symbiosis in A. hypogaea is proposed.

RevDate: 2018-08-15

Rubin BER, Sanders JG, Turner KM, et al (2018)

Social behaviour in bees influences the abundance of Sodalis (Enterobacteriaceae) symbionts.

Royal Society open science, 5(7):180369 pii:rsos180369.

Social interactions can facilitate transmission of microbes between individuals, reducing variation in gut communities within social groups. Thus, the evolution of social behaviours and symbiont community composition have the potential to be tightly linked. We explored this connection by characterizing the diversity of bacteria associated with both eusocial and solitary bee species within the behaviourally variable family Halictidae using 16S amplicon sequencing. Contrary to expectations, we found few differences in bacterial abundance or variation between social forms; most halictid species appear to share similar gut bacterial communities. However, several strains of Sodalis, a genus described as a symbiont in a variety of insects but yet to be characterized in bees, differ in abundance between eusocial and solitary bees. Phylogenetic reconstructions based on whole-genome alignments indicate that Sodalis has independently colonized halictids at least three times. These strains appear to be mutually exclusive within individual bees, although they are not host-species-specific and no signatures of vertical transmission were observed, suggesting that Sodalis strains compete for access to hosts. The symbiosis between halictids and Sodalis therefore appears to be in its early stages.

RevDate: 2018-08-15
CmpDate: 2018-08-15

Doolittle WF, SA Inkpen (2018)

Processes and patterns of interaction as units of selection: An introduction to ITSNTS thinking.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(16):4006-4014.

Many practicing biologists accept that nothing in their discipline makes sense except in the light of evolution, and that natural selection is evolution's principal sense-maker. But what natural selection actually is (a force or a statistical outcome, for example) and the levels of the biological hierarchy (genes, organisms, species, or even ecosystems) at which it operates directly are still actively disputed among philosophers and theoretical biologists. Most formulations of evolution by natural selection emphasize the differential reproduction of entities at one or the other of these levels. Some also recognize differential persistence, but in either case the focus is on lineages of material things: even species can be thought of as spatiotemporally restricted, if dispersed, physical beings. Few consider-as "units of selection" in their own right-the processes implemented by genes, cells, species, or communities. "It's the song not the singer" (ITSNTS) theory does that, also claiming that evolution by natural selection of processes is more easily understood and explained as differential persistence than as differential reproduction. ITSNTS was formulated as a response to the observation that the collective functions of microbial communities (the songs) are more stably conserved and ecologically relevant than are the taxa that implement them (the singers). It aims to serve as a useful corrective to claims that "holobionts" (microbes and their animal or plant hosts) are aggregate "units of selection," claims that often conflate meanings of that latter term. But ITSNS also seems broadly applicable, for example, to the evolution of global biogeochemical cycles and the definition of ecosystem function.

RevDate: 2018-08-15
CmpDate: 2018-08-15

Maier L, Pruteanu M, Kuhn M, et al (2018)

Extensive impact of non-antibiotic drugs on human gut bacteria.

Nature, 555(7698):623-628.

A few commonly used non-antibiotic drugs have recently been associated with changes in gut microbiome composition, but the extent of this phenomenon is unknown. Here, we screened more than 1,000 marketed drugs against 40 representative gut bacterial strains, and found that 24% of the drugs with human targets, including members of all therapeutic classes, inhibited the growth of at least one strain in vitro. Particular classes, such as the chemically diverse antipsychotics, were overrepresented in this group. The effects of human-targeted drugs on gut bacteria are reflected on their antibiotic-like side effects in humans and are concordant with existing human cohort studies. Susceptibility to antibiotics and human-targeted drugs correlates across bacterial species, suggesting common resistance mechanisms, which we verified for some drugs. The potential risk of non-antibiotics promoting antibiotic resistance warrants further exploration. Our results provide a resource for future research on drug-microbiome interactions, opening new paths for side effect control and drug repurposing, and broadening our view of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2018-08-15
CmpDate: 2018-08-15

Fernando WMADB, Flint SH, Ranaweera KKDS, et al (2018)

The potential synergistic behaviour of inter- and intra-genus probiotic combinations in the pattern and rate of short chain fatty acids formation during fibre fermentation.

International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 69(2):144-154.

This study compared the rate of short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production by different probiotic combinations of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium to determine any synergistic effects. Six different fibre fractions were fermented with nine combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR), Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Bifidobacterium longum (BL) and Bifidobacterium breve (BB) for 0, 6, 24 and 48 h. SCFAs were quantified by gas chromatography. Inter-genus combinations of bacteria produced more SCFA, especially BB + BL + LR, compared to intra-genus that yielded the lowest SCFA production. Acetate was the most abundant, while propionate and butyrate were the most utilised. The SCFA formation was as acetate > propionate > butyrate and the total dietary fibre produced most of the SCFA. Most combinations utilised 60-80% of the fibre; BB + BL + LR digested the fibre completely. The quantity, pattern and the time of release of SCFA depends on the genus, but the combination of pre and probiotics is of great importance for the outcome.

RevDate: 2018-08-14

Rodríguez-Ruano SM, Martín-Vivaldi M, Peralta-Sánchez JM, et al (2018)

Seasonal and Sexual Differences in the Microbiota of the Hoopoe Uropygial Secretion.

Genes, 9(8): pii:genes9080407.

The uropygial gland of hoopoe nestlings and nesting females hosts bacterial symbionts that cause changes in the characteristics of its secretion, including an increase of its antimicrobial activity. These changes occur only in nesting individuals during the breeding season, possibly associated with the high infection risk experienced during the stay in the hole-nests. However, the knowledge on hoopoes uropygial gland microbial community dynamics is quite limited and based so far on culture-dependent and molecular fingerprinting studies. In this work, we sampled wild and captive hoopoes of different sex, age, and reproductive status, and studied their microbiota using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and pyrosequencing. Surprisingly, we found a complex bacterial community in all individuals (including non-nesting ones) during the breeding season. Nevertheless, dark secretions from nesting hoopoes harbored significantly higher bacterial density than white secretions from breeding males and both sexes in winter. We hypothesize that bacterial proliferation may be host-regulated in phases of high infection risk (i.e., nesting). We also highlight the importance of specific antimicrobial-producing bacteria present only in dark secretions that may be key in this defensive symbiosis. Finally, we discuss the possible role of environmental conditions in shaping the uropygial microbiota, based on differences found between wild and captive hoopoes.

RevDate: 2018-08-14
CmpDate: 2018-08-14

Mori T, Cahn JKB, Wilson MC, et al (2018)

Single-bacterial genomics validates rich and varied specialized metabolism of uncultivated Entotheonella sponge symbionts.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(8):1718-1723.

Marine sponges are prolific sources of unique bioactive natural products. The sponge Theonella swinhoei is represented by several distinct variants with largely nonoverlapping chemistry. For the Japanese chemotype Y harboring diverse complex polyketides and peptides, we previously provided genomic and functional evidence that a single symbiont, the filamentous, multicellular organism "Candidatus Entotheonella factor," produces almost all of these compounds. To obtain further insights into the chemistry of "Entotheonella," we investigated another phylotype, "Candidatus Entotheonella serta," present in the T. swinhoei WA sponge chemotype, a source of theonellamide- and misakinolide-type compounds. Unexpectedly, considering the lower chemical diversity, sequencing of individual bacterial filaments revealed an even larger number of biosynthetic gene regions than for Ca E. factor, with virtually no overlap. These included genes for misakinolide and theonellamide biosynthesis, the latter assigned by comparative genomic and metabolic analysis of a T. swinhoei chemotype from Israel, and by biochemical studies. The data suggest that both compound families, which were among the earliest model substances to study bacterial producers in sponges, originate from the same bacterium in T. swinhoei WA. They also add evidence that metabolic richness and variability could be a more general feature of Entotheonella symbionts.

RevDate: 2018-08-14
CmpDate: 2018-08-14

Roy S, Robson F, Lilley J, et al (2017)

MtLAX2, a Functional Homologue of the Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter AUX1, Is Required for Nodule Organogenesis.

Plant physiology, 174(1):326-338.

Most legume plants can form nodules, specialized lateral organs that form on roots, and house nitrogen-fixing bacteria collectively called rhizobia. The uptake of the phytohormone auxin into cells is known to be crucial for development of lateral roots. To test the role of auxin influx in nodulation we used the auxin influx inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 2-NOA, which we found reduced nodulation of Medicago truncatula. This suggested the possible involvement of the AUX/LAX family of auxin influx transporters in nodulation. Gene expression studies identified MtLAX2, a paralogue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AUX1, as being induced at early stages of nodule development. MtLAX2 is expressed in nodule primordia, the vasculature of developing nodules, and at the apex of mature nodules. The MtLAX2 promoter contains several auxin response elements, and treatment with indole-acetic acid strongly induces MtLAX2 expression in roots. mtlax2 mutants displayed root phenotypes similar to Arabidopsis aux1 mutants, including altered root gravitropism, fewer lateral roots, shorter root hairs, and auxin resistance. In addition, the activity of the synthetic DR5-GUS auxin reporter was strongly reduced in mtlax2 roots. Following inoculation with rhizobia, mtlax2 roots developed fewer nodules, had decreased DR5-GUS activity associated with infection sites, and had decreased expression of the early auxin responsive gene ARF16a Our data indicate that MtLAX2 is a functional analog of Arabidopsis AUX1 and is required for the accumulation of auxin during nodule formation in tissues underlying sites of rhizobial infection.

RevDate: 2018-08-14
CmpDate: 2018-08-14

Jacobsen ID, B Hube (2017)

Candida albicans morphology: still in focus.

Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 15(4):327-330.

RevDate: 2018-08-13

Sharma R, Janjani L, Kulkarni V, et al (2018)

Therapeutic Efficacy of Cranioplasty After Decompressive Craniectomy for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Retrospective Study.

Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons pii:S0278-2391(18)30770-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Autologous bone removed at the time of decompressive craniectomy (DC) is always the first choice for cranioplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of cranioplasty after DC by measuring the changes in the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, as well as to draw a comparison with the pre-cranioplasty FIM score and to evaluate the differences in the outcomes of cases managed by 2 methods: autologous bone (group I) or titanium mesh (group II).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 47 patients (36 male and 11 female patients) who underwent unilateral cranioplasty after DC for traumatic brain injury at our institute from 2008 to 2017 in this analytical single-institution retrospective study. The primary binary predictor variable was cranioplasty reconstructive material (autologous bone or mesh). The primary outcome variable of interest was increased, decreased, or unchanged FIM score. The secondary outcome variables included evaluation of immediate complications. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between scores.

RESULTS: Group I (n = 26) underwent cranioplasty using autologous bone flap, whereas group II (n = 21) underwent cranioplasty using dynamic titanium mesh. Increases in FIM scores on the motor function subscale for group I (P = .01278) and group II (P = .00112) were statistically significant. Increases in FIM scores on the cognition subscale for group I (P = .17384) and group II (P = .9492) were statistically insignificant. Evaluation of the primary outcome variable (ie, increased, decreased, or unchanged FIM scores) and secondary outcome variables (ie, immediate complications) showed a statistically insignificant difference between the 2 groups with respect to improvement (P = .51).

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that cranioplasty, irrespective of the reconstructive material, after DC in patients with traumatic brain injury results in a significant functional improvement apart from form and esthetics.

RevDate: 2018-08-13

Torres N, Antolín MC, Garmendia I, et al (2018)

Nutritional properties of Tempranillo grapevine leaves are affected by clonal diversity, mycorrhizal symbiosis and air temperature regime.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 130:542-554 pii:S0981-9428(18)30342-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Tempranillo grapevine is widely cultivated in Spain and other countries over the world (Portugal, USA, France, Australia, and Argentina, among others) for its wine, but leaves are scarcely used for human or animal nutrition. Since high temperatures affect quality of fruits and leaves in grapevine and the association of Tempranillo with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhances the antioxidant properties of berries and leaves, we assessed the effect of elevated air temperature and mycorrhization, separately or combined, on the nutritional properties of Tempranillo leaves at the time of fruit harvest. Experimental assay included three clones (CL-260, CL-1048, and CL-1089) and two temperature regimes (24/14 °C or 28/18 °C day/night) during fruit ripening. Within each clone and temperature regime there were plants not inoculated or inoculated with AMF. The nutritional value of leaves increased under warming climate: elevated temperatures induced the accumulation of minerals, especially in CL-1089; antioxidant capacity and soluble sugars also increased in CL-1089; CL-260 showed enhanced amounts of pigments, and chlorophylls and soluble proteins increased in CL-1048. Results suggested the possibility of collecting leaves together with fruit harvest with different applications of every clone: those from CL-1089 would be adequate for an energetic diet and leaves from CL-260 and CL-1048 would be suitable for culinary processes. Mycorrhization improved the nutritional value of leaves by enhancing flavonols in all clones, hydroxycinnamic acids in CL-1089 and carotenoids in CL-260.

RevDate: 2018-08-11

Dotson BR, Soltan D, Schmidt J, et al (2018)

The antibiotic peptaibol alamethicin from Trichoderma permeabilises Arabidopsis root apical meristem and epidermis but is antagonised by cellulase-induced resistance to alamethicin.

BMC plant biology, 18(1):165 pii:10.1186/s12870-018-1370-x.

BACKGROUND: Trichoderma fungi live in the soil rhizosphere and are beneficial for plant growth and pathogen resistance. Several species and strains are currently used worldwide in co-cultivation with crops as a biocontrol alternative to chemical pesticides even though little is known about the exact mechanisms of the beneficial interaction. We earlier found alamethicin, a peptide antibiotic secreted by Trichoderma, to efficiently permeabilise cultured tobacco cells. However, pre-treatment with Trichoderma cellulase made the cells resistant to subsequent alamethicin, suggesting a potential mechanism for plant tolerance to Trichoderma, needed for mutualistic symbiosis.

RESULTS: We here investigated intact sterile-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings germinated in water or growth medium. These could be permeabilised by alamethicin but not if pretreated with cellulase. By following the fluorescence from the membrane-impermeable DNA-binding probe propidium iodide, we found alamethicin to mainly permeabilise root tips, especially the apical meristem and epidermis cells, but not the root cap and basal meristem cells nor cortex cells. Alamethicin permeabilisation and cellulase-induced resistance were confirmed by developing a quantitative in situ assay based on NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase accessibility. The combined assays also showed that hyperosmotic treatment after the cellulase pretreatment abolished the induced cellulase resistance.

CONCLUSION: We here conclude the presence of cell-specific alamethicin permeabilisation, and cellulase-induced resistance to it, in root tip apical meristem and epidermis of the model organism A. thaliana. We suggest that contact between the plasma membrane and the cell wall is needed for the resistance to remain. Our results indicate a potential mode for the plant to avoid negative effects of alamethicin on plant growth and localises the point of potential damage and response. The results also open up for identification of plant genetic components essential for beneficial effects from Trichoderma on plants.

RevDate: 2018-08-13
CmpDate: 2018-08-10

Garg SG, WF Martin (2018)

Asking endosymbionts to do an enzyme's job.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(20):E4543-E4544.

RevDate: 2018-08-13
CmpDate: 2018-08-13

Sánchez-López AS, Pintelon I, Stevens V, et al (2018)

Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(1): pii:ijms19010291.

Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms. The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp. Cp3. Strain Cp3 was detected in C. pumila seeds across three successive generations and showed the most dominant community member. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development. We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications.

RevDate: 2018-08-13
CmpDate: 2018-08-13

Rehman NU, Ali M, Ahmad MZ, et al (2018)

Strigolactones promote rhizobia interaction and increase nodulation in soybean (Glycine max).

Microbial pathogenesis, 114:420-430.

Strigolactones (SLs) play an important role in controlling root growth, shoot branching, and plant-symbionts interaction. Despite the importance, the components of SL biosynthesis and signaling have not been unequivocally explored in soybean. Here we identified the putative components of SL synthesis enzymes GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a with tissue expression patterns and were apparently regulated by rhizobia infection and changed during nodule development. GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a were further characterized in soybean nodulation with knockdown transgenic hairy roots. GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a knockdown lines exhibit decreased nodule number and expression levels of several nodulation genes required for nodule development. Hormone analysis showed that GmMAX1a and GmMAX4a knockdown hairy roots had increased physiological level of ABA and JA but significantly decreased auxin content. This study not only revealed the conservation of SL biosynthesis but also showed close interactions between SL and other hormone signaling in controlling plant development and legume-rhizobia interaction.

RevDate: 2018-08-10
CmpDate: 2018-08-10

Zélé F, Weill M, S Magalhães (2018)

Identification of spider-mite species and their endosymbionts using multiplex PCR.

Experimental & applied acarology, 74(2):123-138.

Spider mites of the genus Tetranychidae are severe crop pests. In the Mediterranean a few species coexist, but they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. Additionally, spider mites often harbour several species of endosymbiotic bacteria, which may affect the biology of their hosts. Here, we propose novel, cost-effective, multiplex diagnostic methods allowing a quick identification of spider-mite species as well as of the endosymbionts they carry. First, we developed, and successfully multiplexed in a single PCR, primers to identify Tetranychus urticae, T. evansi and T. ludeni, some of the most common tetranychids found in southwest Europe. Moreover, we demonstrated that this method allows detecting multiple species in a single pool, even at low frequencies (up to 1/100), and can be used on entire mites without DNA extraction. Second, we developed another set of primers to detect spider-mite endosymbionts, namely Wolbachia, Cardinium and Rickettsia in a multiplex PCR, along with a generalist spider-mite primer to control for potential failure of DNA amplification in each PCR. Overall, our method represents a simple, cost-effective and reliable method to identify spider-mite species and their symbionts in natural field populations, as well as to detect contaminations in laboratory rearings. This method may easily be extended to other species.

RevDate: 2018-08-10
CmpDate: 2018-08-10

Ignasiak K, A Maxwell (2017)

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the guts of insects feeding on plants: prospects for discovering plant-derived antibiotics.

BMC microbiology, 17(1):223 pii:10.1186/s12866-017-1133-0.

BACKGROUND: Although plants produce many secondary metabolites, currently none of these are commercial antibiotics. Insects feeding on specific plants can harbour bacterial strains resistant to known antibiotics suggesting that compounds in the plant have stimulated resistance development. We sought to determine whether the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in insect guts was a widespread phenomenon, and whether this could be used as a part of a strategy to identify antibacterial compounds from plants.

RESULTS: Six insect/plant pairs were selected and the insect gut bacteria were identified and assessed for antibiotic susceptibilities compared with type strains from culture collections. We found that the gut strains could be more or less susceptible to antibiotics than the type strains, or show no differences. Evidence of antibacterial activity was found in the plant extracts from five of the six plants, and, in one case Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar Periwinkle), compounds with antibacterial activity were identified.

CONCLUSION: Bacterial strains isolated from insect guts show a range of susceptibilities to antibiotics suggesting a complex interplay between species in the insect gut microbiome. Extracts from selected plants can show antibacterial activity but it is not easy to isolate and identify the active components. We found that vindoline, present in Madagascar Periwinkle extracts, possessed moderate antibacterial activity. We suggest that plant-derived antibiotics are a realistic possibility given the advances in genomic and metabolomic methodologies.

RevDate: 2018-08-08
CmpDate: 2018-08-08

Sharma TR, Devanna BN, Kiran K, et al (2018)

Status and Prospects of Next Generation Sequencing Technologies in Crop Plants.

Current issues in molecular biology, 27:1-36.

The history of DNA sequencing dates back to 1970s. During this period the two first generation nucleotide sequencing techniques were developed. Subsequently the Sanger's dideoxy method of sequencing gained popularity over Maxam and Gilbert's chemical method of sequencing. However, in the last decade, we have observed revolutionary changes in DNA sequencing technologies leading to the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques. NGS technologies have enhanced the throughput and speed of sequencing combined with bringing down the overall cost of the process over a time. The major applications of NGS technologies being genome sequencing and resequencing, transcriptomics, metagenomics in relation to plant-microbe interactions, exon and genome capturing, development of molecular markers and evolutionary studies. In this review, we present a broader picture of evolution of NGS tools, its various applications in crop plants, and future prospects of the technology for crop improvement.

RevDate: 2018-08-09

Zhang L, Liu JY, Gu H, et al (2018)

Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110-Glycine max interactome provides candidate proteins associated with symbiosis.

Journal of proteome research [Epub ahead of print].

Although the legume-rhizobium symbiosis is a most important biological process, there is a limited knowledge about the protein interaction network between host and symbiont. Using interolog and domain-based approaches, we constructed an inter-species protein interactome containing 5,115 protein-protein interactions between 2,291 Glycine max and 290 Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 110 proteins. The interactome was further validated by expression pattern analysis in nodules, GO term semantic similarity, co-expression analysis and luciferase complementation image assay. In G. max-B. diazoefficiens interactome, bacterial proteins are mainly ion channel and transporters of carbohydrates and cations, while G. max proteins are mainly involved in the processes of metabolism, signal transduction and transport. We also identified the top ten highly interacting proteins (hubs) for each species. KEGG pathway analysis for each hub showed that two 14-3-3 proteins (SGF14g and SGF14k) and five heat shock proteins in G. max are possibly involved in symbiosis, and ten hubs in B. diazoefficiens may be important symbiotic effectors. Subnetwork analysis showed that 18 symbiosis-related SNARE proteins may play roles in regulating bacterial ion channels, and SGF14g and SGF14k possibly regulate the rhizobium dicarboxylate transport protein DctA. The predicted interactome provide a valuable basis for understanding the molecular mechanism of nodulation in soybean.

RevDate: 2018-08-09
CmpDate: 2018-08-09

Bojko J, Stebbing PD, Dunn AM, et al (2018)

Green crab Carcinus maenas symbiont profiles along a North Atlantic invasion route.

Diseases of aquatic organisms, 128(2):147-168.

The green crab Carcinus maenas is an invader on the Atlantic coast of Canada and the USA. In these locations, crab populations have facilitated the development of a legal fishery in which C. maenas is caught and sold, mainly for use as bait to capture economically important crustaceans such as American lobster Homarus americanus. The paucity of knowledge on the symbionts of invasive C. maenas in Canada and their potential for transfer to lobsters poses a potential risk of unintended transmission. We carried out a histological survey for symbionts of C. maenas from their native range in Northern Europe (in the UK and Faroe Islands), and invasive range in Atlantic Canada. In total, 19 separate symbiotic associations were identified from C. maenas collected from 27 sites. These included metazoan parasites (nematodes, Profilicollis botulus, Sacculina carcini, Microphallidae, ectoparasitic crustaceans), microbial eukaryotes (ciliates, Hematodinium sp., Haplosporidium littoralis, Ameson pulvis, Parahepatospora carcini, gregarines, amoebae), bacteria (Rickettsia-like organism, milky disease), and viral pathogens (parvo-like virus, herpes-like virus, iridovirus, Carcinus maenas bacilliform virus and a haemocyte-infecting rod-shaped virus). Hematodinium sp. were not observed in the Canadian population; however, parasites such as Trematoda and Acanthocephala were present in all countries despite their complex, multi-species lifecycles. Some pathogens may pose a risk of transmission to other decapods and native fauna via the use of this host in the bait industry, such as the discovery of a virus resembling the previously described white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), B-virus and 'rod-shaped virus' (RV-CM) and amoebae, which have previously been found to cause disease in aquaculture (e.g. Salmo salar) and fisheries species (e.g. H. americanus).

RevDate: 2018-08-09
CmpDate: 2018-08-09

Gonzalez-Canales ME, Marco-Herrero E, Andreu-Cazenave M, et al (2018)

Larval development of the symbiotic pea crab Pinnaxodes chilensis (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) (Decapoda, Brachyura, Pinnotheridae) reared in laboratory.

Arthropod structure & development, 47(1):91-103.

The complete larval development of Pinnaxodes chilensis (including four zoeal stages and a megalopa stage) is described and illustrated in detail for the first time. The descriptions are based on laboratory-reared larvae obtained from ovigerous females found inside specimens of the sea urchin Loxechinus albus collected in the coast of Valparaíso, Chile. In order to allow the correct differentiation of specimens from plankton samples, the larval stages of P. chilensis are compared with those from other Pinnotheridae species, whose larval development is known for the Chilean continental waters (Calyptraeotheres politus). The morphological characters described for P. chilensis larvae, as well as the comparison with the remaining larval development descriptions available for the genus Pinnaxodes, are used to discuss the heterogeneity within this genus.

RevDate: 2018-08-09
CmpDate: 2018-08-09

Podsiadło E, Michalik K, Michalik A, et al (2018)

Yeast-like microorganisms in the scale insect Kermes quercus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Kermesidae). Newly acquired symbionts?.

Arthropod structure & development, 47(1):56-63.

Scale insects, like other plant sap-consumers, are host to symbiotic microorganisms which provide them with the substances missing from their diet. In contrast to most scale insects, Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) was regarded as asymbiotic. Our histological and ultrastructural observations show that in the body of the feeding stages of K. quercus collected in two locations (Warsaw and Cracow), numerous yeast-like microorganisms occur. These microorganisms were localized in the cytoplasm of fat body cells. The yeast-like microorganisms were observed neither in other organs of the host insect nor in the eggs. These microorganisms did not cause any damage to the structure of the ovaries and the course of oogenesis of the host insect. The females infected by them produced about 1300 larvae. The lack of these microorganisms in the cytoplasm of eggs indicates that they are not transmitted transovarially from mother to offspring. Molecular analyses indicated that the microorganisms which reside in the body of K. quercus are closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi Cordyceps and Ophiocordyceps, which belong to the Sordariomycetes class within the Ascomycota. The role of yeast-like microorganisms to their host insects remains unknown; however, it has been suggested that they may represent newly acquired symbionts.

RevDate: 2018-08-09
CmpDate: 2018-08-09

Bradley CP, Teng F, Felix KM, et al (2017)

Segmented Filamentous Bacteria Provoke Lung Autoimmunity by Inducing Gut-Lung Axis Th17 Cells Expressing Dual TCRs.

Cell host & microbe, 22(5):697-704.e4.

Lung complications are a major cause of rheumatoid arthritis-related mortality. Involvement of gut microbiota in lung diseases by the gut-lung axis has been widely observed, but the underlying mechanism remains mostly unknown. Using an autoimmune arthritis model, we show that a constituent of the gut microbiota, segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), distantly provoke lung pathology. SFB induce autoantibodies in lung during the pre-arthritic phase, and SFB-dependent lung pathology requires the T helper 17 (Th17) responses. SFB-induced gut Th17 cells are preferentially recruited to lung over spleen due to robust expression in the lung of the Th17 chemoattractant, CCL20. Additionally, we found that in peripheral tissues, SFB selectively expand dual T cell receptor (TCR)-expressing Th17 cells recognizing both an SFB epitope and self-antigen, thus augmenting autoimmunity. This study reveals mechanisms for commensal-mediated gut-lung crosstalk and dual TCR-based autoimmunity.

RevDate: 2018-08-08

Qin L, Wei D, Wang Z, et al (2018)

Advantage Assessment of Mixed Culture of Chlorella vulgaris and Yarrowia lipolytica for Treatment of Liquid Digestate of Yeast Industry and Cogeneration of Biofuel Feedstock.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s12010-018-2854-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The symbiosis potential of microalgae and yeast is inherited with distinct advantages, providing an economical venue for their scale-up application. To assess the advantage of the mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and yeast Yarrowia lipolytica for treatment of liquid digestate of yeast industry (YILD) and cogeneration of biofuel feedstock, the cell growth characteristic, the nutrient removal efficiency, the energy storage potential of the mono, and mixed culture were investigated. The results indicated that the biomass concentration of the mixed culture (1.39-1.56 g/L of 5 times dilution group and 1.23-1.53 g/L of 10 times dilution group) was higher than those of mono cultures. The NH3-N and SO42- removal rates of the mixed culture were superior to mono cultures. Besides the higher lipid yield (0.073-0.154 g/L of 5 times dilution group and 0.112-0.183 g/L of 10 times dilution group), the higher yield of higher heating value (20.06-29.76 kJ/L of 5 times dilution group and 21.83-29.85 kJ/L of 10 times dilution group) was also obtained in the mixed culture. This study provides feasibility for remediation of YILD and cogeneration of biofuel feedstock using the mixed culture of microalgae and yeast.

RevDate: 2018-08-08

Wongdee J, Boonkerd N, Teaumroong N, et al (2018)

Regulation of Nitrogen Fixation in Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain DOA9 Involves Two Distinct NifA Regulatory Proteins That Are Functionally Redundant During Symbiosis but Not During Free-Living Growth.

Frontiers in microbiology, 9:1644.

The Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 strain displays the unusual properties to have a symbiotic plasmid and to fix nitrogen during both free-living and symbiotic growth. Sequence genome analysis shows that this strain contains the structural genes of dinitrogenase (nifDK) and the nifA regulatory gene on both the plasmid and chromosome. It was previously shown that both nifDK clusters are differentially expressed depending on growth conditions, suggesting different mechanisms of regulation. In this study, we examined the functional regulatory role of the two nifA genes found on the plasmid (nifAp) and chromosome (nifAc) that encode proteins with a moderate level of identity (55%) and different structural architectures. Using gusA (β-glucuronidase) reporter strains, we showed that both nifA genes were expressed during both the free-living and symbiotic growth stages. During symbiosis with Aeschynomene americana, mutants in only one nifA gene were not altered in their symbiotic properties, while a double nifA mutant was drastically impaired in nitrogen fixation, indicating that the two NifA proteins are functionally redundant during this culture condition. In contrast, under in vitro conditions, the nifAc mutant was unable to fix nitrogen, and no effect of the nifAp mutation was detected, indicating that NifAc is essential to activate nif genes during free-living growth. In accordance, the nitrogenase fixation deficiency of this mutant could be restored by the introduction of nifAc but not by nifAp or by two chimeric nifA genes encoding hybrid proteins with the N-terminus part of NifAc and the C-terminus of NifAp. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis by RT-qPCR of the WT and two nifA mutant backgrounds showed that NifAc and NifAp activated the expression of both chromosome and plasmid structural nifDK genes during symbiosis, while only NifAc activated the expression of nifDKc during free-living conditions. In summary, this study provides a better overview of the complex mechanisms of regulation of the nitrogenase genes in the DOA9 strain that involve two distinct NifA proteins, which are exchangeable during symbiosis for the activation of nif genes but not during free-living growth where NifAc is essential for the activation of nifDKc.

RevDate: 2018-08-08

Sugawara M, Takahashi S, Umehara Y, et al (2018)

Variation in bradyrhizobial NopP effector determines symbiotic incompatibility with Rj2-soybeans via effector-triggered immunity.

Nature communications, 9(1):3139 pii:10.1038/s41467-018-05663-x.

Genotype-specific incompatibility in legume-rhizobium symbiosis has been suggested to be controlled by effector-triggered immunity underlying pathogenic host-bacteria interactions. However, the rhizobial determinant interacting with the host resistance protein (e.g., Rj2) and the molecular mechanism of symbiotic incompatibility remain unclear. Using natural mutants of Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens USDA 122, we identified a type III-secretory protein NopP as the determinant of symbiotic incompatibility with Rj2-soybean. The analysis of nopP mutations and variants in a culture collection reveal that three amino acid residues (R60, R67, and H173) in NopP are required for Rj2-mediated incompatibility. Complementation of rj2-soybean by the Rj2 allele confers the incompatibility induced by USDA 122-type NopP. In response to incompatible strains, Rj2-soybean plants activate defense marker gene PR-2 and suppress infection thread number at 2 days after inoculation. These results suggest that Rj2-soybeans monitor the specific variants of NopP and reject bradyrhizobial infection via effector-triggered immunity mediated by Rj2 protein.

RevDate: 2018-08-08

Yurchenko V, J Lukeš (2018)

Parasites and their (endo)symbiotic microbes.

Parasitology pii:S0031182018001257 [Epub ahead of print].

Thanks to modern molecular biology methods, our understanding of the impact of (endo)symbiotic bacteria on parasitic protists and helminths is growing fast. In this issue, 9 papers have been brought together that describe various facets of the relationships between these microorganisms, reveal their range and high frequency, as well as their capacity to create novel biological complexity. Comparative analyses of these host-endosymbiont interactions indicate that there may be no discrete types of relationships but rather a continuum ranging from a dispensable endosymbiont minimally integrated within the host cell to organelles, such as mitochondria and plastids that evolved into an indispensable, deeply integrated components of the cell. We hope that this series of studies on parasites and (endo)symbiotic bacteria will increase awareness about these relationships and their representation in microbial ecology models.

RevDate: 2018-08-08

Sharma I, Singh A, Siraj F, et al (2018)

IL-8/CXCR1/2 signalling promotes tumor cell proliferation, invasion and vascular mimicry in glioblastoma.

Journal of biomedical science, 25(1):62 pii:10.1186/s12929-018-0464-y.

BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the lethal malignant tumors of the central nervous system. Despite advances made in understanding this complex disease, little has been achieved in improving clinical efficacy towards it. Factors such as chemokines play important role in shaping the tumor microenvironment which in turn plays a significant role in deciding course of tumor progression. In this study, we investigated the role of chemokine IL-8 in glioblastoma progression with particular emphasis on immunomodulation, cellular proliferation, invasion and vascular mimicry.

METHODS: Role of IL-8 in GBM immunology was determined by correlating the expression of IL-8 by immunohistochemistry with other immune cell markers such as CD3 and CD68. Effect of high IL-8 expression on overall survival, the difference in expression level between different GBM subgroups and anatomic structures were analyzed using other databases. Two GBM cell lines -U-87MG and LN-18 were used to study the impact of targeting IL-8-CXCR1/2 signalling using neutralizing antibodies and pharmacological antagonist. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry were used to determine the expression of these axes. Impact on cell viability and proliferation was assessed by MTT, proliferation marker-ki-67 and clonogenic survival assays. Multicellular tumor spheroids generated from GBM cell lines were used to study invasion in matrigel.

RESULTS: Weak Positive correlation was observed between IL-8 and CD3 as well as between IL-8 and CD68. High IL-8 expression in GBM patients was found to be associated with dismal survival. No significant difference in IL-8 expression between different molecular subgroups of GBM was observed. In vitro targeting of IL-8-CXCR1/2 signalling displayed a significant reduction in cell viability and proliferation, and spheroid invasion. Furthermore, the presence of CD34-/CXCR1+ vessels in GBM tissues showed the involvement of IL-8/CXCR1 in vascular mimicry structure formation.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest a direct involvement of IL-8-CXCR1/2 axes in GBM progression by promoting both cell proliferation and invasion and indirectly by promoting neovascularization in the form of vascular mimicry.

RevDate: 2018-08-08
CmpDate: 2018-08-08

Machado RAR, Wüthrich D, Kuhnert P, et al (2018)

Whole-genome-based revisit of Photorhabdus phylogeny: proposal for the elevation of most Photorhabdus subspecies to the species level and description of one novel species Photorhabdus bodei sp. nov., and one novel subspecies Photorhabdus laumondii subsp. clarkei subsp. nov.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 68(8):2664-2681.

Bacterial symbionts are crucial for the infectivity and success of entomopathogenic nematodes as biological control agents. The current understanding of the symbiotic relationships is limited by taxonomic uncertainties. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing and traditional techniques to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships between all described Photorhabdus species and subspecies as well as 11 newly isolated symbiotic bacteria of Heterorhabditis nematodes, including the unreported bacterial partner of H. beicherriana. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization, orthologous average nucleotide identity and nucleotide sequence identity of concatenated housekeeping genes scores were calculated and set into relation with current cut-off values for species delimitation in bacteria. Sequence data were complemented with biochemical and chemotaxonomic markers, and ribosomal protein fingerprinting profiles. This polyphasic approach resolves the ambiguous taxonomy of Photorhabdusand lead to the proposal for the elevation of most of them into a higher taxon and the creation of several new taxa: 15 new species, one of which is newly described: Photorhabdus bodei sp. nov. (type strain LJ24-63T=DSM 105690T=CCOS 1159T) and the other 14 arise through the proposal of elevating already described subspecies to species, and are proposed to be renamed as follows: Photorhabdus asymbioticasubsp. australis as Photorhabdus australis sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. akhurstii as Photorhabdus akhurstii sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. caribbeanensis as Photorhabdus caribbeanensis sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. hainanensis as Photorhabdus hainanensis sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. kayaii as Photorhabdus kayaii sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. kleinii as Photorhabdus kleinii sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. namnaonensis as Photorhabdus namnaonensis sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. noenieputensis as Photorhabdus noenieputensis sp. nov., Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp.laumondii as Photorhabdus laumondii sp. nov., Photorhabdus temperatasubsp. cinerea as Photorhabdus cinerea sp. nov., Photorhabdus temperatasubsp. khanii as Photorhabdus khanii sp. nov., Photorhabdus temperatasubsp. stackebrandtii as Photorhabdus stackebrandtii sp. nov., Photorhabdus temperatasubsp. tasmaniensis as Photorhabdus tasmaniensis sp. nov., and Photorhabdus temperatasubsp. thracensis as Photorhabdus thracensis sp. nov. In addition, we propose the creation of two new subspecies, one of which arises through the reduction of rank: Photorhabdus laumondii subsp. laumondii comb. nov. (basonym: P. luminescenssubsp. laumondii) and the second one is newly described: Photorhabdus laumondii subsp. clarkei subsp. nov. (type strain BOJ-47T=DSM 105531T=CCOS 1160T). Finally, we propose to emend the description of three species, which results from the proposal of elevating three subspecies to the species status: Photorhabdus asymbiotica, Photorhabdus temperata and Photorhabdus luminescens, formerly classified as Photorhabdus asymbioticasubsp. asymbiotica, Photorhabdus temperatasubsp.temperata and Photorhabdus luminescenssubsp. luminescens, respectively.

RevDate: 2018-08-08
CmpDate: 2018-08-08

Roger AJ, Muñoz-Gómez SA, R Kamikawa (2017)

The Origin and Diversification of Mitochondria.

Current biology : CB, 27(21):R1177-R1192.

Mitochondria are best known for their role in the generation of ATP by aerobic respiration. Yet, research in the past half century has shown that they perform a much larger suite of functions and that these functions can vary substantially among diverse eukaryotic lineages. Despite this diversity, all mitochondria derive from a common ancestral organelle that originated from the integration of an endosymbiotic alphaproteobacterium into a host cell related to Asgard Archaea. The transition from endosymbiotic bacterium to permanent organelle entailed a massive number of evolutionary changes including the origins of hundreds of new genes and a protein import system, insertion of membrane transporters, integration of metabolism and reproduction, genome reduction, endosymbiotic gene transfer, lateral gene transfer and the retargeting of proteins. These changes occurred incrementally as the endosymbiont and the host became integrated. Although many insights into this transition have been gained, controversy persists regarding the nature of the original endosymbiont, its initial interactions with the host and the timing of its integration relative to the origin of other features of eukaryote cells. Since the establishment of the organelle, proteins have been gained, lost, transferred and retargeted as mitochondria have specialized into the spectrum of functional types seen across the eukaryotic tree of life.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Wendlandt CE, Regus JU, Gano-Cohen KA, et al (2018)

Host investment into symbiosis varies among genotypes of the legume Acmispon strigosus, but host sanctions are uniform.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Efficient host control predicts the extirpation of ineffective symbionts, but they are nonetheless widespread in nature. We tested three hypotheses for the maintenance of symbiotic variation in rhizobia that associate with a native legume: partner mismatch between host and symbiont, such that symbiont effectiveness varies with host genotype; resource satiation, whereby extrinsic sources of nutrients relax host control; and variation in host control among host genotypes. We inoculated Acmispon strigosus from six populations with three Bradyrhizobium strains that vary in symbiotic effectiveness on sympatric hosts. We measured proxies of host and symbiont fitness in single- and co-inoculations under fertilization treatments of zero added nitrogen (N) and near-growth-saturating N. We examined two components of host control: 'host investment' into nodule size during single- and co-inoculations, and 'host sanctions' against less effective strains during co-inoculations. The Bradyrhizobium strains displayed conserved growth effects on hosts, and host control did not decline under experimental fertilization. Host sanctions were robust in all hosts, but host lines from different populations varied significantly in measures of host investment in both single- and co-inoculation experiments. Variation in host investment could promote variation in symbiotic effectiveness and prevent the extinction of ineffective Bradyrhizobium from natural populations.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Borfecchia E, Beato P, Svelle S, et al (2018)

Cu-CHA - a model system for applied selective redox catalysis.

Chemical Society reviews [Epub ahead of print].

We review the structural chemistry and reactivity of copper-exchanged molecular sieves with chabazite (CHA) topology, as an industrially applied catalyst in ammonia mediated reduction of harmful nitrogen oxides (NH3-SCR) and as a general model system for red-ox active materials (also the recent results in the direct conversion of methane to methanol are considered). Notwithstanding the apparent structural simplicity of the material, a crystalline zeolite with only one crystallographically independent T site, the Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst reveals a high degree of complexity that has been decrypted by state of the art characterization tools. From the reviewed data, the following important aspects in the understanding of the Cu-SSZ-13 catalyst clearly emerged: (i) the structural dynamics of the Cu-species require precise control of the environmental conditions during activation and characterization; (ii) the availability of a large library of well-defined catalysts with different Si/Al and Cu/Al compositional ratios is key in unravelling the red-ox properties of the active Cu sites; (iii) a multi-technique approach is required, combining complementary techniques able to provide independent structural, electronic and vibrational information; (iv) synchrotron radiation based techniques (EXAFS, XANES, XES and time-resolved powder XRD) played a relevant role; (v) operando methodology (possibly supported by advanced chemometric approaches) is essential in obtaining structure-reactivity relations; (vi) the support of theoretical studies has been indispensable for the interpretation of the experimental output from characterization and for a critical assessment of mechanistic models. The old literature that classified Cu-exchanged zeolites in the category of single-site catalysts has been partially disproved by the recent advanced studies where it has been shown that the active site in the low temperature NH3-SCR catalyst is a mobile Cu-molecular entity that "lives in symbiosis" with an inorganic solid framework. Only in the high temperature NH3-SCR regime do the mobile Cu-species lose their ligands and find docking sites at the internal walls of the zeolite framework, thus reflecting the idea of a single-site catalyst. After a brief introduction, the review is divided into three main parts devoted to characterization (Section 2), reactivity (Section 3), and industrial applications (Section 4), followed by some concluding remarks and providing a perspective of the field.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Moriizumi Y, Tabata KV, Watanabe R, et al (2018)

Hybrid cell reactor system from Escherichia coli protoplast cells and arrayed lipid bilayer chamber device.

Scientific reports, 8(1):11757 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-30231-0.

We developed a novel hybrid cell reactor system via functional fusion of single Escherichia coli protoplast cells, that are deficient in cell wall and expose plasma membrane, with arrayed lipid bilayer chambers on a device in order to incorporate the full set of cytosolic and membrane constituents into the artificial chambers. We investigated gene expression activity to represent the viability of the hybrid cell reactors: over 20% of hybrid cells showed gene expression activity from plasmid or mRNA. This suggests that the hybrid cell reactors retained fundamental activity of genetic information transduction. To expand the applicability of the hybrid cell reactors, we also developed the E. coli-in-E. coli cytoplasm system as an artificial parasitism system. Over 30% of encapsulated E. coli cells exhibited normal cell division, showing that hybrid cells can accommodate and cultivate living cells. This novel artificial cell reactor technology would enable unique approaches for synthetic cell researches such as reconstruction of living cell, artificial parasitism/symbiosis system, or physical simulation to test functionality of synthetic genome.

RevDate: 2018-08-07

Li H, Li S, Srinivasakannan C, et al (2018)

Efficient cleaning extraction of silver from spent symbiosis lead-zinc mine assisted by ultrasound in sodium thiosulfate system.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry pii:S1350-4177(18)30481-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The process to fast recovery of silver from the spent symbiosis lead-zinc mine enhanced by ultrasound has been developed. A system composed of thiosulfate and the spent symbiosis lead-zinc mine under ultrasound radiation is researched and compared with regular methods to prove the superiority of ultrasound enhanced leaching. Oxygen is not provided by the usual way but by the cavitation of ultrasound, and the effect of ultrasonic enhanced leaching is more obvious than oxygen enhanced leaching effect. We are more authoritative by combining some valuable literature after conducting systematic experiments. The process mechanism was analyzed by fire assaying, XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS. The optimal conditions were found out through single factor experiments: stirring rate of 300 rpm, thiosulfate concentration of 75 g/L, leaching temperature of 303 K, PH of 5, leaching time of 2 h and the ultrasound power of 100 W. And the leaching rate is 77.34% under the best conditions. When the ultrasonic experiment has the same parameters as the normal, the leaching rate at five minutes under ultrasonic conditions was 73.88%, while the leaching rate was only 72.51% at two hours under normal conditions. The apparent activation energy under conventional and ultrasonic conditions is 12.47 kJ/mol and 12.35 kJ/mol, respectively, and it is proved that both are controlled by diffusion.

RevDate: 2018-08-06

Torres N, Goicoechea N, Zamarreño AM, et al (2018)

Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects ABA metabolism during berry ripening in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo grown under climate change scenarios.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology, 274:383-393.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a promising tool for improving the quality of grapes under changing environments. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine if the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) to enhance phenolic content (specifically, anthocyanins) in a climate change framework could be mediated by alterations in berry ABA metabolism during ripening. The study was carried out on fruit-bearing cuttings of cv. Tempranillo (CL-1048 and CL-1089) inoculated (+M) or not (-M) with AMF. Two experimental designs were implemented. In the first experiment +M and -M plants were subjected to two temperatures (24/14 °C or 28/18 °C (day/night)) from fruit set to berry maturity. In the second experiment, +M and -M plants were subjected to two temperatures (24/14 °C or 28/18 °C (day/night)) combined with two irrigation regimes (late water deficit (LD) and full irrigation (FI)). At 28/18 °C AMF contributed to an increase in berry anthocyanins and modulated ABA metabolism, leading to higher ABA-GE and 7'OH-ABA and lower phaseic acid (PA) in berries compared to -M plants. Under the most stressful scenario (LD and 28/18 °C), at harvest +M plants exhibited higher berry anthocyanins and 7´OH-ABA and lower PA and dihydrophaseic acid (DPA) levels than -M plants. These findings highlight the involvement of ABA metabolism into the ability of AMF to improve some traits involved in the quality of grapes under global warming scenarios.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

De Meyer SE, Cnockaert M, Moulin L, et al (2018)

Symbiotic and non-symbiotic Paraburkholderia isolated from South African Lebeckia ambigua root nodules and the description of Paraburkholderia fynbosensis sp. nov.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 68(8):2607-2614.

Nine Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria were isolated from Lebeckia ambigua root nodules. All strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen with Lebeckia ambigua apart from WSM4178T, WSM4181 and WSM4182. Based on the 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, all strains were closely related to Paraburkholderia species (98.4-99.9 %), belonging to the Betaproteobacteria class and Burkholderiaceae family. According to 16S rRNA gene phylogeny the closest relative for WSM4174-WSM4177 and WSM4179-WSM4180 was Paraburkholderia tuberum(99.80-99.86 %), for WSM4178T was Paraburkholderia caledonica (98.42 %) and for WSM4181-WSM4182 was Paraburkholderia graminis (99.79 %). Analysis of the gyrB and recA housekeeping genes supported the assignment of WSM4181-WSM4182 to P. graminis and the other investigated strains could be assigned to the genus Paraburkholderia. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of WSM4178T from the closest validly published Paraburkholderia species. However, WSM4174-WSM4177 and WSM4179-WSM4180 could not reliably be distinguished from its closest neighbour and therefore complete genome comparison was performed between WSM4176 and P. tuberum STM678T which gave ANI values of 96-97 %. Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles and quinone data supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Paraburkholderia. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data one novel species, Paraburkholderiafynbosensis sp. nov. (WSM4178T=LMG 27177T=HAMBI 3356T), is proposed and the isolation of P. tuberum and P. graminis from root nodules of Lebeckia ambigua is reported.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

Quan AS, MB Eisen (2018)

The ecology of the Drosophila-yeast mutualism in wineries.

PloS one, 13(5):e0196440 pii:PONE-D-18-07464.

The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is preferentially found on fermenting fruits. The yeasts that dominate the microbial communities of these substrates are the primary food source for developing D. melanogaster larvae, and adult flies manifest a strong olfactory system-mediated attraction for the volatile compounds produced by these yeasts during fermentation. Although most work on this interaction has focused on the standard laboratory yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a wide variety of other yeasts naturally ferment fallen fruit. Here we address the open question of whether D. melanogaster preferentially associates with distinct yeasts in different, closely-related environments. We characterized the spatial and temporal dynamics of Drosophila-associated fungi in Northern California wineries that use organic grapes and natural fermentation using high-throughput, short-amplicon sequencing. We found that there is nonrandom structure in the fungal communities that are vectored by flies both between and within vineyards. Within wineries, the fungal communities associated with flies in cellars, fermentation tanks, and pomace piles are distinguished by varying abundances of a small number of yeast species. To investigate the origins of this structure, we assayed Drosophila attraction to, oviposition on, larval development in, and longevity when consuming the yeasts that distinguish vineyard microhabitats from each other. We found that wild fly lines did not respond differentially to the yeast species that distinguish winery habitats in habitat specific manner. Instead, this subset of yeast shares traits that make them attractive to and ensure their close association with Drosophila.

RevDate: 2018-08-07
CmpDate: 2018-08-07

He AL, Niu SQ, Zhao Q, et al (2018)

Induced Salt Tolerance of Perennial Ryegrass by a Novel Bacterium Strain from the Rhizosphere of a Desert Shrub Haloxylon ammodendron.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(2): pii:ijms19020469.

Drought and soil salinity reduce agricultural output worldwide. Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can enhance plant growth and augment plant tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Haloxylon ammodendron, a C4 perennial succulent xerohalophyte shrub with excellent drought and salt tolerance, is naturally distributed in the desert area of northwest China. In our previous work, a bacterium strain numbered as M30-35 was isolated from the rhizosphere of H. ammodendron in Tengger desert, Gansu province, northwest China. In current work, the effects of M30-35 inoculation on salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass were evaluated and its genome was sequenced to identify genes associated with plant growth promotion. Results showed that M30-35 significantly enhanced growth and salt tolerance of perennial ryegrass by increasing shoot fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll content, root volume, root activity, leaf catalase activity, soluble sugar and proline contents that contributed to reduced osmotic potential, tissue K⁺ content and K⁺/Na⁺ ratio, while decreasing malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative electric conductivity (REC), especially under higher salinity. The genome of M30-35 contains 4421 protein encoding genes, 12 rRNA, 63 tRNA-encoding genes and four rRNA operons. M30-35 was initially classified as a new species in Pseudomonas and named as Pseudomonas sp. M30-35. Thirty-four genes showing homology to genes associated with PGPR traits and abiotic stress tolerance were identified in Pseudomonas sp. M30-35 genome, including 12 related to insoluble phosphorus solubilization, four to auxin biosynthesis, four to other process of growth promotion, seven to oxidative stress alleviation, four to salt and drought tolerance and three to cold and heat tolerance. Further study is needed to clarify the correlation between these genes from M30-35 and the salt stress alleviation of inoculated plants under salt stress. Overall, our research indicated that desert shrubs appear rich in PGPRs that can help important crops tolerate abiotic stress.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

Scharnagl K, Sanchez V, E von Wettberg (2018)

The impact of salinity on mycorrhizal colonization of a rare legume, Galactia smallii, in South Florida pine rocklands.

BMC research notes, 11(1):2 pii:10.1186/s13104-017-3105-8.

OBJECTIVES: The success of restoration plantings depends on the capacity of transplanted individuals or seeds to establish and reproduce. It is increasingly recognized that restoration success depends quite heavily upon biotic interactions and belowground processes. Under stressful abiotic conditions, such as soils salinized by storm surge and sea level rise, symbiotic interactions with soil microbes such as mycorrhizae may be critically important. In this study, we investigate the impact of salinity on percent colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, in addition to the impacts of this colonization on plant fitness under saline conditions. Fifty Galactia smallii plants from an ex situ collection were subjected to a salinity treatment for 6 weeks, and 50 plants were untreated. Plants were harvested and assessed for percent colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, nodule number, shoot and root dry biomass, and micronutrient content.

RESULTS: Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizae was higher in plants in the salinity treatment than in untreated plants; plants in the salinity treatment were also found to have a lower root:shoot ratio, and higher phosphorus and nitrogen levels. These results support the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in restoration efforts of endangered plants in fragmented and threatened ecosystems, such as pine rocklands.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

Sharanova NE, Ninnemann J, Bondareva MA, et al (2017)

[Analysis of the Specificity of IgA Antibodies Produced in the Mouse Small Intestine].

Molekuliarnaia biologiia, 51(6):938-944.

Intestinal microbiota controls multiple aspects of body homeostasis. The microbiota composition changes easily in response to internal or external factors, which may result in dysbiosis and associated inflammatory reactions. Thus, maintaining the microbiota composition by the host immune system is crucial, and one of the main mechanisms for microbiota control is production of immunoglobulin A (IgA) at mucosal surfaces. The molecular mechanisms regulating the interactions between the immune system and microbiota remain obscure. A panel of hybridoma cell lines was constructed to produce monoclonal IgA antibodies specific to various commensal bacteria present in intestinal microbiota. The panel can be used to further understand the mechanisms whereby the adaptive immune system controls the microbiota composition.

RevDate: 2018-08-07
CmpDate: 2018-08-07

Fuechtbauer W, Yunusov T, Bozsóki Z, et al (2018)

LYS12 LysM receptor decelerates Phytophthora palmivora disease progression in Lotus japonicus.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 93(2):297-310.

Phytophthora palmivora is a devastating oomycete plant pathogen. We found that P. palmivora induces disease in Lotus japonicus and used this interaction to identify cellular and molecular events in response to this oomycete, which has a broad host range. Transcript quantification revealed that Lys12 was highly and rapidly induced during P. palmivora infection. Mutants of Lys12 displayed accelerated disease progression, earlier plant death and a lower level of defence gene expression than the wild type, while the defence program after chitin, laminarin, oligogalacturonide or flg22 treatment and the root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhiza were similar to the wild type. On the microbial side, we found that P. palmivora encodes an active chitin synthase-like protein, and mycelial growth is impaired after treatment with a chitin-synthase inhibitor. However, wheat germ agglutinin-detectable N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) epitopes were not identified when the oomycete was grown in vitro or while infecting the roots. This indicates that conventional GlcNAc-mers are unlikely to be produced and/or accumulate in P. palmivora cell walls and that LYS12 might perceive an unknown carbohydrate. The impact of Lys12 on progression of root rot disease, together with the finding that similar genes are present in other P. palmivora hosts, suggests that LYS12 might mediate a common early response to this pathogen.

RevDate: 2018-08-07
CmpDate: 2018-08-07

Wang D, Gu J, David R, et al (2018)

Experimental reconstruction of double-stranded break repair-mediated plastid DNA insertion into the tobacco nucleus.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 93(2):227-234.

The mitochondria and plastids of eukaryotic cells evolved from endosymbiotic prokaryotes. DNA from the endosymbionts has bombarded nuclei since the ancestral prokaryotes were engulfed by a precursor of the nucleated eukaryotic host. An experimental confirmation regarding the molecular mechanisms responsible for organelle DNA incorporation into nuclei has not been performed until the present analysis. Here we introduced double-stranded DNA breaks into the nuclear genome of tobacco through inducible expression of I-SceI, and showed experimentally that tobacco chloroplast DNAs insert into nuclear genomes through double-stranded DNA break repair. Microhomology-mediated linking of disparate segments of chloroplast DNA occurs frequently during healing of induced nuclear double-stranded breaks (DSB) but the resulting nuclear integrants are often immediately unstable. Non-Mendelian inheritance of a selectable marker (neo), used to identify plastid DNA transfer, was observed in the progeny of about 50% of lines emerging from the screen. The instability of these de novo nuclear insertions of plastid DNA (nupts) was shown to be associated with deletion not only of the nupt itself but also of flanking nuclear DNA within one generation of transfer. This deletion of pre-existing nuclear DNA suggests that the genetic impact of organellar DNA transfer to the nucleus is potentially far greater than previously thought.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

Campbell MA, Łukasik P, Simon C, et al (2017)

Idiosyncratic Genome Degradation in a Bacterial Endosymbiont of Periodical Cicadas.

Current biology : CB, 27(22):3568-3575.e3.

When a free-living bacterium transitions to a host-beneficial endosymbiotic lifestyle, it almost invariably loses a large fraction of its genome [1, 2]. The resulting small genomes often become stable in size, structure, and coding capacity [3-5], as exemplified by Sulcia muelleri, a nutritional endosymbiont of cicadas. Sulcia's partner endosymbiont, Hodgkinia cicadicola, similarly remains co-linear in some cicadas diverged by millions of years [6, 7]. But in the long-lived periodical cicada Magicicada tredecim, the Hodgkinia genome has split into dozens of tiny, gene-sparse circles that sometimes reside in distinct Hodgkinia cells [8]. Previous data suggested that all other Magicicada species harbor complex Hodgkinia populations, but the timing, number of origins, and outcomes of the splitting process were unknown. Here, by sequencing Hodgkinia metagenomes from the remaining six Magicicada and two sister species, we show that each Magicicada species harbors Hodgkinia populations of at least 20 genomic circles. We find little synteny among the 256 Hodgkinia circles analyzed except between the most closely related cicada species. Gene phylogenies show multiple Hodgkinia lineages in the common ancestor of Magicicada and its closest known relatives but that most splitting has occurred within Magicicada and has given rise to highly variable Hodgkinia gene dosages among species. These data show that Hodgkinia genome degradation has proceeded down different paths in different Magicicada species and support a model of genomic degradation that is stochastic in outcome and nonadaptive for the host. These patterns mirror the genomic instability seen in some mitochondria.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

Fonouni-Farde C, Kisiala A, Brault M, et al (2017)

DELLA1-Mediated Gibberellin Signaling Regulates Cytokinin-Dependent Symbiotic Nodulation.

Plant physiology, 175(4):1795-1806.

In legume plants, low-nitrogen soils promote symbiotic interactions with rhizobial bacteria, leading to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Among critical signals regulating this developmental process are bacterial Nod Factors (NFs) and several plant hormones, including cytokinins (CKs) and gibberellins (GAs). Here, we show in Medicago truncatula that GA signaling mediated by DELLA1 decreases the amount of bioactive CKs in roots and negatively impacts the Cytokinin Response1 (CRE1)-dependent NF activation of a subset of CK-signaling genes as well as of the CK-regulated Nodulation Signaling Pathway2 and Ethylene Response Factor Required for Nodulation1 early nodulation genes. Consistently, a dominant-active DELLA1 protein can partially rescue the reduced nodulation of the cre1 mutant and triggers the formation of nodule-like structures when expressed in the root cortex or in the root epidermis. This suggests a model where the DELLA1-mediated GA signaling interplays with the CRE1-dependent CK pathway to regulate early nodulation in response to both NF and CK signals critical for this symbiotic interaction.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

de Bang TC, Lundquist PK, Dai X, et al (2017)

Genome-Wide Identification of Medicago Peptides Involved in Macronutrient Responses and Nodulation.

Plant physiology, 175(4):1669-1689.

Growing evidence indicates that small, secreted peptides (SSPs) play critical roles in legume growth and development, yet the annotation of SSP-coding genes is far from complete. Systematic reannotation of the Medicago truncatula genome identified 1,970 homologs of established SSP gene families and an additional 2,455 genes that are potentially novel SSPs, previously unreported in the literature. The expression patterns of known and putative SSP genes based on 144 RNA sequencing data sets covering various stages of macronutrient deficiencies and symbiotic interactions with rhizobia and mycorrhiza were investigated. Focusing on those known or suspected to act via receptor-mediated signaling, 240 nutrient-responsive and 365 nodulation-responsive Signaling-SSPs were identified, greatly expanding the number of SSP gene families potentially involved in acclimation to nutrient deficiencies and nodulation. Synthetic peptide applications were shown to alter root growth and nodulation phenotypes, revealing additional regulators of legume nutrient acquisition. Our results constitute a powerful resource enabling further investigations of specific SSP functions via peptide treatment and reverse genetics.

RevDate: 2018-08-06
CmpDate: 2018-08-06

Humanes A, Fink A, Willis BL, et al (2017)

Effects of suspended sediments and nutrient enrichment on juvenile corals.

Marine pollution bulletin, 125(1-2):166-175.

Three to six-month-old juveniles of Acropora tenuis, A. millepora and Pocillopora acuta were experimentally co-exposed to nutrient enrichment and suspended sediments (without light attenuation or sediment deposition) for 40days. Suspended sediments reduced survivorship of A. millepora strongly, proportional to the sediment concentration, but not in A. tenuis or P. acuta juveniles. However, juvenile growth of the latter two species was reduced to less than half or to zero, respectively. Additionally, suspended sediments increased effective quantum yields of symbionts associated with A. millepora and A. tenuis, but not those associated with P. acuta. Nutrient enrichment did not significantly affect juvenile survivorship, growth or photophysiology for any of the three species, either as a sole stressor or in combination with suspended sediments. Our results indicate that exposure to suspended sediments can be energetically costly for juveniles of some coral species, implying detrimental longer-term but species-specific repercussions for populations and coral cover.

RevDate: 2018-08-05

Guo Y, Matsuoka Y, Miura T, et al (2018)

Complete genome sequence of Agrobacterium pusense VsBac-Y9, a bacterial symbiont of the dark septate endophytic fungus Veronaeopsis simplex Y34 with potential for improving fungal colonization in roots.

Journal of biotechnology pii:S0168-1656(18)30585-6 [Epub ahead of print].

A Rhizobium-related bacterium (Rhizobium sp. VsBac-Y9) is a symbiont living with the dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus Veronaeopsis simplex Y34. Co-inoculation of Rhizobium sp. VsBac-Y9 with V. simplex Y34 improves the fungal colonization of tomato roots, resulting in a significant increase in aboveground biomass. This study sequenced the complete genome of this V. simplex-helper bacterium using the PacBio and Illumina MiSeq platforms. Hybrid assembly using SPAdes outputted a circular chromosome, a linear chromid, and a circular plasmid for a total genome 5,321,211 bp in size with a G + C content of 59.2%. Analysis of concatenated housekeeping genes (atpD-dnaK-groEL-lepA-recA-rpoB-thrE) and calculation of average nucleotide identity, showed that VsBac-Y9 was affiliated with the species Agrobacterium pusense (syn. Rhizobium pusense). Genome analysis revealed that A. pusense VsBac-Y9 contains a series of genes responsible for the host interactions with both fungus and plant. Such genomic information will provide new insights into developing co-inoculants of endophytic fungus and its symbiotic bacterium in future agricultural innovation.

RevDate: 2018-08-03
CmpDate: 2018-08-03

Ibort P, Molina S, Ruiz-Lozano JM, et al (2018)

Molecular Insights into the Involvement of a Never Ripe Receptor in the Interaction Between Two Beneficial Soil Bacteria and Tomato Plants Under Well-Watered and Drought Conditions.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI, 31(6):633-650.

Management of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can be implemented to deal with sustainable intensification of agriculture. Ethylene is an essential component for plant growth and development and in response to drought. However, little is known about the effects of bacterial inoculation on ethylene transduction pathway. Thus, the present study sought to establish whether ethylene perception is critical for growth induction by two different PGPB strains under drought conditions and the analysis of bacterial effects on ethylene production and gene expression in tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). The ethylene-insensitive never ripe (nr) and its isogenic wild-type (wt) cv. Pearson line were inoculated with either Bacillus megaterium or Enterobacter sp. strain C7 and grown until the attainment of maturity under both well-watered and drought conditions. Ethylene perception is crucial for B. megaterium. However, it is not of prime importance for Enterobacter sp. strain C7 PGPB activity under drought conditions. Both PGPB decreased the expression of ethylene-related genes in wt plants, resulting in stress alleviation, while only B. megaterium induced their expression in nr plants. Furthermore, PGPB inoculation affected transcriptomic profile dependency on strain, genotype, and drought. Ethylene sensitivity determines plant interaction with PGPB strains. Enterobacter sp. strain C7 could modulate amino-acid metabolism, while nr mutation causes a partially functional interaction with B. megaterium, resulting in higher oxidative stress and loss of PGPB activity.

RevDate: 2018-08-03
CmpDate: 2018-08-03

Zhang Q, Gao X, Ren Y, et al (2018)

Improvement of Verticillium Wilt Resistance by Applying Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to a Cotton Variety with High Symbiotic Efficiency under Field Conditions.

International journal of molecular sciences, 19(1): pii:ijms19010241.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in nutrient cycling processes and plant stress resistance. To evaluate the effect of Rhizophagus irregularis CD1 on plant growth promotion (PGP) and Verticillium wilt disease, the symbiotic efficiency of AMF (SEA) was first investigated over a range of 3% to 94% in 17 cotton varieties. The high-SEA subgroup had significant PGP effects in a greenhouse. From these results, the highest-SEA variety of Lumian 1 was selected for a two-year field assay. Consistent with the performance from the greenhouse, the AMF-mediated PGP of Lumian 1 also produced significant results, including an increased plant height, stem diameter, number of petioles, and phosphorus content. Compared with the mock treatment, AMF colonization obviously inhibited the symptom development of Verticillium dahliae and more strongly elevated the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and lignin synthesis-related genes. These results suggest that AMF colonization could lead to the mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) of Lumian 1 to V. dahliae. Interestingly, our results indicated that the AMF endosymbiont could directly inhibit the growth of phytopathogenic fungi including V. dahliae by releasing undefined volatiles. In summary, our results suggest that stronger effects of AMF application result from the high-SEA.

RevDate: 2018-08-02

Parniske M (2018)

Uptake of bacteria into living plant cells, the unifying and distinct feature of the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis.

Current opinion in plant biology, 44:164-174 pii:S1369-5266(17)30195-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the presence of complex microbiota on the surfaces of all plants, the uptake of bacteria into plant cells and the subsequent accommodation in a membrane-enclosed compartment is restricted to the nitrogen-fixing root nodule and the Gunnera-Nostoc symbiosis. The plant cell wall and the outward-directed turgor pressure are major constraints for bacterial uptake because localised lysis of the cell wall endangers the integrity of the protoplast. Host cell integrity is consistently maintained by turgescent neighbours, connected via apoplastic polymers that seal a bacteria-containing extracellular compartment prior to localized cell wall lysis. Its unifying and almost exclusive phylogenetic distribution pinpoints the ability to take up bacteria into living plant cells as a key step during the evolution of the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis.

RevDate: 2018-08-02

Alabid I, Glaeser SP, KH Kogel (2018)

Endofungal Bacteria Increase Fitness of their Host Fungi and Impact their Association with Crop Plants.

Current issues in molecular biology, 30:59-74 pii:v30/59 [Epub ahead of print].

Endofungal bacteria are bacterial symbionts of fungi that exist within fungal hyphae and spores. There is increasing evidence that these bacteria, alone or in combination with their fungal hosts play a critical role in tripartite symbioses with plants, where they may contribute to plant growth and disease resistance to microbial pathogens. As the frequency of bacteria in fungi is commonly very low, breakthroughs in technology such as molecular taxonomy and laser scanning microscopy were required to establish the functional contribution of these bacteria in complex symbioses. Yet, the overall biological significance of endofungal bacteria is largely unknown and further progress in understanding is hampered by a very few biological systems where endofungal bacteria have been described mechanistically. We review here the current knowledge on endobacteria (EB) and their role in different types of fungal symbioses with plants. We show that various attempts to cure fungal cells from endobacteria failed, further suggesting that they play a crucial role in the symbiosis. Moreover, isolation of some of the endobacteria from their fungal hosts allowed confirming their autonomous beneficial activity such as plant growth promotion and resistance-inducing activity. The review addresses the potential agricultural significance of endofungal bacteria and their role in supporting sustainable agriculture by promoting plant growth, improving plant resistance, and decreasing yield loss caused by many microbial pathogens.

RevDate: 2018-08-02

Gueddou A, Swanson E, Hezbri K, et al (2018)

Draft genome sequence of the symbiotic Frankia sp. strain BMG5.30 isolated from root nodules of Coriaria myrtifolia in Tunisia.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pii:10.1007/s10482-018-1138-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Frankia sp. strain BMG5.30 was isolated from root nodules of a Coriaria myrtifolia seedling on soil collected in Tunisia and represents the second cluster 2 isolate. Frankia sp. strain BMG5.30 was able to re-infect C. myrtifolia generating root nodules. Here, we report its 5.8-Mbp draft genome sequence with a G + C content of 70.03% and 4509 candidate protein-encoding genes.

RevDate: 2018-08-02
CmpDate: 2018-08-02

Wang Y, Wang M, Li Y, et al (2018)

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and nitrogen uptake of Chrysanthemum morifolium under salt stress.

PloS one, 13(4):e0196408 pii:PONE-D-17-41598.

Soil salinity is a common and serious environmental problem worldwide. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are considered as bio-ameliorators of soil salinity tolerance in plants. However, few studies have addressed the possible benefits of AMF inoculation for medicinal plants under saline conditions. In this study, we examined the effects of colonization with two AMF, Funneliformis mosseae and Diversispora versiformis, alone and in combination, on the growth and nutrient uptake of the medicinal plant Chrysanthemum morifolium (Hangbaiju) in a greenhouse salt stress experiment. After 6 weeks of a non-saline pretreatment, Hangbaiju plants with and without AMF were grown for five months under salinity levels that were achieved using 0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl. Root length, shoot and root dry weight, total dry weight, and root N concentration were higher in the mycorrhizal plants than in the non-mycorrhizal plants under conditions of moderate salinity, especially with D. versiformis colonization. As salinity increased, mycorrhizal colonization and mycorrhizal dependence decreased. The enhancement of root N uptake is probably the main mechanism underlying salt tolerance in mycorrhizal plants. These results suggest that the symbiotic associations between the fungus D. versiformis and C. morifolium plants may be useful in biotechnological practice.

RevDate: 2018-08-02
CmpDate: 2018-08-02

Burghardt LT, Epstein B, Guhlin J, et al (2018)

Select and resequence reveals relative fitness of bacteria in symbiotic and free-living environments.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(10):2425-2430.

Assays to accurately estimate relative fitness of bacteria growing in multistrain communities can advance our understanding of how selection shapes diversity within a lineage. Here, we present a variant of the "evolve and resequence" approach both to estimate relative fitness and to identify genetic variants responsible for fitness variation of symbiotic bacteria in free-living and host environments. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by characterizing selection by two plant hosts and in two free-living environments (sterilized soil and liquid media) acting on synthetic communities of the facultatively symbiotic bacterium Ensifer meliloti We find (i) selection that hosts exert on rhizobial communities depends on competition among strains, (ii) selection is stronger inside hosts than in either free-living environment, and (iii) a positive host-dependent relationship between relative strain fitness in multistrain communities and host benefits provided by strains in single-strain experiments. The greatest changes in allele frequencies in response to plant hosts are in genes associated with motility, regulation of nitrogen fixation, and host/rhizobia signaling. The approach we present provides a powerful complement to experimental evolution and forward genetic screens for characterizing selection in bacterial populations, identifying gene function, and surveying the functional importance of naturally occurring genomic variation.

RevDate: 2018-08-02
CmpDate: 2018-08-02

Zhang Y, Su X, Harris AJ, et al (2018)

Genetic Structure of the Bacterial Endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola from Its Host Aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis and Evolutionary Implications.

Current microbiology, 75(3):309-315.

Buchnera aphidicola is a primary symbiotic bacterium which provides essential amino acids to aphids. In this study, we sequenced nuclear 16s rDNA and atpAGD genes for 156 individuals of B. aphidicola from eight geographically distant populations to investigate the genetic diversity and structure of B. aphidicola associated to the sumac gall aphid Schlechtendalia chinensis in central and southern China. Our analyses of the combined sequences showed that B. aphidicola from S. chinensis had high haplotype and nucleotide diversity (h = 0.893; π = 0.00164). One of the 16 haplotypes detected had a wide geographic distribution across the central and southern China and was probably the ancestral haplotype of B. aphidicola from S. chinensis. A network and phylogenetic analysis revealed a geographic structure in which the 16 haplotypes of B. aphidicola were divided into the northern and southern clades separated by the Yangtze River. The two clades diverged from each other at 22.1 ± 3.7 Mya according to our divergence time estimations. Therefore, the modern genetic structure in B. aphidicola from S. chinensis has been probably impacted by historical geological events. Combined with the data from GenBank, we also reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships of three aphid subfamilies and their symbiont bacteria. The results indicated significant topological correlations between the aphid and bacterial phylogenies at interspecific levels.

RevDate: 2018-08-02
CmpDate: 2018-08-02

Turetschek R, Desalegn G, Epple T, et al (2017)

Key metabolic traits of Pisum sativum maintain cell vitality during Didymella pinodes infection: cultivar resistance and the microsymbionts' influence.

Journal of proteomics, 169:189-201.

Ascochyta blight causes severe losses in field pea production and the search for resistance traits towards the causal agent Didymella pinodes is of particular importance for farmers. Various microsymbionts have been reported to shape the plants' immune response. However, regardless their contribution to resistance, they are hardly included in experimental designs. We delineate the effect of symbionts (rhizobia, mycorrhiza) on the leaf proteome and metabolome of two field pea cultivars with varying resistance levels against D. pinodes and, furthermore, show cultivar specific symbiont colonisation efficiency. The pathogen infection showed a stronger influence on the interaction with the microsymbionts in the susceptible cultivar, which was reflected in decreased nodule weight and root mycorrhiza colonisation. Vice versa, symbionts induced variation of the host's infection response which, however, was overruled by genotypic resistance associated traits of the tolerant cultivar such as maintenance of photosynthesis and provision of sugars and carbon back bones to fuel secondary metabolism. Moreover, resistance appears to be linked to sulphur metabolism, a functional glutathione-ascorbate hub and fine adjustment of jasmonate and ethylene synthesis to suppress induced cell death. We conclude that these metabolic traits are essential for sustainment of cell vitality and thus, a more efficient infection response.

SIGNIFICANCE: The infection response of two Pisum sativum cultivars with varying resistance levels towards Didymella pinodes was analysed most comprehensively at proteomic and metabolomic levels. Enhanced tolerance was linked to newly discovered cultivar specific metabolic traits such as hormone synthesis and presumably suppression of cell death.

RevDate: 2018-08-02
CmpDate: 2018-08-02

Zhang G, Liu SS, Yang XJ, et al (2016)

[Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel DoSWEET1 gene from Dendrobium officinale].

Yao xue xue bao = Acta pharmaceutica Sinica, 51(6):991-997.

SWEET (sugars will be eventually exported transporters) constitute a large and conserved gene family of sugar transporters in eukaryotes, which are important in the cellular metabolisms, growth and development, and plant-microbe interaction in plants. In the present study, a full length cDNA of SWEET encoding gene, designed as DoSWEET1 (GenBank accession No. KT957550), was identified in Dendrobium officinale using RT-PCR and RACE approaches. DoSWEET1 was 1 150 bp in length and encoded a 262-aa protein with a molecular weight of 29.18 kD and an isoelectric point of 9.49. The deduced DoSWEET1 protein contained seven transmembrane regions and two conserved MtN3-slv domains (11-94, 130-212). Multiple sequence alignment revealed that DoSWEET1 had high identities 45%-54.6%) with SWEET proteins from various plants. A neighbor joining phylogenetic analysis suggests that DoSWEET1 belonged to the class Ⅱ subgroup of the SWEET evolutionary tree, and was closely related to rice OsSWEET13, OsSWEET14, and OsSWEET15. qPCR analysis demonstrated that DoSWEET1 gene was differentially expressed in the three included organs of D. officinale, and the expression was most abundant in the roots at 9.88 fold over that of the stems, followed by that of the leaves with 2.85 fold higher. In the 3rd symbiotic germinating seeds infected by Tulasnella sp., the transcipts were dramatically induced by 1 359.06 fold over that in the ungerniamted control seeds, suggesting a vital role of the gene in the D. officinale symbiotic germination process. Molecular cloning and characterization of the novel DoSWEET1 gene provides a foundation for the functional study of the gene in sugar translocation during the D. officinale symbiotic germination process.

RevDate: 2018-08-02
CmpDate: 2018-08-02

Sauve AMC, Thébault E, Pocock MJO, et al (2016)

How plants connect pollination and herbivory networks and their contribution to community stability.

Ecology, 97(4):908-917.

Pollination and herbivory networks have mainly been studied separately, highlighting their distinct structural characteristics and the related processes and dynamics. However, most plants interact with both pollinators and herbivores, and there is evidence that both types of interaction affect each other. Here we investigated the way plants connect these mutualistic and antagonistic networks together, and the consequences for community stability. Using an empirical data set, we show that the way plants connect pollination and herbivory networks is not random and promotes community stability. Analyses of the structure of binary and quantitative networks show different results: the plants' generalism with regard to pollinators is positively correlated to their generalism with regard to herbivores when considering binary interactions, but not when considering quantitative interactions. We also show that plants that share the same pollinators do not share the same herbivores. However, the way plants connect pollination and herbivory networks promotes stability for both binary and quantitative networks. Our results highlight the relevance of considering the diversity of interaction types in ecological communities, and stress the need to better quantify the costs and benefits of interactions, as well as to develop new metrics characterizing the way different interaction types are combined within ecological networks.

RevDate: 2018-08-01

Singh P, Patil Y, V Rale (2018)

Biosurfactant Production: Emerging Trends and Promising Strategies.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Biosurfactants are economically most sought after biotechnological compounds of the 21st century. However, inefficient bioprocessing has mitigated the economical commercial production of these compounds. Although much work is being done on the use of low-cost substrates for their production, a paucity of literature exists on the upcoming bioprocess optimization strategies and their successes and potential for economical biosurfactant production. This review discusses some of the latest developments and most promising strategies to enhance and economize the biosurfactant production process. Recent market analysis, developments in the field of optimally formulated cost credit substrates for enhanced product formation and subsequent process economization are few of the critical aspects highlighted here. Use of nanoparticles and co-production of biosurfactant along with other commercially important compounds like enzymes, are other upcoming bioprocess intensification strategies. The recent developments discussed here would not only give an overview of pertinent parameters for economic biosurfactant production but would also bring to fore multiple strategies that would open up new avenues of research on biosurfactant production. This would go a long way in making biosurfactant a commercially successful compound of the current century. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2018-08-01

Stencel A, DM Wloch-Salamon (2018)

Some theoretical insights into the hologenome theory of evolution and the role of microbes in speciation.

Theory in biosciences = Theorie in den Biowissenschaften pii:10.1007/s12064-018-0268-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Research on symbiotic communities (microbiomes) of multicellular organisms seems to be changing our understanding of how species of plants and animals have evolved over millions of years. The quintessence of these discoveries is the emergence of the hologenome theory of evolution, founded on the concept that a holobiont (a host along with all of its associated symbiotic microorganisms) acts a single unit of selection in the process of evolution. Although the hologenome theory has become very popular among certain scientific circles, its principles are still being debated. In this paper, we argue, firstly, that only a very small number of symbiotic microorganisms are sufficiently integrated into multicellular organisms to act in concert with them as units of selection, thus rendering claims that holobionts are units of selection invalid. Secondly, even though holobionts are not units of selection, they can still constitute genuine units from an evolutionary perspective, provided we accept certain constraints: mainly, they should be considered units of co-operation. Thirdly, we propose a reconciliation of the role of symbiotic microorganisms with the theory of speciation through the use of a developed framework. Mainly, we will argue that, in order to understand the role of microorganisms in the speciation of multicellular organisms, it is not necessary to consider holobionts units of selection; it is sufficient to consider them units of co-operation.

RevDate: 2018-08-01

Kereszt A, Mergaert P, Montiel J, et al (2018)

Impact of Plant Peptides on Symbiotic Nodule Development and Functioning.

Frontiers in plant science, 9:1026.

Ribosomally synthesized peptides have wide ranges of functions in plants being, for example, signal molecules, transporters, alkaloids, or antimicrobial agents. Legumes are an unprecedented rich source of peptides, which are used to control the symbiosis of these plants with the nitrogen-fixing Rhizobium bacteria. Here, we discuss the function and the evolution of these peptides playing an important role in the formation or functioning of the symbiotic organs, the root nodules. We distinguish peptides that can be either cell-autonomous or secreted short-range or long-range signals, carrying messages in or between plant cells or that can act as effectors interacting with the symbiotic bacteria. Peptides are further classified according to the stage of the symbiotic process where they act. Several peptide classes, including RALF, DLV, ENOD40, and others, control Rhizobium infection and the initiation of cell divisions and the formation of nodule primordia. CLE and CEP peptides are implicated in systemic and local control of nodule initiation during autoregulation of nodulation and in response to the nutritional demands of the plant. Still other peptides act at later stages of the symbiosis. The PSK peptide is thought to be involved in the suppression of immunity in nodules and the nodule-specific cysteine-rich, GRP, and SNARP (LEED..PEED) peptide families are essential in the functioning of the nitrogen fixing root nodules. The NCRs and possibly also the GRP and SNARPs are targeted to the endosymbionts and play essential roles in the terminal differentiation of these bacteria.

RevDate: 2018-08-01

Armstrong EJ, Roa JN, Stillman JH, et al (2018)

Symbiont photosynthesis in giant clams is promoted by V-type H+-ATPase from host cells.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:jeb.177220 [Epub ahead of print].

Giant clams (genus Tridacna) are the largest living bivalves and, like reef-building corals, host symbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium) that significantly contribute to their energy budget. In turn, Symbiodinium rely on the host to supply inorganic carbon (Ci) for photosynthesis. In corals, host "proton pump" vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (VHA) is part of a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) that promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis. Here, we report that VHA in the small giant clam (Tridacna maxima) similarly promotes Symbiodinium photosynthesis. VHA was abundantly expressed in the apical membrane of epithelial cells of T. maxima's siphonal mantle tubule system which harbors Symbiodinium Furthermore, application of the highly specific pharmacological VHA inhibitors bafilomycin A1 and concanamycin A significantly reduced photosynthetic O2 production by ∼40%. Together with our observation that exposure to light increased holobiont aerobic metabolism ∼five-fold, and earlier estimates that translocated fixed carbon exceeds metabolic demand, we conclude that VHA activity in the siphonal mantle confers strong energetic benefits to the host clam through increased supply of Ci to algal symbionts and subsequent photosynthetic activity. The convergent role of VHA in promoting Symbiodinium photosynthesis in the giant clam siphonal mantle tubule system and coral symbiosome suggests VHA-driven CCM is a common exaptation in marine photosymbioses that deserves further investigation in other taxa.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

León-Palmero E, Joglar V, Álvarez PA, et al (2018)

Diversity and antimicrobial potential in sea anemone and holothurian microbiomes.

PloS one, 13(5):e0196178 pii:PONE-D-17-34144.

Marine invertebrates, as holobionts, contain symbiotic bacteria that coevolve and develop antimicrobial substances. These symbiotic bacteria are an underexplored source of new bioactive molecules to face the emerging antibiotic resistance in pathogens. Here, we explored the antimicrobial activity of bacteria retrieved from the microbiota of two sea anemones (Anemonia sulcata, Actinia equina) and two holothurians (Holothuria tubulosa, Holothuria forskali). We tested the antimicrobial activity of the isolated bacteria against pathogens with interest for human health, agriculture and aquaculture. We isolated 27 strains with antibacterial activity and 12 of these isolates also showed antifungal activity. We taxonomically identified these strains being Bacillus and Vibrio species the most representative producers of antimicrobial substances. Microbiome species composition of the two sea anemones was similar between them but differed substantially of seawater bacteria. In contrast, microbiome species composition of the two holothurian species was different between them and in comparison with the bacteria in holothurian feces and seawater. In all the holobiont microbiomes Bacteroidetes was the predominant phylum. For each microbiome, we determined diversity and the rank-abundance dominance using five fitted models (null, pre-emption, log-Normal, Zipf and Zipf-Mandelbrot). The models with less evenness (i.e. Zipf and Zipf-Mandelblot) showed the best fits in all the microbiomes. Finally, we tracked (using the V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene) the relative abundance of these 27 isolates with antibacterial activity in the total pool of sequences obtained for the microbiome of each holobiont. Coincidences, although with extremely low frequencies, were detected only in the microbiome of H. forskali. This fact suggests that these isolated bacteria belong to the long tail of rare symbiotic bacteria. Therefore, more and more sophisticated culture techniques are necessary to explore this apparently vast pool of rare symbiontic bacteria and to determine their biotechnological potentiality.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

Freire CG, Giachini AJ, Gardin JPP, et al (2018)

First record of in vitro formation of ectomycorrhizae in Psidium cattleianum Sabine, a native Myrtaceae of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

PloS one, 13(5):e0196984 pii:PONE-D-17-31519.

Like many other species of trees native to the Brazilian Mata Atlântica (Atlantic Forest), the Myrtaceae, such as the Red Araza (Psidium cattleianum Sabine), are widely cited as arbuscular mycorrhizal formers. Nevertheless, recent studies show evidence that Myrtaceae from different tropical, subtropical and neotropical ecosystems can also prompt the formation of ectomycorrhizae, indicating that this species' ectomycorrhizal status should be further explored. Because of this, this research effort studied the in vitro interaction between the Red Araza and two ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates, belonging to the Pisolithus microcarpus (D17) and Scleroderma citrinum (UFSC-Sc133) species. An analysis was performed to determine the formation of ectomycorrhizal structures, or lack thereof, and the developmental differences between the in vitro mycorrhized and non-mycorrhized plants. The analysis proved that indeed an ectomycorrhizal association was developed between the Red Araza, and the D17 and UFSC-Sc133 isolates, a fact never before registered in the existing literature. After an in vitro period of 110 days, it was confirmed that the D17 and UFSC-Sc133 isolates formed mycorrhizal colonization of 91.6% and 15.7%, respectively. Furthermore, both isolates also promoted root thickening, and the formation of a fungal mantle and a Hartig net. However, when compared to the Control plants, the fungal isolates did not contribute to an increase in the development of the subject plants, possibly due to the specific experimental conditions used, such as a high humidity environment and high availability of nutrients in the symbiotic substrate.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

Zachar I, Szilágyi A, Számadó S, et al (2018)

Farming the mitochondrial ancestor as a model of endosymbiotic establishment by natural selection.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115(7):E1504-E1510.

The origin of mitochondria was a major evolutionary transition leading to eukaryotes, and is a hotly debated issue. It is unknown whether mitochondria were acquired early or late, and whether it was captured via phagocytosis or syntrophic integration. We present dynamical models to directly simulate the emergence of mitochondria in an ecoevolutionary context. Our results show that regulated farming of prey bacteria and delayed digestion can facilitate the establishment of stable endosymbiosis if prey-rich and prey-poor periods alternate. Stable endosymbiosis emerges without assuming any initial metabolic benefit provided by the engulfed partner, in a wide range of parameters, despite that during good periods farming is costly. Our approach lends support to the appearance of mitochondria before any metabolic coupling has emerged, but after the evolution of primitive phagocytosis by the urkaryote.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

Stringlis IA, Proietti S, Hickman R, et al (2018)

Root transcriptional dynamics induced by beneficial rhizobacteria and microbial immune elicitors reveal signatures of adaptation to mutualists.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology, 93(1):166-180.

Below ground, microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of root-associated microbiota can trigger costly defenses at the expense of plant growth. However, beneficial rhizobacteria, such as Pseudomonas simiae WCS417, promote plant growth and induce systemic resistance without being warded off by local root immune responses. To investigate early root responses that facilitate WCS417 to exert its plant-beneficial functions, we performed time series RNA-Seq of Arabidopsis roots in response to live WCS417 and compared it with MAMPs flg22417 (from WCS417), flg22Pa (from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and fungal chitin. The MAMP transcriptional responses differed in timing, but displayed a large overlap in gene identity. MAMP-upregulated genes are enriched for genes with functions in immunity, while downregulated genes are enriched for genes related to growth and development. Although 74% of the transcriptional changes inflicted by live WCS417 overlapped with the flg22417 profile, WCS417 actively suppressed more than half of the MAMP-triggered transcriptional responses, possibly to allow the establishment of a mutually beneficial interaction with the host root. Interestingly, the sector of the flg22417 -repressed transcriptional network that is not affected by WCS417 has a strong auxin signature. Using auxin response mutant tir1afb2afb3, we demonstrate a dual role for auxin signaling in finely balancing growth-promoting and defense-eliciting activities of beneficial microbes in plant roots.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

Chi S, Liu T, Wang X, et al (2018)

Functional genomics analysis reveals the biosynthesis pathways of important cellular components (alginate and fucoidan) of Saccharina.

Current genetics, 64(1):259-273.

Although alginate and fucoidan are unique cellular components and have important biological significance in brown algae, and many possible involved genes are present in brown algal genomes, their functions and regulatory mechanisms have not been fully revealed. Both polysaccharides may play important roles in the evolution of multicellular brown algae, but specific and in-depth studies are still limited. In this study, a functional genomics analysis of alginate and fucoidan biosynthesis routes was conducted in Saccharina, and the key events in these pathways in brown algae were identified. First, genes from different sources, including eukaryotic hosts via endosymbiotic gene transfer and bacteria via horizontal gene transfer, were combined to build a complete pathway framework. Then, a critical event occurred to drive these pathways to have real function: one of the mannose-6-phosphate isomerase homologs that arose by gene duplication subsequently adopted the function of the mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase (MGP) gene, which was absent in algal genomes. Further, downstream pathway genes proceeded with gene expansions and complex transcriptional mechanisms, which may be conducive to the synthesis of alginate and fucoidan with diverse structures and contents depending on the developmental stage, tissue structure, and environmental conditions. This study revealed the alginate and fucoidan synthesis pathways and all included genes from separate phylogenetic sources in brown algae. Enzyme assays confirmed the function of key genes and led to the determination of a substitute for the missing MPG. All gene families had constitutively expressed member(s) to maintain the basic synthesis; and the gene function differentiation, enzyme characterization and gene expression regulation differences separated brown algae from other algae lineages and were considered to be the major driving forces for sophisticated system evolution of brown algae.

RevDate: 2018-08-01
CmpDate: 2018-08-01

Davidson SK (2017)

The squid insurance plan: female Euprymna scolopes add potentially protective bacteria to the egg coats of their clutches.

Environmental microbiology, 19(6):2112-2114.

RevDate: 2018-07-30

Normand P, Nouioui I, Pujic P, et al (2018)

Frankia canadensis sp. nov., isolated from root nodules of Alnus incana subspecies rugosa.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Strain ARgP5T, an actinobacterium isolated from a root nodule present on an Alnus incana subspecies rugosa shrub growing in Quebec City, Canada, was the subject of polyphasic taxonomic studies to clarify its status within the genus Frankia. 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and ANI values between ARgP5T and type strains of species of the genus Frankiawith validly published names were 98.8 and 82 % or less, respectively. The in silico DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. ARgP5T is characterised by the presence of meso-A2pm, galactose, glucose, mannose, rhamnose (trace), ribose and xylose as whole-organism hydrolysates; MK-9(H8) as predominant menaquinone; diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylglycerol as polar lipids and iso-C16 : 0 and C17 : 1ω8c as major fatty acids. The proteomic results confirmed the distinct position of ARgP5T from its closest neighbours in Frankiacluster 1. ARgP5T was found to be infective on two alder (Alnus glutinosa and Alnusalnobetula subsp. crispa) and on one bayberry (Morella pensylvanica) species and to fix nitrogen in symbiosis and in pure culture. On the basis of phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene sequence), genomic, proteomic and phenotypic results, strain ARgP5T (=DSM 45898=CECT 9033) is considered to represent a novel species within the genus Frankia for which the name Frankia canadensis sp. nov., is proposed.

RevDate: 2018-07-30

Berg M, B Koskella (2018)

Nutrient- and Dose-Dependent Microbiome-Mediated Protection against a Plant Pathogen.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(18)30753-X [Epub ahead of print].

Plant-associated microbial communities can promote plant nutrient uptake, growth, and resistance to pathogens [1-3]. Host resistance to infection can increase directly through commensal-pathogen interactions or indirectly through modulation of host defenses [4-6], the mechanisms of which are best described for rhizosphere-associated bacteria. For example, Arabidopsis plants infected with the foliar pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst), increase their root secretion of malate, which attracts Bacillus subtillis to the roots and leads to a stronger host response against Pst [7]. Although there are numerous examples of individual defensive symbionts (e.g., [8]), it is less clear whether this type of protection is an emergent property of whole microbial communities. In particular, relatively little is known about whether and how the presence of phyllosphere (above-ground) microbial communities can increase host resistance against pathogens. In this study, we examined the ability of augmented tomato phyllosphere microbiomes to confer resistance against the causal agent of bacterial speck, Pst. Across five independent experiments, the augmented phyllosphere microbiome was found to decrease pathogen colonization. Furthermore, the dose of commensal bacteria applied affected the degree of protection conferred, and although the effect is dependent on microbial composition, it is not clearly related to overall bacterial diversity. Finally, our results suggest that resources available to the phyllosphere microbial community may play an important role in protection, as the addition of fertilizer abolished the observed microbiome-mediated protection. Together, these results have clear relevance to microbiome-mediated protection within agricultural settings and the use of plant probiotics to increase disease resistance.

RevDate: 2018-07-30
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Alex A, A Antunes (2018)

Genus-wide comparison of Pseudovibrio bacterial genomes reveal diverse adaptations to different marine invertebrate hosts.

PloS one, 13(5):e0194368 pii:PONE-D-17-40060.

Bacteria belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been frequently found in association with a wide variety of marine eukaryotic invertebrate hosts, indicative of their versatile and symbiotic lifestyle. A recent comparison of the sponge-associated Pseudovibrio genomes has shed light on the mechanisms influencing a successful symbiotic association with sponges. In contrast, the genomic architecture of Pseudovibrio bacteria associated with other marine hosts has received less attention. Here, we performed genus-wide comparative analyses of 18 Pseudovibrio isolated from sponges, coral, tunicates, flatworm, and seawater. The analyses revealed a certain degree of commonality among the majority of sponge- and coral-associated bacteria. Isolates from other marine invertebrate host, tunicates, exhibited a genetic repertoire for cold adaptation and specific metabolic abilities including mucin degradation in the Antarctic tunicate-associated bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. Tun.PHSC04_5.I4. Reductive genome evolution was simultaneously detected in the flatworm-associated bacteria and the sponge-associated bacterium P. axinellae AD2, through the loss of major secretion systems (type III/VI) and virulence/symbioses factors such as proteins involved in adhesion and attachment to the host. Our study also unraveled the presence of a CRISPR-Cas system in P. stylochi UST20140214-052 a flatworm-associated bacterium possibly suggesting the role of CRISPR-based adaptive immune system against the invading virus particles. Detection of mobile elements and genomic islands (GIs) in all bacterial members highlighted the role of horizontal gene transfer for the acquisition of novel genetic features, likely enhancing the bacterial ecological fitness. These findings are insightful to understand the role of genome diversity in Pseudovibrio as an evolutionary strategy to increase their colonizing success across a wide range of marine eukaryotic hosts.

RevDate: 2018-07-31
CmpDate: 2018-07-31

Abreu MS, Messias JPM, Giacomini ACVV, et al (2018)

Estradiol shapes mutualistic behaviour of female cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus - Valenciennes, 1839): Potential implications of environmental disturbance.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 157:244-248.

The presence of endocrine-derived compounds in the environment occurs due to a myriad of human or industrial activity and can disrupt the endocrine system of animals, including fish. One important group of endocrine disruptors are the estrogens, such as 17-β estradiol (E2, estradiol). Estrogens are gonadal steroid hormones, able to be influential even in small concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that E2 is linked to female' decisions made by an important coral reef species, the cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus, during interactions with other reef fishes (known as clients). E2 treatment in natural conditions interfered directly in the cooperative relationships, by increasing cleaners' willingness to interact with clients, providing greater amounts of physical contact to their fish partners. We discuss the meaning of the observed behavioural disruption produced by E2, which by affecting a key species (cleaners) may produce a cascade impact in the aquatic ecosystem.

RevDate: 2018-07-30
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Corbara B, Servigne P, Dejean A, et al (2018)

A mimetic nesting association between a timid social wasp and an aggressive arboreal ant.

Comptes rendus biologies, 341(3):182-188.

In French Guiana, the arboreal nests of the swarm-founding social wasp Protopolybia emortualis (Polistinae) are generally found near those of the arboreal dolichoderine ant Dolichoderus bidens. These wasp nests are typically protected by an envelope, which in turn is covered by an additional carton 'shelter' with structure resembling the D. bidens nests. A few wasps constantly guard their nest to keep D. bidens workers from approaching. When alarmed by a strong disturbance, the ants invade the host tree foliage whereas the wasps retreat into their nest. Notably, there is no chemical convergence in the cuticular profiles of the wasps and ants sharing a tree. The aggressiveness of D. bidens likely protects the wasps from army ant raids, but the ants do not benefit from the presence of the wasps; therefore, this relationship corresponds to a kind of commensalism.

RevDate: 2018-07-31
CmpDate: 2018-07-31

Pagès N, Muñoz-Muñoz F, Verdún M, et al (2017)

First detection of Wolbachia-infected Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Europe: Wolbachia and Cardinium infection across Culicoides communities revealed in Spain.

Parasites & vectors, 10(1):582 pii:10.1186/s13071-017-2486-9.

BACKGROUND: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) transmit pathogens that cause important diseases. No effective technique has been found to properly control either Culicoides spp. abundance or their likelihood to transmit pathogens. Endosymbionts, particularly Wolbachia, represent powerful alternatives to control arthropods of health interest. In arthropods, Wolbachia can reduce vector fitness and vector's pathogen transmission capacity, thus being a potential target for population reduction and replacement strategies.

RESULTS: The presence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts was screened in Spanish Culicoides spp. populations at livestock premises and natural habitats. The first detection of Wolbachia-infected Culicoides spp. in Europe is reported. The putative Palaearctic vectors for bluetongue and Schmallenberg diseases, C. imicola, C. obsoletus (s.s.) and C. pulicaris (s.l.), were infected with Wolbachia. Four genetic clusters of closely-related Wolbachia strains from A and B supergroups were detected infecting Culicoides. Cardinium strain of the C-group was detected in C. obsoletus (s.l.). Both endosymbionts, Wolbachia and Cardinium, were detected in Culicoides species of minor epidemiological relevance as well. Higher prevalence of Wolbachia infection was detected in natural habitats, while livestock premises lead to higher prevalence of Cardinium. Significant differences in the prevalence of Wolbachia, but not Cardinium, were also detected between some Culicoides species and between locations.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Wolbachia and Cardinium endosymbionts in Culicoides is expected to trigger new research towards the control of Culicoides-transmitted diseases. The results of the present study could have an impact beyond the Culicoides arena because successful Wolbachia transfection is possible even across genus and species barriers.

RevDate: 2018-07-30
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Wang Y, H Wu (2017)

Transition of interaction outcomes in a facilitation-competition system of two species.

Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE, 14(5-6):1463-1475.

A facilitation-competition system of two species is considered, where one species has a facilitation effect on the other but there is spatial competition between them. Our aim is to show mechanism by which the facilitation promotes coexistence of the species. A lattice gas model describing the facilitation-competition system is analyzed, in which nonexistence of periodic solution is shown and previous results are extended. Global dynamics of the model demonstrate essential features of the facilitation-competition system. When a species cannot survive alone, a strong facilitation from the other would lead to its survival. However, if the facilitation is extremely strong, both species go extinct. When a species can survive alone and its mortality rate is not larger than that of the other species, it would drive the other one into extinction. When a species can survive alone and its mortality rate is larger than that of the other species, it would be driven into extinction if the facilitation from the other is weak, while it would coexist with the other if the facilitation is strong. Moreover, an extremely strong facilitation from the other would lead to extinction of species. Bifurcation diagram of the system exhibits that interaction outcome between the species can transition between competition, amensalism, neutralism and parasitism in a smooth fashion. A novel result of this paper is the rigorous and thorough analysis, which displays transparency of dynamics in the system. Numerical simulations validate the results.

RevDate: 2018-07-31
CmpDate: 2018-07-31

Jiménez-Zurdo JI, M Robledo (2017)

RNA silencing in plant symbiotic bacteria: Insights from a protein-centric view.

RNA biology, 14(12):1672-1677.

Extensive work in model enterobacteria has evidenced that the RNA chaperone Hfq and several endoribonucleases, such as RNase E or RNase III, serve pivotal roles in small RNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing of gene expression. Characterization of these protein hubs commonly provide global functional and mechanistic insights into complex sRNA regulatory networks. The legume endosymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti is a non-classical model bacterium with a very complex lifestyle in which riboregulation is expected to play important adaptive functions. Here, we discuss current knowledge about RNA silencing in S. meliloti from the perspective of the activity of Hfq and a recently discovered endoribonuclease (YbeY) exhibiting unprecedented catalytic versatility for the cleavage of single- and double-stranded RNA molecules.

RevDate: 2018-07-30
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

Szklarzewicz T, Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk M, Michalik K, et al (2018)

Symbiotic microorganisms in Puto superbus (Leonardi, 1907) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Putoidae).

Protoplasma, 255(1):129-138.

The scale insect Puto superbus (Putoidae) lives in mutualistic symbiotic association with bacteria. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed that symbionts of P. superbus belong to the gammaproteobacterial genus Sodalis. In the adult females, symbionts occur both in the bacteriocytes constituting compact bacteriomes and in individual bacteriocytes, which are dispersed among ovarioles. The bacteriocytes also house a few small, rod-shaped Wolbachia bacteria in addition to the numerous large, elongated Sodalis-allied bacteria. The symbiotic microorganisms are transovarially transmitted from generation to generation. In adult females which have choriogenic oocytes in the ovarioles, the bacteriocytes gather around the basal part of the tropharium. Next, the entire bacteriocytes pass through the follicular epithelium surrounding the neck region of the ovariole and enter the space between oocyte and follicular epithelium (perivitelline space). In the perivitelline space, the bacteriocytes assemble extracellularly in the deep depression of the oolemma at the anterior pole of the oocyte, forming a "symbiont ball".

RevDate: 2018-07-30
CmpDate: 2018-07-30

White PS, Morran L, J de Roode (2017)

Phoresy.

Current biology : CB, 27(12):R578-R580.

White et al. introduce the phenomenon of phoresy - animals hitching a ride on other animals.

RevDate: 2018-07-31
CmpDate: 2018-07-31

Obadia B, Güvener ZT, Zhang V, et al (2017)

Probabilistic Invasion Underlies Natural Gut Microbiome Stability.

Current biology : CB, 27(13):1999-2006.e8.

Species compositions of gut microbiomes impact host health [1-3], but the processes determining these compositions are largely unknown. An unexplained observation is that gut species composition varies widely between individuals but is largely stable over time within individuals [4, 5]. Stochastic factors during establishment may drive these alternative stable states (colonized versus non-colonized) [6, 7], which can influence susceptibility to pathogens, such as Clostridium difficile. Here we sought to quantify and model the dose response, dynamics, and stability of bacterial colonization in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) gut. Our precise, high-throughput technique revealed stable between-host variation in colonization when individual germ-free flies were fed their own natural commensals (including the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum). Some flies were colonized while others remained germ-free even at extremely high bacterial doses. Thus, alternative stable states of colonization exist even in this low-complexity model of host-microbe interactions. These alternative states are driven by a fundamental asymmetry between the inoculum population and the stably colonized population that is mediated by spatial localization and a population bottleneck, which makes stochastic effects important by lowering the effective population size. Prior colonization with other bacteria reduced the chances of subsequent colonization, thus increasing the stability of higher-diversity guts. Therefore, stable gut diversity may be driven by inherently stochastic processes, which has important implications for combatting infectious diseases and for stably establishing probiotics in the gut.

RevDate: 2018-07-28

Cheng C, Wickham JD, Chen L, et al (2018)

Bacterial microbiota protect an invasive bark beetle from a pine defensive compound.

Microbiome, 6(1):132 pii:10.1186/s40168-018-0518-0.

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that some devastating biotic invasions are facilitated by microbial symbionts. The red turpentine beetle (RTB), an innocuous secondary insect attacking weakened trees in North America, has formed an invasive complex with the fungus Leptographium procerum in China, and this invasive beetle-fungus symbiotic complex is capable of attacking and killing healthy pines. A previous study demonstrated that three Chinese-resident fungi, newly acquired by RTB in China, induce high levels of a phenolic defensive chemical, naringenin, in pines and this invasive beetle-fungus complex is suppressed by elevated levels of naringenin while the beetle uses its gallery as an external detoxification system in which particular yeast-like fungi and bacterial species biodegrade naringenin. However, the functional roles of key microbial players in the symbiosis, contained within the microbiome of the bark beetle gallery, have not been well elucidated.

RESULTS: In this report, the symbiotic naringenin-degrading microbiota were found to increase RTB survivorship in the presence of induced host defenses, and potential genes associated with degradation pathways were discovered. While fungi in the gallery microbiota had little involvement in naringenin degradation, bacterial community structure within the beetle gallery was highly correlated to naringenin degrading activity. Phylotypes of the Gram-negative bacterial genus Novosphingobium, which possessed genes involved in degradation pathways, were highly correlated to naringenin degradation activities and RTB associated with an isolated species of this genus acquired protection against naringenin and gained fitness.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that symbiotic bacterial community of RTB galleries enhances the survivorship and overall fitness of invasive beetles by degrading the host phenolic naringenin, ultimately overcoming the tree defenses and facilitating the success of the invasive beetle-fungi complex. This dynamic interplay between the invasive insect pest and multipartite microbes suggests a putative mechanism in invasion ecology for mitigating biotic resistance to symbiotic invasion.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

Averill C, Dietze MC, JM Bhatnagar (2018)

Continental-scale nitrogen pollution is shifting forest mycorrhizal associations and soil carbon stocks.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Most tree roots on Earth form a symbiosis with either ecto- or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Nitrogen fertilization is hypothesized to favor arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species at the expense of ectomycorrhizal species due to differences in fungal nitrogen acquisition strategies, and this may alter soil carbon balance, as differences in forest mycorrhizal associations are linked to differences in soil carbon pools. Combining nitrogen deposition data with continental-scale US forest data, we show that nitrogen pollution is spatially associated with a decline in ectomycorrhizal vs. arbuscular mycorrhizal trees. Furthermore, nitrogen deposition has contrasting effects on arbuscular vs. ectomycorrhizal demographic processes, favoring arbuscular mycorrhizal trees at the expense of ectomycorrhizal trees, and is spatially correlated with reduced soil carbon stocks. This implies future changes in nitrogen deposition may alter the capacity of forests to sequester carbon and offset climate change via interactions with the forest microbiome.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

Bracewell RR, Vanderpool D, Good JM, et al (2018)

Cascading speciation among mutualists and antagonists in a tree-beetle-fungi interaction.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1881): pii:rspb.2018.0694.

Cascading speciation is predicted to occur when multiple interacting species diverge in parallel as a result of divergence in one species promoting adaptive differentiation in other species. However, there are few examples where ecological interactions among taxa have been shown to result in speciation that cascades across multiple trophic levels. Here, we test for cascading speciation occurring among the western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), its primary host tree (Pinus ponderosa), and the beetle's fungal mutualists (Ceratocystiopsis brevicomi and Entomocorticium sp. B). We assembled genomes for the beetle and a fungal symbiont and then generated reduced representation genomic data (RADseq) from range-wide samples of these three interacting species. Combined with published data for the host tree, we present clear evidence that the tree, the beetle, and the fungal symbionts are all genetically structured into at least two distinct groups that have strongly codiverged with geographical isolation. We then combine our genomic results with diverse population and laboratory-based data to show evidence for reproductive isolation at each level of the cascade and for coevolution of both antagonistic and mutualistic species interactions within this complex network.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

Liao D, Sun X, Wang N, et al (2018)

Tomato LysM Receptor-Like Kinase SlLYK12 Is Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis.

Frontiers in plant science, 9:1004.

Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a widespread symbiotic relationship between plants and fungi (Glomeromycota), which improves the supply of water and nutrients to host plants. AM symbiosis is set in motion by fungal chitooligosaccharides and lipochitooligosaccharides, which are perceived by plant-specific LysM-type receptor kinases (LYK). In rice this involves OsCERK1, a LYK also essential for chitin triggered innate immunity. In contrast in legumes, the CERK1 homologous gene experienced duplication events resulting in subfunctionalization. However, it remains unknown whether this subfunctionalization is legume-specific, or has occurred also in other dicot plant species. We identified four CERK1 homologs in tomato (SlLYK1, SlLYK11, SlLYK12, and SlLYK13) and investigated their roles in chitin signaling and AM symbiosis. We found that knockdown of SlLYK12 in tomato significantly reduced AM colonization, whereas chitin-induced responses were unaffected. In contrast, knockdown of SlLYK1 resulted in reduced responses to chitin, but did not alter responses to AM fungi. Moreover, ectopic overexpression of SlLYK1 and SlLYK13 in Nicotiana benthamiana induced cell death, whereas SlLYK12 overexpression did not. Based on our results and comparison with rice OsCERK1, we hypothesize that OsCERK1 orthologs in tomato underwent gene duplication, leading to the subfunctionalization of immunity and symbiosis.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

Sandini G, Mohan V, Sciutti A, et al (2018)

Social Cognition for Human-Robot Symbiosis-Challenges and Building Blocks.

Frontiers in neurorobotics, 12:34.

The next generation of robot companions or robot working partners will need to satisfy social requirements somehow similar to the famous laws of robotics envisaged by Isaac Asimov time ago (Asimov, 1942). The necessary technology has almost reached the required level, including sensors and actuators, but the cognitive organization is still in its infancy and is only partially supported by the current understanding of brain cognitive processes. The brain of symbiotic robots will certainly not be a "positronic" replica of the human brain: probably, the greatest part of it will be a set of interacting computational processes running in the cloud. In this article, we review the challenges that must be met in the design of a set of interacting computational processes as building blocks of a cognitive architecture that may give symbiotic capabilities to collaborative robots of the next decades: (1) an animated body-schema; (2) an imitation machinery; (3) a motor intentions machinery; (4) a set of physical interaction mechanisms; and (5) a shared memory system for incremental symbiotic development. We would like to stress that our approach is totally un-hierarchical: the five building blocks of the shared cognitive architecture are fully bi-directionally connected. For example, imitation and intentional processes require the "services" of the animated body schema which, on the other hand, can run its simulations if appropriately prompted by imitation and/or intention, with or without physical interaction. Successful experiences can leave a trace in the shared memory system and chunks of memory fragment may compete to participate to novel cooperative actions. And so on and so forth. At the heart of the system is lifelong training and learning but, different from the conventional learning paradigms in neural networks, where learning is somehow passively imposed by an external agent, in symbiotic robots there is an element of free choice of what is worth learning, driven by the interaction between the robot and the human partner. The proposed set of building blocks is certainly a rough approximation of what is needed by symbiotic robots but we believe it is a useful starting point for building a computational framework.

RevDate: 2018-07-27

James EB, Feng H, ACC Wilson (2018)

mTOR Complex 1 Implicated in Aphid/Buchnera Host/Symbiont Integration.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:g3.118.200398 [Epub ahead of print].

Obligate nutritional endosymbioses are arguably the most intimate of all interspecific associations. While many insect nutritional endosymbioses are well studied, a full picture of how two disparate organisms, a bacterial endosymbiont and a eukaryotic host, are integrated is still lacking. The mTOR pathway is known to integrate nutritional conditions with cell growth and survival in eukaryotes. Characterization and localization of amino acid transporters in aphids suggest the mTOR pathway as point of integration between an aphid host and its amino acid-provisioning endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola The mTOR pathway is unannotated in aphids and unstudied in any nutritional endosymbiosis. We annotated mTOR pathway genes in two aphid species, Acyrthosiphon pisum and Myzus persicae, using both BLASTp searches and Hidden Markov Models. Using previously collected RNAseq data we constructed new reference transcriptomes for bacteriocyte, gut, and whole insect tissue for three lines of M. persicae Annotation of the mTOR pathway identified homologs of all known invertebrate mTOR genes in both aphid species with some duplications. Differential expression analysis showed that genes specific to the amino acid-sensitive mTOR Complex 1 were more highly expressed in bacteriocytes than genes specific to the amino acid-insensitive mTOR Complex 2. Almost all mTOR genes involved in sensing amino acids showed higher expression in bacteriocytes than in whole insect tissue. When compared to gut, the putative glutamine/arginine sensing transporter ACYPI000333, an ortholog of SLC38A9, showed 6.5 times higher expression in bacteriocytes. Our results suggest that the mTOR pathway may be functionally important in mediating integration of Buchnera into aphid growth and reproduction.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-27

Ammar ED, Hall DG, Hosseinzadeh S, et al (2018)

The quest for a non-vector psyllid: Natural variation in acquisition and transmission of the huanglongbing pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' by Asian citrus psyllid isofemale lines.

PloS one, 13(4):e0195804 pii:PONE-D-17-36416.

Genetic variability in insect vectors is valuable to study vector competence determinants and to select non-vector populations that may help reduce the spread of vector-borne pathogens. We collected and tested vector competency of 15 isofemale lines of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, vector of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas). CLas is associated with huanglongbing (citrus greening), the most serious citrus disease worldwide. D. citri adults were collected from orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata) hedges in Florida, and individual pairs (females and males) were caged on healthy Murraya plants for egg laying. The progeny from each pair that tested CLas-negative by qPCR were maintained on Murraya plants and considered an isofemale line. Six acquisition tests on D. citri adults that were reared as nymphs on CLas-infected citrus, from various generations of each line, were conducted to assess their acquisition rates (percentage of qPCR-positive adults). Three lines with mean acquisition rates of 28 to 32%, were classified as 'good' acquirers and three other lines were classified as 'poor' acquirers, with only 5 to 8% acquisition rates. All lines were further tested for their ability to inoculate CLas by confining CLas-exposed psyllids for one week onto healthy citrus leaves (6-10 adults/leaf/week), and testing the leaves for CLas by qPCR. Mean inoculation rates were 19 to 28% for the three good acquirer lines and 0 to 3% for the three poor acquirer lines. Statistical analyses indicated positive correlations between CLas acquisition and inoculation rates, as well as between CLas titer in the psyllids and CLas acquisition or inoculation rates. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of one of the good and one of the poor acquirer lines revealed differences between them in color morphs and hemocyanin expression, but not the composition of bacterial endosymbionts. Understanding the genetic architecture of CLas transmission will enable the development of new tools for combating this devastating citrus disease.

RevDate: 2018-07-27
CmpDate: 2018-07-27

Hewezi T, Pantalone V, Bennett M, et al (2018)

Phytopathogen-induced changes to plant methylomes.

Plant cell reports, 37(1):17-23.

DNA methylation is a dynamic and reversible type of epigenetic mark that contributes to cellular physiology by affecting transcription activity, transposon mobility and genome stability. When plants are infected with pathogens, plant DNA methylation patterns can change, indicating an epigenetic interplay between plant host and pathogen. In most cases methylation can change susceptibility. While DNA hypomethylation appears to be a common phenomenon during the susceptible interaction, the levels and patterns of hypomethylation in transposable elements and genic regions may mediate distinct responses against various plant pathogens. The effect of DNA methylation on the plant immune response and other cellular activities and molecular functions is established by localized differential DNA methylation via cis-regulatory mechanisms as well as through trans-acting mechanisms. Understanding the epigenetic differences that control the phenotypic variations between susceptible and resistant interactions should facilitate the identification of new sources of resistance mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, which can be exploited to endow pathogen resistance to crops.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

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Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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