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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:01 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-11-09

Xie T, Yang R, Zhang X, et al (2022)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Alleviated Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Obese Rats.

The Tohoku journal of experimental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Zhong Y, Xiao Y, Gao J, et al (2022)

Curcumin improves insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice through gut microbiota.

Nutrition & metabolism, 19(1):76.

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance precedes metabolic syndrome which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, there is a lack of safe and long-lasting methods for the prevention and treatment of insulin resistance. Gut microbiota dysbiosis can lead to insulin resistance and associated glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunction. Thus, the role of gut microbiota in metabolic diseases has garnered growing interest. Curcumin, the active ingredient of tropical plant Curcuma longa, has excellent prospects for the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. However, due to the extremely low bioavailability of curcumin, the mechanisms by which curcumin increases insulin sensitivity remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to elucidate the role of gut microbiota in mediating the effects of curcumin on improving insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice.

METHODS: Glucose, insulin, and pyruvate tolerance were tested and hepatic triglycerides (TGs) content was measured in HFD-fed mice treated with curcumin (100 mg kg-1 d-1, p.o.) or vehicle for 4 weeks and aforementioned mice after gut microbiota depletion via antibiotic treatment for 4 weeks. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was conducted in endogenous gut microbiota-depleted HFD-fed mice. Glucose and lipid metabolic phenotypes were also measured in recipient mice colonized microbiota from vehicle- or curcumin-treated HFD-fed mice. The mechanisms underlying the effects of curcumin on increasing insulin sensitivity were testified by Western blotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

RESULTS: Curcumin ameliorated HFD-induced glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, pyruvate intolerance, and hepatic TGs accumulation, while these effects were mediated by gut microbiota. Curcumin induced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation levels in insulin-regulated peripheral tissues. The inhibitory effects of curcumin on the expressions of genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis and de novo lipogenesis were dependent on gut microbiota. Meanwhile, curcumin upregulated the expression of fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) through gut microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: The effects of curcumin on promoting insulin sensitivity were dependent on gut microbiota in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, curcumin at least partly exerted its effects on increasing insulin sensitivity via FGF15 upregulation. This study provided new ideas on nutritional manipulations of gut microbiota for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-03

Sangiuolo K, Cheng E, Terala A, et al (2022)

The gut microbiome: an overview of current trends and risks for paediatric populations.

Current opinion in pediatrics, 34(6):634-642.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gut health is an increasingly popular topic of discussion among scientists and the general population alike. As interest surrounding the gut microbiome grows, the accessibility to misinformation and unfounded gut health trends to youth is likely to emerge as a public health concern. The purpose of this review is to provide paediatricians with current information about the gut microbiome, as well as explanations and possible risks of the multitude of gut health trends that adolescents may be exposed to.

RECENT FINDINGS: The gut microbiome is implicated in overall health by playing roles in digestion, immunity and mental health. Novel microbiome-related therapies, such as faecal microbiota transplants, and the gut-brain link show the therapeutic potential of the gut microbiome. However, unproven dietary fads and trends on social media are rampant as well, such as ginger juice shots. In addition, paediatric supplements meant to target gut health are unregulated, yet are highly marketed. Improperly applying these trends and diets may result in risks of malnutrition and body image issues for impressionable children.

SUMMARY: Increased familiarity regarding the types of gut health trends and diets among young people will allow paediatricians to more effectively advise their patients about potential risks and good gut health practices. Paediatricians and caregivers serve as role models and educators with regard to children's perceptions and management of their gut and overall health.

RevDate: 2022-10-31
CmpDate: 2022-10-31

Michael H, Srivastava V, Deblais L, et al (2022)

The Combined Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 and Tryptophan Treatment Modulates Immune and Metabolome Responses to Human Rotavirus Infection in a Human Infant Fecal Microbiota-Transplanted Malnourished Gnotobiotic Pig Model.

mSphere, 7(5):e0027022.

Human rotavirus (HRV) is a major cause of childhood diarrhea in developing countries where widespread malnutrition contributes to the decreased oral vaccine efficacy and increased prevalence of other enteric infections, which are major concerns for global health. Neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) piglets closely resemble human infants in their anatomy, physiology, and outbred status, providing a unique model to investigate malnutrition, supplementations, and HRV infection. To understand the molecular signatures associated with immune enhancement and reduced diarrheal severity by Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) and tryptophan (TRP), immunological responses and global nontargeted metabolomics and lipidomics approaches were investigated on the plasma and fecal contents of malnourished pigs transplanted with human infant fecal microbiota and infected with virulent (Vir) HRV. Overall, EcN + TRP combined (rather than individual supplement action) promoted greater and balanced immunoregulatory/immunostimulatory responses associated with greater protection against HRV infection and disease in malnourished humanized piglets. Moreover, EcN + TRP treatment upregulated the production of several metabolites with immunoregulatory/immunostimulatory properties: amino acids (N-acetylserotonin, methylacetoacetyl-CoA), lipids (gamma-butyrobetaine, eicosanoids, cholesterol-sulfate, sphinganine/phytosphingosine, leukotriene), organic compound (biliverdin), benzenoids (gentisic acid, aminobenzoic acid), and nucleotides (hypoxathine/inosine/xanthine, cytidine-5'-monophosphate). Additionally, the levels of several proinflammatory metabolites of organic compounds (adenosylhomocysteine, phenylacetylglycine, urobilinogen/coproporphyrinogen) and amino acid (phenylalanine) were reduced following EcN + TRP treatment. These results suggest that the EcN + TRP effects on reducing HRV diarrhea in neonatal Gn pigs were at least in part due to altered metabolites, those involved in lipid, amino acid, benzenoids, organic compounds, and nucleotide metabolism. Identification of these important mechanisms of EcN/TRP prevention of HRV diarrhea provides novel targets for therapeutics development. IMPORTANCE Human rotavirus (HRV) is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in children, especially in developing countries, where the efficacy of oral HRV vaccines is reduced. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is used to treat enteric infections and ulcerative colitis while tryptophan (TRP) is a biomarker of malnutrition, and its supplementation can alleviate intestinal inflammation and normalize intestinal microbiota in malnourished hosts. Supplementation of EcN + TRP to malnourished humanized gnotobiotic piglets enhanced immune responses and resulted in greater protection against HRV infection and diarrhea. Moreover, EcN + TRP supplementation increased the levels of immunoregulatory/immunostimulatory metabolites while decreasing the production of proinflammatory metabolites in plasma and fecal samples. Profiling of immunoregulatory and proinflammatory biomarkers associated with HRV perturbations will aid in the identification of treatments against HRV and other enteric diseases in malnourished children.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Aira A, Rubio E, Fehér C, et al (2022)

Stool donor recruitment - A one-year experience.

Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica (English ed.), 40(9):495-498.

Stool donors for fecal microbiota transference (FMT) should be rigorously screened to identify any disorder in health status. The success of our screening protocol to identify eligible donors in the last year and a half was evaluated and compared with the published literature. The target population was medical students who responded to 3 public calls to donate stools. Qualified donors brought stool samples to our lab. Out of the 110 students who responded to the call, 26 were enrolled as study donors and delivered at least one stool sample. The main reason for volunteer exclusion was body mass index (BMI) <18.5kg/m2 or >25kg/m2 (n=11) and for the identification of ESBL Escherichia coli in feces (n=3). Our success rate after the screening protocol was considered high. Understanding the incentives to participate is critical to the success of recruitment strategies as FMT is still a little-known practice for general population.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Orenstein R (2022)

The Role of Microbiome-Based Therapeutics in Clostridioides difficile Infection: Durable, Long-Term Results of RBX2660.

Infectious diseases and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

A recently published manuscript described findings from a phase 2 open label study of the microbiota-based live biotherapeutic product RBX2660 in patients with two or more previous recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) episodes, and described long-term safety and sustained treatment success through 24 months. As previous studies have typically focused on short-term clinical outcomes, these new data provide insight into the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of RBX2660 over the long term. When microbiota-based products were first evaluated, the long-term efficacy and safety were principal concerns of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Microbiota-based live biotherapeutic products (LBPs) represent an emerging approach to the management of CDI and perhaps other gastrointestinal and medical conditions whose pathogenesis is defined by microbial dysbiosis. RBX2660 is a human-derived, broad consortium microbiota-based LBP that consists of a population of microbes obtained from healthy stool donors and may reflect the symbiotic nature of a healthy colonic microbiome. RBX2660 is rectally administered and does not require sedation or special preparation of the recipient. Potential advantages of the rectal administration of RBX2660 include the ease of administration and lack of need for any bowel preparation, which may benefit those who are frail, have swallowing issues, or cannot take bowel laxative preparations. In this multicenter prospective trial of rCDI, patients who achieved treatment success 8 weeks after receiving RBX2660 continued to have a sustained clinical response over the course of long-term follow-up, with more than 90% of treatment responders remaining CDI-free at 6, 12, and 24 months. Following receipt of RBX2660, the gut microbiota of those with treatment success were restored from a dysbiotic state to become more diverse and similar to RBX2660 composition. The restoration of the microbiota occurred as early as 7 days after RBX2660 administration and remained stable through the 24-month analysis. No new adverse outcomes were observed during the prospective assessment, and the safety profile of RBX2660 was consistent with previous studies. Based on the clinical studies, RBX2660 will most likely benefit those with ≥ 1 rCDI episode or those who are at a high risk of subsequent rCDI, such as patients who have comorbid conditions including renal disease, heart disease, or inflammatory bowel disease, or who are immunosuppressed. The role of microbiome-based therapeutics in 47 Clostridioides difficile infection: Durable, long-term results of RBX2660 (MP4 511833 KB).

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Chen G, Peng Y, Huang Y, et al (2022)

Fluoride induced leaky gut and bloom of Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum mediate the exacerbation of obesity in high-fat-diet fed mice.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(22)00239-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Fluoride is widely presented in drinking water and foods. A strong relation between fluoride exposure and obesity has been reported. However, the potential mechanisms on fluoride-induced obesity remain unexplored. Objectives and methods The effects of fluoride on the obesity were investigated using mice model. Furthermore, the role of gut homeostasis in exacerbation of the obesity induced by fluoride was evaluated. Results The results showed that fluoride alone did not induce obesity in normal diet (ND) fed mice, whereas, it could trigger exacerbation of obesity in high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Fluoride impaired intestinal barrier and activated Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling to induce obesity, which was further verified in TLR4-/- mice. Furthermore, fluoride could deteriorate the gut microbiota in HFD mice. The fecal microbiota transplantation from fluoride-induced mice was sufficient to induce obesity, while the exacerbation of obesity by fluoride was blocked upon gut microbiota depletion. The fluoride-induced bloom of Erysipelatoclostridium ramosum was responsible for exacerbation of obesity. In addition, a potential strategy for prevention of fluoride-induced obesity was proposed by intervention with polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea. Conclusion Overall, these results provide the first evidence of a comprehensive cross-talk mechanism between fluoride and obesity in HFD fed mice, which is mediated by gut microbiota and intestinal barrier. E. ramosum was identified as a crucial mediator of fluoride induced obesity, which could be explored as potential target for prevention and treatment of obesity with exciting translational value.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Tkach S, Dorofeyev A, Kuzenko I, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: A randomized, clinical trial.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:994911.

Introduction: Research in recent years has shown the potential benefits of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Acute infectious gastroenteritis is a well-established risk factor for developing such forms of IBS as post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS). However, the effective use of FMT in patients with IP-IBS has not yet been clarified.

Aim: The study aimed to conduct a single-center, randomized clinical trial (RCT) to assess FMT's safety, clinical and microbiological efficacy in patients with PI-IBS.

Materials and methods: Patients with PI-IBS were randomized into two groups: I (standard-care, n = 29) were prescribed basic therapy, namely a low FODMAP diet, as well as Otilonium Bromide (1 tablet TID) and a multi-strain probiotic (1 capsule BID) for 1 month; II (FMT group, n = 30), each patient with PI-IBS underwent a single FMT procedure with fresh material by colonoscopy. All patients underwent bacteriological examination of feces for quantitative and qualitative microbiota composition changes. The clinical efficacy of treatment was evaluated according to the dynamics of abdominal symptoms, measured using the IBS-SSS scale, fatigue reduction (FAS scale), and a change in the quality of life (IBS-QoL scale).

Results: FMT was associated with rapid onset of the effect, manifested in a significant difference between IBS-SSS points after 2 weeks of intervention (p < 0.001). In other time points (after 4 and 12 weeks) IBS-SSS did not differ significantly across both groups. Only after 3 months of treatment did their QoL exceed its initial level, as well value for 2 and 4 weeks, to a significant extent. The change in the ratio of the main microbial phenotypes in the form of an increase in the relative abundance of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was recorded in all patients after 4 weeks. It should be noted that these changes were significant but eventually normalized only in the group of PI-IBS patients who underwent FMT. No serious adverse reactions were noted.

Conclusion: This comparative study of the results of FMT use in patients with PI-IBS demonstrated its effectiveness compared to traditional pharmacotherapy, as well as a high degree of safety and good tolerability.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Osna NA, Rasineni K, Ganesan M, et al (2022)

Pathogenesis of Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease.

Journal of clinical and experimental hepatology, 12(6):1492-1513.

Excessive alcohol consumption is a global healthcare problem with enormous social, economic, and clinical consequences. While chronic, heavy alcohol consumption causes structural damage and/or disrupts normal organ function in virtually every tissue of the body, the liver sustains the greatest damage. This is primarily because the liver is the first to see alcohol absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract via the portal circulation and second, because the liver is the principal site of ethanol metabolism. Alcohol-induced damage remains one of the most prevalent disorders of the liver and a leading cause of death or transplantation from liver disease. Despite extensive research on the pathophysiology of this disease, there are still no targeted therapies available. Given the multifactorial mechanisms for alcohol-associated liver disease pathogenesis, it is conceivable that a multitherapeutic regimen is needed to treat different stages in the spectrum of this disease.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Ma C, Yuan D, Renaud SJ, et al (2022)

Chaihu-shugan-san alleviates depression-like behavior in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress by altering the gut microbiota and levels of the bile acids hyocholic acid and 7-ketoDCA.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:1040591 pii:1040591.

Chaihu-Shugan-San (CSS) is a traditional botanical drug formula often prescribed to treat depression in oriental countries, but its pharmacotherapeutic mechanism remains unknown. It was recently reported that CSS alters the composition of intestinal microflora and related metabolites such as bile acids (BAs). Since the intestinal microflora affects physiological functions of the brain through the gut-microbiota-brain axis, herein we investigated whether CSS altered BA levels, gut microflora, and depression-like symptoms in chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) mice, a well-established mouse model of depression. Furthermore, we determined whether BA manipulation and fecal microbiota transplantation altered CSS antidepressant actions. We found that the BA chelator cholestyramine impaired the antidepressant effects of CSS, which was partially rescued by dietary cholic acid. CSS increased the relative abundance of Parabacteroides distasonis in the colon of CUMS mice, and increased serum levels of various BAs including hyocholic acid (HCA) and 7-ketodeoxycholic acid (7-ketoDCA). Furthermore, gut bacteria transplantation from CSS-treated mice into untreated or cholestyramine-treated CUMS mice restored serum levels of HCA and 7-ketoDCA, alleviating depression-like symptoms. In the hippocampus, CSS-treated mice had decreased expression of genes associated with BA transport (Bsep and Fxr) and increased expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and its receptor, TrkB. Overall, CSS increases intestinal P. distasonis abundance, leading to elevated levels of secondary BAs in the circulation and altered expression of hippocampal genes implicated in BA transport and neurotrophic signaling. Our data strongly suggest that the gut microbiota-brain axis contributes to the potent antidepressant action of CSS by modulating BA metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Cheng Z, Zhang L, Yang L, et al (2022)

The critical role of gut microbiota in obesity.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:1025706.

Obesity is a global epidemic characterized by energy disequilibrium, metabolic disorder, fat mass development, and chronic low-grade inflammation, which significantly affects the health state of individuals of all ages and strains the socioeconomic system. The prevalence of obesity is rising at alarming rates and its etiology involves complicated interplay of diet, genetic, and environmental factors. The gut microbiota, as an important constituent of environmental factors, has been confirmed to correlate with the onset and progression of obesity. However, the specific relationship between obesity and the gut microbiota, and its associated mechanisms, have not been fully elucidated. In this review, we have summarized that the microbial diversity was significantly decreased and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly increased in obesity. The altered gut microbiota and associated metabolites contributed to the progression of the disease by disrupting energy homeostasis, promoting lipid synthesis and storage, modulating central appetite and feeding behavior, as well as triggering chronic inflammation, and that the intentional manipulation of gut microbiota held promise as novel therapies for obesity, including probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Hota SS, McNamara I, Jin R, et al (2019)

Challenges establishing a multi-purpose fecal microbiota transplantation stool donor program in Toronto, Canada.

Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada = Journal officiel de l'Association pour la microbiologie medicale et l'infectiologie Canada, 4(4):218-226.

Background: The success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) programs depends on maintaining suitable stool donors. We describe challenges recruiting and retaining universal donors in the first 2 years of an FMT clinical and research program in Toronto and identify opportunities for improvement.

Methods: A four-stage screening process is used to identify suitable FMT donors in the Microbiota Therapeutics Outcomes Program. Donor screening follows Health Canada recommendations and excludes persons with history or risk for diseases associated with dysbiosis. Donors are rescreened microbiologically approximately every 1-3 months and answer ongoing health, exposure, and dietary questionnaires.

Results: In the first 2 years of our program, 5 of 322 (1.6%) prospective stool donors passed initial screening, and only 2 (0.6%) were retained. Most prospective donors were excluded on telephone screening, at which point high BMI, medication use, and family history of relevant illness were common exclusions. No candidate was excluded because of a concerning physical examination. Microbiologic reasons for donor exclusion included carriage of Blastocystis hominis (n = 2), Helicobacter pylori (n = 2), extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (n = 1), Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (n = 1), and sapovirus (n = 1). Universal donors were lost temporarily because of travel, antibiotic exposures, and transient carriage of antibiotic-resistant organisms.

Conclusions: Recruiting and retaining suitable donors for FMT is challenging because of rigorous exclusions and labour-intensive screening processes. We present considerations for efficiency in donor screening, including targeting recruitment populations, expanded website self-screening, eliminating physical examinations, and streamlining post-travel risk assessment.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Goldsmith R, Aburahma A, Pachhain S, et al (2022)

Reversal of temperature responses to methylone mediated through bi-directional fecal microbiota transplantation between hyperthermic tolerant and naïve rats.

Temperature (Austin, Tex.), 9(4):318-330 pii:2069965.

The synthetic cathinone ("bath salt") methylone induces a hyperthermia response and with chronic administration tolerance to this hyperthermia has been reported. The microbiome-gut-brain axis has been implicated in multiple bodily systems and pathologies, and intentional manipulation of the gut-microbiome has yielded clinically significant results. Here, we examined the effects of bi-directional Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) between methylone-induced hyperthermic tolerant (MHT) and methylone-naïve (MN) rats. Rats treated with methylone once per week developed tolerance to methylone-induced hyperthermia by the fourth week. Once tolerant, daily bi-directional FMT between the two groups were performed for seven days prior to the next methylone treatment. The FMT abated the developed tolerance in the MHT group. When treated with methylone for the first time following FMT, recipient MN rats displayed significant tolerance to hyperthermia despite it being their initial drug treatment. Post-FMT, MHT rats displayed elevations in norepinephrine and expression of UCP1, UCP3 and TGR5 in brown adipose tissue, with reductions in expression of TGR5 and UCP3 in skeletal muscle. The pre- and post-FMT methylone tolerance phenotypes of transplant recipients are concurrent with changes in the relative abundance of several classes of Proteobacteria, most evident for Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. MHT recipients demonstrated a marked increase in the relative proportion of the Firmicutes class Erysipelotrichia. These findings suggest that transplantation of gut-microbiomes can confer phenotypic responses to a drug and that the microbiome may be playing a major role in sympathomimetic-mediated hyperthermia. Abbreviations: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); methylone-induced hyperthermic tolerant (MHT); methylone-naïve (MN); fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); uncoupling protein (UCP); subcutaneous (sc); intraperitoneal (ip); brown adipose tissue (BAT); skeletal muscle (SKM); sympathetic nervous system (SNS); norepinephrine (NE); quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR); quantification cycle (Cq); High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemical Detection (HPLC-EC); amplicon sequence variants (ASVs); principal coordinates analysis (PCoA); permutational multivariate analysis (PERMANOVA).

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zheng L (2022)

New insights into the interplay between intestinal flora and bile acids in inflammatory bowel disease.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(30):10823-10839.

Intestinal flora plays a key role in nutrient absorption, metabolism and immune defense, and is considered to be the cornerstone of maintaining the health of human hosts. Bile acids synthesized in the liver can not only promote the absorption of fat-soluble substances in the intestine, but also directly or indirectly affect the structure and function of intestinal flora. Under the action of intestinal flora, bile acids can be converted into secondary bile acids, which can be reabsorbed back to the liver through the enterohepatic circulation. The complex dialogue mechanism between intestinal flora and bile acids is involved in the development of intestinal inflammation such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In this review, the effects of intestinal flora, bile acids and their interactions on IBD and the progress of treatment were reviewed.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang Z, Fu H, Su H, et al (2022)

Multi-omics analyses reveal the specific changes in gut metagenome and serum metabolome of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1017147.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific alterations in gut microbiome and serum metabolome and their interactions in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: The stool samples from 32 PCOS patients and 18 healthy controls underwent the intestinal microbiome analysis using shotgun metagenomics sequencing approach. Serum metabolome was analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An integrative network by combining metagenomics and metabolomics datasets was constructed to explore the possible interactions between gut microbiota and circulating metabolites in PCOS, which was further assessed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in a rat trial.

Results: Fecal metagenomics identified 64 microbial strains significantly differing between PCOS and healthy subjects, half of which were enriched in patients. These changed species showed an ability to perturb host metabolic homeostasis (including insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism) and inflammatory levels (such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways) by expressing sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1, serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR, and 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-cattier-protein] synthase III, possibly suggesting the potential mechanisms of gut microbiota underlying PCOS. By integrating multi-omics datasets, the panel comprising seven strains (Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas sp. M1, Aquitalea pelogenes, Porphyrobacter sp. HL-46, Vibrio fortis, Leisingera sp. ANG-Vp, and Sinorhizobium meliloti) and three metabolites [ganglioside GM3 (d18:0/16:0), ceramide (d16:2/22:0), and 3Z,6Z,9Z-pentacosatriene] showed the highest predictivity of PCOS (AUC: 1.0) with sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 1.0. Moreover, the intestinal microbiome modifications by FMT were demonstrated to regulate PCOS phenotypes including metabolic variables and reproductive hormones.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed key microbial and metabolite features and their interactions underlying PCOS by integrating multi-omics approaches, which may provide novel insights into discovering clinical diagnostic biomarkers and developing efficient therapeutic strategies for PCOS.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Rimawi RH, Busby S, WR Greene (2022)

Severe Clostridioides difficile Infection in the Intensive Care Unit-Medical and Surgical Management.

Infectious disease clinics of North America, 36(4):889-895.

Clostridioides difficile remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit, and therefore, C difficile guidelines are frequently being updated. Currently, fidaxomicin is the suggested treatment of initial and recurrent infection. Oral vancomycin is an acceptable alternative, followed by rifaximin and fecal microbiota transplantation. Bezlotoxumab is suggested in recurrent cases within 6 months. If patients fail to improve within 3 to 5 days of therapy, especially in patients who have had nasogastric tubes or emergent surgery, fulminant colitis is possible and surgical consultation should be considered for total colectomy.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Hu L, Zhao Y, Liu S, et al (2022)

HFD-fed mice appeared more severe spermatogenesis impairment by lead exposure: perspective from gut microbiota and the efficacy of probiotics.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of multifactorial spermatogenesis impairment is unclear. This study aims to investigate the reproductive toxicity of Pb in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and delineate the important role of gut microbiota.

RESULTS: Results showed that compared with normal diet (ND)-fed mice, Pb exposure caused more severe spermatogenesis impairment in HFD-fed mice, including decreased sperm count and motility, seminiferous tubule injury, serum and intratesticular testosterone decline, and downregulated expression level of spermatogenesis-related genes. Besides, 16S sequencing indicated that HFD-fed mice appeared more severer gut microbiota dysbiosis by Pb exposure than ND-fed mice. With fecal microbiota transplantation, the same trend of spermatogenesis impairment was occurred in recipient mice, which confirmed the important role of gut microbiota. Moreover, probiotics supplementation restored the gut microbial ecosystem, and thus improved spermatogenic function.

CONCLUSION: Our work suggested that population with HFD might face more reproductive health risks upon Pb exposure, and revealed an intimate linkage between microbiota dysbiosis and spermatogenesis impairment, accompanied with the potential usefulness of probiotics as prophylactic and therapeutic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Favero C, Ortiz A, MD Sanchez-Niño (2022)

Probiotics for kidney disease.

Clinical kidney journal, 15(11):1981-1986 pii:sfac056.

Diet has long been known to influence the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and may even result in acute kidney injury (AKI). Diet may influence kidney disease through a direct impact of specific nutrients on the human body through modulation of the gut microbiota composition or through metabolites generated by the gut microbiota from ingested nutrients. The potential for interaction between diet, microbiota and CKD has fueled research into interventions aimed at modifying the microbiota to treat CKD. These interventions may include diet, probiotics, prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplant and other interventions that modulate the microbiota and its metabolome. A recent report identified Lactobacillus casei Zhang from traditional Chinese koumiss as a probiotic that may protect mice from AKI and CKD and slow CKD progression in humans. Potential mechanisms of action include modulation of the gut microbiota and increased availability of short-chain fatty acids with anti-inflammatory properties and of nicotinamide. However, the clinical relevance needs validation in large well-designed clinical trials.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Liu LW, Xie Y, Li GQ, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota-derived nicotinamide mononucleotide alleviates acute pancreatitis by activating pancreatic SIRT3 signalling.

British journal of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by acute pancreatitis (AP) exacerbates pancreatic injury and systemic inflammatory response. The alleviation of gut microbiota dysbiosis through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is considered a potential strategy to reduce tissue damage and inflammation in many clinical disorders. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of gut microbiota and microbiota-derived metabolites on AP, and further clarify the mechanisms associated with pancreatic damage and inflammation.

EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Acute pancreatitis models were established by administration of caerulein or sodium taurocholate in vivo. Pancreatic acinar cells were exposed to caerulein and lipopolysaccharide in vitro to simulate acute pancreatitis.

KEY RESULTS: Normobiotic FMT alleviated AP-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and ameliorated the severity of AP, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and inflammation. Normobiotic FMT induced higher levels of (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) NAD+ associated metabolites, particularly nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). NMN administration mitigated AP-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage and inflammation by increasing pancreatic NAD+ levels. Similarly, overexpression of the NAD+ -dependent mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 alleviated the severity of AP. Furthermore, SIRT3 deacetylated Peroxiredoxin 5 (PRDX5) and enhanced PRDX5 protein expression, thereby promoting its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in AP. Importantly, normobiotic FMT-mediated NMN metabolism induced the SIRT3-PRDX5 pathway activation during AP.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Gut microbiota-derived NMN alleviates the severity of AP by activating the SIRT3-PRDX5 pathway. Normobiotic FMT could be served as a potential strategy for AP treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Wang J, Chen J, Li L, et al (2022)

Clostridium butyricum and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum Attenuate the Development of Cardiac Fibrosis in Mice.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiac fibrosis is an integral aspect of every form of cardiovascular diseases, which is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is urgent to explore new effective drugs and treatments. In this paper, transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced cardiac fibrosis was significantly alleviated by a cocktail of antibiotics to clear the intestinal flora, indicating that the gut microbiota was associated with the disease process of cardiac fibrosis. We transplanted feces from sham-operated and TAC-treated mice to mice treated with a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that TAC-treated gut microbiota dysbiosis cannot cause cardiac fibrosis on its own. Interestingly, healthy fecal microbiota transplantation could alleviate cardiac fibrosis, indicating that targeted probiotics and related metabolite intervention may restore a normal microenvironment for the treatment or prevention of cardiac fibrosis. We used 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples and discovered that butyric acid-producing bacteria and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum were the dominant bacteria in the group with the lowest degree of cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, we demonstrated that sodium butyrate prevented the development of cardiac fibrosis. The effect of Clostridium butyricum (butyric acid-producing bacteria) was better than that of B. pseudolongum on cardiac fibrosis. Surprisingly, the cocktail of two probiotics had a stronger ability than a single probiotic. In conclusion, therapies targeting the gut microbiota and metabolites such as probiotics present new strategies for treating cardiovascular disease. IMPORTANCE Cardiac fibrosis is a basic process in cardiac remodeling. It is related to almost all types of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and has become an important global health problem. Basic research and a number of clinical studies have shown that myocardial fibrosis can be prevented and reversed to a certain extent. It is urgent to explore new effective drugs and treatments. We indicated a causal relationship between cardiac fibrosis and gut microbiota. Gut microbiota dysbiosis cannot cause cardiac fibrosis on its own. Interestingly, healthy fecal microbiota transplantation could alleviate cardiac fibrosis. According to our findings, the combined use of butyric acid-producing bacteria and B. pseudolongum can help prevent cardiac fibrosis. Therapies targeting the gut microbiota and metabolites, such as probiotics, represent new strategies for treating cardiovascular disease.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Li Y, Chen M, Ma Y, et al (2022)

Regulation of viable/inactivated/lysed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum H6 on intestinal microbiota and metabolites in hypercholesterolemic mice.

NPJ science of food, 6(1):50.

Evidence suggests that probiotic interventions reduce non-communicable diseases (NCDs) risk. However, its therapeutic effect and mechanism are still unclear. To evaluate the hypocholesterolemic effect of Lactobacillus plantarum H6 (L.p H6), a new commercial patent strain capable of preventing hypercholesterolemia, and its mechanism in depth, three states of the strain were prepared, namely, viable (vH6), heat-inactivated (iH6), and ultrasonically-lysed (uH6) bacteria cells. The results showed that v/i/uH6 cells could lower serum and liver blood lipid levels, alleviate liver damage and improve glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) indexes. v/i/uH6 cells improved the gut microbial composition and significantly reduced the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) in feces. In particular, Muribaculaceae may be a potential biomarker for effective cholesterol reduction. Also, the recovery of these biochemical indices and gut microbiome was found following fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) using stool from vH6 treated mice. The v/i/uH6 cells increased the intestinal flora metabolism of vitamins-cofactors, as well as amino acids, while decreasing the relative content of primary bile acids. The Pearson correlation analysis showed that norank_f__Muribaculaceae and Lactobacillus had a negative correlation with blood lipid levels. Overall, v/i/uH6 cells were effective in improving hypercholesterolemia in mice, and this effect was attributed partly to the regulation of intestinal microbiota and metabolites related to lipid metabolism. Our findings provided a theoretical basis for the industrial development of probiotics and postbiotics and the treatment of cholesterol diseases.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Mi F, Wang X, Zheng W, et al (2022)

Effects of Different Preparation Methods on Microbiota Composition of Fecal Suspension.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation is an emerging disease-modifying therapy. The viability of the microbiome in feces and its successful transfer depends on the preparation of fecal microbiota suspension. However, currently, no standard operation procedure is proposed for fecal suspension preparation. This study aims to compare the effect of different preparation methods on the composition of fecal microbiota composition in the rat. Four methods were used to collect the fecal suspension from fresh rat fecal (Group A), including stirring with normal saline (Group B), stirring with normal saline and then standing (Group C), stirring with normal saline and filtered with gauze (Group D), and stirring with normal saline and centrifuged (Group E). 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rDNA) sequencing technology was used to analyze the microbiota diversity and composition of each group of samples. Compared with fresh feces, the bacterial richness of the fecal suspension obtained by the four methods was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The structural similarity with fresh fecal microbiota from high to low is groups B, D, C, and E. All four methods changed the microbiota structure to varying degrees, thus may affect the effect of FMT. In conclusion, choosing different methods to prepare fecal suspensions may help to better optimize the application of FMT.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Sarmiento-Andrade Y, Suárez R, Quintero B, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota and obesity: New insights.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:1018212.

Obesity is a pathology whose incidence is increasing throughout the world. There are many pathologies associated with obesity. In recent years, the influence of the microbiota on both health and pathological states has been known. There is growing information related to changes in the microbiome and obesity, as well as its associated pathologies. Changes associated with age, exercise, and weight changes have been described. In addition, metabolic changes associated with the microbiota, bariatric surgery, and fecal matter transplantation are described. In this review, we summarize the biology and physiology of microbiota in obese patients, its role in the pathophysiology of several disorders associated, and the emerging therapeutic applications of prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Cui X, Chen J, Y Yang (2022)

Administration of selenomethionine in combination with serine benefits diabetes via gut microbiota.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1007814.

Either selenium or serine could modulate glucose homeostasis, however, whether there are synergistic effects of selenium with serine on diabetes remains to be unknown. In the present study, eight male db/m mice were used as a control, and 24 male diabetic db/db mice were either orally gavaged with PBS, or with selenomethionine alone, or with both selenomethionine and serine, to investigate the effects of selenomethionine and serine on body weight and glucose level. Furthermore, intestinal microbiota composition was analyzed and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed to explore whether microbes mediate the beneficial effects of selenomethionine and serine. The results showed that administration of selenomethionine decreased body weight, adipose tissue weight and serum glucose level in db/db diabetic mice. Importantly, administration of selenomethionine in combination with serine exerted better effects than selenomethionine alone did. Furthermore, a combined administration of selenomethionine and serine restored the microbial composition in diabetic mice. Corynebacterium glutamicum, Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and Aerococcus urinaeequi were significantly decreased, whereas Lactobacillus murinus was increased in mice in the selenomethionine group and selenomethionine in combination with serine group, when compared with those in the db/db group. FMT decreased body weight and glucose level in db/db mice, further indicating that microbes play critical roles in the beneficial effects of selenomethionine and serine. Thus, we concluded that administration of selenomethionine in combination with serine benefits diabetes via gut microbes. Our results suggested that the synergic application of selenomethionine and serine could be potentially used for the treatment of diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Pan T, Zheng S, Zheng W, et al (2022)

Christensenella regulated by Huang-Qi-Ling-Hua-San is a key factor by which to improve type 2 diabetes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1022403.

There is a lot of evidence that oral hypoglycemic drugs work by affecting gut microbes, but the key strains responsible for this effect are not well known. Huang-Qi-Ling-Hua-San (HQLHS), composed of Astragalus Membranaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Inonotus obliquus, and Momordica charantia L., is a specially designed Chinese medicine formula to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, a mouse model of T2D induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin was used to explore the mechanism of HQLHS in improving hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia through multiple rounds of animal experiments, such as HQLHS feeding, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and live bacteria feeding, so as to explore the potential target intestinal flora in its hypoglycemic effect. Results show that such specific taxa as Bifidobacterium, Turicibacter, Alistipes, Romboutsia, and Christensenella were identified to be preferably enriched by HQLHS and then assumed to be the target microbes. Herein, FMT was used to test if the upregulated beneficial bacteria by HQLHS play a therapeutic role. The strain Christensenella minuta DSM 22607 and the strain Christensenella timonensis DSM 102800 were selected to test the beneficial effect of Christensenella taxa on T2D. Diabetic animals supplemented with these strains showed the improvement in blood glucose and lipid metabolism, the promotion of GLP-1 secretion, the increase in antioxidant capacity, the inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis, the suppression of intestinal glucose absorption, the enhancement of intestinal barrier, reduced LPS-induced inflammation, and the reduction of branched amino acids (BCAAs) content in the liver. Overall, these data demonstrate that Christensenella plays a beneficial role in T2D and is a target for the action of HQLHS therapy.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Yang JY, Liu MJ, Lv L, et al (2022)

Metformin alleviates irradiation-induced intestinal injury by activation of FXR in intestinal epithelia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:932294.

Abdominal irradiation (IR) destroys the intestinal mucosal barrier, leading to severe intestinal infection. There is an urgent need to find safe and effective treatments to reduce IR-induced intestinal injury. In this study, we reported that metformin protected mice from abdominal IR-induced intestinal injury by improving the composition and diversity of intestinal flora. The elimination of intestinal microbiota (Abx) abrogated the protective effects of metformin on irradiated mice. We further characterized that treatment of metformin increased the murine intestinal abundance of Lactobacillus, which mediated the radioprotective effect. The administration of Lactobacillus or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) into Abx mice considerably lessened IR-induced intestinal damage and restored the radioprotective function of metformin in Abx mice. In addition, applying the murine intestinal organoid model, we demonstrated that IR inhibited the formation of intestinal organoids, and metformin alone bore no protective effect on organoids after IR. However, a combination of metformin and Lactobacillus or Lactobacillus alone displayed a strong radioprotection on the organoid formation. We demonstrated that metformin/Lactobacillus activated the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in intestinal epithelial cells and hence upregulated tight junction proteins and mucins in intestinal epithelia, increased the number of goblet cells, and augmented the mucus layer thickness to maintain the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier, which eventually contributed to reduced radiation intestinal injury. In addition, we found that Lactobacillus abundance was significantly increased in the intestine of patients receiving metformin while undergoing abdominal radiotherapy and the abundance was negatively correlated with the diarrhea duration of patients. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that metformin possesses a protective effect on IR-induced intestinal injury by upregulating the abundance of Lactobacillus in the intestine.

RevDate: 2022-10-30

Wu Y, Hang Z, Lei T, et al (2022)

Intestinal Flora Affect Alzheimer's Disease by Regulating Endogenous Hormones.

Neurochemical research [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a central nervous system disease that can lead to cognitive impairment and progressive memory loss. An increasing number of studies have shown that intestinal flora play a crucial role in regulating the brain-gut axis. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolites of intestinal flora that regulate hormone synthesis and play an essential role in microbial-intestinal-brain communication. An imbalance of intestinal flora can promote microglia to secrete proinflammatory factors, cause nerve inflammation, and then affect cognitive and learning ability. However, the mechanism is not clear. From this, we infer that endogenous hormones may be the medium for intestinal flora to affect the process of AD. This review of the relationships among AD, endogenous hormones, and intestinal flora expounds on the critical role of various hormones in the brain-gut axis. It discusses intervention measures aimed at intestinal flora to prevent or delay AD occurrence. Finally, the potential development prospects of fecal microbiota transplantation in treating AD are put forward, which provide potential ideas for future AD research.

RevDate: 2022-10-31
CmpDate: 2022-10-31

Aalam SMM, Crasta DN, Roy P, et al (2022)

Genesis of fecal floatation is causally linked to gut microbial colonization in mice.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18109.

The origin of fecal floatation phenomenon remains poorly understood. Following our serendipitous discovery of differences in buoyancy of feces from germ-free and conventional mice, we characterized microbial and physical properties of feces from germ-free and gut-colonized (conventional and conventionalized) mice. The gut-colonization associated differences were assessed in feces using DNA, bacterial-PCR, scanning electron microscopy, FACS, thermogravimetry and pycnometry. Based on the differences in buoyancy of feces, we developed levô in fimo test (LIFT) to distinguish sinking feces (sinkers) of germ-free mice from floating feces (floaters) of gut-colonized mice. By simultaneous tracking of microbiota densities and gut colonization kinetics in fecal transplanted mice, we provide first direct evidence of causal relationship between gut microbial colonization and fecal floatation. Rare discordance in LIFT and microbiota density indicated that enrichment of gasogenic gut colonizers may be necessary for fecal floatation. Finally, fecal metagenomics analysis of 'floaters' from conventional and syngeneic fecal transplanted mice identified colonization of > 10 gasogenic bacterial species including highly prevalent B. ovatus, an anaerobic commensal bacteria linked with flatulence and intestinal bowel diseases. The findings reported here will improve our understanding of food microbial biotransformation and gut microbial regulators of fecal floatation in human health and disease.

RevDate: 2022-10-30
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Svensson CK, Cold F, Ribberholt I, et al (2022)

The Efficacy of Faecal Microbiota Transplant and Rectal Bacteriotherapy in Patients with Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Cells, 11(20):.

The most effective treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); however, the optimal route of administration is thus far unknown. This retrospective cohort study of 343 patients sought to evaluate the efficacy of treatment with FMT capsules, FMT enema, and rectal bacteriotherapy (RBT) during a five-year period. The primary endpoint was clinical resolution from CDI after eight weeks, and secondary endpoints were time to recurrence and death during the follow-up period. The proportion of patients with clinical resolution was 79.9% in the FMT capsule group, 53.3% in the FMT enema group, and 61.8% in the RBT group, corresponding to an adjusted odds ratio of 3.79 (CI: 1.82 to 8.26) in the FMT capsule group compared with FMT enema, and 2.92 (CI: 1.49 to 6.03) compared with RBT. The hazards ratio for recurrence within the first 12 months of follow-up was 0.24 (CI: 0.06 to 0.89) in the FMT capsule group compared with FMT enema, and 0.26 (CI: 0.08 to 0.91) compared with RBT. There was no difference in mortality. In conclusion, FMT capsules were more effective than both FMT enema and RBT as treatment of recurrent CDI and reduced the risk of further recurrences.

RevDate: 2022-10-30

Ma J, Chen T, Ma X, et al (2022)

Comprehensive bibliometric and visualized analysis of research on fecal microbial transplantation published from 2000 to 2021.

Biomedical engineering online, 21(1):78.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbial transplantation has emerged in recent years as a method of treating disease by rebuilding the intestinal flora. However, few bibliometric analyses have systematically studied this area of research. We aimed to use bibliometric analysis to visualize trends and topical research in fecal microbial transplantation to help provide insight into future trends in clinical and basic research.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Articles and reviews related to fecal microbial transplantation were collected from the Web of Science Core Collection. Significant information associated with this field was visually analyzed by using Biblioshiny and CtieSpace software.

RESULTS: A total of 3144 articles and overviews were included. The number of publications related to fecal microbial transplantation significantly increased yearly. These publications mainly came from 100 countries, led by the US and China, and 521 institutions. The most prolific and influential author is KHORUTS A. The main disciplines and application fields of fecal microbial transplantation included molecular /biology/immunology and medicine/clinical medicine, and the research foundation of fecal microbial transplantation was molecular /biology/genetics and health/nursing/medicine. An alluvial flow visualization showed several landmark articles. New developments were identified in terms of reference and keyword citation bursts. Data analysis showed that different FMT preparation and delivery methods gradually appeared as research hotspots. The main research keywords in the last 3 years were chain fatty acids, Akkermansia muciniphila, and insulin sensitivity, other keywords were current and developing research fields.

CONCLUSION: Research on fecal microbial transplantation is flourishing and many new applications of fecal microbial transplantation are emerging. Microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids and the microbiota-gut-brain axis have become the focus of current research and are future research trends.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Najafi S, Majidpoor J, K Mortezaee (2022)

The impact of microbiota on PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy outcomes: A focus on solid tumors.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(22)00838-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized cancer treatment in the last decade. Among various checkpoints identified so far, interaction between programmed death-1 (PD-1) with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and their targeting using human monoclonal antibodies has attracted the most attention and is considered as the most prominent treatment with the best clinical outcomes. Accumulating evidence is the witness for the impact of gut microbiota on clinical responses and ICI efficacy. Specific bacterial species are identified in fecal specimens of cancer patients responding to the anti-PD-(L)1 immunotherapy, while non-responders demonstrate high abundance of other bacterial sources. Thus, the composition of gut microbiota may suggest potential biomarker in identification of patients with the best responses to immunotherapy. Notably, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) from responders to non-responders has shown hopeful results in improving clinical outcomes and overcoming resistance to ICIs. Additionally, some bacterial components, such as the use of antibiotics and probiotic supplements have been shown to affect the efficacy of ICIs treatment. However, employment of these findings requires further investigations and precise understanding of the impact of gut microbiota on the host's immune responses. In the current review, we aim to discuss the roles of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint pathway, their therapeutic significance, and the impact of gut microbiota/products on the PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Xu H, Yang F, Z Bao (2022)

Gut microbiota and myocardial fibrosis.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(22)00616-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Myocardial fibrosis (MF) is a pathophysiological condition that accompanies various myocardial diseases and comprises a damaged myocardial matrix repair process. Although fibrosis plays a vital role in repair, it ultimately alters cardiac systolic and diastolic functions. The gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem with billions of microorganisms that produce bioactive compounds that influence host health and disease progression. Intestinal microbiota has been shown to correlate with cardiovascular disease, and dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota is involved in the development of MF. In this review, we discuss the role of intestinal microbiota in the process of MF, including alterations in microbiota composition and the effects of metabolites. We also discuss how diet and medicines can affect cardiac fibrosis by influencing the gut microbiota, and potential future therapies targeting the gut-heart axis. A healthy gut microbiota can prevent disease, but dysbiosis can lead to various symptoms, including the induction of heart disease. In this review, we discuss the relevance of the gut-heart axis and the multiple pathways by which gut microbiota may affect cardiac fibrosis, including inflammatory factors, immune cells, and gut microbiota metabolites, such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Finally, we discuss the involvement of gut microbiota in the treatment of cardiac fibrosis, including drugs, fecal microbiota transplantation, and oral probiotics or prebiotics. With future studies on the relationship between the heart and gut microbiota, we hope to find better ways to improve MF through the gut-heart axis.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Ju Y, Wang X, Wang Y, et al (2022)

[Application of metagenomic and culturomic technologies in fecal microbiota transplantation: a review].

Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology, 38(10):3594-3605.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) refers to using the intestinal microorganisms present in the feces or processed feces from healthy people for treating various types of diseases, such as digestive and metabolic diseases. The rapid development of metagenomic and culturomic technologies in gut microbiome analysis provides powerful tools for the FMT research and its clinical applications. Metagenomics technologies comprehensively revealed the diversity and functions of gut microbiota under health and disease conditions, while culturomics technologies helped isolation and identification of "unculturable" bacteria in the human gut under conventional culture conditions. The combination of these two technologies not only enabled us better understand the FMT regularities of cause and effect in clinical practices, but also effectively promoted its applications. Considering the above advantages, this article summarized the applications of metagenomics and culturomics technologies in FMT and prospected its future development trend.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Zou B, Liu SX, Li XS, et al (2022)

Long-term safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in 74 children: A single-center retrospective study.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 10:964154.

Background: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective treatment for intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. Nonetheless, long-term safety and efficacy remain major challenges for FMT applications. To date, few long-term follow-up studies have been published on FMT in children.

Methods: Retrospective reviewed the medical charts of 74 patients who underwent 508 FMT courses between August 2014 and July 2019 at our medical center. All the FMT procedures followed uniform standards. Baseline characteristics pre-FMT and follow-up data were collected at 1, 3, 6, 12, 36, 60, and 84 months after FMT. All potential influencing factors for adverse events (AEs) were analyzed and assessed using regression analyses.

Results: A total of 70 (13.7%) short-term AEs occurred in twenty-six patients (35.1%). Most AEs (88.5%) occurred within 2 days post-FMT. A total of 91.4% of the AEs were self-limiting. Ulcerative colitis (UC) and within four times of FMT were associated with a higher rate of AEs (p = 0.028 and p = 0.021, respectively). The primary clinical remission rate after FMT was as high as 72.9%. Twenty-five children were followed for more than 5 years after FMT. The clinical remission rates gradually decreased over time after FMT. During follow-up, none of the patients developed autoimmune, metabolic, or rheumatologic disorders or tumor-related diseases. However, nine children developed rhinitis, five developed rhinitis, were underweight, and six developed constipation.

Conclusions: FMT is a safe and effective treatment for dysbiosis in children. The long-term efficacy of FMT for each disease decreased over time. Moreover, multiple FMTs are recommended 3 months post-FMT for recurrent diseases.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Bai X, Liu G, Yang J, et al (2022)

Changes in the Gut Microbiota of Rats in High-Altitude Hypoxic Environments.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

This study was conducted to investigate the effects of high-altitude hypoxic environments on the gut microbiota. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely, the plain, moderate-altitude hypoxic, and high-altitude hypoxic groups. On the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th days of exposure, fecal samples were collected and analyzed via 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments were also performed. The results showed significant differences between the gut microbiota structure and diversity of rats in the high-altitude hypoxic group and those of rats in the other groups. Further, compared with that of rats in the plain group, the gut microbiota of rats in the two hypoxic groups showed the most significant changes on day 7. Furthermore, the gut microbiota of the rats in the FMT groups exhibited changes and became increasingly similar to those of the rats in the hypoxic groups. We also identified the phylum Firmicutes, genus Akkermansia, and genus Lactobacillus as the core microbiota under hypoxic conditions. Phenotypic analysis indicated a decrease in the proportion of aerobic bacteria and an increase in that of anaerobic bacteria, possibly owing to the high-altitude hypoxic environment. Additionally, functional analysis showed significant differences between the different groups with respect to different metabolic pathways, including carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, glycan biosynthesis, and metabolism. These findings indicated significant changes in gut microbiota structure and diversity under high-altitude hypoxia, establishing a foundation for further research on the pathogenesis and development of diseases, as well as drug metabolism, under high-altitude hypoxia. IMPORTANCE In this study, we investigated the effects of high-altitude hypoxic environments with low oxygen levels on the gut microbiota characteristics of rats. We observed that high-altitude hypoxia is an important environmental factor that can affect gut microbiota structure and diversity, thereby affecting homeostasis in the host intestinal environment. These findings provide a basis for further studies on disease initiation and development, as well as drug metabolism, in high-altitude hypoxic environments.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Patwa SA, Ward C, CR Kelly (2022)

FMT: What's Next? A Narrative Review of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Clostridioides difficile Infection and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Rhode Island medical journal (2013), 105(9):20-24.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an increasingly employed treatment option for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), with growing data supporting its safety and effectiveness in patients with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Given that alterations in the gut microbiome are associated with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), the use of FMT for the treatment of IBD itself is another area of active investigation. In this narrative review, we highlight the evidence for use of FMT in the treatment of CDI in patients with IBD, as well as for IBD alone, and provide insight into the future of microbiome therapeutics.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Chen J, Zeng P, Gong L, et al (2022)

Osteopontin Exacerbates High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders in a Microbiome-Dependent Manner.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome is involved in metabolic disorders. Osteopontin (OPN), as a key cytokine, contributes to various inflammation-related diseases. The underlying role of OPN in the microbiome remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether OPN could modulate metabolic disorders by affecting gut microbiota. In our present study, we found that the expression of OPN was elevated in individuals with obesity compared to that observed in healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between plasma OPN levels and body mass index (BMI) in humans. Moreover, OPN significantly exacerbated lipid accumulation and metabolic disorders in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Importantly, OPN significantly aggravated HFD-induced gut dysbiosis with a key signature profile. Fecal microbiota transplantation also supported the role of OPN in HFD-induced metabolic disorders in a microbiota-dependent manner. Moreover, the microbiome shift of OPN-deficient mice would be compensated to resemble those of wild-type mice by feeding with either OPN-containing milk or recombinant OPN protein in vivo. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis showed that OPN induced a higher abundance of Dorea and a lower abundance of Lactobacillus, which were positively and negatively correlated with body weight, respectively. Indeed, the abundance of Dorea was significantly decreased after Lactobacillus administration, suggesting that OPN may regulate the intestinal abundance of Dorea by reducing the colonization of Lactobacillus. We further confirmed that OPN decreased the adhesion of Lactobacillus to intestinal epithelial cells through the Notch signaling pathway. This study suggested that OPN could exacerbate HFD-induced metabolic dysfunctions through the OPN-induced alteration of the gut microbiome. Therefore, OPN could be a potential therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. IMPORTANCE Gut microbiota are involved in metabolic disorders. However, microbiome-based therapeutic interventions are not always effective, which might be due to interference of the host factors. Here, we identified a strong positive correlation between OPN levels and BMI in humans. Next, we confirmed that OPN could aggravate high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders in mice. Importantly, we found that fecal microbiota transplantation from OPN-deficient mice significantly alleviated metabolic disorders in WT mice. OPN directly induces the remodeling of the gut microbiota both in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicate that OPN could contribute to metabolic disorders by inducing an alteration of gut microbiota. OPN regulated the relative abundance of Lactobacillus by decreasing the adhesion of Lactobacillus to intestinal epithelial cells through the Notch signaling pathway. These data identify OPN as a potential pharmaceutical target for weight control and for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Chen YH, Yuan W, Meng LK, et al (2022)

The Role and Mechanism of Gut Microbiota in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

Nutrients, 14(20): pii:nu14204278.

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a malignant pulmonary vascular disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance, pulmonary vasoconstriction, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Recent developments in genomics and metabolomics have gradually revealed the roles of the gut microbiota (GM) and its metabolites in cardiovascular diseases. Accumulating evidence reveals that the GM plays important roles in the occurrence and development of PAH. Gut microbiota dysbiosis directly increases the gut permeability, thereby facilitating pathological bacterial translocation and allowing translocation of bacterial products such as lipopolysaccharides from the gut into circulation. This process aggravates pulmonary perivascular inflammation and exacerbates PAH development through the endothelial-mesenchymal transition. Additionally, a shift in the composition of PAH also affects the gut metabolites. Changes in gut metabolites, such as decreased short-chain fatty acids, increased trimethylamine N-oxide, and elevated serotonin, contribute to pulmonary perivascular inflammation and pulmonary vascular remodeling by activating several signaling pathways. Studies of the intestinal microbiota in treating pulmonary hypertension have strengthened linkages between the GM and PAH. Probiotic therapy and fecal microbiota transplantation may supplement existing PAH treatments. In this article, we provide new insight for diagnosing, preventing and treating PAH by adding to the current knowledge of the intestinal flora mechanisms and its metabolites efficacy involved in PAH.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Jensen C, Antonsen MF, GA Lied (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Patients with Food Allergies: A Systematic Review.

Microorganisms, 10(10): pii:microorganisms10101904.

The prevalence of food allergies (FAs) has increased considerably in recent decades, with the only available treatment being the avoidance of the specific food items causing the allergy. FAs may have a major impact on quality of life, and it is of great interest to explore new strategies to prevent and treat FAs. Some studies show an altered gut microbiota profile in individuals with FAs, and the modulation of gut microbiota is therefore proposed as a potential strategy for prevention and treatment. This systematic review aimed to investigate: (1) the gut microbiota profile in individuals with FAs compared to healthy individuals and (2) the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on gut microbiota profiles and/or allergy symptoms. A literature search was conducted in PubMed (Medline) on 5 April 2022. Of the 236 publications identified, 12 studies were included based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven of these studies reported results on the gut microbiota in children with FAs compared to healthy controls (HCs). The majority of studies (six studies) observed no difference in alpha diversity when comparing children with FAs to HCs; however, a difference in beta diversity was observed in five studies. At the phylum level, we observed a high abundance of Firmicutes (six studies) and Proteobacteria (five studies), whereas a low abundance of Bacteroidetes (5 studies) was observed in children with FAs compared to HCs. Of the 12 included studies, four explored the effect of FMT on gut microbiota and/or allergy symptoms. Three studies reported that transferring gut microbiota from children without FAs to germ-free mice, protected the mice against allergic reactions, whereas one study did not report findings on the allergic symptoms. The results on gut microbiota after FMT varied and were too divergent to draw any conclusions. Overall, our results suggest that there are differences in the gut microbiota profile in individuals with FAs compared to individuals without FAs. FMT seems to be a promising strategy to prevent allergic symptoms but needs to be further explored in animal and human models. As the findings in this review are based on a small number of studies (12 studies), further studies are warranted before any clear conclusions can be drawn regarding gut microbiota profiles and the effect of FMT on individuals with FAs.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Varesi A, Campagnoli LIM, Fahmideh F, et al (2022)

The Interplay between Gut Microbiota and Parkinson's Disease: Implications on Diagnosis and Treatment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(20): pii:ijms232012289.

The bidirectional interaction between the gut microbiota (GM) and the Central Nervous System, the so-called gut microbiota brain axis (GMBA), deeply affects brain function and has an important impact on the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), gastrointestinal symptoms often precede the onset of motor and non-motor manifestations, and alterations in the GM composition accompany disease pathogenesis. Several studies have been conducted to unravel the role of dysbiosis and intestinal permeability in PD onset and progression, but the therapeutic and diagnostic applications of GM modifying approaches remain to be fully elucidated. After a brief introduction on the involvement of GMBA in the disease, we present evidence for GM alterations and leaky gut in PD patients. According to these data, we then review the potential of GM-based signatures to serve as disease biomarkers and we highlight the emerging role of probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, dietary interventions, and fecal microbiota transplantation as supportive therapeutic approaches in PD. Finally, we analyze the mutual influence between commonly prescribed PD medications and gut-microbiota, and we offer insights on the involvement also of nasal and oral microbiota in PD pathology, thus providing a comprehensive and up-to-date overview on the role of microbial features in disease diagnosis and treatment.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Shin J, Lee JH, Park SH, et al (2022)

Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clearance of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms under Multiple Comorbidities: A Prospective Comparative Trial.

Biomedicines, 10(10): pii:biomedicines10102404.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could decolonize multidrug-resistant organisms. We investigated FMT effectiveness and safety in the eradication of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) intestinal colonization. A prospective non-randomized comparative study was performed with 48 patients. FMT material (60 g) was obtained from a healthy donor, frozen, and administered via endoscopy. The primary endpoint was 1-month decolonization, and secondary endpoints were 3-month decolonization and adverse events. Microbiota analysis of fecal samples was performed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed overall negative conversion between the FMT and control groups at 1 (26% vs. 10%, p = 0.264) and 3 (52% vs. 24%, p = 0.049) months. The 1-month and 3-month CRE clearance did not differ significantly by group (36% vs. 10%, p = 0.341; and 71% vs. 30%, p = 0.095, respectively). Among patients with VRE, FMT was ineffective for 1-month or 3-month negative conversion (13% vs. 9%, p > 0.999; and 36% vs. 18%, p = 0.658, respectively) However, cumulative overall negative-conversion rate was significantly higher in the FMT group (p = 0.037). Enterococcus abundance in patients with VRE significantly decreased following FMT. FMT may be effective at decolonizing multidrug-resistant organisms in the intestinal tract.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Nzabarushimana E, H Tang (2022)

Functional profile of host microbiome indicates Clostridioides difficile infection.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2135963.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a gastro-intestinal (GI) infection that illustrates how perturbations in symbiotic host-microbiome interactions render the GI tract vulnerable to the opportunistic pathogens. CDI also serves as an example of how such perturbations could be reversed via gut microbiota modulation mechanisms, especially fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). However, microbiome-mediated diagnosis of CDI remains understudied. Here, we evaluated the diagnostic capabilities of the fecal microbiome on the prediction of CDI. We used the metagenomic sequencing data from ten previous studies, encompassing those acquired from CDI patients treated by FMT, CDI-negative patients presenting other intestinal health conditions, and healthy volunteers taking antibiotics. We designed a hybrid species/function profiling approach that determines the abundances of microbial species in the community contributing to its functional profile. These functionally informed taxonomic profiles were then used for classification of the microbial samples. We used logistic regression (LR) models using these features, which showed high prediction accuracy (with an average AUC≥0.91), substantiating that the species/function composition of the gut microbiome has a robust diagnostic prediction of CDI. We further assessed the confounding impact of antibiotic therapy on CDI prediction and found that it is distinguishable from the CDI impact. Finally, we devised a log-odds score computed from the output of the LR models to quantify the likelihood of CDI in a gut microbiome sample and applied it to evaluating the effectiveness of FMT based on post-FMT microbiome samples. The results showed that the gut microbiome of patients exhibited a gradual but steady improvement after receiving successful FMT, indicating the restoration of the normal microbiome functions.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Iakupova AA, Abdulkhakov SR, Safin AG, et al (2021)

[Fecal microbiota transplantation: donor selection criteria, storage and preparation of biomaterials (review of current recommendations)].

Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 93(2):215-221.

Fecal microbiota transplantation is a treatment method based on the introduction of donated fecal material to the recipient in order to restore the damaged composition of the intestinal microbiota. This review summarizes existing data on indications for fecal microbiota transplantation, recommendations for donor selection, processing and storage of donor biomaterial.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Li P, Liu Y, Zhao J, et al (2022)

Salecan ameliorates liver injury by regulating gut microbiota and its metabolites.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Salecan, a natural β-glucan consisting of seven residues linked by β-(1→3)/α-(1→3) glycosidic bonds, is one of the novel food ingredients approved in China. β-Glucan has a variety of health-improving effects, yet its mechanism against liver injury remains poorly understood. β-Glucan can induce shifts in the gut microbiota and show health benefits; however, whether modulation of the gut microbiota by β-glucan is associated with its benefits remains unclear. Here, the hepatoprotective effect and potential mechanism of salecan supplementation using a model of CCl4-induced liver injury were investigated. After 8 weeks of treatment, salecan alleviated liver injury by regulating oxidative stress and activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. In addition, salecan treatment modulated the composition of the gut microbiota, and the antibiotic cocktail treatment indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of salecan was dependent on the gut microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation was used to further verify this mechanism, and we confirmed that microbial colonization partially alleviated liver injury. Besides, microbiota-derived metabolites of salecan also contributed to the hepatoprotective effect of salecan against liver injury and inhibited oxidative stress. These findings supported that salecan intervention attenuated liver injury by regulating the gut microbiota and its metabolites.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Yao H, Zhang D, Yu H, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota regulates chronic ethanol exposure-induced depressive-like behavior through hippocampal NLRP3-mediated neuroinflammation.

Molecular psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic ethanol exposure (CEE), which can lead to neuroinflammation, is an increasing risk factor for depression disorder, but the underlying mechanism is not clear. Recent observations have revealed the associations among psychiatric disorders, ethanol exposure and alterations of the gut microbiota. Here, we found that CEE induced depressive-like behavior, which could be alleviated by probiotics and transferred from donor to recipient mice by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Neuroinflammation and the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome were also observed in recipient mice. The downregulation of NLRP3 in the hippocampus mitigated CEE-induced depressive-like behavior and neuroinflammation but had no significant effect on FMT recipient mice. Moreover, elevated serum inflammatory factors in recipient mice showed a significant mediation effect between the gut microbiota and depressive-like behavior. Together, our study findings indicate that the gut microbiota contributes to both hippocampal NLRP3-mediated neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior induced by CEE, which may open avenues for potential interventions against CEE-associated psychiatric disorders.

RevDate: 2022-10-25
CmpDate: 2022-10-25

Slanzon GS, Ridenhour BJ, Parrish LM, et al (2022)

Effects of a farm-specific fecal microbial transplant (FMT) product on clinical outcomes and fecal microbiome composition in preweaned dairy calves.

PloS one, 17(10):e0276638.

Gastrointestinal disease (GI) is the most common illness in pre-weaned dairy calves. Therefore, effective strategies to manipulate the microbiome of dairy calves under commercial dairy operations are of great importance to improve animal health and reduce antimicrobial usage. The objective of this study was to develop a farm-specific FMT product and to investigate its effects on clinical outcomes and fecal microbial composition of dairy calves. The FMT product was derived from feces from healthy donors (5-24 days of age) raised in the same calf ranch facility as the FMT recipients. Healthy and diarrheic calves were randomly enrolled to a control (n = 115) or FMT (n = 112) treatment group (~36 g of processed fecal matter once daily for 3 days). Fecal samples were collected at enrollment and again 9 days later after the first FMT dose. Although the FMT product was rich in organisms typically known for their beneficial probiotic properties, the FMT therapy did not prevent or ameliorate GI disease in dairy calves. In fact, calves that received FMT were less likely to recover from GI disease, and more likely to die due to GI disease complications. Fecal microbial community analysis revealed an increase in the alpha-diversity in FMT calves; however, no major differences across treatment groups were observed in the beta-diversity analysis. Calves that received FMT had higher relative abundance of an uncultured organism of the genus Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus reuteri on day 10. Moreover, FMT calves had lower relative abundance of Clostridium nexile and Bacteroides vulgatus on day 10. Our results indicate the need to have an established protocol when developing FMT products, based on rigorous inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of FMT donors free of potential pathogens, no history of disease or antibiotic treatment.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Gupta A, Singh V, I Mani (2022)

Dysbiosis of human microbiome and infectious diseases.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 192(1):33-51.

Since birth, the human body gets colonized by various communities of symbiotic or commensal microorganisms and they persist till the death of an individual. The human microbiome is comprised of the genomes of microorganisms such as viruses, archaea, eukaryotes, protozoa, and, most remarkably, bacteria. The development of "omics" technologies gave way to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) which aimed at exploring the collection of microbial genes and genomes inhabiting the human body. Eubiosis, i.e., a healthy and balanced composition of such microbes contributes to the metabolic function, protection against pathogens and provides nutrients and energy to the host. Whereas, an imbalance in the diversity of microorganisms, termed dysbiosis, greatly influences the state of health and disease. This chapter summarizes the impact of gut bacteria on the well-being of humans and highlights the protective role played by the human microbiota during bacterial and viral infections. The condition of dysbiosis and how it plays a role in the establishment of various infections and metabolic disorders such as Clostridioides difficile infection (CFI), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cancer, periodontitis, and obesity are described in detail. Further, treatments such as fecal transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, phage therapy, and CRISPR/Cas system, which target gut microbiota during digestive diseases are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

van Lier YF, Rolling T, Armijo GK, et al (2022)

Profiling the fungal microbiome after FMT for graft-versus-host disease: insights from a phase 1 interventional study.

Transplantation and cellular therapy pii:S2666-6367(22)01706-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Disruption of the intestinal bacterial microbiota is frequently observed in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and is particularly pronounced in patients that develop graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Donor fecal microbiota transplantation restores gut microbial diversity and reduces graft-versus-host disease in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. The composition of the intestinal fungal community in GvHD patients, and whether fungal taxa are transferred during FMT is currently unknown. We performed a secondary analysis of our clinical trial on FMT in steroid-refractory GvHD with a focus on the mycobiota. We characterized the fecal mycobiota of the seventeen patients and of the healthy donors using internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 amplicon sequencing. The donor who provided the majority of FMT material in our study represents an n-of-one study of the intestinal flora over time. In this donor, mycobiota composition fluctuated over time, while the bacterial microbiota remained stable over sixteen months. Fungal DNA was more frequently detected in baseline stool samples from patients with steroid-refractory GvHD than in patients with steroid-dependent GvHD. We could detect fungal taxa in the majority of samples, but did not see evidence of mycobiota transfer from donor to recipient. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of profiling the mycobiota alongside the more-traditional bacterial microbiota, establishes the methodology, and provides a first insight into the mycobiota composition of GvHD patients.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Zhang J, Wu K, Shi C, et al (2022)

Cancer Immunotherapy: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Brings Light.

Current treatment options in oncology [Epub ahead of print].

OPINION STATEMENT: Immunotherapy is revolutionizing tumor treatment by activating the immune response to tumors. Among them, immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitors is considered to be a milestone in tumor treatment. It has revolutionized the management of advanced malignant tumors by activating T cells, promoting cytotoxic signaling pathways, and killing tumor cells, effectively improving the overall survival of patients. However, resistance to immunotherapy and immune-related adverse events remain challenges for immunotherapy. It has been demonstrated in previous studies that modulating intestinal microbiota can enhance immunotherapy response and reduce complications. Currently, the more mature method for microbiota regulation is fecal microbiota transplantation, which involves transfering a donor's microbiome to the recipient in the form of capsules or fecal microbiota suspension to restore the richness of the recipient's intestinal microbiota. In terms of cancer immunotherapy, fecal microbiota transplantation in patients who fail to respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors is expected to produce better prognosis for patients.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Chan DG, Ventura K, Villeneuve A, et al (2022)

Exploring the Connection Between the Gut Microbiome and Parkinson's Disease Symptom Progression and Pathology: Implications for Supplementary Treatment Options.

Journal of Parkinson's disease pii:JPD223461 [Epub ahead of print].

The contribution of the microbiota to induce gastrointestinal inflammation is hypothesized to be a key component of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in the pathological progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The function of the GI tract is governed by a system of neurons that form part of the enteric nervous system (ENS). The ENS hosts 100-500 million nerve cells within two thin layers lining the GI tract. The gut-brain axis (GBA) is the major communication pathway between the ENS and the central nervous system. It has become increasingly clear that the microbiota in the gut are key regulators of GBA function and help to maintain homeostasis in the immune and endocrine systems. The GBA may act as a possible etiological launching pad for the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD, because of an imbalance in the gut microbiota. PD is a multi-faceted illness with multiple biological, immunological, and environmental factors contributing to its pathological progression. Interestingly, individuals with PD have an altered gut microbiota compared to healthy individuals. However, there is a lack of literature describing the relationship between microbiota composition in the gut and symptom progression in PD patients. This review article examines how the pathology and symptomology of PD may originate from dysregulated signaling in the ENS. We then discuss by targeting the imbalance within the gut microbiota such as prebiotics and probiotics, some of the prodromal symptoms might be alleviated, possibly curtailing the pathological spread of aSyn and ensuing debilitating motor symptoms.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Mehrotra T, SK Maulik (2022)

Hepatic drug metabolism and gut microbiome.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 191(1):207-228.

This chapter focuses on intestinal microbiota and its effect on drug metabolism. Here, we discussed about different drugs which are metabolized either by some enzymes or gut microbiota and their mechanism. Nowadays, consuming drugs without a doctor's prescription is common. This chapter will make people aware about its negative consequences and how it is related to gut microbiota dysbiosis. Intestinal disorders like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colorectal cancer (CRC) and metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are found to be affected with gut microbiota dysbiosis. To address this issue, we discussed a variety of strategies such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics and antibiotic stewardship programs which are commonly used to tackle this problem.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Purohit A, Alam MJ, Kandiyal B, et al (2022)

Gut microbiome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 191(1):187-206.

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) contains a dynamic and diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, and fungi termed the "gut microbiome." The gut microbiome has a major impact on the host during homeostasis and disease. The connection between both the host and the microbiome is complex, although its manipulation may assist prevent or treating a multitude of morbidities. These microorganisms play a critical role in the host's energy metabolism and homeostasis. According to new research, the microbes in the gastrointestinal tract play a substantial role in host health, and alterations in its composition and function might lead to the emergence of metabolic disorders like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The resilience of the GIT microbial ecology and its tolerance to perturbation are robust but not ideal. Several factors may disrupt the GIT microbiome's homeostasis leading to dysbiosis, characterized by an imbalanced equilibrium and perturbations in gut homeostasis. Irritable bowel disease (IBD), malnutrition, and metabolic disorders, such as NAFLD, have been associated with the dysbiotic gut microbiome. Recent evidence suggests that utilizing medications, prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to manipulate the microbiome could be a viable method for treating NAFLD.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Patel S, Seshadri S, S Dalai (2022)

Gut microbiome and type 2 diabetes.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 191(1):175-185.

Dietary patterns with excess caloric have shaped a complex metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D involves complications in the metabolism of glucose, lipid, cholesterol and their storage. Along with the metabolic dysregulation, systemic inflammation is also the reason for Insulin Resistance and T2D. The importance of gut microbiota has recently been highlighted. It establishes a link between dietary patterns and the types of bacteria that overgrow and modify fermentation bi-products such as SCFA, secondary bile acids, and mucosal immune cells. These changes have a direct impact on the liver's metabolism and immune system. As a result, using Pre-Pro-biotics to manage microbiota can assist overcome or lessening disease symptoms. Antibiotics are currently employed to produce a germ-free environment or to eradicate specific types of bacteria in order to better understand the role of microflora. This chapter covers the basics of good bacteria, as well as the mechanisms that they work on.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Huang W, Zhu L, Song W, et al (2022)

Crosstalk between the Gut and Brain in Ischemic Stroke: Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Options.

Mediators of inflammation, 2022:6508046.

There has been a significant amount of interest in the past two decades in the study of the evolution of the gut microbiota, its internal and external impacts on the gut, and risk factors for cerebrovascular disorders such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The network of bidirectional communication between gut microorganisms and their host is known as the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA). There is mounting evidence that maintaining gut microbiota homeostasis can frequently enhance the effectiveness of ischemic stroke treatment by modulating immune, metabolic, and inflammatory responses through MGBA. To effectively monitor and cure ischemic stroke, restoring a healthy microbial ecology in the gut may be a critical therapeutic focus. This review highlights mechanistic insights on the MGBA in disease pathophysiology. This review summarizes the role of MGBA signaling in the development of stroke risk factors such as aging, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, as well as changes in the microbiota in experimental or clinical populations. In addition, this review also examines dietary changes, the administration of probiotics and prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation as treatment options for ischemic stroke as potential health benefits. It will become more apparent how the MGBA affects human health and disease with continuing advancements in this emerging field of biomedical sciences.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Zhou LJ, Lin WZ, Liu T, et al (2022)

Oral Pathobionts Promote MS-like Symptoms in Mice.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiotic oral microbiota has been associated with multiple sclerosis. However, the role and mechanism of oral microbiota in the development of multiple sclerosis are still elusive. Here, we demonstrated that ligature-induced periodontitis (LIP) aggravated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, and this was likely dependent on the expansion of T helper 17 (Th17) cells. LIP increased the splenic richness of Enterobacter sp., which was able to induce the expansion of splenic Th17 cells and aggravate EAE in mice. LIP also led to enrichment of Erysipelotrichaceae sp. in the gut and increased Th17 cells in the large intestinal lamina propria of EAE mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation from EAE mice with LIP also promoted EAE symptoms. In conclusion, periodontitis exacerbates EAE, likely through ectopic colonization of oral pathobionts and expansion of Th17 cells.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Bénard MV, de Bruijn CMA, Fenneman AC, et al (2022)

Challenges and costs of donor screening for fecal microbiota transplantations.

PloS one, 17(10):e0276323 pii:PONE-D-22-15731.

BACKGROUND: The increasing interest to perform and investigate the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has generated an urge for feasible donor screening. We report our experience with stool donor recruitment, screening, follow-up, and associated costs in the context of clinical FMT trials.

METHODS: Potential stool donors, aged between 18-65 years, underwent a stepwise screening process starting with an extensive questionnaire followed by feces and blood investigations. When eligible, donors were rescreened for MDROs and SARS-CoV-2 every 60-days, and full rescreening every 4-6 months. The costs to find and retain a stool donor were calculated.

RESULTS: From January 2018 to August 2021, 393 potential donors underwent prescreening, of which 202 (51.4%) did not proceed primarily due to loss to follow-up, medication use, or logistic reasons (e.g. COVID-19 measures). 191 potential donors filled in the questionnaire, of which 43 (22.5%) were excluded. The remaining 148 candidates underwent parasitology screening: 91 (61.5%) were excluded, mostly due to Dientamoeba fragilis and/or high amounts of Blastocystis spp. After additional feces investigations 18/57 (31.6%) potential donors were excluded (mainly for presence of Helicobacter Pylori and ESBL-producing organisms). One donor failed serum testing. Overall, 38 out of 393 (10%) potential donors were enrolled. The median participation time of active stool donors was 13 months. To recruit 38 stool donors, €64.112 was spent.

CONCLUSION: Recruitment of stool donors for FMT is challenging. In our Dutch cohort, failed eligibility of potential donors was often caused by the presence of the protozoa Dientamoeba fragilis and Blastocystis spp.. The exclusion of potential donors that carry these protozoa, especially Blastocystis spp., is questionable and deserves reconsideration. High-quality donor screening is associated with substantial costs.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Kelly-Goss MR, Badran YR, M Dougan (2022)

Update on Immune Checkpoint Inhibitor Enterocolitis.

Current gastroenterology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy revolutionized the treatment of multiple solid and hematologic malignancies. Yet, with it came profound inflammatory toxicities that mimic autoimmune diseases, termed immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Prominent among these is gastrointestinal inflammation, including a spectrum of gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. Here we synthesize an approach to immune checkpoint related enterocolitis (irEC) - including diagnostics and therapeutics - underpinned by new insights into the mechanism behind these phenomena.

RECENT FINDINGS: This review presents updated insights on how to approach irEC, including novel approaches to selective immunosuppressive therapy, the role of fecal microbiota transplant, and the underlying cellular mechanisms of irEC. This review provides an update on irEC diagnosis and therapy, with considerations of new therapies and special patient populations. The field of gastrointestinal irAEs requires additional investigation, which will ultimately provide the tools required for patients to continue to receive life-saving ICI therapy.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Hu L, Zhao Y, Liu S, et al (2022)

Lead exposure exacerbates adverse effects of HFD on metabolic function via disruption of gut microbiome, leading to compromised barrier function and inflammation.

European journal of nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The toxicity of lead (Pb) has been intensively studied, while the adverse effects in the population on a high-fat diet (HFD) remain unclear. This study compared the different biologic effects of Pb in CHOW and HFD-fed mice and investigated the important role that gut microbiota may play.

METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a CHOW diet and HFD with or without 1 g/L Pb exposure through drinking water for 8 weeks. Using oral glucose tolerance test, histopathological observation, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 16S high-throughput sequencing to compare the Pb toxicity, fecal microbiota transplantation was conducted to investigate the key role of gut microbiota.

RESULTS: The metabolic disorders induced by HFD were aggravated by chronic Pb intake, and HFD exacerbated the Pb accumulation in the colon by 96%, 32% in blood, 27% in the liver, and 142% in tibiae. Concomitantly, Pb induced more serious colonic injury, further disturbing the composition of gut microbiota in the HFD-fed mice. Moreover, altered fecal microbiota by HFD and Pb directly mediated metabolic disorders and colonic damage in recipient mice, which emphasized the importance of gut microbiota.

CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the population with HFD has lower resistance and would face more security risks under Pb pollution, and pointed out the importance of assessing the health impacts of food contaminants in people with different dietary patterns.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Du H, Shi L, Wang Q, et al (2022)

Fu Brick Tea Polysaccharides Prevent Obesity via Gut Microbiota-Controlled Promotion of Adipocyte Browning and Thermogenesis.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The antiobesity efficacy and underlying mechanisms of polysaccharides extracted from Fu brick tea (FBTP) were investigated. An 8-week administration of FBTP dose-dependently inhibited increases in body weight and weights of the epididymal-, retroperitoneal- and inguinal-white adipose tissues and stimulated beige-fat development and brown adipose tissue-derived nonshivering thermogenesis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. FBTP protected against obesity-associated abnormality in serum adiponectin and leptin, indicating its positive regulation of energy metabolism. FBTP reversed gut dysbiosis by enriching beneficial bacteria, for example, Lactobacillus, Parabacteroides, Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Roseburia. Results from the fecal microbiota transplantation further confirmed that FBTP-induced microbial shifts contributed to adipose browning and thermogenesis, thereby alleviating host adiposity, glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia, and its related hepatic steatosis. Our study demonstrates the great potential of FBTP with prebiotic-like activities in preventing diet-induced obesity and its related metabolic complications via gut microbiota-derived enhancement of fat burning and energy expenditures.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Zhang N, Zhang Y, Wang Z, et al (2022)

Regular fecal microbiota transplantation to Senescence Accelerated Mouse-Prone 8 (SAMP8) mice delayed the aging of locomotor and exploration ability by rejuvenating the gut microbiota.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 14:991157.

Recent evidence points out the role of the gut microbiota in the aging process. However, the specific changes and relevant interventions remain unclear. In this study, Senescence Accelerated Mouse-Prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into four groups; young-FMT-group transplanted fecal microbiota from young donors (2-3°months old) and old-FMT-group transplanted from old donors (10-11°months old); additionally, other two groups either adult mice injected with saline solution or untreated mice served as the saline and blank control groups, respectively. All mice were intervened from their 7-months-old until 13-months-old. The open field test at 9 and 11°months of age showed that the mice transplanted with gut microbiota from young donors had significantly better locomotor and exploration ability than those of transplanted with old-donors gut microbiota and those of saline control while was comparable with the blank control. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the gut microbiome of recipient mice of young donors was altered at 11°months of age, whereas the alternation of the gut microbiome of old-donor recipient mice was at 9°months. For comparison, the recipient mice in the blank and saline control groups exhibited changes in the gut microbiome at 10°months of age. The hallmark of aging-related gut microbiome change was an increase in the relative abundance of Akkermansia, which was significantly higher in the recipients transplanted with feces from older donors than younger donors at 9°months of age. This study shows that fecal microbiota transplantation from younger donors can delay aging-related declines in locomotor and exploration ability in mice by changing the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Wolstenholme JT, Saunders JM, Smith M, et al (2022)

Reduced alcohol preference and intake after fecal transplant in patients with alcohol use disorder is transmissible to germ-free mice.

Nature communications, 13(1):6198.

Alcohol use disorder is a major cause of morbidity, which requires newer treatment approaches. We previously showed in a randomized clinical trial that alcohol craving and consumption reduces after fecal transplantation. Here, to determine if this could be transmitted through microbial transfer, germ-free male C57BL/6 mice received stool or sterile supernatants collected from the trial participants pre-/post-fecal transplant. We found that mice colonized with post-fecal transplant stool but not supernatants reduced ethanol acceptance, intake and preference versus pre-fecal transplant colonized mice. Microbial taxa that were higher in post-fecal transplant humans were also associated with lower murine alcohol intake and preference. A majority of the differentially expressed genes (immune response, inflammation, oxidative stress response, and epithelial cell proliferation) occurred in the intestine rather than the liver and prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest a potential for therapeutically targeting gut microbiota and the microbial-intestinal interface to alter gut-liver-brain axis and reduce alcohol consumption in humans.

RevDate: 2022-10-20
CmpDate: 2022-10-20

Collier AJ, Gomez DE, Monteith G, et al (2022)

Investigating fecal microbial transplant as a novel therapy in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease: A preliminary study.

PloS one, 17(10):e0276295 pii:PONE-D-22-16900.

BACKGROUND: There are limited studies investigating the use of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility of adding FMT to standard therapy (corticosteroids and a hypoallergenic diet) for dogs with IBD and to and to describe the changes in measured outcomes after 30 days of treatment.

METHODS: Thirteen client-owned dogs with IBD were enrolled in this double blinded, randomized clinical trial. All dogs received corticosteroid therapy and a hypoallergenic diet; dogs were randomized to receive either placebo or FMT. Measured outcomes included the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index (CCECAI) at 1 week and 1 month after enrolment. Fecal microbiota were analyzed after extracting DNA from fecal samples and profiling using 16S amplicon sequencing. Dogs in the placebo group not responding to treatment after 1 month were offered FMT.

RESULTS: The CCECAI significantly decreased over time in both groups (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the CCECAI of the placebo and FMT group at each time point (F test from ANOVA, p = 0.40). No adverse effects were reported in the 30 days following FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: The addition of FMT to standard therapy for IBD was feasible. No significant differences were observed in the CCECAI between groups at each time point. Large scale clinical trials can be performed using these methods to evaluate the longer term effect of FMT on clinical signs, microbial diversity, and other outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Celorrio Navarro M, Shumilov K, Rodgers R, et al (2022)

Innate and peripheral immune alterations after TBI are regulated in a gut microbiota-dependent manner in mice.

Journal of neurotrauma [Epub ahead of print].

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients are at high risk for disruption of the gut microbiome. Previously, we have demonstrated that broad-spectrum antibiotic exposure after TBI drastically alters the gut microbiota and modulates neuroinflammation, neurogenesis, and long-term fear memory. However, these data did not determine if the impact of antibiotic exposure on the brain's response to injury was mediated directly by antibiotics or indirectly via modulation of the gut microbiota. We designed two different approaches to address this knowledge gap utilizing fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from control and antibiotic-treated mice (VNAM: vancomycin, neomycin, ampicillin and metronidazole) into germ free (GF) mice prior to injury and exposing single pathogen free (SPF) mice to a 2-week period of antibiotics prior to injury but discontinuing antibiotics 72 hours prior to injury. GF mice receiving FMT from VNAM exposed mice (GF-VNAM) demonstrated reduced gut bacterial alpha diversity and richness compared with GF mice receiving FMT from control. At 7 days post injury, GF-VNAM had increased microglial activation, reduced infiltration of T cells, and decreased neurogenesis 7 days after injury. Similarly, SPF mice exposed to antibiotics prior to but not after injury demonstrated similar alterations in neuroinflammation and neurogenesis compared to control mice. These data support our hypothesis implicating the gut microbiota as an important modulator of the neuroinflammatory process and neurogenesis after TBI and provide an exciting new approach for neuroprotective therapeutics for TBI.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Li P, Ma X, Liu D, et al (2022)

A microbiome abundant environment remodels the intestinal microbiota and improves resistance to obesity induced by chlorpyrifos in mice.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)01629-3 [Epub ahead of print].

There is a growing consensus that the appropriate microbiome abundant environment actuates microbiota changes to influence human health. Whether living environment reacts on the threat of contaminants and the underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Therefore, we constructed microbiome abundant environment models, focusing on their regulatory effects on the obesity induced by the exogenous chemical chlorpyrifos (CPF) and the related mechanisms. The results uncovered that the constructed farm and woodland microbiome abundant environment could protect mice against CPF-induced obesity effectively. The microbiome abundant environment regulated CPF-induced microbiota imbalance, characterized by an increase in Lactobacillus abundance. These altered microbiotas modified the intestinal immune system by increasing the expression of Foxp3 and IL-10, and mitigated intestinal barrier injury by upregulating the expression of IL-22 and intestinal tight junction proteins. Fecal microbiota transplantation could receive similar phenotypes on alleviating CPF-induced obesity development. Our results demonstrate that the microbiome abundant environment attenuates exogenous chemical-induced health risks by remodeling the intestinal microbiota, improving the intestinal ecosystem, and preventing intestinal epithelial leakage.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Davis BT, Chen Z, Islam MBAR, et al (2022)


Shock (Augusta, Ga.), 58(4):287-294.

ABSTRACT: Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an underrecognized public health threat. The constitutive activation of microglia after TBI has been linked to long-term neurocognitive deficits and the progression of neurodegenerative disease. Evolving evidence indicates a critical role for the gut-brain axis in this process. Specifically, TBI has been shown to induce the depletion of commensal gut bacteria. The resulting gut dysbiosis is associated with neuroinflammation and disease. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that fecal microbiota transplantation would attenuate microglial activation and improve neuropathology after TBI. Methods: C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to severe TBI (n = 10) or sham injury (n = 10) via an open-head controlled cortical impact. The mice underwent fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or vehicle alone via oral gavage once weekly for 4 weeks after injury. At 59 days after TBI, mice underwent three-dimensional, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Following imaging, mice were killed, brains harvested at 60 DPI, and CD45+ cells isolated via florescence-activated cell sorting. cDNA libraries were prepared using the 10x Genomics Chromium Single Cell 3' Reagent kit followed by sequencing on a HiSeq4000 instrument, and computational analysis was performed. Results: Fecal microbiota transplantation resulted in a >marked reduction of ventriculomegaly (P < 0.002) and preservation of white matter connectivity at 59 days after TBI (P < 0.0001). In addition, microglia from FMT-treated mice significantly reduced inflammatory gene expression and enriched pathways involving the heat-shock response compared with mice treated with vehicle alone. Conclusions: We hypothesized that restoring gut microbial community structure via FMT would attenuate microglial activation and reduce neuropathology after TBI. Our data demonstrated significant preservation of cortical volume and white matter connectivity after an injury compared with mice treated with vehicle alone. This preservation of neuroanatomy after TBI was associated with a marked reduction in inflammatory gene expression within the microglia of FMT-treated mice. Microglia from FMT-treated mice enriched pathways in the heat-shock response, which is known to play a neuroprotective role in TBI and other neurodegenerative disease processes.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Hu B, Das P, Lv X, et al (2022)

Erratum for Hu et al., "Effects of 'Healthy' Fecal Microbiota Transplantation against the Deterioration of Depression in Fawn-Hooded Rats".

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Kang JN, Sun ZF, Li XY, et al (2023)

Alterations in gut microbiota are related to metabolite profiles in spinal cord injury.

Neural regeneration research, 18(5):1076-1083.

Studies have shown that gut microbiota metabolites can enter the central nervous system via the blood-spinal cord barrier and cause neuroinflammation, thus constituting secondary injury after spinal cord injury. To investigate the correlation between gut microbiota and metabolites and the possible mechanism underlying the effects of gut microbiota on secondary injury after spinal cord injury, in this study, we established mouse models of T8-T10 traumatic spinal cord injury. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metabolomics to reveal the changes in gut microbiota and metabolites in fecal samples from the mouse model. Results showed a severe gut microbiota disturbance after spinal cord injury, which included marked increases in pro-inflammatory bacteria, such as Shigella, Bacteroides, Rikenella, Staphylococcus, and Mucispirillum and decreases in anti-inflammatory bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, Allobaculum, and Sutterella. Meanwhile, we identified 27 metabolites that decreased and 320 metabolites that increased in the injured spinal cord. Combined with pathway enrichment analysis, five markedly differential amino acids (L-leucine, L-methionine, L-phenylalanine, L-isoleucine and L-valine) were screened out, which play a pivotal role in activating oxidative stress and inflammatory responses following spinal cord injury. Integrated correlation analysis indicated that the alteration of gut microbiota was related to the differences in amino acids, which suggests that disturbances in gut microbiota might participate in the secondary injury through the accumulation of partial metabolites that activate oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Findings from this study provide a new theoretical basis for improving the secondary injury after spinal cord injury through fecal microbial transplantation.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Zhu T, Wang Z, He J, et al (2022)

D-galactose protects the intestine from ionizing radiation-induced injury by altering the gut microbiome.

Journal of radiation research pii:6761972 [Epub ahead of print].

This article aims to investigate the protection of the intestine from ionizing radiation-induced injury by using D-galactose (D-gal) to alter the gut microbiome. In addition, this observation opens up further lines of research to further increase therapeutic potentials. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 7.5 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) or 13 Gy of total abdominal irradiation (TAI) in this study. After adjustment, D-gal was intraperitoneally injected into mice at a dose of 750 mg/kg/day. Survival rates, body weights, histological experiments and the level of the inflammatory factor IL-1β were observed after TBI to investigate radiation injury in mice. Feces were collected from mice for 16S high-throughput sequencing after TAI. Furthermore, fecal microorganism transplantation (FMT) was performed to confirm the effect of D-gal on radiation injury recovery. Intraperitoneally administered D-gal significantly increased the survival of irradiated mice by altering the gut microbiota structure. Furthermore, the fecal microbiota transplanted from D-gal-treated mice protected against radiation injury and improved the survival rate of recipient mice. Taken together, D-gal accelerates gut recovery following radiation injury by promoting the growth of specific microorganisms, especially those in the class Erysipelotrichia. The study discovered that D-gal-induced changes in the microbiota protect against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Erysipelotrichia and its metabolites are a promising therapeutic option for post-radiation intestinal regeneration.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Li D, Cui L, Gao Y, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation improves intestinal inflammation in mice with ulcerative colitis by modulating intestinal flora composition and down-regulating NF-kB signaling pathway.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(22)00416-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestine. It is characterized with recurrent. The pathogenesis is mainly associated with environmental factors, genetic susceptibility, dysbiosis of the intestinal flora and autoimmunity. The role of intestinal flora disorders in the pathogenesis and progression of UC is becoming increasingly prominent. More and more studies have confirmed that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could reshape the composition of UC intestinal flora and it is expected to be a new strategy for UC treatment. In this study, we used 2% Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days to induce acute colitis model in mice, and interfere with FMT and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). ELISA and immunohistochemistry were applied to detect the concentration and expression of NF-κB p65, STAT3 and IL-6. 16SrRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed to explore the composition of intestinal flora. The aim was to study the treatment effect of FMT on UC mice and explore its potential mechanism by observing the changes of intestinal flora composition and diversity, and its relationship with NF-κB p65, STAT3 and IL-6 expression. We conclude that FMT could improve intestinal flora disorder in mice with ulcerative colitis, regulate NF-κB signaling pathway, and significantly reduce intestinal inflammation in UC mice.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Lv L, Ruan G, Ping Y, et al (2022)

Clinical study on sequential treatment of severe diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome with precision probiotic strains transplantation capsules, fecal microbiota transplantation capsules and live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium capsules.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1025889.

Objective: To study the effect of precision probiotic strains transplantation capsules on diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome compared with fecal microbiota transplantation capsules and live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium capsules.

Methods: Two patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome were treated with precision probiotic strains transplantation capsules, fecal microbiota transplantation capsules and live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium capsules in sequence. IBS-SSS, IBS-QoL, GSRS, stool frequency, stool character, degree of abdominal pain, GAD-7, and PHQ9 scores of patients at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks of treatment were monitored and recorded, and stool samples were collected for metagenomics and metabolomics.

Results: It was found that the IBS-SSS score of patient case 1 decreased by 175 points and that of patient case 2 decreased by 100 points after treatment of precision probiotic strains transplantation capsules. There was no significant decrease after fecal microbiota transplantation capsules and live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium capsules were used. At the same time, compared with fecal microbiota transplantation and live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium capsules, the IBS QoL, stool frequency, stool character, degree of abdominal pain and GAD-7 score of patient case 1 improved more significantly by the precision probiotic strains transplantation capsules. And the stool frequency and stool character score of patient case 2 decreased more significantly. Intestinal microbiota also improved more significantly after the precise capsule transplantation treatment. And we found Eubacterium_ Eligens showed the same change trend in the treatment of two patients, which may play a role in the treatment.

Conclusion: precision probiotic strains transplantation capsules is more beneficial to improve the intestinal microbiota of patients than microbiota transplantation capsule and live combined bacillus subtilis and enterococcus faecium capsules, so as to better alleviate clinical symptoms. This study provides a more perfect and convenient therapeutic drugs for the treatment of IBS.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Owais R, M Iqbal (2022)

Monkeypox and fecal microbiota for transplantation(FMT): An unprecedented risk?.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 82:104779.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Zeng L, Deng Y, Yang K, et al (2022)

Safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation for autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:944387.

Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation for autoimmune diseases and autoinflammatory diseases.

Methods: Relevant literature was retrieved from the PubMed database, Embase database, Cochrane Library database, etc. The search period is from the establishment of the database to January 2022. The outcomes include clinical symptoms, improvement in biochemistry, improvement in intestinal microbiota, improvement in the immune system, and adverse events. Literature screening and data extraction were independently carried out by two researchers according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and RevMan 5.3 software was used for statistics and analysis.

Results: Overall, a total of 14 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving six types of autoimmune diseases were included. The results showed the following. 1) Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM): compared with the autologous fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) group (control group), the fasting plasma C peptide in the allogenic FMT group at 12 months was lower. 2) Systemic sclerosis: at week 4, compared with one of two placebo controls, three patients in the experimental group reported a major improvement in fecal incontinence. 3) Ulcerative colitis, pediatric ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease: FMT may increase clinical remission, clinical response, and endoscopic remission for patients with ulcerative colitis and increase clinical remission for patients with Crohn's disease. 4) Psoriatic arthritis: there was no difference in the ratio of ACR20 between the two groups.

Conclusion: Based on current evidence, the application of FMT in the treatment of autoimmune diseases is effective and relatively safe, and it is expected to be used as a method to induce remission of active autoimmune diseases., identifier CRD42021235055.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Barlow B, Ponnaluri S, Barlow A, et al (2022)

Targeting the gut microbiome in the management of sepsis-associated encephalopathy.

Frontiers in neurology, 13:999035.

Brain injury resulting from sepsis, or sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), occurs due to impaired end-organ perfusion, dysregulated inflammation affecting the central nervous system (CNS), blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, accumulation of toxic neuropeptides and impaired toxin clearance secondary to sepsis-induced hepatic and renal dysfunction. The gut microbiome becomes pathologically altered in sepsis, which likely contributes to the pathogenesis of SAE. Herein, we review the literature detailing dysregulation of microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA) in SAE and highlight potential therapeutic strategies to modulate the gut microbiome to mitigate sepsis-induced brain injury.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Li H, Fu ZY, Arslan ME, et al (2021)

Differential diagnosis and management of immune checkpoint inhibitor-induced colitis: A comprehensive review.

World journal of experimental medicine, 11(6):79-92.

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a new class of cancer pharmacotherapy consisting of antibodies that block inhibitory immune regulators such as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, programmed cell death 1 and programmed death-ligand 1. Checkpoint blockade by ICIs reactivates a tumor-specific T cell response. Immune-related adverse events can occur in various organs including skin, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Mild to severe colitis is the most common side effect with some experiencing rapid progression to more serious complications including bowel perforation and even death. Prompt diagnosis and management of ICI-induced colitis is crucial for optimal outcome. Unfortunately, its clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic presentations are non-specific and overlap with those of colitis caused by other etiologies, such as infection, medication, graft-versus-host disease and inflammatory bowel disease. Thus, a definitive diagnosis can only be rendered after these other possible etiologies are excluded. Sometimes an extensive clinical, laboratory and radiologic workup is required, making it challenging to arrive at a prompt diagnosis. Most patients experience full resolution of symptoms with corticosteroids and/or infliximab. For ICI-induced colitis that is treatment-refractory, small scale studies offer alternative strategies, such as vedolizumab and fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, we focus on the clinical features, differential diagnosis, and management of ICI-induced colitis with special attention to emerging treatment options for treatment-refractory ICI-induced colitis.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Ni Y, Zheng L, Nan S, et al (2022)

Enterorenal crosstalks in diabetic nephropathy and novel therapeutics targeting the gut microbiota.

Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica [Epub ahead of print].

The role of gut-kidney crosstalk in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) is receiving increasing concern. On one hand, the decline in renal function increases circulating uremic toxins and affects the composition and function of gut microbiota. On the other hand, intestinal dysbiosis destroys the epithelial barrier, leading to increased exposure to endotoxins, thereby exacerbating kidney damage by inducing systemic inflammation. Dietary inventions, such as higher fiber intake, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbial transplantation (FMT), and engineering bacteria and phages, are potential microbiota-based therapies for DN. Furthermore, novel diabetic agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors, may affect the progression of DN partly through gut microbiota. In the current review, we mainly summarize the evidence concerning the gut-kidney axis in the advancement of DN and discuss therapies targeting the gut microbiota, expecting to provide new insight into the clinical treatment of DN.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Ghorbani Y, Schwenger KJ, Sharma D, et al (2022)

Effect of Fecal Microbial Transplant via colonoscopy in patients with severe obesity and insulin resistance: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial.

Diabetes, obesity & metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Fecal microbial transplant (FMT) from lean people to subjects with obesity delivered via oral or duodenal routes may improve metabolic parameters and intestinal microbiome (IM) but there are no studies assessing the effect of FMT via colonoscopy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, subjects with BMI≥35 kg/m2 and insulin resistance were randomized in a 1:1 ratio in blocks of four, to either allogenic (from healthy lean donor; n=15) or autologous (their own stool; n=13) FMT delivered in the cecum and followed for 3 months.

MAIN OUTCOME: HOMA-IR; secondary outcomes: HbA1c, lipid profile, weight, gut hormones, endotoxin, appetite parameters, intestinal microbiome (IM), metagenome, serum/fecal metabolites, quality of life, anxiety and depression scores.

RESULTS: In allogenic versus autologous groups, HOMA-IR and clinical parameters did not change significantly, but IM and metabolites changed favorably (p<0.05): at 1-month, Coprococcus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Roseburia increased, and Streptococcus decreased; at 3-months, Bacteroides and Blautia increased. Several species also changed significantly. For metabolites: at 1-month, serum kynurenine decreased; fecal indole acetic acid and butenylcarnitine increased; at 3-months, serum isoleucine, leucine, decenoylcarnitine and fecal phenylacetic acid decreased. Metagenomic pathway representations and network analyses assessing relationships with clinical parameters, metabolites and IM were significantly enhanced in the allogenic versus autologous groups. LDL and appetite parameters improved in allogenic (p<0.05 but not the autologous group.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, in those with obeisty, allogenic FMT via colonoscopy induced favorable changes in IM, metabolites, pathway representations and networks even though other metabolic variables did not change. LDL and appetite parameters may also benefit.

CLINICALTRIALS: gov, NCT01226992. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Jayasinghe M, Prathiraja O, Kayani AMA, et al (2022)

The Role of Diet and Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis.

Cureus, 14(9):e28975.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating condition of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by immune-mediated damage to the myelin sheath of nerve cells. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to play a significant role. Unfortunately, the knowledge of therapeutic modalities in MS remains very limited, necessitating the need for novel therapeutic strategies. In the previous decade, there has been an influx of studies on the gut microbiome and its link to various neurological conditions, including MS. Various diets may have favorable effects on the gut microflora and may significantly alter the progression and outcomes of MS. Thus, identifying the merits of various diets and modulating them according to the specific nutritional requirements of MS patients can go a long way toward slowing the progression of the disease. Nutritional interventions and the use of the gut microbiome as diagnostic and therapeutic modalities open a host of new possibilities regarding the disease. In this review, we investigate the role of diet and the gut microbiome in the progression of MS. The functions of the gut-brain axis, antioxidants, vitamins, obesity, and various diets are also covered in this article.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Guardamagna M, Berciano-Guerrero MA, Villaescusa-González B, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Therapy in Metastatic Melanoma: Focus on MAPK Pathway Inhibition.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19): pii:ijms231911990.

Gut microbiome (GM) and its either pro-tumorigenic or anti-tumorigenic role is intriguing and constitutes an evolving landscape in translational oncology. It has been suggested that these microorganisms may be involved in carcinogenesis, cancer treatment response and resistance, as well as predisposition to adverse effects. In melanoma patients, one of the most immunogenic cancers, immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) and MAPK-targeted therapy-BRAF/MEK inhibitors-have revolutionized prognosis, and the study of the microbiome as a modulating factor is thus appealing. Although BRAF/MEK inhibitors constitute one of the main backbones of treatment in melanoma, little is known about their impact on GM and how this might correlate with immune re-induction. On the contrary, ICI and their relationship to GM has become an interesting field of research due to the already-known impact of immunotherapy in modulating the immune system. Immune reprogramming in the tumor microenvironment has been established as one of the main targets of microbiome, since it can induce immunosuppressive phenotypes, promote inflammatory responses or conduct anti-tumor responses. As a result, ongoing clinical trials are evaluating the role of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), as well as the impact of using dietary supplements, antibiotics and probiotics in the prediction of response to therapy. In this review, we provide an overview of GM's link to cancer, its relationship with the immune system and how this may impact response to treatments in melanoma patients. We also discuss insights about novel therapeutic approaches including FMT, changes in diet and use of probiotics, prebiotics and symbiotics. Finally, we hypothesize on the possible pathways through which GM may impact anti-tumor efficacy in melanoma patients treated with targeted therapy, an appealing subject of which little is known.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Huynh QS, Elangovan S, RMD Holsinger (2022)

Non-Pharmacological Therapeutic Options for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(19): pii:ijms231911037.

Alzheimer's disease is a growing global crisis in need of urgent diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The current treatment strategy mostly involves immunotherapeutic medications that have had little success in halting disease progress. Hypotheses for pathogenesis and development of AD have been expanded to implicate both organ systems as well as cellular reactions. Non-pharmacologic interventions ranging from minimally to deeply invasive have attempted to address these diverse contributors to AD. In this review, we aim to delineate mechanisms underlying such interventions while attempting to provide explanatory links between the observed differences in disease states and postulated metabolic or structural mechanisms of change. The techniques discussed are not an exhaustive list of non-pharmacological interventions against AD but provide a foundation to facilitate a deeper understanding of the area of study.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Bawaneh A, Wilson AS, Levi N, et al (2022)

Intestinal Microbiota Influence Doxorubicin Responsiveness in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Cancers, 14(19): pii:cancers14194849.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is highly aggressive with a poor 5-year survival rate. Targeted therapy options are limited and most TNBC patients are treated with chemotherapy. This study aimed to determine whether doxorubicin (Dox) shifts the gut microbiome and whether gut microbiome populations influence chemotherapeutic responsiveness. Female BALB/c mice (n = 115) were injected with 4T1-luciferase cells (a murine syngeneic TNBC model) and treated with Dox and/or antibiotics, high-fat diet-derived fecal microbiota transplant (HFD-FMT), or exogenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Metagenomic sequencing was performed on fecal DNA samples. Mice that received Dox were stratified into Dox responders or Dox nonresponders. Mice from the Dox responders and antibiotics + Dox groups displayed reduced tumor weight and metastatic burden. Metagenomic analysis showed that Dox was associated with increased Akkermansia muciniphila proportional abundance. Moreover, Dox responders showed an elevated proportional abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila prior to Dox treatment. HFD-FMT potentiated tumor growth and decreased Dox responsiveness. Indeed, lipopolysaccharide, a structural component of Gram-negative bacteria, was increased in the plasma of Dox nonresponders and FMT + Dox mice. Treatment with exogenous LPS increases intestinal inflammation, reduces Dox responsiveness, and increases lung metastasis. Taken together, we show that modulating the gut microbiota through antibiotics, HFD-FMT, or by administering LPS influenced TNBC chemotherapy responsiveness, lung metastasis, and intestinal inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Tojjari A, Abushukair H, A Saeed (2022)

The Crosstalk between Microbiome and Immunotherapeutics: Myth or Reality.

Cancers, 14(19): pii:cancers14194641.

The gut microbiome refers to microorganisms and their genetic material influencing local and systemic inflammation. Inflammation is known to contribute to cancer development, progression, and treatment. Evidence suggests that modulating the gut microbiome may affect responses to various cancer therapies. The gut microbiota has been suggested to have an impact on immunotherapy efficacy, especially the currently widely used immune checkpoint inhibitors in various malignancies. Microbial interventions like fecal microbiota transplantation, various probiotics, or even antibiotics can increase or decrease the tumor's sensitivity to immunotherapy. However, not all tumors react in the same manner, highlighting the tumor microenvironment heterogeneity across tumor types and the influence this has on the crosstalk between the microbiome and therapy outcomes. In this study, we intend to review the association between the gut microbiota and immunotherapy response in cancer patients and the factors regulating this interaction.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Li HY, Huang SY, Xiong RG, et al (2022)

Anti-Obesity Effect of Theabrownin from Dark Tea in C57BL/6J Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet by Metabolic Profiles through Gut Microbiota Using Untargeted Metabolomics.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 11(19): pii:foods11193000.

The epidemic of obesity is a serious public health problem. In this study, the effect of theabrownin from dark tea on obesity was evaluated by biochemical tests and nuclear magnetic resonance in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. A mixture of antibiotics was used to deplete gut microbiota and then fecal microbiota transplant was used to restore gut microbiota. Untargeted metabolomics was used to reveal the effects of theabrownin on metabolic profiles through gut microbiota. The results showed that theabrownin significantly reduced body weight gain (83.0%) and body fat accumulation (30.29%) without affecting appetite. Also, theabrownin promoted lipid clearance with a hepatoprotective effect. The extra antibiotics disrupted the regulation of theabrownin on weight control while fecal microbiota transplant restored the beneficial regulation. That is, gut microbiota was important for theabrownin to reduce body weight gain. The untargeted metabolomics indicated that 18 metabolites were related to the anti-obesity effect of theabrownin mediated by gut microbiota. Furthermore, phenylalanine metabolism, histidine metabolism, as well as protein digestion and absorption pathway played a role in the anti-obesity of theabrownin. Our findings suggested that theabrownin significantly alleviated obesity via gut microbiota-related metabolic pathways, and theabrownin could be used for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

RevDate: 2022-10-13

Dogra S, Oneto C, Sherman A, et al (2022)

Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for C. difficile Infections Across Academic and Private Clinical Settings.

Journal of clinical gastroenterology pii:00004836-990000000-00076 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is increasingly performed for Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI), although long-term efficacy and safety data are limited and are focused on results from academic medical centers rather than private settings where most patients receive care.

METHODS: Medical records of 165 patients who received FMTs for CDI were reviewed from an academic medical center and an adjacent, unaffiliated private practice. Of these patients, 68 also completed a survey regarding their long-term disease course and interval health.

RESULTS: CDI resolution occurred in 81.3% (100/123) at the academic center and 95.2% (40/42) in the private setting. Private practice patients were more likely to present with recurrent, rather than refractory, CDI (92.9% vs. 66.7% P<0.001). Those from the academic center were more likely to have comorbid IBD, recent hospitalization, recent proton pump inhibitor use, ongoing immunosuppression, and inpatient FMT (all P values <0.05).Among surveyed patients, 29.4% developed interval comorbidities or changes to pre-existing conditions after a median follow-up of 33.7 months (IQR 13.2 to 44.3 mo). Of 30 patients requiring subsequent antibiotics, 13.3% suffered CDI relapse. All subjects who had initially responded to FMT but had a subsequent CDI (17.9%, 10/56) responded to another FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world setting, patients who underwent FMT at academic centers differed significantly in clinical characteristics from those treated at a private practice. In both settings, FMT is an effective treatment for CDI not responding to standard therapies, even after subsequent antibiotic use. New diagnoses following FMT, however, are common and merit further exploration.

RevDate: 2022-10-10

Yi W, Ji Y, Gao H, et al (2022)

Effects of urban particulate matter on gut microbiome and partial schizophrenia-like symptoms in mice: Evidence from shotgun metagenomic and metabolomic profiling.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06404-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence reported that particulate matter (PM) was associated with increased schizophrenia (SCZ) risk. Disturbance of gut microbiome was involved in SCZ. However, it remains unclear whether PM induces SCZ-like symptoms and how gut microbiome regulates them. Therefore, a multi-omics animal experiment was conducted to verify how urban PM induces SCZ-like behavior and altered gut microbiota and metabolic pathways.

METHODS: Using a completely random design, mice were divided into three groups: PM group, control group and MK801 group, which received daily tracheal instillation of PM solution, sterile PBS solution and intraperitoneal injection of MK801 (establish SCZ model), respectively. After a 14-day intervention, feces were collected for multi-omics testing (shotgun metagenomic sequencing and untargeted metabolomic profiling), followed by open field test, tail suspension test, and passive avoidance test. Besides, fecal microbiome of PM group and control group were transplanted into "pseudo-sterile" mice, then behavioral tests were conducted.

RESULTS: Similar to MK801 group, mice in PM group showed SCZ-like symptoms, including increased spontaneous activity, excitability, anxiety and decreased learning and spatial memory. PM exposure significantly increased the relative abundance of Verrucomicrobia and decreased that of Fibrobacteres et al. The metabolism pathways of estrogen signaling (estriol, 16-glucuronide-estriol and 21-desoxycortisol) and choline metabolism (phosphocholine) were significantly altered by PM exposure. Verrucomicrobia was negatively correlated with the level of estriol, which was correlated with decreased learning and spatial memory. Fibrobacteres and Deinococcus-Thermus were positively correlated with the level of phosphocholine, which was correlated with increased spontaneous activity, excitability and anxiety. Fecal microbiome transplantation from PM group mice reproduced excitability and anxiety symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to PM may affect composition of gut microbiome and alterations of estrogen signaling pathway and choline metabolism pathway, which were associated with partial SCZ-like behaviors. But whether gut microbiome regulates these metabolic pathways and behaviors remains to be determined.

RevDate: 2022-10-10

Yan X, Feng Y, Hao Y, et al (2022)

Gut-Testis Axis: Microbiota Prime Metabolome To Increase Sperm Quality in Young Type 2 Diabetes.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Young type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects 15% of the population, with a noted increase in cases, and T2D-related male infertility has become a serious issue in recent years. The current study aimed to explore the improvements of alginate oligosaccharide (AOS)-modified gut microbiota on semen quality in T2D. The T2D was established in young mice of 5 weeks of age with a blood glucose level of 21.2 ± 2.2 mmol/L, while blood glucose was 8.7 ± 1.1 mM in control animals. We discovered that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) of AOS-improved microbiota (A10-FMT) significantly decreased blood glucose, while FMT of gut microbiota from control animals (Con-FMT) did not. Sperm concentration and motility were decreased in T2D to 10% to 20% of those in the control group, while A10-FMT brought about a recovery of around 5- to 10-fold. A10-FMT significantly increased small intestinal Allobaculum, while it elevated small intestinal and cecal Lactobacillus in some extent, blood butyric acid and derivatives and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and testicular docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), EPA, and testosterone and its derivatives. Furthermore, A10-FMT improved liver functions and systemic antioxidant environments. Most importantly, A10-FMT promoted spermatogenesis through the improvement in the expression of proteins important for spermatogenesis to increase sperm concentration and motility. The underlying mechanisms may be that A10-FMT increased gut-beneficial microbes Lactobacillus and Allobaculum to elevate blood and/or testicular butyric acid, DHA, EPA, and testosterone to promote spermatogenesis and thus to ameliorate sperm concentration and motility. AOS-improved gut microbes could emerge as attractive candidates to treat T2D-diminished semen quality. IMPORTANCE A10-FMT benefits gut microbiota, liver function, and systemic environment via improvement in blood metabolome, consequently to favor the testicular microenvironment to improve spermatogenesis process and to boost T2D-diminished semen quality. We established that AOS-improved gut microbiota may be used to boost T2D-decreased semen quality and metabolic disease-related male subfertility.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Wu L, Li MQ, Xie YT, et al (2022)

Washed microbiota transplantation improves patients with high blood glucose in South China.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:985636.

Background and Aims: Although fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donors has been shown to have hypoglycemic effects in animal models of diabetes, its clinical impact in patients with abnormal blood glucose metabolism is unclear, especially in southern Chinese populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of washed microbiota transplantation (WMT) in the treatment of abnormal blood glucose metabolism in a population in southern China.

Methods: The clinical data of patients with different indications who received 1-3 treatments of WMT were retrospectively collected. The changes of blood glucose, blood lipids, blood pressure, liver function and blood routine before and after WMT were compared, such as fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), white blood cells (WBC), lymphocytes (LY) and platelets (PLT), etc.

Results: A total of 195 patients were included in the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, including 20 patients with high blood glucose and 175 patients with normal blood glucose. WMT has a significant effect in reducing short term blood glucose level (FBG) in patients with high blood glucose (p < 0.05). The fasting blood glucose (FBG) of 72.22% of patients with high blood glucose decreased to normal in a short term (about 1 month) (p < 0.001); In the medium term (about 2 months), there was a significant hypolipidemic (TG) (p = 0.043) effect, long term (about 6 months) significant blood pressure lowering (SBP, p = 0.048) effect. Overall, WMT significantly reduced the risk of high risk classes of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) in the short term (p = 0.029) and medium term (p = 0.050).

Conclusion: WMT can significantly improve blood glucose in patients with high blood glucose, and there is no long-term elevated risk of blood glucose and ASCVD. FBG levels were significantly reduced in both the short and medium term in patients with high blood glucose treated with WMT. Therefore, the regulation of gut microbiota by WMT may provide a new clinical approach for the treatment of abnormal blood glucose metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Li Y, Li X, Wu Y, et al (2022)

Effects of fecal microbiota transplantation from yaks on weaning diarrhea, fecal microbiota composition, microbial network structure and functional pathways in Chinese Holstein calves.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:898505.

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from yaks on weaning diarrhea, fecal microbiota composition, microbial network structure and functional pathways in Chinese Holstein Calves. In this study, 50 calves were randomly divided into five groups of 10 each: NC group (no supplementation), Control group (normal saline), low concentration FMT group (LFMT, 1 × 108 CFU/ml), high concentration FMT group (HMFT, 1 × 109 CFU/ml), and sterilized FMT group (SMFT, sterilized bacterial solution). The test lasted for 30 days. We found that FMT reduced the incidence of diarrhea in weaned calves, and the anti-diarrhea effect of LFMT was stronger than those of HFMT and SFMT. Calf feces were collected by rectal palpation on days 5, 10, 15, and 20 post-weaning, and high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer region of fecal microbiota was performed. We observed that the richness and diversity of bacterial microbiota in the LFMT, HFMT, and SFMT groups were higher than those in the NC and Control groups at day 20 after weaning. The treatment had a significant effect on bacterial richness (p < 0.05), but not on fungal diversity or richness. The analysis of gut microbiome showed that Firmicutes and Bacteroides were the main bacterial phyla in the feces of weaned calves, and norank_ f Muribaculaceae, UCG-005, Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Bacteroides, and Blautia were the main genera. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were the main fungal phyla. Compared to abundance parameters in the Control and NC groups, relative abundances of Firmicutes in the FMT groups increased at different time points after weaning. The relative abundance of Blautia and Lactobacillus in the LFMT group increased significantly after weaning. In addition, abundances of Ruminococcus and Romboutsia, which produce short-chain fatty acids, were also increased in different FMT groups. FMT significantly increased the relative abundance of beneficial bacteria, enhanced the complexity of the fecal microbial network, and promoted important metabolic and cellular processes in weaned calves. In conclusion, our study provides a reference and theoretical basis for FMT to prevent calf weaning diarrhea and other intestinal diseases in ruminants.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Nigam M, Panwar AS, RK Singh (2022)

Orchestrating the fecal microbiota transplantation: Current technological advancements and potential biomedical application.

Frontiers in medical technology, 4:961569.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been proved to be an effective treatment for gastrointestinal disorders caused due to microbial disbalance. Nowadays, this approach is being used to treat extragastrointestinal conditions like metabolic and neurological disorders, which are considered to have their provenance in microbial dysbiosis in the intestine. Even though case studies and clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of FMT in treating a variety of ailments, safety and ethical concerns must be answered before the technique is widely used to the community's overall benefit. From this perspective, it is not unexpected that techniques for altering gut microbiota may represent a form of medication whose potential has not yet been thoroughly addressed. This review intends to gather data on recent developments in FMT and its safety, constraints, and ethical considerations.

RevDate: 2022-10-08

Wang Y, Xiao F, Xiao Y, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation relieves abdominal bloating in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders via modulating the gut microbiome and metabolome.

Journal of digestive diseases [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) children with abdominal bloating and changes in the gut microbiome and metabolome.

METHODS: Twelve pediatric FGID patients with predominant abdominal bloating who underwent FMT were enrolled in the study. The clinical responses were assessed at 8 weeks after FMT. Fecal bacterial composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal metabolome was measured by targeted metabolomics analysis.

RESULTS: The median age of the 12 children with FGID was 6 years, and 9 were boys. Abdominal bloating was relieved in all pediatric FGID patients by FMT at 8 weeks. Meanwhile, FMT significantly improved the symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea. The alpha diversity was significantly lower in the FGID children, and the fecal microbial community (beta diversity) was separate from that of healthy control (HC). The relative abundances of multiple bacterial genera were significantly changed in the feces of the pediatric FGID patients. The levels of several short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were lower, and lactic acid concentrations were higher in FGID patients than in HC. The altered bacterial composition was correlated with changes in the fecal metabolite profile and clinical symptoms in FGID patients. FMT modulated the fecal microbiome and metabolome in FGID children toward a healthy state.

CONCLUSION: FMT relieves abdominal bloating and modulates the fecal microbiome and metabolome toward a healthy state in children with FGIDs. Our findings suggest that FMT may provide an alternative therapy for children with FGID and abdominal bloating. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-11

Perez R, Khanna S, Tillotson GS, et al (2022)

Reducing Recurrence and Complications Related to Clostridioides difficile Infection: A Panel Discussion Summary.

Professional case management, 27(6):277-287.

BACKGROUND: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention identifies Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) as an urgent threat to people and health care systems. CDI leads to high health care utilizations and results in significantly reduced quality of life for patients. The high burden of disease is seen across all health care settings, outside of the hospital, in the community, and in younger people. Individuals with CDI transition from hospitals to long-term care facilities to the community, and management of these transitions can reduce the incidence of recurrence and rehospitalization.

PURPOSE: The most common cause of diarrhea occurring in a health care setting is Clostridioides difficile and is also the cause of antibiotic-associated colitis (L. C. McDonald, 2021). The infection results from a disruption in the microbial flora of the gastrointestinal tract, mostly after antibiotic use or other medications such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). As a result, infected individuals are colonized and shed the spores into the environment, exposing others-goals of treatment focus on reducing the exposure and individual susceptibility. Although the incidence of C. diff is stable, recurrence is increasing significantly, with severe complications also a concern. The increased incidence and potential for life-threatening conditions require reducing initial exposure, supporting prescribed treatment, and preventing recurrence.

PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTINGS: C. diff infection can be contracted in health care facilities and in the community. Case managers from nearly all practice settings may encounter patients with the infection.

FINDINGS/CONCLUSIONS: To avert the devastating complications of Clostridioides difficile infection, case managers play an essential role in the prevention of recurrence with education, advocacy of best practices, effective care coordination, and thorough transitions of care. Each recurrence of C. diff infection leaves the patient vulnerable to the potential for surgical intervention, sepsis, and death.

Mitigating the risk for readmission and recurrence will enhance C. diff infection care, safety, and outcomes to improve a patient's health care journey and quality of life. Case managers need to take a primary role in the transition and care coordination processes, including patient and support system education, coordination of any postdischarge services, connection to providers, adherence support activities, and follow-up for improvement or changes in condition. Supportive adherence activities and prevention education can result in the avoidance of recurrence. Case managers are well-equipped to locate resources to assist those patients challenged with the cost of medications, inability to attend appointments, or access basic needs. Although not directly related to C. diff, these challenges contribute to recurrence and readmission. Mitigating risk for readmission and recurrence results in an improved quality of life.

RevDate: 2022-10-09

Pan H, Zhou M, Ju Z, et al (2022)

Potential role of gut microbiota-LCA-INSR axis in high fat-diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver dysfunction: From perspective of radiation variation.

Current research in food science, 5:1685-1700.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive disease of the liver covering a range of conditions from hepatic steatosis to liver fibrosis. NAFLD could be induced by High-fat-diet(HFD). Ionizing radiation is widely used in medical diagnosis and therapy as well as is a common risk factor in occupational environment. Whether the exposure of various dose of radiation has effects on HFD-induced NAFLD remains unclear. Here, we reported that radiation exposure promoted HFD-induced NAFLD in a dose-response manner. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition had significant difference among mice with or without radiation treatment. Specifically, the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, the abundance of A. muciniphila, Butyricococcus, and Clostridiaceae decreased significantly in the mice with co-exposure of high dose of radiation and HFD treatment. A fecal transplantation trial (FMT) further verified the role of gut microbiota in the regulation of the liver response to co-exposure of high dose of radiation and HFD treatment. Notably, the gut microbiome analysis showed plasma lithocholic acid (LCA) level increased in the mice with co-exposure of high dose of radiation and HFD treatment. Following antibiotic and probiotic treatments there was a significantly decreased LCA bile acid concentration and subsequent promotion of INSR/PI3K/Akt insulin signaling in the liver tissues. Our results demonstrate that the co-exposure of radiation and HFD aggravates the HFD-induced NAFLD through gut microbiota-LCA-INSR axis. Probiotics supplementation is a potential way to protect against co-exposure of radiation and HFD-induced liver damage. Meanwhile, our study provide a new insight that population with potential HFD-induced damage should pay more attention on preventing from liver damage while exposing radiation.

RevDate: 2022-10-09

Biazzo M, Allegra M, G Deidda (2022)

Clostridioides difficile and neurological disorders: New perspectives.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 16:946601.

Despite brain physiological functions or pathological dysfunctions relying on the activity of neuronal/non-neuronal populations, over the last decades a plethora of evidence unraveled the essential contribution of the microbial populations living and residing within the gut, called gut microbiota. The gut microbiota plays a role in brain (dys)functions, and it will become a promising valuable therapeutic target for several brain pathologies. In the present mini-review, after a brief overview of the role of gut microbiota in normal brain physiology and pathology, we focus on the role of the bacterium Clostridioides difficile, a pathogen responsible for recurrent and refractory infections, in people with neurological diseases, summarizing recent correlative and causative evidence in the scientific literature and highlighting the potential of microbiota-based strategies targeting this pathogen to ameliorate not only gastrointestinal but also the neurological symptoms.

RevDate: 2022-10-07

Zhang T, Zhang B, Tian W, et al (2022)

Research trends in ulcerative colitis: A bibliometric and visualized study from 2011 to 2021.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:951004.

Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease with repeated relapses and remissions. Despite decades of effort, numerous aspects, including the initiating event and pathogenesis of UC, still remain ambiguous, which requires ongoing investigation. Given the mass of publications on UC, there are multidimensional challenges to evaluating the scientific impact of relevant work and identifying the current foci of the multifaceted disease. Accordingly, herein, we aim to assess the global growth of UC research production, analyze patterns of research areas, and evaluate trends in this area. Methods: The Web of Science Core Collection of Clarivate Analytics was searched for articles related to UC published from 2011 to 2021. Microsoft Office Excel 2019 was used to visualize the number of publications over time. Knowledge maps were generated using CiteSpace and VOSviewer to analyze collaborations among countries, institutions, and authors and to present the journey of UC research as well as to reveal the current foci of UC research. Results: A total of 5,088 publications were evaluated in the present study. China had the most publications (1,099, 22.5%). Univ Calif San Diego was the most productive institution (126, 2.48%). William J Sandborn published the greatest number of articles (100, 1.97%). Toshifumi Hibi was the most influential author in the field with a betweenness centrality of 0.53. Inflammatory bowel diseases was identified as the most prolific journal (379, 7.45%). Gastroenterology was the most co-cited journal (3,730, 4.02%). "Vedolizumab," "tofacitinib," "Faecalibacterium prausnitzii," "fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT)," "toll-like receptor 4," and "nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome" were considered the hot topics. Conclusion: In UC research, manuscripts that had high impacts on the scientific community provided an evidence base. UC therapy has entered the era of personalized and precision therapy. As research on FMT, anti-integrin antibodies, Janus kinase inhibitors, and anti-tumor necrosis factor drugs continues to grow, their use in the clinical setting may also expand.

RevDate: 2022-10-07

Zhang YW, Cao MM, Li YJ, et al (2022)

Fecal microbiota transplantation ameliorates bone loss in mice with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis via modulating gut microbiota and metabolic function.

Journal of orthopaedic translation, 37:46-60.

Background: Osteoporosis (OP) is a systemic metabolic bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass and destruction of bone microstructure, which tends to result in enhanced bone fragility and related fractures. The postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMOP) has a relatively high proportion, and numerous studies reveal that estrogen-deficiency is related to the imbalance of gut microbiota (GM), impaired intestinal mucosal barrier function and enhanced inflammatory reactivity. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear and the existing interventions are also scarce.

Methods: In this study, we established a mouse model induced by ovariectomy (OVX) and conducted fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) by gavage every day for 8 weeks. Subsequently, the bone mass and microarchitecture of mice were evaluated by the micro computed tomography (Micro-CT). The intestinal permeability, pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines expression, osteogenic and osteoclastic activities were detected by the immunohistological analysis, histological examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis accordingly. Additionally, the composition and abundance of GM were assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and the fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) level was measured by metabolomics.

Results: Our results demonstrated that FMT inhibited the excessive osteoclastogenesis and prevented the OVX-induced bone loss. Specifically, compared with the OVX group, FMT enhanced the expressions of tight junction proteins (zonula occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and Occludin) and suppressed the release of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)). Furthermore, FMT also optimized the composition and abundance of GM, and increased the fecal SCFAs level (mainly acetic acid and propionic acid).

Conclusions: Collectively, based on GM-bone axis, FMT prevented the OVX-induced bone loss by correcting the imbalance of GM, improving the SCFAs level, optimizing the intestinal permeability and suppressing the release of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines, which may be an alternative option to serve as a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of PMOP in the future.

This study indicates the ingenious involvement of GM-bone axis in PMOP and the role of FMT in reshaping the status of GM and ameliorating the bone loss in OVX-induced mice. FMT might serve as a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of PMOP in the future.

RevDate: 2022-10-09
CmpDate: 2022-10-06

Wang J, Zhong Y, Zhu H, et al (2022)

Different gender-derived gut microbiota influence stroke outcomes by mitigating inflammation.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 19(1):245.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is associated with high disability and mortality rates and increases the incidence of organ-related complications. Research has revealed that the outcomes and prognosis of stroke are regulated by the state of the intestinal microbiota. However, the possibility that the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota can alter sex-related stroke outcomes remain unknown.

METHODS: To verify the different effects of microbiota from different sexes on stroke outcomes, we performed mouse fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and established a model of ischemic stroke. Male and female mice received either male or female microbiota through FMT. Ischemic stroke was triggered by MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion), and sham surgery served as a control. Over the next few weeks, the mice underwent neurological evaluation and metabolite and inflammatory level detection, and we collected fecal samples for 16S ribosomal RNA analysis.

RESULTS: We found that when the female mice were not treated with FMT, the microbiota (especially the Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio) and the levels of three main metabolites tended to resemble those of male mice after experimental stroke, indicating that stroke can induce an ecological imbalance in the biological community. Through intragastric administration, the gut microbiota of male and female mice was altered to resemble that of the other sex. In general, in female mice after MCAO, the survival rate was increased, the infarct area was reduced, behavioral test performance was improved, the release of beneficial metabolites was promoted and the level of inflammation was mitigated. In contrast, mice that received male microbiota were much more hampered in terms of protection against brain damage and the recovery of neurological function.

CONCLUSION: A female-like biological community reduces the level of systemic proinflammatory cytokines after ischemic stroke. Poor stroke outcomes can be positively modulated following supplementation with female gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-10-04

An J, Wang L, Song S, et al (2022)

Electroacupuncture reduces blood glucose by regulating intestinal flora in type 2 diabetic mice.

Journal of diabetes [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The development of diabetes is closely related to the gut microbiota in recent studies, which can be influenced by intestinal motility. A few studies report that electroacupuncture (EA) can lower blood glucose. EA can promote colonic motility and influence gut microbes. In this study, we explored the effect of the EA on blood glucose level in mice with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its mechanism.

METHODS: The T2D mice model, fecal microbiota transplantation mice model, and KitW/Wv mice model (Point mutation of mouse W locus encoding kit gene)were used to investigate the effect of EA on blood glucose as well as the mechanism; The blood glucose and insulin resistance level and the intestinal flora were evaluated. The level of intestinal junction protein, inflammatory cytokines in the serum, interstitial cells of Cajal content, and colonic motility were detected. Lastly, the IKKβ/NF-κB-JNK-IRS-1-AKT pathway was explored.

RESULTS: EA lowered the blood glucose level, altered the gut microbiota, and promoted colonic motility in T2D mice. EA-altered microbiota decreased the blood glucose level and insulin resistance in the antibiotics-treated diabetic mice. EA increased tight junction protein, lowered inflammatory factors, and regulated the IKKβ/NF-κB-JNK-IRS-1-AKT pathway in the liver and muscles. EA could not reduce the blood glucose and regulated gut microbiota in the KitW/Wv mice model.

CONCLUSIONS: EA promoted intestinal motility to regulate the intestinal flora, thereby reducing the level of systemic inflammation, and ultimately lowering the blood glucose by the IKKβ/NF-κB-JNK-IRS-1-AKT signal pathway.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-05

Yang Z, Chen Z, Lin X, et al (2022)

Rural environment reduces allergic inflammation by modulating the gut microbiota.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2125733.

Rural environments and microbiota are linked to a reduction in the prevalence of allergies. However, the mechanism underlying the reduced allergies modulated by rural residency is unclear. Here, we assessed gut bacterial composition and metagenomics in urban and rural children in the EuroPrevall-INCO cohort. Airborne dusts, including mattress and rural henhouse dusts, were profiled for bacterial and fungal composition by amplicon sequencing. Mice were repeatedly exposed to intranasal dust extracts and evaluated for their effects on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic airway inflammation, and gut microbiota restoration was validated by fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from dust-exposed donor mice. We found that rural children had fewer allergies and unique gut microbiota with fewer Bacteroides and more Prevotella. Indoor dusts in rural environments harbored higher endotoxin level and diversity of bacteria and fungi, whereas indoor urban dusts were enriched with Aspergillus and contained elevated pathogenic bacteria. Intranasal administration of rural dusts before OVA sensitization reduced respiratory eosinophils and blood IgE level in mice and also led to a recovery of gut bacterial diversity and Ruminiclostridium in the mouse model. FMT restored the protective effect by reducing OVA-induced lung eosinophils in recipient mice. Together, these results support a cause-effect relationship between exposure to dust microbiota and allergy susceptibility in children and mice. Specifically, rural environmental exposure modulated the gut microbiota, which was essential in reducing allergy in children from Southern China. Our findings support the notion that the modulation of gut microbiota by exposure to rural indoor dust may improve allergy prevention.

RevDate: 2022-10-07

Yin L, Huang G, Khan I, et al (2022)

Poria cocos polysaccharides exert prebiotic function to attenuate the adverse effects and improve the therapeutic outcome of 5-FU in ApcMin/+ mice.

Chinese medicine, 17(1):116.

BACKGROUND: As a first-line chemotherapeutic agent, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) exhibits many side effects, weakening its efficacy in cancer treatment. In this study, we hypothesize that Poria cocos polysaccharides (PCP), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with various bioactivities and prebiotic effects, might improve the therapeutic effect of 5-FU by restoring the homeostasis of the gut microenvironment and the commensal gut microflora.

METHODS: ApcMin/+ mice were employed to evaluate the anti-cancer effect of 5-FU in conjunction with PCP treatment. Body weight and food consumption were monitored weekly. Polyp count was used to assess the anti-cancer effect of PCP and 5-FU. Expressions of mucosal cytokines and gut epithelial junction molecules were measured using qRT-PCR. 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal DNAs was used to evaluate the compositional changes of gut microbiota (GM). Transplantation of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Bifidobacterium animalis were performed to verify the prebiotic effects of PCP in improving the efficacy of 5-FU.

RESULTS: The results showed that PCP treatment alleviated the weight loss caused by 5-FU treatment and reduced the polyp burden in ApcMin/+ mice. Additionally, PCP treatment eased the cytotoxic effects of 5-FU by reducing the expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokines; and significantly improving the gut barriers by enhancing the tight junction proteins and associated adhesion molecules. Furthermore, 16S rRNA gene sequencing data showed that PCP alone or with 5-FU could stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria (Bacteroides acidifaciens, Bacteroides intestinihominis, Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, and the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Eubacterium). At the same time, it inhibited the growth of potential pathogens (e.g., Alistipes finegoldii, Alistipes massiliensis, Alistipes putredinis., Citrobacter spp., Desulfovibrio spp., and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans). Moreover, the results showed that transplantation of L.johnsonii and B.animalis effectively reduced the polyp burden in ApcMin/+ mice being treated with 5-FU.

CONCLUSION: Our study showed that PCP could effectively improve the anti-cancer effect of 5-FU by attenuating its side effects, modulating intestinal inflammation, improving the gut epithelial barrier, and modulating the gut microbiota of ApcMin/+ mice.

RevDate: 2022-10-13

Lv WJ, Ma YM, Huang JY, et al (2022)

Polysaccharides derived from Shenling Baizhu San improve colitis via modulating tryptophan metabolism in mice.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 222(Pt A):1127-1136 pii:S0141-8130(22)02185-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Shenling Baizhu San has beneficial effects on the metabolism of the gut microbiota, however, the mechanisms underlying microbiota metabolites mediated anti-inflammation signaling are not well understood. Previously, we have demonstrated that supplementation with Shenling Baizhu San alleviated antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). The current study intends to investigate the dynamic modulation of Shenling Baizhu San polysaccharides (SP) on colitis from the gut microbiota metabolites perspective. Administration of SP effectively relieved colitis induced by DSS in mice, including alleviating body weight loss, the downregulation of colon proinflammatory mediators, and the promotion of intestinal injury repair. Whereas, the efficacy was eliminated by antibiotics, which demonstrated that the efficacy of SP was dependent on the gut microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) showed that the efficacy of SP can be transferred to gut microbiota. Serum metabolomics analysis showed that supplementation with SP significantly promoted tryptophan metabolism, which was consistent with the changed structure of the gut microbiota, including Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus regulated by SP. Especially, the tryptophan metabolites-kynurenine (KYN) activated the expression of amplifying aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and Cyp1A1 to promote IL-10 expression in colon. These data suggested that SP positively affected colitis in mice by regulating tryptophan metabolic function of their gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-10-05
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Cai Y, Zhang Y, Wang W, et al (2022)

Prospect of research hotspots in prevention and treatment of diseases based on intestinal microbiome.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:971457.

With the in-depth study of gut microbiota, the methods of preventing and treating diseases have gradually diversified. But there is still lack of precise therapies methods to better treat the diseases. Therefore, researcher must focus on how to accurately regulate gut microbiota to achieve it. In order to promote the rapid development of this field, we provide several insights in gut microbiome-based precision therapies while prospecting the future directions.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )