Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Sep 2023 at 01:47 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-23

Liu Z, Sun M, Jin C, et al (2023)

Naringenin confers protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through modulating the gut-brain axis: A multi-omics analysis.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry pii:S0955-2863(23)00181-X [Epub ahead of print].

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that involves the immune system attacking the protective covering of nerve fibers. This disease can be influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Evidence has highlighted the critical role of the intestinal microbiota in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The composition of gut microflora is mainly determined by dietary components, which, in turn, modulate host homeostasis. A diet rich in naringenin at 0.5% can effectively mitigate the severity of EAE in mice. However, there is little direct data on the impact of naringenin at optimal doses on EAE development, as well as its intestinal microbiota and metabolites. Our study revealed that 2.0% naringenin resulted in the lowest clinical score and pathological changes in EAE mice, and altered the gene expression profiles associated with inflammation and immunity in spinal cord tissue. We then used untargeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequence to identify metabolites and intestinal microbiota, respectively. Naringenin supplementation enriched gut microbiota in EAE mice, including increasing the abundance of Paraprevotellaceae and Comamonadaceae, while decreasing the abundance of Deltaproteobacteria, RF39, and Desulfovibrionaceae. Furthermore, the changes in gut microbiota affected the production of metabolites in the feces and brain, suggesting a role in regulating the gut-brain axis. Finally, we conducted a fecal transplantation experiment to validate that gut microbiota partly mediates the effect of naringenin on EAE alleviation. In conclusion, naringenin has potential immunomodulatory effects that are influenced to some extent by the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Yue C, Luan W, Gu H, et al (2023)

The role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve in chronic inflammatory pain and comorbid spatial working memory impairment in complete Freund's adjuvant mice.

Journal of psychiatric research, 166:61-73 pii:S0022-3956(23)00413-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic inflammatory pain (CIP) is a common public medical problem, often accompanied by memory impairment. However, the mechanisms underlying CIP and comorbid memory impairment remain elusive. This study aimed to examine the role of the gut-microbiota-brain axis in CIP and comorbid memory impairment in mice treated with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). 16S rRNA analysis showed the altered diversity of gut microbiota from day 1 to day 14 after CFA injection. Interestingly, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy naive mice ameliorated comorbidities, such as mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, spatial working memory impairment, neuroinflammation, and abnormal composition of gut microbiota in the CFA mice. Additionally, subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) blocked the onset of these comorbidities. Interestingly, the relative abundance of the bacterial genus or species was also correlated with these comorbidities after FMT or SDV. Therefore, our results suggest that the gut-microbiota-brain axis via the subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve is crucial for the development of CIP and comorbid spatial working memory impairment in CFA mice.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Kragsnaes MS, Miguens Blanco J, Mullish BH, et al (2023)

Small Intestinal Permeability and Metabolomic Profiles in Feces and Plasma Associate With Clinical Response in Patients With Active Psoriatic Arthritis Participating in a Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Trial: Exploratory Findings From the FLORA Trial.

ACR open rheumatology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We investigated intestinal permeability and fecal, plasma, and urine metabolomic profiles in methotrexate-treated active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and how this related to clinical response following one sham or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

METHODS: This exploratory study is based on the FLORA trial cohort, in which 31 patients with moderate-to-high peripheral PsA disease activity, despite at least 3 months of methotrexate-treatment, were included in a 26-week, double-blind, 1:1 randomized, sham-controlled trial. Participants were randomly allocated to receive either one healthy donor FMT (n = 15) or sham (n = 16) via gastroscopy. The primary trial end point was the proportion of treatment failures through 26 weeks. We performed a lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (LMR) test at baseline (n = 31) and at week 26 (n = 26) to assess small intestinal permeability. Metabolomic profiles in fecal, plasma, and urine samples collected at baseline, weeks 4, 12, and 26 were measured using [1] H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

RESULTS: Trial failures (n = 7) had significantly higher LMR compared with responders (n = 19) at week 26 (0.027 [0.017-0.33]) vs. 0.012 [0-0.064], P = 0.013), indicating increased intestinal permeability. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant model for responders (n = 19) versus failures (n = 12) at all time points based on their fecal (P < 0.0001) and plasma (P = 0.005) metabolomic profiles, whereas urine metabolomic profiles did not differ between groups (P = 1). Fecal N-acetyl glycoprotein GlycA correlated with Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (coefficient = 0.50; P = 0.03) and fecal propionate correlated with American College of Rheumatology 20 response at week 26 (coefficient = 27, P = 0.02).

CONCLUSION: Intestinal permeability and fecal and plasma metabolomic profiles of patients with PsA were associated with the primary clinical trial end point, failure versus responder.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Yau YK, Lau LHS, Lui RNS, et al (2023)

Long-term Safety Outcomes of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Real-World Data over Eight Years from the Hong Kong FMT Registry.

Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association pii:S1542-3565(23)00712-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prospective long-term real-world safety data after fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) remain limited. We reported long-term outcomes of FMT from a population-based FMT registry in Hong Kong.

METHODS: We recruited patients undergoing FMT for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) and non-CDI indications from clinical trials, from June 2013 to April 2022 in Hong Kong. We captured data on demographics, FMT indications and procedures, clinical outcomes and short-to-long-term safety. New medical diagnoses were obtained from electronic medical records and independently adjudicated by clinicians. Long-term safety in patients with recurrent CDI was compared with a control group treated with antibiotics.

RESULTS: Overall, 123 subjects (median age 53 years; range 13-90; 52.0% male) underwent 510 FMTs and were prospectively followed up for a median of 30.3 months (range, 1-57.9). The most common indication for FMT was type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The most common short-term adverse events within one month of FMT included diarrhea and abdominal pain. At long-term follow-up beyond 12 months, 16 patients reported 21 new onset medical conditions confirmed by electronic medical records. All were adjudicated to be unlikely to be related to FMT. There was no new case of inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, allergy, DM or psychiatric disorder. In a subgroup of patients with recurrent CDI, FMT was associated with a significantly higher cumulative survival probability compared with matched controls.

CONCLUSION: This prospective real-world data from Asia's first FMT registry demonstrated that FMT has an excellent long-term safety profile. The risk of developing new medical conditions beyond 12 months after FMT is low.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Kashyap Y, ZJ Wang (2023)

Gut microbiota dysbiosis alters chronic pain behaviors in a humanized transgenic mouse model of sickle cell disease.

Pain pii:00006396-990000000-00407 [Epub ahead of print].

Pain is the most common symptom experienced by patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) throughout their lives and is the main cause of hospitalization. Despite the progress that has been made towards understanding the disease pathophysiology, major gaps remain in the knowledge of SCD pain, the transition to chronic pain, and effective pain management. Recent evidence has demonstrated a vital role of gut microbiota in pathophysiological features of SCD. However, the role of gut microbiota in SCD pain is yet to be explored. We sought to evaluate the compositional differences in the gut microbiota of transgenic mice with SCD and nonsickle control mice and investigate the role of gut microbiota in SCD pain by using antibiotic-mediated gut microbiota depletion and fecal material transplantation (FMT). The antibiotic-mediated gut microbiota depletion did not affect evoked pain but significantly attenuated ongoing spontaneous pain in mice with SCD. Fecal material transplantation from mice with SCD to wild-type mice resulted in tactile allodynia (0.95 ± 0.17 g vs 0.08 ± 0.02 g, von Frey test, P < 0.001), heat hyperalgesia (15.10 ± 0.79 seconds vs 8.68 ± 1.17 seconds, radiant heat, P < 0.01), cold allodynia (2.75 ± 0.26 seconds vs 1.68 ± 0.08 seconds, dry ice test, P < 0.01), and anxiety-like behaviors (Elevated Plus Maze Test, Open Field Test). On the contrary, reshaping gut microbiota of mice with SCD with FMT from WT mice resulted in reduced tactile allodynia (0.05 ± 0.01 g vs 0.25 ± 0.03 g, P < 0.001), heat hyperalgesia (5.89 ± 0.67 seconds vs 12.25 ± 0.76 seconds, P < 0.001), and anxiety-like behaviors. These findings provide insights into the relationship between gut microbiota dysbiosis and pain in SCD, highlighting the importance of gut microbial communities that may serve as potential targets for novel pain interventions.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Zyoud SH, Shakhshir M, Abushanab AS, et al (2023)

Unveiling the hidden world of gut health: Exploring cutting-edge research through visualizing randomized controlled trials on the gut microbiota.

World journal of clinical cases, 11(26):6132-6146.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal and overall health. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) play a crucial role in advancing our knowledge and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiota.

AIM: To conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the literature on RCTs involving the gut microbiota.

METHODS: Using bibliometric tools, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was conducted on scholarly publications concentrated on RCTs related to gut microbiota, spanning the years 2003 to 2022. The study used VOSviewer version 1.6.9 to examine collaboration networks between different countries and evaluate the frequently employed terms in the titles and abstracts of the retrieved publications. The primary objective of this analysis was to identify key research areas and focal points associated with RCTs involving the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: A total of 1061 relevant articles were identified from the 24758 research articles published between 2003 and 2022. The number of publications showed a notable increase over time, with a positive correlation (R[2] = 0.978, P < 0.001). China (n = 276, 26.01%), the United States (n = 254, 23.94%), and the United Kingdom (n = 97, 9.14%) were the leading contributing countries. Københavns Universitet (n = 38, 3.58%) and Dankook University (n = 35, 3.30%) were the top active institutions. The co-occurrence analysis shows current gut microbiota research trends and important topics, such as obesity interventions targeting the gut microbiota, the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation, and the effects of dietary interventions on humans.

CONCLUSION: The study highlights the rapid growth and importance of research on RCTs that involve the gut microbiota. This study provides valuable insight into research trends, identifies key players, and outlines potential future directions in this field. Additionally, the co-occurrence analysis identified important topics that play a critical role in the advancement of science and provided insights into future research directions in this field.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Wang H, Liu S, Xie L, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota signature in children with autism spectrum disorder who suffered from chronic gastrointestinal symptoms.

BMC pediatrics, 23(1):476.

BACKGROUND: Children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently suffer from persistent gastrointestinal symptoms, such as constipation and diarrhea. Various studies have highlighted differences in gut microbiota composition between individuals with ASD and healthy controls of similar ages. However, it's essential to recognize that these disparities may be influenced by cultural practices, dietary habits, and environmental factors.

METHODS: In this study, we collected fecal samples from both children diagnosed with ASD (n = 42) and healthy individuals (n = 41) residing in the southeastern coastal region of China. Subsequently, 16 S rRNA gene sequencing and advanced bioinformatics analyses were conducted to investigate the distinctive features of gut microbial communities within each group.

RESULTS: The ASD group consisted of 28 males and 14 females, with a median age of 5.8 years, while the control group included 25 males and 16 females, with a median age of 6.8 years. Among the 83 sequenced fecal samples, a total of 1031 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified. These included 122 unique OTUs specific to the control group and 285 unique OTUs specific to the ASD group. Analyses of α-diversity and β-diversity unveiled significant differences in the abundance and composition of gut microbiota between the two groups. It was found that the dominant bacterial taxa in healthy individuals were UBA1819, Flavonifractor, and Bradyrhizobium. In contrast, the ASD group exhibited a prevalence of Streptococcus, Ruminococcus, and Ruminiclostridium. Further analysis using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) showed significant differences in the metabolic functionalities of the gut microbiota between the two groups. Notably, the metabolic pathway related to alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in the gut microbiota of the ASD group was notably diminished compared to the control group. Conversely, the ASD group demonstrated significantly elevated levels of metabolic pathways involving uncharacterized conserved proteins, aminoglycoside phosphotransferase, and inorganic pyrophosphatase compared to the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these results confirm that there are significant differences in the gut microbiota structure between children with ASD and healthy controls in the southeast coastal region of China. This underscores the critical significance of delving into clinical interventions capable of mitigating the gastrointestinal and psychological symptoms encountered by children with ASD. A particularly encouraging path for such interventions lies in the realm of fecal microbiota transplantation, a prospect that merits deeper inquiry.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Wood N, Propst K, Yao M, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transfer for Clostridium difficile Infection and Its Effects on Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection.

Urogynecology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 29(10):814-826.

IMPORTANCE: Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) poses a significant management challenge, and fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) has been shown in a limited manner to positively effect rUTI.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare UTI rates after FMT for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in patients with previously diagnosed rUTI and patients without a previous diagnosis of rUTI.

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study of female patients who underwent FMT between 2015 and 2020 and were identified from a database at a tertiary care referral center. The electronic medical record was queried for demographic and UTI characteristics in the 3 years before and 5 years after FMT, which were compared between patients with or without a preexisting history of rUTI.

RESULTS: One hundred thirty-five patients were included, 17 of whom had a preexisting history of rUTI. The median number of culture-proven UTIs was 1 in the rUTI group versus 0 in the non-rUTI group both in the 1 year (P = 0.003) and 3 years (P < 0.001) before FMT. Most UTIs before and after FMT were Escherichia coli UTIs (53.8%) and carried some antibiotic resistance (54.6%). Comparatively, in the year after FMT, there were no differences between groups in UTI frequency or antibiotic administration (0 [0-1] vs 0.5 [0-1], P = 0.28). A trend toward decreased frequency of UTI in the 1 year after FMT was seen in the rUTI group. On survival analysis, there was a nonsignificant decrease in the 3-year UTI-free rate for the rUTI group compared with the non-rUTI group (76.5% vs 90.1%, P = 0.07).

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with recurrent UTI undergoing FMT for recurrent CDI experienced a trend toward a decrease in frequency of UTI after FMT.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Del Giglio A, FC Atui (2023)

Fecal transplantation in patient with metastatic melanoma refractory to immunotherapy: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 11(24):5830-5834.

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of metastatic melanoma, but a significant proportion of patients still experience treatment resistance. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a potential strategy to overcome immunotherapy resistance by modulating the gut microbiome.

CASE SUMMARY: We present a case report of a 57-year-old male with metastatic melanoma refractory to immunotherapy who received FMT in combination with anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) immunotherapy (pembrolizumab). After failing multiple lines of treatment, the patient underwent a single FMT procedure by colonoscopy using fecal material from a female metastatic melanoma donor who successfully responded to immunotherapy. Following FMT, the patient demonstrated a response with decreased subcutaneous disease and subsequently underwent surgery to remove the residual disease. Despite a subsequent recurrence in the small bowel that was resected, the patient remained on pembrolizumab without evidence of melanoma recurrence at the time of writing.

CONCLUSION: The favorable clinical and long-lasting effect we saw in our patient without significant toxicity suggests that this procedure should be considered in similar patients with immunotherapy refractory melanomas.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Li Y, Li X, Nie C, et al (2023)

Effects of two strains of Lactobacillus isolated from the feces of calves after fecal microbiota transplantation on growth performance, immune capacity, and intestinal barrier function of weaned calves.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1249628.

INTRODUCTION: Weaning stress seriously affects the welfare of calves and causes huge economic losses to the cattle breeding industry. Probiotics play an important role in improving animal growth performance, enhancing immune function, and improving gut microbiota. The newly isolated strains of Lactobacillus reuteri L81 and Lactobacillus johnsonii L29 have shown potential as probiotics. Here, we studied the probiotic properties of these two strains on weaned calves.

METHODS: Forty calves were randomly assigned to four groups before weaning, with 10 calves in each group, control group (Ctrl group), L. reuteri L81 supplementation group (2 g per day per calf), L. johnsonii L29 supplementation group (2 g per day per calf), L. reuteri L81 and L. johnsonii L29 composite group (2 g per day per calf), and the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri L81 and Lactobacillus johnsonii L29 supplementation on growth performance, immune status, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal barrier function of weaned calves were evaluated.

RESULTS: The results showed that probiotics supplementation increased the average daily weight gain of calves after weaning, reduced weaning diarrhea index (p < 0.05), and increased serum IgA, IgM, and IgG levels (p < 0.05). L. reuteri L81 supplementation significantly decreased IL-6, increased IL-10 and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels at 21 d after weaning (p < 0.05). Moreover, probiotics supplementation significantly decreased serum endotoxin (ET), diamine oxidase (DAO), and D-lactic acid (D-LA) levels at different time points (p < 0.05). In addition, supplementation with L. reuteri L81 significantly reduced the crypt depth and increased the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (p < 0.05) in the ileum, increased gene expression of tight junction protein ZO-1, Claudin-1 and Occludin in jejunum and ileum mucosa, reduced the gene expression of INF- γ in ileum mucosa and IL-8 in jejunum mucosa, and increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Oscillospira, etc.

DISCUSSION: verall, these results showed that the two strains isolated from cattle feces after low concentration fecal microbiota transplantation improved the growth performance, immune performance, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal barrier function of weaned calves, indicating their potential as supplements to alleviate weaning diarrhea in calves.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Shang S, Zhu J, Liu X, et al (2023)

The Impacts of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation from Same Sex on the Symptoms of Ulcerative Colitis Patients.

Polish journal of microbiology, 72(3):247-268.

We aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from the same sex on ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. A total of 272 UC patients were selected in the prospective clinical study, which incorporated four distinct groups, each comprising male and female patients, who were either receiving FMT or placebo, respectively. FMT was performed by sending the gut microbiota of healthy female or male adolescents to the same gender patients via gastroscope three times (one time/three weeks), and a placebo was used with an equal volume of saline. Abdominal pain, diarrhea, thick bloody stool, intestinal mucosal lesion, and Mayo scores were measured. Self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) were evaluated. The changes of intestinal flora were detected by the 16S rRNA sequencing. FMT reduced the scores of diarrhea, abdominal pain, mucosal lesion, and Mayo, SAS, and SDS in UC patients compared to the placebo group (p < 0.05). Clostridiales and Desulfovibrionaceae were dominant in gut microbiota from male patients and were reduced after FMT. Meanwhile, the abundance of Prevotella, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium was increased in the male group. Female patients had a higher abundance of Escherichia-Shigella, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Staphylococcaceae before FMT, and it was reduced after FMT. Meanwhile, the abundance of Porphyromonadaceae, Prevotella, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium was increased in the female group. There were no significant changes for the species in the corresponding placebo groups. FMT improved the UC symptoms of male and female patients, which may be associated with different gut microbiota changes.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Cui Y, Liu J, Lei X, et al (2024)

Dual-directional regulation of spinal cord injury and the gut microbiota.

Neural regeneration research, 19(3):548-556.

There is increasing evidence that the gut microbiota affects the incidence and progression of central nervous system diseases via the brain-gut axis. The spinal cord is a vital important part of the central nervous system; however, the underlying association between spinal cord injury and gut interactions remains unknown. Recent studies suggest that patients with spinal cord injury frequently experience intestinal dysfunction and gut dysbiosis. Alterations in the gut microbiota can cause disruption in the intestinal barrier and trigger neurogenic inflammatory responses which may impede recovery after spinal cord injury. This review summarizes existing clinical and basic research on the relationship between the gut microbiota and spinal cord injury. Our research identified three key points. First, the gut microbiota in patients with spinal cord injury presents a key characteristic and gut dysbiosis may profoundly influence multiple organs and systems in patients with spinal cord injury. Second, following spinal cord injury, weakened intestinal peristalsis, prolonged intestinal transport time, and immune dysfunction of the intestine caused by abnormal autonomic nerve function, as well as frequent antibiotic treatment, may induce gut dysbiosis. Third, the gut microbiota and associated metabolites may act on central neurons and affect recovery after spinal cord injury; cytokines and the Toll-like receptor ligand pathways have been identified as crucial mechanisms in the communication between the gut microbiota and central nervous system. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary interventions, and other therapies have been shown to serve a neuroprotective role in spinal cord injury by modulating the gut microbiota. Therapies targeting the gut microbiota or associated metabolites are a promising approach to promote functional recovery and improve the complications of spinal cord injury.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Liu D, Gao X, Huang X, et al (2023)

Moderate altitude exposure impacts host fasting blood glucose and serum metabolome by regulation of the intestinal flora.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05641-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Moderate altitude exposure has shown beneficial effects on diabetes incidence but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. Our study aimed to investigate how the human gut microbiome impacted the serum metabolome and associated with glucose homeostasis in healthy Chinese individuals upon moderate-altitude exposure. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Serum metabolome was acquired by untargeted metabolomics technology, and amino acids (AAs) and propionic acid in serum were quantified by targeted metabolomics technology. The results indicated that the moderate-altitude exposed individuals presented lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG) and propionic acid, increased circulating l-Glutamine but decreased L-Glutamate and L-Valine, which correlated with enriched Bacteroidetes and decreased Proteobacteria. Additionally, the silico causality associations among gut microbiota, serum metabolome and host FBG were analyzed by mediation analysis. It showed that increased Bacteroides ovatus (B. ovatus) and decreased Escherichia coli (E. coli) were identified as the main antagonistic species driving the association between L-Glutamate and FBG in silico causality. Furthermore, the high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice subjected to faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) were applied to validate the cause-in-fact effects of gut microbiota on the beneficial glucose response. We found that microbiome in the moderate-altitude exposed donor could predict the extent of the FBG response in recipient mice, which showed lowered FBG, L-Glutamate and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Our findings suggest that moderate-altitude exposure targeting gut microbiota and circulating metabolome, may pave novel avenues to counter dysglycemia.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Cheng CK, Y Huang (2021)

The gut-cardiovascular connection: new era for cardiovascular therapy.

Medical review (Berlin, Germany), 1(1):23-46.

Our gut microbiome is constituted by trillions of microorganisms including bacteria, archaea and eukaryotic microbes. Nowadays, gut microbiome has been gradually recognized as a new organ system that systemically and biochemically interact with the host. Accumulating evidence suggests that the imbalanced gut microbiome contributes to the dysregulation of immune system and the disruption of cardiovascular homeostasis. Specific microbiome profiles and altered intestinal permeability are often observed in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Gut-derived metabolites, toxins, peptides and immune cell-derived cytokines play pivotal roles in the induction of inflammation and the pathogenesis of dysfunction of heart and vasculature. Impaired crosstalk between gut microbiome and multiple organ systems, such as gut-vascular, heart-gut, gut-liver and brain-gut axes, are associated with higher cardiovascular risks. Medications and strategies that restore healthy gut microbiome might therefore represent novel therapeutic options to lower the incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Mahroum N, Seida R, Y Shoenfeld (2023)

Triggers and regulation: the gut microbiome in rheumatoid arthritis.

Expert review of clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease marked by systemic symptoms and joint degeneration. Interestingly, the development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis have been linked to the microbiome, notably the gut microbiome. Dysbiosis, an alteration in the gut microbiome, has been connected to the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. For instance, dysbiosis increases intestinal permeability and promotes the movement of bacteria and its products, which in turn triggers and aggravates systemic inflammation.

AREAS COVERED: The correlation between the gut microbiome and RA. Triggers of RA including dysbiosis. The therapeutic potential of the gut microbiome in RA due to its critical function in influencing the immune response. The fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a therapeutic strategy that involves the transfer of healthy fecal microbiota from a donor to a recipient, has produced encouraging results in the treatment of several autoimmune illnesses, including rheumatoid arthritis.

EXPERT OPINION: The role of the gut microbiome in RA is critical, and serves as a basis for the etiology, pathogenesis, as well as having therapeutic implications. In our opinion, FMT is an excellent example for this correlation. Still, more investigations and well-designed studied are needed in order to make firm conclusions and recommendations.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Sfanos KS (2023)

Intratumoral Bacteria as Mediators of Cancer Immunotherapy Response.

Cancer research, 83(18):2985-2986.

Multiple lines of evidence spanning from animal models to human clinical trials indicate that the microbiome influences cancer immunotherapy response. Whereas initial studies focused exclusively on the gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota-tumor axis, more recent studies have examined the possibility that bacteria located within tumor cells or within the tumor microenvironment mediate cancer treatment response. Strikingly, this phenomenon has been demonstrated in cancers that arise in anatomic locations that are traditionally thought to be devoid of resident microbiota. In this issue of Cancer Research, Wu and colleagues examine the effects of intratumoral bacterial signatures on treatment response in the setting of neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with immunotherapy (NACI) in the treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The study reports that intratumoral Streptococcus, presumably due to bacterial translocation from the gut, predicts the treatment efficacy of NACI in murine models as well as individuals with ESCC. These new findings further highlight the possibility that the presence of intratumoral microbes as well as their associated metabolites influence both the tumor immune microenvironment and immunotherapy efficacy. These findings also raise the intriguing possibility of cross-reactivity between tumor and bacterial antigens. Given that the gut microbiome is potentially a modifiable factor via diet, prebiotics/probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, among other strategies, further exploration into the mechanisms by which gut and/or intratumoral bacteria influence antitumor immunity is certainly warranted. See related article by Wu et al., p. 3131.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Liao Y, Peng Z, Xu S, et al (2023)

Deoxynivalenol Exposure Induced Colon Damage in Mice Independent of the Gut Microbiota.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: To investigate whether deoxynivalenol (DON) can induce intestinal damage through gut microbiota in mice.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice are orally administered DON (1 mg kg[-1] bw day[-1]) for 4 weeks, and then recipient mice receive fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from DON-exposed mice after antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the mice are orally treated with DON (1 mg kg[-1] bw day[-1]) for 4 weeks after antibiotic treatment. Histological damage, disruption of tight junction protein expression, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the colon as well as higher serum lipopolysaccharides are observed after DON exposure. Moreover, DON exposure changes the composition and diversity of the gut microbiota as well as the contents of fecal metabolites (mainly bile acids). Differential metabolic pathways may be related to mitochondrial metabolism, apoptosis, and inflammation following DON exposure. However, only a decrease in mRNA levels of occludin and claudin-3 is observed in the colon of recipient mice after FMT. After depleting the gut microbiota in mice, DON exposure can also cause histological damage, disorders of tight junction protein expression, and increased oxidative stress and apoptosis in the colon.

CONCLUSIONS: DON exposure can induce colon damage in mice independent of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Fenneman AC, Rampanelli E, van der Spek AH, et al (2023)

Protocol for a double-blinded randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of faecal microbiota transplantations on thyroid reserve in patients with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism in the Netherlands: the IMITHOT trial.

BMJ open, 13(9):e073971.

BACKGROUND: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is a common endocrine autoimmune disease affecting roughly 5% of the general population and involves life-long treatment with levothyroxine, as no curative treatment yet exists. Over the past decade, the crosstalk between gut microbiota and the host immune system has been well-recognised, identifying the gut microbiome as an important factor in host health and disease, including susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Previous observational studies yielded a link between disruption of the gut microbiome composition and HT. This is the first study that investigates the potential of restoring a disrupted gut microbiome with faecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs) to halt disease progression and dampen autoimmunity.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The IMITHOT trial is a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study evaluating either autologous or allogenic FMTs in medication-naïve patients with subclinical autoimmune hypothyroidism. In total, 34 patients will be enrolled to receive either three allogenic or autologous FMTs. FMT will be made of fresh stool and directly administered into the duodenum. Patients will be evaluated at baseline before the first FMT is administered and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-intervention to assess efficacy and adverse events. The primary outcome measure will be the net incremental increase (incremental area under the curve) on thyrotropin-stimulated free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine release at 6 and 12 months compared with baseline. Results will be disseminated via peer-reviewed journals and international conferences. The recruitment of the first patient and donor occurred on 18 December 2019.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the hospital Ethics Committee (Medical Ethics Committee) at Amsterdam University Medical Center. The trial's outcomes offer high-quality evidence that aids in unveiling distinct patterns within the gut microbiota potentially associated with improved thyroid function. Consequently, this may open avenues for the future clinical applications of microbial-targeted therapy in individuals at risk of developing overt HT.


RevDate: 2023-09-14

Watanabe Y, Fujisaka S, Morinaga Y, et al (2023)

Isoxanthohumol improves obesity and glucose metabolism via inhibiting intestinal lipid absorption with a bloom of Akkermansia muciniphila in mice.

Molecular metabolism pii:S2212-8778(23)00131-X [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Polyphenols have health-promoting effects, such as improving insulin resistance. Isoxanthohumol (IX), a prenylated flavonoid found in beer hops, has been suggested to reduce obesity and insulin resistance; however, the mechanism remains unknown.

METHODS: High-fat diet-fed mice were administered IX. We analyzed glucose metabolism, gene expression profiles and histology of liver, epididymal adipose tissue and colon. Lipase activity, fecal lipid profiles and plasma metabolomic analysis were assessed. Fecal 16s rRNA sequencing was obtained and selected bacterial species were used for in vitro studies. Fecal microbiota transplantation and monocolonization were conducted to antibiotic-treated or germ-free (GF) mice.

RESULTS: The administration of IX lowered weight gain, decreased steatohepatitis and improved glucose metabolism. Mechanistically, IX inhibited pancreatic lipase activity and lipid absorption by decreasing the expression of the fatty acid transporter CD36 in the small intestine, which was confirmed by increased lipid excretion in feces. IX administration increased markers of intestinal barrier function, including thickening the mucin layer and increasing caludin-1, a tight-junction related protein in the colon. In contrast, the effects of IX were nullified by antibiotics. As revealed using 16S rRNA sequencing, the microbial community structure changed with a significant increase in the abundance of A. muciniphila in the IX-treated group. An anaerobic chamber study showed that IX selectively promoted the growth of A. muciniphila while exhibiting antimicrobial activity against some Bacteroides and Clostridium species. To further explore the direct effect of A. muciniphila on lipid and glucose metabolism, we monocolonized either A. muciniphila or Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron to GF mice. A. muciniphila monocolonization decreased CD36 expression in the jejunum and improved glucose metabolism, with decreased levels of multiple classes of fatty acids determined using plasma metabolomic analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that IX prevents obesity and enhances glucose metabolism by inhibiting dietary fat absorption. This mechanism is linked to suppressing pancreatic lipase activity and shifts in microbial composition, notably an increase in A. muciniphila. These highlight new treatment strategies for preventing metabolic syndrome by boosting the gut microbiota with food components.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Gawey BJ, S Khanna (2023)

Clostridioides difficile Infection: Landscape and Microbiome Therapeutics.

Gastroenterology & hepatology, 19(6):319-328.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and is common in the community. Both younger individuals who may be healthy otherwise and older individuals with comorbid conditions are at risk for developing CDI, with the predominant risk factor being antibiotic use. Unlike other gastrointestinal infections, CDI is not self-limited, requires antimicrobial therapy, and tends to recur at high rates even without additional risk factor exposure. The goals of CDI management include controlling active symptoms and using a recurrence prevention strategy such as a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, tapered and pulsed regimens, antibody- based therapies (directed against toxin B), or microbiome restoration. In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been the most used modality to prevent recurrent CDI with high cure rates. Heterogeneity, lack of scalability, and serious adverse events from FMT have led to development of standardized microbiota restoration therapies (MRTs). The US Food and Drug Administration has approved 2 stool-derived MRTs for prevention of recurrent CDI: fecal microbiota, live-jslm, an enema-based therapy; and fecal microbiota spores, live-brpk, an oral therapy. A phase 3 trial for a synthetic oral MRT is underway. This article outlines the pathophysiology and treatment of CDI, focusing primarily on the gut microbiome and standardized MRTs.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Guillot N, Roméo B, Manesh SS, et al (2023)

Manipulating the gut and tumor microbiota for immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy: from dream to reality.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(23)00189-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The past decade has witnessed a revolution in cancer treatment by shifting from conventional therapies to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). These immunotherapies unleash the host immune system against the tumor and have achieved unprecedented durable remission. However, 80% of patients do not respond. This review discusses how bacteria are unexpected drivers that reprogram tumor immunity. Manipulating the microbiota impacts on tumor development and reprograms the tumor microenvironment (TME) of mice on immunotherapy. We anticipate that harnessing commensals and the tumor microbiome holds promise to identify patients who will benefit from immunotherapy and guide the choice of new ICI combinations to advance treatment efficacy.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Gou H, Su H, Liu D, et al (2023)

Traditional Medicine Pien Tze Huang Suppresses Colorectal Tumorigenesis through Restoring Gut Microbiota and Metabolites.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(23)04982-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Pien-Tze-Huang (PZH) is a well-established Traditional Medicine with beneficial effects against inflammation and cancer. We aim to explore the chemopreventive effect of PZH in colorectal cancer (CRC) through modulating gut microbiota.

METHODS: CRC mouse models were established by azoxymethane plus dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) treatment or in Apc[min/+] mice, treated with or without PZH (270 and 540mg/kg). Gut barrier function was determined by intestinal permeability assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fecal microbiota and metabolites were respectively analyzed by metagenomic sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Germ-free mice or antibiotic-treated mice were used as models of microbiota depletion.

RESULTS: PZH inhibited colorectal tumorigenesis in AOM/DSS treated mice and in Apc[min/+] mice in a dose-dependent manner. PZH treatment altered the gut microbiota profile, with an increased abundance of probiotics Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans and Eubacterium limosum, while pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas veronii, Campylobacter jejuni, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Peptoniphilus harei were depleted. Additionally, PZH increased beneficial metabolites taurine and hypotaurine, bile acids, and unsaturated fatty acids and significantly restored gut barrier function. Transcriptomic profiling revealed that PZH inhibited PI3K-Akt, IL-17, TNF, and Cytokine-Chemokine signaling. Notably, the chemopreventive effect of PZH involved both microbiota-dependent and independent mechanisms. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from PZH-treated mice to germ-free mice partly recapitulated the chemopreventive effects of PZH. PZH components Ginsenoside-F2 and Ginsenoside-Re demonstrated inhibitory effects on CRC cells and primary organoids, and PZH also inhibited tumorigenesis in AOM/DSS-treated germ-free mice.

CONCLUSION: PZH manipulated gut microbiota and metabolites toward a more favorable profile, improves gut barrier function, and suppresses oncogenic and pro-inflammatory pathways, thereby suppressing colorectal carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Subramaniam S, Fares-Gusmao R, Sato S, et al (2023)

Distinct disease features of acute and persistent genotype 3 hepatitis E virus infection in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed Mongolian gerbils.

PLoS pathogens, 19(9):e1011664 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-23-00588 [Epub ahead of print].

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes self-limited acute hepatitis in immunocompetent individuals and can establish chronic infection in solid organ transplant recipients taking immunosuppressive drugs. A well characterized small animal model is needed to understand HEV pathogenesis. In this study, we established a robust model to study acute and persistent HEV infection using Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with or without immunosuppression. Gerbils were implanted subcutaneously with continuous release tacrolimus pellet to induce immunosuppression. Gerbils with or without tacrolimus treatment were inoculated with HEV intraperitoneally. Viremia, fecal virus shedding, serum antibody and ALT levels, liver histopathological lesions, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver macrophage distribution were assessed. Mild to moderate self-limited hepatitis and IgM and IgG antibody responses against HEV ORF2 were observed in immunocompetent gerbils. Levels of HEV-specific IgM responses were higher and lasted longer in immunocompetent gerbils with higher peak viremia. Persistent viremia and fecal virus shedding with either weak, or absent HEV antibody levels were seen in immunosuppressed gerbils. Following HEV infection, serum ALT levels were increased, with lower and delayed peaks observed in immunosuppressed compared to immunocompetent gerbils. In immunocompetent gerbils, foci of apoptotic hepatocytes were detected that were distributed with inflammatory infiltrates containing CD68+ macrophages. However, these foci were absent in immunosuppressed gerbils. The immunosuppressed gerbils showed no inflammation with no increase in CD68+ macrophages despite high virus replication in liver. Our findings suggest adaptive immune responses are necessary for inducing hepatocyte apoptosis, CD68+ macrophage recruitment, and inflammatory cell infiltration in response to HEV infection. Our studies show that Mongolian gerbils provide a promising model to study pathogenesis during acute and persistent HEV infection.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Sepordeh S, Jafari AM, Bazzaz S, et al (2023)

Postbiotic as Novel Alternative Agent or Adjuvant for the Common Antibiotic Utilized in the Food Industry.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology pii:CPB-EPUB-134454 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a serious public health problem as it causes previously manageable diseases to become deadly infections that can cause serious disability or even death. Scientists are creating novel approaches and procedures that are essential for the treatment of infections and limiting the improper use of antibiotics in an effort to counter this rising risk.

OBJECTIVE: With a focus on the numerous postbiotic metabolites formed from the beneficial gut microorganisms, their potential antimicrobial actions, and recent associated advancements in the food and medical areas, this review presents an overview of the emerging ways to prevent antibiotic resistance.

RESULTS: Presently, scientific literature confirms that plant-derived antimicrobials, RNA therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, vaccines, nanoantibiotics, haemofiltration, predatory bacteria, immunotherapeutics, quorum-sensing inhibitors, phage therapies, and probiotics can be considered natural and efficient antibiotic alternative candidates. The investigations on appropriate probiotic strains have led to the characterization of specific metabolic byproducts of probiotics named postbiotics. Based on preclinical and clinical studies, postbiotics with their unique characteristics in terms of clinical (safe origin, without the potential spread of antibiotic resistance genes, unique and multiple antimicrobial action mechanisms), technological (stability and feasibility of large-scale production), and economic (low production costs) aspects can be used as a novel alternative agent or adjuvant for the common antibiotics utilized in the production of animal-based foods.

CONCLUSION: Postbiotic constituents may be a new approach for utilization in the pharmaceutical and food sectors for developing therapeutic treatments. Further metabolomics investigations are required to describe novel postbiotics and clinical trials are also required to define the sufficient dose and optimum administration frequency of postbiotics.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Yuan Q, Sun L, Ma G, et al (2023)

Alterations of the gut microbial community structure modulates the Th17 cells response in a rat model of asphyxial cardiac arrest.

Biochemistry and biophysics reports, 35:101543.

Th17 cells triggered inflammation is a critical element in cerebral ischemic injury, and the gut microbiota intricately impacts T lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether the gut microbiota involves in cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CA/CPR) induced-brain injury through Th17 cells. The present study investigated the interaction between gut microbiota and Th17 cells in a rat model. We observed that CA/CPR induced the alterations of the gut microbial community structure, and elevated the level of IL-17 in the serum, and a slight infiltration of Th17 cells into the brain. The Th17 cells were increased significantly in the peripheral blood, 28.33 ± 6.18% of these Th17 cells were derived from the Peyer's patches of small intestine. Furthermore, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from rats with CA/CPR induced Th17 cell response, promoting hippocampal cell apoptosis and declining learning ability and memory in recipient rats. Taken together, CA/CPR-induced alterations of the gut microbial community structure stimulated Th17 cell response which aggravated brain injury.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Wortelboer K, de Jonge PA, Scheithauer TPM, et al (2023)

Phage-microbe dynamics after sterile faecal filtrate transplantation in individuals with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial assessing efficacy and safety.

Nature communications, 14(1):5600.

Bacteriophages (phages) are bacterial viruses that have been shown to shape microbial communities. Previous studies have shown that faecal virome transplantation can decrease weight gain and normalize blood glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Therefore, we performed a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled pilot study in which 24 individuals with metabolic syndrome were randomised to a faecal filtrate transplantation (FFT) from a lean healthy donor (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). The primary outcome, change in glucose metabolism, and secondary outcomes, safety and longitudinal changes within the intestinal bacteriome and phageome, were assessed from baseline up to 28 days. All 24 included subjects completed the study and are included in the analyses. While the overall changes in glucose metabolism are not significantly different between both groups, the FFT is well-tolerated and without any serious adverse events. The phage virion composition is significantly altered two days after FFT as compared to placebo, which coincides with more virulent phage-microbe interactions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that gut phages can be safely administered to transiently alter the gut microbiota of recipients.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Zuo T, Liang G, Huang Z, et al (2023)

Baseline gut microbiome features prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection are associated with host symptoms in and post COVID-19.

Journal of medical virology, 95(9):e29083.

The human gut microbiome varies substantially across individuals and populations and differentially tames our immunity at steady-state. Hence, we hypothesize that the large heterogeneity of gut microbiomes at steady-state may shape our baseline immunity differentially, and then mediate discrepant immune responses and symptoms when one encounters a viral infection, such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. To validate this hypothesis, we conducted an exploratory, longitudinal microbiome-COVID-19 study involving homogenous young participants from two geographically different regions in China. Subjects were recruited and sampled of fecal specimens before the 3-week surge window of COVID-19 (between December 11 and December 31, 2022) in China, and then were followed up for assessment of COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 manifestations. Our data showed that the baseline gut microbiome composition was intricately associated with different COVID-19 manifestations, particularly gastrointestinal involvement and post-COVID-19 lingering symptoms, in both an individual- and population-dependent manner. Our study intriguingly for the first time highlight that the gut microbiome at steady-state may prepare us differentially for weathering a respiratory viral infection.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Ramos Maia DR, Otsuki DA, Rodrigues CE, et al (2023)


Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 60(3):469-477.

Background: Approximately 50% of patients with sepsis develop acute kidney injury (AKI), which is predictive of poor outcomes, with mortality rates of up to 70%. The endothelium is a major target for treatments aimed at preventing the complications of sepsis. We hypothesized that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could attenuate tubular and endothelial injury in a porcine model of sepsis-induced AKI. Methods: Anesthetized pigs were induced to fecal peritonitis, resulting in septic shock, and were randomized to treatment with fluids, vasopressors, and antibiotics (sepsis group; n = 11) or to that same treatment plus infusion of 1 × 10 6 cells/kg of hUC-MSCs (sepsis+MSC group; n = 11). Results: At 24 h after sepsis induction, changes in serum creatinine and mean arterial pressure were comparable between the two groups, as was mortality. However, the sepsis+MSC group showed some significant differences in comparison with the sepsis group: lower fractional excretions of sodium and potassium; greater epithelial sodium channel protein expression; and lower protein expression of the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter and aquaporin 2 in the renal medulla. Expression of P-selectin, thrombomodulin, and vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly lower in the sepsis+MSC group than in the sepsis group, whereas that of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) was lower in the former. Conclusion: Treatment with hUC-MSCs seems to protect endothelial and tubular cells in sepsis-induced AKI, possibly via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, it might be an effective treatment for sepsis-induced AKI.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Zeng X, Li J, Shan W, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota of old mice worsens neurological outcome after brain ischemia via increased valeric acid and IL-17 in the blood.

Microbiome, 11(1):204.

BACKGROUND: Aging is a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke and worsens its outcome. However, the mechanisms for this worsened neurological outcome with aging are not clearly defined.

RESULTS: Old C57BL/6J male mice (18 to 20 months old) had a poorer neurological outcome and more severe inflammation after transient focal brain ischemia than 8-week-old C57BL/6J male mice (young mice). Young mice with transplantation of old mouse gut microbiota had a worse neurological outcome, poorer survival curve, and more severe inflammation than young mice receiving young mouse gut microbiota transplantation. Old mice and young mice transplanted with old mouse gut microbiota had an increased level of blood valeric acid. Valeric acid worsened neurological outcome and heightened inflammatory response including blood interleukin-17 levels after brain ischemia. The increase of interleukin-17 caused by valeric acid was inhibited by a free fatty acid receptor 2 antagonist. Neutralizing interleukin-17 in the blood by its antibody improved neurological outcome and attenuated inflammatory response in mice with brain ischemia and receiving valeric acid. Old mice transplanted with young mouse feces had less body weight loss and better survival curve after brain ischemia than old mice transplanted with old mouse feces or old mice without fecal transplantation.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the gut microbiota-valeric acid-interleukin-17 pathway contributes to the aging-related changes in the outcome after focal brain ischemia and response to stimulus. Valeric acid may activate free fatty acid receptor 2 to increase interleukin-17.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Del Chierico F, Cardile S, Baldelli V, et al (2023)

Characterization of the Gut Microbiota and Mycobiota in Italian Pediatric Patients With Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis and Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:7269133 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, fibroinflammatory, cholestatic liver disease of unknown etiopathogenesis, often associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. Recent evidence ascribes, together with immunologic and environmental components, a significant role to the intestinal microbiota or its molecules in the PSC pathogenesis.

METHODS: By metagenomic sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS2 loci, we describe the fecal microbiota and mycobiota of 26 pediatric patients affected by PSC and concomitant ulcerative colitis (PSC-UC), 27 patients without PSC but with UC (UC), and 26 healthy subjects (CTRLs).

RESULTS: Compared with CTRL, the bacterial and fungal gut dysbiosis was evident for both PSC-UC and UC groups; in particular, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, Sporobolomyces, Tilletiopsis, and Debaryomyces appeared increased in PSC-UC, whereas Klebsiella, Haemophilus, Enterococcus Collinsella, Piptoporus, Candida, and Hyphodontia in UC. In both patient groups, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Meyerozyma and Malassezia were decreased. Co-occurrence analysis evidenced the lowest number of nodes and edges for fungi networks compared with bacteria. Finally, we identified a specific patient profile, based on liver function tests, bacterial and fungal signatures, that is able to distinguish PSC-UC from UC patients.

CONCLUSIONS: We describe the gut microbiota and mycobiota dysbiosis associated to PSC-UC disease. Our results evidenced a gut imbalance, with the reduction of gut commensal microorganisms with stated anti-inflammatory properties (ie, Akkermansia, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Oscillospira, Meyerozyma, and Malassezia) and the increase of pathobionts (ie, Streptococcus, Saccharomyces, and Debaryomyces) that could be involved in PSC progression. Altogether, these events may concur in the pathophysiology of PSC in the framework of UC.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Gao T, Zhang H, Li Q, et al (2023)

Fuzi decoction treats chronic heart failure by regulating the gut microbiota, increasing the short-chain fatty acid levels and improving metabolic disorders.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 236:115693 pii:S0731-7085(23)00462-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Fuzi decoction (FZD) is clinically used to treat chronic heart failure (CHF) in China, but the mechanism underlying FZD treatment in CHF remains unclear. Here, we investigated the potential mechanism underlying FZD treatment of CHF in rats. First, the compounds in FZD-containing serum of rats were identified, and 16 S rRNA sequencing and GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics analysis were then performed. The levels of fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were determined and compared, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to verify the role of the gut microbiota. Our results identified 27 in FD-containing serum. FZD increased the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and the Lactobacillus abundance and affected the β diversity of the gut microbiota in rats with CHF. Differential species analysis showed that Lactobacillus and Prevotella were biomarkers of FZD treatment of CHF. Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that FZD affected valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis; galactose metabolism; and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis in rats with CHF. Furthermore, FZD significantly increased the acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid and isopentanoic acid levels in the feces of rats with CHF. Correlation analysis showed that the butyric acid and Lactobacillus levels had the strongest correlation in the control, sham and high-dose FZD (HFZD) groups, and many microbiota components were closely related to differentially abundant metabolites. FMT revealed that the fecal microbiota obtained from the HFZD group changed the heart rate; the brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, and metabolite levels; and the gut microbiota in rats with CHF. In summary, our study revealed that the mechanism of action of FZD in CHF treatment may be related to improvements in the gut microbiota, elevations in the SCFA content and the regulation of valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis; galactose metabolism; and other metabolic pathways.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Bubeck AM, Urbain P, Horn C, et al (2023)

High-fat diet impact on intestinal cholesterol conversion by the microbiota and serum cholesterol levels.

iScience, 26(9):107697 pii:S2589-0042(23)01774-1.

Cholesterol-to-coprostanol conversion by the intestinal microbiota has been suggested to reduce intestinal and serum cholesterol availability, but the relationship between intestinal cholesterol conversion and the gut microbiota, dietary habits, and serum lipids has not been characterized in detail. We measured conserved proportions of cholesterol high and low-converter types in individuals with and without obesity from two distinct, independent low-carbohydrate high-fat (LCHF) dietary intervention studies. Across both cohorts, cholesterol conversion increased in previous low-converters after LCHF diet and was positively correlated with the fecal relative abundance of Eubacterium coprostanoligenes. Lean cholesterol high-converters had increased serum triacylglycerides and decreased HDL-C levels before LCHF diet and responded to the intervention with increased LDL-C, independently of fat, cholesterol, and saturated fatty acid intake. Our findings identify the cholesterol high-converter type as a microbiome marker, which in metabolically healthy lean individuals is associated with increased LDL-C in response to LCHF.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Negi S, S Pahari (2023)

Editorial: Gut microbiota as a weapon against infections.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1277517.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Wang B, Hu W, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Sarcopenia and gut microbiota alterations in patients with hematological diseases before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Chinese journal of cancer research = Chung-kuo yen cheng yen chiu, 35(4):386-398.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia (SP) and its relationship with gut microbiota alterations in patients with hematological diseases before and after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).

METHODS: A total of 108 patients with various hematological disorders were selected from Peking University People's Hospital. SP was screened and diagnosed based on the 2019 Asian Sarcopenia Diagnosis Strategy. Physical measurements and fecal samples were collected, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted. Alpha and beta diversity analyses were performed to evaluate gut microbiota composition and diversity.

RESULTS: After HSCT, significant decreases in calf circumference and body mass index (BMI) were observed, accompanied by a decline in physical function. Gut microbiota analyses revealed significant differences in the relative abundance of Enterococcus, Bacteroides, Blautia and Dorea species before and after HSCT (P<0.05). Before HSCT, sarcopenic patients had lower Dorea levels and higher Phascolarctobacterium levels than non-sarcopenia patients (P<0.01). After HSCT, no significant differences in species abundance were observed. Alpha diversity analysis showed significant differences in species diversity among the groups, with the highest diversity in the post-HSCT 90-day group and the lowest in the post-HSCT 30-day group. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences in species composition between pre- and post-HSCT time points but not between SP groups. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) identified Alistipes, Rikenellaceae, Alistipes putredinis, Prevotellaceae defectiva and Blautia coccoides as biomarkers for the pre-HSCT sarcopenia group. Functional predictions showed significant differences in anaerobic, biofilm-forming and oxidative stress-tolerant functions among the groups (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated a significant decline in physical function after HSCT and identified potential gut microbiota biomarkers and functional alterations associated with SP in patients with hematological disorders. Further research is needed to explore the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Malik A, MI Malik (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patient Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Gastroenterology research, 16(4):209-216.

BACKGROUND: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection suffer from alterations in gut microbiota due to recurrent gastrointestinal infections and systemic inflammation. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) appears to be a potential therapy; however, there are concerns about its safety. Likewise, no previous meta-analysis evaluated FMT efficacy in HIV-infected patients.

METHODS: We conducted a thorough electronic search on PubMed, Scopus, OVID, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL for clinical studies assessing the safety and efficacy of FMT in patients with HIV and gastrointestinal dysbiosis, where FMT was indicated to restore the disrupted microbiota.

RESULTS: FMT significantly restored the typical microbiome in patients with Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) and non-C. difficile and reduced the risk of gastrointestinal infections in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (odds ratio (OR) = 0.774, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.62, 0.966)). Furthermore, adverse events, such as distention and bloating, associated with FMT were comparable between HIV and health controls (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: (0.07, 4.6)), with no statistical difference.

CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence demonstrated that FMT is safe and effective in HIV patients suffering from alterations in gut microbiota. We recommend further multi-centric clinical studies to address the optimal transplant amount and source for FMT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of FMT in patients with HIV.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Liu X, Liu M, Zhao M, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for the management of autoimmune diseases: Potential mechanisms and challenges.

Journal of autoimmunity pii:S0896-8411(23)00118-X [Epub ahead of print].

Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are a series of immune-mediated lethal diseases featured by over-activated immune cells attacking healthy self-tissues and organs due to the loss of immune tolerance, which always causes severe irreversible systematical organ damage and threatens human health heavily. To date, there are still no definitive cures for the treatment of AIDs due to their pathogenesis has not been clearly understood. Besides, the current clinical treatments of AIDs majorly rely on glucocorticoids and immune suppressors, which can lead to serious side effects. In the past years, there are increasing studies demonstrating that an imbalance of gut microbiota is intimately related to the pathogenesis of various AIDs, shedding light on the development of therapeutics by targeting the gut microbiota for the management of AIDs. Among all the approaches targeting the gut microbiota, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has attracted increasing interest, and it has been proposed as a possible strategy to intervene in the homeostasis of gut microbiota for the treatment of various diseases. However, despite the reported good curative effects and clinical studies conducted on FMT, the detailed mechanisms of FMT for the effective treatment of those diseases have not been figured out. To fully understand the mechanisms of the therapeutic effects of FMT on AIDs and improve the therapeutic efficacy of FMT treatment, a systematic review of this topic is necessary. Hence, in this review paper, the potential mechanisms of FMT for the treatment of various AIDs were summarized, including promotion, shaping, activation, or inhibition of the host immune system via the interactions between the microorganisms and the gut immune system, gut-brain, gut-liver, gut-kidney axis, and so on. Then, applications of FMT for the treatment of various AIDs were detailed presented. Finally, the current challenges and potential solutions for the development of FMT formulations and FMT therapeutics were comprehensively discussed.

RevDate: 2023-09-10

Borrego-Ruiz A, JJ Borrego (2023)

An updated overview on the relationship between human gut microbiome dysbiosis and psychiatric and psychological disorders.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(23)00147-1 [Epub ahead of print].

There is a lot of evidence establishing that nervous system development is related to the composition and functions of the gut microbiome. In addition, the central nervous system (CNS) controls the imbalance of the intestinal microbiota, constituting a bidirectional communication system. At present, various gut-brain crosstalk routes have been described, including immune, endocrine and neural circuits via the vagal pathway. Several empirical data have associated gut microbiota alterations (dysbiosis) with neuropsychiatric diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, autism and Parkinson's disease, and with other psychological disorders like anxiety, depression, and cognitive dysfunctions. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) therapy has shown that the gut microbiota can transfer behavioral features to recipient animals, which provides strong evidence to establish a causal-effect relationship. Interventions, based on prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, have demonstrated an important influence of microbiota on neurological disorders by both the synthesis of neuroactive compounds that interact with the nervous system and by the regulation of inflammatory and endocrine processes. Further research is needed to demonstrate the influence of gut microbiota dysbiosis on psychiatric and psychological disorders, and how microbiota-based interventions may be used as potential therapeutic tools.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Liu J, Peng F, Cheng H, et al (2023)

Chronic cold environment regulates rheumatoid arthritis through modulation of gut microbiota-derived bile acids.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05462-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The pathologies of many diseases are influenced by environmental temperature. As early as the classical Roman age, people believed that exposure to cold weather was bad for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, there is no direct evidence supporting this notion, and the molecular mechanisms of the effects of chronic cold exposure on RA remain unknown. Here, in a temperature-conditioned environment, we found that chronic cold exposure aggravates collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) by increasing ankle swelling, bone erosion, and cytokine levels in rats. Furthermore, in chronic cold-exposed CIA rats, gut microbiota dysbiosis was identified, including a decrease in the differential relative abundance of the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae. We also found that an antibiotic cocktail suppressed arthritis severity under cold conditions. Notably, the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) results showed that transplantation of cold-adapted microbiota partly recapitulated the microbiota signature in the respective donor rats and phenocopied the cold-induced effects on CIA rats. In addition, cold exposure disturbed bile acid profiles, in particular decreasing gut microbiota-derived taurohyodeoxycholic acid (THDCA) levels. The perturbation of bile acids was also associated with activation of the TGR5-cAMP-PKA axis and NLRP3 inflammasome. Oral THDCA supplementation mitigated the arthritis exacerbation induced by chronic cold exposure. Our findings identify an important role of aberrant gut microbiota-derived bile acids in cold exposure-related RA, highlighting potential opportunities to treat cold-related RA by manipulating the gut microbiota and/or supplementing with THDCA.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Chen J, Deng LL, Xiao XL, et al (2023)

An Association between Decreased Small Intestinal RNA Modification and Disturbed Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Secretion under High-Fat Diet Stress.

Nutrients, 15(17): pii:nu15173707.

Unhealthy diets rich in fats and/or sugar are considered as the major external cause of the obesity epidemic, which is often accompanied by a significant decrease in gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) levels. Numerous studies have demonstrated notable contributions of the gut microbiota in this process. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism still needs further investigation. The role of epigenetic modifications in gene expression and metabolism has been well demonstrated, with m6A methylation on RNAs being the most prevalent modification throughout their metabolism. In the present study, we found that the expressions of small intestinal Gcg and Pc3, two key genes regulating GLP1 expression, were significantly downregulated in obese mice, associated with reduced GLP1 level. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that a high-fat diet slightly increased the density of enteroendocrine L cells in the small intestine, implying that decreased GLP1 levels were not caused by the changes in L cell intensity. Instead, the small intestinal m6A level as well as the expression of known "writers", mettl3/14 and wtap, were found to be positively correlated with the expression of Gcg and Pc3. Fecal microbiota transplantation with feces from normal and obese mice daily to antibiotic-treated mice revealed that dysbiosis in diet-induced obesity was sufficient to reduce serum GLP1, small intestinal m6A level, and intestinal expressions of Gcg, Pc3, and writer genes (mettl3/14, wtap). However, as the most direct and universal methyl donor, the production of fecal S-adenosylmethionine was neither affected by the different dietary patterns nor their shaped microbiota. These results suggested that microbial modulation of the epitranscriptome may be involved in regulating GLP1 expression, and highlighted epitranscriptomic modifications as an additional level of interaction between diet and individual health.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Campagnoli LIM, Varesi A, Barbieri A, et al (2023)

Targeting the Gut-Eye Axis: An Emerging Strategy to Face Ocular Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(17): pii:ijms241713338.

The human microbiota refers to a large variety of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) that live in different human body sites, including the gut, oral cavity, skin, and eyes. In particular, the presence of an ocular surface microbiota with a crucial role in maintaining ocular surface homeostasis by preventing colonization from pathogen species has been recently demonstrated. Moreover, recent studies underline a potential association between gut microbiota (GM) and ocular health. In this respect, some evidence supports the existence of a gut-eye axis involved in the pathogenesis of several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, dry eye, and glaucoma. Therefore, understanding the link between the GM and these ocular disorders might be useful for the development of new therapeutic approaches, such as probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, or faecal microbiota transplantation through which the GM could be modulated, thus allowing better management of these diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Uceda S, Echeverry-Alzate V, Reiriz-Rojas M, et al (2023)

Gut Microbial Metabolome and Dysbiosis in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Psychobiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation as a Therapeutic Approach-A Comprehensive Narrative Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(17): pii:ijms241713294.

The comprehensive narrative review conducted in this study delves into the mechanisms of communication and action at the molecular level in the human organism. The review addresses the complex mechanism involved in the microbiota-gut-brain axis as well as the implications of alterations in the microbial composition of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases with neuronal loss or death is analyzed, as well as the mechanisms of action of the main metabolites involved in the bidirectional communication through the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In addition, interventions targeting gut microbiota restructuring through fecal microbiota transplantation and the use of psychobiotics-pre- and pro-biotics-are evaluated as an opportunity to reduce the symptomatology associated with neurodegeneration in these pathologies. This review provides valuable information and facilitates a better understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms to be addressed in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-08

Wu X, Ai R, Xu J, et al (2023)

Washed microbiota transplantation for Clostridioides difficile infection: a national multi-center real-world study.

Journal of digestive diseases [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIM: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been recommended for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), a new method of FMT, for CDI across various medical settings.

METHODS: This real-world cohort study included CDI patients from multiple centers who underwent WMT. The primary outcome was the clinical cure rate of CDI within 8-week post-WMT. Secondary outcomes included the reduction in total abdominal symptom score (TASS), CDI recurrence rate, and safety during follow-up period.

RESULTS: Overall, 90.7% (49/54) of patients achieved clinical cure within 8-week post-WMT. The cure rate for severe and complicated CDI (ScCDI) (n = 30) was 83.3%, and it reached 100% for non-ScCDI (n = 24, p = 0.059). No difference was observed in the clinical cure rate between patients with primary CDI and recurrent CDI (91.89% vs. 88.23%, p = 0.645). One-week post-WMT, the TASS showed a remarkable decrease compared to that before WMT (p < 0.001). 8.16% of patients (4/49) suffered CDI recurrence during follow-up. A WHO performance score of 4, age ≥ 65, higher TASS score, and higher Charlson comorbidity index score (p = 0.018, 0.03, 0.01, 0.034, respectively) were potential risk factors for efficacy. Four transient adverse events related to WMT (3.8%, 4/105) were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasizes the attractive value of WMT for CDI. Early WMT might be a recommendation for CDI, especially for those in serious condition or with complex comorbidities for decreasing deterioration, medical costs, and pain. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Zhang Z, Ye J, Liu X, et al (2023)

Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction alleviates oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy via the gut-peripheral nerve axis.

Chinese medicine, 18(1):114.

BACKGROUND: Oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (OIPN) limits the dose of chemotherapy and seriously affects the quality of life. Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu Decoction (HGWD) is a classical Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula for the prevention of OIPN. However, its specific pharmacological mechanism of action remains unknown. Our study found that HGWD can effectively alleviate chronic OIPN and regulate intestinal flora. Therefore, we explored the mechanism of action of HGWD in alleviating chronic OIPN from the perspective of intestinal flora.

METHODS: In this study, we established an OIPN model in C57BL/6 mice treated with different concentrations of HGWD. Mechanical pain and cold pain were assessed at certain time points, and samples of mice colon, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), serum, and feces were collected. Associated inflammation levels in the colon and DRG were detected using immunohistochemical techniques; the serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels and associated inflammation were assessed using the appropriate kits; and 16S rRNA sequencing was used to examine the dynamic changes in gut microorganisms. Finally, established fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and antibiotic (ABX) pretreatment models were used to validate flora's role in HGWD for chronic OIPN by pain scoring and related pathological analysis.

RESULTS: HGWD treatment significantly alleviated pain sensitivity in chronic OIPN mice. Pathological results showed that HGWD treatment improved intestinal ZO-1 expression and reduced serum LPS levels and associated inflammatory factors in the colon, serum, and DRG. The 16S rRNA results showed that HGWD restored the composition of the intestinal flora in a time-dependent manner to alleviate OIPN. FMT and ABX experiments demonstrated that HGWD can alleviate chronic OIPN by regulating intestinal flora homeostasis.

CONCLUSIONS: HGWD prevents chronic OIPN by dynamically regulating intestinal flora homeostasis, thereby ameliorating intestinal barrier damage and reducing serum LPS and relevant inflammatory factor levels in the colon, serum, and DRG.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Zhou Z, Zhang Y, Liu M, et al (2023)

[Influence of different fecal microbiota transplantation cycles on the recovery of intestinal microbiota in the antibiotic cocktail-pretreated mice].

Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research, 52(4):585-590.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of different transplantation frequencies and time of fecal microbiota transplantation on mice.

METHODS: Twenty-four C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into control group, fecal microbiota transplantation group 1(FMT1), fecal microbiota transplantation group 2(FMT2), and fecal microbiota transplantation group 3(FMT3). The control group was used as the donor of fecal microbiota transplantation, and the FMT1, FMT2, and FMT3 groups were intervened with mixed antibiotics(200 μL/d) for 2 weeks, and received fecal bacterial suspension(200 μL/d). The transplantation time of the FMT1 group frequency was 1 time/d for 1 weeks, the FMT2 group was 1 time/d for 2 weeks, and the FMT3 group was 3 times/week for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the feces of the mice were collected to analyze the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: Compared with the control group, there were more independent Amplicon Sequence Variants in the intestinal microbiota of mice in FMT1 group, FMT2 group and FMT3 group, and the ACE index and Chao1 index were significantly reduced(P<0.05). Beta diversity showed differences between fecal microbiota transplantation and control groups, with FMT2 and control groups being the closest. At the phylum level, there were two species in FMT1 group and one species in FMT3 group showed statistically significant differences compared with control group(P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the FMT2 group and the control group. At the genus level, there were 6 species in the FMT1 with statistically significant differences from the control group(P<0.05), and 2 species in the FMT2, 5 species in the FMT3 respectively. Among which FMT2 group has the least number of species that differed from the control group, suggesting that the compitsition of its intestinal microbiota is closet to that of the control group.

CONCLUSION: Fecal bacteria transplantation helps to restore the intestinal microbiota structure of mice cleaned by antibiotics, and different transplantation frequencies and transplantation times have different recovery effects on the intestinal microbiota of mice pretreated with antibiotics, and the fecal bacteria transplantation effect is better with 1 time/d lasting 2 weeks.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Meng Y, Sun J, G Zhang (2023)

Pick fecal microbiota transplantation to enhance therapy for major depressive disorder.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry pii:S0278-5846(23)00146-X [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of the operation is to restore a healthy gut microbiota by introducing feces from a healthy donor into the recipient's digestive system. The brain-gut axis is thought to have a significant role in regulating mood, behavior, and cognition, which supports the use of FMT in the treatment of MDD. Numerous studies have shown a correlation between abnormalities of the gut microbiota and MDD, whereas FMT has demonstrated the potential to restore microbial equilibrium. While FMT has shown encouraging results, it is crucial to highlight the potential hazards and limits inherent to this therapeutic approach. Stool donor-to-recipient disease transfer is a concern of FMT. Furthermore, it still needs to be determined what effect FMT has on the gut microbiota and the brain in the long run. This literature review provides an overview of the possible efficacy of FMT as a therapeutic modality for MDD. There is hope for patients who have not reacted well to typical antidepressant therapy since FMT may become an invaluable tool in the treatment of MDD as researchers continue to examine the relationship between gut microbiota and MDD.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Baker KA, C Poole (2023)

Current and Emerging Applications of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

The American journal of nursing, Published Ahead of Print: pii:00000446-990000000-00028 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a life-changing treatment for people with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). Frequently acquired in the hospital, CDI can cause serious gastrointestinal symptoms, including persistent watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, and severe dehydration. Antibiotics, the primary treatment, can unfortunately disrupt the gut microbiome and lead to antimicrobial resistance. FMT involves introducing stool from a healthy donor into the affected recipient to strengthen their compromised microbiome. Individuals receiving this treatment have reported remarkable improvement in clinical outcomes and quality of life. In addition to a discussion of rCDI within the context of the gastrointestinal microbiome, this article provides an overview of the FMT procedure, discusses nursing management of individuals undergoing FMT, and highlights emerging applications beyond rCDI. A case scenario is also provided to illustrate a typical trajectory for a patient undergoing FMT.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Gao T, Li Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Bifidobacterium longum 68S mediated gut-skin axis homeostasis improved skin barrier damage in aging mice.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 120:155051 pii:S0944-7113(23)00412-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bifidobacterium as probiotics, play important roles in skin status, while the potential mechanisms interaction remains unknown. The study further explored the potential mechanism of B. longum 68S in ameliorating skin barrier damage from the perspective of the gut-skin axis in aging mice.

METHODS: B. longum 68S supplied natural aging mouse model and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment proves the key role of intestinal microbiota in B. longum 68S up-regulating the production of ceramide synthesis key enzyme (SPT1) and ceramide level and improving skin barrier damage. Moreover, B. longum 68S supplied SPT1 gene deletion mouse model to investigate the mechanism of B. longum 68S on improving skin barrier damage.

RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis and 16S rRNA high-throughput pyrosequencing demonstrated that aging mice exhibited skin barrier dysfunction and intestinal dysbiosis. Meanwhile, aging mice exhibited an up-regulation in the trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) and a down-regulation in the level of SPT1, ceramide and skin barrier-related proteins (Loricrin, Keratin 10 and Desmoglein 1). Similarity, the FMT from aging mice to normal mice and SPT1 gene deletion mice could rebuild skin barrier damage and B. longum 68S supplementation exerted a positive effect on it. Further, B. longum 68S-mediated SPT1-derived ceramide production prevented impaired ceramide synthesis-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptotic response, ultimately improving skin barrier damage in vitro.

CONCLUSION: Emerging anti-aging therapies are necessary given the poor safety profiles of current pharmaceutical drugs. B. longum 68S may be better alternatives, considering the association between the gut microbiota and healthy aging. The findings suggested that B. longum 68S-mediated gut-skin axis homeostasis, thereby exhibiting an anti-aging effect and facilitate a better understanding of the mechanisms governing the various beneficial effects of B. longum 68S.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Wang J, Guo X, Zou Z, et al (2023)

Ootheca mantidis mitigates renal fibrosis in mice by the suppression of apoptosis via increasing the gut microbe Akkermansia muciniphila and modulating glutamine metabolism.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 166:115434 pii:S0753-3322(23)01232-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF), a progressive process affecting the kidneys in chronic kidney disease (CKD), currently lacks an effective therapeutic intervention. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown promise in reducing RIF and slowing CKD progression. In this study, we demonstrated the dose-dependent attenuation of RIF by Ootheca mantidis (SPX), a commonly prescribed TCM for CKD, in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). RNA-sequencing analysis suggested that SPX treatment prominently downregulated apoptosis and inflammation-associated pathways, thereby inhibiting the fibrogenic signaling in the kidney. We further found that transplantation of fecal microbiota from SPX-treated mice conferred protection against renal injury and fibrosis through suppressing apoptosis in UUO mice, indicating that SPX ameliorated RIF via remodeling the gut microbiota and reducing apoptosis in the kidneys. Further functional exploration of the gut microbiota combined with fecal metabolomics revealed increased levels of some probiotics, including Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila), and modulations in glutamine-related amino acid metabolism in UUO mice treated with SPX. Subsequent colonization of A. muciniphila and supplementation with glutamine effectively mitigated cell apoptosis and RIF in UUO mice. Collectively, these findings unveil a functionally A. muciniphila- and glutamine-involved gut-renal axis that contributes to the action of SPX, and provide important clue for the therapeutic potential of SPX, A. muciniphila, and glutamine in combatting RIF.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Wang G, Jiang Z, Song Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota contribution to selenium deficiency-induced gut-liver inflammation.

BioFactors (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

There is limited knowledge about the factors that drive gut-liver axis changes after selenium (Se) deficiency-induced gut or liver injuries. Thus, we tested Se deficiency in mice to determine its effects on intestinal bacterial balance and whether it induced liver injury. Serum Se concentration, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) level, and liver injury biomarkers were tested using a biochemical method, while pathological changes in the liver and jejunum were observed via hematoxylin and eosin stain, and a fluorescence spectrophotometer was used to evaluate intestinal permeability. Tight junction (TJ)-related and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling-related pathway genes and proteins were tested using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene-targeted sequencing of jejunum microorganisms. Se deficiency significantly decreased glutathione peroxidase activity and disrupted the intestinal flora, with the most significant effect being a decrease in Lactobacillus reuteri. The expression of TJ-related genes and proteins decreased significantly with increased treatment time, whereas supplementation with Se, fecal microbiota transplantation, or L. reuteri reversed these decreases. Signs of liver injury and LPS content were significantly increased after intestinal flora imbalance or jejunum injury, and the levels of TLR signaling-related genes were significantly increased. The results indicated that Se deficiency disrupted the microbiota balance, decreased the expression of intestinal TJ factors, and increased intestinal permeability. By contrast, LPS increased due to a bacterial imbalance, which may induce inflammatory liver injury via the TLR4 signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Wei J, Chen J, Fang X, et al (2023)

Protocol for the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation liquid in children with autism spectrum disorder: a randomized controlled study.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1236904.

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, repetitive behavior and language impairment, and its worldwide prevalence has been found to be increasing annually in recent years. Till now, ASD is uncurable as its pathogenesis remains unknown. However, studies on both animals and humans have demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may ameliorate the symptoms of ASD, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Nonetheless, there is still no agreement regarding the optimal dosage or duration of FMT treatment for individuals with ASD.

METHODS: This clinical study is a double-blind, randomized, interventional trial conducted at a single center. The aim is to investigate the safety and efficacy of a pediatric formulation of FMT for ASD. A total of 42 children between the ages of 3-9 with ASD will be randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to either an FMT treatment group (n = 28) or a placebo group (n = 14), forming cohort 1. Additionally, 30 healthy children of similar age and gender will be recruited as the control group (cohort 2). Cohort 1 will be assessed using a variety of scales, including the Autism Behavior Checklist, Childhood Autism Rating Scale, Social Responsiveness Scale, Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, and Psychoeducational Profile (Third Edition). These assessments will evaluate the effectiveness of FMT in reducing core symptoms and comorbidities (such as gastrointestinal symptoms and sleep disturbances) in children with ASD. The study will use metagenomic and metabolomic sequencing to assess changes in the composition and structure of the intestinal flora and its metabolites in blood, urine, and feces following treatment. Furthermore, the study will evaluate the acceptability of the FMT formulation by participants' legal guardians and investigate differences in the intestinal flora and metabolism in the FMT group before and after treatment compared to 30 healthy children.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:, identifier ChiCTR2200058459.

RevDate: 2023-09-07

Shan H, Wei C, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Case Report: Severe Diarrhea Caused by Cryptosporidium Diagnosed by Metagenome Next-Generation Sequencing in Blood.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:5777-5782.

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is one of the major pathogens causing diarrhea worldwide. At present, cryptosporidiosis is difficult to prevent and control, especially in immunocompromised hosts. It may cause life-threatening diarrhea and malabsorption among children and immunocompromised patients. Therefore, it is very important to explore rapid diagnostic tools and treatment methods for Cryptosporidium infection.

CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a case of severe diarrhea caused by cryptosporidiosis in a liver transplant recipient, whose condition was finally confirmed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and fecal microscopy. His illness was resolved with immunosuppression regulation, nitazoxanide administration, and infection control.

CONCLUSION: So far, nitazoxanide is still the first choice for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. Our institutional experience suggested that nitazoxanide alone may be effective on the basis of adjusting immunosuppressant. In addition, even though diagnosis of Cryptosporidium infection is a challenge, mNGS can serve as a rapid screening tool in low-prevalence setting.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Ma XZ, Chen LL, Qu L, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota-induced CXCL1 elevation triggers early neuroinflammation in the substantia nigra of Parkinsonian mice.

Acta pharmacologica Sinica [Epub ahead of print].

Gut microbiota disturbance and systemic inflammation have been implicated in the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). How the alteration of gut microbiota results in neuropathological events in PD remains elusive. In this study, we explored whether and how environmental insults caused early neuropathological events in the substantia nigra (SN) of a PD mouse model. Aged (12-month-old) mice were orally administered rotenone (6.25 mg·kg[-1]·d[-1]) 5 days per week for 2 months. We demonstrated that oral administration of rotenone to ageing mice was sufficient to establish a PD mouse model and that microglial activation and iron deposition selectively appeared in the SN of the mice prior to loss of motor coordination and dopaminergic neurons, and these events could be fully blocked by microglial elimination with a PLX5622-formulated diet. 16 S rDNA sequencing analysis showed that the gut microbiota in rotenone-treated mice was altered, and mice receiving faecal microbial transplantation (FMT) from ageing mice treated with rotenone for 2 months exhibited the same pathology in the SN. We demonstrated that C-X-C motif chemokine ligand-1 (CXCL1) was an essential molecule, as intravenous injection of CXCL1 mimicked almost all the pathology in serum and SN induced by oral rotenone and FMT. Using metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses, we identified the PPAR pathway as a key pathway involved in rotenone-induced neuronal damage. Inhibition of the PPARγ pathway was consistent in the above models, whereas its activation by linoleic acid (60 mg·kg[-1]·d[-1], i.g. for 1 week) could block these pathological events in mice intravenously injected with CXCL1. Altogether, these results reveal that the altered gut microbiota resulted in neuroinflammation and iron deposition occurring early in the SN of ageing mice with oral administration of rotenone, much earlier than motor symptoms and dopaminergic neuron loss. We found that CXCL1 plays a crucial role in this process, possibly via PPARγ signalling inhibition. This study may pave the way for understanding the "brain-gut-microbiota" molecular regulatory networks in PD pathogenesis. The aged C57BL/6 male mice with rotenone intragastric administration showed altered gut microbiota, which caused systemic inflammation, PPARγ signalling inhibition and neuroinflammation, brain iron deposition and ferroptosis, and eventually dopaminergic neurodegeneration in PD.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Xia Y, Xiao Y, Wang ZH, et al (2023)

Bacteroides Fragilis in the gut microbiomes of Alzheimer's disease activates microglia and triggers pathogenesis in neuronal C/EBPβ transgenic mice.

Nature communications, 14(1):5471.

Gut dysbiosis contributes to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and Bacteroides strains are selectively elevated in AD gut microbiota. However, it remains unknown which Bacteroides species and how their metabolites trigger AD pathologies. Here we show that Bacteroides fragilis and their metabolites 12-hydroxy-heptadecatrienoic acid (12-HHTrE) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) activate microglia and induce AD pathogenesis in neuronal C/EBPβ transgenic mice. Recolonization of antibiotics cocktail-pretreated Thy1-C/EBPβ transgenic mice with AD patient fecal samples elicits AD pathologies, associated with C/EBPβ/Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) pathway upregulation, microglia activation, and cognitive disorders compared to mice receiving healthy donors' fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Microbial 16S rRNA sequencing analysis shows higher abundance of proinflammatory Bacteroides fragilis in AD-FMT mice. Active components characterization from the sera and brains of the transplanted mice revealed that both 12-HHTrE and PGE2 activate primary microglia, fitting with poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolites enrichment identified by metabolomics. Strikingly, recolonization with live but not dead Bacteroides fragilis elicited AD pathologies in Thy1-C/EBPβ transgenic mice, so did 12-HHTrE or PGE2 treatment alone. Collectively, our findings support a causal role for Bacteroides fragilis and the PUFA metabolites in activating microglia and inducing AD pathologies in Thy1- C/EBPβ transgenic mice.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Ni Y, Qian L, Siliceo SL, et al (2023)

Resistant starch decreases intrahepatic triglycerides in patients with NAFLD via gut microbiome alterations.

Cell metabolism, 35(9):1530-1547.e8.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic dysfunction for which effective interventions are lacking. To investigate the effects of resistant starch (RS) as a microbiota-directed dietary supplement for NAFLD treatment, we coupled a 4-month randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial in individuals with NAFLD (ChiCTR-IOR-15007519) with metagenomics and metabolomics analysis. Relative to the control (n = 97), the RS intervention (n = 99) resulted in a 9.08% absolute reduction of intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTC), which was 5.89% after adjusting for weight loss. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and gut microbial species, in particular Bacteroides stercoris, significantly correlated with IHTC and liver enzymes and were reduced by RS. Multi-omics integrative analyses revealed the interplay among gut microbiota changes, BCAA availability, and hepatic steatosis, with causality supported by fecal microbiota transplantation and monocolonization in mice. Thus, RS dietary supplementation might be a strategy for managing NAFLD by altering gut microbiota composition and functionality.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Xia X, Zhang Y, Zhu L, et al (2023)

Liquiritin apioside alleviates colonic inflammation and accompanying depression-like symptoms in colitis by gut metabolites and the balance of Th17/Treg.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 120:155039 pii:S0944-7113(23)00400-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a significant global health concern that can lead to depression in affected patients. Liquiritin apioside (LA) possesses anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-inflammatory mechanism in IBD has not been extensively studied.

PURPOSE: This study elucidates the pivotal role of LA in alleviating inflammation by regulating gut metabiota-derived metabolites and evaluating its regulative effects on promoting a balance of Th17/Treg cells in colitis mice.

METHODS: To evaluate the effect of LA on IBD,16S rRNA gene sequencing and UPLC-QTOF-MS analysis were used to identify the changes of intestinal bacteria and their metabolites. Cytokines levels were determined by ELISA and qPCR, while immune cell ratios were evaluated via flow cytometry.

RESULTS: Our findings revealed that LA treatment ameliorated general states of DSS-induced colitis mice and their accompanying depressive behaviors. Moreover, LA restricted the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and revised the imbalanced Treg/Th17 differentiation, while promoting SCFAs production in inflamed colon tissues. Fecal microbiota transplantation from LA-fed mice also corrected the imbalanced Treg/Th17 differentiation, indicating that LA-mediated restoration of the colonic Treg/Th17 balance mainly depends on the changes in gut metabolites.

CONCLUSION: These results provide scientific evidence explaining the apparent paradox of low bioavailability and high bioactivity in polyphenols, and suggesting that LA could be used as a potential dietary supplement for the prevention and improvement of IBD.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Xia K, Gao R, Li L, et al (2023)

Transformation of colitis and colorectal cancer: a tale of gut microbiota.

Critical reviews in microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal inflammation modifies host physiology to promote the occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC), as seen in colitis-associated CRC. Gut microbiota is crucial in cancer progression, primarily by inducing intestinal chronic inflammatory microenvironment, leading to DNA damage, chromosomal mutation, and alterations in specific metabolite production. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in microbiota-based prevention and treatment strategies, such as probiotics, prebiotics, microbiota-derived metabolites, and fecal microbiota transplantation. This review aims to provide valuable insights into the potential correlations between gut microbiota and colitis-associated CRC, as well as the promising microbiota-based strategies for colitis-associated CRC.

RevDate: 2023-09-06

Li N, Tan S, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Akkermansia muciniphila supplementation prevents cognitive impairment in sleep-deprived mice by modulating microglial engulfment of synapses.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2252764.

The microbiome-gut-brain axis plays a crucial role in many neurological diseases, including mild cognitive impairment. Sleep deprivation (SD) induces cognitive decline accompanied by alterations in the gut microbiota. However, the role of gut microbiota alterations in SD-induced cognitive dysfunction and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following pretreatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics worsens SD-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation from SD mice to healthy mice induced cognitive impairment. Additionally, the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila) in the mouse gut microbiota was significantly reduced after 7 days of SD. A. muciniphila pretreatment alleviated cognitive dysfunction and prevented synaptic reduction in the hippocampus in SD mice. A. muciniphila pretreatment inhibited extensive microglial activation and synaptic engulfment in the hippocampus of SD mice. Metabolomics analysis revealed that A. muciniphila pretreatment increased the serum acetate and butanoic acid levels in SD mice. Finally, pretreatment with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) inhibited microglial synaptic engulfment and prevented neuronal synaptic loss in SD mice and primary microglia-neuron co-culture following LPS stimulation. Together, our findings illustrate that gut dysbiosis plays an essential role in SD-induced cognitive impairment by activating microglial engulfment at synapses. A. muciniphila supplementation may be a novel preventative strategy for SD-induced cognitive dysfunction, by increasing SCFAs production and maintaining microglial homeostasis.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Zhang Y, Liu J, Liu X, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation-Mediated Ghrelin Restoration Improves Neurological Functions After Traumatic Brain Injury: Evidence from 16S rRNA Sequencing and In Vivo Studies.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to investigate how gut microbiota dysbiosis impacts the repair of the blood-brain barrier and neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis, we compared the gut microbiota of TBI rats and normal controls, discovering significant differences in abundance, species composition, and ecological function, potentially linked to Ghrelin-mediated brain-gut axis functionality. Further, in vivo experiments showed that fecal microbiota transplantation or Ghrelin injection could block the intracerebral TNF signaling pathway, enhance GLP-1 expression, significantly reduce brain edema post-TBI, promote the repair of the blood-brain barrier, and improve neurological deficits. However, the TNF signaling pathway activation could reverse these beneficial effects. In summary, our research suggests that by restoring the balance of gut microbiota, the levels of Ghrelin can be elevated, leading to the blockade of intracerebral TNF signaling pathway and enhanced GLP-1 expression, thereby mitigating post-TBI blood-brain barrier disruption and neurological injuries.

RevDate: 2023-09-06
CmpDate: 2023-09-06

Mendes de Almeida V, Engel DF, Ricci MF, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota from patients with COVID-19 cause alterations in mice that resemble post-COVID symptoms.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2249146.

Long-term sequelae of coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 are frequent and of major concern. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection affects the host gut microbiota, which is linked to disease severity in patients with COVID-19. Here, we report that the gut microbiota of post-COVID subjects had a remarkable predominance of Enterobacteriaceae strains with an antibiotic-resistant phenotype compared to healthy controls. Additionally, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels were reduced in feces. Fecal transplantation from post-COVID subjects to germ-free mice led to lung inflammation and worse outcomes during pulmonary infection by multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. transplanted mice also exhibited poor cognitive performance. Overall, we show prolonged impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the gut microbiota that persist after subjects have cleared the virus. Together, these data demonstrate that the gut microbiota can directly contribute to post-COVID sequelae, suggesting that it may be a potential therapeutic target.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Yau YK, Su Q, Xu Z, et al (2023)

Randomised clinical trial: Faecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to improve symptoms in a proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

AIM: We performed a randomised trial to assess the efficacy of FMT in patients with IBS.

METHODS: We randomised 56 patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS 1:1 to FMT or placebo via the duodenal route at baseline and week 4. The primary outcome was > 50 points decrease in IBS severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) score at week 12. Secondary outcomes were improvement in bloating and change in gut microbiota at week 12. After 12-week follow-up, those in the placebo group were assigned to receive open-label FMT.

RESULTS: At week 12, 57.1% in the FMT group and 46.4% in the placebo group achieved the primary endpoint (p = 0.42). More patients receiving FMT than placebo had improvement in bloating (72% vs 30%; p = 0.005). In an open-label extension, 65.2% and 82.4% of patients achieved, respectively, the primary endpoint and improvement in bloating. Faecal microbiome of patients in the FMT group showed a reduction in bacteria like Ruminococcus gnavus and enrichment of bacteria such as Lawsonibacter at week 12, while no change in the placebo group. Functional analyses showed that the hydrogen sulphide-producing pathway decreased in patients who had FMT (p < 0.05) accompanied by a reduction in contributing bacteria. There were no serious adverse events related to FMT.

CONCLUSION: FMT performed twice at an interval of four weeks did not significantly reduce IBS-SSS score. However, more patients had improvement in abdominal bloating, which was associated with a reduction in hydrogen sulphide-producing bacteria. ( NCT03125564).

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Feuerstadt P, Oneto C, Tillotson G, et al (2023)

Patient Perception of Route of Rectal Administration of Live Biotherapeutic Product for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection.

Patient preference and adherence, 17:2153-2159.

INTRODUCTION: CDI is a recurrent disease that is treated with antibiotics, but patients commonly experience repeat infections with significant impacts on hospital budgets and patient health quality. Standard of care management includes the antibiotics, vancomycin and fidaxomicin, which frequently provide clinical response, but do not avoid recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). These recurrent infections occur due to dysbiosis of the colonic microbiota. One adjunctive therapeutic approach is to restore the deficient gastrointestinal flora using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or live biotherapeutic products (LBP) when given after standard of care antimicrobials, which have been successful in reducing repeat infections with success rates up to 88%. FMT or LBP can be given by various routes.

METHODS: Two groups of subjects aged ≥18 years with at least one previous CDI episode within the previous 36 months completed self-administered online surveys to assess the acceptability of an LBP administered rectally. Group 1 consisted of LBP-recipients who had received RBL (REBYOTA) rectally as part of the Phase III PUNCH CD3 clinical trial. Group 2 consisted of LBP-naïve subjects who volunteered to participate and had experienced CDI within the prior 36 months but had no history of receiving FMT or LBP therapy.

RESULTS: LBP-recipients considered rectal administration easy (96%) and quick (94%), while 98% of respondents considered the lack of need for bowel preparation appealing. Most LBP-recipients (96%) wished they had earlier access to RBL. Most LBP-naïve subjects (87%) were likely or somewhat likely to consider a rectally administered treatment and 80% preferred a treatment option that does not require bowel preparation. Many of these subjects (76%) expressed interest in finding out about new treatment options for rCDI.

DISCUSSION: LBP-recipients and LBP-naïve subjects alike felt that rectal delivery of microbiome therapy is not only acceptable but highly interesting as a treatment avenue.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Hotta R, Rahman A, Bhave S, et al (2023)

Transplanted ENSCs form functional connections with intestinal smooth muscle and restore colonic motility in nNOS-deficient mice.

Stem cell research & therapy, 14(1):232.

BACKGROUND: Enteric neuropathies, which result from abnormalities of the enteric nervous system, are associated with significant morbidity and high health-care costs, but current treatments are unsatisfactory. Cell-based therapy offers an innovative approach to replace the absent or abnormal enteric neurons and thereby restore gut function.

METHODS: Enteric neuronal stem cells (ENSCs) were isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of Wnt1-Cre;R26tdTomato mice and generated neurospheres (NS). NS transplants were performed via injection into the mid-colon mesenchyme of nNOS[-/-] mouse, a model of colonic dysmotility, using either 1 (n = 12) or 3 (n = 12) injections (30 NS per injection) targeted longitudinally 1-2 mm apart. Functional outcomes were assessed up to 6 weeks later using electromyography (EMG), electrical field stimulation (EFS), optogenetics, and by measuring colorectal motility.

RESULTS: Transplanted ENSCs formed nitrergic neurons in the nNOS[-/-] recipient colon. Multiple injections of ENSCs resulted in a significantly larger area of coverage compared to single injection alone and were associated with a marked improvement in colonic function, demonstrated by (1) increased colonic muscle activity by EMG recording, (2) faster rectal bead expulsion, and (3) increased fecal pellet output in vivo. Organ bath studies revealed direct neuromuscular communication by optogenetic stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing ENSCs and restoration of smooth muscle relaxation in response to EFS.

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that transplanted ENSCs can form effective neuromuscular connections and improve colonic motor function in a model of colonic dysmotility, and additionally reveal that multiple sites of cell delivery led to an improved response, paving the way for optimized clinical trial design.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Anonymous (2023)

Retraction statement: Role of the immune system in vascular function and blood pressure control induced by faecal microbiota transplantation in rats.

Toral, M, Robles-Vera, I, de la Visitación, N, et al. Role of the immune system in vascular function and blood pressure control induced by faecal microbiota transplantation in rats. Acta Physiol. 2019; 227:e13285. The above article, published online on April 20, 2019 in Wiley Online Library (, has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Pontus B. Persson, the Scandinavian Physiological Society, and John Wiley and Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed due to the similarity of a figure and inconsistencies regarding underlying data between this article and the following article published in Front Physiol, "Critical Role of the Interaction Gut Microbiota-Sympathetic Nervous System in the Regulation of Blood Pressure" by Toral M, Robles-Vera I, de la Visitación N, et al., 2019; 10:231. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00231.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Yang J, Shi X, Gao R, et al (2023)

Polydatin alleviates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis and alters the gut microbiota in a mouse model.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine [Epub ahead of print].

To investigate the effect and mechanism of polydatin on bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a mouse model. The lung fibrosis model was induced by BLM. The contents of TNF-α, LPS, IL-6 and IL-1β in lung tissue, intestine and serum were detected by ELISA. Gut microbiota diversity was detected by 16S rDNA sequencing; R language was used to analyse species composition, α-diversity, β-diversity, species differences and marker species. Mice were fed drinking water mixed with four antibiotics (ampicillin, neomycin, metronidazole, vancomycin; antibiotics, ABx) to build a mouse model of ABx-induced bacterial depletion; and faecal microbiota from different groups were transplanted into BLM-treated or untreated ABx mice. The histopathological changes and collagen I and α-SMA expression were determined. Polydatin effectively reduced the degree of fibrosis in a BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model; BLM and/or polydatin affected the abundance of the dominant gut microbiota in mice. Moreover, faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from polydatin-treated BLM mice effectively alleviated lung fibrosis in BLM-treated ABx mice compared with FMT from BLM mice. Polydatin can reduce fibrosis and inflammation in a BLM-induced mouse pulmonary fibrosis model. The alteration of gut microbiota by polydatin may be involved in the therapeutic effect.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Hu C, He T, Zou B, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in a child with severe ASD comorbidities of gastrointestinal dysfunctions-a case report.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 14:1219104.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by social communication impairments and restricted, repetitive behaviors. In addition to behavioral interventions and psychotherapies, and pharmacological interventions, in-depth studies of intestinal microbiota in ASD has obvious abnormalities which may effectively influenced in ASD. Several attempts have been made to indicate that microbiota can reduce the occurrence of ASD effectively. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a type of biological therapy that involves the transplant of intestinal microbiota from healthy donors into the patient's gastrointestinal tract to improve the gut microenvironment. In this case report, we describe a case of child ASD treated by FMT. The patient have poor response to long-term behavioral interventions. After five rounds of FMT, clinical core symptoms of ASD and gastrointestinal(GI) symptoms were significantly altered. Moreover, the multiple levels of functional development of child were also significantly ameliorated. We found that FMT changed the composition of the intestinal microbiota as well as the metabolites, intestinal inflammatory manifestations, and these changes were consistent with the patient's symptoms. This report suggests further FMT studies in ASD could be worth pursuing, and more studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of FMT in ASD and its mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Hsieh JC, Chuang ST, Hsu YT, et al (2023)

In vitro ruminal fermentation and cow-to-mouse fecal transplantations verify the inter-relationship of microbiome and metabolome biomarkers: potential to promote health in dairy cows.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1228086.

INTRODUCTION: There are differences in the gut microbiome and metabolome when the host undergoes different physical or pathological conditions. However, the inter-relationship of microbiome and metabolome biomarkers to potentially promote the health of dairy cows needs to be studied. Further, the development of next-generation probiotics for dairy cattle health promotion has not been demonstrated.

OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we identified the microbiome and metabolome biomarkers associated with healthy cows.

METHODS: We analyzed the relationships of the ruminal microorganism profile and metabolites between healthy and mastitis lactating dairy cows. The roles of bacterial biomarker were further verified by in vitro fermentation and cow-to-mouse fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: Two species, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, and six rumen metabolites were positively correlated with healthy cows by Spearman's correlation analysis. Through in vitro ruminal fermentation, inoculating R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum showed the upregulation of the levels of putrescine, xanthurenic acid, and pyridoxal in the mastitis ruminal fluid, which confirmed the inter-relationships between these microbiota and metabolites associated with healthy cows. Further, we verified the role of R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum in promoting health by FMT. The administration of R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum reduced the death rate and recovered the bodyweight loss of germ-free mice caused by FMT mastitis feces.

DISCUSSION: We provided evidence that the bacterial biomarkers alter downstream metabolites. This could indirectly indicate that the two bacterial biomarkers have the potential to be used as next-generation probiotics for dairy cattle, although it needs more evidence to support our hypothesis. Two species, R. flavefaciens and B. longum subsp. longum, with three metabolites, putrescine, xanthurenic acid, and pyridoxal, identified in the ruminal fluid, may point to a new health-promoting and disease-preventing approach for dairy cattle.

RevDate: 2023-09-04

Wen X, Xie R, Wang HG, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation alleviates experimental colitis through the Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway.

World journal of gastroenterology, 29(30):4657-4670.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has shown promising therapeutic effects on mice with experimental colitis and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). FMT modulates the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway to treat some other diseases. However, it remains unknown whether this modulation is also involved in the treatment of UC.

AIM: To clarify the necessity of TLR4 signaling pathway in FMT on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced mice and explain the mechanism of FMT on UC, through association analysis of gut microbiota with colon transcriptome in mice.

METHODS: A mouse colitis model was constructed with wild-type (WT) and TLR4-knockout (KO) mice. Fecal microbiota was transplanted by gavage. Colon inflammation severity was measured by disease activity index (DAI) scoring and hematoxylin and eosin staining. Gut microbiota structure was analyzed through 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. Gene expression in the mouse colon was obtained by transcriptome sequencing.

RESULTS: The KO (DSS + Water) and KO (DSS + FMT) groups displayed indistinguishable body weight loss, colon length, DAI score, and histology score, which showed that FMT could not inhibit the disease in KO mice. In mice treated with FMT, the relative abundance of Akkermansia decreased, and Lactobacillus became dominant. In particular, compared with those in WT mice, the scores of DAI and colon histology were clearly decreased in the KO-DSS group. Microbiota structure showed a significant difference between KO and WT mice. Akkermansia were the dominant genus in healthy KO mice. The ineffectiveness of FMT in KO mice was related to the decreased abundance of Akkermansia. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that differentially expressed genes between each group were mainly involved in cytoplasmic translation and cellular response to DNA damage stimulus. The top nine genes correlating with Akkermansia included Aqp4, Clca4a, Dpm[3], Fau, Mcrip1, Meis3, Nupr1 L, Pank3, and Rps13 (|R| > 0.9, P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: FMT may ameliorate DSS-induced colitis by regulating the TLR4 signaling pathway. TLR4 modulates the composition of gut microbiota and the expression of related genes to ameliorate colitis and maintain the stability of the intestinal environment. Akkermansia bear great therapeutic potential for colitis.

RevDate: 2023-09-03

Feng J, Chen Y, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14494.

To explore the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a treatment approach for ulcerative colitis (UC), a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. To collect and evaluate randomized controlled trials of high quality on FMT for UC, we searched a number of databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane, Embase, and Medline, for studies published between the establishment of the databases and March 2023. We conducted a meta-analysis of the studies using Review Manager software (version 5.4.1) to determine the differences in rates of remission and adverse reactions between the FMT group and the control group, utilizing the risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to combine our findings. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of FMT in patients with UC were included in the study, in which 580 patients participated, including 293 patients treated with FMT and 287 control subjects. Meta-analysis revealed that clinical remission was significantly better in the FMT group than in the control group [RR = 1.73; 95% CI = (1.41, 2.12); P < 0.00001]; endoscopic remission was significantly better in the FMT group than in the control group [RR = 1.74; 95% CI = (1.24, 2.44); P = 0.001]. Additionally, there were no significant differences in the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups [RR = 1.00; 95% CI = (0.86, 1.15); P = 0.96]. Fecal microbiota transplantation has shown potential as a therapeutic intervention for inducing clinical remission in ulcerative colitis UC; nevertheless, the attainment of endoscopic remission and the maintenance of long-term remission continue to present challenges. Safety concerns persist throughout the treatment process, necessitating the implementation of measures to augment both safety and success rates.

RevDate: 2023-09-03

McGuinness AJ, Loughman A, Foster JA, et al (2023)

Mood disorders: the gut bacteriome and beyond.

Biological psychiatry pii:S0006-3223(23)01532-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Knowledge of the microbiome-gut-brain axis has revolutionized the field of psychiatry. It is now well recognized that the gut bacteriome is associated with, and likely influences, the pathogenesis of mental disorders, including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. However, whilst substantial advances in the field of microbiome science have been made, we have likely only scratched the surface in our understanding of how these ecosystems might contribute to mental disorder pathophysiology. Beyond the gut bacteriome, research into lesser explored components of the gut microbiome, including the gut virome, mycobiome, archaeome, and parasitome, is increasingly suggesting relevance in psychiatry. The contribution of microbiomes beyond the gut, including the oral, lung, and small intestinal microbiomes, to human health and pathology should not be overlooked. Increasing both our awareness and understanding of these less traversed fields of research is critical to improving the therapeutic benefits of treatments targeting the gut microbiome, including fecal microbiome transplantation, postbiotics and biogenics, and dietary intervention. Interdisciplinary collaborations integrating systems biology approaches are required to fully elucidate how these different microbial components and distinct microbial niches interact with each other and their human hosts. Excitingly, we may be at the start of the next microbiome revolution, and thus one step closer to informing the field of precision psychiatry to improve outcomes for those living with mental illness.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Zhang Q, Zhou J, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Mendelian randomization supports causality between gut microbiota and chronic hepatitis B.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1243811.

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have provided evidence of a close association between gut microbiota and the progression of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, establishing a causal relationship between gut microbiota and CHB remains a subject of investigation.

METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of gut microbiota came from the MiBioGen consortium, while the GWAS summary data of CHB came from the Medical Research Council Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU) Open GWAS project. Based on the maximum likelihood (ML), Mendelian randomization (MR)-Egger regression, inverse variance weighted (IVW), MR Pleiotropy RESidual Sum and Outlier (MR-PRESSO), and weighted-mode and weighted-median methods, we conducted a bidirectional, two-sample, MR analysis to explore the causal relationship between the gut microbiota and CHB. Additionally, we evaluated the genetic associations between individual gut microbes and CHB using the Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) program.

RESULTS: According to the IVW method estimates, genetically predicted class Alphaproteobacteria (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34-0.96; false discovery rate [FDR] = 0.046), genus Family XIII AD3011 group (OR = 0.60; 95% CI, 0.39-0.91; FDR = 0.026), genus Prevotella 7 (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.56-0.94; FDR = 0.022) exhibited a protective effect against CHB. On the other hand, family Family XIII (OR = 1.79; 95% CI, 1.03-3.12; FDR = 0.061), genus Eggerthella group (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.04-1.74; FDR = 0.043), genus Eubacterium ventriosum group (OR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01-2.51; FDR = 0.056), genus Holdemania (OR = 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00-1.82; FDR = 0.049), and genus Ruminococcus gauvreauii group (OR = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.10-2.61; FDR = 0.076) were associated with an increased risk of CHB. The results from LDSC also indicated a significant genetic correlation between most of the aforementioned gut microbiota and CHB. Our reverse MR analysis demonstrated no causal relationship between genetically predicted CHB and gut microbiota, and we observed no significant horizontal pleiotropy or heterogeneity of instrumental variables (IVs).

CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified three types of gut microbiota with a protective effect on CHB and five types with an adverse impact on CHB. We postulate that this information will facilitate the clinical prevention and treatment of CHB through fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2023-09-02

Jiang Y, Cui W, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

FG-4592 relieves diabetic kidney disease severity by influencing metabolic profiles via gut microbiota reconstruction in both human and mouse models.

Frontiers in physiology, 14:1195441.

Objective: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most prevalent complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is highly associated with devastating outcomes. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), the main transcription factor that regulates cellular responses to hypoxia, plays an important role in regulating erythropoietin (EPO) synthesis. FG-4592 is the HIF stabilizer that is widely used in patients with renal anemia. We investigated the effect of FG-4592 on DKD phenotypes and the pharmacologic mechanism from the perspective of gut microbiota and systemic metabolism. Design: We collected the clinical data of 73 participants, including 40 DKD patients with combined renal anemia treated with FG-4592, and 33 clinical index-matched DKD patients without FG-4592 treatment from The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University at the beginning and after a 3-6-month follow-up period. We established DKD mouse models treated by FG-4592 and performed fecal microbiota transplantation from FG-4592-treated DKD mice to investigate the effects of FG-4592 on DKD and to understand this mechanism from a microbial perspective. Untargeted metabolome-microbiome combined analysis was implemented to globally delineate the mechanism of FG-4592 from both microbial and metabolomic aspects. Result: DKD phenotypes significantly improved after 3-6 months of FG-4592 treatment in DKD patients combined with renal anemia, including a decreased level of systolic blood pressure, serum creatinine, and increased estimated glomerular infiltration rate. Such effects were also achieved in the DKD mouse model treated with FG-4592 and can be also induced by FG-4592-influenced gut microbiota. Untargeted plasma metabolomics-gut microbiota analysis showed that FG-4592 dramatically altered both the microbial and metabolic profiles of DKD mice and relieved DKD phenotypes via upregulating beneficial gut microbiota-associated metabolites. Conclusion: FG-4592 can globally relieve the symptoms of DKD patients combined with renal anemia. In the animal experiment, FG-4592 can reconstruct the intestinal microbial profiles of DKD to further upregulate the production of gut-associated beneficial metabolites, subsequently improving DKD phenotypes.

RevDate: 2023-09-01

Malard F, Loschi M, Huynh A, et al (2023)

Pooled allogeneic faecal microbiota MaaT013 for steroid-resistant gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease: a single-arm, multicentre phase 2 trial.

EClinicalMedicine, 62:102111.

BACKGROUND: Failure of gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host disease (GI-aGvHD) to respond to steroid therapy is associated with limited further therapeutic options. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of the first-in-human use of the pooled allogeneic faecal microbiota, MaaT013, for the treatment of steroid-refractory GI-aGvHD.

METHODS: This prospective, international, single-arm, phase 2a study reports clinical outcomes from a 24-patient cohort with grade III-IV, steroid refractory GI-aGvHD treated with the pooled allogeneic faecal microbiota MaaT013. MaaT013 involved pooling faecal matter from 3 to 8 screened donors then transplanting the pooled batches into patients to treat GI-aGVHD. The 24 patients were treated in the HERACLES study (Aug 2018 to Nov 2020) at 26 sites in Europe and an additional 52 patients were treated in a compassionate use/expanded access program (EAP) in France (July 2018 to April 2021). The primary endpoint was GI response at day 28, defined as the proportion of patients with GI-aGvHD who had a complete response (CR) or very good partial response (VGPR). GvHD grading and staging were assessed according to the revised Glucksberg criteria. Adverse events and severe adverse events were monitored for 6 months and 12 months, respectively. The HERACLES study was registered with (NCT03359980).

FINDINGS: Compared with single donors, MaaT013 is characterised by higher microbial richness and reduced variability across batches. At day 28 (D28), the GI-overall response rate (ORR) was 38% in the prospective population, including 5 complete responses (CR), 2 very good partial responses (VGPR) and 2 partial responses (PR). In the EAP, the GI-ORR was 58% (17 CR, 9 VGPR and 4 PR). The 12-month overall survival (OS) was 25% in the prospective study and 38% in the EAP. Regarding safety, five infectious complications, including 3 sepsis, could not be excluded from being related to the study procedure in HERACLES. Shotgun sequencing analyses of the identified strains suggest that none were found in MaaT013. In the EAP, 18 pharmacovigilance cases were reported among 52 treated patients, including 11 bacteraemia/sepsis. In HERACLES, we observed in stools from responding patients at D28 a higher microbiota richness and increased levels of beneficial bacteria, in particular butyrate producers, along with increased levels of short-chain fatty acid and bile acids. In contrast, stools from non-responding (NR) patients displayed increased levels of pathogenic pro-inflammatory bacteria along with increased systemic inflammatory parameters.

INTERPRETATION: Overall, MaaT013 was safe in this population of highly immunocompromised patients and was associated with responses in some patients with GI-aGvHD and deserves further investigation.

FUNDING: MaaT Pharma.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Wu J, Li C, Gao P, et al (2023)

Intestinal microbiota links to allograft stability after lung transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 8(1):326.

Whether the alternated microbiota in the gut contribute to the risk of allograft rejection (AR) and pulmonary infection (PI) in the setting of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remains unexplored. A prospective multicenter cohort of LTRs was identified in the four lung transplant centers. Paired fecal and serum specimens were collected and divided into AR, PI, and event-free (EF) groups according to the diagnosis at sampling. Fecal samples were determined by metagenomic sequencing. And metabolites and cytokines were detected in the paired serum to analyze the potential effect of the altered microbiota community. In total, we analyzed 146 paired samples (AR = 25, PI = 43, and EF = 78). Notably, we found that the gut microbiome of AR followed a major depletion pattern with decreased 487 species and compositional diversity. Further multi-omics analysis showed depleted serum metabolites and increased inflammatory cytokines in AR and PI. Bacteroides uniformis, which declined in AR (2.4% vs 0.6%) and was negatively associated with serum IL-1β and IL-12, was identified as a driven specie in the network of gut microbiome of EF. Functionally, the EF specimens were abundant in probiotics related to mannose and cationic antimicrobial peptide metabolism. Furthermore, a support-vector machine classifier based on microbiome, metabolome, and clinical parameters highly predicted AR (AUPRC = 0.801) and PI (AUPRC = 0.855), whereby the microbiome dataset showed a particularly high diagnostic power. In conclusion, a disruptive gut microbiota showed a significant association with allograft rejection and infection and with systemic cytokines and metabolites in LTRs.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Li X, Fu B, Zhao C, et al (2023)

Early-life noise exposure causes cognitive impairment in a sex-dependent manner by disrupting homeostasis of the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(23)00250-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Epidemiological investigations show that noise exposure in early life is associated with health and cognitive impairment. The gut microbiome established in early life plays a crucial role in modulating developmental processes that subsequently affect brain function and behavior. Here, we examined the impact of early-life exposure to noise on cognitive function in adolescent rats by analyzing the gut microbiome and metabolome to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Chronic noise exposure during early life led to cognitive deficits, hippocampal injury, and neuroinflammation. Early-life noise exposure showed significant difference on the composition and function of the gut microbiome throughout adolescence, subsequently causing axis-series changes in fecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism and serum metabolome profiles, as well as dysregulation of endothelial tight junction proteins, in both intestine and brain. We also observed sex-dependent effects of microbiota depletion on SCFA-related beneficial bacteria in adolescence. Experiments on microbiota transplantation and SCFA supplementation further confirmed the role of intestinal bacteria and related SCFAs in early-life noise-exposure-induced impairments in cognition, epithelial integrity, and neuroinflammation. Overall, these results highlight the homeostatic imbalance of microbiota-gut-brain axis as an important physiological response toward environmental noise during early life and reveals subtle differences in molecular signaling processes between male and female rats.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Reasoner SA, MR Nicholson (2023)

Clostridioides difficile Infection in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Current gastroenterology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk of C. difficile infection (CDI) and experience worse outcomes associated with an infection. In this article, we review recent research on the incidence, diagnosis, complications, and treatment options for CDI in children with IBD.

RECENT FINDINGS: Children with IBD have an elevated incidence of CDI, but their CDI risk does not associate with established risk factors in adults with IBD. Existing testing methodologies are inadequate at differentiating CDI from C. difficile colonization in children with IBD. Fecal microbiota transplantation offers a durable cure for recurrent CDI. CDI remains a frequent occurrence in children with IBD. Careful clinical monitoring should be used to diagnose CDI and patients with co-occurring IBD and CDI require careful surveillance for worse outcomes. Future research should explore the optimal diagnosis and treatment modalities in this unique patient population.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Koo H, CD Morrow (2023)

Identification of donor Bacteroides vulgatus genes encoding proteins that correlate with early colonization following fecal transplant of patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14112.

Due to suppressive antibiotics, patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile have gut microbial communities that are devoid of most commensal microbes. Studies have shown that most of the failures using fecal microbe transplantation (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile occur during the first 4 weeks following transplantation. To identify features of donor Bacteroides vulgatus that lead to early colonization, we used two data sets that collected fecal samples from recipients at early times points post FMT. The first analysis used the shotgun metagenomic DNA sequencing data set from Aggarwala et al. consisting of 7 FMT donors and 13 patients with recurrent C. difficile with fecal samples taken as early as 24 h post FMT. We identified 2 FMT donors in which colonization of recipients by donor B. vulgatus was detected as early as 24 h post FMT. We examined a second data set from Hourigan et al. that collected fecal samples from C. difficile infected children and identified 1 of 3 FMT that also had early colonization of the donor B. vulgatus. We found 19 genes out of 4911 encoding proteins were unique to the 3 donors that had early colonization. A gene encoding a putative chitobiase was identified that was in a gene complex that had been previously identified to enhance colonization in mice. A gene encoding a unique fimbrillin (i.e., pili) family protein and 17 genes encoding hypothetical proteins were also specific for early colonizing donors. Most of the genes encoding hypothetical proteins had neighboring genes that encoded proteins involved in mobilization or transposition. Finally, analysis of 42 paired fecal samples from the human microbiome project (HMP) found no individuals had all 19 genes while 2 individuals had none of the 19 genes. Based on the results from our study, consideration should be given to the screening of FMT donors for these B. vulgatus genes found to enhance early colonization that would be of benefit to promote colonization following FMT.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Zhang D, Liu Z, F Bai (2023)

Roles of Gut Microbiota in Alcoholic Liver Disease.

International journal of general medicine, 16:3735-3746.

Alcoholic liver disease (ALD)-one of the most common liver diseases - involves a wide range of disorders, including asymptomatic hepatic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis (AH), liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Alcohol consumption induces a weakened gut barrier and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. The presence of CYP2E1 and its elevated levels in the gastrointestinal tract after alcohol exposure lead to elevated levels of ROS and acetaldehyde, inducing inflammation and oxidative damage in the gut. At the same time, the influx of harmful molecules such as the bacterial endotoxin LPS and peptidogly from gut dysbiosis can induce intestinal inflammation and oxidative damage, further compromising the intestinal mucosal barrier. In this process, various oxidative stress-mediated post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in the integrity of the barrier, eg, the presence of acetaldehyde will result in the sustained phosphorylation of several paracellular proteins (occludin and zona occludens-1), which can lead to intestinal leakage. Eventually, persistent oxidative stress, LPS infiltration and hepatocyte damage through the enterohepatic circulation will lead to hepatic stellate cell activation and hepatic fibrosis. In addition, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), bioengineered bacteria, gut-restricted FXR agonists and others are promising therapeutic approaches that can alter gut microbiota composition to improve ALD. In the future, there will be new challenges to study the interactions between the genetics of individuals with ALD and their gut microbiome, to provide personalized interventions targeting the gut-liver axis, and to develop better techniques to measure microbial communities and metabolites in the body.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Wu L, Yuan Q, Wu L, et al (2023)

Efficacy of washed microbiota transplantation for therapeutic targets of refractory functional constipation and the influencing factors: a single-center, retrospective, 24-week follow-up study.

BMC gastroenterology, 23(1):291.

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) in terms of refractory functional constipation (FC)-related therapeutic targets and influencing factors have not been elucidated. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and influencing factors of WMT in treating refractory FC-related therapeutic targets.

METHODS: The clinical data of patients diagnosed with refractory FC and received with WMT were retrospectively collected. The therapeutic targets included straining, hard stools, incomplete evacuation, a sense of anorectal obstruction, manual maneuvers, and decreased stool frequency. Each target was recorded as 1 (yes) or 0 (no). All patients were followed up for approximately 24 weeks from the end of the first course of WMT. The primary outcomes were the improvement rates for the individual therapeutic targets and the overall response in respect of the therapeutic targets decreased by 2 at weeks 4, 8, and 24. The secondary outcomes were the clinical remission rate (i.e., the proportion of patients with an average of 3 or more spontaneous complete bowel movements per week), clinical improvement rate (i.e., the proportion of patients with an average increase of 1 or more SCBMs/week or patients with remission), stool frequency, Wexner constipation score, Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) score, and adverse events. The factors influencing the efficacy were also analyzed.

RESULTS: Overall, 63 patients with 112 WMT courses were enrolled. The improvement rates at weeks 8 and 24 were 45.6% and 35.0%, 42.9% and 38.6%, 45.0% and 35.7%, 55.6% and 44.4%, and 60.9% and 50.0%, respectively, for straining, hard stools, incomplete evacuation, a sense of anorectal obstruction, and decreased stool frequency. The overall response rates were 49.2%, 50.8%, and 42.9%, respectively, at weeks 4, 8, and 24. The rates of clinical remission and clinical improvement were 54.0% and 68.3%, respectively, at weeks 4. The stool frequency, BSFS score, and Wexner constipation score tended to improve post-WMT. Only 22 mild adverse events were observed during the 112 WMT courses and the follow-up. The number of WMT courses was identified to be the independent factor influencing the efficacy.

CONCLUSIONS: WMT is efficacious in improving refractory FC-related therapeutic targets. The effectiveness of WMT in the management of FC is enhanced with the administration of multiple courses.

RevDate: 2023-08-29

Muino AF, Compo NR, Everett BM, et al (2023)

Equipment and Methods for Concurrently Housing Germfree and Gnotobiotic Mice in the Same Room.

Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we combined the use of 2 technologies that have not previously been used together-a positively pressurized isolatorIVC (IsoIVC-P) and a modular isolator with integrated vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) technology-to develop highlytractable and scalable methods to support long-term maintenance of germfree mouse colonies and the concurrent use of germfreeand gnotobiotic mice in the same room. This space-efficient system increases the practicality of microbiome studies.Specifically, the exterior surfaces of microbially similar IsoIVC-P were sterilized by using VHP prior to opening the cagesand handling the mice therein. This space-efficient system increases the feasibility of microbiome studies. After over 74 wkof experimentation and handling equivalent to more than 1,379,693 germfree mouse-days, we determined that the methodand practices we developed have a weekly performance metric of 0.0001 sterility breaks per husbandry unit; this rate is comparableto the isolator 'gold standard.' These data were achieved without adverse incidents while maintaining an AlteredSchaedler Flora colony and multiple gnotobiotic studies involving fecal microbial transplants in the same room. Our novelIsoIVC-P-VHP workstation housing system thus improves microbiome research efficiency, eliminates hazards, and reducesrisks associated with traditional methods.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Hwang SW, Kim MK, MN Kweon (2023)

Gut microbiome on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and consequent immune-related colitis: a review.

Intestinal research pii:ir.2023.00019 [Epub ahead of print].

Immune checkpoint inhibitors have dramatically revolutionized the therapeutic landscape for patients with advanced malignancies. Recently, convincing evidence has shown meaningful influence of gut microbiome on human immune system. With the complex link between gut microbiome, host immunity and cancer, the variations in the gut microbiota may influence the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Indeed, some bacterial species have been reported to be predictive for cancer outcome in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors are currently proven to be an effective anti-tumor treatment, they can induce a distinct form of toxicity, termed immune-related adverse events. Immune-related colitis is one of the common toxicities from immune checkpoint inhibitors, and it might preclude the cancer therapy in severe or refractory cases. The manipulation of gut microbiome by fecal microbiota transplantation or probiotics administration has been suggested as one of the methods to enhance anti-tumor effects and decrease the risk of immune-related colitis. Here we review the role of gut microbiome on immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and consequent immune-related colitis to provide a new insight for better anti-cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Bretthauer M, Wieszczy P, Løberg M, et al (2023)

Estimated Lifetime Gained With Cancer Screening Tests: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

JAMA internal medicine pii:2808648 [Epub ahead of print].

IMPORTANCE: Cancer screening tests are promoted to save life by increasing longevity, but it is unknown whether people will live longer with commonly used cancer screening tests.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate lifetime gained with cancer screening.

DATA SOURCES: A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of randomized clinical trials with more than 9 years of follow-up reporting all-cause mortality and estimated lifetime gained for 6 commonly used cancer screening tests, comparing screening with no screening. The analysis included the general population. MEDLINE and the Cochrane library databases were searched, and the last search was performed October 12, 2022.

STUDY SELECTION: Mammography screening for breast cancer; colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) for colorectal cancer; computed tomography screening for lung cancer in smokers and former smokers; or prostate-specific antigen testing for prostate cancer.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Searches and selection criteria followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. Data were independently extracted by a single observer, and pooled analysis of clinical trials was used for analyses.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Life-years gained by screening was calculated as the difference in observed lifetime in the screening vs the no screening groups and computed absolute lifetime gained in days with 95% CIs for each screening test from meta-analyses or single randomized clinical trials.

RESULTS: In total, 2 111 958 individuals enrolled in randomized clinical trials comparing screening with no screening using 6 different tests were eligible. Median follow-up was 10 years for computed tomography, prostate-specific antigen testing, and colonoscopy; 13 years for mammography; and 15 years for sigmoidoscopy and FOBT. The only screening test with a significant lifetime gain was sigmoidoscopy (110 days; 95% CI, 0-274 days). There was no significant difference following mammography (0 days: 95% CI, -190 to 237 days), prostate cancer screening (37 days; 95% CI, -37 to 73 days), colonoscopy (37 days; 95% CI, -146 to 146 days), FOBT screening every year or every other year (0 days; 95% CI, -70.7 to 70.7 days), and lung cancer screening (107 days; 95% CI, -286 days to 430 days).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that current evidence does not substantiate the claim that common cancer screening tests save lives by extending lifetime, except possibly for colorectal cancer screening with sigmoidoscopy.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Contarino MF, van Hilten JJ, EJ Kuijper (2023)

Targeting the Gut-Brain Axis with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Considerations on a Potential Novel Treatment for Parkinson's Disease.

Movement disorders clinical practice, 10(Suppl 2):S21-S25.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Ratna HVK, Jeyaraman M, Yadav S, et al (2023)

Is Dysbiotic Gut the Cause of Low Back Pain?.

Cureus, 15(7):e42496.

Low back pain (LBP) is the foremost cause of disability that affects the day-to-day activities of millions of people worldwide. The putative trigger of LBP is linked to the gut microbiome (GM) and its dysbiotic environment. With the concept of GM, various disease pathogenesis has been revisited with plausible crosstalks and micromolecular mimicry. In the normal intervertebral disc (IVD), Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were found in abundance. The blood-disc barrier protects IVD from systemic infection, resists inflammation, and halts the immune surveillance of the inner aspects of IVD. The insights into microbial ecology will broaden our horizons in GM and IVD degeneration in LBP cases. However, an improved understanding of GM and back pain has to be explored in large-scale individuals with varied timescales to validate the above findings. The role of GM (diet, prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation) in pain modulation can form novel therapies in cases of LBP.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Yin J, Li Y, Tian Y, et al (2023)

Obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota rewires carnitine metabolism to promote muscle fatty acid deposition in lean DLY pigs.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 4(5):100486.

The gut microbiota consistently shows strong correlations with lipid metabolism in humans and animals, and whether the gut microbiota contributes to muscle fatty acid (FA) deposition and meat traits in farm animals has not been fully resolved. In this study, we aimed to unveil the microbial mechanisms underlying muscle FA deposition in pigs. First, we systematically revealed the correlation between the gut microbiome and muscle FA levels in 43 obese Ningxiang pigs and 50 lean Duroc Landrace Yorkshire (DLY) pigs. Mutual fecal microbial transplantation showed that the obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota increased the muscle FA content and improved meat quality by reshaping the gut microbial composition in lean DLY pigs. Lactobacillus reuteri has been identified as a potential microbial biomarker in obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota-challenged DLY pigs. A gavage experiment using lean DLY pigs confirmed that L. reuteri XL0930 isolated from obese Ningxiang pigs was the causal species that increased the muscle FA content. Mechanistically, SLC22A5, a carnitine transporter, was downregulated in L. reuteri XL0930-fed DLY pigs, resulting in reduced muscle carnitine levels. Muscle and intestinal L-carnitine levels, which correlated with the muscle FA content, impeded fat synthesis and FA accumulation in in vitro and in vivo models. In conclusion, we uncovered an unexpected and important role of the obese Ningxiang pig-derived microbiota in regulating muscle FA metabolism via the SLC22A5-mediated carnitine system.

RevDate: 2023-08-28
CmpDate: 2023-08-28

Yang JC, Troutman R, Buri H, et al (2023)

Ileal Dysbiosis Is Associated with Increased Acoustic Startle in the 22q11.2 Microdeletion Mouse Model of Schizophrenia.

Nutrients, 15(16):.

Recent studies involving transplantation of feces from schizophrenia (SCZ) patients and their healthy controls into germ-free mice have demonstrated that the gut microbiome plays a critical role in mediating SCZ-linked physiology and behavior. To date, only one animal model (a metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 knockout) of SCZ has been reported to recapitulate SCZ-linked gut dysbiosis. Since human 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is associated with increased risk of SCZ, we investigated whether the 22q11.2 microdeletion ("Q22") mouse model of SCZ exhibits both SCZ-linked behaviors and intestinal dysbiosis. We demonstrated that Q22 mice display increased acoustic startle response and ileal (but not colonic) dysbiosis, which may be due to the role of the ileum as an intestinal region with high immune and neuroimmune activity. We additionally identified a negative correlation between the abundance of a Streptococcus species in the ilea of Q22 mice and their acoustic startle response, providing early evidence of a gut-brain relationship in these mice. Given the translational relevance of this mouse model, our work suggests that Q22 mice could have considerable utility in preclinical research probing the relationship between gut dysbiosis and the gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of SCZ.

RevDate: 2023-08-28

Salmeri N, Sinagra E, Dolci C, et al (2023)

Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Endometriosis: Birds of a Feather Flock Together-A Review.

Microorganisms, 11(8):.

Endometriosis and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are chronic conditions affecting up to 10% of the global population, imposing significant burdens on healthcare systems and patient quality of life. Interestingly, around 20% of endometriosis patients also present with symptoms indicative of IBS. The pathogenesis of both these multifactorial conditions remains to be fully elucidated, but connections to gut microbiota are becoming more apparent. Emerging research underscores significant differences in the gut microbiota composition between healthy individuals and those suffering from either endometriosis or IBS. Intestinal dysbiosis appears pivotal in both conditions, exerting an influence via similar mechanisms. It impacts intestinal permeability, triggers inflammatory reactions, and initiates immune responses. Furthermore, it is entwined in a bidirectional relationship with the brain, as part of the gut-brain axis, whereby dysbiosis influences and is influenced by mental health and pain perception. Recent years have witnessed the development of microbiota-focused therapies, such as low FODMAP diets, prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, designed to tackle dysbiosis and relieve symptoms. While promising, these treatments present inconsistent data, highlighting the need for further research. This review explores the evidence of gut dysbiosis in IBS and endometriosis, underscoring the similar role of microbiota in both conditions. A deeper understanding of this common mechanism may enable enhanced diagnostics and therapeutic advancements.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Kappéter Á, Sipos D, Varga A, et al (2023)

Migraine as a Disease Associated with Dysbiosis and Possible Therapy with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Microorganisms, 11(8): pii:microorganisms11082083.

Migraine is a painful neurological condition characterized by severe pain on one or both sides of the head. It may be linked to changes in the gut microbiota, which are influenced by antibiotic use and other factors. Dysbiosis, which develops and persists as a result of earlier antibiotic therapy, changes the composition of the intestinal flora, and can lead to the development of various diseases such as metabolic disorders, obesity, hematological malignancies, neurological or behavioral disorders, and migraine. Metabolites produced by the gut microbiome have been shown to influence the gut-brain axis. The use of probiotics as a dietary supplement may reduce the number and severity of migraine episodes. Dietary strategies can affect the course of migraines and are a valuable tool for improving migraine management. With fecal microbiota transplantation, gut microbial restoration is more effective and more durable. Changes after fecal microbiota transplantation were studied in detail, and many data help us to interpret the successful interventions. The microbiological alteration of the gut microflora can lead to normalization of the inflammatory mediators, the serotonin pathway, and influence the frequency and intensity of migraine pain.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Munley JA, Kirkpatrick SL, Gillies GS, et al (2023)

The Intestinal Microbiome after Traumatic Injury.

Microorganisms, 11(8): pii:microorganisms11081990.

The intestinal microbiome plays a critical role in host immune function and homeostasis. Patients suffering from-as well as models representing-multiple traumatic injuries, isolated organ system trauma, and various severities of traumatic injury have been studied as an area of interest in the dysregulation of immune function and systemic inflammation which occur after trauma. These studies also demonstrate changes in gut microbiome diversity and even microbial composition, with a transition to a pathobiome state. In addition, sex has been identified as a biological variable influencing alterations in the microbiome after trauma. Therapeutics such as fecal transplantation have been utilized to ameliorate not only these microbiome changes but may also play a role in recovery postinjury. This review summarizes the alterations in the gut microbiome that occur postinjury, either in isolated injury or multiple injuries, along with proposed mechanisms for these changes and future directions for the field.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Ishibashi R, Matsuhisa R, Nomoto M, et al (2023)

Effect of Oral Administration of Polyethylene Glycol 400 on Gut Microbiota Composition and Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice.

Microorganisms, 11(8): pii:microorganisms11081882.

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a commonly used dispersant for oral administration of hydrophobic agents. PEG is partly absorbed in the small intestine, and the unabsorbed fraction reaches the large intestine; thus, oral administration of PEG may impact the gut microbial community. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study evaluated the effects of PEG on gut commensal bacteria. Herein, we aimed to determine whether oral administration of PEG modifies the gut microbiota. Administration of PEG400 and PEG4000 altered gut microbial diversity in a concentration-dependent manner. Taxonomic analysis revealed that Akkermansia muciniphila and particularly Parabacteroides goldsteinii were overrepresented in mice administered with 40% PEG. PEG400 administration ameliorated the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and adipose tissue inflammation. Fecal microbiome transplantation from PEG400-administered donors counteracted the HFD-induced body and epididymal adipose tissue weight gain, indicating that PEG400-associated bacteria are responsible for the anti-obesity effect. Conversely, carboxymethyl cellulose, also used as a dispersant, did not affect the abundance of these two bacterial species or HFD-induced obesity. In conclusion, we demonstrated that oral administration of a high concentration of PEG400 (40%) alters the gut microbiota composition and ameliorates HFD-induced obesity.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Abenavoli L, Montori M, Svegliati Baroni G, et al (2023)

Perspective on the Role of Gut Microbiome in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 59(8): pii:medicina59081427.

Background and Objectives: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of liver cancer worldwide and has a high mortality rate. Its incidence has increased due to metabolic-associated liver disease (MAFLD) epidemics. Liver transplantation and surgery remain the most resolute measures. Despite the optimistic use of multi-kinase inhibitors, namely sorafenib, the co-existence of chronic liver disease made the response rate low in these patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have become a promising hope for certain advanced solid tumors and, also, for advanced HCC. Unfortunately, a large cohort of patients with HCC fail to respond to immunotherapy. Materials and Methods: We conducted a narrative search on the main medical databases for original articles, reviews, meta-analyses, randomized clinical trials, and case series using the following keywords and acronyms and their associations: hepatocellular carcinoma, immunotherapy, checkpoint inhibitors, gut microbiota, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Results: ICIs are a promising and sufficiently safe treatment option for HCC. In detail, they have significantly improved survival and prognosis in these patients vs. sorafenib. Although there are several highlighted mechanisms of resistance, the gut microbiota signature can be used both as a response biomarker and as an effect enhancer. Practically, probiotic dose-finding and fecal microbiota transplantation are the weapons that can be used to increase ICI's treatment-response-reducing resistance mechanisms. Conclusion: Immunotherapy has been a significant step-up in HCC treatment, and gut microbiota modulation is an effective liaison to increase its efficacy.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

MacNair CR, Tsai CN, Rutherford ST, et al (2023)

Returning to Nature for the Next Generation of Antimicrobial Therapeutics.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(8): pii:antibiotics12081267.

Antibiotics found in and inspired by nature are life-saving cures for bacterial infections and have enabled modern medicine. However, the rise in resistance necessitates the discovery and development of novel antibiotics and alternative treatment strategies to prevent the return to a pre-antibiotic era. Once again, nature can serve as a source for new therapies in the form of natural product antibiotics and microbiota-based therapies. Screening of soil bacteria, particularly actinomycetes, identified most of the antibiotics used in the clinic today, but the rediscovery of existing molecules prompted a shift away from natural product discovery. Next-generation sequencing technologies and bioinformatics advances have revealed the untapped metabolic potential harbored within the genomes of environmental microbes. In this review, we first highlight current strategies for mining this untapped chemical space, including approaches to activate silent biosynthetic gene clusters and in situ culturing methods. Next, we describe how using live microbes in microbiota-based therapies can simultaneously leverage many of the diverse antimicrobial mechanisms found in nature to treat disease and the impressive efficacy of fecal microbiome transplantation and bacterial consortia on infection. Nature-provided antibiotics are some of the most important drugs in human history, and new technologies and approaches show that nature will continue to offer valuable inspiration for the next generation of antibacterial therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Gratacós-Ginès J, Bruguera P, Pérez-Guasch M, et al (2023)

Medications for alcohol use disorder promote abstinence in alcohol-related cirrhosis: results from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) pii:01515467-990000000-00550 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: the role of medications for alcohol use disorder (MAUD) in patients with cirrhosis is not well established. Evidence on the efficacy and safety of these drugs in these patients is scarce. Approach & results: we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis according to PRISMA guidelines on the efficacy of MAUD in patients with cirrhosis. Search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and Scopus, including all studies until May 2022. Population was defined as patients with AUD and cirrhosis. Primary outcome was alcohol abstinence (AA). Safety was a secondary outcome. We performed a random-effects analysis and expressed the results as relative risk (RR) of alcohol consumption. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. Out of 4,095 unique references, 8 studies on 4 different AUD treatments [baclofen (n = 6), metadoxine (n = 1), acamprosate (n = 1) and fecal microbiota transplant (n = 1)] in a total of 794 patients were included. Four were cohort studies and 4 were randomized clinical trials (RCT). Only RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. MAUD were associated with a reduced rate of alcohol consumption [RR = 0.68 (CI 0.48-0.97), P = 0.03], increasing AA by 32% compared to placebo or standard treatment, despite high heterogeneity (I2 = 67%). Regarding safety, out of 165 serious adverse events in patients treated with MAUD, only 5 (3%) were possibly or probably related to study medications.

CONCLUSION: MAUD in patients with cirrhosis are effective in promoting AA and have a good safety profile. Larger studies on the effects of MAUD are needed, especially in patients with advanced liver disease.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Pal P, RP Shastry (2023)

Exploring the complex role of gut microbiome in the development of precision medicine strategies for targeting microbial imbalance-induced colon cancer.

Folia microbiologica [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome has been increasingly recognized as a key player in the development and progression of colon cancer. Alterations in the gut microbiota, known as dysbiosis, can lead to a variety of medical issues. Microbial adaptation through signals and small molecules can enhance pathogen colonization and modulate host immunity, significantly impacting disease progression. Quorum sensing peptides and molecules have been linked to the progression of colon cancer. Various interventions, such as fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and antibiotics, have been used to reverse dysbiosis with mixed results and potential side effects. Thus, a personalized approach to treatment selection based on patient characteristics, such as individual gut microbiota manipulation, is necessary to prevent and treat diseases like colon cancer. With advances in metagenomic sequencing and other omics technologies, there has been a growing interest in developing precision medicine strategies for microbial imbalance-induced colon cancer. This review serves as a comprehensive synthesis of current knowledge on the gut microbiome involvement in colon cancer. By exploring the potential of utilizing the gut microbiome as a target for precision medicine, this review underscores the exciting opportunities that lie ahead. Although challenges exist, the integration of microbiome data into precision medicine approaches has the potential to revolutionize the management of colon cancer, providing patients with more personalized and effective treatment options.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Mafra D, Kemp JA, Borges NA, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiota Interventions to Retain Residual Kidney Function.

Toxins, 15(8): pii:toxins15080499.

Residual kidney function for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with better quality of life and outcome; thus, strategies should be implemented to preserve kidney function. Among the multiple causes that promote kidney damage, gut dysbiosis due to increased uremic toxin production and endotoxemia need attention. Several strategies have been proposed to modulate the gut microbiota in these patients, and diet has gained increasing attention in recent years since it is the primary driver of gut dysbiosis. In addition, medications and faecal transplantation may be valid strategies. Modifying gut microbiota composition may mitigate chronic kidney damage and preserve residual kidney function. Although various studies have shown the influential role of diet in modulating gut microbiota composition, the effects of this modulation on residual kidney function remain limited. This review discusses the role of gut microbiota metabolism on residual kidney function and vice versa and how we could preserve the residual kidney function by modulating the gut microbiota balance.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Ma C, McCallen J, McVey JC, et al (2023)

CSF-1R+ Macrophages Control the Gut Microbiome-enhanced Liver Invariant NKT Function through IL-18.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) pii:265863 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome is an important modulator of the host immune system. In this study, we found that altering the gut microbiome by oral vancomycin increases liver invariant NKT (iNKT) cell function. Enhanced iNKT cytokine production and activation marker expression were observed in vancomycin-treated mice following both Ag-specific and Ag-independent in vivo iNKT stimulations, with a more prominent effect in the liver than in the spleen. Fecal transplantation studies demonstrated that the iNKT functional regulation is mediated by altering the gut microbiome but uncoupled from the modulation of iNKT cell population size. Interestingly, when stimulated in vitro, iNKT cells from vancomycin-treated mice did not show increased activation, suggesting an indirect regulation. iNKT cells expressed high levels of IL-18 receptor, and vancomycin increased the expression of IL-18 in the liver. Blocking IL-18 by neutralizing Ab or using genetically deficient mice attenuated the enhanced iNKT activation. Liver macrophages were identified as a major source of IL-18. General macrophage depletion by clodronate abolished this iNKT activation. Using anti-CSF-1R depletion or LyzCrexCSF-1RLsL-DTR mice identified CSF-1R+ macrophages as a critical modulator of iNKT function. Vancomycin treatment had no effect on iNKT cell function in vivo in IL-18 knockout macrophage reconstituted mice. Together, our results demonstrate that the gut microbiome controls liver iNKT function via regulating CSF-1R+ macrophages to produce IL-18.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Sanekommu H, Taj S, Mah Noor R, et al (2023)

Probiotics and Fecal Transplant: An Intervention in Delaying Chronic Kidney Disease Progression?.

Clinics and practice, 13(4):881-888 pii:clinpract13040080.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health challenge affecting nearly 700 million people worldwide. In the United States alone, the Medicare costs for CKD management has reached nearly USD 80 billion per year. While reversing CKD may be possible in the future, current strategies aim to slow its progression. For the most part, current management strategies have focused on employing Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone (RAS) inhibitors and optimizing blood pressure and diabetes mellitus control. Emerging data are showing that a disruption of the gut-kidney axis has a significant impact on delaying CKD progression. Recent investigations have documented promising results in using microbiota-based interventions to better manage CKD. This review will summarize the current evidence and explore future possibilities on the use of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and fecal microbial transplant to reduce CKD progression.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Fu X, Tan H, Huang L, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota and eye diseases: a bibliometric study and visualization analysis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1225859.

INTRODUCTION: Recently the role of gut microbial dysbiosis in many ocular disorders, including but not limited to uveitis, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), dry eye, keratitis and orbitopathy is a hot research topic in the field. Targeting gut microbiota to treat these diseases has become an unstoppable trend. Bibliometric study and visualization analysis have become essential methods for literature analysis in the medical research field. We aim to depict this area's research hotspots and future directions by bibliometric software and methods.

METHODS: We search all the related publications from the Web of Science Core Collection. Then, CiteSpace was applied to analyze and visualize the country distributions, dual-map overlay of journals, keyword bursts, and co-cited references. VOSviewer was employed to identify authors, co-cited authors, journals and co-cited journals and display the keyword co-occurrence networks.

RESULTS: A total of 284 relevant publications were identified from 2009 to 2023. The number of studies has been small in the first five years and has grown steadily since 2016. These studies were completed by 1,376 authors from 41 countries worldwide, with the United States in the lead. Lin P has published the most papers while Horai R is the most co-cited author. The top journal and co-cited journal are both Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science. In the keyword co-occurrence network, except gut microbiota, inflammation becomes the keyword with the highest frequency. Co-citation analyses reveal that gut dysbiosis is involved in common immune- and inflammation-mediated eye diseases, including uveitis, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, dry eye, and Graves' orbitopathy, and the study of microbiomes is no longer limited to the bacterial populations. Therapeutic strategies that target the gut microbiota, such as probiotics, healthy diet patterns, and fecal microbial transplantation, are effective and critical to future research.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the bibliometric analysis displays the research hotspots and developmental directions of the involvement of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of some ocular diseases. It provides an overview of this field's dynamic evolution and structural relationships.

RevDate: 2023-08-25

Cheng X, Li X, Yang X, et al (2023)

Successful Treatment of pMMR MSS IVB Colorectal Cancer Using Anti-VEGF and Anti-PD-1 Therapy in Combination of Gut Microbiota Transplantation: A Case Report.

Cureus, 15(7):e42347.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have shown great promise in treating advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), especially for CRC patients with deficient mismatch repair (dMMR) and high microsatellite instability (MSI-H). For the remainder of CRC patients presenting with proficient mismatch repair (pMMR) and microsatellite stable (MSS) or low microsatellite instability (MSI-L), ICI showed a low-level response. This study describes a 57-year-old Chinese man diagnosed with pMMR MSS IVb CRC with liver metastasis. Primarily, the patient was administered two consecutive treatments, one composed of an anti-EGFR and modified FOLFOX6 and the other composed of an anti-VEGF and FOLFOXIRI. Due to severe chemotherapy side effects, the patient discontinued treatment and decided to take a third investigational treatment, where an anti-PD-1 and an anti-VEGF were given in combination with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) capsules. The patient achieved a partial response (PR), and the tumor size decreased to the extent amenable to surgical resection. After surgery, the patient achieved a pathological complete response (pCR). Patients with pMMR MSS or MSI-L hardly benefit from anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. This study indicated that, to a limited extent, FMT might improve the response to ICI for pMMR MSS CRC patients.

RevDate: 2023-08-24

Sumida K, Pierre JF, Yuzefpolskaya M, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiota-Targeted Interventions in the Management of Chronic Kidney Disease.

Seminars in nephrology, 43(2):151408 pii:S0270-9295(23)00118-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advances in microbiome research have informed the potential role of the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal systems, and, when altered, in the pathogenesis of various cardiometabolic disorders, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). The improved understanding of gut dysbiosis in cardiometabolic pathologies in turn has led to a vigorous quest for developing therapeutic strategies. These therapeutic strategies aim to investigate whether interventions targeting gut dysbiosis can shift the microbiota toward eubiosis and if these shifts, in turn, translate into improvements in (or prevention of) CKD and its related complications, such as premature cardiovascular disease. Existing evidence suggests that multiple interventions (eg, plant-based diets; prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic supplementation; constipation treatment; fecal microbiota transplantation; and intestinal dialysis) might result in favorable modulation of the gut microbiota in patients with CKD, and thereby potentially contribute to improving clinical outcomes in these patients. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the characteristics and roles of the gut microbiota in CKD and discuss the potential of emerging gut microbiota-targeted interventions in the management of CKD.

RevDate: 2023-08-24

Zhanel GG, Keynan R, Keynan Y, et al (2023)

The role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) in treating patients with multiple sclerosis.

Expert review of neurotherapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The associations between multiple sclerosis (MS) and altered intestinal microbiomes have clinicians considering the use of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Animal data suggests that administering FMT from people with MS into healthy mice results in a microbiome with decreased abundance of Sutterella, reduced anti-inflammatory signals, increase in inflammation and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Animal studies that administered FMT (from normal healthy donors) into mice resulted in slowing down EAE development relieving symptoms, improving BBB integrity and restoration of microbiota diversity. Human studies indicated clinical benefits of FMT (from healthy donors) in people with MS including: improved intestinal motility and motor ability which lasted at least for the duration of the studies, ranging from 2 to 15 years.

AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the efficacy and safety of FMT in treatment of experimental MS in animals and humans with MS. A literature search was performed via PubMed (up to July 2023), using the key words: multiple sclerosis, fecal microbiota transplantation, microbiome.

EXPERT OPINION: Limited associative data do not provide an understanding of role of FMT in the treatment for MS. Until appropriately designed randomized comparative trials which are underway, are completed, we cannot recommend routine use of FMT in people with MS.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )