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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 May 2024 at 01:58 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-15

Sato Y (2024)

Transcriptome Analysis: A Powerful Tool to Understand Individual Microbial Behaviors and Interactions in Ecosystems.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry pii:7674882 [Epub ahead of print].

Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for studying microbial ecology, especially individual microbial functions in an ecosystem and their interactions. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, great progress had been made in analytical methods for microbial communities in natural environments. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (i.e., microbial community structure analysis) and shotgun metagenome analysis have been widely used to determine the composition and potential metabolic capability of microorganisms in target environments without requiring culture. However, even if the types of microorganisms present and their genes are known, it is difficult to determine what they are doing in an ecosystem. Gene expression analysis (transcriptome analysis; RNA-seq) is a powerful tool to address these issues. The history and basic information of gene expression analysis, as well as examples of studies using this method to analyze microbial ecosystems, are presented.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Amoako FK, Sagervanshi A, Hussain MA, et al (2024)

Transcriptional and physiological analyses uncover the mineralization and uptake mechanisms of phytic acid in symbiotically grown Vicia faba plants.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 211:108723 pii:S0981-9428(24)00391-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Legume-rhizobia symbiosis requires high phosphorus (P) in the form of ATP to convert atmospheric nitrogen (N) into ammonia. The fixed ammonia is converted to NH4[+] by H[+]-ATPase via protonation. To the best of our knowledge, most of these research works resort to using only inorganic P (Pi) to the neglect of the organic P (Po) counterpart. As it stands, the potential regulating roles of plasma membrane (PM) H[+]-ATPases during legume-rhizobia symbiosis in response to phytic acid supply and how it alters and modulates the regulation of PM H[+]-ATPases remain obscure. To contribute to the above hypothesis, we investigate the mechanisms that coordinately facilitate the growth, uptake, and transcript expression of PM H[+]-ATPase gene isoforms in response to different P sources when hydroponically grown Vicia faba plants were exposed to three P treatments, viz., low- and high-Pi (2.0 and 200 μM KH2PO4; LPi and HPi), and phytic acid (200 μM; Po) and inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae 384 for 30 days. The results consistently reveal that the supply of Po improved not only the growth and biomass, but also enhanced photosynthetic parameters, P uptake and phosphatase activities in symbiotically grown Vicia faba relative to Pi. The supply of Po induced higher transcriptional expression of all PM H[+]-ATPase gene isoforms, with possible interactions between phosphatases and H[+]-ATPase genes in Vicia faba plants when exclusively reliant on N derived from nodule symbiosis. Overall, preliminary results suggest that Po could be used as an alternative nutrition in symbiotic crops to improve plant growth.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Ceballos-González AV, da Silva RC, Lima LD, et al (2024)

Influence of Host Plants and Tending Ants on the Cuticular Hydrocarbon Profile of a Generalist Myrmecophilous Caterpillar.

Journal of chemical ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In myrmecophilous organisms, which live in symbiosis with ants, cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a pivotal role in interspecific communication and defense against chemical-oriented predators. Although these interactions form complex information webs, little is known about the influence of biotic environmental factors on the CHC profiles of myrmecophiles. Here, we analyzed the effect of different host plants and tending ants on the larval CHC profile of Synargis calyce (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae), a polyphagous species with facultative myrmecophily. Groups of caterpillars were fed individually with three host plant species (without tending ants), and with two tending ant species. Through gas chromatography analysis, we compared the cuticular profiles of treatments and found a high similarity between plants and caterpillars (65-82%), but a low similarity between caterpillars and their tending ants (30 - 25%). Cluster analysis showed that caterpillars, ants, and plants form distinct groups, indicating that S. calyce caterpillars have their own chemical profile. These results are similar to those observed for Lycaenidae caterpillars indicating that there is functional convergence in the chemical strategies used by myrmecophilous caterpillar species with similar ecology. Also, the results suggest that the cuticular compounds of S. calyce are primarily influenced by their host plants rather than their tending ants. Thus, we propose that these caterpillars present a trade-off between camouflage and directly informing their presence to ants, maintaining their unique chemical profile, though slightly affected by biotic environmental factors.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Bouznif B, Boukherissa A, Jaszczyszyn Y, et al (2024)

Complete and circularized genome sequences of five nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium sp. strains isolated from root nodules of peanut, Arachis hypogaea, cultivated in Tunisia.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

This manuscript reports the complete and circularized Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) long read-based genome sequences of five nitrogen-fixing symbionts belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, isolated from root nodules of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) grown on soil samples collected from Tunisia.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Sudo M, Osvatic J, Taylor JD, et al (2024)

SoxY gene family expansion underpins adaptation to diverse hosts and environments in symbiotic sulfide oxidizers.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have developed distinct ecological strategies to obtain reduced sulfur compounds for growth. These range from specialists that can only use a limited range of reduced sulfur compounds to generalists that can use many different forms as electron donors. Forming intimate symbioses with animal hosts is another highly successful ecological strategy for SOB, as animals, through their behavior and physiology, can enable access to sulfur compounds. Symbioses have evolved multiple times in a range of animal hosts and from several lineages of SOB. They have successfully colonized a wide range of habitats, from seagrass beds to hydrothermal vents, with varying availability of symbiont energy sources. Our extensive analyses of sulfur transformation pathways in 234 genomes of symbiotic and free-living SOB revealed widespread conservation in metabolic pathways for sulfur oxidation in symbionts from different host species and environments, raising the question of how they have adapted to such a wide range of distinct habitats. We discovered a gene family expansion of soxY in these genomes, with up to five distinct copies per genome. Symbionts harboring only the "canonical" soxY were typically ecological "specialists" that are associated with specific host subfamilies or environments (e.g., hydrothermal vents, mangroves). Conversely, symbionts with multiple divergent soxY genes formed versatile associations across diverse hosts in various marine environments. We hypothesize that expansion and diversification of the soxY gene family could be one genomic mechanism supporting the metabolic flexibility of symbiotic SOB enabling them and their hosts to thrive in a range of different and dynamic environments.IMPORTANCESulfur metabolism is thought to be one of the most ancient mechanisms for energy generation in microorganisms. A diverse range of microorganisms today rely on sulfur oxidation for their metabolism. They can be free-living, or they can live in symbiosis with animal hosts, where they power entire ecosystems in the absence of light, such as in the deep sea. In the millions of years since they evolved, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have adopted several highly successful strategies; some are ecological "specialists," and some are "generalists," but which genetic features underpin these ecological strategies are not well understood. We discovered a gene family that has become expanded in those species that also seem to be "generalists," revealing that duplication, repurposing, and reshuffling existing genes can be a powerful mechanism driving ecological lifestyle shifts.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Nguyen HT, Zhao M, Wang T, et al (2024)

Sea anemone-anemonefish symbiosis: Behavior and mucous protein profiling.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Fish species of the genus Amphiprion (Perciformes: Pomacentridae) seek protection from predators among the tentacles of sea anemones as their natural habitat, where they live essentially unharmed from stinging by the host's nematocysts. The skin mucus of these anemonefish has been suggested as a protective mechanism that prevents the discharge of the nematocysts upon contact. Whereas some anemonefish species seem to produce their own protective mucous coating, others may acquire mucus (or biomolecules within) from the sea anemone during an acclimation period. In controlled experiments, we show that Amphiprion ocellaris acclimated successfully to their natural host anemone species Stichodactyla gigantea, and also to Stichodactyla haddoni, and in some cases Heteractis crispa, neither of which are natural host species. No symbiosis was observed for three other anemone species tested, Entacmaea quadricolor, Macrodactyla doreensis, and Heteractis malu. We explored the skin mucous protein profile from naive and experienced A. ocellaris during their acclimation to natural and unnatural host anemones. We confidently report the presence of metabolic and structural proteins in the skin mucus of all samples, likely involved in immunological defense, molecular transport, stress response, and signal transduction. For those anemonefish that established symbiosis, there was a clear increase in ribosomal-type proteins. We additionally provide evidence for the presence of anemone proteins only in the skin mucus of individuals that established symbiosis. Our results support previous speculation of the role of skin mucous-associated proteins in anemonefish-anemone symbiosis. Further exploration of these mucosal proteins could reveal the mechanism of anemonefish acclimation to host anemones.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

McGaley J, Schneider B, U Paszkowski (2024)

The AMSlide for noninvasive time-lapse imaging of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Journal of microscopy [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, the nutritional partnership between AM fungi and most plant species, is globally ubiquitous and of great ecological and agricultural importance. Studying the processes of AM symbiosis is confounded by its highly spatiotemporally dynamic nature. While microscopy methods exist to probe the spatial side of this plant-fungal interaction, the temporal side remains more challenging, as reliable deep-tissue time-lapse imaging requires both symbiotic partners to remain undisturbed over prolonged time periods. Here, we introduce the AMSlide: a noninvasive, high-resolution, live-imaging system optimised for AM symbiosis research. We demonstrate the AMSlide's applications in confocal microscopy of mycorrhizal roots, from whole colonisation zones to subcellular structures, over timeframes from minutes to weeks. The AMSlide's versatility for different microscope set-ups, imaging techniques, and plant and fungal species is also outlined. It is hoped that the AMSlide will be applied in future research to fill in the temporal blanks in our understanding of AM symbiosis, as well as broader root and rhizosphere processes.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Li H, Hu X, Geng X, et al (2024)

Competition mode and soil nutrient status shape the role of soil microbes in the diversity-invasibility relationship.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11425.

Understanding the relationship between plant diversity and invasibility is essential in invasion ecology. Species-rich communities are hypothesized to be more resistant to invasions than species-poor communities. However, while soil microorganisms play a crucial role in regulating this diversity-invasibility relationship, the effects of plant competition mode and soil nutrient status on their role remain unclear. To address this, we conducted a two-stage greenhouse experiment. Soils were first conditioned by growing nine native species separately in them for 1 year, then mixed in various configurations with soils conditioned using one, three, or six species, respectively. Next, we inoculated the mixed soil into sterilized substrate soil and planted the alien species Rhus typhina and native species Ailanthus altissima as test plants. We set up two competition modes (intraspecific and interspecific) and two nutrient levels (fertilization using slow-release fertilizer and nonfertilization). Under intraspecific competition, regardless of fertilization, the biomass of the alien species was higher in soil conditioned by six native species. By contrast, under interspecific competition, the biomass increased without fertilization but remained stable with fertilization in soil conditioned by six native species. Analysis of soil microbes suggests that pathogens and symbiotic fungi in diverse plant communities influenced R. typhina growth, which varied with competition mode and nutrient status. Our findings suggest that the soil microbiome is pivotal in mediating the diversity-invasibility relationship, and this influence varies according to competition mode and nutrient status.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Andriienko V, Buczek M, Meier R, et al (2024)

Implementing high-throughput insect barcoding in microbiome studies: impact of non-destructive DNA extraction on microbiome reconstruction.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.30.591865.

BACKGROUND: Symbiotic relationships with diverse microorganisms are crucial for many aspects of insect biology. However, while our understanding of insect taxonomic diversity and the distribution of insect species in natural communities is limited, we know much less about their microbiota. In the era of rapid biodiversity declines, as researchers increasingly turn towards DNA-based monitoring, developing and broadly implementing approaches for high-throughput and cost-effective characterization of both insect and insect-associated microbial diversity is essential. We need to verify whether approaches such as high-throughput barcoding, a powerful tool for identifying wild insects, would permit subsequent microbiota reconstruction in these specimens.

METHODS: High-throughput barcoding ("megabarcoding") methods often rely on non-destructive approaches for obtaining template DNA for PCR amplification by leaching DNA out of insect specimens using alkaline buffers such as HotSHOT. This study investigated the impact of HotSHOT on microbial abundance estimates and the reconstructed bacterial community profiles. We addressed this question by comparing quantitative 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data for HotSHOT-treated or untreated specimens of 16 insect species representing six orders and selected based on the expectation of limited variation among individuals.

RESULTS: We find that in 13 species, the treatment significantly reduced microbial abundance estimates, corresponding to an estimated 15-fold decrease in amplifiable 16S rRNA template on average. On the other hand, HotSHOT pre-treatment had a limited effect on microbial community composition. The reconstructed presence of abundant bacteria with known significant effects was not affected. On the other hand, we observed changes in the presence of low-abundance microbes, those close to the reliable detection threshold. Alpha and beta diversity analyses showed compositional differences in only a few species.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that HotSHOT pre-treated specimens remain suitable for microbial community composition reconstruction, even if abundance may be hard to estimate. These results indicate that we can cost-effectively combine barcoding with the study of microbiota across wild insect communities. Thus, the voucher specimens obtained using megabarcoding studies targeted at characterizing insect communities can be used for microbiome characterizations. This can substantially aid in speeding up the accumulation of knowledge on the microbiomes of abundant and hyperdiverse insect species.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Ebadi M, Najari S, Miandoab LZ, et al (2024)

Mining Tamarix ramosissima roots for endophytic growth promoting fungi to improve wheat root growth.

Research square

Endophytic fungi are commonly found in the root endosphere and can enhance plant growth through various mechanisms. The aim of this study was to isolate cultivable endophytic fungi associated with the roots of Tamarix ramosissima and to evaluate their plant growth promoting properties. About 35 isolated fungal endophytes belonging to the Ascomycota from four different genera were isolated from the endosphere of T. ramosissima : Alternaria , Aspergillus , Fusarium and Talaromyces . These fungal endophytes showed different abilities to solubilize phosphate and produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The fungal isolates of T. allahabadensis (T3) and A. niger (T4) showed different efficiency in solubilizing phosphate. Almost all fungal isolates were able to produce IAA, and the highest value (0.699 µg/ml) was found in the isolate of F. solani (T11). Inoculation of wheat seeds with endophytic fungi significantly increased the initial growth of wheat roots. The results showed that inoculation with the endophytic fungus A. fumigatus T15 significantly increased root length by 75%. The extensive root system of T. ramosissima may be due to symbiosis with IAA-producing endophytic fungi, which enhance root development and water uptake in dry conditions. These fungi can also boost soil phosphorus levels, promoting plant growth.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Knobloch S, Skirnisdóttir S, Dubois M, et al (2024)

The gut microbiome of farmed Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) is shaped by feeding stage and nutrient presence.

FEMS microbes, 5:xtae011.

The gut microbiome plays an important role in maintaining health and productivity of farmed fish. However, the functional role of most gut microorganisms remains unknown. Identifying the stable members of the gut microbiota and understanding their functional roles could aid in the selection of positive traits or act as a proxy for fish health in aquaculture. Here, we analyse the gut microbial community of farmed juvenile Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and reconstruct the metabolic potential of its main symbionts. The gut microbiota of Arctic char undergoes a succession in community composition during the first weeks post-hatch, with a decrease in Shannon diversity and the establishment of three dominant bacterial taxa. The genome of the most abundant bacterium, a Mycoplasma sp., shows adaptation to rapid growth in the nutrient-rich gut environment. The second most abundant taxon, a Brevinema sp., has versatile metabolic potential, including genes involved in host mucin degradation and utilization. However, during periods of absent gut content, a Ruminococcaceae bacterium becomes dominant, possibly outgrowing all other bacteria through the production of secondary metabolites involved in quorum sensing and cross-inhibition while benefiting the host through short-chain fatty acid production. Whereas Mycoplasma is often present as a symbiont in farmed salmonids, we show that the Ruminococcaceae species is also detected in wild Arctic char, suggesting a close evolutionary relationship between the host and this symbiotic bacterium.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Li J, Du J, Ding G, et al (2024)

Isolation, characterization and functional analysis of a bacteriophage targeting Culex pipiens pallens resistance-associated Aeromonas hydrophila.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):222.

BACKGROUND: Culex pipiens pallens is a well-known mosquito vector for several diseases. Deltamethrin, a commonly used pyrethroid insecticide, has been frequently applied to manage adult Cx. pipiens pallens. However, mosquitoes can develop resistance to these insecticides as a result of insecticide misuse and, therefore, it is crucial to identify novel methods to control insecticide resistance. The relationship between commensal bacteria and vector resistance has been recently recognized. Bacteriophages (= phages) are effective tools by which to control insect commensal bacteria, but there have as yet been no studies using phages on adult mosquitoes. In this study, we isolated an Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH that specifically targets resistance-associated symbiotic bacteria in mosquitoes. We investigated the impact of Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH in an abundance of Aeromonas hydrophila in the gut of Cx. pipiens pallens and its effect on the status of deltamethrin resistance.

METHODS: Phages were isolated on double-layer agar plates and their biological properties analyzed. Phage morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after negative staining. The phage was then introduced into the mosquito intestines via oral feeding. The inhibitory effect of Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH on Aeromonas hydrophila in mosquito intestines was assessed through quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Deltamethrin resistance of mosquitoes was assessed using WHO bottle bioassays.

RESULTS: An Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH was isolated from sewage and identified as belonging to the Myoviridae family in the order Caudovirales using TEM. Based on biological characteristics analysis and in vitro antibacterial experiments, Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH was observed to exhibit excellent stability and effective bactericidal activity. Sequencing revealed that the Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH genome comprises 43,663 bp (51.6% CG content) with 81 predicted open reading frames. No integrase-related gene was detected in the vB AH-LH genome, which marked it as a potential biological antibacterial. Finally, we found that Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH could significantly reduce deltamethrin resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens, in both the laboratory and field settings, by decreasing the abundance of Aeromonas hydrophila in their midgut.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that Aeromonas phage vB AhM-LH could effectively modulate commensal bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila in adult mosquitoes, thus representing a promising strategy to mitigate mosquito vector resistance.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Hartmann A, Binder T, M Rothballer (2024)

Quorum sensing related activities of beneficial and pathogenic bacteria have important implications for plant and human health.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7673082 [Epub ahead of print].

Eukaryotic organisms co-evolved with microbes from the environment forming holobiotic meta-genomic units. Members of host-associated microbiomes have commensalic, benefical / symbiotic or pathogenic phenotypes. More than 100 years ago, Lorenz Hiltner, pioneer of soil microbiology, introduced the term "Rhizosphere" to characterize the observation that a high density of saprophytic, beneficial and pathogenic microbes are attracted by root exudates. The balance between these types of microbes decide about the health of the host. Nowadays we know, that for the interaction of microbes with all eukaryotic hosts similar principles and processes of cooperative and competitive functions are in action. Small diffusible molecules like (phyto)hormones, volatiles and quorum sensing signals are examples for mediators of interspecies and cross-kingdom interactions. Quorum sensing (QS) of bacteria is mediated by different auto-inducible metabolites in a density dependent manner. In this perspective publication, the role of QS-related activities for the health of hosts will be discussed focussing mostly on N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL). It is also considered that in some cases very close phylogenetic relations exist between plant beneficial and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria. Based on a genome and system-targeted new understanding, sociomicrobiological solutions are possible for the biocontrol of diseases and the health improvement of eukaryotic hosts.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Bauer M, Ermolaeva M, Singer M, et al (2024)

Hormesis as an adaptive response to infection.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(24)00100-X [Epub ahead of print].

Hormesis is a phenomenon whereby low-level stress can improve cellular, organ, or organismal fitness in response to a subsequent similar or other stress insult. Whereas hormesis is thought to contribute to the fitness benefits arising from symbiotic host-microbe interactions, the putative benefits of hormesis in host-pathogen interactions have yet to be explored. Hormetic responses have nonetheless been reported in experimental models of infection, a common feature of which is regulation of host mitochondrial function. We propose that these mitohormetic responses could be harnessed therapeutically to limit the severity of infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Frolová P, van der Veer E, Fransen CHJM, et al (2024)

A review of Palaemonella (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae), with clarification of the taxonomic status of Cuapetes americanus, Eupontonia and Vir.

Invertebrate systematics, 38:.

The pantropical genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Caridea: Palaemonidae) currently includes 27 species of free-living and symbiotic marine shrimps. The monophyly of Palaemonella with respect to several closely related genera, however, has been questioned by recent analyses. We tested the monophyly of Palaemonella based on multigene phylogenetic analysis and the genus was revealed to be a paraphyletic assemblage by inclusion of species of the genera Eupontonia Bruce, 1971 and Vir Holthuis, 1952, and two genetic lineages of the western Atlantic Cuapetes americanus (Kingsley, 1878). We recognise one of the latter lineages as the previously described Periclimenes rhizophorae Lebour, 1949. Eupontonia and Vir are synonymised with Palaemonella . We also transfer Cuapetes americanus and Periclimenes rhizophorae to Palaemonella . Species previously assigned to Vir were revised; V. colemani Bruce, 2003, V. orientalis (Dana, 1852), V. philippinensis Bruce & Svoboda, 1984 and V. smiti Fransen & Holthuis, 2007 are regarded as valid species of Palaemonella ; Vir longidactylus Marin, 2008 is synonymised with P. smiti ; and the status of V. euphyllius Marin & Anker, 2005 remains unresolved. Palaemonella is currently regarded as a taxon with variable states of two main diagnostic characters, i.e. the plesiomorphic mandibular palp (fully reduced in P. americana) and the hepatic tooth (fully reduced in former species of Vir and Eupontonia - evidently due to symbiotic modes of life). ZooBank:

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Xing F, Zhang H, Zhao H, et al (2024)

Novel insights into intrinsic mechanisms of magnetic field on long-term performance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process.

Bioresource technology, 402:130839 pii:S0960-8524(24)00542-X [Epub ahead of print].

The performance of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor with the magnetic field of 40 mT was systematically investigated. The total nitrogen removal rate was enhanced by 16% compared with that of the control group. The enhancing mechanism was elucidated from the improved mass transfer efficiency, the complicated symbiotic interspecific relationship and the improved levels of functional genes. The magnetic field promoted formation of the loose anammox granular sludge and the homogeneous and well-connected porous structure to enhance the mass transfer. Consequently, Candidatus Brocadia predominated in the sludge with an increase in abundance of 13%. Network analysis showed that the positive interactions between Candidatus Brocadia and heterotrophic bacteria were strengthened, which established a more complicated stable microbial community. Moreover, the magnetic field increased the levels of hdh by 26% and hzs by 35% to promote the nitrogen metabolic process. These results provided novel insights into the magnetic field-enhanced anammox process.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Zhu S, Tan Z, Guo Z, et al (2024)

Symbiotic virus-bacteria interactions in biological treatment of coking wastewater manipulating bacterial physiological activities.

Water research, 257:121741 pii:S0043-1354(24)00642-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological treatment is commonly used in coking wastewater (CWW) treatment. Prokaryotic microbial communities in CWW treatment have been comprehensively studied. However, viruses, as the critical microorganisms affecting microbial processes and thus engineering parameters, still remain poorly understood in CWW treatment context. Employing viromics sequencing, the composition and function of the viral community in CWW treatment were discovered, revealing novel viral communities and key auxiliary metabolic functions. Caudovirales appeared to be the predominant viral order in the oxic-hydrolytic-oxic (OHO) CWW treatment combination, showing relative abundances of 62.47 %, 56.64 % and 92.20 % in bioreactors O1, H and O2, respectively. At the family level, Myoviridae, Podoviridae and Siphoviridae mainly prevailed in bioreactors O1 and H while Phycodnaviridae dominated in O2. A total of 56.23-92.24% of novel viral contigs defied family-level characterization in this distinct CWW habitat. The virus-host prediction results revealed most viruses infecting the specific functional taxa Pseudomonas, Acidovorax and Thauera in the entire OHO combination, demonstrating the viruses affecting bacterial physiology and pollutants removal from CWW. Viral auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) were screened, revealing their involvement in the metabolism of contaminants and toxicity tolerance. In the bioreactor O1, AMGs were enriched in detoxification and phosphorus ingestion, where glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) and beta-ketoadipyl CoA thiolase (fadA) participated in biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols, respectively. In the bioreactors H and O2, the AMGs focused on cell division and epicyte formation of the hosts, where GDPmannose 4,6-dehydratase (gmd) related to lipopolysaccharides biosynthesis was considered to play an important role in the growth of nitrifiers. The diversities of viruses and AMGs decreased along the CWW treatment process, pointing to a reinforced virus-host adaptive strategy in stressful operation environments. In this study, the symbiotic virus-bacteria interaction patterns were proposed with a theoretical basis for promoting CWW biological treatment efficiency. The findings filled the gaps in the virus-bacteria interactions at the full-scale CWW treatment and provided great value for understanding the mechanism of biological toxicity and sludge activity in industrial wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Martinez-Romero E, Peix A, Hungria M, et al (2024)

Guidelines for the description of rhizobial symbiovars.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 74(5):.

Rhizobia are bacteria that form nitrogen-fixing nodules in legume plants. The sets of genes responsible for both nodulation and nitrogen fixation are carried in plasmids or genomic islands that are often mobile. Different strains within a species sometimes have different host specificities, while very similar symbiosis genes may be found in strains of different species. These specificity variants are known as symbiovars, and many of them have been given names, but there are no established guidelines for defining or naming them. Here, we discuss the requirements for guidelines to describe symbiovars, propose a set of guidelines, provide a list of all symbiovars for which descriptions have been published so far, and offer a mechanism to maintain a list in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Mies US, Hervé V, Kropp T, et al (2024)

Genome reduction and horizontal gene transfer in the evolution of Endomicrobia-rise and fall of an intracellular symbiosis with termite gut flagellates.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial endosymbionts of eukaryotic hosts typically experience massive genome reduction, but the underlying evolutionary processes are often obscured by the lack of free-living relatives. Endomicrobia, a family-level lineage of host-associated bacteria in the phylum Elusimicrobiota that comprises both free-living representatives and endosymbionts of termite gut flagellates, are an excellent model to study evolution of intracellular symbionts. We reconstructed 67 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Endomicrobiaceae among more than 1,700 MAGs from the gut microbiota of a wide range of termites. Phylogenomic analysis confirmed a sister position of representatives from termites and ruminants, and allowed to propose eight new genera in the radiation of Endomicrobiaceae. Comparative genome analysis documented progressive genome erosion in the new genus Endomicrobiellum, which comprises all flagellate endosymbionts characterized to date. Massive gene losses were accompanied by the acquisition of new functions by horizontal gene transfer, which led to a shift from a glucose-based energy metabolism to one based on sugar phosphates. The breakdown of glycolysis and many anabolic pathways for amino acids and cofactors in several subgroups was compensated by the independent acquisition of new uptake systems, including an ATP/ADP antiporter, from other gut microbiota. The putative donors are mostly flagellate endosymbionts from other bacterial phyla, including several, hitherto unknown lineages of uncultured Alphaproteobacteria, documenting the importance of horizontal gene transfer in the convergent evolution of these intracellular symbioses. The loss of almost all biosynthetic capacities in some lineages of Endomicrobiellum suggests that their originally mutualistic relationship with flagellates is on its decline.IMPORTANCEUnicellular eukaryotes are frequently colonized by bacterial and archaeal symbionts. A prominent example are the cellulolytic gut flagellates of termites, which harbor diverse but host-specific bacterial symbionts that occur exclusively in termite guts. One of these lineages, the so-called Endomicrobia, comprises both free-living and endosymbiotic representatives, which offers the unique opportunity to study the evolutionary processes underpinning the transition from a free-living to an intracellular lifestyle. Our results revealed a progressive gene loss in energy metabolism and biosynthetic pathways, compensated by the acquisition of new functions via horizontal gene transfer from other gut bacteria, and suggest the eventual breakdown of an initially mutualistic symbiosis. Evidence for convergent evolution of unrelated endosymbionts reflects adaptations to the intracellular environment of termite gut flagellates.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Le Noir de Carlan C, Kaarlejärvi E, De Tender C, et al (2024)

Shifts in mycorrhizal types of fungi and plants in response to fertilisation, warming and herbivory in a tundra grassland.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Climate warming is severely affecting high-latitude regions. In the Arctic tundra, it may lead to enhanced soil nutrient availability and interact with simultaneous changes in grazing pressure. It is presently unknown how these concurrently occurring global change drivers affect the root-associated fungal communities, particularly mycorrhizal fungi, and whether changes coincide with shifts in plant mycorrhizal types. We investigated changes in root-associated fungal communities and mycorrhizal types of the plant community in a 10-yr factorial experiment with warming, fertilisation and grazing exclusion in a Finnish tundra grassland. The strongest determinant of the root-associated fungal community was fertilisation, which consistently increased potential plant pathogen abundance and had contrasting effects on the different mycorrhizal fungal types, contingent on other treatments. Plant mycorrhizal types went through pronounced shifts, with warming favouring ecto- and ericoid mycorrhiza but not under fertilisation and grazing exclusion. Combination of all treatments resulted in dominance by arbuscular mycorrhizal plants. However, shifts in plant mycorrhizal types vs fungi were mostly but not always aligned in their magnitude and direction. Our results show that our ability to predict shifts in symbiotic and antagonistic fungal communities depend on simultaneous consideration of multiple global change factors that jointly alter plant and fungal communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Shi L, Wang Z, Chen JH, et al (2024)

LbSakA-mediated phosphorylation of the scaffolding protein LbNoxR in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor regulates NADPH oxidase activity, ROS accumulation and symbiosis development.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, which involves mutually beneficial interactions between soil fungi and tree roots, is essential for promoting tree growth. To establish this symbiotic relationship, fungal symbionts must initiate and sustain mutualistic interactions with host plants while avoiding host defense responses. This study investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by fungal NADPH oxidase (Nox) in the development of Laccaria bicolor/Populus tremula × alba symbiosis. Our findings revealed that L. bicolor LbNox expression was significantly higher in ectomycorrhizal roots than in free-living mycelia. RNAi was used to silence LbNox, which resulted in decreased ROS signaling, limited formation of the Hartig net, and a lower mycorrhizal formation rate. Using Y2H library screening, BiFC and Co-IP, we demonstrated an interaction between the mitogen-activated protein kinase LbSakA and LbNoxR. LbSakA-mediated phosphorylation of LbNoxR at T409, T477 and T480 positively modulates LbNox activity, ROS accumulation and upregulation of symbiosis-related genes involved in dampening host defense reactions. These results demonstrate that regulation of fungal ROS metabolism is critical for maintaining the mutualistic interaction between L. bicolor and P. tremula × alba. Our findings also highlight a novel and complex regulatory mechanism governing the development of symbiosis, involving both transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of gene networks.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Gao Y, Qu D, Zhou M, et al (2024)

Rhizobial-induced phosphatase GmPP2C61A positively regulates soybean nodulation.

Physiologia plantarum, 176(3):e14341.

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) is crucial for legumes, providing them with the nitrogen necessary for plant growth and development. Nodulation is the first step in the establishment of SNF. However, the determinant genes in soybean nodulation and the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms governing nodulation are still limited. Herein, we identified a phosphatase, GmPP2C61A, which was specifically induced by rhizobia inoculation. Using transgenic hairy roots harboring GmPP2C61A::GUS, we showed that GmPP2C61A was mainly induced in epidermal cells following rhizobia inoculation. Functional analysis revealed that knockdown or knock-out of GmPP2C61A significantly reduced the number of nodules, while overexpression of GmPP2C61A promoted nodule formation. Additionally, GmPP2C61A protein was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and exhibited conserved phosphatase activity in vitro. Our findings suggest that phosphatase GmPP2C61A serves as a critical regulator in soybean nodulation, highlighting its potential significance in enhancing symbiotic nitrogen fixation.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Cai H, McLimans CJ, Jiang H, et al (2024)

Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs play important roles in nutrient cycling within cyanobacterial Microcystis bloom microbiomes.

Microbiome, 12(1):88.

BACKGROUND: During the bloom season, the colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis forms complex aggregates which include a diverse microbiome within an exopolymer matrix. Early research postulated a simple mutualism existing with bacteria benefitting from the rich source of fixed carbon and Microcystis receiving recycled nutrients. Researchers have since hypothesized that Microcystis aggregates represent a community of synergistic and interacting species, an interactome, each with unique metabolic capabilities that are critical to the growth, maintenance, and demise of Microcystis blooms. Research has also shown that aggregate-associated bacteria are taxonomically different from free-living bacteria in the surrounding water. Moreover, research has identified little overlap in functional potential between Microcystis and members of its microbiome, further supporting the interactome concept. However, we still lack verification of general interaction and know little about the taxa and metabolic pathways supporting nutrient and metabolite cycling within Microcystis aggregates.

RESULTS: During a 7-month study of bacterial communities comparing free-living and aggregate-associated bacteria in Lake Taihu, China, we found that aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria were significantly more abundant within Microcystis aggregates than in free-living samples, suggesting a possible functional role for AAP bacteria in overall aggregate community function. We then analyzed gene composition in 102 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of bloom-microbiome bacteria from 10 lakes spanning four continents, compared with 12 complete Microcystis genomes which revealed that microbiome bacteria and Microcystis possessed complementary biochemical pathways that could serve in C, N, S, and P cycling. Mapping published transcripts from Microcystis blooms onto a comprehensive AAP and non-AAP bacteria MAG database (226 MAGs) indicated that observed high levels of expression of genes involved in nutrient cycling pathways were in AAP bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide strong corroboration of the hypothesized Microcystis interactome and the first evidence that AAP bacteria may play an important role in nutrient cycling within Microcystis aggregate microbiomes. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Nanes Sarfati D, Xue Y, Song ES, et al (2024)

Coordinated wound responses in a regenerative animal-algal holobiont.

Nature communications, 15(1):4032.

Animal regeneration involves coordinated responses across cell types throughout the animal body. In endosymbiotic animals, whether and how symbionts react to host injury and how cellular responses are integrated across species remain unexplored. Here, we study the acoel Convolutriloba longifissura, which hosts symbiotic Tetraselmis sp. green algae and can regenerate entire bodies from tissue fragments. We show that animal injury causes a decline in the photosynthetic efficiency of the symbiotic algae, alongside two distinct, sequential waves of transcriptional responses in acoel and algal cells. The initial algal response is characterized by the upregulation of a cohort of photosynthesis-related genes, though photosynthesis is not necessary for regeneration. A conserved animal transcription factor, runt, is induced after injury and required for acoel regeneration. Knockdown of Cl-runt dampens transcriptional responses in both species and further reduces algal photosynthetic efficiency post-injury. Our results suggest that the holobiont functions as an integrated unit of biological organization by coordinating molecular networks across species through the runt-dependent animal regeneration program.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Kchikich A, Roussi Z, Krid A, et al (2024)

Effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis and Ulva lactuca seaweed extract on growth, carbon/nitrogen metabolism, and antioxidant response in cadmium-stressed sorghum plant.

Physiology and molecular biology of plants : an international journal of functional plant biology, 30(4):605-618.

In our study on the effect of cadmium (Cd) toxicity (200 µM) on the growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench plants, cultivated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (Glomus intraradices) and/or under seaweed treatment (3% Ulva lactuca extract) (U. lactuca), we found that AMF increased the tolerance of sorghum to cadmium stress, either alone or in combination with the seaweed treatment. Morphological parameters were higher in these two culture conditions, with increased chlorophyll content. AMF reduced Cd accumulation in roots and inhibited its translocation to the aerial part, while seaweed treatment alone significantly increased Cd accumulation in leaves and roots without affecting plant growth compared to stressed witnesses. Treatment with AMF and/or U. lactuca attenuated oxidative stress, measured by activation of superoxide dismutase, and resulted in a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and superoxide ions (O2[-]) in treated plants. Furthermore, it induced significant alterations in carbon and nitrogen metabolic pathways, with a significant increase in the activity of enzymes such as glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, aspartate aminotransferase and isocitrate dehydrogenase in the leaves of each treated plant. These results confirm that AMF, U. lactuca algae extract and their combination can improve the biochemical parameters of sorghum under Cd stress, through modification of the antioxidant response on one hand, and improved nitrogen absorption and assimilation efficiency on the other.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Aparicio Chacón MV, Hernández Luelmo S, Devlieghere V, et al (2024)

Exploring the potential role of four Rhizophagus irregularis nuclear effectors: opportunities and technical limitations.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1384496.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate symbionts that interact with the roots of most land plants. The genome of the AMF model species Rhizophagus irregularis contains hundreds of predicted small effector proteins that are secreted extracellularly but also into the plant cells to suppress plant immunity and modify plant physiology to establish a niche for growth. Here, we investigated the role of four nuclear-localized putative effectors, i.e., GLOIN707, GLOIN781, GLOIN261, and RiSP749, in mycorrhization and plant growth. We initially intended to execute the functional studies in Solanum lycopersicum, a host plant of economic interest not previously used for AMF effector biology, but extended our studies to the model host Medicago truncatula as well as the non-host Arabidopsis thaliana because of the technical advantages of working with these models. Furthermore, for three effectors, the implementation of reverse genetic tools, yeast two-hybrid screening and whole-genome transcriptome analysis revealed potential host plant nuclear targets and the downstream triggered transcriptional responses. We identified and validated a host protein interactors participating in mycorrhization in the host.S. lycopersicum and demonstrated by transcriptomics the effectors possible involvement in different molecular processes, i.e., the regulation of DNA replication, methylglyoxal detoxification, and RNA splicing. We conclude that R. irregularis nuclear-localized effector proteins may act on different pathways to modulate symbiosis and plant physiology and discuss the pros and cons of the tools used.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Wang W, Fu R, Gao R, et al (2024)

H2S-Powered Nanomotors for Active Therapy of Tumors by Inducing Ferroptosis and Lactate-Pyruvate Axis Disorders.

ACS biomaterials science & engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Disruption of the symbiosis of extra/intratumoral metabolism is a good strategy for treating tumors that shuttle resources from the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report a precision treatment strategy for enhancing pyruvic acid and intratumoral acidosis to destroy tumoral metabolic symbiosis to eliminate tumors; this approach is based on PEGylated gold and lactate oxidase-modified aminated dendritic mesoporous silica with lonidamine and ferrous sulfide loading (PEG-Au@DMSNs/FeS/LND@LOX). In the tumor microenvironment, LOX oxidizes lactic acid to produce pyruvate, which represses tumor cell proliferation by inhibiting histone gene expression and induces ferroptosis by partial histone monoubiquitination. In acidic tumor conditions, the nanoparticles release H2S gas and Fe[2+] ions, which can inhibit catalase activity to promote the Fenton reaction of Fe[2+], resulting in massive ·OH production and ferroptosis via Fe[3+]. More interestingly, the combination of H2S and LND (a monocarboxylic acid transporter inhibitor) can cause intracellular acidosis by lactate, and protons overaccumulate in cells. Multiple intracellular acidosis is caused by lactate-pyruvate axis disorders. Moreover, H2S provides motive power to intensify the shuttling of nanoparticles in the tumor region. The findings confirm that this nanomedicine system can enable precise antitumor effects by disrupting extra/intratumoral metabolic symbiosis and inducing ferroptosis and represents a promising active drug delivery system candidate for tumor treatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-12

Chen X, Li L, Y He (2024)

Epiphytic and endophytic bacteria on Camellia oleifera phyllosphere: exploring region and cultivar effect.

BMC ecology and evolution, 24(1):62.

The epiphytic and endophytic bacteria play an important role in the healthy growth of plants. Both plant species and growth environmental influence the bacterial population diversity, yet it is inconclusive whether it is the former or the latter that has a greater impact. To explore the communities of the epiphytic and endophytic microbes in Camellia oleifera, this study assessed three representative C. oleifera cultivars from three areas in Hunan, China by Illumina high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the diversity and species richness of endophytic microbial community in leaves were significantly higher than those of microbial community in the epiphytic. The diversity and species richness of epiphytic and endophytic microbes are complex when the same cultivar was grown in different areas. The C. oleifera cultivars grown in Youxian had the highest diversity of epiphytic microbial community, but the lowest abundance, while the cultivars grown in Changsha had the highest diversity and species richness of endophytic microbes in leaves. It was concluded that the dominant phylum mainly included Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota and Firmicutes through the analysis of the epiphytic and endophytic microbial communities of C. oleifera. The species and relative abundances of epiphytic and endophytic microbial community were extremely different at the genus level. The analysis of NMDS map and PERMANOVA shows that the species richness and diversity of microbial communities in epiphytes are greatly influenced by region. However, the community structure of endophytic microorganisms in leaves is influenced by region and cultivated varieties, but the influence of cultivars is more significant. Molecular ecological network analysis showed that the symbiotic interaction of epiphytic microbial community was more complex.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Zhang Y, Chen L, Wang M, et al (2024)

Evaluating micro-nano bubbles coupled with rice-crayfish co-culture systems: A field study promoting sustainable rice production intensification.

The Science of the total environment, 933:173162 pii:S0048-9697(24)03309-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Traditional rice-fish symbiosis systems efficiently use soil and water resources but the adverse effects of prolonged flooding on the stability of rice growth can be mitigated. The feasibility and efficacy of injecting micro-nano bubbles (MNBs) in rice-crayfish co-cultures was investigated in a 22-hectare field experiment conducted over five months. This injection significantly enhanced the growth of both rice and crayfish, and increased total nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the soil, thereby augmenting fertility. Analysis of dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature and gene expression (rice and crayfish) clarified that micro-nano bubbles (MNBs) foster an optimal environment for rice root respiration, whereas rice establishes an optimal temperature for crayfish, thereby enhancing their activity and growth. Comparative analyses of gene expression profiles and metabolic pathway enrichment revealed that the injection of MNBs diversifies soil microbial communities and intensifies biological processes, such as plant hormone signal transduction. This was in marked contrast to the situation in our controls, rice monoculture (R) and micro-nano bubbles rice monoculture (MNB-R). The combination of rice-fish symbiosis with MNBs led to a 26.8 % increase in rice production and to an estimated 35 % improvement in economic efficiency. Overall, this research introduces an innovative and environmentally sustainable method to boost rice yields, thereby enhancing food security and providing additional income for farmers.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Huang W, Wang D, Zhang XX, et al (2024)

Regulatory roles of the second messenger c-di-GMP in beneficial plant-bacteria interactions.

Microbiological research, 285:127748 pii:S0944-5013(24)00149-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The rhizosphere system of plants hosts a diverse consortium of bacteria that confer beneficial effects on plant, such as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), biocontrol agents with disease-suppression activities, and symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria with the formation of root nodule. Efficient colonization in planta is of fundamental importance for promoting of these beneficial activities. However, the process of root colonization is complex, consisting of multiple stages, including chemotaxis, adhesion, aggregation, and biofilm formation. The secondary messenger, c-di-GMP (cyclic bis-(3'-5') dimeric guanosine monophosphate), plays a key regulatory role in a variety of physiological processes. This paper reviews recent progress on the actions of c-di-GMP in plant beneficial bacteria, with a specific focus on its role in chemotaxis, biofilm formation, and nodulation.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Zhang Y, Han X, Ren W, et al (2024)

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Improve Lycium barbarum Potassium Uptake by Activating the Expression of LbHAK.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9):.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can establish a mutualistic relationship with the roots of most terrestrial plants to increase plant nutrient uptake. The effects of potassium uptake and transport by AM symbiosis are much less reported compared to other nutrients. In this research, a heterologous yeast system was used to verify that the LbHAK has capacity for potassium uptake. The split-roots system implemented using seedlings of Lycium barbarum confirmed that R. irregularis locally induced LbHAK expression, which means that LbHAK is only expressed in mycorrhizal roots. Furthermore, the impacts of overexpression of LbHAK on the growth, nutrients and water uptake, and transport of mycorrhizal tobacco (inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis) at 0.2 mM and 2 mM K conditions were assessed. The mycorrhizal tobacco growth and potassium accumulation were significantly enhanced through LbHAK overexpression in tobacco. In addition, overexpression of LbHAK substantially enhanced phosphorus content, while stimulating the expression of NtPT4, Rir-AQP1, and Rir-AQP2 in mycorrhizal tobacco. Moreover, LbHAK overexpression greatly promoted AM colonization. LbHAK has a potential role in facilitating potassium absorption through the mycorrhizal pathway, and overexpression of LbHAK in tobacco may promote the transport of potassium, phosphorus, and water from AM fungi to tobacco. These data imply the important roles played by the LbHAK in AM-fungi-induced potassium uptake in L. barbarum and in improving plant nutrients and AM colonization.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Li J, Fu N, Ge S, et al (2024)

Physiological Measurements and Transcriptomics Reveal the Fitness Costs of Monochamus saltuarius to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9):.

The pine wood nematode (PWN) uses several Monochamus species as vehicles, through a temporary hitchhiking process known as phoresy, enabling it to access new host plant resources. Monochamus saltuarius acts as a new and major vector of the PWN in Northeastern China, showing lower PWN carrying capacity and a shorter transmission cycle compared to established vectors. The apparently altered symbiotic relationship offers an interesting area for researching the costs and adaptions involved in nematode-beetle, a specialized phoresy. We analyzed the response and fitness costs of M. saltuarius through physiological measurements and transcriptomics. The PWN exerted adverse repercussions on the growth and development of M. saltuarius. The PWN accelerated larval development into pupae, while beetle adults carrying the PWN exhibited an elevated abnormality rate and mortality, and reduced starvation resistance. During the pupal stage, the expression of growth-related genes, including ecdysone-inducible genes (E74EA), cuticle proteins, and chitin genes (CHTs), markedly increased. Meanwhile, the induced immune response, mainly by the IMD and Toll signaling pathways, could be a contributing factor to adult abnormality and mortality. Adult gonads and trachea exhibited enrichment in pathways related to fatty acid elongation, biosynthesis, and metabolism. FASN, ELOVL, and SCD possibly contributed to resistance against PWN. Our research indicated that phoretic interactions between vector beetles and PWN vary throughout the vector's lifespan, particularly before and after entry into the trachea. This study highlighted the fitness costs of immunity and metabolism on the vector beetle, indicating the adaptation mechanisms and evolutionary trade-offs to PWN.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Zhang J, Liu Q, Dai L, et al (2024)

Pan-Genome Analysis of Wolbachia, Endosymbiont of Diaphorina citri, Reveals Independent Origin in Asia and North America.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9):.

Wolbachia, a group of Gram-negative symbiotic bacteria, infects nematodes and a wide range of arthropods. Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) that causes citrus greening disease, is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). However, the interaction between wDi and D. citri remains poorly understood. In this study, we performed a pan-genome analysis using 65 wDi genomes to gain a comprehensive understanding of wDi. Based on average nucleotide identity (ANI) analysis, we classified the wDi strains into Asia and North America strains. The ANI analysis, principal coordinates analysis (PCoA), and phylogenetic tree analysis supported that the D. citri in Florida did not originate from China. Furthermore, we found that a significant number of core genes were associated with metabolic pathways. Pathways such as thiamine metabolism, type I secretion system, biotin transport, and phospholipid transport were highly conserved across all analyzed wDi genomes. The variation analysis between Asia and North America wDi showed that there were 39,625 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 2153 indels, 10 inversions, 29 translocations, 65 duplications, 10 SV-based insertions, and 4 SV-based deletions. The SV-based insertions and deletions involved genes encoding transposase, phage tail tube protein, ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein, and group II intron-encoded protein. Pan-genome analysis of wDi contributes to our understanding of the geographical population of wDi, the origin of hosts of D. citri, and the interaction between wDi and its host, thus facilitating the development of strategies to control the insects and huanglongbing (HLB).

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Mishra D (2024)

Critical compromise: Trade-off between symbiosis and water uptake.

Plant physiology pii:7668390 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-05-10

González A, Fullaondo A, Rodríguez J, et al (2024)

Conjugated linoleic acid metabolite impact in colorectal cancer: a potential microbiome-based precision nutrition approach.

Nutrition reviews pii:7668235 [Epub ahead of print].

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most deadly and the third most diagnosed cancer in both sexes worldwide. CRC pathogenesis is associated with risk factors such as genetics, alcohol, smoking, sedentariness, obesity, unbalanced diets, and gut microbiota dysbiosis. The gut microbiota is the microbial community living in symbiosis in the intestine, in a dynamic balance vital for health. Increasing evidence underscores the influence of specific gut microbiota bacterial species on CRC incidence and pathogenesis. In this regard, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) metabolites produced by certain gut microbiota have demonstrated an anticarcinogenic effect in CRC, influencing pathways for inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis. CLA production occurs naturally in the rumen, and human bioavailability is through the consumption of food derived from ruminants. In recent years, biotechnological attempts to increase CLA bioavailability in humans have been unfruitful. Therefore, the conversion of essential dietary linoleic acid to CLA metabolite by specific intestinal bacteria has become a promising process. This article reviews the evidence regarding CLA and CLA-producing bacteria as therapeutic agents against CRC and investigates the best strategy for increasing the yield and bioavailability of CLA. Given the potential and limitations of the present strategies, a new microbiome-based precision nutrition approach based on endogenous CLA production by human gut bacteria is proposed. A literature search in the PubMed and PubMed Central databases identified 794 papers on human gut bacteria associated with CLA production. Of these, 51 studies exploring association consistency were selected. After excluding 19 papers, due to health concerns or discrepancies between studies, 32 papers were selected for analysis, encompassing data for 38 CLA-producing bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species. The information was analyzed by a bioinformatics food recommendation system patented by our research group, Phymofood (EP22382095). This paper presents a new microbiome-based precision nutrition approach targeting CLA-producing gut bacterial species to maximize the anticarcinogenic effect of CLA in CRC.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Ho-Plágaro T, Tamayo-Navarrete MI, Ćavar Zeljković S, et al (2024)

A dual regulatory role of the arbuscular mycorrhizal master regulator RAM1 in tomato.

Journal of experimental botany pii:7668065 [Epub ahead of print].

The REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION1 (RAM1) transcription factor from the GRAS family is well-known by its role as a master regulator of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in dicot and monocot species, being essential in the transcriptional reprograming for the development and functionality of the arbuscules. In tomato, SlGRAS27 is the putative ortholog of RAM1 (here named SlRAM1), but has not yet been characterized. A reduced colonization of the root and an impaired arbuscule formation were observed in the SlRAM1 silenced plants, confirming the functional conservation of the RAM1 ortholog in tomato . However, unexpectedly, SlRAM1 overexpressing (UBIL:SlRAM1) plants also showed a decreased mycorrhizal colonization. Analysis of non-mycorrhizal UBIL:SlRAM1 roots revealed an overall regulation of AM-related genes and a reduction of strigolactone biosynthesis. Moreover, the external application of the strigolactone analogue GR244DO almost completely reversed the negative effects of SlRAM1 overexpression on the frequency of mycorrhization. However, it only partially recovered the pattern of arbuscule distribution observed in control plants. Our results strongly suggest that SlRAM1 has a dual regulatory role during mycorrhization and, apart from its recognized action as a positive regulator of arbuscule development, SlRAM1 is also involved in different mechanisms for the negative regulation of mycorrhization, including the repression of strigolactone biosynthesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Mazorra-Alonso M, Peralta-Sánchez JM, Martín-Vivaldi M, et al (2024)

Volatiles of symbiotic bacterial origin explain ectoparasitism and fledging success of hoopoes.

Animal microbiome, 6(1):26.

BACKGROUND: Some parasites use olfactory cues to detect their hosts and, since bacterial symbionts are partially responsible for animal odours, they could influence host parasitism. By autoclaving nest materials of hoopoe (Upupa epops) nests before reproduction started, we explored the hypothetical links between host-associated bacteria, volatiles and parasitism. During the nestling stage, we (i) estimated the level of ectoparasitism by chewing lice (Suborder Mallophaga) in adult hoopoe females and by Carnus haemapterus flies in nestlings, and (ii) characterized microbial communities and volatile profiles of nest environments (nest material and nest cavity, respectively) and uropygial secretions.

RESULTS: Experimental nests had less diverse bacterial communities and more diverse volatile profiles than control nests, while occupants experienced lower intensity of parasitism in experimental than in control nests. The experiment also affected beta diversity of the microbial communities of nest material and of the volatiles of the nestling uropygial secretions. Moreover, microbial communities of uropygial secretions and of nest materials covaried with their volatile profiles, while the volatile profile of the bird secretions explained nest volatile profile. Finally, a subset of the volatiles and bacteria detected in the nest material and uropygial secretions were associated with the ectoparasitism intensity of both adult females and nestlings, and with fledging success.

CONCLUSIONS: These results show that a component of animal odours is linked with the microbial communities of the host and its reproductive environment, and emphasize that the associations between bacteria, ectoparasitism and reproductive success are partially mediated by volatiles of bacterial origin. Future work should focus on mechanisms underlying the detected patterns.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Zhong X, Wang J, Shi X, et al (2024)

Genetically optimizing soybean nodulation improves yield and protein content.

Nature plants [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legume nodules requires substantial energy investment from host plants, and soybean (Glycine max (L.) supernodulation mutants show stunting and yield penalties due to overconsumption of carbon sources. We obtained soybean mutants differing in their nodulation ability, among which rhizobially induced cle1a/2a (ric1a/2a) has a moderate increase in nodule number, balanced carbon allocation, and enhanced carbon and nitrogen acquisition. In multi-year and multi-site field trials in China, two ric1a/2a lines had improved grain yield, protein content and sustained oil content, demonstrating that gene editing towards optimal nodulation improves soybean yield and quality.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Yamawo A, M Ohno (2024)

Joint evolution of mutualistic interactions, pollination, seed dispersal mutualism, and mycorrhizal symbiosis in trees.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Mycorrhizal symbiosis, seed dispersal, and pollination are recognized as the most prominent mutualistic interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how these symbiotic relationships have interacted to contribute to current plant diversity. We analyzed evolutionary relationships among mycorrhizal type, seed dispersal mode, and pollination mode in two global databases of 699 (database I) and 10 475 (database II) tree species. Although database II had been estimated from phylogenetic patterns and therefore had lower certainty of the mycorrhizal type than database I, whose mycorrhizal type was determined by direct observation, database II allowed analysis of many more taxa from more regions than database I. We found evidence of joint evolution of all three features in both databases. This result is robust to the effects of both sampling bias and missing taxa. Most arbuscular mycorrhizal-associated trees had endozoochorous (biotic) seed dispersal and biotic pollination, with long dispersal distances, whereas most ectomycorrhizal-associated trees had anemochorous (abiotic) seed dispersal and wind (abiotic) pollination mode, with shorter dispersal distances. These results provide a novel scenario in mutualistic interactions, seed dispersal, pollination, and mycorrhizal symbiosis types, which have jointly evolved and shaped current tree diversity and forest ecosystem world-wide.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

He T, Lin W, Yang S, et al (2024)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi reduce soil N2O emissions by altering root traits and soil denitrifier community composition.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03212-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase the ability of plants to obtain nitrogen (N) from the soil, and thus can affect emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a long-lived potent greenhouse gas. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of AMF on N2O emissions are still poorly understood, particularly in agroecosystems with different forms of N fertilizer inputs. Utilizing a mesocosm experiment in field, we examined the effects of AMF on N2O emissions via their influence on maize root traits and denitrifying microorganisms under ammonia and nitrate fertilizer input using [15]N isotope tracer. Here we show that the presence of AMF alone or both maize roots and AMF increased maize biomass and their [15]N uptake, root length, root surface area, and root volume, but led to a reduction in N2O emissions under both N input forms. Random forest model showed that root length and surface area were the most important predictors of N2O emissions. Additionally, the presence of AMF reduced the (nirK + nirS)/nosZ ratio by increasing the relative abundance of nirS-Bradyrhizobium and Rubrivivax with ammonia input, but reducing nosZ-Azospirillum, Cupriavidus and Rhodopseudomonas under both fertilizer input. Further, N2O emissions were significantly and positively correlated with the nosZ-type Azospirillum, Cupriavidus and Rhodopseudomonas, but negatively correlated with the nirS-type Bradyrhizobium and Rubrivivax. These results indicate that AMF reduce N2O emissions by increasing root length to explore N nutrients and altering the community composition of denitrifiers, suggesting that effective management of N fertilizer forms interacting with the rhizosphere microbiome may help mitigate N2O emissions under future N input scenarios.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Tschitschko B, Esti M, Philippi M, et al (2024)

Rhizobia-diatom symbiosis fixes missing nitrogen in the ocean.

Nature pii:10.1038/s41586-024-07495-w [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N2) fixation in oligotrophic surface waters is the main source of new nitrogen (N) to the ocean[1] and plays a key role in fueling the biological carbon pump[2]. Oceanic N2 fixation is almost exclusively attributed to cyanobacteria, even though genes encoding nitrogenase, the enzyme fixing N2 into ammonia, are widespread among marine bacteria and archaea[3-5]. Little is known about these non-cyanobacterial N2-fixers and direct proof that they can fix N in the ocean is missing. Here we report the discovery of a non-cyanobacterial N2-fixing symbiont, Candidatus Tectiglobus diatomicola, which provides its diatom host with fixed-N in return for photosynthetic carbon. The N2-fixing symbiont belongs to the order Rhizobiales and its association with a unicellular diatom expands the known hosts for this order beyond the well-known N2-fixing rhizobia-legume symbioses on land[6]. Our results show that the rhizobia-diatom symbiosis can contribute as much fixed-N as cyanobacterial N2-fixers in the tropical North Atlantic, and that they may be responsible for N2 fixation in the vast regions of the ocean where cyanobacteria are too rare to account for the measured rates.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Liu H, Han D, Hu J, et al (2024)

Biomechanical functions analysis of the Mallard webbed foot: A study of macroscopic and microscopic material assembly and tendon morphology.

Micron (Oxford, England : 1993), 183:103648 pii:S0968-4328(24)00065-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The mallard webbed foot represents an exemplary model of biomechanical efficiency in avian locomotion. This study delves into the intricate material assembly and tendon morphology of the mallard webbed foot, employing both macroscopic and microscopic analyses. Through histological slices and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we scrutinized the coupling assembly of rigid and flexible materials such as skin, tendon, and bone, while elucidating the biomechanical functions of tendons across various segments of the tarsometatarsophalangeal joint (TMTPJ). The histological examination unveiled a complex structural hierarchy extending from the external integument to the skeletal framework. Notably, the bone architecture, characterized by compact bone and honeycombed trabeculae, showcases a harmonious blend of strength and lightweight design. Tendons, traversing the phalangeal periphery, surrounded by elastic fibers, collagen fibers, and fat tissue. Fat chambers beneath the phalanx, filled with adipocytes, provide effective buffering, enabling the phalanx to withstand gravity, provide support, and facilitate locomotion. Furthermore, SEM analysis provided insights into the intricate morphology and arrangement of collagen fiber bundles within tendons. Flexor tendons in proximal and middle TMTPJ segments adopt a wavy-type, facilitating energy storage and release during weight-bearing activities. In contrast, distal TMTPJ flexor tendons assume a linear-type, emphasizing force transmission across phalangeal interfaces. Similarly, extensor tendons demonstrate segment-specific arrangements tailored to their respective biomechanical roles, with wavy-type in proximal and distal segments for energy modulation and linear-type in middle segments for enhanced force transmission and tear resistance. Overall, our findings offer a comprehensive understanding of the mallard webbed foot's biomechanical prowess, underscoring the symbiotic relationship between material composition, tendon morphology, and locomotor functionality. This study not only enriches our knowledge of avian biomechanics but also provides valuable insights for biomimetic design and tissue engineering endeavors.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Bağlan İ, Yanbakan E, Tuncel T, et al (2024)

3D printed kombucha biomaterial as a tissue scaffold and L929 cell cytotoxicity assay.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 28(9):e18316.

Tissue engineering includes the construction of tissue-organ scaffold. The advantage of three-dimensional scaffolds over two-dimensional scaffolds is that they provide homeostasis for a longer time. The microbial community in Symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast (SCOBY) can be a source for kombucha (kombu tea) production. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the usage of SCOBY, which produces bacterial cellulose, as a biomaterial and 3D scaffold material. 3D printable biomaterial was obtained by partial hydrolysis of oolong tea and black tea kombucha biofilms. In order to investigate the usage of 3D kombucha biomaterial as a tissue scaffold, "L929 cell line 3D cell culture" was created and cell viability was tested in the biomaterial. At the end of the 21st day, black tea showed 51% and oolong tea 73% viability. The cytotoxicity of the materials prepared by lyophilizing oolong and black tea kombucha beverages in fibroblast cell culture was determined. Black tea IC50 value: 7.53 mg, oolong tea IC50 value is found as 6.05 mg. Fibroblast viability in 3D biomaterial + lyophilized oolong and black tea kombucha beverages, which were created using the amounts determined to these values, were investigated by cell culture Fibroblasts in lyophilized and 3D biomaterial showed viability of 58% in black tea and 78% in oolong tea at the end of the 7th day. In SEM analysis, it was concluded that fibroblast cells created adhesion to the biomaterial. 3D biomaterial from kombucha mushroom culture can be used as tissue scaffold and biomaterial.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Torres M, Paszti S, L Eberl (2024)

Shedding light on bacteria-host interactions with the aid of TnSeq approaches.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria are highly adaptable and grow in diverse niches, where they often interact with eukaryotic organisms. These interactions with different hosts span the entire spectrum from symbiosis to pathogenicity and thus determine the lifestyle of the bacterium. Knowledge of the genetic determinants involved in animal and plant host colonization by pathogenic and mutualistic bacteria is not only crucial to discover new drug targets for disease management but also for developing novel biostimulant strategies. In the last decades, significant progress in genome-wide high-throughput technologies such as transposon insertion sequencing has led to the identification of pathways that enable efficient host colonization. However, the extent to which similar genes play a role in this process in different bacteria is yet unclear. This review highlights the commonalities and specificities of bacterial determinants important for bacteria-host interaction.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Kreth J, Helliwell E, Treerat P, et al (2024)

Molecular commensalism: how oral corynebacteria and their extracellular membrane vesicles shape microbiome interactions.

Frontiers in oral health, 5:1410786.

Historically, the study of microbe-associated diseases has focused primarily on pathogens, guided by Koch's postulates. This pathogen-centric view has provided a mechanistic understanding of disease etiology and microbial pathogenesis. However, next-generation sequencing approaches have revealed a far more nuanced view of the roles various microbes play in disease, highlighting the importance of microbial diversity beyond individual pathogens. This broader perspective acknowledges the roles of host and microbial communities in disease development and resistance. In particular, the concept of dysbiosis, especially within the oral cavity, has gained attention for explaining the emergence of complex polymicrobial diseases. Such diseases often stem from resident microbes rather than foreign pathogens, complicating their treatment and even clouding our understanding of disease etiology. Oral health is maintained through a delicate balance between commensal microbes and the host, with diseases like caries and periodontal disease arising from pathogenic perturbations of this balance. Commensal microbes, such as certain streptococci and Corynebacterium spp., play crucial roles in maintaining oral health through mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide production and membrane vesicle secretion, which can inhibit pathogenic species and modulate host immune responses. Recent research focused upon the mechanisms of molecular commensalism has expanded our understanding of these key functions of the commensal microbiome, demonstrating their central role in promoting oral health and preventing disease. These abilities represent a largely untapped reservoir of potential innovative strategies for disease prevention and management, emphasizing the need to bolster a symbiotic microbiome that inherently suppresses pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Khanh NV, Dutta S, Kim CS, et al (2024)

Features of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of Gastrodia elata cultivated in greenhouse for early harvest.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1389907.

Symbiotic microbes are essential for developing and growing Gastrodia elata, an achlorophyllous orchid of high medicinal value. Recently, the cultivation of G. elata in greenhouses has been adopted in Korea to produce mature tubers in a short time. However, no studies have been conducted on the microbial community structure of G. elata cultivated in greenhouse environments. Therefore, we analyzed the temporal features of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere of G. elata at the juvenile [JT; 2 months after sowing (MAS)], young (YT; 6 MAS), and mature (MT; 11 MAS) tuber stages using culture-dependent and high-throughput sequencing technology. The richness and diversity of the bacterial and fungal communities decreased with tuber growth of G. elata. The symbiotic fungi Mycena sp. and Armillaria sp. as well as tuber extract inhibited the growth of various soil-inhabiting fungal and bacterial strains, indicating that G. elata and its symbiotic fungi play important roles in the selection of rhizosphere microbes. Mortierella rishikesha was the most abundant fungal species in the rhizosphere. We also identified the microorganisms potentially beneficial for G. elata development during greenhouse cultivation. Tubers and symbiotic fungi actively exert selective pressure on rhizosphere microbes, influencing the diversity and abundance of bacterial and fungal communities as G. elata grows. This study is a first report on the temporal microbial community structure of G. elata cultivated in greenhouse. The results on the associated microbiome of G. elata will help understand their beneficial interactions with G. elata and contribute to improvement in cultivation.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Costantini C, Pariano M, Puccetti M, et al (2024)

Harnessing inter-kingdom metabolic disparities at the human-fungal interface for novel therapeutic approaches.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 11:1386598.

Humans interact with a multitude of microorganisms in various ecological relationships, ranging from commensalism to pathogenicity. The same applies to fungi, long recognized for their pathogenic roles in infection-such as in invasive fungal diseases caused, among others, by Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida spp.-and, more recently, for their beneficial activities as an integral part of the microbiota. Indeed, alterations in the fungal component of the microbiota, or mycobiota, have been associated with inflammatory, infectious and metabolic diseases, and cancer. Whether acting as opportunistic pathogens or symbiotic commensals, fungi possess a complex enzymatic repertoire that intertwines with that of the host. In this metabolic cross-talk, fungal enzymes may be unique, thus providing novel metabolic opportunities to the host, or, conversely, produce toxic metabolites. Indeed, administration of fungal probiotics and fungi-derived products may be beneficial in inflammatory and infectious diseases, but fungi may also produce a plethora of toxic secondary metabolites, collectively known as mycotoxins. Fungal enzymes may also be homologues to human enzymes, but nevertheless embedded in fungal-specific metabolic networks, determined by all the interconnected enzymes and molecules, quantitatively and qualitatively specific to the network, such that the activity and metabolic effects of each enzyme remain unique to fungi. In this Opinion, we explore the concept that targeting this fungal metabolic unicity, either in opportunistic pathogens or commensals, may be exploited to develop novel therapeutic strategies. In doing so, we present our recent experience in different pathological settings that ultimately converge on relevant trans-kingdom metabolic differences.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Zhao L, Xiao R, Zhang S, et al (2024)

Environmental specificity of karst cave habitats evidenced by diverse symbiotic bacteria in Opiliones.

BMC ecology and evolution, 24(1):58.

BACKGROUND: Karst caves serve as natural laboratories, providing organisms with extreme and constant conditions that promote isolation, resulting in a genetic relationship and living environment that is significantly different from those outside the cave. However, research on cave creatures, especially Opiliones, remains scarce, with most studies focused on water, soil, and cave sediments.

RESULTS: The structure of symbiotic bacteria in different caves were compared, revealing significant differences. Based on the alpha and beta diversity, symbiotic bacteria abundance and diversity in the cave were similar, but the structure of symbiotic bacteria differed inside and outside the cave. Microorganisms in the cave play an important role in material cycling and energy flow, particularly in the nitrogen cycle. Although microbial diversity varies inside and outside the cave, Opiliones in Beijing caves and Hainan Island exhibited a strong similarity, indicating that the two environments share commonalities.

CONCLUSIONS: The karst cave environment possesses high microbial diversity and there are noticeable differences among different caves. Different habitats lead to significant differences in the symbiotic bacteria in Opiliones inside and outside the cave, and cave microorganisms have made efforts to adapt to extreme environments. The similarity in symbiotic bacteria community structure suggests a potential similarity in host environments, providing an explanation for the appearance of Sinonychia martensi in caves in the north.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Zhang Y, Chen H, Lian C, et al (2024)

Insights into phage-bacteria interaction in cold seep Gigantidas platifrons through metagenomics and transcriptome analyses.

Scientific reports, 14(1):10540.

Viruses are crucial for regulating deep-sea microbial communities and biogeochemical cycles. However, their roles are still less characterized in deep-sea holobionts. Bathymodioline mussels are endemic species inhabiting cold seeps and harboring endosymbionts in gill epithelial cells for nutrition. This study unveiled a diverse array of viruses in the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons mussels and analyzed the viral metagenome and transcriptome from the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons mussels collected from a cold seep in the South Sea. The mussel gills contained various viruses including Baculoviridae, Rountreeviridae, Myoviridae and Siphovirdae, but the active viromes were Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae belonging to the order Caudovirales. The overall viral community structure showed significant variation among environments with different methane concentrations. Transcriptome analysis indicated high expression of viral structural genes, integrase, and restriction endonuclease genes in a high methane concentration environment, suggesting frequent virus infection and replication. Furthermore, two viruses (GP-phage-contig14 and GP-phage-contig72) interacted with Gigantidas platifrons methanotrophic gill symbionts (bathymodiolin mussels host intracellular methanotrophic Gammaproteobacteria in their gills), showing high expression levels, and have huge different expression in different methane concentrations. Additionally, single-stranded DNA viruses may play a potential auxiliary role in the virus-host interaction using indirect bioinformatics methods. Moreover, the Cro and DNA methylase genes had phylogenetic similarity between the virus and Gigantidas platifrons methanotrophic gill symbionts. This study also explored a variety of viruses in the gill tissues of Gigantidas platifrons and revealed that bacteria interacted with the viruses during the symbiosis with Gigantidas platifrons. This study provides fundamental insights into the interplay of microorganisms within Gigantidas platifrons mussels in deep sea.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Berrios L, Bogar GD, Bogar LM, et al (2024)

Ectomycorrhizal fungi alter soil food webs and the functional potential of bacterial communities.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Most of Earth's trees rely on critical soil nutrients that ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF) liberate and provide, and all of Earth's land plants associate with bacteria that help them survive in nature. Yet, our understanding of how the presence of EcMF modifies soil bacterial communities, soil food webs, and root chemistry requires direct experimental evidence to comprehend the effects that EcMF may generate in the belowground plant microbiome. To this end, we grew Pinus muricata plants in soils that were either inoculated with EcMF and native forest bacterial communities or only native bacterial communities. We then profiled the soil bacterial communities, applied metabolomics and lipidomics, and linked omics data sets to understand how the presence of EcMF modifies belowground biogeochemistry, bacterial community structure, and their functional potential. We found that the presence of EcMF (i) enriches soil bacteria linked to enhanced plant growth in nature, (ii) alters the quantity and composition of lipid and non-lipid soil metabolites, and (iii) modifies plant root chemistry toward pathogen suppression, enzymatic conservation, and reactive oxygen species scavenging. Using this multi-omic approach, we therefore show that this widespread fungal symbiosis may be a common factor for structuring soil food webs.IMPORTANCEUnderstanding how soil microbes interact with one another and their host plant will help us combat the negative effects that climate change has on terrestrial ecosystems. Unfortunately, we lack a clear understanding of how the presence of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EcMF)-one of the most dominant soil microbial groups on Earth-shapes belowground organic resources and the composition of bacterial communities. To address this knowledge gap, we profiled lipid and non-lipid metabolites in soils and plant roots, characterized soil bacterial communities, and compared soils amended either with or without EcMF. Our results show that the presence of EcMF changes soil organic resource availability, impacts the proliferation of different bacterial communities (in terms of both type and potential function), and primes plant root chemistry for pathogen suppression and energy conservation. Our findings therefore provide much-needed insight into how two of the most dominant soil microbial groups interact with one another and with their host plant.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Lu X, Hayashi H, Ishikawa E, et al (2024)

Early acquisition of S-specific Tfh clonotypes after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with the longevity of anti-S antibodies.

eLife, 12:.

SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been used worldwide to combat COVID-19 pandemic. To elucidate the factors that determine the longevity of spike (S)-specific antibodies, we traced the characteristics of S-specific T cell clonotypes together with their epitopes and anti-S antibody titers before and after BNT162b2 vaccination over time. T cell receptor (TCR) αβ sequences and mRNA expression of the S-responded T cells were investigated using single-cell TCR- and RNA-sequencing. Highly expanded 199 TCR clonotypes upon stimulation with S peptide pools were reconstituted into a reporter T cell line for the determination of epitopes and restricting HLAs. Among them, we could determine 78 S epitopes, most of which were conserved in variants of concern (VOCs). After the 2nd vaccination, T cell clonotypes highly responsive to recall S stimulation were polarized to follicular helper T (Tfh)-like cells in donors exhibiting sustained anti-S antibody titers (designated as 'sustainers'), but not in 'decliners'. Even before vaccination, S-reactive CD4[+] T cell clonotypes did exist, most of which cross-reacted with environmental or symbiotic microbes. However, these clonotypes contracted after vaccination. Conversely, S-reactive clonotypes dominated after vaccination were undetectable in pre-vaccinated T cell pool, suggesting that highly responding S-reactive T cells were established by vaccination from rare clonotypes. These results suggest that de novo acquisition of memory Tfh-like cells upon vaccination may contribute to the longevity of anti-S antibody titers.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Lucic-Mercy E, Mercy L, Jeschke A, et al (2024)

Short-term artificial adaptation of Rhizoglomus irregulare to high phosphate levels and its implications for fungal-plant interactions: phenotypic and transcriptomic insights.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1385245.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play a crucial role in enhancing plant growth, but their use in agriculture is limited due to several constraints. Elevated soil phosphate levels resulting from fertilization practices strongly inhibit fungal development and reduce mycorrhizal growth response. Here, we investigated the possibility of adapting Rhizoglomus irregulare to high phosphate (Pi) levels to improve its tolerance. A fungal inoculum was produced through multiple generations in the presence of elevated Pi and used to inoculate melon plants grown under low and high phosphate conditions. Our results revealed distinct phenotypic and transcriptomic profiles between the adapted and non-adapted Rhizoglomus irregulare. The Pi adapted phenotype led to enhanced root colonization under high Pi conditions, increased vesicle abundance, and higher plant biomass at both phosphate levels. Additionally, the adaptation status influenced the expression of several genes involved in Pi uptake, Pi signaling, and mitochondrial respiration in both symbiotic partners. While the underlying mechanisms of the adaptation process require further investigation, our study raises intriguing questions. Do naturally occurring phosphate-tolerant AMF already exist? How might the production and use of artificially produced inocula bias our understanding? Our findings shed light on the adaptive capacities of Glomeromycota and challenge previous models suggesting that plants control mycorrhizal fungal growth. Moreover, our work pave the way for the development of innovative biotechnological tools to enhance the efficacy of mycorrhizal inoculum products under practical conditions with high phosphate fertilization.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Inagaki T, Igai K, Takahashi K, et al (2024)

Transmission dynamics of symbiotic protist communities in the termite gut: association with host adult eclosion and dispersal.

Royal Society open science, 11(5):231527.

The fidelity of vertical transmission is a critical factor in maintaining mutualistic associations with microorganisms. The obligate mutualism between termites and intestinal protist communities has been maintained for over 130 million years, suggesting the faithful transmission of diverse protist species across host generations. Although a severe bottleneck can occur when alates disperse with gut protists, how protist communities are maintained during this process remains largely unknown. In this study, we examined the dynamics of intestinal protist communities during adult eclosion and alate dispersal in the termite Reticulitermes speratus. We found that the protist community structure in last-instar nymphs differed significantly from that in workers and persisted intact during adult eclosion, whereas all protists disappeared from the gut during moults between worker stages. The number of protists in nymphs and alates was substantially lower than in workers, whereas the proportion of protist species exhibiting low abundance in workers was higher in nymphs and alates. Using a simulation-based approach, we demonstrate that such changes in the protist community composition of nymphs and alates improve the transmission efficiency of whole protist species communities. This study thus provides novel insights into how termites have maintained mutualistic relationships with diverse gut microbiota for generations.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Ali M, Rice CA, Byrne AW, et al (2024)

Modelling dynamics between free-living amoebae and bacteria.

Environmental microbiology, 26(5):e16623.

Free-living amoebae (FLA) serve as hosts for a variety of endosymbionts, which are microorganisms that reside and multiply within the FLA. Some of these endosymbionts pose a pathogenic threat to humans, animals, or both. The symbiotic relationship with FLA not only offers these microorganisms protection but also enhances their survival outside their hosts and assists in their dispersal across diverse habitats, thereby escalating disease transmission. This review is intended to offer an exhaustive overview of the existing mathematical models that have been applied to understand the dynamics of FLA, especially concerning their interactions with bacteria. An extensive literature review was conducted across Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases to identify mathematical models that describe the dynamics of interactions between FLA and bacteria, as published in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The literature search revealed several FLA-bacteria model systems, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pasteurella multocida, and Legionella spp. Although the published mathematical models account for significant system dynamics such as predator-prey relationships and non-linear growth rates, they generally overlook spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions, such as temperature, and population diversity. Future mathematical models will need to incorporate these factors to enhance our understanding of FLA-bacteria dynamics and to provide valuable insights for future risk assessment and disease control measures.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Xie X, Fu H, Zhu Q, et al (2024)

Integrated optimization modelling framework for low-carbon and green regional transitions through resource-based industrial symbiosis.

Nature communications, 15(1):3842.

The development and utilization of bulk resources provide the basic material needs for industrial systems. However, most current resource utilization patterns are unsustainable, with low efficiencies and high carbon emissions. Here, we report a quantitative tool for resource-based industries to facilitate sustainable and low-carbon transitions within the regional economy. To evaluate the effectiveness of this tool, the saline Qinghai Lake region was chosen as a case study. After optimizing the industrial structure, the benefits of economic output, resource efficiency, energy consumption, solid waste reduction, and carbon emission reduction can be obtained. The scenario analyses exhibit disparities in different transition paths, where the carbon mitigation, economic output, and resource efficiency that benefit from optimal development paths are significantly better than those of the traditional path, indicating the urgency of adopting cleaner technology and industrial symbiosis for regional industries.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Xia Y, Jiang T, Li Y, et al (2024)

circVAPA-rich small extracellular vesicles derived from gastric cancer promote neural invasion by inhibiting SLIT2 expression in neuronal cells.

Cancer letters pii:S0304-3835(24)00319-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancer worldwide. Neural invasion (NI) is considered as the symbiotic interaction between nerves and cancers, which strongly affects the prognosis of GC patients. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) play a key role in intercellular communication. However, whether sEVs mediate GC-NI remains unexplored. In this study, sEVs release inhibitor reduces the NI potential of GC cells. Muscarinic receptor M3 on GC-derived sEVs regulates their absorption by neuronal cells. The enrichment of sEV-circVAPA in NI-positive patients' serum is validated by serum high throughput sEV-circRNA sequencing and clinical samples. sEV-circVAPA promotes GC-NI in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, sEV-circVAPA decreases SLIT2 transcription by miR-548p/TGIF2 and inhibits SLIT2 translation via binding to eIF4G1, thereby downregulates SLIT2 expression in neuronal cells and finally induces GC-NI. Together, this work identifies the preferential absorption mechanism of GC-derived sEVs by neuronal cells and demonstrates a previously undefined role of GC-derived sEV-circRNA in GC-NI, which provides new insight into sEV-circRNA based diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for NI-positive GC patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Radaelli E, Palladino G, Nanetti E, et al (2024)

Meta-analysis of the Cetacea gut microbiome: Diversity, co-evolution, and interaction with the anthropogenic pathobiome.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03090-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite their critical roles in marine ecosystems, only few studies have addressed the gut microbiome (GM) of cetaceans in a comprehensive way. Being long-living apex predators with a carnivorous diet but evolved from herbivorous ancestors, cetaceans are an ideal model for studying GM-host evolutionary drivers of symbiosis and represent a valuable proxy of overall marine ecosystem health. Here, we investigated the GM of eight different cetacean species, including both Odontocetes (toothed whales) and Mysticetes (baleen whales), by means of 16S rRNA-targeted amplicon sequencing. We collected faecal samples from free-ranging cetaceans circulating within the Pelagos Sanctuary (North-western Mediterranean Sea) and we also included publicly available cetacean gut microbiome sequences. Overall, we show a clear GM trajectory related to host phylogeny and taxonomy (i.e., phylosymbiosis), with remarkable GM variations which may reflect adaptations to different diets between baleen and toothed whales. While most samples were found to be infected by protozoan parasites of potential anthropic origin, we report that this phenomenon did not lead to severe GM dysbiosis. This study underlines the importance of both host phylogeny and diet in shaping the GM of cetaceans, highlighting the role of neutral processes as well as environmental factors in the establishment of this GM-host symbiosis. Furthermore, the presence of potentially human-derived protozoan parasites in faeces of free-ranging cetaceans emphasizes the importance of these animals as bioindicators of anthropic impact on marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Rashidi S, Yousefi AR, A Mastinu (2024)

Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Can Change the Composition of Secondary Metabolites in Fruits of Solanum nigrum L.

Chemistry & biodiversity [Epub ahead of print].

Solanum nigrum is a common weed in arable land, while being used in traditional medicine around the world due to its remarkable levels of valuable secondary metabolites. Agronomic and biological techniques can alter the production of a specific metabolite by influencing plant growth and metabolism. The effects of colonization with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), including Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizoglomus intraradices, and Rhizoglomus fasciculatum, on the chemical composition of S. nigrum fruits were evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. More than 100 different chemical constituents were evaluated by GC-MS. Our study revealed that the levels of phenols (quinic acid), benzenes (hydroquinone), sulfur-containing compounds, lactone and carboxylic acids were improved by R. intraradices. In contrast, hydroxymethylfurfural increased by 68% in R. fasciculatum inoculated with uninoculated S. nigrum plants, and this species was also the most efficient in inducing sugar compounds (D-galactose, lactose, and melezitose). Our results suggest that AMF colonization is an effective biological strategy that can alter the chemical composition and improve the medicinal properties of S. nigrum.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Tsang CTT, Hui TKL, Chung NM, et al (2024)

Comparative analysis of gut microbiome of mangrove brachyuran crabs revealed patterns of phylosymbiosis and codiversification.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The acquisition of microbial symbionts enables animals to rapidly adapt to and exploit novel ecological niches, thus significantly enhancing the evolutionary fitness and success of their hosts. However, the dynamics of host-microbe interactions and their evolutionary implications remain largely underexplored in marine invertebrates. Crabs of the family Sesarmidae (Crustacea: Brachyura) are dominant inhabitants of mangrove forests and are considered keystone species there. Their rapid diversification, particularly after adopting a plant-feeding lifestyle, is believed to have been facilitated by symbiotic gut microbes, enabling successful colonization of intertidal and terrestrial environments. To investigate the patterns and mechanisms shaping the microbial communities and the role of microbes in the evolution of Sesarmidae, we characterized and compared the gut microbiome compositions across 43 crab species from Sesarmidae and other mangrove-associated families using 16S metabarcoding. We found that the gut microbiome assemblages in crabs are primarily determined by host identity, with a secondary influence from environmental factors such as microhabitat and sampling location, and to a lesser extent influenced by biological factors such as sex and gut region. While patterns of phylosymbiosis (i.e. when microbial community relationships recapitulate the phylogeny of their hosts) were consistently observed in all beta-diversity metrics analysed, the strength of phylosymbiosis varied across crab families. This suggests that the bacterial assemblages in each family were differentially shaped by different degrees of host filtering and/or other evolutionary processes. Notably, Sesarmidae displayed signals of cophylogeny with its core gut bacterial genera, which likely play crucial functional roles in their hosts by providing lignocellulolytic enzymes, essential amino acids, and fatty acids supplementation. Our results support the hypothesis of microbial contribution to herbivory and terrestrialization in mangrove crabs, highlighting the tight association and codiversification of the crab holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Fidopiastis PM, Childs C, Esin JJ, et al (2024)

Correction for Fidopiastis et al., "Vibrio fischeri Possesses Xds and Dns Nucleases That Differentially Influence Phosphate Scavenging, Aggregation, Competence, and Symbiotic Colonization of Squid".

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Fidopiastis PM, Childs C, Esin JJ, et al (2024)

Corrected and republished from: "Vibrio fischeri Possesses Xds and Dns Nucleases That Differentially Influence Phosphate Scavenging, Aggregation, Competence, and Symbiotic Colonization of Squid".

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Cells of Vibrio fischeri colonize the light organ of Euprymna scolopes, providing the squid bioluminescence in exchange for nutrients and protection. The bacteria encounter DNA-rich mucus throughout their transition to a symbiotic lifestyle, leading us to hypothesize a role for nuclease activity in the colonization process. In support of this, we detected abundant extracellular nuclease activity in growing cells of V. fischeri. To discover the gene(s) responsible for this activity, we screened a V. fischeri transposon mutant library for nuclease-deficient strains. Interestingly, only one strain, whose transposon insertion mapped to nuclease gene VF_1451, showed a complete loss of nuclease activity in our screens. A database search revealed that VF_1451 is homologous to the nuclease-encoding gene xds in Vibrio cholerae. However, V. fischeri strains lacking xds eventually revealed slight nuclease activity on plates upon prolonged incubation. This led us to hypothesize that a second secreted nuclease, identified through a database search as VF_0437, a homolog of V. cholerae dns, might be responsible for the residual nuclease activity. Here, we show that Xds and/or Dns are involved in essential aspects of V. fischeri biology, including natural transformation, aggregation, and phosphate scavenging. Furthermore, strains lacking either nuclease were outcompeted by the wild type for squid colonization. Understanding the specific role of nuclease activity in the squid colonization process represents an intriguing area of future research.IMPORTANCEFrom soil and water to host-associated secretions such as mucus, environments that bacteria inhabit are awash in DNA. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a nutritious resource that microbes dedicate significant energy to exploit. Calcium binds eDNA to promote cell-cell aggregation and horizontal gene transfer. eDNA hydrolysis impacts the construction of and dispersal from biofilms. Strategies in which pathogens use nucleases to avoid phagocytosis or disseminate by degrading host secretions are well-documented; significantly less is known about nucleases in mutualistic associations. This study describes the role of nucleases in the mutualism between Vibrio fischeri and its squid host Euprymna scolopes. We find that nuclease activity is an important determinant of colonization in V. fischeri, broadening our understanding of how microbes establish and maintain beneficial associations.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Maeda GP, Kelly MK, Sundar A, et al (2024)

Intracellular defensive symbiont is culturable and capable of transovarial, vertical transmission.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Insects frequently form heritable associations with beneficial bacteria that are vertically transmitted from parent to offspring. Long-term vertical transmission has repeatedly resulted in genome reduction and gene loss, rendering many such bacteria incapable of establishment in axenic culture. Among aphids, heritable endosymbionts often provide context-specific benefits to their hosts. Although these associations have large impacts on host phenotypes, experimental approaches are often limited by an inability to cultivate these microbes. Here, we report the axenic culture of Candidatus Fukatsuia symbiotica strain WIR, a heritable bacterial endosymbiont of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Whole-genome sequencing revealed similar genomic features and high sequence similarity to previously described strains, suggesting that the cultivation techniques used here may be applicable to Ca. F. symbiotica strains from distantly related aphids. Microinjection of cultured Ca. F. symbiotica into uninfected aphids revealed that it can reinfect developing embryos and that infections are maintained in subsequent generations via transovarial maternal transmission. Artificially infected aphids exhibit phenotypic and life history traits similar to those observed for native infections. Our results show that Ca. F. symbiotica may be a useful tool for experimentally probing the molecular mechanisms underlying host-symbiont interactions in a heritable symbiosis.

IMPORTANCE: Diverse eukaryotic organisms form stable, symbiotic relationships with bacteria that provide benefits to their hosts. While these associations are often biologically important, they can be difficult to probe experimentally because intimately host-associated bacteria are difficult to access within host tissues, and most cannot be cultured. This is especially true for the intracellular, maternally inherited bacteria associated with many insects, including aphids. Here, we demonstrate that a pea aphid-associated strain of the heritable endosymbiont, Candidatus Fukatsuia symbiotica, can be grown outside of its host using standard microbiology techniques and can readily re-establish infection that is maintained across host generations. These artificial infections recapitulate the effects of native infections, making this host-symbiont pair a useful experimental system.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Wu D, Zhao P, Wang C, et al (2024)

Differences in the intestinal microbiota and association of host metabolism with hair coat status in cattle.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1296602.

INTRODUCTION: The hair coat status of cattle serves as an easily observed indicator of economic value in livestock production; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to determine differences in the intestinal microbiota and metabolome of cattle based on a division of with either slick and shining (SHC) or rough and dull (MHC) hair coat in Simmental cows.

METHODS: Eight SHC and eight MHC late-pregnancy Simmental cows (with similar parities, body weights, and body conditions) were selected based on their hair coat status, and blood samples (plasma) from coccygeal venipuncture and fecal samples from the rectum were collected. The intestinal microbiota (in the fecal samples) was characterized by employing 16S rRNA gene sequencing targeting the V3-V4 hypervariable region on the Illumina MiSeq PE300 platform, and plasma samples were subjected to LC-MS/MS-based metabolomics with Progenesis QI 2.3. Plasma macromolecular metabolites were examined for differences in the metabolism of lipids, proteins, mineral elements, and hormones.

RESULTS: Notable differences between the SHC and MHC groups related to host hair coat status were observed in the host metabolome and intestinal microbiota (P < 0.05). The host metabolome was enriched in histidine metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and purine metabolism in the SHC group, and the intestinal microbiota were also enriched in histidine metabolism (P < 0.05). In the MHC group, the symbiotic relationship transitioned from cooperation to competition in the MHC group, and an uncoupling effect was present in the microbe-metabolite association of intestine microbiota-host interactions. The hubs mediating the relationships between intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolites were the intestinal bacterial genus g__norank_f__Eubacterium_coprostanoligenes_group, plasma inosine, triiodothyronine, and phosphorus, which could be used to differentiate cows' hair coat status (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Overall, the present study identified the relationships between the features of the intestinal microbiota and host hair coat status, thereby providing evidence and a new direction (intestine microbiota-host interplay) for future studies aimed at understanding the hair coat status of cattle.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Ghorui M, Chowdhury S, Balu P, et al (2024)

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal inoculants and its regulatory landscape.

Heliyon, 10(9):e30359.

One of the most prominent means for sustainable agriculture and ecosystem management are Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) inoculants. These inoculants establish beneficial symbiotic relationships with land plant roots, offering a wide range of benefits, from enhanced nutrient absorption to improved resilience against environmental stressors. However, several currently available commercial AM inoculants face challenges such as inconsistency in field applications, ecological risks associated with non-native strains, and the absence of universal regulations. Currently, regulations for AM inoculants vary globally, with some regions leading efforts to standardize and ensure quality control. Proposed regulatory frameworks aim to establish parameters for composition, safety, and efficacy. Nevertheless, challenges persist in terms of scientific data, standardization, testing under real conditions, and the ecological impact of these inoculants. To address these challenges and unlock the full potential of AM inoculants, increased research funding, public-private partnerships, monitoring, awareness, and ecosystem impact studies are recommended. Future regulations have the potential to improve product quality, soil health, and crop productivity while reducing reliance on chemical inputs and benefiting the environment. However, addressing issues related to compliance, standardization, education, certification, monitoring, and cost is essential for realizing these benefits. Global harmonization and collaborative efforts are vital to maximize their impact on agriculture and ecosystem management, leading to healthier soils, increased crop yields, and a more sustainable agricultural industry.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Ramkumar D, Marty A, Ramkumar J, et al (2024)

Food for thought: Making the case for food produced via regenerative agriculture in the battle against non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs).

One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 18:100734.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) pose a global health challenge, leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic strain. Our review underscores the escalating incidence of NCDs worldwide and highlights the potential of regenerative agriculture (RA) products in mitigating these diseases. We also explore the efficacy of dietary interventions in NCD management and prevention, emphasizing the superiority of plant-based diets over those high in processed foods and red meat. Examining the role of the gut microbiome in various diseases, including liver disorders, allergies, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer, we find compelling evidence implicating its influence on disease development. Notably, dietary modifications can positively affect the gut microbiome, fostering a symbiotic relationship with the host and making this a critical strategy in disease prevention and treatment. Investigating agricultural practices, we identify parallels between soil/plant and human microbiome studies, suggesting a crucial link between soil health, plant- and animal-derived food quality, and human well-being. Conventional/Industrial agriculture (IA) practices, characterized in part by use of chemical inputs, have adverse effects on soil microbiome diversity, food quality, and ecosystems. In contrast, RA prioritizes soil health through natural processes, and includes avoiding synthetic inputs, crop rotation, and integrating livestock. Emerging evidence suggests that food from RA systems surpasses IA-produced food in quality and nutritional value. Recognizing the interconnection between human, plant, and soil microbiomes, promoting RA-produced foods emerges as a strategy to improve human health and environmental sustainability. By mitigating climate change impacts through carbon sequestration and water cycling, RA offers dual benefits for human and planetary health and well-being. Emphasizing the pivotal role of diet and agricultural practices in combating NCDs and addressing environmental concerns, the adoption of regional RA systems becomes imperative. Increasing RA integration into local food systems can enhance food quality, availability, and affordability while safeguarding human health and the planet's future.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Hookabe N, Ueshima R, T Miura (2024)

Postembryonic development and lifestyle shift in the commensal ribbon worm.

Frontiers in zoology, 21(1):13.

BACKGROUND: Various morphological adaptations are associated with symbiotic relationships between organisms. One such adaptation is seen in the nemertean genus Malacobdella. All species in the genus are commensals of molluscan hosts, attaching to the surface of host mantles with a terminal sucker. Malacobdella possesses several unique characteristics within the order Monostilifera, exhibiting the terminal sucker and the absence of eyes and apical/cerebral organs, which are related to their adaptation to a commensal lifestyle. Nevertheless, the developmental processes that give rise to these morphological characteristics during their transition from free-living larvae to commensal adults remain uncertain.

RESULTS: In the present study, therefore, we visualized the developmental processes of the internal morphologies during postembryonic larval stages using fluorescent molecular markers. We demonstrated the developmental processes, including the formation of the sucker primordium and the functional sucker. Furthermore, our data revealed that sensory organs, including apical/cerebral organs, formed in embryonic and early postembryonic stages but degenerated in the late postembryonic stage prior to settlement within their host using a terminal sucker.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the formation of the terminal sucker through tissue invagination, shedding light on its adhesion mechanism. Sucker muscle development likely originates from body wall muscles. Notably, M. japonica exhibits negative phototaxis despite lacking larval ocelli. This observation suggests a potential role for other sensory mechanisms, such as the apical and cerebral organs identified in the larvae, in facilitating settlement and adhesive behaviors. The loss of sensory organs during larval development might reflect a transition from planktonic feeding to a stable, host-associated lifestyle. This study also emphasizes the need for further studies to explore the phylogenetic relationships within the infraorder Amphiporiina and investigate the postembryonic development of neuromuscular systems in closely related taxa to gain a more comprehensive understanding of ecological adaptations in Nemertea.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Hung SW, Yeh PH, Huang TC, et al (2024)

A cyclic dipeptide for salinity stress alleviation and the trophic flexibility of endophyte provide insights into saltmarsh plant-microbe interactions.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae041.

In response to climate change, the nature of endophytes and their applications in sustainable agriculture have attracted the attention of academics and agro-industries. This work focused on the endophytic halophiles of the endangered Taiwanese salt marsh plant, Bolboschoenus planiculmis, and evaluated the functions of these isolates through in planta salinity stress alleviation assay using Arabidopsis. The endophytic strain Priestia megaterium BP01R2, which can promote plant growth and salinity tolerance, was further characterized through multi-omics approaches. The transcriptomics results suggested that BP01R2 could function by tuning hormone signal transduction, energy-producing metabolism, multiple stress responses, etc. In addition, the cyclodipeptide cyclo(L-Ala-Gly), which was identified by metabolomics analysis, was confirmed to contribute to the alleviation of salinity stress in stressed plants via exogenous supplementation. In this study, we used multi-omics approaches to investigate the genomics, metabolomics, and tropisms of endophytes, as well as the transcriptomics of plants in response to the endophyte. The results revealed the potential molecular mechanisms underlying the occurrence of biostimulant-based plant-endophyte symbioses with possible application in sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Aoki N, Shimasaki T, Yazaki W, et al (2024)

An isoflavone catabolism gene cluster underlying interkingdom interactions in the soybean rhizosphere.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae052.

Plant roots secrete various metabolites, including plant specialized metabolites, into the rhizosphere, and shape the rhizosphere microbiome, which is crucial for the plant health and growth. Isoflavones are major plant specialized metabolites found in legume plants, and are involved in interactions with soil microorganisms as initiation signals in rhizobial symbiosis and as modulators of the legume root microbiota. However, it remains largely unknown the molecular basis underlying the isoflavone-mediated interkingdom interactions in the legume rhizosphere. Here, we isolated Variovorax sp. strain V35, a member of the Comamonadaceae that harbors isoflavone-degrading activity, from soybean roots and discovered a gene cluster responsible for isoflavone degradation named ifc. The characterization of ifc mutants and heterologously expressed Ifc enzymes revealed that isoflavones undergo oxidative catabolism, which is different from the reductive metabolic pathways observed in gut microbiota. We further demonstrated that the ifc genes are frequently found in bacterial strains isolated from legume plants, including mutualistic rhizobia, and contribute to the detoxification of the antibacterial activity of isoflavones. Taken together, our findings reveal an isoflavone catabolism gene cluster in the soybean root microbiota, providing molecular insights into isoflavone-mediated legume-microbiota interactions.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Maire J, Collingro A, Horn M, et al (2024)

Chlamydiae in corals: shared functional potential despite broad taxonomic diversity.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae054.

Cnidarians, such as corals and sea anemones, associate with a wide range of bacteria that have essential functions, including nutrient cycling and the production of antimicrobial compounds. Within cnidarians, bacteria can colonize all microhabitats including the tissues. Among them are obligate intracellular bacteria of the phylum Chlamydiota (chlamydiae) whose impact on cnidarian hosts and holobionts, especially corals, remain unknown. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of previously published 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding data from cnidarians (e.g. coral, jellyfish, and anemones), eight metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of coral-associated chlamydiae, and one MAG of jellyfish-associated chlamydiae to decipher their diversity and functional potential. While the metabarcoding dataset showed an enormous diversity of cnidarian-associated chlamydiae, six out of nine MAGs were affiliated with the Simkaniaceae family. The other three MAGs were assigned to the Parasimkaniaceae, Rhabdochlamydiaceae, and Anoxychlamydiaceae, respectively. All MAGs lacked the genes necessary for an independent existence, lacking any nucleotide or vitamin and most amino acid biosynthesis pathways. Hallmark chlamydial genes, such as a type III secretion system, nucleotide transporters, and genes for host interaction, were encoded in all MAGs. Together these observations suggest an obligate intracellular lifestyle of coral-associated chlamydiae. No unique genes were found in coral-associated chlamydiae, suggesting a lack of host specificity. Additional studies are needed to understand how chlamydiae interact with their coral host, and other microbes in coral holobionts. This first study of the diversity and functional potential of coral-associated chlamydiae improves our understanding of both the coral microbiome and the chlamydial lifestyle and host range.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Nath S, R Balling (2024)

The Warburg Effect Reinterpreted 100 yr on: A First-Principles Stoichiometric Analysis and Interpretation from the Perspective of ATP Metabolism in Cancer Cells.

Function (Oxford, England), 5(3):zqae008.

The Warburg Effect is a longstanding enigma in cancer biology. Despite the passage of 100 yr since its discovery, and the accumulation of a vast body of research on the subject, no convincing biochemical explanation has been given for the original observations of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cell metabolism. Here, we have worked out a first-principles quantitative analysis of the problem from the principles of stoichiometry and available electron balance. The results have been interpreted using Nath's unified theory of energy coupling and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, and the original data of Warburg and colleagues have been analyzed from this new perspective. Use of the biomass yield based on ATP per unit substrate consumed, [Formula: see text], or the Nath-Warburg number, NaWa has been shown to excellently model the original data on the Warburg Effect with very small standard deviation values, and without employing additional fitted or adjustable parameters. Based on the results of the quantitative analysis, a novel conservative mechanism of synthesis, utilization, and recycling of ATP and other key metabolites (eg, lactate) is proposed. The mechanism offers fresh insights into metabolic symbiosis and coupling within and/or among proliferating cells. The fundamental understanding gained using our approach should help in catalyzing the development of more efficient metabolism-targeting anticancer drugs.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Leng C, Hou M, Xing Y, et al (2024)

Perspective and challenges of mycorrhizal symbiosis in orchid medicinal plants.

Chinese herbal medicines, 16(2):172-179.

The family Orchidaceae is of the most diverse taxon in the plant kingdom, and most of its members are highly valuable herbal medicines. Orchids have a unique mycorrhizal symbiotic relationship with specific fungi for carbohydrate and nutrient supplies in their whole lifecycle. The large-scale cultivation of the medicinal plant Gastodia elata is a successful example of using mycorrhizal symbiotic technology. In this review, we adopted G. elata and Dendrobium officinale as examples to describe the characteristics of orchid mycorrhiza and mycorrhizal benefits for host plants' growth and health (e.g. biotic and abiotic stress and secondary metabolite accumulation). The challenges in applying mycorrhizal technology to the cultivation of orchid medicinal plants in the future were also discussed. This review aims to serve as a theoretical guide for the cultivation of mycorrhizal technology in medicinal orchid plants.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Zhang J, Lu J, Zhu Y, et al (2024)

Roles of endophytic fungi in medicinal plant abiotic stress response and TCM quality development.

Chinese herbal medicines, 16(2):204-213.

Medicinal plants, as medicinal materials and important drug components, have been used in traditional and folk medicine for ages. However, being sessile organisms, they are seriously affected by extreme environmental conditions and abiotic stresses such as salt, heavy metal, temperature, and water stresses. Medicinal plants usually produce specific secondary metabolites to survive such stresses, and these metabolites can often be used for treating human diseases. Recently, medicinal plants have been found to partner with endophytic fungi to form a long-term, stable, and win-win symbiotic relationship. Endophytic fungi can promote secondary metabolite accumulation in medicinal plants. The close relationship can improve host plant resistance to the abiotic stresses of soil salinity, drought, and extreme temperatures. Their symbiosis also sheds light on plant growth and active compound production. Here, we show that endophytic fungi can improve the host medicinal plant resistance to abiotic stress by regulating active compounds, reducing oxidative stress, and regulating the cell ion balance. We also identify the deficiencies and burning issues of available studies and present promising research topics for the future. This review provides guidance for endophytic fungi research to improve the ability of medicinal plants to resist abiotic stress. It also suggests ideas and methods for active compound accumulation in medicinal plants and medicinal material development during the response to abiotic stress.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Liu SH, Zhang Y, Guo ZX, et al (2024)

Effects of baculovirus infection on intestinal microflora of BmNPV resistant and susceptible strain silkworm.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7665174 [Epub ahead of print].

Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) is a serious pathogen causing huge economic losses to sericulture. There is growing evidence that the gut microbiota of silkworms plays a critical role in shaping host responses and interactions with viral infection. However, little is known about the differences in the composition and diversity of intestinal microflora, especially with respect to silkworm strain differences and BmNPV infection-induced changes. Here, we aim to explore the differences between BmNPV-resistant strain A35 and susceptible strain P50 silkworm and the impact of BmNPV infection on intestinal microflora in different strains. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that the fecal microbial populations were distinct between A35 and P50 and were significantly changed post BmNPV infection in both strains. Further analysis showed that the BmNPV-resistant strain silkworm possessed higher bacterial diversity than the susceptible strain, and BmNPV infection reduced the diversity of intestinal flora assessed by feces in both silkworm strains. In response to BmNPV infection, the abundance of Muribaculaceae increased in P50 and decreased in A35, while the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae decreased in P50 and increased in A35. These results indicated that BmNPV infection had various effects on the abundance of fecal microflora in different silkworm strains. Our findings not only broadened the understanding of host-pathogen interactions but also provided theoretical help for the breeding of resistant strains and healthy rearing of silkworms based on symbiotic bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Polycarpo CR, Walter-Nuno AB, Azevedo-Reis L, et al (2024)

The vector-symbiont affair: a relationship as (im)perfect as it can be.

Current opinion in insect science pii:S2214-5745(24)00045-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Vector-borne diseases are globally prevalent and represent a major socioeconomic problem worldwide. Blood-sucking arthropods transmit most pathogenic agents that cause these human infections. The pathogens transmission to their vertebrate hosts depends on how efficiently they infect their vector, which is particularly impacted by the microbiota residing in the intestinal lumen, as well as its cells or internal organs like ovaries. The balance between costs and benefits provided by these interactions ultimately determines the outcome of the relationship. Here, we will explore aspects concerning the nature of microbe-vector interactions, including the adaptive traits required for their establishment, the varied outcomes of symbiotic interactions, as well as the factors influencing the transition of these relationships across a continuum from parasitism to mutualism.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Xu Q, Ali S, Afzal M, et al (2024)

Advancements in bacterial chemotaxis: Utilizing the navigational intelligence of bacteria and its practical applications.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03114-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The fascinating world of microscopic life unveils a captivating spectacle as bacteria effortlessly maneuver through their surroundings with astonishing accuracy, guided by the intricate mechanism of chemotaxis. This review explores the complex mechanisms behind this behavior, analyzing the flagellum as the driving force and unraveling the intricate signaling pathways that govern its movement. We delve into the hidden costs and benefits of this intricate skill, analyzing its potential to propagate antibiotic resistance gene while shedding light on its vital role in plant colonization and beneficial symbiosis. We explore the realm of human intervention, considering strategies to manipulate bacterial chemotaxis for various applications, including nutrient cycling, algal bloom and biofilm formation. This review explores the wide range of applications for bacterial capabilities, from targeted drug delivery in medicine to bioremediation and disease control in the environment. Ultimately, through unraveling the intricacies of bacterial movement, we can enhance our comprehension of the intricate web of life on our planet. This knowledge opens up avenues for progress in fields such as medicine, agriculture, and environmental conservation.

RevDate: 2024-05-05
CmpDate: 2024-05-05

Łukasik P, MR Kolasa (2024)

With a little help from my friends: the roles of microbial symbionts in insect populations and communities.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 379(1904):20230122.

To understand insect abundance, distribution and dynamics, we need to understand the relevant drivers of their populations and communities. While microbial symbionts are known to strongly affect many aspects of insect biology, we lack data on their effects on populations or community processes, or on insects' evolutionary responses at different timescales. How these effects change as the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems intensify is an area of intense research. Recent developments in sequencing and bioinformatics permit cost-effective microbial diversity surveys, tracking symbiont transmission, and identification of functions across insect populations and multi-species communities. In this review, we explore how different functional categories of symbionts can influence insect life-history traits, how these effects could affect insect populations and their interactions with other species, and how they may affect processes and patterns at the level of entire communities. We argue that insect-associated microbes should be considered important drivers of insect response and adaptation to environmental challenges and opportunities. We also outline the emerging approaches for surveying and characterizing insect-associated microbiota at population and community scales. This article is part of the theme issue 'Towards a toolkit for global insect biodiversity monitoring'.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Casas-Román A, Lorite MJ, Werner M, et al (2024)

The gap gene of Rhizobium etli is required for both free life and symbiosis with common beans.

Microbiological research, 284:127737 pii:S0944-5013(24)00138-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH or Gap) is a ubiquitous enzyme essential for carbon and energy metabolism in most organisms. Despite its primary role in sugar metabolism, GAPDH is recognized for its involvement in diverse cellular processes, being considered a paradigm among multifunctional/moonlighting proteins. Besides its canonical cytoplasmic location, GAPDH has been detected on cell surfaces or as a secreted protein in prokaryotes, yet little is known about its possible roles in plant symbiotic bacteria. Here we report that Rhizobium etli, a nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common beans, carries a single gap gene responsible for both GAPDH glycolytic and gluconeogenic activities. An active Gap protein is required throughout all stages of the symbiosis between R. etli and its host plant Phaseolus vulgaris. Both glycolytic and gluconeogenic Gap metabolic activities likely contribute to bacterial fitness during early and intermediate stages of the interaction, whereas GAPDH gluconeogenic activity seems critical for nodule invasion and nitrogen fixation. Although the R. etli Gap protein is secreted in a c-di-GMP related manner, no involvement of the R. etli gap gene in c-di-GMP related phenotypes, such as flocculation, biofilm formation or EPS production, was observed. Notably, the R. etli gap gene fully complemented a double gap1/gap2 mutant of Pseudomonas syringae for free life growth, albeit only partially in planta, suggesting potential specific roles for each type of Gap protein. Nevertheless, further research is required to unravel additional functions of the R. etli Gap protein beyond its essential metabolic roles.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Shao YH, Wu JH, HW Chen (2024)

Comammox Nitrospira cooperate with anammox bacteria in a partial nitritation-anammox membrane bioreactor treating low-strength ammonium wastewater at high loadings.

Water research, 257:121698 pii:S0043-1354(24)00599-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Research has revealed that comammox Nitrospira and anammox bacteria engage in dynamic interactions in partial nitritation-anammox reactors, where they compete for ammonium and nitrite or comammox Nitrospria supply nitrite to anammox bacteria. However, two gaps in the literature are present: the know-how to manipulate the interactions to foster a stable and symbiotic relationship and the assessment of how effective this partnership is for treating low-strength ammonium wastewater at high hydraulic loads. In this study, we employed a membrane bioreactor designed to treat synthetic ammonium wastewater at a concentration of 60 mg N/L, reaching a peak loading of 0.36 g N/L/day by gradually reducing the hydraulic retention time to 4 hr. Throughout the experiment, the reactor achieved an approximately 80 % nitrogen removal rate through strategically adjusting intermittent aeration at every stage. Notably, the genera Ca. Kuenena, Nitrosomonas, and Nitrospira collectively constituted approximately 40 % of the microbial community. Under superior intermittent aeration conditions, the expression of comammox amoA was consistently higher than that of Nitrospira nxrB and AOB amoA in the biofilm, despite the higher abundance of Nitrosomonas than comammox Nitrospira, implying that the biofilm environment is favorable for fostering cooperation between comammox and anammox bacteria. We then assessed the in situ activity of comammox Nitrospira in the reactor by selectively suppressing Nitrosomonas using 1-octyne, thereby confirming that comammox Nitrospira played the primary role in facilitating the nitritation (33.1 % of input ammonium) rather than complete nitrification (7.3 % of input ammonium). Kinetic analysis revealed a specific ammonia-oxidizing rate 5.3 times higher than the nitrite-oxidizing rate in the genus Nitrospira, underscoring their critical role in supplying nitrite. These findings provide novel insights into the cooperative interplay between comammox Nitrospira and anammox bacteria, potentially reshaping the management of nitrogen cycling in engineered environments, and aiding the development of microbial ecology-driven wastewater treatment technologies.

RevDate: 2024-05-04
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Renoz F, Parisot N, Baa-Puyoulet P, et al (2024)

PacBio Hi-Fi genome assembly of Sipha maydis, a model for the study of multipartite mutualism in insects.

Scientific data, 11(1):450.

Dependence on multiple nutritional endosymbionts has evolved repeatedly in insects feeding on unbalanced diets. However, reference genomes for species hosting multi-symbiotic nutritional systems are lacking, even though they are essential for deciphering the processes governing cooperative life between insects and anatomically integrated symbionts. The cereal aphid Sipha maydis is a promising model for addressing these issues, as it has evolved a nutritional dependence on two bacterial endosymbionts that complement each other. In this study, we used PacBio High fidelity (HiFi) long-read sequencing to generate a highly contiguous genome assembly of S. maydis with a length of 410 Mb, 3,570 contigs with a contig N50 length of 187 kb, and BUSCO completeness of 95.5%. We identified 117 Mb of repetitive sequences, accounting for 29% of the genome assembly, and predicted 24,453 protein-coding genes, of which 2,541 were predicted enzymes included in an integrated metabolic network with the two aphid-associated endosymbionts. These resources provide valuable genetic and metabolic information for understanding the evolution and functioning of multi-symbiotic systems in insects.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Burg S, Ovaskainen O, Furneaux B, et al (2024)

Experimental evidence that root-associated fungi improve plant growth at high altitude.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Unravelling how species communities change along environmental gradients requires a dual understanding: the direct responses of the species to their abiotic surroundings and the indirect variation of these responses through biotic interactions. Here, we focus on the interactive relationships between plants and their symbiotic root-associated fungi (RAF) along stressful abiotic gradients. We investigate whether variations in RAF community composition along altitudinal gradients influence plant growth at high altitudes, where both plants and fungi face harsher abiotic conditions. We established a translocation experiment between pairs of Bistorta vivipara populations across altitudinal gradients. To separate the impact of shifting fungal communities from the overall influence of changing abiotic conditions, we used a root barrier to prevent new colonization by RAF following translocation. To characterize the RAF communities, we applied DNA barcoding to the root samples. Through the utilization of joint species distribution modelling, we assessed the relationship between changes in plant functional traits resulting from experimental treatments and the corresponding changes in the RAF communities. Our findings indicate that RAF communities influence plant responses to stressful abiotic conditions. Plants translocated from low to high altitudes grew more when they were able to associate with the resident high-altitude RAF compared to those plants that were not allowed to associate with the resident RAF. We conclude that interactions with RAF impact how plants respond to stressful abiotic conditions. Our results provide experimental support that interactions with RAF improve plant stress tolerance to altitudinal stressors such as colder temperatures and less nutrient availability.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Demirturk M, Cinar MS, FY Avci (2024)

The immune interactions of gut glycans and microbiota in health and disease.

Molecular microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The human digestive system harbors a vast diversity of commensal bacteria and maintains a symbiotic relationship with them. However, imbalances in the gut microbiota accompany various diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) and colorectal cancers (CRCs), which significantly impact the well-being of populations globally. Glycosylation of the mucus layer is a crucial factor that plays a critical role in maintaining the homeostatic environment in the gut. This review delves into how the gut microbiota, immune cells, and gut mucus layer work together to establish a balanced gut environment. Specifically, the role of glycosylation in regulating immune cell responses and mucus metabolism in this process is examined.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Deng JL, Zhao L, Wei H, et al (2024)

A deeply conserved amino acid required for VAPYRIN localization and function during legume-rhizobial symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Staats EG, Clarke DN, Pearse VB, et al (2024)

Regulation of Green Fluorescent Proteins by Sea Anemones (Anthopleura spp.) in Response to Light.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:7664372 [Epub ahead of print].

Green Fluorescent Proteins (GFPs) are a family of proteins with a disjunct systematic distribution; their biological functions remain speculative for the most part. Here we report studies of 3 closely related species of green sea anemones (Anthopleura) that express GFPs throughout their ectoderm. Individuals of these species maintain facultative symbiosis with zooxanthellae in their endoderm and inhabit the rocky intertidal or shallow subtidal. Thus, they depend on exposure to light to maintain photosynthesis of their symbionts, and simultaneously need to manage stresses associated with this exposure. We present experimental evidence that these sea anemones regulate the amount of GFP in their bodies in response to the surrounding light environment: they increase or reduce GFP when exposed to brighter or dimmer light, respectively, yet they maintain some GFP while in darkness, for surprisingly long periods.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Liu Z, Cao S, He X, et al (2024)

Effects of crayfish shell powder and bamboo-derived biochar on nitrogen conversion, bacterial community and nitrogen functional genes during pig manure composting.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00486-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigated the effects of crayfish shell powder (CSP) and bamboo-derived biochar (BDB) on nitrogen metabolism, bacterial community and nitrogen functional genes during pig manure composting. Four treatments were established: CP (with no additives), TP1 (5 % BDB), TP2 (5 % CSP) and TP3 (2.5 % BDB + 2.5 % CSP). Compared to CP, the germination index (GI) of TP reached > 85 % 10 days earlier. Meanwhile, TP3 reduced NH3 and N2O emissions by 42.90 % and 65.9 %, respectively, while increased TN (total nitrogen) concentration by 5.43 g/kg. Furthermore, additives changed the bacterial structure and formed a beneficial symbiotic relationship with essential N-preserving bacteria, thereby enhancing nitrogen retention throughout the composting process. Metagenomic analysis revealed that additives upregulated nitrification genes and downregulated denitrification and nitrate reduction genes, ultimately improving nitrogen cycling and mitigating NH3 and N2O emissions. In conclusion, the results confirmed that TP3 was the most effective treatment in reducing nitrogen loss.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Siegl A, Afjehi-Sadat L, S Wienkoop (2024)

Systemic long-distance sulfur transport and its role in symbiotic root nodule protein turnover.

Journal of plant physiology, 297:154260 pii:S0176-1617(24)00091-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfur is an essential nutrient for all plants, but also crucial for the nitrogen fixing symbiosis between legumes and rhizobia. Sulfur limitation can hamper nodule development and functioning. Until now, it remained unclear whether sulfate uptake into nodules is local or mainly systemic via the roots, and if long-distance transport from shoots to roots and into nodules occurs. Therefore, this work investigates the systemic regulation of sulfur transportation in the model legume Lotus japonicus by applying stable isotope labeling to a split-root system. Metabolite and protein extraction together with mass spectrometry analyses were conducted to determine the plants molecular phenotype and relative isotope protein abundances. Data show that treatments of varying sulfate concentrations including the absence of sulfate on one side of a nodulated root was not affecting nodule development as long as the other side of the root system was provided with sufficient sulfate. Concentrations of shoot metabolites did not indicate a significant stress response caused by a lack of sulfur. Further, we did not observe any quantitative changes in proteins involved in biological nitrogen fixation in response to the different sulfate treatments. Relative isotope abundance of [34]S confirmed a long-distance transport of sulfur from one side of the roots to the other side and into the nodules. Altogether, these results provide evidence for a systemic long-distance transport of sulfur via the upper part of the plant to the nodules suggesting a demand driven sulfur distribution for the maintenance of symbiotic N-fixation.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Fu M, Yao X, Li X, et al (2024)

GmNLP1 and GmNLP4 activate nitrate-induced CLE peptides NIC1a/b to mediate nitrate-regulated root nodulation.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is an energy-intensive process, to maintain the balance between growth and nitrogen fixation, high concentrations of nitrate inhibit root nodulation. However, the precise mechanism underlying the nitrate inhibition of nodulation in soybean remains elusive. In this study, CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockout of GmNLP1 and GmNLP4 unveiled a notable nitrate-tolerant nodulation phenotype. GmNLP1b and GmNLP4a play a significant role in the nitrate-triggered inhibition of nodulation, as the expression of nitrate-responsive genes was largely suppressed in Gmnlp1b and Gmnlp4a mutants. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GmNLP1b and GmNLP4a can bind to the promoters of GmNIC1a and GmNIC1b and activate their expression. Manipulations targeting GmNIC1a and GmNIC1b through knockdown or overexpression strategies resulted in either increased or decreased nodule number in response to nitrate. Additionally, transgenic roots that constitutively express GmNIC1a or GmNIC1b rely on both NARK and hydroxyproline O-arabinosyltransferase RDN1 to prevent the inhibitory effects imposed by nitrate on nodulation. In conclusion, this study highlights the crucial role of the GmNLP1/4-GmNIC1a/b module in mediating high nitrate-induced inhibition of nodulation.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

F K, L B, M EM, et al (2024)

"Ectomycorrhizal exploration type" could be a functional trait explaining the spatial distribution of tree symbiotic fungi as a function of forest humus forms.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

In European forests, most tree species form symbioses with ectomycorrhizal (EM) and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The EM fungi are classified into different morphological types based on the development and structure of their extraradical mycelium. These structures could be root extensions that help trees to acquire nutrients. However, the relationship between these morphological traits and functions involved in soil nutrient foraging is still under debate.We described the composition of mycorrhizal fungal communities under 23 tree species in a wide range of climates and humus forms in Europe and investigated the exploratory types of EM fungi. We assessed the response of this tree extended phenotype to humus forms, as an indicator of the functioning and quality of forest soils. We found a significant relationship between the relative proportion of the two broad categories of EM exploration types (short- or long-distance) and the humus form, showing a greater proportion of long-distance types in the least dynamic soils. As past land-use and host tree species are significant factors structuring fungal communities, we showed this relationship was modulated by host trait (gymnosperms versus angiosperms), soil depth and past land use (farmland or forest).We propose that this potential functional trait of EM fungi be used in future studies to improve predictive models of forest soil functioning and tree adaptation to environmental nutrient conditions.

RevDate: 2024-05-04
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Dellisanti W, Zhang Q, Ferrier-Pagès C, et al (2024)

Contrasting effects of increasing dissolved iron on photosynthesis and O2 availability in the gastric cavity of two Mediterranean corals.

PeerJ, 12:e17259.

Iron (Fe) plays a fundamental role in coral symbiosis, supporting photosynthesis, respiration, and many important enzymatic reactions. However, the extent to which corals are limited by Fe and their metabolic responses to inorganic Fe enrichment remains to be understood. We used respirometry, variable chlorophyll fluorescence, and O2 microsensors to investigate the impact of increasing Fe(III) concentrations (20, 50, and 100 nM) on the photosynthetic capacity of two Mediterranean coral species, Cladocora caespitosa and Oculina patagonica. While the bioavailability of inorganic Fe can rapidly decrease, we nevertheless observed significant physiological effects at all Fe concentrations. In C. caespitosa, exposure to 50 nM Fe(III) increased rates of respiration and photosynthesis, while the relative electron transport rate (rETR(II)) decreased at higher Fe(III) exposure (100 nM). In contrast, O. patagonica reduced respiration, photosynthesis rates, and maximum PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm) across all iron enrichments. Both corals exhibited increased hypoxia (<50 µmol O2 L[-1]) within their gastric cavity at night when exposed to 50 and 100 nM Fe(III), leading to increased polyp contraction time and reduced O2 exchange with the surrounding water. Our results indicate that C. caespitosa, but not O. patagonica, might be limited in Fe for achieving maximal photosynthetic efficiency. Understanding the multifaceted role of iron in corals' health and their response to environmental change is crucial for effective coral conservation.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Yang M, Li B, Gan Z, et al (2024)

A new chemosymbiotic bivalve species of the genus Acharax Dall, 1908 (Bivalvia, Solemyida, Solemyidae) from the Haima cold seep of the South China Sea.

ZooKeys, 1198:185-192.

Solemyidae is an ancient group of protobranch bivalves that typically inhabit unusual environments, such as deep-sea chemosynthetic environments, and are symbiotic with chemoautotrophic and gill-hosted bacteria. In May 2018, a living solemyid bivalve was collected using a remotely operated vehicle at a depth of 1,390 m from the Haima cold seep in the northwestern slope of the South China Sea. Through a comprehensive taxonomic approach combining morphological observations and molecular phylogeny reconstruction of concatenated mitochondrial COI,16S rRNA and 18S rRNA gene sequences, a new species, Acharaxhaimaensissp. nov. is identified and described. The discovery of this new species contributes to the diversity of known solemyids in deep-sea chemosynthetic environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Contreras-Moreno FJ, Moraleda-Muñoz A, Marcos-Torres FJ, et al (2024)

Siderophores and competition for iron govern myxobacterial predation dynamics.

The ISME journal pii:7663438 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial predators are decisive organisms that shape microbial ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the role of iron and siderophores during the predatory interaction between two rhizosphere bacteria: Myxococcus xanthus, an epibiotic predator, and Sinorhizobium meliloti, a bacterium that establishes nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with legumes. The results show that iron enhances the motility of the predator and facilitates its predatory capability, and that intoxication by iron is not used by the predator to prey, although oxidative stress increases in both bacteria during predation. However, competition for iron plays an important role in the outcome of predatory interactions. Using combinations of predator and prey mutants (non-producers and overproducers of siderophores), we have investigated the importance of competition for iron in predation. The results demonstrate that the competitor that, via the production of siderophores, obtains sufficient iron for growth and depletes metal availability for the opponent will prevail in the interaction. Consequently, iron fluctuations in soils may modify the composition of microbial communities by altering the activity of myxobacterial predators. In addition, siderophore overproduction during predation can alter soil properties, affecting the productivity and sustainability of agricultural operations.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Wang X-Q, Du K, Chen C, et al (2024)

Profiling the interplay and coevolution of Microcystis aeruginosa and cyanosiphophage Mic1.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The cyanosiphophage Mic1 specifically infects the bloom-forming Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB 1339 from Lake Chaohu, China. Previous genomic analysis showed that its 92,627 bp double-stranded DNA genome consists of 98 putative open reading frames, 63% of which are of unknown function. Here, we investigated the transcriptome dynamics of Mic1 and its host using RNA sequencing. In the early, middle, and late phases of the 10 h lytic cycle, the Mic1 genes are sequentially expressed and could be further temporally grouped into two distinct clusters in each phase. Notably, six early genes, including gp49 that encodes a TnpB-like transposase, immediately reach the highest transcriptional level in half an hour, representing a pioneer cluster that rapidly regulates and redirects host metabolism toward the phage. An in-depth analysis of the host transcriptomic profile in response to Mic1 infection revealed significant upregulation of a polyketide synthase pathway and a type III-B CRISPR system, accompanied by moderate downregulation of the photosynthesis and key metabolism pathways. The constant increase of phage transcripts and relatively low replacement rate over the host transcripts indicated that Mic1 utilizes a unique strategy to gradually take over a small portion of host metabolism pathways after infection. In addition, genomic analysis of a less-infective Mic1 and a Mic1-resistant host strain further confirmed their dynamic interplay and coevolution via the frequent horizontal gene transfer. These findings provide insights into the mutual benefit and symbiosis of the highly polymorphic cyanobacteria M. aeruginosa and cyanophages.

IMPORTANCE: The highly polymorphic Microcystis aeruginosa is one of the predominant bloom-forming cyanobacteria in eutrophic freshwater bodies and is infected by diverse and abundant cyanophages. The presence of a large number of defense systems in M. aeruginosa genome suggests a dynamic interplay and coevolution with the cyanophages. In this study, we investigated the temporal gene expression pattern of Mic1 after infection and the corresponding transcriptional responses of its host. Moreover, the identification of a less-infective Mic1 and a Mic1-resistant host strain provided the evolved genes in the phage-host coevolution during the multiple-generation cultivation in the laboratory. Our findings enrich the knowledge on the interplay and coevolution of M. aeruginosa and its cyanophages and lay the foundation for the future application of cyanophage as a potential eco-friendly and bio-safe agent in controlling the succession of harmful cyanobacterial blooms.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Septer AN, KL Visick (2024)

Lighting the way: how the Vibrio fischeri model microbe reveals the complexity of Earth's "simplest" life forms.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

Vibrio (Aliivibrio) fischeri's initial rise to fame derived from its alluring production of blue-green light. Subsequent studies to probe the mechanisms underlying this bioluminescence helped the field discover the phenomenon now known as quorum sensing. Orthologs of quorum-sensing regulators (i.e., LuxR and LuxI) originally identified in V. fischeri were subsequently uncovered in a plethora of bacterial species, and analogous pathways were found in yet others. Over the past three decades, the study of this microbe has greatly expanded to probe the unique role of V. fischeri as the exclusive symbiont of the light organ of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Buoyed by this optically amenable host and by persistent and insightful researchers who have applied novel and cross-disciplinary approaches, V. fischeri has developed into a robust model for microbe-host associations. It has contributed to our understanding of how bacteria experience and respond to specific, often fluxing environmental conditions and the mechanisms by which bacteria impact the development of their host. It has also deepened our understanding of numerous microbial processes such as motility and chemotaxis, biofilm formation and dispersal, and bacterial competition, and of the relevance of specific bacterial genes in the context of colonizing an animal host. Parallels in these processes between this symbiont and bacteria studied as pathogens are readily apparent, demonstrating functional conservation across diverse associations and permitting a reinterpretation of "pathogenesis." Collectively, these advances built a foundation for microbiome studies and have positioned V. fischeri to continue to expand the frontiers of our understanding of the microbial world inside animals.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Apostolou E, A Rosén (2024)

Epigenetic reprograming in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome: A narrative of latent viruses.

Journal of internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a chronic disease presenting with severe fatigue, post-exertional malaise, and cognitive disturbances-among a spectrum of symptoms-that collectively render the patient housebound or bedbound. Epigenetic studies in ME/CFS collectively confirm alterations and/or malfunctions in cellular and organismal physiology associated with immune responses, cellular metabolism, cell death and proliferation, and neuronal and endothelial cell function. The sudden onset of ME/CFS follows a major stress factor that, in approximately 70% of cases, involves viral infection, and ME/CFS symptoms overlap with those of long COVID. Viruses primarily linked to ME/CFS pathology are the symbiotic herpesviruses, which follow a bivalent latent-lytic lifecycle. The complex interaction between viruses and hosts involves strategies from both sides: immune evasion and persistence by the viruses, and immune activation and viral clearance by the host. This dynamic interaction is imperative for herpesviruses that facilitate their persistence through epigenetic regulation of their own and the host genome. In the current article, we provide an overview of the epigenetic signatures demonstrated in ME/CFS and focus on the potential strategies that latent viruses-particularly Epstein-Barr virus-may employ in long-term epigenetic reprograming in ME/CFS. Epigenetic studies could aid in elucidating relevant biological pathways impacted in ME/CFS and reflect the physiological variations among the patients that stem from environmental triggers, including exogenous viruses and/or altered viral activity.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Inoue K, Tsuchida N, Y Saijo (2024)

Modulation of plant immunity and biotic interactions under phosphate deficiency.

Journal of plant research [Epub ahead of print].

Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for plant life and growth. P is primarily acquired in the form of inorganic phosphate (Pi) from soil. To cope with Pi deficiency, plants have evolved an elaborate system to improve Pi acquisition and utilization through an array of developmental and physiological changes, termed Pi starvation response (PSR). Plants also assemble and manage mutualistic microbes to enhance Pi uptake, through integrating PSR and immunity signaling. A trade-off between plant growth and defense favors the notion that plants lower a cellular state of immunity to accommodate host-beneficial microbes for nutrition and growth at the cost of infection risk. However, the existing data indicate that plants selectively activate defense responses against pathogens, but do not or less against non-pathogens, even under nutrient deficiency. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the principles and mechanisms with which plants balance immunity and growth-related processes to optimize their adaptation to Pi deficiency.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Li C, Li CQ, Chen ZB, et al (2024)

Wolbachia symbionts control sex in a parasitoid wasp using a horizontally acquired gene.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(24)00475-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Host reproduction can be manipulated by bacterial symbionts in various ways. Parthenogenesis induction is the most effective type of reproduction manipulation by symbionts for their transmission. Insect sex is determined by regulation of doublesex (dsx) splicing through transformer2 (tra2) and transformer (tra) interaction. Although parthenogenesis induction by symbionts has been studied since the 1970s, its underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. Here we identify a Wolbachia parthenogenesis-induction feminization factor gene (piff) that targets sex-determining genes and causes female-producing parthenogenesis in the haplodiploid parasitoid Encarsia formosa. We found that Wolbachia elimination repressed expression of female-specific dsx and enhanced expression of male-specific dsx, which led to the production of wasp haploid male offspring. Furthermore, we found that E. formosa tra is truncated and non-functional, and Wolbachia has a functional tra homolog, termed piff, with an insect origin. Wolbachia PIFF can colocalize and interact with wasp TRA2. Moreover, Wolbachia piff has coordinated expression with tra2 and dsx of E. formosa. Our results demonstrate the bacterial symbiont Wolbachia has acquired an insect gene to manipulate the host sex determination cascade and induce parthenogenesis in wasps. This study reveals insect-to-bacteria horizontal gene transfer drives the evolution of animal sex determination systems, elucidating a striking mechanism of insect-microbe symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

McKinley K, Tsaousis AD, S Rückert (2024)

Description and prevalence of gregarines infecting the amphipod Gammarus pulex, in the Water of Leith, Scotland, UK.

European journal of protistology, 94:126084 pii:S0932-4739(24)00034-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Gregarines are symbiotic protists that are found in a broad spectrum of invertebrates, including insects, crustaceans, and annelids. Among these the globally distributed amphipod Gammarus pulex is one of the earliest recognized hosts for aquatic gregarines and is prevalent among macroinvertebrates in freshwater environments. In this study, samples of G. pulex were collected in the Water of Leith river, Scotland, UK. Gregarines were identified using light and scanning electron microscopy as well as standard molecular techniques. We identified three septate eugregarine symbionts-Heliospora longissima, Cephaloidophora gammari, and the here newly characterized Cephaloidophora conus n. sp. (formerly Cephaloidophora sp.) associated with Gammarus pulex in the Water of Leith. Prevalences for identified gregarine species were calculated and seasonal dynamics of gregarine infections/colonization were analyzed. Prevalences were highest in autumn and spring reaching almost 50 %. While the two Cephaloidophora species showed similar colonization patterns, the prevalence of Heliospora showed an opposite trend. Identifying gregarine infection/colonization patterns is one step towards better understanding the gregarine-host relationship, as well as possible impacts of the gregarines on their hosts.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Elokil A, Li S, Chen W, et al (2024)

Ethoxyquin attenuates enteric oxidative stress and inflammation by promoting cytokine expressions and symbiotic microbiota in heat-stressed broilers.

Poultry science, 103(6):103761 pii:S0032-5791(24)00341-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal oxidative stress in broilers is produced by chronic heat stress (HS) and has a negative impact on poultry performance as it induces intestinal inflammation and promotes the invasion of gram-negative bacteria, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Therefore, dietary inclusion of the antioxidant compound, ethoxyquin (EQ), could improve enteric antioxidant capacity, immune responses, and the epithelial barrier, and maintain the symbiotic gut microbiota community. To investigate the effects of EQ supplementation on alleviating enteric oxidative stress in heat-stressed broilers, 200 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 50 chicks/group; n = 10 chicks/replicate) and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0 (CT), 50 (EQ-50), 100 (EQ-100), and 200 (EQ-200) mg EQ/ kg[-1] for 5 wk. The chicks were raised in floor pens inside the broiler farm at a temperature and humidity index (THI) of 29 from d 21 to d 35. Growth performance traits, relative organ index, hepatic antioxidant enzymes, serum immunity, total adenylate, and cytokine activities were improved in the EQ-50 group (linear or quadratic P < 0.05), promoting the relative mRNA expression of cytokine gene-related anti-inflammatory and growth factors. A distinct microbial community colonised the gut microbiota in the EQ-50 group, with a high relative abundance of Lactobacillus, Ligilactobacillus, Limosilactobacillus, Pediococcus, Blautia, and Faecalibacterium compared to the other groups. Dietary supplementation with 50 mg EQ/ kg[-1] for 5 wk attenuates enteric oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation by enhancing serum immune and cytokine content (IgG, IL-6, and TGF-β,) and symbiotic microbiota in heat-stressed broilers. EQ promotes the expression of Hsp70, SOD2, GPx 4, IL-6, and IGF-1 cytokine gene-related anti-inflammatory and growth factors in heat-stressed hepatic broilers. Collectively, EQ-50 could be a suitable feed supplement for attenuating enteric oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation, thereby promoting the productivity of heat-stressed broilers.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Hewezi T (2024)

Phytopathogens Reprogram Host Alternative mRNA Splicing.

Annual review of phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Alternative splicing (AS) is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process in eukaryotes in which multiple messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts are produced from a single gene. The concept that AS adds to transcriptome complexity and proteome diversity introduces a new perspective for understanding how phytopathogen-induced alterations in host AS cause diseases. Recently, it has been recognized that AS represents an integral component of the plant immune system during parasitic, commensalistic, and symbiotic interactions. Here, I provide an overview of recent progress detailing the reprogramming of plant AS by phytopathogens and the functional implications on disease phenotypes. Additionally, I discuss the vital function of AS of immune receptors in regulating plant immunity and how phytopathogens use effector proteins to target key components of the splicing machinery and exploit alternatively spliced variants of immune regulators to negate defense responses. Finally, the functional association between AS and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay in the context of plant-pathogen interface is recapitulated.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Gaisin VA, van Wolferen M, Albers SV, et al (2024)

Distinct life cycle stages of an ectosymbiotic DPANN archaeon.

The ISME journal pii:7660939 [Epub ahead of print].

DPANN archaea are a diverse group of microorganisms that are thought to rely on an ectosymbiotic lifestyle; however, the cell biology of these cell-cell interactions remains largely unknown. We applied live-cell imaging and cryo-electron tomography to the DPANN archaeon Nanobdella aerobiophila and its host, revealing two distinct life cycle stages. Free cells possess archaella and are motile. Ectobiotic cells are intimately linked with the host through an elaborate attachment organelle. Our data suggest that free cells may actively seek a new host, while the ectobiotic state is adapted to mediate intricate interaction with the host.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Richter I, Hasan M, Kramer JW, et al (2024)

Deazaflavin metabolite produced by endosymbiotic bacteria controls fungal host reproduction.

The ISME journal pii:7660940 [Epub ahead of print].

The endosymbiosis between the pathogenic fungus Rhizopus microsporus and the toxin-producing bacterium Mycetohabitans rhizoxinica represents a unique example of host control by an endosymbiont. Fungal sporulation strictly depends on the presence of endosymbionts as well as bacterially produced secondary metabolites. However, an influence of primary metabolites on host control remained unexplored. Recently, we discovered that M. rhizoxinica produces FO and 3PG-F420, a derivative of the specialized redox cofactor F420. Whether FO/3PG-F420 plays a role in the symbiosis has yet to be investigated. Here, we report that FO, the precursor of 3PG-F420, is essential to the establishment of a stable symbiosis. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the genetic inventory to produce cofactor 3PG-F420 is conserved in the genomes of eight endofungal Mycetohabitans strains. By developing a CRISPR/Cas-assisted base editing strategy for M. rhizoxinica, we generated mutant strains deficient in 3PG-F420 (M. rhizoxinica ΔcofC) and in both FO and 3PG-F420 (M. rhizoxinica ΔfbiC). Co-culture experiments demonstrated that the sporulating phenotype of apo-symbiotic R. microsporus is maintained upon reinfection with wild-type M. rhizoxinica or M. rhizoxinica ΔcofC. In contrast, R. microsporus is unable to sporulate when co-cultivated with M. rhizoxinica ΔfbiC, even though the fungus was observed by super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to be successfully colonized. Genetic and chemical complementation of the FO deficiency of M. rhizoxinica ΔfbiC led to restoration of fungal sporulation, signifying that FO is indispensable for establishing a functional symbiosis. Even though FO is known for its light-harvesting properties, our data illustrate an important role of FO in inter-kingdom communication.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )