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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Mar 2023 at 01:53 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-20

Zhong S, Yang J, H Huang (2023)

The role of single and mixed biofilms in Clostridioides difficile infection and strategies for prevention and inhibition.

Critical reviews in microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a serious disease with a high recurrence rate. The single and mixed biofilms formed by C. difficile in the gut contribute to the formation of recurrent CDI (rCDI). In parallel, other gut microbes influence the formation and development of C. difficile biofilms, also known as symbiotic biofilms. Interactions between members within the symbiotic biofilm are associated with the worsening or alleviation of CDI. These interactions include effects on C. difficile adhesion and chemotaxis, modulation of LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing (QS) system activity, promotion of cross-feeding by microbial metabolites, and regulation of intestinal bile acid and pyruvate levels. In the process of C. difficile biofilms control, inhibition of C. difficile initial biofilm formation and killing of C. difficile vegetative cells and spores are the main targets of action. The role of symbiotic biofilms in CDI suggested that targeting interventions of C. difficile-promoting gut microbes could indirectly inhibit the formation of C. difficile mixed biofilms and improved the ultimate therapeutic effect. In summary, this review outlines the mechanisms of C. difficile biofilm formation and summarises the treatment strategies for such single and mixed biofilms, aiming to provide new ideas for the prevention and treatment of CDI.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Sarton-Lohéac G, Nunes da Silva CG, Mazel F, et al (2023)

Deep Divergence and Genomic Diversification of Gut Symbionts of Neotropical Stingless Bees.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Social bees harbor conserved gut microbiotas that may have been acquired in a common ancestor of social bees and subsequently codiversified with their hosts. However, most of this knowledge is based on studies on the gut microbiotas of honey bees and bumblebees. Much less is known about the gut microbiotas of the third and most diverse group of social bees, the stingless bees. Specifically, the absence of genomic data from their microbiotas presents an important knowledge gap in understanding the evolution and functional diversity of the social bee microbiota. Here, we combined community profiling with culturing and genome sequencing of gut bacteria from six neotropical stingless bee species from Brazil. Phylogenomic analyses show that most stingless bee gut isolates form deep-branching sister clades of core members of the honey bee and bumblebee gut microbiota with conserved functional capabilities, confirming the common ancestry and ecology of their microbiota. However, our bacterial phylogenies were not congruent with those of the host, indicating that the evolution of the social bee gut microbiota was not driven by strict codiversification but included host switches and independent symbiont gain and losses. Finally, as reported for the honey bee and bumblebee microbiotas, we found substantial genomic divergence among strains of stingless bee gut bacteria, suggesting adaptation to different host species and glycan niches. Our study offers first insights into the genomic diversity of the stingless bee microbiota and highlights the need for broader samplings to understand the evolution of the social bee gut microbiota. IMPORTANCE Stingless bees are the most diverse group of the corbiculate bees and represent important pollinator species throughout the tropics and subtropics. They harbor specialized microbial communities in their gut that are related to those found in honey bees and bumblebees and that are likely important for bee health. Few bacteria have been cultured from the gut of stingless bees, which has prevented characterization of their genomic diversity and functional potential. Here, we established cultures of major members of the gut microbiotas of six stingless bee species and sequenced their genomes. We found that most stingless bee isolates belong to novel bacterial species distantly related to those found in honey bees and bumblebees and encoding similar functional capabilities. Our study offers a new perspective on the evolution of the social bee gut microbiota and presents a basis for characterizing the symbiotic relationships between gut bacteria and stingless bees.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Xiang N, Meyer A, Pogoreutz C, et al (2023)

Excess labile carbon promotes diazotroph abundance in heat-stressed octocorals.

Royal Society open science, 10(3):221268.

Nitrogen limitation is the foundation of stable coral-algal symbioses. Diazotrophs, prokaryotes capable of fixing N2 into ammonia, support the productivity of corals in oligotrophic waters, but could contribute to the destabilization of holobiont functioning when overstimulated. Recent studies on reef-building corals have shown that labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enrichment or heat stress increases diazotroph abundance and activity, thereby increasing nitrogen availability and destabilizing the coral-algal symbiosis. However, the (a)biotic drivers of diazotrophs in octocorals are still poorly understood. We investigated diazotroph abundance (via relative quantification of nifH gene copy numbers) in two symbiotic octocorals, the more mixotrophic soft coral Xenia umbellata and the more autotrophic gorgonian Pinnigorgia flava, under (i) labile DOC enrichment for 21 days, followed by (ii) combined labile DOC enrichment and heat stress for 24 days. Without heat stress, relative diazotroph abundances in X. umbellata and P. flava were unaffected by DOC enrichment. During heat stress, DOC enrichment (20 and 40 mg glucose l[-1]) increased the relative abundances of diazotrophs by sixfold in X. umbellata and fourfold in P. flava, compared with their counterparts without excess DOC. Our data suggest that labile DOC enrichment and concomitant heat stress could disrupt the nitrogen limitation in octocorals by stimulating diazotroph proliferation. Ultimately, the disruption of nitrogen cycling may further compromise octocoral fitness by destabilizing symbiotic nutrient cycling. Therefore, improving local wastewater facilities to reduce labile DOC input into vulnerable coastal ecosystems may help octocorals cope with ocean warming.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Zhang K, Shen Z, Yang W, et al (2022)

Unraveling the metabolic effects of benzophenone-3 on the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Cladocopium goreaui.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1116975.

As a well-known pseudo-persistent environmental pollutant, oxybenzone (BP-3) and its related organic ultraviolet (UV) filters have been verified to directly contribute to the increasing mortality rate of coral reefs. Previous studies have revealed the potential role of symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae in protecting corals from the toxic effects of UV filters. However, the detailed protection mechanism(s) have not been explained. Here, the impacts of BP-3 on the symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae Cladocopium goreaui were explored. C. goreaui cells exhibited distinct cell growth at different BP-3 doses, with increasing growth at the lower concentration (2 mg L[-1]) and rapid death at a higher concentration (20 mg L[-1]). Furthermore, C. goreaui cells showed a significant BP-3 uptake at the lower BP-3 concentration. BP-3 absorbing cells exhibited elevated photosynthetic efficiency, and decreased cellular carbon and nitrogen contents. Besides, the derivatives of BP-3 and aromatic amino acid metabolism highly responded to BP-3 absorption and biodegradation. Our physiological and metabolic results reveal that the symbiotic Symbiodiniaceae could resist the toxicity of a range of BP-3 through promoting cell division, photosynthesis, and reprogramming amino acid metabolism. This study provides novel insights into the influences of organic UV filters to coral reef ecosystems, which urgently needs increasing attention and management.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Muthuraja R, Muthukumar T, C Natthapol (2023)

Drought tolerance of Aspergillus violaceofuscus and Bacillus licheniformis and their influence on tomato growth and potassium uptake in mica amended tropical soils under water-limiting conditions.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1114288.

Drought is a significant abiotic stress that alters plant physiology and ultimately affects crop productivity. Among essential plant nutrients, potassium (K) is known to mitigate the deleterious effect of drought on plant growth. If so, K addition or inoculation of potassium solubilizing microorganisms (KSMs) that are tolerant to drought should promote plant growth during water stress. Therefore, in this study, K solubilizing Aspergillus violaceofuscus and Bacillus licheniformis, isolated from saxicolous environments, were tested for their capacity to tolerate drought using different molecular weights (~4000, 6000, and 8000 Da), and concentrations (0, 250, 500, 750, 1000, and 1250 mg/L) of polyethylene glycol (PEG) under in vitro conditions. The results showed that high concentrations (750 and 1000 mg/L) of PEG with different molecular weight considerably improved bacterial cell numbers/fungal biomass and catalase (CAT) and proline activities. Moreover, the ability of KSMs alone or in combination to impart drought tolerance and promote plant growth in the presence and absence of mica (9.3% K2O) supplementation was tested in Alfisol and Vertisol soil types under greenhouse conditions. The results revealed that the tomato plants inoculated with KSMs individually or dually with/without mica improved the physiological and morphological traits of the tomato plants under drought. Generally, tomato plants co-inoculated with KSMs and supplemented with mica were taller (2.62 and 3.38-fold) and had more leaf area (2.03 and 1.98-fold), total root length (3.26 and 8.86-fold), shoot biomass (3.87 and 3.93-fold), root biomass (9.00 and 7.24-fold), shoot K content (3.08 and 3.62-fold), root K content (3.39 and 2.03-fold), relative water content (1.51 and 1.27-fold), CAT activity (2.11 and 2.14-fold), proline content (3.41 and 3.28-fold), and total chlorophyll content (1.81 and 1.90-fold), in unsterilized Alfisol and Vertisol soil types, respectively, than uninoculated ones. Dual inoculation of the KSMs along with mica amendment, also improved the endorrhizal symbiosis of tomato plants more than their individual inoculation or application in both soil types. These findings imply that the A. violaceofuscus and B. licheniformis isolates are promising as novel bioinoculants for improving crop growth in water-stressed and rainfed areas of the tropics in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Hashemipetroudi SH, Arab M, Heidari P, et al (2023)

Genome-wide analysis of the laccase (LAC) gene family in Aeluropus littoralis: A focus on identification, evolution and expression patterns in response to abiotic stresses and ABA treatment.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1112354.

Laccases are plant enzymes with essential functions during growth and development. These monophenoloxidases are involved in lignin polymerization, and their expression respond to environmental stress. However, studies of laccases in some plants and fungi have highlighted that many structural and functional aspects of these genes are still unknown. Here, the laccase gene family in Aeluropus littoralis (AlLAC) is described based on sequence structure and expression patterns under abiotic stresses and ABA treatment. Fifteen non-redundant AlLACs were identified from the A. littoralis genome, which showed differences in physicochemical characteristics and gene structure. Based on phylogenetic analysis, AlLACs and their orthologues were classified into five groups. A close evolutionary relationship was observed between LAC gene family members in rice and A. littoralis. According to the interaction network, AlLACs interact more with proteins involved in biological processes such as iron incorporation into the metallo-sulfur cluster, lignin catabolism, regulation of the symbiotic process and plant-type primary cell wall biogenesis. Gene expression analysis of selected AlLACs using real-time RT (reverse transcription)-PCR revealed that AlLACs are induced in response to abiotic stresses such as cold, salt, and osmotic stress, as well as ABA treatment. Moreover, AlLACs showed differential expression patterns in shoot and root tissues. Our findings indicate that AlLACs are preferentially involved in the late response of A. littoralis to abiotic stress.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Agyekum DVA, Kobayashi T, Dastogeer KMG, et al (2023)

Diversity and function of soybean rhizosphere microbiome under nature farming.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1130969.

Nature farming is a farming system that entails cultivating crops without using chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The present study investigated the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of soybean grown in conventional and nature farming soils using wild-type and non-nodulating mutant soybean. The effect of soil fumigant was also analyzed to reveal its perturbation of microbial communities and subsequent effects on the growth of soybean. Overall, the wild-type soybean exhibited a better growth index compared to mutant soybean and especially in nature farming. Nodulation and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungi colonization were higher in plants under nature farming than in conventionally managed soil; however, fumigation drastically affected these symbioses with greater impacts on plants in nature farming soil. The rhizosphere microbiome diversity in nature farming was higher than that in conventional farming for both cultivars. However, the diversity was significantly decreased after fumigation treatment with a greater impact on nature farming. Principal coordinate analysis revealed that nature farming and conventional farming soil harbored distinct microbial communities and that soil fumigation significantly altered the communities in nature farming soils but not in conventional farming soils. Intriguingly, some beneficial microbial taxa related to plant growth and health, including Rhizobium, Streptomyces, and Burkholderia, were found as distinct microbes in the nature farming soil but were selectively bleached by fumigant treatment. Network analysis revealed a highly complex microbial network with high taxa connectivity observed under nature farming soil than in conventional soil; however, fumigation strongly broke it. Overall, the results highlighted that nature farming embraced higher microbial diversity and the abundance of beneficial soil microbes with a complex and interconnected network structure, and also demonstrated the underlying resilience of the microbial community to environmental perturbations, which is critical under nature farming where chemical fertilizers and pesticides are not applied.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Menocal O, Cruz LF, Kendra PE, et al (2023)

Flexibility in the ambrosia symbiosis of Xyleborus bispinatus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1110474.

INTRODUCTION: Ambrosia beetles maintain strict associations with specific lineages of fungi. However, anthropogenic introductions of ambrosia beetles into new ecosystems can result in the lateral transfer of their symbionts to other ambrosia beetles. The ability of a Florida endemic ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus bispinatus, to feed and establish persistent associations with two of its known symbionts (Raffaelea subfusca and Raffaelea arxii) and two other fungi (Harringtonia lauricola and Fusarium sp. nov.), which are primary symbionts of invasive ambrosia beetles, was investigated.

METHODS: The stability of these mutualisms and their effect on the beetle's fitness were monitored over five consecutive generations. Surface-disinfested pupae with non-developed mycangia were reared separately on one of the four fungal symbionts. Non-treated beetles (i.e., lab colony) with previously colonized mycangia were used as a control group.

RESULTS: Xyleborus bispinatus could exchange its fungal symbionts, survive, and reproduce on different fungal diets, including known fungal associates and phylogenetically distant fungi, which are plant pathogens and primary symbionts of other invasive ambrosia beetles. These changes in fungal diets resulted in persistent mutualisms, and some symbionts even increased the beetle's reproduction. Females that developed on Fusarium sp. nov. had a significantly greater number of female offspring than non-treated beetles. Females that fed solely on Harringtonia or Raffaelea symbionts produced fewer female offspring.

DISCUSSION: Even though some ambrosia beetles like X. bispinatus can partner with different ambrosia fungi, their symbiosis under natural conditions is modulated by their mycangium and possibly other environmental factors. However, exposure to symbionts of invasive beetles can result in stable partnerships with these fungi and affect the population dynamics of ambrosia beetles and their symbionts.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Hossain MS, DeLaune PB, TJ Gentry (2023)

Microbiome analysis revealed distinct microbial communities occupying different sized nodules in field-grown peanut.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1075575.

Legume nodulation is the powerhouse of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) where host-specific rhizobia dominate the nodule microbiome. However, other rhizobial or non-rhizobial inhabitants can also colonize legume nodules, and it is unclear how these bacteria interact, compete, or combinedly function in the nodule microbiome. Under such context, to test this hypothesis, we conducted 16S-rRNA based nodule microbiome sequencing to characterize microbial communities in two distinct sized nodules from field-grown peanuts inoculated with a commercial inoculum. We found that microbial communities diverged drastically in the two types of peanut nodules (big and small). Core microbial analysis revealed that the big nodules were inhabited by Bradyrhizobium, which dominated composition (>99%) throughout the plant life cycle. Surprisingly, we observed that in addition to Bradyrhizobium, the small nodules harbored a diverse set of bacteria (~31%) that were not present in big nodules. Notably, these initially less dominant bacteria gradually dominated in small nodules during the later plant growth phases, which suggested that native microbial communities competed with the commercial inoculum in the small nodules only. Conversely, negligible or no competition was observed in the big nodules. Based on the prediction of KEGG pathway analysis for N and P cycling genes and the presence of diverse genera in the small nodules, we foresee great potential of future studies of these microbial communities which may be crucial for peanut growth and development and/or protecting host plants from various biotic and abiotic stresses.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Wang Z, Huang W, Mai Y, et al (2023)

Environmental stress promotes the persistence of facultative bacterial symbionts in amoebae.

Ecology and evolution, 13(3):e9899.

Amoebae are one major group of protists that are widely found in natural and engineered environments. They are a significant threat to human health not only because many of them are pathogenic but also due to their unique role as an environmental shelter for pathogens. However, one unsolved issue in the amoeba-bacteria relationship is why so many bacteria live within amoeba hosts while they can also live independently in the environments. By using a facultative amoeba- Paraburkholderia bacteria system, this study shows that facultative bacteria have higher survival rates within amoebae under various environmental stressors. In addition, bacteria survive longer within the amoeba spore than in free living. This study demonstrates that environmental stress can promote the persistence of facultative bacterial symbionts in amoebae. Furthermore, environmental stress may potentially select and produce more amoeba-resisting bacteria, which may increase the biosafety risk related to amoebae and their intracellular bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

de Fátima Ferreira da Silva L, Rodrigues KF, Gennari A, et al (2023)

Milk fermentation with prebiotic flour of Vasconcellea quercifolia A.St.-Hil.

Journal of food science and technology, 60(4):1303-1312.

Non-conventional food plants have bioactive compounds and a high nutritional value. Among these, Vasconcellea quercifolia has nutritional benefits, but it is also easy to cultivate and has a low production cost. In this study, the flour from the unripe fruit of V. quercifolia was evaluated in terms of its potential as a prebiotic for the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis. To do so, fermented milk samples were prepared with 2%, 3%, and 6% of flour and 8.25 log CFU/mL of each microorganism. Samples were analyzed in terms of the number of viable cells of L. acidophilus and B. lactis, as well as pH level, total solids, titratable acidity, and texture in the course of 21 days of storage at 4ºC. The obtained microbial viability revealed the in vitro symbiotic effect of flour from V. quercifolia on the probiotic strains of L. acidophilus and B. lactis, which reached 10.20 and 11.19 log CFU/mL, respectively, after 21 days of storage, showing a significant difference in cell growth of 1.7 and 2.5 log CFU/mL compared with the control. The pH level decreased from 4.8 to 4.5 after storage time, so it did not alter the conditions for the growth of bacteria. The physical and chemical parameters analyzed did not reveal significant differences (p > 0.05), which indicates product stability. Therefore, flour from the unripe fruit of V. quercifolia has a prebiotic property and can be used as a nutritional supplement for L. acidophilus and B. lactis.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Zellner AA, Hischebeth GT, Molitor E, et al (2023)

Periprosthetic joint infection caused by kytococcus schroeteri: The first reported case and a review of the literature.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 106(1):115922 pii:S0732-8893(23)00032-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Oftentimes, Gram-positive cocci are the cause for periprosthetic joint infections (PJI). Most of these infections include bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis or other coagulase-negative staphylococci. We here present the first case of a PJI caused by Kytococcus schroeteri. While being a Gram-positive coccus, it is very rarely the cause for infections in the human body. K. schroeteri is part of the micrococcus branch and often encountered as a symbiotic bacterium living on the skin. Regarding its pathogenic potential, not a lot is known since less than a few dozen human infections have been reported worldwide. Furthermore, many of the cases reported are either associated with implanted material, especially heart valves, or associated with patients whose immune response is deficient. Only 3 reports of osteoarticular infections are described so far.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Peng Y, Chen Y, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Dysbiosis and primary B-cell immunodeficiencies: current knowledge and future perspective.

Immunologic research [Epub ahead of print].

According to Elie Metchnikoff, an originator of modern immunology, several pivotal functions for disease and health are provided by indigenous microbiota. Nonetheless, important mechanistic insights have been elucidated more recently, owing to the growing availability of DNA sequencing technology. There are 10 to 100 trillion symbiotic microbes (such as viruses, bacteria, and yeast) in each human gut microbiota. Both locally and systemically, the gut microbiota has been demonstrated to impact immune homeostasis. Primary B-cell immunodeficiencies (PBIDs) are a group of primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) referring to the dysregulated antibody production due to either intrinsic genetic defects or failures in functions of B cells. Recent studies have found that PBIDs cause disruptions in the gut's typical homeostatic systems, resulting in inadequate immune surveillance in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which is linked to increased dysbiosis, which is characterized by a disruption in the microbial homeostasis. This study aimed to review the published articles in this field to provide a comprehensive view of the existing knowledge about the crosstalk between the gut microbiome and PBID, the factors shaping the gut microbiota in PBID, as well as the potential clinical approaches for restoring a normal microbial community.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Yan F, Wang S, Huang Z, et al (2023)

Microbial ecological responses of partial nitritation/anammox granular sludge to real water matrices and its potential application.

Environmental research, 226:115701 pii:S0013-9351(23)00493-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Granular sludges are commonly microbial aggregates used to apply partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) processes during efficient biological nitrogen removal from ammonium-rich wastewater. Considering keystone taxa of anammox bacteria (AnAOB) in granules and their sensitivity to unfavorable environments, it is essential to investigate microbial responses of autotrophic PN/A granules to real water matrices containing organic and inorganic pollutants. In this study, tap water, surface water, and biotreated wastewater effluents were fed into a series of continuous PN/A granular reactors, respectively, and the differentiation in functional activity, sludge morphology, microbial community structure, and nitrogen metabolic pathways was analyzed by integrating kinetic batch testing, size characterization, and metagenomic sequencing. The results showed that feeding of biotreated wastewater effluents causes significant decreases in nitrogen removal activity and washout of AnAOB (dominated by Candidatus Kuenenia) from autotrophic PN/A granules due to the accumulation of heavy metals and formation of cavities. Microbial co-occurrence networks and nitrogen cycle-related genes provided evidence for the high dependence of symbiotic heterotrophs (such as Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes) on anammox metabolism. The enhancement of Nitrosomonas nitritation in the granules would be considered as an important contributor to greenhouse gas (N2O) emissions from real water matrices. In a novel view on the application of microbial responses, we suggest a bioassay of PN/A granules by size characterization of red-color cores in ecological risk assessment of water environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Li X, Zhou M, Shi F, et al (2023)

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on mercury accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.): From enriched isotope tracing perspective.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 255:114776 pii:S0147-6513(23)00280-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The microorganisms that co-exist between soil and rice systems in heavy metal-contaminated soil environments play important roles in the heavy metal pollution states of rice, as well as in the growth of the rice itself. In this study, in order to further examine the effects of soil microorganisms on the mercury (Hg) uptake of rice plants and determine potential soil phytoremediation agents, an enriched [199]Hg isotope was spiked in a series of pot experiments to trace the absorption and migration of Hg and rice growth in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). It was observed that the AMF inoculations significantly reduced the Hg concentration in the rice. The Hg concentration in rice in the AMF inoculation group was between 52.82% and 96.42% lower than that in the AMF non-inoculation group. It was also interesting to note that the presence of AMF tended to cause Hg (especially methyl-Hg (Me[199]Hg)) to migrate and accumulate in the non-edible parts of the rice, such as the stems and leaves. Under the experimental conditions selected in this study, the proportion of Me[199]Hg in rice grains decreased from 9.91% to 27.88%. For example, when the exogenous Hg concentration was 0.1 mg/kg, the accumulated methyl-Hg content in the grains of the rice in the AMF inoculation group accounted for only 20.19% of the Me[199]Hg content in the rice plants, which was significantly lower than that observed in the AMF non-inoculated group (48.07%). AMF also inhibited the absorption of Hg by rice plants, and the decrease in the Hg concentration levels in rice resulted in significant improvements in growth indices, including biomass and micro-indexes, such as antioxidant enzyme activities. The improvements occurred mainly because the AMF formed symbiotic structures with the roots of rice plants, which fixed Hg in the soil. AMF also reduce the bioavailability of Hg by secreting a series of substances and changing the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil. These findings suggest the possibility of using typical co-existing microorganisms for the remediation of soil heavy metal contamination and provide valuable insights into reducing human Hg exposure through rice consumption.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Njunge JM, JL Walson (2023)

Microbiota and growth among infants and children in low-income and middle-income settings.

Current opinion in clinical nutrition and metabolic care pii:00075197-990000000-00071 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adequate nutrition is essential but insufficient for optimal childhood growth and development. Increasingly, it is clear that the gut microbiota modulates childhood growth and may be particularly important in low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), where growth faltering, undernutrition, environmental contamination and enteric pathogens are more common. We summarize recent evidence demonstrating the role of the gut microbiota in impacting childhood growth and interventions targeting the gut microbiota to impact growth in children in LMIC settings.

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies show that maturation of the infant microbiota is linked with the development of the immune system, which is key to host-microbe symbiosis. Infants lacking Bifidobacterium longum subsp. Infantis, which predominates breastfed microbiome, display immune activation while supplementation is linked to increased immune tolerance and among undernourished children, promotes growth. Microbiome-directed complimentary foods (MDCF) containing local ingredients is a novel strategy to promote gut microbiota development, especially among undernourished children and improve growth. Dietary patterns during pregnancy may drive selection of gut microbial species that impact infant health and growth.

SUMMARY: Growth patterns among children in LMIC settings are closely associated with the diversity and maturity of the infant microbiome. Prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics targeting microbiota dysbiosis may impact birth outcomes, infant immune development and infections, and childhood growth in LMIC settings.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Li Z (2023)

Operating characteristics of the factor flow networks in rural areas: A case study of a typical industrial town in China.

PloS one, 18(3):e0283232 pii:PONE-D-22-29826.

The networks of factor flows in rural areas are the main support for rural revitalization, which has become one of the research trends in rural geography. Taking a typical industrial town in China as an example, the study explored the operating characteristics of rural factor flow networks and the relations of multi-factor flows based on the social survey method and fine-grained flows data. Results showed that population flows, capital flows and policy flows increased significantly in rural areas. Thereinto, population flows, especially labor flows, mainly ran into the townships and industrial cluster villages, so did capital inflows and outflows, while policy flows ran around the township. The villages with dense population and capital flows formed the "central villages", which had exceeded the township in the two flow networks. Policy flows and capital flows played a guiding role in population flows, so did the policy flows on the capital flows. Meanwhile, the population flows and the capital flows could reinforce each other. In conclusion, a multi-center structure network with the separation of economic center and administrative center had been formed in rural areas. And there was a close interaction between these factor flows. Furthermore, the theoretical model of town-village symbiotic network was constructed.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Dávila-Delgado R, Flores-Canúl K, Juárez-Verdayes MA, et al (2023)

Rhizobia induce SYMRK endocytosis in Phaseolus vulgaris root hair cells.

Planta, 257(4):83.

PvSYMRK-EGFP undergoes constitutive and rhizobia-induced endocytosis, which rely on the phosphorylation status of T589, the endocytic YXXØ motif and the kinase activity of the receptor. Legume-rhizobia nodulation is a complex developmental process. It initiates when the rhizobia-produced Nod factors are perceived by specific LysM receptors present in the root hair apical membrane. Consequently, SYMRK (Symbiosis Receptor-like Kinase) becomes active in the root hair and triggers an extensive signaling network essential for the infection process and nodule organogenesis. Despite its relevant functions, the underlying cellular mechanisms involved in SYMRK signaling activity remain poorly characterized. In this study, we demonstrated that PvSYMRK-EGFP undergoes constitutive and rhizobia-induced endocytosis. We found that in uninoculated roots, PvSYMRK-EGFP is mainly associated with the plasma membrane, although intracellular puncta labelled with PvSymRK-EGFP were also observed in root hair and nonhair-epidermal cells. Inoculation with Rhizobium etli producing Nod factors induces in the root hair a redistribution of PvSYMRK-EGFP from the plasma membrane to intracellular puncta. In accordance, deletion of the endocytic motif YXXØ (YKTL) and treatment with the endocytosis inhibitors ikarugamycin (IKA) and tyrphostin A23 (TyrA23), as well as brefeldin A (BFA), drastically reduced the density of intracellular PvSYMRK-EGFP puncta. A similar effect was observed in the phosphorylation-deficient (T589A) and kinase-dead (K618E) mutants of PvSYMRK-EGFP, implying these structural features are positive regulators of PvSYMRK-EGFP endocytosis. Our findings lead us to postulate that rhizobia-induced endocytosis of SYMRK modulates the duration and amplitude of the SYMRK-dependent signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Vreeburg SME, Auxier B, Jacobs B, et al (2023)

A genetic linkage map and improved genome assembly of the termite symbiont Termitomyces cryptogamus.

BMC genomics, 24(1):123.

BACKGROUND: The termite-fungus symbiosis is an ancient stable mutualism of two partners that reproduce and disperse independently. With the founding of each termite colony the symbiotic association must be re-established with a new fungus partner. Complementarity in the ability to break down plant substrate may help to stabilize this symbiosis despite horizontal symbiont transmission. An alternative, non-exclusive, hypothesis is that a reduced rate of evolution may contribute to stabilize the symbiosis, the so-called Red King Effect.

METHODS: To explore this concept, we produced the first linkage map of a species of Termitomyces, using genotyping by sequencing (GBS) of 88 homokaryotic offspring. We constructed a highly contiguous genome assembly using PacBio data and a de-novo evidence-based annotation. This improved genome assembly and linkage map allowed for examination of the recombination landscape and its potential effect on the mutualistic lifestyle.

RESULTS: Our linkage map resulted in a genome-wide recombination rate of 22 cM/Mb, lower than that of other related fungi. However, the total map length of 1370 cM was similar to that of other related fungi.

CONCLUSIONS: The apparently decreased rate of recombination is primarily due to genome expansion of islands of gene-poor repetitive sequences. This study highlights the importance of inclusion of genomic context in cross-species comparisons of recombination rate.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Wang S, Ren Y, Han L, et al (2023)

Insights on the Impact of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis on Eucalyptus grandis Tolerance to Drought Stress.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Drought stress has a negative impact on plant growth and production. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which establish symbioses with most terrestrial vascular plant species, play important roles in improving host plant mineral nutrient acquisition and resistance to drought. However, the physiological and molecular regulation mechanisms occurring in mycorrhizal Eucalyptus grandis coping with drought stress remain unclear. Here, we studied the physiological changes and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade gene expression profiles of E. grandis associated with AM fungi under drought stress. The results showed that colonization by AM fungi significantly enhanced plant growth, with higher plant biomass, shoot height, root length, and relative water content (RWC) under drought conditions. Mycorrhizal plants had lower levels of accumulation of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, and O2[·-] than seedlings not colonized with AM fungi. In addition, mycorrhizal E. grandis also had higher peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities under drought conditions, improving the antioxidant system response. Eighteen MAPK cascade genes were isolated from E. grandis, and the expression levels of the MAPK cascade genes were positively induced by symbiosis with AM fungi, which was correlated with changes in the proline, MDA, H2O2, and O2[·-] contents and POD, SOD, and CAT activities. In summary, our results showed that AM symbiosis enhances E. grandis drought tolerance by regulating plant antioxidation abilities and MAPK cascade gene expression. IMPORTANCE Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi play an important role in improving plant growth and development under drought stress. The MAPK cascade may regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants in response to drought stress. Previous studies have shown that there is a complex regulatory network between the plant MAPK cascade and drought stress. However, the relationship between the E. grandis MAPK cascade and AM symbiosis in coping with drought remains to be investigated. Our results suggest that AM fungi could improve plant drought tolerance mainly by improving the antioxidant ability to protect plants from reactive oxygen species (ROS) and alleviate oxidative stress damage. The expression of the MAPK cascade genes was induced in mycorrhizal E. grandis seedlings under drought stress. This study revealed that MAPK cascade regulation is of special significance for improving the drought tolerance of E. grandis. This study provides a reference for improving mycorrhizal seedling cultivation under stress.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Klonowska A, Ardley J, Moulin L, et al (2023)

Discovery of a novel filamentous prophage in the genome of the Mimosa pudica microsymbiont Cupriavidus taiwanensis STM 6018.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1082107.

Integrated virus genomes (prophages) are commonly found in sequenced bacterial genomes but have rarely been described in detail for rhizobial genomes. Cupriavidus taiwanensis STM 6018 is a rhizobial Betaproteobacteria strain that was isolated in 2006 from a root nodule of a Mimosa pudica host in French Guiana, South America. Here we describe features of the genome of STM 6018, focusing on the characterization of two different types of prophages that have been identified in its genome. The draft genome of STM 6018 is 6,553,639 bp, and consists of 80 scaffolds, containing 5,864 protein-coding genes and 61 RNA genes. STM 6018 contains all the nodulation and nitrogen fixation gene clusters common to symbiotic Cupriavidus species; sharing >99.97% bp identity homology to the nod/nif/noeM gene clusters from C. taiwanensis LMG19424[T] and "Cupriavidus neocalidonicus" STM 6070. The STM 6018 genome contains the genomes of two prophages: one complete Mu-like capsular phage and one filamentous phage, which integrates into a putative dif site. This is the first characterization of a filamentous phage found within the genome of a rhizobial strain. Further examination of sequenced rhizobial genomes identified filamentous prophage sequences in several Beta-rhizobial strains but not in any Alphaproteobacterial rhizobia.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Cimolato A, Ciotti F, Kljajić J, et al (2023)

Symbiotic electroneural and musculoskeletal framework to encode proprioception via neurostimulation: ProprioStim.

iScience, 26(3):106248.

Peripheral nerve stimulation in amputees achieved the restoration of touch, but not proprioception, which is critical in locomotion. A plausible reason is the lack of means to artificially replicate the complex activity of proprioceptors. To uncover this, we coupled neuromuscular models from ten subjects and nerve histologies from two implanted amputees to develop ProprioStim: a framework to encode proprioception by electrical evoking neural activity in close agreement with natural proprioceptive activity. We demonstrated its feasibility through non-invasive stimulation on seven healthy subjects comparing it with standard linear charge encoding. Results showed that ProprioStim multichannel stimulation was felt more natural, and hold promises for increasing accuracy in knee angle tracking, especially in future implantable solutions. Additionally, we quantified the importance of realistic 3D-nerve models against extruded models previously adopted for further design and validation of novel neurostimulation encoding strategies. ProprioStim provides clear guidelines for the development of neurostimulation policies restoring natural proprioception.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Ding N, Yang YY, Wan NX, et al (2023)

[Seasonal Variation and Influencing Factors of Bacterial Communities in Storage Reservoirs].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 44(3):1484-1496.

In order to explore the seasonal variation and influencing factors of bacterial community structure in storage reservoirs, the impact of environmental factors must first be examined. In this study, the seasonal variation in bacterial community structure and its response to water quality factors were explored by monitoring the water quality of Qingdao Jihongtan Reservoir, the only reservoir of the Yellow River diversion project, using high-throughput sequencing technology and symbiotic network analysis. The results showed that the diversity and richness of bacterial communities were highest in summer and lowest in winter, and those in the inlet were higher than those in the outlet. The structure of the bacterial community was similar in spring and winter and in summer to autumn. The dominant bacteria phyla were:Actinobacteriota (6.63%-57.38%), Proteobacteria (11.32%-48.60%), Bacteroidota (5.05%-25.74%), and Cyanobacteria (0.65%-24.74%). Additionally, the abundances of Chloroflexi, Dependentiae, Fusobacteriota, and Margulisbacteria were the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter. The dominant bacterial genera were:hgcI_clade (3.72%-34.66%), CL500_29_marine_group (0.31%-20.13%), and Limnohabitans (0.16%-10.37%). Further, the abundances of Flavobacterium, Polaromonas, and Rhodoferax were the highest in winter and the lowest in summer; the trend of Domibacillus and Limnobacter was the opposite. The abundance of Proteobacteria and Campilobacteria in the inlet was significantly higher than that in the outlet, and the Planctomycetota showed the opposite. The abundances of Dinghuibacter, Arenimonas, and Rhodobacter in the inlet were significantly higher than those in the outlet. Competition and antagonism dominated the interaction relationship of bacterial communities in spring, whereas mutualism dominated in winter. There were significant differences among key species in the symbiotic network at different seasons and sampling sites. Water temperature, DO, water storage capacity, and water storage sources had a great influence on bacterial community structure in the Jihongtan Reservoir.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Wu Z, XinYu , Liu G, et al (2023)

Sustained detoxification of 1,2-dichloroethane to ethylene by a symbiotic consortium containing Dehalococcoides species.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00445-1 [Epub ahead of print].

1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) is a ubiquitous volatile halogenated organic pollutant in groundwater and soil, which poses a serious threat to the ecosystem and human health. Microbial reductive dechlorination has been recognized as an environmentally-friendly strategy for the remediation of sites contaminated with 1,2-DCA. In this study, we obtained an anaerobic microbiota derived from 1,2-DCA contaminated groundwater, which was able to sustainably convert 1,2-DCA into non-toxic ethylene with an average dechlorination rate of 30.70 ± 11.06 μM d[-1] (N = 6). The microbial community profile demonstrated that the relative abundance of Dehalococcoides species increased from 0.53 ± 0.08% to 44.68 ± 3.61% in parallel with the dechlorination of 1,2-DCA. Quantitative PCR results showed that the Dehalococcoides species 16 S rRNA gene increased from 2.40 ± 1.71 × 10[8] copies∙mL[-1] culture to 4.07 ± 2.45 × 10[8] copies∙mL[-1] culture after dechlorinating 110.69 ± 30.61 μmol of 1,2-DCA with a growth yield of 1.55 ± 0.93 × 10[8] cells per μmol Cl[-] released (N = 6), suggesting that Dehalococcoides species used 1,2-DCA for organohalide respiration to maintain cell growth. Notably, the relative abundances of Methanobacterium sp. (p = 0.0618) and Desulfovibrio sp. (p = 0.0001995) also increased significantly during the dechlorination of 1,2-DCA and were clustered in the same module with Dehalococcoides species in the co-occurrence network. These results hinted that Dehalococcoides species, the obligate organohalide-respiring bacterium, exhibited potential symbiotic relationships with Methanobacterium and Desulfovibrio species. This study illustrates the importance of microbial interactions within functional microbiota and provides a promising microbial resource for in situ bioremediation in sites contaminated with 1,2-DCA.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Cui G, Konciute MK, Ling L, et al (2023)

Molecular insights into the Darwin paradox of coral reefs from the sea anemone Aiptasia.

Science advances, 9(11):eadf7108.

Symbiotic cnidarians such as corals and anemones form highly productive and biodiverse coral reef ecosystems in nutrient-poor ocean environments, a phenomenon known as Darwin's paradox. Resolving this paradox requires elucidating the molecular bases of efficient nutrient distribution and recycling in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Using the sea anemone Aiptasia, we show that during symbiosis, the increased availability of glucose and the presence of the algae jointly induce the coordinated up-regulation and relocalization of glucose and ammonium transporters. These molecular responses are critical to support symbiont functioning and organism-wide nitrogen assimilation through glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase-mediated amino acid biosynthesis. Our results reveal crucial aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying nitrogen conservation and recycling in these organisms that allow them to thrive in the nitrogen-poor ocean environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Rivera HE, Tramonte CA, Samaroo J, et al (2023)

Heat challenge elicits stronger physiological and gene expression responses than starvation in symbiotic Oculina arbuscula.

The Journal of heredity pii:7078461 [Epub ahead of print].

Heterotrophy has been shown to mitigate coral-algal dysbiosis (coral bleaching) under heat challenge, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unexplored. Here, we quantified coral physiology and gene expression of fragments from 13 genotypes of symbiotic Oculina arbuscula after a 28-d feeding experiment under (1) fed, ambient (24 °C); (2) unfed, ambient; (3) fed, heated (ramp to 33 °C); and (4) unfed, heated treatments. We monitored algal photosynthetic efficiency throughout the experiment, and after 28 d, profiled coral and algal carbohydrate and protein reserves, coral gene expression, algal cell densities, and chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-c2 pigments. Contrary to previous findings, heterotrophy did little to mitigate the impacts of temperature, and we observed few significant differences in physiology between fed and unfed corals under heat challenge. Our results suggest the duration and intensity of starvation and thermal challenge play meaningful roles in coral energetics and stress response; future work exploring these thresholds and how they may impact coral responses under changing climate is urgently needed. Gene expression patterns under heat challenge in fed and unfed corals showed gene ontology enrichment patterns consistent with classic signatures of the environmental stress response. While gene expression differences between fed and unfed corals under heat challenge were subtle: Unfed, heated corals uniquely upregulated genes associated with cell cycle functions, an indication that starvation may induce the previously described, milder "type B" coral stress response. Future studies interested in disentangling the influence of heterotrophy on coral bleaching would benefit from leveraging the facultative species studied here, but using the coral in its symbiotic and aposymbiotic states.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Fuchs B, Saikkonen K, Damerau A, et al (2023)

Herbicide residues in soil decrease microbe-mediated plant protection.

Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

The residues of glyphosate, are found to remain in soils longer than reputed, affecting the rhizosphere microbes. This may adversely affect crop and other non-target plants because the plant's resilience and resistance largely rely on plant-associated microbes. Ubiquitous glyphosate residues in soil and how they impact mutualistic microbes inhabiting the aboveground plant parts have been largely unexplored. We studied the effects of herbicide residues in soil on Epichloë sp., which are common endophytic symbionts inhabiting the aerial parts of cool-season grasses. In the symbiosis, the obligate symbiont subsists entirely on its host plant, and in exchange, it provides alkaloids conferring resistance to herbivores for the host grass that invest little in its own chemical defense. We first showed a decreased growth of Epichloë endophytes in vitro when directly exposed to two concentrations of glyphosate or glyphosate-based herbicides. Second, we provide evidence for a reduction of Epichloë-derived, insect-toxic loline alkaloids in endophyte-symbiotic meadow fescue (F. pratensis) plants growing in soil with a glyphosate history. Plants were grown for two years in an open field site and natural herbivore infestation correlated with the glyphosate-mediated reduction of loline alkaloid concentrations. Our findings indicate that herbicides residing in soil not only affect rhizosphere microbiota but aerial plant endophyte functionality which emphasizes the destructive effect of glyphosate on plant symbiotic microbes, here with cascading effects on plant-pest insect interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Yamamoto D, W Toki (2023)

Presence of non-symbiotic yeasts in a symbiont-transferring organ of a stag beetle that lacks yeast symbionts found in other stag beetles.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3726.

Dispersal from wood to wood is essential for wood-inhabiting fungi and wood-inhabiting insects play an important role in the dispersal success of such fungi. However, it is poorly understood whether wood-inhabiting insects which change the habitats from wood to non-wood environments can contribute to the fungal dispersal. Larvae of most stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) are wood feeders, while adults are sap feeders. Female adults of lulcanids possess specialized organs (mycetangia) for transportation of fungal symbionts and harbor specific yeasts (e.g., Scheffersomyces spp.) within. Here, we report that the lucanid Aegus subnitidus harbors non-specific yeasts facultatively in mycetangia. We conducted yeast isolation from mycetangia and hindguts of female adults, in a larval gallery in wood-associated materials, and in female-visiting fermented tree sap using culture-dependent methods. Less than half of the females carried a total of 20 yeast species with small amounts using mycetangia and a female harbored up to five species, suggesting the absence of an intimate association with specific yeasts that are found in other lucanids. Yeast species compositions markedly differed between the larval gallery and sap. Most yeasts from the larval galley exhibited xylose-assimilation abilities, while few yeasts from sap did. Mycetangial yeasts comprised a combination from both sources. In hindguts, most yeasts were found in sap (> 70%) with no yeasts in the larval gallery. Sap-associated yeasts in each female mycetangium were also obtained from the female-visiting sap patch, while mycetangial, larval gallery-associated yeasts were absent from the patch, suggesting the survival success of larval gallery-associated yeasts in mycetangia through sap patches. Therefore, wood-inhabiting insects that possess mycetangia can potentially act as vectors of non-symbiotic wood-inhabiting yeasts dispersing from wood to wood via other environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Su Y, Lin HC, C Dale (2023)

Protocol to establish a genetically tractable synthetic symbiosis between Sodalis praecaptivus and grain weevils by insect egg microinjection.

STAR protocols, 4(2):102156 pii:S2666-1667(23)00114-4 [Epub ahead of print].

We present a protocol to establish a synthetic symbiosis between the mCherry-expressing Sodalis praecaptivus and the grain weevil host, Sitophilus zeamais. We describe steps to isolate grain weevil eggs, followed by microinjecting the bacterial symbiont into insect eggs using a modified Drosophila injection protocol, which leads to localization of bacteria in female insect ovaries. We then detail larval transplantation and visualization of bacteria in live insects using a fluorescence dissection microscope to assess the transgenerational transmission to offspring in weevils. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Su et al. (2022).[1].

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Jhu MY, GED Oldroyd (2023)

Dancing to a different tune, can we switch from chemical to biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable food security?.

PLoS biology, 21(3):e3001982 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-22-02491.

Our current food production systems are unsustainable, driven in part through the application of chemically fixed nitrogen. We need alternatives to empower farmers to maximise their productivity sustainably. Therefore, we explore the potential for transferring the root nodule symbiosis from legumes to other crops. Studies over the last decades have shown that preexisting developmental and signal transduction processes were recruited during the evolution of legume nodulation. This allows us to utilise these preexisting processes to engineer nitrogen fixation in target crops. Here, we highlight our understanding of legume nodulation and future research directions that might help to overcome the barrier of achieving self-fertilising crops.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Anand U, Pal T, Yadav N, et al (2023)

Current Scenario and Future Prospects of Endophytic Microbes: Promising Candidates for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Management for Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Globally, substantial research into endophytic microbes is being conducted to increase agricultural and environmental sustainability. Endophytic microbes such as bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi inhabit ubiquitously within the tissues of all plant species without causing any harm or disease. Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with diverse plant species and can regulate numerous host functions, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, growth and development, and stimulating immune systems. Moreover, plant endophytes play a dominant role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation, and are widely used in many industries. Endophytes have a stronger predisposition for enhancing mineral and metal solubility by cells through the secretion of organic acids with low molecular weight and metal-specific ligands (such as siderophores) that alter soil pH and boost binding activity. Finally, endophytes synthesize various bioactive compounds with high competence that are promising candidates for new drugs, antibiotics, and medicines. Bioprospecting of endophytic novel secondary metabolites has given momentum to sustainable agriculture for combating environmental stresses. Biotechnological interventions with the aid of endophytes played a pivotal role in crop improvement to mitigate biotic and abiotic stress conditions like drought, salinity, xenobiotic compounds, and heavy metals. Identification of putative genes from endophytes conferring resistance and tolerance to crop diseases, apart from those involved in the accumulation and degradation of contaminants, could open new avenues in agricultural research and development. Furthermore, a detailed molecular and biochemical understanding of endophyte entry and colonization strategy in the host would better help in manipulating crop productivity under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, the present review highlights current research trends based on the SCOPUS database, potential biotechnological interventions of endophytic microorganisms in combating environmental stresses influencing crop productivity, future opportunities of endophytes in improving plant stress tolerance, and their contribution to sustainable remediation of hazardous environmental contaminants.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Wen Z, Yang M, Han H, et al (2023)

Mycorrhizae Enhance Soybean Plant Growth and Aluminum Stress Tolerance by Shaping the Microbiome Assembly in an Acidic Soil.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Strongly acidic soils are characterized by high aluminum (Al) toxicity and low phosphorus (P) availability, which suppress legume plant growth and nodule development. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) stimulate rhizobia and enhance plant P uptake. However, it is unclear how this symbiotic soybean-AMF-rhizobial trio promotes soybean growth in acidic soils. We examined the effects of AMF and rhizobium addition on the growth of two soybean genotypes, namely, Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive soybeans as well as their associated bacterial and fungal communities in an acidic soil. With and without rhizobial addition, AMF significantly increased the fresh shoot and root biomass of Al-tolerant soybean by 47%/87% and 37%/24%, respectively. This increase in plant biomass corresponded to the enrichment of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the rhizospheric soil, namely, Chitinophagaceae bacterium 4GSH07, Paraburkholderia soli, Sinomonas atrocyanea, and Aquincola tertiaricarbonis. For Al-sensitive soybean, AMF addition increased the fresh shoot and root biomass by 112%/64% and 30%/217%, respectively, with/without rhizobial addition. Interestingly, this significant increase coincided with a decrease in the pathogenic fungus Nigrospora oryzae as well as an increase in S. atrocyanea, A. tertiaricarbonis, and Talaromyces verruculosus (a P-solubilizing fungus) in the rhizospheric soil. Lastly, the compartment niche along the soil-plant continuum shaped microbiome assembly, with pathogenic/saprotrophic microbes accumulating in the rhizospheric soil and PGPR related to nitrogen fixation or stress resistance (e.g., Rhizobium leguminosarum and Sphingomonas azotifigens) accumulating in the endospheric layer. IMPORTANCE Taken together, this study examined the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and rhizobial combinations on the growth of Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive soybeans as well as their associated microbial communities in acidic soils and concluded that AMF enhances soybean growth and Al stress tolerance by recruiting PGPR and altering the root-associated microbiome assembly in a host-dependent manner. In the future, these findings will help us better understand the impacts of AMF on rhizosphere microbiome assembly and will contribute to the development of soybean breeding techniques for the comprehensive use of PGPR in sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Li OY, Wang X, Yang K, et al (2023)

The approaching pilot for One Health governance index.

Infectious diseases of poverty, 12(1):16.

BACKGROUND: One Health approach advocates realizing the best health and harmonious symbiosis of human, animal and natural environment through cross-border, multi-sectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation. The good governance model is the leading factor for the performance of One Health governance. In order to tackle the complex problems in the One Health governance at the global level, the variation of One Health governance in different countries was analyzed by a set of indicators within the One Health system.

METHOD: The capacity of One Health governance was assessed after establishment of a set of indicators for the One Health governance index (OHGI) following the methodology of the global One Health index. The data to calculate OHGI was collected from various database sources, including the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization, the World Organization for Animal Health, and official health-related institutions of various countries. Eight indicators (including 19 sub-indicators) were employed in the OHGI system to comprehensively evaluate the capacity of One Health governance in 146 countries of the world.

RESULTS: Among the 146 countries scored in the OHGI system, the average score was 34.11, with a median score of 31.49, ranged from 8.50 to 70.28. Most countries with higher OHGI scores come from Europe and Central Asia, East Asia and the Pacific and North America, while countries with the lower OHGI scores are almost from sub-Saharan Africa. Six countries scored more than 65 points, including Australia, Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, the United States of America and Finland, indicating that these countries are relatively mature in most aspects of One Health governance. However, there were some developing countries with OHGI scored lower than 15. Therefore, the gap between countries with higher OHGI scores and those with lower OHGI scores is more than 60.

CONCLUSIONS: Good governance on One Health is an important indicator to measure One Health's governance capacity. The political stability, the level of rule of law and economic conditions in different regions are significantly correlated with the One Health governance capacity. Actions need to be taken urgently to close the gap of One Health governance between different regions.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Mei K, Kou R, Bi Y, et al (2023)

A study of primary health care service efficiency and its spatial correlation in China.

BMC health services research, 23(1):247.

BACKGROUND: China's primary health care system has undergone major changes since the new round of medical reform in 2009, but the current status of primary health care institution service efficiency is still unsatisfactory. The purpose of this study is to compare and evaluate the China's primary health care institution service efficiency and provide a reference for improving the efficiency and promoting the development of primary health care institution.

METHODS: Based on panel data of 31 provinces (municipalities directly under the central government and autonomous regions) in mainland China from 2011 to 2020, using the super efficiency slack-based measure-data envelopment analysis model, to analyze the data from a static perspective, and the changes in the efficiency of primary health care services were analyzed from a dynamic perspective by using the Malmquist index method. Spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to verify the spatial correlation of primary health care service efficiency among various regions.

RESULTS: The number of Primary health care institutions increased from 918,000 in 2011 to 970,000 in 2020. The average primary health care institution service efficiency in the northeastern region including Jilin (0.324), Heilongjiang (0.460), Liaoning (0.453) and northern regions such as Shaanxi (0.344) and Neimenggu (0.403) was at a low level, while the eastern coastal regions such as Guangdong (1.116), Zhejiang (1.211), Shanghai (1.402) have higher average service efficiency levels. The global Moran's I showed the existence of spatial autocorrelation, and the local Moran's I index suggested that the problem of uneven regional development was prominent, showing a contiguous regional distribution pattern. Among them, H-H (high-efficiency regions) were mainly concentrated in Jiangsu, Anhui and Shanghai, and L-L regions (low-efficiency regions) were mostly in northern and northeastern China.

CONCLUSION: The service efficiency of primary health care institution in China showed a rising trend in general, but the overall average efficiency was still at a low level, and there were significant geographical differences, which showed a spatial distribution of "high in the east and low in the west, high in the south and low in the north". The northwestern region, after receiving relevant support, has seen a rapid development of primary health care, and its efficiency was steadily improving and gradually reaching a high level. The average primary health care institution service efficiency in the northeastern region including the northern region of China was at a low level, while the average efficiency in the eastern coastal region and some economically developed regions was high, which also verifies the dependence and high symbiosis of primary health care institution service efficiency on regional economy.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Kageyama D, Harumoto T, Nagamine K, et al (2023)

A male-killing gene encoded by a symbiotic virus of Drosophila.

Nature communications, 14(1):1357.

In most eukaryotes, biparentally inherited nuclear genomes and maternally inherited cytoplasmic genomes have different evolutionary interests. Strongly female-biased sex ratios that are repeatedly observed in various arthropods often result from the male-specific lethality (male-killing) induced by maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria such as Spiroplasma and Wolbachia. However, despite some plausible case reports wherein viruses are raised as male-killers, it is not well understood how viruses, having much smaller genomes than bacteria, are capable of inducing male-killing. Here we show that a maternally inherited double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus belonging to the family Partitiviridae (designated DbMKPV1) induces male-killing in Drosophila. DbMKPV1 localizes in the cytoplasm and possesses only four genes, i.e., one gene in each of the four genomic segments (dsRNA1-dsRNA4), in contrast to ca. 1000 or more genes possessed by Spiroplasma or Wolbachia. We also show that a protein (designated PVMKp1; 330 amino acids in size), encoded by a gene on the dsRNA4 segment, is necessary and sufficient for inducing male-killing. Our results imply that male-killing genes can be easily acquired by symbiotic viruses through reassortment and that symbiotic viruses are hidden players in arthropod evolution. We anticipate that host-manipulating genes possessed by symbiotic viruses can be utilized for controlling arthropods.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Silva AMM, Jones DL, Chadwick DR, et al (2023)

Can arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria facilitate [33]P uptake in maize plants under water stress?.

Microbiological research, 271:127350 pii:S0944-5013(23)00052-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to provide key ecosystem services, protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we hypothesized that a combination of AMF (Rhizophagus clarus) and PGPR (Bacillus sp.) could enhance [33]P uptake in maize plants under soil water stress. A microcosm experiment using mesh exclusion and a radiolabeled phosphorus tracer ([33]P) was installed using three types of inoculation: i) only AMF, ii) only PGPR, and iii) a consortium of AMF and PGPR, alongside a control treatment without inoculation. For all treatments, a gradient of three water-holding capacities (WHC) was considered i) 30% (severe drought), ii) 50% (moderate drought), and iii) 80% (optimal condition, no water stress). In severe drought conditions, AMF root colonization of dual-inoculated plants was significantly lower compared to individual inoculation of the AMF, whilst [33]P uptake by dual-inoculated plants or plants inoculated with bacteria was 2.4-fold greater than the uninoculated treatment. Under moderate drought conditions the use of AMF promoted the highest [33]P uptake by plants, increasing it by 2.1-fold, when compared to the uninoculated treatment. Without drought stress, AMF showed the lowest [33]P uptake and, overall, plant P acquisition was lower for all inoculation types when compared to the severe and moderate drought treatments. The total shoot P content was modulated by the water-holding capacity and inoculation type, with the lowest values observed under severe drought and the highest values under moderate drought. The highest soil electrical conductivity (EC) values were found under severe drought in AMF-inoculated plants and the lowest EC for no drought in single or dual-inoculated plants. Furthermore, water-holding capacity influenced the total soil bacterial and mycorrhizal abundance over time, with the highest abundances being found under severe and moderate drought. This study demonstrates that the positive influence of microbial inoculation on [33]P uptake by plants varied with soil water gradient. Furthermore, under severe stress conditions, AMF invested more in the production of hyphae, vesicles and spore production, indicating a significant carbon drain from the host plant as evidenced by the lack of translation of increased [33]P uptake into biomass. Therefore, under severe drought the use of bacteria or dual-inoculation seems to be more effective than individual AMF inoculation in terms of [33]P uptake by plants, while under moderate drought, the use of AMF stood out.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Tabassum Z, Mohan A, Mamidi N, et al (2023)

Recent trends in nanocomposite packaging films utilising waste generated biopolymers: Industrial symbiosis and its implication in sustainability.

IET nanobiotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Uncontrolled waste generation and management difficulties are causing chaos in the ecosystem. Although it is vital to ease environmental pressures, right now there is no such practical strategy available for the treatment or utilisation of waste material. Because the Earth's resources are limited, a long-term, sustainable, and sensible solution is necessary. Currently waste material has drawn a lot of attention as a renewable resource. Utilisation of residual biomass leftovers appears as a green and sustainable approach to lessen the waste burden on Earth while meeting the demand for bio-based goods. Several biopolymers are available from renewable waste sources that have the potential to be used in a variety of industries for a wide range of applications. Natural and synthetic biopolymers have significant advantages over petroleum-based polymers in terms of cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and user-friendliness. Using waste as a raw material through industrial symbiosis should be taken into account as one of the strategies to achieve more economic and environmental value through inter-firm collaboration on the path to a near-zero waste society. This review extensively explores the different biopolymers which can be extracted from several waste material sources and that further have potential applications in food packaging industries to enhance the shelf life of perishables. This review-based study also provides key insights into the different strategies and techniques that have been developed recently to extract biopolymers from different waste byproducts and their feasibility in practical applications for the food packaging business.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Jabeen MF, TSC Hinks (2023)

MAIT cells and the microbiome.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1127588.

Mucosal associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like T lymphocytes, strikingly enriched at mucosal surfaces and characterized by a semi-invariant αβ T cell receptor (TCR) recognizing microbial derived intermediates of riboflavin synthesis presented by the MHC-Ib molecule MR1. At barrier sites MAIT cells occupy a prime position for interaction with commensal microorganisms, comprising the microbiota. The microbiota is a rich source of riboflavin derived antigens required in early life to promote intra-thymic MAIT cell development and sustain a life-long population of tissue resident cells. A symbiotic relationship is thought to be maintained in health whereby microbes promote maturation and homeostasis, and in turn MAIT cells can engage a TCR-dependent "tissue repair" program in the presence of commensal organisms conducive to sustaining barrier function and integrity of the microbial community. MAIT cell activation can be induced in a MR1-TCR dependent manner or through MR1-TCR independent mechanisms via pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-12/-15/-18 and type I interferon. MAIT cells provide immunity against bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. However, MAIT cells may have deleterious effects through insufficient or exacerbated effector activity and have been implicated in autoimmune, inflammatory and allergic conditions in which microbial dysbiosis is a shared feature. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the microbiota in the development and maintenance of circulating and tissue resident MAIT cells. We also explore how microbial dysbiosis, alongside changes in intestinal permeability and imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory components of the immune response are together involved in the potential pathogenicity of MAIT cells. Whilst there have been significant improvements in our understanding of how the microbiota shapes MAIT cell function, human data are relatively lacking, and it remains unknown if MAIT cells can conversely influence the composition of the microbiota. We speculate whether, in a human population, differences in microbiomes might account for the heterogeneity observed in MAIT cell frequency across mucosal sites or between individuals, and response to therapies targeting T cells. Moreover, we speculate whether manipulation of the microbiota, or harnessing MAIT cell ligands within the gut or disease-specific sites could offer novel therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Bregman G, Lalzar M, Livne L, et al (2023)

Preliminary study of shark microbiota at a unique mix-species shark aggregation site, in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1027804.

Sharks, as apex predators, play an essential ecological role in shaping the marine food web and maintaining healthy and balanced marine ecosystems. Sharks are sensitive to environmental changes and anthropogenic pressure and demonstrate a clear and rapid response. This designates them a "keystone" or "sentinel" group that may describe the structure and function of the ecosystem. As a meta-organism, sharks offer selective niches (organs) for microorganisms that can provide benefits for their hosts. However, changes in the microbiota (due to physiological or environmental changes) can turn the symbiosis into a dysbiosis and may affect the physiology, immunity and ecology of the host. Although the importance of sharks within the ecosystem is well known, relatively few studies have focused on the microbiome aspect, especially with long-term sampling. Our study was conducted at a site of coastal development in Israel where a mixed-species shark aggregation (November-May) is observed. The aggregation includes two shark species, the dusky (Carcharhinus obscurus) and sandbar (Carcharhinus plumbeus) which segregate by sex (females and males, respectively). In order to characterize the bacterial profile and examine the physiological and ecological aspects, microbiome samples were collected from different organs (gills, skin, and cloaca) from both shark species over 3 years (sampling seasons: 2019, 2020, and 2021). The bacterial composition was significantly different between the shark individuals and the surrounding seawater and between the shark species. Additionally, differences were apparent between all the organs and the seawater, and between the skin and gills. The most dominant groups for both shark species were Flavobacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Rhodobacteraceae. However, specific microbial biomarkers were also identified for each shark. An unexpected difference in the microbiome profile and diversity between the 2019-2020 and 2021 sampling seasons, revealed an increase in the potential pathogen Streptococcus. The fluctuations in the relative abundance of Streptococcus between the months of the third sampling season were also reflected in the seawater. Our study provides initial information on shark microbiome in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. In addition, we demonstrated that these methods were also able to describe environmental episodes and the microbiome is a robust measure for long-term ecological research.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Dally M, Izraeli Y, Belausov E, et al (2022)

Rickettsia association with two Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae) species: A comparative study of phylogenies and within-host localization patterns.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1107153.

Many arthropods host bacterial symbionts, some of which are known to influence host nutrition and diet breadth. Omnivorous bugs of the genus Macrolophus (Heteroptera: Miridae) are mainly predatory, but may also feed on plants. The species M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma (=M. caliginosus) are key natural enemies of various economically important agricultural pests, and are known to harbor two Rickettsia species, R. bellii and R. limoniae. To test for possible involvement of symbiotic bacteria in the nutritional ecology of these biocontrol agents, the abundance, phylogeny, and distribution patterns of the two Rickettsia species in M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma were studied. Both of the Rickettsia species were found in 100 and 84% of all tested individuals of M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that a co-evolutionary process between Macrolophus species and their Rickettsia is infrequent. Localization of R. bellii and R. limoniae has been detected in both female and male of M. pygmaeus and M. melanotoma. FISH analysis of female gonads revealed the presence of both Rickettsia species in the germarium of both bug species. Each of the two Rickettsia species displayed a unique distribution pattern along the digestive system of the bugs, mostly occupying separate epithelial cells, unknown caeca-like organs, the Malpighian tubules and the salivary glands. This pattern differed between the two Macrolophus species: in M. pygmaeus, R. limoniae was distributed more broadly along the host digestive system and R. bellii was located primarily in the foregut and midgut. In contrast, in M. melanotoma, R. bellii was more broadly distributed along the digestive system than the clustered R. limoniae. Taken together, these results suggest that Rickettsia may have a role in the nutritional ecology of their plant-and prey-consuming hosts.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Ding Y, Fern Ndez-Montero A, Mani A, et al (2023)

Secretory IgM (sIgM) is an ancient master regulator of microbiota homeostasis and metabolism.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.02.26.530119.

UNLABELLED: The co-evolution between secretory immunoglobulins (sIgs) and microbiota began with the emergence of IgM over half a billion years ago. Yet, IgM function in vertebrates is mostly associated with systemic immunity against pathogens. sIgA and sIgT are the only sIgs known to be required in the control of microbiota homeostasis in warm- and cold-blooded vertebrates respectively. Recent studies have shown that sIgM coats a large proportion of the gut microbiota of humans and teleost fish, thus suggesting an ancient and conserved relationship between sIgM and microbiota early in vertebrate evolution. To test this hypothesis, we temporarily and selectively depleted IgM from rainbow trout, an old bony fish species. IgM depletion resulted in a drastic reduction in microbiota IgM coating levels and losses in gutassociated bacteria. These were accompanied by bacterial translocation, severe gut tissue damage, inflammation and dysbiosis predictive of metabolic shifts. Furthermore, depletion of IgM resulted in body weight loss and lethality in an experimental colitis model. Recovery of sIgM to physiological levels restores tissue barrier integrity, while microbiome homeostasis and their predictive metabolic capabilities are not fully restituted. Our findings uncover a previously unrecognized role of sIgM as an ancient master regulator of microbiota homeostasis and metabolism and challenge the current paradigm that sIgA and sIgT are the key vertebrate sIgs regulating microbiome homeostasis.

ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: IgM, the most ancient and conserved immunoglobulin in jawed vertebrates, is required for successful symbiosis with the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Liu S, Gao J, Wang S, et al (2023)

Community differentiation of rhizosphere microorganisms and their responses to environmental factors at different development stages of medicinal plant Glehnia littoralis.

PeerJ, 11:e14988.

Rhizosphere microorganisms play a key role in affecting plant quality and productivity through its interaction with plant root system. To figure out the bottleneck of the decline of yield and quality in the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs Glehnia littoralis they now encounter, it is important to study the dynamics of rhizosphere microbiota during the cultivation of G. littoralis. In the present study, the composition, diversity and function of rhizosphere microbes at different development stages of G. littoralis, as well as the correlation between rhizosphere microbes and environmental factors were systematically studied by high-throughput sequencing. There were significant differences between the rhizosphere microbes at early and middle-late development stages. More beneficial bacteria, such as Proteobacteria, and more symbiotic and saprophytic fungi were observed at the middle-late development stage of G. littoralis, while beneficial bacteria such as Actinobacteria and polytrophic transitional fungi were abundant at all development stages. The results of redundancy analysis show that eight environmental factors drive the changes of microflora at different development stages. pH, soil organic matter (SOM) and available phosphorus (AP) had important positive effects on the bacterial and fungal communities at the early development stage; saccharase (SC) and nitrate nitrogen (NN) showed significant positive effects on the bacterial and fungal communities at the middle and late stages; while urease (UE), available potassium (AK), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP) have different effects on bacterial and fungal communities at different development stages. Random forest analysis identified 47 bacterial markers and 22 fungal markers that could be used to distinguish G. littoralis at different development stages. Network analysis showed that the rhizosphere microbes formed a complex mutualistic symbiosis network, which is beneficial to the growth and development of G. littoralis. These results suggest that host development stage and environmental factors have profound influence on the composition, diversity, community structure and function of plant rhizosphere microorganisms. This study provides a reference for optimizing the cultivation of G. littoralis.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Zhou G, Miao F, Tang Z, et al (2023)

Kohonen neural network and symbiotic-organism search algorithm for intrusion detection of network viruses.

Frontiers in computational neuroscience, 17:1079483.

INTRODUCTION: The development of the Internet has made life much more convenient, but forms of network intrusion have become increasingly diversified and the threats to network security are becoming much more serious. Therefore, research into intrusion detection has become very important for network security.

METHODS: In this paper, a clustering algorithm based on the symbiotic-organism search (SOS) algorithm and a Kohonen neural network is proposed.

RESULTS: The clustering accuracy of the Kohonen neural network is improved by using the SOS algorithm to optimize the weights in the Kohonen neural network.

DISCUSSION: Our approach was verified with the KDDCUP99 network intrusion data. The experimental results show that SOS-Kohonen can effectively detect intrusion. The detection rate was higher, and the false alarm rate was lower.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Li F, Li X, Cheng CC, et al (2023)

A phylogenomic analysis of Limosilactobacillus reuteri reveals ancient and stable evolutionary relationships with rodents and birds and zoonotic transmission to humans.

BMC biology, 21(1):53.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbes play crucial roles in the development and health of their animal hosts. However, the evolutionary relationships of gut microbes with vertebrate hosts, and the consequences that arise for the ecology and lifestyle of the microbes are still insufficiently understood. Specifically, the mechanisms by which strain-level diversity evolved, the degree by which lineages remain stably associated with hosts, and how their evolutionary history influences their ecological performance remain a critical gap in our understanding of vertebrate-microbe symbiosis.

RESULTS: This study presents the characterization of an extended collection of strains of Limosilactobacillus reuteri and closely related species from a wide variety of hosts by phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses combined with colonization experiments in mice to gain insight into the long-term evolutionary relationship of a bacterial symbiont with vertebrates. The phylogenetic analysis of L. reuteri revealed early-branching lineages that primarily consist of isolates from rodents (four lineages) and birds (one lineage), while lineages dominated by strains from herbivores, humans, pigs, and primates arose more recently and were less host specific. Strains from rodent lineages, despite their phylogenetic divergence, showed tight clustering in gene-content-based analyses. These L. reuteri strains but not those ones from non-rodent lineages efficiently colonize the forestomach epithelium of germ-free mice. The findings support a long-term evolutionary relationships of L. reuteri lineages with rodents and a stable host switch to birds. Associations of L. reuteri with other host species are likely more dynamic and transient. Interestingly, human isolates of L. reuteri cluster phylogenetically closely with strains from domesticated animals, such as chickens and herbivores, suggesting zoonotic transmissions.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study demonstrates that the evolutionary relationship of a vertebrate gut symbiont can be stable in particular hosts over time scales that allow major adaptations and specialization, but also emphasizes the diversity of symbiont lifestyles even within a single bacterial species. For L. reuteri, symbiont lifestyles ranged from autochthonous, likely based on vertical transmission and stably aligned to rodents and birds over evolutionary time, to allochthonous possibly reliant on zoonotic transmission in humans. Such information contributes to our ability to use these microbes in microbial-based therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Wu J, Wang Q, Wang D, et al (2023)

Axenic and gnotobiotic insect technologies in research on host-microbiota interactions.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(23)00055-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Insects are one of the most important animal life forms on earth. Symbiotic microbes are closely related to the growth and development of the host insects and can affect pathogen transmission. For decades, various axenic insect-rearing systems have been developed, allowing further manipulation of symbiotic microbiota composition. Here we review the historical development of axenic rearing systems and the latest progress in using axenic and gnotobiotic approaches to study insect-microbe interactions. We also discuss the challenges of these emerging technologies, possible solutions to address these challenges, and future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of insect-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Zhang J, Duan Q, Ma J, et al (2023)

Nitrogen mineralization in grazed BSC subsoil is mediated by itself and vegetation in the Loess Plateau, China.

Journal of environmental management, 336:117647 pii:S0301-4797(23)00435-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological soil crust (BSC) exists widely in many kinds of grassland, its effect on soil mineralization in grazing systems has well been studied, but the impacts and threshold of grazing intensity on BSC have rarely been reported. This study focused on the dynamics of nitrogen mineralization rate in biocrust subsoils affected by grazing intensity. We studied the changes in BSC subsoil physicochemical properties and nitrogen mineralization rates under four sheep grazing intensities (i.e., 0, 2.67, 5.33, and 8.67 sheep ha[-1]) in seasons of spring (May-early July), summer (July-early September), and autumn (September-November). Although this moderate grazing intensity contributes to the growth and recovery of BSCs, we found that moss was more vulnerable to trampling than lichen, which means the physicochemical properties of the moss subsoil are more intense. Changes in soil physicochemical properties and nitrogen mineralization rates were significantly higher under 2.67-5.33 sheep ha[-1] than other grazing intensities (Saturation phase). In addition, the structural equation model (SEM) showed that the main response path was grazing, which affected subsoil physicochemical properties through the joint mediation of BSC (25%) and vegetation (14%). Then, the further positive effect on nitrogen mineralization rate and the influence of seasonal fluctuations on the system was fully considered. We found that solar radiation and precipitation all had significant promoting effects on soil nitrogen mineralization rates, the overall seasonal fluctuation has a direct effect of 18% on the rate of nitrogen mineralization. This study revealed the effects of grazing on BSC and the results may enable a better statistical quantification of BSC functions and provide a theoretical basis to formulate grazing strategies in the grazing system of sheep in Loess Plateau even worldwide (BSC symbiosis).

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Janjua MB, H Arslan (2023)

A Survey of Symbiotic Radio: Methodologies, Applications, and Future Directions.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 23(5): pii:s23052511.

The sixth generation (6G) wireless technology aims to achieve global connectivity with environmentally sustainable networks to improve the overall quality of life. The driving force behind these networks is the rapid evolution of the Internet of Things (IoT), which has led to a proliferation of wireless applications across various domains through the massive deployment of IoT devices. The major challenge is to support these devices with limited radio spectrum and energy-efficient communication. Symbiotic radio (SRad) technology is a promising solution that enables cooperative resource-sharing among radio systems through symbiotic relationships. By fostering mutualistic and competitive resource sharing, SRad technology enables the achievement of both common and individual objectives among the different systems. It is a cutting-edge approach that allows for the creation of new paradigms and efficient resource sharing and management. In this article, we present a detailed survey of SRad with the goal of offering valuable insights for future research and applications. To achieve this, we delve into the fundamental concepts of SRad technology, including radio symbiosis and its symbiotic relationships for coexistence and resource sharing among radio systems. We then review the state-of-the-art methodologies in-depth and introduce potential applications. Finally, we identify and discuss the open challenges and future research directions in this field.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Koziol L, McKenna TP, JD Bever (2023)

Native Microbes Amplify Native Seedling Establishment and Diversity While Inhibiting a Non-Native Grass.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:plants12051184.

Although several studies have shown increased native plant establishment with native microbe soil amendments, few studies have investigated how microbes can alter seedling recruitment and establishment in the presence of a non-native competitor. In this study, the effect of microbial communities on seedling biomass and diversity was assessed by seeding pots with both native prairie seeds and a non-native grass that commonly invades US grassland restorations, Setaria faberi. Soil in the pots was inoculated with whole soil collections from ex-arable land, late successional arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi isolated from a nearby tallgrass prairie, with both prairie AM fungi and ex-arable whole soil, or with a sterile soil (control). We hypothesized (1) late successional plants would benefit from native AM fungi, (2) that non-native plants would outcompete native plants in ex-arable soils, and (3) early successional plants would be unresponsive to microbes. Overall, native plant abundance, late successional plant abundance, and total diversity were greatest in the native AM fungi+ ex-arable soil treatment. These increases led to decreased abundance of the non-native grass S. faberi. These results highlight the importance of late successional native microbes on native seed establishment and demonstrate that microbes can be harnessed to improve both plant community diversity and resistance to invasion during the nascent stages of restoration.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Ndlovu S, Suinyuy TN, Pérez-Fernández MA, et al (2023)

Encephalartos natalensis, Their Nutrient-Cycling Microbes and Enzymes: A Story of Successful Trade-Offs.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:plants12051034.

Encephalartos spp. establish symbioses with nitrogen (N)-fixing bacteria that contribute to soil nutrition and improve plant growth. Despite the Encephalartos mutualistic symbioses with N-fixing bacteria, the identity of other bacteria and their contribution to soil fertility and ecosystem functioning is not well understood. Due to Encephalartos spp. being threatened in the wild, this limited information presents a challenge in developing comprehensive conservation and management strategies for these cycad species. Therefore, this study identified the nutrient-cycling bacteria in Encephalartos natalensis coralloid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils. Additionally, the soil characteristics and soil enzyme activities of the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were assayed. The coralloid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils of E. natalensis were collected from a population of >500 E. natalensis in a disturbed savanna woodland at Edendale in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) for nutrient analysis, bacterial identification, and enzyme activity assays. Nutrient-cycling bacteria such as Lysinibacillus xylanilyticus; Paraburkholderia sabiae, and Novosphingobium barchaimii were identified in the coralloid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils of E. natalensis. Phosphorus (P) cycling (alkaline and acid phosphatase) and N cycling (β-(D)-Glucosaminidase and nitrate reductase) enzyme activities showed a positive correlation with soil extractable P and total N concentrations in the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of E. natalensis. The positive correlation between soil enzymes and soil nutrients demonstrates that the identified nutrient-cycling bacteria in E. natalensis coralloid roots, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soils and associated enzymes assayed may contribute to soil nutrient bioavailability of E. natalensis plants growing in acidic and nutrient-poor savanna woodland ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Tosi M, Ogilvie CM, Spagnoletti FN, et al (2023)

Cover Crops Modulate the Response of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Water Supply: A Field Study in Corn.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:plants12051015.

Cover crops (CCs) were found to improve soil health by increasing plant diversity and ground cover. They may also improve water supply for cash crops by reducing evaporation and increasing soil water storage capacity. However, their influence on plant-associated microbial communities, including symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is less well understood. In a corn field trial, we studied the response of AMF to a four-species winter CC, relative to a no-CC control, as well as to two contrasting water supply levels (i.e., drought and irrigated). We measured AMF colonization of corn roots and used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to study the composition and diversity of soil AMF communities at two depths (i.e., 0-10 and 10-20 cm). In this trial, AMF colonization was high (61-97%), and soil AMF communities were represented by 249 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) belonging to 5 genera and 33 virtual taxa. Glomus, followed by Claroideoglomus and Diversispora (class Glomeromycetes), were the dominant genera. Our results showed interacting effects between CC treatments and water supply levels for most of the measured variables. The percentage of AMF colonization, arbuscules, and vesicles tended to be lower in irrigated than drought sites, with significant differences detected only under no-CC. Similarly, soil AMF phylogenetic composition was affected by water supply only in the no-CC treatment. Changes in the abundance of individual virtual taxa also showed strong interacting effects between CCs, irrigation, and sometimes soil depth, although CC effects were clearer than irrigation effects. An exception to these interactions was soil AMF evenness, which was higher in CC than no-CC, and higher under drought than irrigation. Soil AMF richness was not affected by the applied treatments. Our results suggest that CCs can affect the structure of soil AMF communities and modulate their response to water availability levels, although soil heterogeneity could influence the final outcome.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Liyanage DK, Torkamaneh D, Belzile F, et al (2023)

The Genotypic Variability among Short-Season Soybean Cultivars for Nitrogen Fixation under Drought Stress.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:plants12051004.

Soybean fixes atmospheric nitrogen through the symbiotic rhizobia bacteria that inhabit root nodules. Drought stress negatively affect symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) in soybean. The main objective of this study was to identify allelic variations associated with SNF in short-season Canadian soybean varieties under drought stress. A diversity panel of 103 early-maturity Canadian soybean varieties was evaluated under greenhouse conditions to determine SNF-related traits under drought stress. Drought was imposed after three weeks of plant growth, where plants were maintained at 30% field capacity (FC) (drought) and 80% FC (well-watered) until seed maturity. Under drought stress, soybean plants had lower seed yield, yield components, seed nitrogen content, % nitrogen derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa), and total seed nitrogen fixed compared to those under well-watered conditions. Significant genotypic variability among soybean varieties was found for yield, yield parameters, and nitrogen fixation traits. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted using 2.16 M single nucleotide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for different yield and nitrogen fixation related parameters for 30% FC and their relative performance (30% FC/80% FC). In total, five quantitative trait locus (QTL) regions, including candidate genes, were detected as significantly associated with %Ndfa under drought stress and relative performance. These genes can potentially aid in future breeding efforts to develop drought-resistant soybean varieties.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Campos C, Coito JL, Cardoso H, et al (2023)

Dynamic Regulation of Grapevine's microRNAs in Response to Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and High Temperature.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:plants12050982.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small RNAs that play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses and can regulate plant interactions with beneficial soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). To determine if root inoculation with distinct AMF species affected miRNA expression in grapevines subjected to high temperatures, RNA-seq was conducted in leaves of grapevines inoculated with either Rhizoglomus irregulare or Funneliformis mosseae and exposed to a high-temperature treatment (HTT) of 40 °C for 4 h per day for one week. Our results showed that mycorrhizal inoculation resulted in a better plant physiological response to HTT. Amongst the 195 identified miRNAs, 83 were considered isomiRs, suggesting that isomiRs can be biologically functional in plants. The number of differentially expressed miRNAs between temperatures was higher in mycorrhizal (28) than in non-inoculated plants (17). Several miR396 family members, which target homeobox-leucine zipper proteins, were only upregulated by HTT in mycorrhizal plants. Predicted targets of HTT-induced miRNAs in mycorrhizal plants queried to STRING DB formed networks for Cox complex, and growth and stress-related transcription factors such as SQUAMOSA promoter-binding-like-proteins, homeobox-leucine zipper proteins and auxin receptors. A further cluster related to DNA polymerase was found in R. irregulare inoculated plants. The results presented herein provide new insights into miRNA regulation in mycorrhizal grapevines under heat stress and can be the basis for functional studies of plant-AMF-stress interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Kisiel A, T Miller (2023)

Oxidative Status of Medicago truncatula Seedlings after Inoculation with Rhizobacteria of the Genus Pseudomonas, Paenibacillus and Sinorhizobium.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(5): pii:ijms24054781.

An increasing number of scientists working to raise agricultural productivity see the potential in the roots and the soil adjacent to them, together with a wealth of micro-organisms. The first mechanisms activated in the plant during any abiotic or biotic stress concern changes in the oxidative status of the plant. With this in mind, for the first time, an attempt was made to check whether the inoculation of seedlings of the model plant Medicago truncatula with rhizobacteria belonging to the genus Pseudomonas (P. brassicacearum KK5, P. corrugata KK7), Paenibacillus borealis KK4 and a symbiotic strain Sinorhizobium meliloti KK13 would change the oxidative status in the days following inoculation. Initially, an increase in H2O2 synthesis was observed, which led to an increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes responsible for regulating hydrogen peroxide levels. The main enzyme involved in the reduction of H2O2 content in the roots was catalase. The observed changes indicate the possibility of using the applied rhizobacteria to induce processes related to plant resistance and thus to ensure protection against environmental stress factors. In the next stages, it seems reasonable to check whether the initial changes in the oxidative state affect the activation of other pathways related to plant immunity.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Fedorova EE (2023)

Rapid Changes to Endomembrane System of Infected Root Nodule Cells to Adapt to Unusual Lifestyle.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(5): pii:ijms24054647.

Symbiosis between leguminous plants and soil bacteria rhizobia is a refined type of plant-microbial interaction that has a great importance to the global balance of nitrogen. The reduction of atmospheric nitrogen takes place in infected cells of a root nodule that serves as a temporary shelter for thousands of living bacteria, which, per se, is an unusual state of a eukaryotic cell. One of the most striking features of an infected cell is the drastic changes in the endomembrane system that occur after the entrance of bacteria to the host cell symplast. Mechanisms for maintaining intracellular bacterial colony represent an important part of symbiosis that have still not been sufficiently clarified. This review focuses on the changes that occur in an endomembrane system of infected cells and on the putative mechanisms of infected cell adaptation to its unusual lifestyle.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Daverio Z, Balcerczyk A, Rautureau GJP, et al (2023)

How Warburg-Associated Lactic Acidosis Rewires Cancer Cell Energy Metabolism to Resist Glucose Deprivation.

Cancers, 15(5): pii:cancers15051417.

Lactic acidosis, a hallmark of solid tumour microenvironment, originates from lactate hyperproduction and its co-secretion with protons by cancer cells displaying the Warburg effect. Long considered a side effect of cancer metabolism, lactic acidosis is now known to play a major role in tumour physiology, aggressiveness and treatment efficiency. Growing evidence shows that it promotes cancer cell resistance to glucose deprivation, a common feature of tumours. Here we review the current understanding of how extracellular lactate and acidosis, acting as a combination of enzymatic inhibitors, signal, and nutrient, switch cancer cell metabolism from the Warburg effect to an oxidative metabolic phenotype, which allows cancer cells to withstand glucose deprivation, and makes lactic acidosis a promising anticancer target. We also discuss how the evidence about lactic acidosis' effect could be integrated in the understanding of the whole-tumour metabolism and what perspectives it opens up for future research.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Jung HD, Cho S, JY Lee (2023)

Update on the Effect of the Urinary Microbiome on Urolithiasis.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(5): pii:diagnostics13050951.

Microbiota are ecological communities of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms. The microbiome could be involved in kidney stone formation through hyperoxaluria and calcium oxalate supersaturation, biofilm formation and aggregation, and urothelial injury. Bacteria bind to calcium oxalate crystals, which causes pyelonephritis and leads to changes in nephrons to form Randall's plaque. The urinary tract microbiome, but not the gut microbiome, can be distinguished between cohorts with urinary stone disease (USD) and those without a history of the disease. In the urine microbiome, the role is known of urease-producing bacteria (Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia stuartii, Serratia marcescens, and Morganella morganii) in stone formation. Calcium oxalate crystals were generated in the presence of two uropathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae). Non-uropathogenic bacteria (S. aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) exhibit calcium oxalate lithogenic effects. The taxa Lactobacilli and Enterobacteriaceae best distinguished the healthy cohort from the USD cohort, respectively. Standardization is needed in urine microbiome research for urolithiasis. Inadequate standardization and design of urinary microbiome research on urolithiasis have hampered the generalizability of results and diminished their impact on clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Bojar AV, Lécuyer C, Maher W, et al (2023)

Multi-element stable isotope geochemistry and arsenic speciation of hydrothermal vent fauna (Alviniconcha sp., Ifremeria nautilei and Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis), Manus Basin, Papua New Guinea.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)00525-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Deep-sea hydrothermal vent communities, revealing patterns of niche partitioning, live in a limited area characterised by sharp physico-chemical gradients. In this study, we investigated carbon, sulfur, nitrogen stable isotopes as well as arsenic (As) speciations and concentrations for two snails (Alviniconcha sp. and Ifremeria nautilei) and a crustacean, (Eochionelasmus ohtai manusensis), occupying distinct niches in the hydrothermal vent field of the Vienna Woods, Manus Basin, Western Pacific. δ[13]C values of Alviniconcha sp. (foot), I. nautilei (foot and chitin) and E. o. manusensis (soft tissue) are similar, from -28 to -33‰ (V-PDB). The δ[15]N values of Alviniconcha sp. (foot and chitin), I. nautilei (foot and chitin) and E. o. manusensis (soft tissue) range from 8.4 to 10.6‰. The δ[34]S values of Alviniconcha sp. (foot and chitin), I. nautilei (foot) and E. o. manusensis (soft tissue) range from 5.9 to 11.1‰. Using stable isotopes, for the first time, we inferred a Calvin-Benson (RuBisCo) metabolic pathway for Alviniconcha sp. along with the presence of γ-Proteobacteria symbionts for the Vienna Woods communities. For I. nautilei, a feeding pattern is proposed with γ-Proteobacteria symbiosis and a Calvin-Benson-Bassham diet with mixotrophic feeding. E. ohtai manusensis is filtering bacteria with a CBB feeding strategy, with δ[15]N values indicating possible higher position in the trophic chain. Arsenic concentrations in the dry tissue of Alviniconcha (foot), I. nautilei (foot) and E. o. manusensis (soft tissue) are high, from 4134 to 8478 μg/g, with inorganic As concentrations of 607, 492 and 104 μg/g, respectively and dimethyl arsenic (DMA) concentrations of 11.12, 0.25 and 11.2 μg/g, respectively. Snails occurring in a vent proximal position have higher As concentration than barnacles, a pattern not observed for S concentrations. Arsenosugars were not put in evidence indicating that the available organic material for the vent organisms are not surface derived.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Davison HR, Hurst GDD, S Siozios (2023)

'Candidatus Megaira' are diverse symbionts of algae and ciliates with the potential for defensive symbiosis.

Microbial genomics, 9(3):.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Reich HG, Camp EF, Roger LM, et al (2023)

The trace metal economy of the coral holobiont: supplies, demands and exchanges.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 98(2):623-642.

The juxtaposition of highly productive coral reef ecosystems in oligotrophic waters has spurred substantial interest and progress in our understanding of macronutrient uptake, exchange, and recycling among coral holobiont partners (host coral, dinoflagellate endosymbiont, endolithic algae, fungi, viruses, bacterial communities). By contrast, the contribution of trace metals to the physiological performance of the coral holobiont and, in turn, the functional ecology of reef-building corals remains unclear. The coral holobiont's trace metal economy is a network of supply, demand, and exchanges upheld by cross-kingdom symbiotic partnerships. Each partner has unique trace metal requirements that are central to their biochemical functions and the metabolic stability of the holobiont. Organismal homeostasis and the exchanges among partners determine the ability of the coral holobiont to adjust to fluctuating trace metal supplies in heterogeneous reef environments. This review details the requirements for trace metals in core biological processes and describes how metal exchanges among holobiont partners are key to sustaining complex nutritional symbioses in oligotrophic environments. Specifically, we discuss how trace metals contribute to partner compatibility, ability to cope with stress, and thereby to organismal fitness and distribution. Beyond holobiont trace metal cycling, we outline how the dynamic nature of the availability of environmental trace metal supplies can be influenced by a variability of abiotic factors (e.g. temperature, light, pH, etc.). Climate change will have profound consequences on the availability of trace metals and further intensify the myriad stressors that influence coral survival. Lastly, we suggest future research directions necessary for understanding the impacts of trace metals on the coral holobiont symbioses spanning subcellular to organismal levels, which will inform nutrient cycling in coral ecosystems more broadly. Collectively, this cross-scale elucidation of the role of trace metals for the coral holobiont will allow us to improve forecasts of future coral reef function.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Lacotte V, Dell'Aglio E, Peignier S, et al (2023)

A comparative study revealed hyperspectral imaging as a potential standardized tool for the analysis of cuticle tanning over insect development.

Heliyon, 9(3):e13962.

Cereal-feeding beetles are a major risk for cereal crop maintenance. Cereal weevils such as Sitophilus oryzae have symbiotic intracellular bacteria that provide essential aromatic amino acid to the host for the biosynthesis of their cuticle building blocks. Their cuticle is an important protective barrier against biotic and abiotic stresses, providing high resistance from insecticides. Quantitative optical methods specialized in insect cuticle analysis exist, but their scope of use and the repeatability of the results remain limited. Here, we investigated the potential of Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) as a standardized cuticle analysis tool. Based on HSI, we acquired time series of average reflectance profiles from 400 to 1000 nm from symbiotic (with bacteria) and aposymbiotic (without bacteria) cereal weevils S. oryzae exposed to different nutritional stresses. We assessed the phenotypic changes of weevils under different diets throughout their development and demonstrated the agreement of the results between the HSI method and the classically used Red-Green-Blue analysis. Then, we compared the use of both technologies in laboratory conditions and highlighted the assets of HSI to develop a simple, automated, and standardized analysis tool. This is the first study showing the reliability and feasibility of HSI for a standardized analysis of insect cuticle changes.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Wan J, Liang Q, Zhang R, et al (2023)

Arboviruses and symbiotic viruses cooperatively hijack insect sperm-specific proteins for paternal transmission.

Nature communications, 14(1):1289.

Arboviruses and symbiotic viruses can be paternally transmitted by male insects to their offspring for long-term viral persistence in nature, but the mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we identify the sperm-specific serpin protein HongrES1 of leafhopper Recilia dorsalis as a mediator of paternal transmission of the reovirus Rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV) and a previously undescribed symbiotic virus of the Virgaviridae family, Recilia dorsalis filamentous virus (RdFV). We show that HongrES1 mediates the direct binding of virions to leafhopper sperm surfaces and subsequent paternal transmission via interaction with both viral capsid proteins. Direct interaction of viral capsid proteins mediates simultaneously invasion of two viruses into male reproductive organs. Moreover, arbovirus activates HongrES1 expression to suppress the conversion of prophenoloxidase to active phenoloxidase, potentially producing a mild antiviral melanization defense. Paternal virus transmission scarcely affects offspring fitness. These findings provide insights into how different viruses cooperatively hijack insect sperm-specific proteins for paternal transmission without disturbing sperm functions.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Li YL, Li XZ, Yao YS, et al (2023)

Differential coexistence of multiple genotypes of Ophiocordyceps sinensis in the stromata, ascocarps and ascospores of natural Cordyceps sinensis.

PloS one, 18(3):e0270776 pii:PONE-D-22-17339.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the differential occurrence of Ophiocordyceps sinensis genotypes in the stroma, stromal fertile portion (SFP) densely covered with numerous ascocarps, and ascospores of natural Cordyceps sinensis.

METHODS: Immature and mature C. sinensis specimens were harvested. Mature C. sinensis specimens were continuously cultivated in our laboratory (altitude 2,200 m). The SFPs (with ascocarps) and ascospores of C. sinensis were collected for microscopic and molecular analyses using species-/genotype-specific primers. Sequences of mutant genotypes of O. sinensis were aligned with that of Genotype #1 Hirsutella sinensis and compared phylogenetically using a Bayesian majority-rule method.

RESULTS: Fully and semiejected ascospores were collected from the same specimens. The semiejected ascospores tightly adhered to the surface of the asci as observed by the naked eye and under optical and confocal microscopies. The multicellular heterokaryotic ascospores showed uneven staining of nuclei. The immature and mature stromata, SFPs (with ascocarps) and ascospores were found to differentially contain several GC- and AT-biased genotypes of O. sinensis, Samsoniella hepiali, and an AB067719-type fungus. The genotypes within AT-biased Cluster-A in the Bayesian tree occurred in all compartments of C. sinensis, but those within AT-biased Cluster-B were present in immature and mature stromata and SPFs but absent in the ascospores. Genotype #13 of O. sinensis was present in semi-ejected ascospores and Genotype #14 in fully ejected ascospores. GC-biased Genotypes #13-14 featured large DNA segment substitutions and genetic material recombination between the genomes of the parental fungi (H. sinensis and the AB067719-type fungus). These ascosporic offspring genotypes combined with varying abundances of S. hepiali in the 2 types of ascospores participated in the control of the development, maturation and ejection of the ascospores.

CONCLUSION: Multiple genotypes of O. sinensis coexist differentially in the stromata, SFPs and 2 types of C. sinensis ascospores, along with S. hepiali and the AB067719-type fungus. The fungal components in different combinations and their dynamic alterations in the compartments of C. sinensis during maturation play symbiotic roles in the lifecycle of natural C. sinensis.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Li L, Liu Q, Ge S, et al (2023)

SlIAA23-SlARF6 module controls arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by regulating strigolactone biosynthesis in tomato.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Auxins are a class of phytohormones with roles involved in the establishment and the maintenance of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS). AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) and AUXIN/INDOLE-ACETIC ACIDs (AUX/IAAs), as two transcription factors of the auxin signaling pathway, co-regulate the transcription of auxin response genes. However, the inter-relation and regulatory mechanism of ARFs and AUX/IAAs in regulating AMS are still unclear. In this study, we found that the content of auxin in tomato roots increased sharply and revealed the importance of the auxin signaling pathway in the early stage of AMS. Notably, SlARF6 was found to play a negative role in AMF colonization. Silencing SlARF6 significantly increased the expression of AM-marker genes, as well as AMF-induced phosphorus uptake. SlIAA23 could interact with SlARF6 in vivo and in vitro, and promoted the AMS and phosphorus uptake. Interestingly, SlARF6 and SlIAA23 played a contrary role in strigolactone (SL) synthesis and accumulation in AMF-colonized roots of tomato plants. SlARF6 could directly bind to the AuxRE motif of the SlCCD8 promoter and inhibited its transcription, however, this effect was attenuated by SlIAA23 through interaction with SlARF6. Our results suggest that SlIAA23-SlARF6 co-regulated tomato-AMS via an SL-dependent pathway, thus affecting phosphorus uptake in tomato plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Tirichine L, G Piganeau (2023)

Editorial: Algal symbiotic relationships in freshwater and marine environments.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1155759.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Wu D, Zhang C, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Beyond faecal microbiota transplantation, the non-negligible role of faecal virome or bacteriophage transplantation.

Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi pii:S1684-1182(23)00042-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal microbiota, which contains bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses including bacteriophages, is symbiotic and evolves together with humans. The balanced intestinal microbiota plays indispensable roles in maintaining and regulating host metabolism and health. Dysbiosis has been associated with not only intestinal diseases but other diseases such as neurology disorders and cancers. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or faecal virome or bacteriophage transplantation (FVT or FBT), transfers faecal bacteria or viruses, with a focus on bacteriophage, from one healthy individual to another individual (normally unhealthy condition), and aims to restore the balanced gut microbiota and assist in subduing diseases. In this review, we summarized the applications of FMT and FVT in clinical settings, discussed the advantages and challenges of FMT and FVT currently and proposed several considerations prospectively. We further provided our understanding of why FMT and FVT have their limitations and raised the possible future development strategy of FMT and FVT.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Jin Y, Kim T, H Kang (2023)

Forced treadmill running modifies gut microbiota with alleviations of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease pathology in 3xTg-AD mice.

Physiology & behavior pii:S0031-9384(23)00073-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Physical exercise has been recommended as a non-pharmacologic treatment for delaying the onset or slowing the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The therapeutic potential of exercise training-induced changes in symbiotic gut microbiota against AD neuropathology is not well understood, yet. This study investigated the effects of a 20-week treadmill exercise program on the makeup of the gut microbiota, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the development of AD-like cognitive deficits and neuropathology in triple transgenic AD mice. Our findings show that forced treadmill running causes symbiotic changes in the gut microbiota, such as increased Akkermansia muciniphila and decreased Bacteroides species, as well as increased BBB-related protein expression and reduced AD-like cognitive impairments and neuropathology progression. The current findings of this animal study suggest that the interaction between the gut microbiota and the brain, possibly via the BBB, is responsible for exercise training-induced cognitive benefits and alleviation of AD pathology.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

López CM, Alseekh S, Torralbo F, et al (2023)

Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis reveals that symbiotic nitrogen fixation enhances drought resistance in common bean.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7072292 [Epub ahead of print].

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one of the most important legume crops, use atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with soil rhizobia reducing the nitrogen fertilization needs. However, this legume is particularly sensitive to drought conditions, prevalent in arid regions where this crop is cultured. Therefore, studying the response to drought is important to sustain crop productivity. We have used integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis to understand the molecular responses to water deficit in a marker-class common bean accession cultivated under N2-fixation or fertilized with nitrate (NO3-). RNA-seq revealed more transcriptional changes in the plants fertilized with NO3- than in the N2-fixing plants. However, changes in N2-fixing plants were more associated with drought tolerance than in the NO3- fertilized ones. N2-fixing plants accumulated more ureides in response to drought and GC/MS and LC/MS analysis of primary and secondary metabolites profiles revealed that N2-fixing plants also had higher levels of ABA, proline, raffinose, amino acids, sphingolipids and triacylglycerols than the NO3- fertilized ones. Moreover, plants grown under nitrogen fixation recovered from drought better than plants fertilized with NO3-. Altogether we show that common bean plants grown under symbiotic nitrogen fixation were more protected against drought than the plants fertilized with nitrate.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Santiago MFM, King KC, GC Drew (2023)

Interactions between insect vectors and plant pathogens span the parasitism-mutualism continuum.

Biology letters, 19(3):20220453.

Agricultural crops infected with vector-borne pathogens can suffer severe negative consequences, but the extent to which phytopathogens affect the fitness of their vector hosts remains unclear. Evolutionary theory predicts that selection on vector-borne pathogens will favour low virulence or mutualistic phenotypes in the vector, traits facilitating effective transmission between plant hosts. Here, we use a multivariate meta-analytic approach on 115 effect sizes across 34 unique plant-vector-pathogen systems to quantify the overall effect of phytopathogens on vector host fitness. In support of theoretical models, we report that phytopathogens overall have a neutral fitness effect on vector hosts. However, the range of fitness outcomes is diverse and span the parasitism-mutualism continuum. We found no evidence that various transmission strategies, or direct effects and indirect (plant-mediated) effects, of phytopathogens have divergent fitness outcomes for the vector. Our finding emphasizes diversity in tripartite interactions and the necessity for pathosystem-specific approaches to vector control.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Stahlhut KN, Conway M, Mason CM, et al (2023)

Intraspecific variation in mycorrhizal response is much larger than ecological literature suggests.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Mycorrhizal response is the most common metric for characterizing how much benefit a plant derives from mycorrhizal symbiosis. Traditionally, ecologists have used these metrics to generalize benefit from mycorrhizal symbiosis in plant species, ignoring the potential for plant intraspecific trait variation to alter the outcome of the mutualism. In order for mean trait values to be useful as a functional trait to describe a species, as has been attempted for mycorrhizal response traits, interspecific variation must be much larger than intraspecific variation. While the variation among species has been extensively studied with respect to mycorrhizal response traits, variation within species has rarely been examined. We conducted a systematic review and analyzed how much variation for mycorrhizal growth and nutrient response typically exists within a plant species. We assessed 28 publications that included 60 individual studies testing mycorrhizal response in at least five genotypes of a plant species, and we found that intraspecific trait variation for mycorrhizal response was generally very large and highly variable depending on study design. The difference between the highest and lowest growth response in a study ranged from 10% to 350% across studies, and 36 of the studies included species for which both positive and negative growth responses to mycorrhizae were observed across different genotypes. The intraspecific variation for mycorrhizal growth response in some of these studies was larger than the variation documented among species across the plant kingdom. Phosphorus concentration and content was measured in 17 studies and variation in phosphorus response was similar to variation in growth responses. We also found that plant genotype was just as important for predicting mycorrhizal response as the effects of fungal inoculant identity. Our analysis highlights not only the potential importance of intraspecific trait variation for mycorrhizal response, but also the lack of research that has been done on the scale of this variation in plant species. Including intraspecific variation into research on the interactions between plants and their symbionts can increase our understanding of plant coexistence and ecological stability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Guo Y, Meng L, Wang M, et al (2023)

Hologenome analysis reveals independent evolution to chemosymbiosis by deep-sea bivalves.

BMC biology, 21(1):51.

BACKGROUND: Bivalves have independently evolved a variety of symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic bacteria. These relationships range from endo- to extracellular interactions, making them ideal for studies on symbiosis-related evolution. It is still unclear whether there are universal patterns to symbiosis across bivalves. Here, we investigate the hologenome of an extracellular symbiotic thyasirid clam that represents the early stages of symbiosis evolution.

RESULTS: We present a hologenome of Conchocele bisecta (Bivalvia: Thyasiridae) collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents with extracellular symbionts, along with related ultrastructural evidence and expression data. Based on ultrastructural and sequencing evidence, only one dominant Thioglobaceae bacteria was densely aggregated in the large bacterial chambers of C. bisecta, and the bacterial genome shows nutritional complementarity and immune interactions with the host. Overall, gene family expansions may contribute to the symbiosis-related phenotypic variations in different bivalves. For instance, convergent expansions of gaseous substrate transport families in the endosymbiotic bivalves are absent in C. bisecta. Compared to endosymbiotic relatives, the thyasirid genome exhibits large-scale expansion in phagocytosis, which may facilitate symbiont digestion and account for extracellular symbiotic phenotypes. We also reveal that distinct immune system evolution, including expansion in lipopolysaccharide scavenging and contraction of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein), may contribute to the different manners of bacterial virulence resistance in C. bisecta.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, bivalves employ different pathways to adapt to the long-term co-existence with their bacterial symbionts, further highlighting the contribution of stochastic evolution to the independent gain of a symbiotic lifestyle in the lineage.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Mohamed AR, Ochsenkühn MA, Kazlak A, et al (2023)

The coral microbiome: Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of coral-microbiota interactions.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:7071893 [Epub ahead of print].

Corals live in a complex, multi-partite symbiosis with diverse microbes across kingdoms, some of which are implicated in vital functions, such as those related to resilience against climate change. However, knowledge gaps and technical challenges limit our understanding of the nature and functional significance of complex symbiotic relationships within corals. Here, we provide an overview of the complexity of the coral microbiome focusing on taxonomic diversity and functions of well-studied and cryptic microbes. Mining the coral literature indicate that while corals collectively harbor a third of all marine bacterial phyla, known bacterial symbionts and antagonists of corals represent a minute fraction of this diversity and that these taxa cluster into select genera, suggesting selective evolutionary mechanisms enabled these bacteria to gain a niche within the holobiont. Recent advances in coral microbiome research aimed at leveraging microbiome manipulation to increase coral's fitness to help mitigate heat stress-related mortality are discussed. Then, insights into the potential mechanisms through which microbiota can communicate with and modify host responses are examined by describing known recognition patterns, potential microbially-derived coral epigenome effector proteins and coral gene regulation. Finally, the power of omics tools used to study corals are highlighted with emphasis on an integrated host-microbiota multiomics framework to understand the underlying mechanisms during symbiosis and climate change-driven dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Baig F, Farnier K, Ishtiaq M, et al (2023)

Volatiles produced by symbiotic yeasts improve trap catches of Carpophilus davidsoni (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): an important pest of stone fruits in Australia.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7070604 [Epub ahead of print].

Carpophilus davidsoni (Dobson) is an important pest of Australian stone fruit. Current management practices for this beetle include the use of a trap that contains an attractant lure comprised of aggregation pheromones and a 'co-attractant' mixture of volatiles from fruit juice fermented using Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Hansen). We explored whether volatiles from yeasts Pichia kluyveri (Bedford) and Hanseniaspora guilliermondii (Pijper), which are closely associated with C. davidsoni in nature, might improve the effectiveness of the co-attractant. Field trials using live yeast cultures revealed that P. kluyveri trapped higher numbers of C. davidsoni compared to H. guilliermondii, and comparative GC-MS of volatile emissions of the two yeasts led to the selection of isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate for further investigation. In subsequent field trials, trap catches of C. davidsoni were significantly increased when 2-phenylethyl acetate was added to the co-attractant, compared to when isoamyl acetate was added, or both isoamyl acetate and 2-phenylethyl acetate. We also tested different concentrations of ethyl acetate in the co-attractant (the only ester in the original lure) and found contrasting results in cage bioassays and field trails. Our study demonstrates how exploring volatile emissions from microbes that are ecologically associated with insect pests can result in more potent lures for use in integrated pest management strategies. Results from laboratory bioassays screening volatile compounds should be treated with caution when making inferences regarding attraction under field conditions.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Bristy SA, Hossain MA, Hasan MI, et al (2023)

An integrated complete-genome sequencing and systems biology approach to predict antimicrobial resistance genes in the virulent bacterial strains of Moraxella catarrhalis.

Briefings in functional genomics pii:7067527 [Epub ahead of print].

Moraxella catarrhalis is a symbiotic as well as mucosal infection-causing bacterium unique to humans. Currently, it is considered as one of the leading factors of acute middle ear infection in children. As M. catarrhalis is resistant to multiple drugs, the treatment is unsuccessful; therefore, innovative and forward-thinking approaches are required to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To better comprehend the numerous processes that lead to antibiotic resistance in M. catarrhalis, we have adopted a computational method in this study. From the NCBI-Genome database, we investigated 12 strains of M. catarrhalis. We explored the interaction network comprising 74 antimicrobial-resistant genes found by analyzing M. catarrhalis bacterial strains. Moreover, to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the AMR system, clustering and the functional enrichment analysis were assessed employing AMR gene interactions networks. According to the findings of our assessment, the majority of the genes in the network were involved in antibiotic inactivation; antibiotic target replacement, alteration and antibiotic efflux pump processes. They exhibit resistance to several antibiotics, such as isoniazid, ethionamide, cycloserine, fosfomycin, triclosan, etc. Additionally, rpoB, atpA, fusA, groEL and rpoL have the highest frequency of relevant interactors in the interaction network and are therefore regarded as the hub nodes. These genes can be exploited to create novel medications by serving as possible therapeutic targets. Finally, we believe that our findings could be useful to advance knowledge of the AMR system present in M. catarrhalis.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Pirttilä AM, Brusila V, Koskimäki JJ, et al (2023)

Exchange of Microbiomes in Plant-Insect Herbivore Interactions.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial symbiotic communities span through kingdoms. The vast microbial gene pool extends the host genome and supports adaptations to changing environmental conditions. Plants are versatile hosts for the symbionts, carrying microbes on the surface, inside tissues, and even within the cells. Insects are equally abundantly colonized by microbial symbionts on the exoskeleton, in the gut, in the hemocoel, and inside the cells. The insect gut is a prolific environment, but it is selective on the microbial species that enter with food. Plants and insects are often highly dependent on each other and frequently interact. Regardless of the accumulating evidence on the microbiomes of both organisms, it remains unclear how much they exchange and modify each other's microbiomes. In this review, we approach this question from the point of view of herbivores that feed on plants, with a special focus on the forest ecosystems. After a brief introduction to the subject, we concentrate on the plant microbiome, the overlap between plant and insect microbial communities, and how the exchange and modification of microbiomes affects the fitness of each host.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Mahood EH, Bennett AA, Komatsu K, et al (2023)

Information theory and machine learning illuminate large-scale metabolomic responses of Brachypodium distachyon to environmental change.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Plant responses to environmental change are mediated via changes in cellular metabolomes. However, <5% of signals obtained from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be identified, limiting our understanding of how metabolomes change under biotic/abiotic stress. To address this challenge, we performed untargeted LC-MS/MS of leaves, roots, and other organs of Brachypodium distachyon (Poaceae) under 17 organ-condition combinations, including copper deficiency, heat stress, low phosphate, and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. We found that both leaf and root metabolomes were significantly affected by the growth medium. Leaf metabolomes were more diverse than root metabolomes, but the latter were more specialized and more responsive to environmental change. We found that 1-week of copper deficiency shielded the root, but not the leaf metabolome, from perturbation due to heat stress. Machine learning (ML)-based analysis annotated ~81% of the fragmented peaks versus ~6% using spectral matches alone. We performed one of the most extensive validations of ML-based peak annotations in plants using thousands of authentic standards, and analyzed ~37% of the annotated peaks based on these assessments. Analyzing responsiveness of each predicted metabolite class to environmental change revealed significant perturbations of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids and flavonoids. Co-accumulation analysis further identified condition-specific biomarkers. To make these results accessible, we developed a visualization platform on the Bioanalytical Resource website (, where perturbed metabolite classes can be readily visualized. Overall, our study illustrates how emerging chemoinformatic methods can be applied to reveal novel insights into the dynamic plant metabolome and stress adaptation.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Pereira AL, F Carrapiço (2023)

A fluorescence method to detect cyanophycin in the symbiotic cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae.

Biotechnic & histochemistry : official publication of the Biological Stain Commission [Epub ahead of print].

The cyanophycin content of the heterocystous nitrogen-fixing symbiotic cyanobacterium, Anabaena azollae, which inhabits an ovoid cavity in the dorsal leaf lobes of the fern, Azolla filiculoides, is seldom analyzed. To study the cyanophycin content in vegetative cells and heterocysts of A. azollae, we used three fluorochromes: aluminum trichloride, lead citrate and Wilson citroboric solution and Coomassie brilliant blue. Blue and yellow fluorescence were emitted from the polar nodes and cytoplasm cyanophycin granules of the heterocysts when stained with the three fluorochromes. The cyanophycin observed without staining or with Coomassie brilliant blue staining did not alter the results obtained using the fluorochromes. We found that aluminum trichloride, lead acetate and Wilson citroboric solution could be used to detect cyanophycin.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Wadström C, Södergren K, J Palm (2023)

Exploring total economic values in an emerging urban circular wastewater system.

Water research, 233:119806 pii:S0043-1354(23)00241-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Circular water management has the potential to close resource and material loops within and across value chains. In the water industry, circular municipal wastewater management through industrial urban symbiosis (IUS) is recognized as a solution to overcome water scarcity in urban environments. IUS involves collaboration between actors with different organizational backgrounds, which can lead to inherent risks of conflicting goals. This study explores how different values drive various organizations to participate in an emerging circular wastewater collaboration. The study comprises a literature review of 34 scientific articles and a case study of a potential circular wastewater system through IUS in Simrishamn, Sweden. It presents an interdisciplinary framework based on the total economic value concept and organizational archetypes for examining actor values in circular wastewater management. This framework provides a novel approach for assessing different values and how they may compete or align. It can also identify the absence of certain values, enabling the achievement of a minimum level of value coherence amongst different actors, and thereby increasing the sustainability and effectiveness of circular wastewater collaborations. Therefore, careful planning and stakeholder interaction, in accordance with economic value perspectives, can enhance the legitimacy and policy development of circular solutions.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Jager EA, Quebbeman AW, Wolf AA, et al (2023)

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation does not stimulate soil phosphatase activity under temperate and tropical trees.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic nitrogen (N)-fixing plants can enrich ecosystems with N, which can alter the cycling and demand for other nutrients. Researchers have hypothesized that fixed N could be used by plants and soil microbes to produce extracellular phosphatase enzymes, which release P from organic matter. Consistent with this speculation, the presence of N-fixing plants is often associated with high phosphatase activity, either in the soil or on root surfaces, although other studies have not found this association, and the connection between phosphatase and rates of N fixation-the mechanistic part of the argument-is tenuous. Here, we measured soil phosphatase activity under N-fixing trees and non-fixing trees transplanted and grown in tropical and temperate sites in the USA: two sites in Hawaii, and one each in New York and Oregon. This provides a rare example of phosphatase activity measured in a multi-site field experiment with rigorously quantified rates of N fixation. We found no difference in soil phosphatase activity under N-fixing vs. non-fixing trees nor across rates of N fixation, though we note that no sites were P limited and only one was N limited. Our results add to the literature showing no connection between N fixation rates and phosphatase activity.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Li JX, Xu QH, Shang RY, et al (2023)

Aspergetherins A-D, New Chlorinated Biphenyls with anti-MRSA Activity from the Marine Sponge Symbiotic Fungus Aspergillus terreus 164018.

Chemistry & biodiversity [Epub ahead of print].

Aspergetherins A-D (1-4), four new chlorinated biphenyls, were isolated from the rice fermentation of a marine sponge symbiotic fungus Aspergillus terreus 164018, along with seven known biphenyl derivatives (5-11). The structures of four new compounds were determined by a comprehensive analysis of the spectroscopic data, including HR-ESI-MS and 2D NMR data. All 11 isolates were evaluated for their anti-bacterial activity against two strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Among them, compounds 1, 3, 8 and 10 showed anti-MRSA activity with MIC values of 1.0-128 μg/mL. Preliminary structure-activity relationship analysis unveiled that both chlorinated substitution and esterification of 2-carboxylic acid could impact the antibacterial activity of biphenyls.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Wongdee J, Piromyou P, Songwattana P, et al (2023)

Role of two RpoN in Bradyrhizobium sp. strain DOA9 in symbiosis and free-living growth.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1131860.

RpoN is an alternative sigma factor (sigma 54) that recruits the core RNA polymerase to promoters of genes. In bacteria, RpoN has diverse physiological functions. In rhizobia, RpoN plays a key role in the transcription of nitrogen fixation (nif) genes. The Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 strain contains a chromosomal (c) and plasmid (p) encoded RpoN protein. We used single and double rpoN mutants and reporter strains to investigate the role of the two RpoN proteins under free-living and symbiotic conditions. We observed that the inactivation of rpoNc or rpoNp severely impacts the physiology of the bacteria under free-living conditions, such as the bacterial motility, carbon and nitrogen utilization profiles, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, and biofilm formation. However, free-living nitrogen fixation appears to be under the primary control of RpoNc. Interestingly, drastic effects of rpoNc and rpoNp mutations were also observed during symbiosis with Aeschynomene americana. Indeed, inoculation with rpoNp, rpoNc, and double rpoN mutant strains resulted in decreases of 39, 64, and 82% in the number of nodules, respectively, as well as a reduction in nitrogen fixation efficiency and a loss of the bacterium's ability to survive intracellularly. Taken together, the results show that the chromosomal and plasmid encoded RpoN proteins in the DOA9 strain both play a pleiotropic role during free-living and symbiotic states.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Ge W, Ren Y, Dong C, et al (2023)

New perspective: Symbiotic pattern and assembly mechanism of Cantharellus cibarius-associated bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1074468.

Cantharellus cibarius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus belonging to the Basidiomycetes, has significant medicinal and edible value, economic importance, and ecological benefits. However, C. cibarius remains incapable of artificial cultivation, which is thought to be due to the presence of bacteria. Therefore, much research has focused on the relationship between C. cibarius and bacteria, but rare bacteria are frequently overlooked, and symbiotic pattern and assembly mechanism of the bacterial community associated with C. cibarius remain unknown. In this study, the assembly mechanism and driving factors of both abundant and rare bacterial communities of C. cibarius were revealed by the null model. The symbiotic pattern of the bacterial community was examined using a co-occurrence network. Metabolic functions and phenotypes of the abundant and rare bacteria were compared using METAGENassist2, and the impacts of abiotic variables on the diversity of abundant and rare bacteria were examined using partial least squares path modeling. In the fruiting body and mycosphere of C. cibarius, there was a higher proportion of specialist bacteria compared with generalist bacteria. Dispersal limitation dominated the assembly of abundant and rare bacterial communities in the fruiting body and mycosphere. However, pH, 1-octen-3-ol, and total phosphorus of the fruiting body were the main driving factors of bacterial community assembly in the fruiting body, while available nitrogen and total phosphorus of the soil affected the assembly process of the bacterial community in the mycosphere. Furthermore, bacterial co-occurrence patterns in the mycosphere may be more complex compared with those in the fruiting body. Unlike the specific potential functions of abundant bacteria, rare bacteria may provide supplementary or unique metabolic pathways (such as sulfite oxidizer and sulfur reducer) to enhance the ecological function of C. cibarius. Notably, while volatile organic compounds can reduce mycosphere bacterial diversity, they can increase fruiting body bacterial diversity. Findings from this study further, our understanding of C. cibarius-associated microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH), Bragard C, Baptista P, et al (2023)

Pest categorisation of Urocerus albicornis.

EFSA journal. European Food Safety Authority, 21(3):e07845.

The EFSA Panel on Plant Health performed a pest categorisation of Urocerus albicornis (Hymenoptera: Siricidae), the black horntail sawfly, for the territory of the EU. U. albicornis is not listed in Annex II of Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2019/2072. U. albicornis occurs throughout Canada and continental USA and has established in northern Spain, and probably in southern France (based on two specimens caught in two sites) and Japan (based on one individual caught in one site). It attacks mostly stumps or fallen or weakened trees of at least 20 species of Pinaceae (Abies spp., Larix spp., Picea spp., Pinus spp., Pseudotsuga menziesii, Tsuga spp.) and of Cupressaceae (Thuja plicata). In Spain, the females fly between May and September with a peak in August and September. The eggs are deposited into the sapwood, together with mucus containing a venom and a white-rot wood-decay basidiomycete, either Amylostereum chailletii or A. areolatum. Each fungus is symbiotic with the insect. The larvae feed on wood infected by the fungus. All immature stages live in the host sapwood. In British Columbia, the lifecycle of the pest lasts 2 years but has not been fully characterised elsewhere. The wood of the host trees is impacted by decay due to the fungus, and structurally impaired by the larval galleries. U. albicornis can be carried in conifer wood, solid wood packaging material (SWPM) or plants for planting. Wood from North America is regulated by 2019/2072 (Annex VII) while SWPM is managed according to ISPM 15. The pathway plants for planting is largely closed by prohibition, with the exception of Thuja spp. Climatic conditions in several EU member states are conducive for establishment and the main host plants are widespread in those areas. Further spread and introduction of U. albicornis is likely to decrease the quality of host wood and may influence forest diversity by selectively affecting conifers. Phytosanitary measures are available to reduce the likelihood of additional entry and further spread, and there is a potential for biological control. Despite uncertainty regarding potential damage, U. albicornis satisfies all the criteria that are within the remit of EFSA to assess for it to be regarded as a potential Union quarantine pest.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Afshar AS, H Abbaspour (2023)

Mycorrhizal symbiosis alleviate salinity stress in pistachio plants by altering gene expression and antioxidant pathways.

Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology, 29(2):263-276.

UNLABELLED: This study investigated how inoculation of salt-stressed Pistacia vera seedlings with Rhizophagus irregularis, an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF), affects their biomass, oxidative damage, antioxidant enzyme activity, and gene expression. Pistachio seedlings (N:36) were randomly assigned to AMF inoculation and non-inoculation groups in a pot experiment with 9 replications. Each group was further divided and randomly assigned to two salinity treatments (0 and 300 mM NaCl). At the end of week 4, three pistachio plantlets were randomly selected from each group for Rhizophagus irregularis colonization inspection, physiological and biochemical assays, and biomass measurements. Salinity activated enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems in the pistachio plants were studied. The negative effects of salinity included reduced biomass and relative water content (RWC), increased O2 [·-], H2O2, MDA, and electrolytic leakage. Generally, Rhizophagus irregularis was found to mitigate the adverse effects of salinity in pistachio seedlings. AMF inoculation resulted in even further increases in the activities of SODs, POD, CAT, and GR enzymes, upregulating Cu/Zn-SOD, Fe-SOD, Mn-SOD, and GR genes expression in plants under salinity stress. Moreover, AMF significantly increased AsA, α-tocopherol, and carotenoids under both control and salinity conditions. The study concludes with a call for future research into the mechanisms of mycorrhiza-induced tolerance in plants under salinity stress.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-023-01279-8.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Asadollahi M, Iranbakhsh A, Ahmadvand R, et al (2023)

Synergetic effect of water deficit and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on the expression of aquaporins in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots: insights from NGS RNA-sequencing.

Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology, 29(2):195-208.

UNLABELLED: Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the most important crops in the world. This investigation was attempted to evaluate the transcriptional responses of aquaporins (AQPs) to the mycorrhizal inoculation and/or water deficit conditions in wheat to clarify how the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can contribute to the modulation of water homeostasis. The wheat seedlings were subjected to the water deficiency, and mycorrhizal inoculation using arbuscular fungus Funneliformis mosseae and Illumina RNA-Seq analyses confirmed that aquaporins expressed differentially in response to both the irrigation levels and mycorrhizal colonization. Results of this study showed that only 13% of the studied AQPs were responsive to water deficit with a tiny fraction (3%) being up-regulated. Mycorrhizal inoculation had a greater impact on the expression of AQPs with ca. 26% being responsive, ca. 4% of which were up-regulated. The samples with arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation yielded more root and stem biomass. Water deficit and mycorrhizal inoculation caused different AQPs to be up-regulated. The effect of mycorrhizal inoculation on the expression of AQPs was intensified by applying water deficiency with 32% of studied AQPs being responsive, 6% of which up-regulated. We also found that the overexpression of three genes TaNIP1-10, TaNIP3-3, and TaNIP3-4 was chiefly triggered by mycorrhizal inoculation. Our results show that water deficit has a lower impact on the expression of aquaporins compared to what the arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation has; water deficit and arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation mainly cause the down-regulation of the aquaporins, and water deficit and the arbuscular inoculation have synergetic effects. These findings could improve our knowledge of how arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis can contribute to the modulation of water homeostasis.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12298-023-01285-w.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Wang Y, Xu Q, Shan H, et al (2023)

Genome-wide analysis of 14-3-3 gene family in four gramineae and its response to mycorrhizal symbiosis in maize.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1117879.

14-3-3 proteins (regulatory protein family) are phosphate serine-binding proteins. A number of transcription factors and signaling proteins have been shown to bind to the 14-3-3 protein in plants, which plays a role in regulating their growth (seed dormancy, cell elongation and division, vegetative and reproduction growth and stress response (salt stress, drought stress, cold stress). Therefore, the 14-3-3 genes are crucial in controlling how plants respond to stress and develop. However, little is known about the function of 14-3-3 gene families in gramineae. In this study, 49 14-3-3 genes were identified from four gramineae, including maize, rice, sorghum and brachypodium, and their phylogeny, structure, collinearity and expression patterns of these genes were systematically analyzed. Genome synchronization analysis showed large-scale replication events of 14-3-3 genes in these gramineae plants. Moreover, gene expression revealed that the 14-3-3 genes respond to biotic and abiotic stresses differently in different tissues. Upon arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, the expression level of 14-3-3 genes in maize significantly increased, suggesting the important role of 14-3-3 genes in maize-AM symbiosis. Our results provide a better understanding on the occurrence of 14-3-3 genes in Gramineae plants, and several important candidate genes were found for futher study on AMF symbiotic regulation in maize.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Selvaraj S, K Gurumurthy (2023)

An overview of probiotic health booster-kombucha tea.

Chinese herbal medicines, 15(1):27-32.

Traditional herbal medicine (THM) is a significant division of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that plays an important role in maintaining health and disease prevention. WHO has consistently highlighted the significance of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine in human healthcare. Most people in Eastern Asia will start their day with a cup of tea. The tea provides a nourishing effect, and it has become an inevitable part of life. There are several types of tea, like black tea, green tea, oolong tea, white tea, and herbal tea. Besides the refreshments, it is important to consume beverages that benefit health. One such alternative is a healthy probiotic drink called kombucha, a fermented tea. Kombucha tea is aerobically fermented by infusing sweetened tea with a cellulose mat/ pellicle called SCOBY (symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast). Kombucha is a source of bioactive compounds that include organic acids and amino acids, vitamins, probiotics, sugars, polyphenols, and antioxidants. Currently, studies on kombucha tea and SCOBY are gaining attention for their remarkable properties and applications in the food and health industries. The review gives an overview of the production, fermentation, microbial diversity, and metabolic products of kombucha. The possible implications for human health are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Zhang K, Wang S, Yao D, et al (2023)

Aerobic and facultative anaerobic Klebsiella pneumoniae strains establish mutual competition and jointly promote Musca domestica development.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1102065.

INTRODUCTION: The gut microenvironment in housefly harbors a rich and diverse microbial community which plays a crucial role in larval development. However, little is known about the impact of specific symbiotic bacteria on larval development as well as the composition of the indigenous gut microbiota of housefly.

METHODS: In the present study, two novel strains were isolated from housefly larval gut, i.e., Klebsiella pneumoniae KX (aerobe) and K. pneumoniae KY (facultative anaerobe). Moreover, the bacteriophages KXP/KYP specific for strains KX and KY were used to analyse the effects of K. pneumoniae on larval development.

RESULTS: Our results showed that dietary supplementation with K. pneumoniae KX and KY individually promoted housefly larval growth. However, no significant synergistic effect was observed when the two bacterial strains were administered in combination. In addition, using high-throughput sequencing, it was demonstrated that the abundance of Klebsiella increased whereas that of Provincia, Serratia and Morganella decreased when housefly larvae received supplementation with K. pneumoniae KX, KY or the KX-KY mixture. Moreover, when used combined, K. pneumoniae KX/KY inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas and Providencia. When the abundance of both bacterial strains simultaneously increased, a balance in total bacterial abundance was reached.

DISCUSSION: Thus, it can be assumed that strains K. pneumoniae KX and KY maintain an equilibrium to facilitate their development in housefly gut, by establishing competition but also cooperation with each other to maintain the constant composition of gut bacteria in housefly larvae. Thus, our findings highlight the essential role of K. pneumoniae in regulating the composition of the gut microbiota in insects.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Zhao D, Zhang J, Zhang L, et al (2023)

PAFR/Stat3 axis maintains the symbiotic ecosystem between tumor and stroma to facilitate tumor malignancy.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 13(2):694-708.

Stroma surrounding the tumor cells plays crucial roles for tumor progression. However, little is known about the factors that maintain the symbiosis between stroma and tumor cells. In this study, we found that the transcriptional regulator-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) was frequently activated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), which was a potent facilitator of tumor malignancy, and formed forward feedback loop with platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) both in CAFs and tumor cells. Importantly, PAFR/Stat3 axis connected intercellular signaling crosstalk between CAFs and cancer cells and drove mutual transcriptional programming of these two types of cells. Two central Stat3-related cytokine signaling molecules-interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-11 played the critical role in the process of PAFR/Stat3 axis-mediated communication between tumor and CAFs. Pharmacological inhibition of PAFR and Stat3 activities effectively reduced tumor progression using CAFs/tumor co-culture xenograft model. Our study reveals that PAFR/Stat3 axis enhances the interaction between tumor and its associated stroma and suggests that targeting this axis can be an effective therapeutic strategy against tumor malignancy.

RevDate: 2023-03-05

Fieschi-Méric L, van Leeuwen P, Denoël M, et al (2023)

Encouraging news for in situ conservation: translocation of salamander larvae has limited impacts on their skin microbiota.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The key role of symbiotic skin bacteria communities in amphibian resistance to emerging pathogens is well recognized, but factors leading to their dysbiosis are not fully understood. In particular, the potential effects of population translocations on the composition and diversity of hosts' skin microbiota have received little attention, although such transfers are widely carried out as a strategy for amphibian conservation. To characterize the potential reorganization of the microbiota over such a sudden environmental change, we conducted a common-garden experiment simulating reciprocal translocations of yellow-spotted salamander larvae across three lakes. We sequenced skin microbiota samples collected before and 15 days after the transfer. Using a database of antifungal isolates, we identified symbionts with known function against the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a major driver of amphibian declines. Our results indicate an important reorganization of bacterial assemblages throughout ontogeny, with strong changes in composition, diversity and structure of the skin microbiota in both control and translocated individuals over the 15 days of monitoring. Unexpectedly, the diversity and community structure of the microbiota were not significantly affected by the translocation event, thus suggesting a strong resilience of skin bacterial communities to environmental change - at least across the time-window studied here. A few phylotypes were more abundant in the microbiota of translocated larvae, but no differences were found among pathogen-inhibiting symbionts. Taken together, our results support amphibian translocations as a promising strategy for this endangered animal class, with limited impact on their skin microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Cai J, Veerappan V, Arildsen K, et al (2023)

A modified aeroponic system for growing small-seeded legumes and other plants to study root systems.

Plant methods, 19(1):21.

BACKGROUND: Various growth systems are available for studying plant root growth and plant-microbe interactions including hydroponics and aeroponics. Although some of these systems work well with Arabidopsis thaliana and smaller cereal model plants, they may not scale up as well for use with hundreds of plants at a time from a larger plant species. The aim of this study is to present step-by-step instructions for fabricating an aeroponic system, also called a "caisson," that has been in use in several legume research labs studying the development of symbiotic nitrogen fixing nodules, but for which detailed directions are not currently available. The aeroponic system is reusable and is adaptable for many other types of investigations besides root nodulation.

RESULTS: An aeroponic system that is affordable and reusable was adapted from a design invented by French engineer René Odorico. It consists of two main components: a modified trash can with a lid of holes and a commercially available industrial humidifier that is waterproofed with silicon sealant. The humidifier generates a mist in which plant roots grow, suspended from holes in trash can lid. Results from use of the aeroponic system have been available in the scientific community for decades; it has a record as a workhorse in the lab.

CONCLUSIONS: Aeroponic systems present a convenient way for researchers to grow plants for studying root systems and plant-microbe interactions in root systems. They are particularly attractive for phenotyping roots and following the progress of nodule development in legumes. Advantages include the ability to precisely control the growth medium in which the plants grow and easy observations of roots during growth. In this system, mechanical shear potentially killing microbes found in some other types of aeroponic devices is not an issue. Disadvantages of aeroponic systems include the likelihood of altered root physiology compared to root growth on soil and other solid substrates and the need to have separate aeroponic systems for comparing plant responses to different microbial strains.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Dauphin B, M Peter (2023)

Advancing research on ectomycorrhizal fungal adaptation with landscape genomics.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(23)00049-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi serve key functions in forest ecosystems by supplying water and nutrients to tree hosts, yet mutualistic plant-fungi interactions are jeopardised by environmental alterations. Here, we discuss the great potential and current limitations of landscape genomics in investigating signatures of local adaptation in natural populations of ECM fungi.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Tehrani N, RM Mitra (2023)

Plant pathogens and symbionts target the plant nucleus.

Current opinion in microbiology, 72:102284 pii:S1369-5274(23)00021-8 [Epub ahead of print].

In plant-microbe interactions, symbionts and pathogens live within plants and attempt to avoid triggering plant defense responses. In order to do so, these microbes have evolved multiple mechanisms that target components of the plant cell nucleus. Rhizobia-induced symbiotic signaling requires the function of specific legume nucleoporins within the nuclear pore complex. Symbiont and pathogen effectors harbor nuclear localization sequences that facilitate movement across nuclear pores, allowing these proteins to target transcription factors that function in defense. Oomycete pathogens introduce proteins that interact with plant pre-mRNA splicing components in order to alter host splicing of defense-related transcripts. Together, these functions indicate that the nucleus is an active site of symbiotic and pathogenic functioning in plant-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Holland S, R Roth (2023)

Extracellular Vesicles in the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives.

Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI [Epub ahead of print].

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is an ancient and highly conserved mutualism between plant and fungal symbionts, in which a highly specialised membrane-delimited fungal arbuscule acts as the symbiotic interface for nutrient exchange and signalling. As a ubiquitous means of biomolecule transport and intercellular communication, extracellular vesicles (EVs) are likely to play a role in this intimate cross-kingdom symbiosis, yet there is a lack of research investigating the importance of EVs in AM symbiosis despite known roles in microbial interactions in both animal and plant pathosystems. Clarifying the current understanding of EVs in this symbiosis in light of recent ultrastructural observations is paramount to guiding future investigations in the field and, to this end, this review summarises recent research investigating these areas. Namely, this review discusses the available knowledge regarding biogenesis pathways and marker proteins associated with the various plant EV subclasses, EV trafficking pathways during symbiosis, and the endocytic mechanisms implicated in the uptake of these EVs.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Malusà E, Vassilev N, Neri D, et al (2023)

Editorial: Plant root interaction with associated microbiomes to improve plant resiliency and crop biodiversity, volume II.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1143657.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Wang LL, Zhang PH, HH Yan (2023)

Functional foods and dietary supplements in the management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Frontiers in nutrition, 10:1014010.

OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to clarify the overall effects of functional foods and dietary supplements in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.

METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane library, and Embase from January 1, 2000 to January 31, 2022 were systematically searched to assess the effects of functional foods and dietary supplements in patients with NAFLD. The primary outcomes were liver-related measures, such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis, while the secondary outcomes included body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), triacylglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). These indexes were all continuous variables, so the mean difference (MD) was used for calculating the effect size. Random-effects or fixed-effects models were used to estimate the mean difference (MD). The risk of bias in all studies was assessed with guidance provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions.

RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles investigating functional foods and dietary supplements [antioxidants (phytonutrients and coenzyme Q10) = 18, probiotics/symbiotic/prebiotic = 6, fatty acids = 3, vitamin D = 1, and whole grain = 1] met the eligibility criteria. Our results showed that antioxidants could significantly reduce WC (MD: -1.28 cm; 95% CI: -1.58, -0.99, P < 0.05), ALT (MD: -7.65 IU/L; 95% CI: -11.14, -4.16, P < 0.001), AST (MD: -4.26 IU/L; 95% CI: -5.76, -2.76, P < 0.001), and LDL-C (MD: -0.24 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.46, -0.02, P < 0.05) increased in patients with NAFLD but had no effect on BMI, TG, and TC. Probiotic/symbiotic/prebiotic supplementation could decrease BMI (MD: -0.57 kg/m[2]; 95% CI: -0.72, -0.42, P < 0.05), ALT (MD: -3.96 IU/L; 95% CI: -5.24, -2.69, P < 0.001), and AST (MD: -2.76; 95% CI: -3.97, -1.56, P < 0.0001) levels but did not have beneficial effects on serum lipid levels compared to the control group. Moreover, the efficacy of fatty acids for treating NAFLD was full of discrepancies. Additionally, vitamin D had no significant effect on BMI, liver transaminase, and serum lipids, while whole grain could reduce ALT and AST but did not affect serum lipid levels.

CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that antioxidant and probiotic/symbiotic/prebiotic supplements may be a promising regimen for NAFLD patients. However, the usage of fatty acids, vitamin D, and whole grain in clinical treatment is uncertain. Further exploration of the efficacy ranks of functional foods and dietary supplements is needed to provide a reliable basis for clinical application., identifier: CRD42022351763.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

de Souza Buzo F, Garé LM, Garcia NFS, et al (2023)

Effect of mycorrhizae on phosphate fertilization efficiency and maize growth under field conditions.

Scientific reports, 13(1):3527.

Phosphorus (P) is a plant macronutrient that is indispensable for maize (Zea mays L.) production. However, P is difficult to manage in weathered soils, and its fertilization practice has low efficiency because it becomes unavailable for absorption by plant roots. Symbiosis of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases plant growth and enhances P uptake from the soil that is not directly available to the roots. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine how inoculation with Rhizophagus intraradices and phosphate fertilization interacts and influences the development and productivity of second-crop maize. The experiment was conducted in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in 2019 and 2020, both in a Typic Haplorthox. A randomized block design in subdivided plots was used for the phosphate application during crop sowing (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% concentrations of the recommended level), and the secondary treatments were the doses of mycorrhizal inoculant (0, 60, 120 and 180 g ha[-1]) applied to the seed using a dry powder inoculant containing 20,800 infectious propagules per gram of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus R. intraradices. Only in the first year of the experiment, inoculation and phosphate fertilization promoted benefits to the maize crop, indicating potential to increase yield.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Walsh K, Delamare de la Villenaise de Chenevarin G, McGurk J, et al (2021)

Development of a legume-enriched feed for treatment of severe acute malnutrition.

Wellcome open research, 6:206.

Background: Outcomes in children hospitalised with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) remain poor. The current milk-based formulations focus on restoring weight-gain but fail to address modification of the integrity of the gut barrier and may exacerbate malabsorption owing to functional lactase, maltase and sucrase deficiency. We hypothesise that nutritional feeds should be designed to promote bacterial diversity and restore gastrointestinal (GI) barrier function. Methods: Our major objective was to develop a lactose-free, fermentable carbohydrate-containing alternative to traditional F75 and F100 formulae for the inpatient treatment of SAM. New target nutritional characteristics were developed and relevant food and infant food specific legislation were reviewed. Suitable certified suppliers of ingredients were identified. Processing and manufacture steps were evaluated and optimised for safety (nutritional, chemical and microbiological), and efficacy at meeting target characteristics (lactose-free, containing resistant starch 0.4-0.5% final product weight). Results: A final validated production process was developed and implemented to produce a novel food product for the inpatient treatment of SAM in children in Africa designed to reduce risk of osmotic diarrhoea and support symbiotic gut microbial populations. The final product matched the macronutrient profile of double-concentrated F100, adhered to all relevant legislation regulating infant foods, was lactose free, and contained 0.6% resistant starch. Chickpeas were selected as the source of resistant starch, since they are widely grown and eaten throughout Africa. Micronutrient content could not be matched in this ready-to-use product, so this was replaced at the point of feeding, as was fluid lost through concentration. Conclusions: The processes and product described illustrate the development steps for a novel nutritional product. The new feed product was ready for evaluation for safety and efficacy in a phase II clinical trial in Ugandan children admitted to hospital with SAM (Modifying Intestinal MicroBiome with Legume-Based feed 2: MIMBLE feed 2 (ISRCTN10309022)).

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Katoh T, Yamada C, Wallace MD, et al (2023)

A bacterial sulfoglycosidase highlights mucin O-glycan breakdown in the gut ecosystem.

Nature chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Mucinolytic bacteria modulate host-microbiota symbiosis and dysbiosis through their ability to degrade mucin O-glycans. However, how and to what extent bacterial enzymes are involved in the breakdown process remains poorly understood. Here we focus on a glycoside hydrolase family 20 sulfoglycosidase (BbhII) from Bifidobacterium bifidum, which releases N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate from sulfated mucins. Glycomic analysis showed that, in addition to sulfatases, sulfoglycosidases are involved in mucin O-glycan breakdown in vivo and that the released N-acetylglucosamine-6-sulfate potentially affects gut microbial metabolism, both of which were also supported by a metagenomic data mining analysis. Enzymatic and structural analysis of BbhII reveals the architecture underlying its specificity and the presence of a GlcNAc-6S-specific carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) 32 with a distinct sugar recognition mode that B. bifidum takes advantage of to degrade mucin O-glycans. Comparative analysis of the genomes of prominent mucinolytic bacteria also highlights a CBM-dependent O-glycan breakdown strategy used by B. bifidum.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Shi Y, Lin Y, Wang S, et al (2023)

Resource saving and carbon footprint reduction potential of urban symbiosis strategy in express packaging waste recycling network.

Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 161:17-28 pii:S0956-053X(23)00200-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The booming express delivery industry corresponds to the environmental challenges caused by massive express packaging waste (EPW). An efficient logistics network is necessary link to support EPW recycling. This study, therefore, designed a circular symbiosis network for EPW recycling based on urban symbiosis strategy. The treatment of EPW in this network includes reuse, recycling and replacing. An optimization model with multi-depot collaboration combining material flow analysis and optimization methods was developed and a hybrid non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II) was designed as technical support for designing the circular symbiosis network while quantitatively assessing the economic and environmental benefits of the network. The results show that the designed circular symbiosis option has better resource saving and carbon footprint reduction potential than both the business as usual option and circular symbiosis option without service collaboration. In practice, the proposed circular symbiosis network can save EPW recycling costs and reduce carbon footprint. This study provides a practical guideline for the application of urban symbiosis strategies to help urban green governance and the sustainable development of express companies.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Edwards MM, McLeod DS, Shen M, et al (2023)

Clinicopathologic Findings in Three Siblings With Geographic Atrophy.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 64(3):2.

PURPOSE: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the elderly worldwide. Clinical imaging and histopathologic studies are crucial to understanding disease pathology. This study combined clinical observations of three brothers with geographic atrophy (GA), followed for 20 years, with histopathologic analysis.

METHODS: For two of the three brothers, clinical images were taken in 2016, 2 years prior to death. Immunohistochemistry, on both flat-mounts and cross sections, histology, and transmission electron microscopy were used to compare the choroid and retina in GA eyes to those of age-matched controls.

RESULTS: Ulex europaeus agglutinin (UEA) lectin staining of the choroid demonstrated a significant reduction in the percent vascular area and vessel diameter. In one donor, histopathologic analysis demonstrated two separate areas with choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Reevaluation of swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) images revealed CNV in two of the brothers. UEA lectin also revealed a significant reduction in retinal vasculature in the atrophic area. A subretinal glial membrane, composed of processes positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein and/or vimentin, occupied areas identical to those of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroidal atrophy in all three AMD donors. SS-OCTA also demonstrated presumed calcific drusen in the two donors imaged in 2016. Immunohistochemical analysis and alizarin red S staining verified calcium within drusen, which was ensheathed by glial processes.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the importance of clinicohistopathologic correlation studies. It emphasizes the need to better understand how the symbiotic relationship between choriocapillaris and RPE, glial response, and calcified drusen impact GA progression.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )