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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 21 Mar 2023 at 01:44 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-20

Wynn AB, Beyer G, Richards M, et al (2023)

Procedure, Screening, and Cost of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Cureus, 15(2):e35116.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is currently considered a potential treatment for various GI-related illnesses, with the goal to replenish natural healthy flora of the GI tract that has been harmed because of antibiotic use or overgrowth of harmful bacteria. Current methods of administering the processed stool include colonoscopy and enema, while an oral capsule is being developed. Each method of administration carries its own set of risks, including adverse reactions to treatment, infection following the invasive administration procedure, and flare-ups of GI-related symptoms. Current oral administration through nasoduodenal tube poses a risk for aspiration which has not been ruled out as the cause of subsequent pneumonia and death in patient trials. The development of an oral capsule could address some of the faults of the current methods, not only making treatment more affordable and accessible but also less of a risk due to its minimally invasive nature. FMT is also a treatment option to attenuate adverse effects associated with antibiotic use, including combatting the emergence of antibiotic resistance, as well as adverse effects related to other medical treatments such as chemotherapy. While FMT is an unexplored treatment option for multiple gastrointestinal disorders and is currently still largely inaccessible for many patients financially, studies have suggested that it could be a more affordable treatment option long-term for patients as aspects of the treatment become more affordable with further research.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Spartz EJ, Estafanos M, Mallick R, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Fulminant Clostridioides Difficile Infection: A Combined Medical and Surgical Case Series.

Cureus, 15(2):e34998.

Urgent abdominal colectomy is indicated for patients with fulminant Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) when other medical therapies fail, yet mortality remains high. Fecal microbiota transplant is a less invasive alternative approach for patients with fulminant CDI. We report the 30-day complications of patients with fulminant CDI who underwent either abdominal colectomy, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), or FMT followed by abdominal colectomy (FMT-CO). Methods: We performed a single-center, retrospective case review of combined medical and surgical patients with CDI at a large academic medical center between 2008 and 2016. Cohorts were identified as patients with fulminant CDI who underwent total abdominal colectomy alone (CO), FMT alone (FMT), or FMT-CO. We analyzed patient demographics, history, comorbidities, clinical and laboratory variables, CDI severity scores, and mortality outcomes at 30 days. Results: We identified 5,150 patients with CDI at our center during the review period; 16 patients met the criteria for fulminant CDI and were included in this study, with four patients in the CO cohort, eight patients in the FMT cohort, and four patients in the FMT-CO cohort. Demographics and CDI severity scores were similar for all three groups, although the selected comorbidity profiles differed significantly among the three cohorts. The 30-day mortality rates for patients in the CO, FMT, and FMT-CO groups were 25%, 12.5%, and 25%, respectively. Conclusions: FMT is an alternative or adjunctive therapy to colectomy for patients with fulminant CDI that is not associated with increased mortality. Implementation of FMT protocols in clinical practice would be dependent on the availability of qualified transplant material and successful early identification of patients likely to benefit from FMT.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Zhang J, Zhu G, Wan L, et al (2023)

Effect of fecal microbiota transplantation in children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 14:1123658.

BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be helpful in the treatment of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as rebalancing the gut microbiome has been shown to potentially improve behavioral symptoms in children with ASD.

METHODS: This systematic review was conducted to assess the effect of FMT for children with ASD. The Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for articles published from inception to October 6, 2022. Two reviewers independently screened the identified records and undertook data extraction.

RESULTS: The search identified a total of five studies: two prospective open-label studies, two retrospective observational studies, and a case report; however, no randomized controlled trial was identified. All five studies reported a significant post-FMT-treatment improvement in neuropsychological assessment of ASD. The two prospective open-label studies suggested that the Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC) score, and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) score at the posttreatment assessment decreased from the baseline (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; all p < 0.01]). The two retrospective observational studies suggested that FMT helped to improve the ASD symptoms. One observational study reported that the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score and ABC score of the constipation group decreased from the baseline after the second course assessment (CARS [baseline: mean 35.25 ± standard deviation 4.36, second course: 32.5 ± 3.1, p = 0.015]; ABC [baseline: 56.21 ± 16.08, second course: 46.54 ± 16.54, p = 0.046]). Another observational study found that both ABC and CARS scores decreased as the number of FMT courses increased, and significant differences were found at the end of each course as compared with the baseline.

CONCLUSION: Compared with the baseline, FMT significantly improved symptoms of autism in children with ASD in observational studies. However, rigorously designed randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to establish the safety and efficacy of FMT as a treatment for ASD.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Wang J, Liu X, Q Li (2023)

Interventional strategies for ischemic stroke based on the modulation of the gut microbiota.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1158057.

The microbiota-gut-brain axis connects the brain and the gut in a bidirectional manner. The organism's homeostasis is disrupted during an ischemic stroke (IS). Cerebral ischemia affects the intestinal flora and microbiota metabolites. Microbiome dysbiosis, on the other hand, exacerbates the severity of IS outcomes by inducing systemic inflammation. Some studies have recently provided novel insights into the pathogenesis, efficacy, prognosis, and treatment-related adverse events of the gut microbiome in IS. In this review, we discussed the view that the gut microbiome is of clinical value in personalized therapeutic regimens for IS. Based on recent non-clinical and clinical studies on stroke, we discussed new therapeutic strategies that might be developed by modulating gut bacterial flora. These strategies include dietary intervention, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, antibiotics, traditional Chinese medication, and gut-derived stem cell transplantation. Although the gut microbiota-targeted intervention is optimistic, some issues need to be addressed before clinical translation. These issues include a deeper understanding of the potential underlying mechanisms, conducting larger longitudinal cohort studies on the gut microbiome and host responses with multiple layers of data, developing standardized protocols for conducting and reporting clinical analyses, and performing a clinical assessment of multiple large-scale IS cohorts. In this review, we presented certain opportunities and challenges that might be considered for developing effective strategies by manipulating the gut microbiome to improve the treatment and prevention of ischemic stroke.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

DuPont HL, Suescun J, Jiang ZD, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in Parkinson's disease-A randomized repeat-dose, placebo-controlled clinical pilot study.

Frontiers in neurology, 14:1104759.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The intestinal microbiome plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders and may provide an opportunity for disease modification. We performed a pilot clinical study looking at the safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), its effect on the microbiome, and improvement of symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study, wherein orally administered lyophilized FMT product or matching placebo was given to 12 subjects with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease with constipation twice weekly for 12 weeks. Subjects were followed for safety and clinical improvement for 9 additional months (total study duration 12 months).

RESULTS: Fecal microbiota transplantation caused non-severe transient upper gastrointestinal symptoms. One subject receiving FMT was diagnosed with unrelated metastatic cancer and was removed from the trial. Beta diversity (taxa) of the microbiome, was similar comparing placebo and FMT groups at baseline, however, for subjects randomized to FMT, it increased significantly at 6 weeks (p = 0.008) and 13 weeks (p = 0.0008). After treatment with FMT, proportions of selective families within the phylum Firmicutes increased significantly, while proportion of microbiota belonging to Proteobacteria were significantly reduced. Objective motor findings showed only temporary improvement while subjective symptom improvements were reported compared to baseline in the group receiving FMT. Constipation, gut transient times (NS), and gut motility index (p = 0.0374) were improved in the FMT group.

CONCLUSIONS: Subjects with Parkinson's disease tolerated multi-dose-FMT, and experienced increased diversity of the intestinal microbiome that was associated with reduction in constipation and improved gut transit and intestinal motility. Fecal microbiota transplantation administration improved subjective motor and non-motor symptoms.


RevDate: 2023-03-20

Fourati S, Dumay A, Roy M, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in a rodent model of short bowel syndrome: A therapeutic approach?.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1023441.

Extensive intestinal resection leads to Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS), the main cause of chronic intestinal failure. Colon preservation is crucial for spontaneous adaptation, to improve absorption and reduce parenteral nutrition dependence. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a promising approach in pathologies with dysbiosis as the one observed in SBS patients, was assessed in SBS rats with jejuno-colonic anastomosis. The evolution of weight and food intake, the lenght of intestinal villi and crypts and the composition of fecal microbiota of Sham and SBS rats, transplanted or not with high fat diet rat microbiota, were analyzed. All SBS rats lost weight, increased their food intake and exhibited jejunal and colonic hyperplasia. Microbiota composition of SBS rats, transplanted or not, was largely enriched with Lactobacillaceae, and α- and β-diversity were significantly different from Sham. The FMT altered microbiota composition and α- and β-diversity in Sham but not SBS rats. FMT from high fat diet rats was successfully engrafted in Sham, but failed to take hold in SBS rats, probably because of the specific luminal environment in colon of SBS subjects favoring aero-tolerant over anaerobic bacteria. Finally, the level of food intake in SBS rats was positively correlated with their Lactobacillaceae abundance. Microbiota transfer must be optimized and adapted to this specific SBS environment.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Berthouzoz E, Lazarevic V, Zekeridou A, et al (2023)

Oral and intestinal dysbiosis in Parkinson's disease.

Revue neurologique pii:S0035-3787(23)00876-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The suspicion of an origin of Parkinson's disease (PD) at the periphery of the body and the involvement of environmental risk factors in the pathogenesis of PD have directed the attention of the scientific community towards the microbiota. The microbiota represents all the microorganisms residing both in and on a host. It plays an essential role in the physiological functioning of the host. In this article, we review the dysbiosis repeatedly demonstrated in PD and how it influences PD symptoms. Dysbiosis is associated with both motor and non-motor PD symptoms. In animal models, dysbiosis only promotes symptoms in individuals genetically susceptible to Parkinson's disease, suggesting that dysbiosis is a risk factor but not a cause of Parkinson's disease. We also review how dysbiosis contributes to the pathophysiology of PD. Dysbiosis induces numerous and complex metabolic changes, resulting in increased intestinal permeability, local and systemic inflammation, production of bacterial amyloid proteins that promote α-synuclein aggregation, as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria that have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective potential. In addition, we review how dysbiosis decreases the efficacy of dopaminergic treatments. We then discuss the interest of dysbiosis analysis as a biomarker of Parkinson's disease. Finally, we give an overview of how interventions modulating the gut microbiota such as dietary interventions, pro-biotics, intestinal decontamination and fecal microbiota transplantation could influence the course of PD.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Lin L, Zhang K, Xiong Q, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota in pre-clinical rheumatoid arthritis: From pathogenesis to preventing progression.

Journal of autoimmunity pii:S0896-8411(23)00010-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by progressive polyarthritis that leads to cartilage and bone damage. Pre-clinical RA is a prolonged state before clinical arthritis and RA develop, in which autoantibodies (antibodies against citrullinated proteins, rheumatoid factors) can be present due to the breakdown of immunologic self-tolerance. As early treatment initiation before the onset of polyarthritis may achieve sustained remission, optimize clinical outcomes, and even prevent RA progression, the pre-clinical RA stage is showing the prospect to be the window of opportunity for RA treatment. Growing evidence has shown the role of the gut microbiota in inducing systemic inflammation and polyarthritis via multiple mechanisms, which may involve molecular mimicry, impaired intestinal barrier function, gut microbiota-derived metabolites mediated immune regulation, modulation of the gut microbiota's effect on immune cells, intestinal epithelial cells autophagy, and the interaction between the microbiome and human leukocyte antigen alleles as well as microRNAs. Since gut microbiota alterations in pre-clinical RA have been reported, potential therapies for modifying the gut microbiota in pre-clinical RA, including natural products, antibiotic therapy, fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, microRNAs therapy, vitamin D supplementation, autophagy inducer-based treatment, prebiotics, and diet, holds great promise for the successful treatment and even prevention of RA via altering ongoing inflammation. In this review, we summarized current studies that include pathogenesis of gut microbiota in RA progression and promising therapeutic strategies to provide novel ideas for the management of pre-clinical RA and possibly preventing arthritis progression.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Bellucci E, Chiereghin F, Pacifici F, et al (2023)

Novel therapeutic approaches based on the pathological role of gut dysbiosis on the link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and insulin resistance.

European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 27(5):1921-1944.

The growing global epidemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus has determined an increased prevalence of NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), making it the most common chronic liver disease in the Western world and a leading cause of liver transplantation. In the last few years, a rising number of studies conducted both on animal and human models have shown the existence of a close association between insulin resistance (IR), dysbiosis, and steatosis. However, all the mechanisms that lead to impaired permeability, inflammation, and fibrosis have not been fully clarified. Recently, new possible treatment modalities have received much attention. To reach the review purpose, a broad-ranging literature search on multidisciplinary research databases was performed using the following terms alone or in combination: "NAFLD", "gut dysbiosis", "insulin resistance", "inflammation", "probiotics", "Chinese herbs". The use of probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics, postbiotics, fecal microbiota transplant (FMT), Chinese herbal medicine, antibiotics, diet (polyphenols and fasting diets), and minor therapies such as carbon nanoparticles, the MCJ protein, water rich in molecular hydrogen, seems to be able to improve the phenotypic pattern in NAFLD patients. In this review, we provide an overview of how IR and dysbiosis contribute to the development and progression of NAFLD, as well as the therapeutic strategies currently in use.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Bhatt A, Haslam A, V Prasad (2023)

The effect of gastrointestinal microbiome supplementation on immune checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy: a systematic review.

Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome modulators, such as fecal microbiome transplants (FMTs), are being considered as supplements to standard immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) treatment to improve efficacy. This systematic review aims to assess the study design and outcomes of clinical trials that use FMTs to enhance ICI treatment.

METHODS: Systematic literature searches were conducted on PubMed and Embase using search terms that included names of ICIs and gastrointestinal microbiome. A first search identified interventional trials, and the second search identified interventional, retrospective, and observational studies.

RESULTS: The search for interventional trials produced 205 articles, 3 of which met the inclusion criteria. All studies had sample sizes ranging between 10 and 30 participants. 2 of the studies were single-arm studies with no control arm. One study reported an overall response rate (ORR) of 3 out of 15 (20%), a median progression-free survival (PFS) of 3 months, and a median overall survival (OS) of 7 months. The second study reported 1 complete response out of 10 (10%) and 2 partial responses out of 10 (20%). The third study reported an ORR of 58% vs. 20%, a median PFS of 12.7 months vs. 2.5 months in patients receiving nivolumab-ipilimumab plus CBM588 compared with patients receiving nivolumab-ipilimumab alone respectively, and an undefined median OS.

CONCLUSION: Current studies on the microbiome modulators with ICI use are limited in study design. Future clinical trials should be randomized, use larger sample sizes, and use an appropriate control arm to better ascertain the clinical effect of the GI microbiome on ICI treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Yi X, Huang C, Huang C, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota from MRL/lpr mice exacerbates pristane-induced lupus.

Arthritis research & therapy, 25(1):42.

BACKGROUND: The roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of SLE have been receiving much attention during recent years. However, it remains unknown how fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and microbial metabolites affect immune responses and lupus progression.

METHODS: We transferred fecal microbiota from MRL/lpr (Lpr) mice and MRL/Mpj (Mpj) mice or PBS to pristane-induced lupus mice and observed disease development. We also screened gut microbiota and metabolite spectrums of pristane-induced lupus mice with FMT via 16S rRNA sequencing, metagenomic sequencing, and metabolomics, followed by correlation analysis.

RESULTS: FMT from MRL/lpr mice promoted the pathogenesis of pristane-induced lupus and affected immune cell profiles in the intestine, particularly the plasma cells. The structure and composition of microbial communities in the gut of the FMT-Lpr mice were different from those of the FMT-Mpj mice and FMT-PBS mice. The abundances of specific microbes such as prevotella taxa were predominantly elevated in the gut microbiome of the FMT-Lpr mice, which were positively associated with functional pathways such as cyanoamino acid metabolism. Differential metabolites such as valine and L-isoleucine were identified with varied abundances among the three groups. The abundance alterations of the prevotella taxa may affect the phenotypic changes such as proteinuria levels in the pristane-induced lupus mice.

CONCLUSION: These findings further confirm that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. Thus, altering the gut microbiome may provide a novel way to treat lupus.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Shin YJ, Lee DY, Kim JY, et al (2023)

Effect of fermented red ginseng on gut microbiota dysbiosis- or immobilization stress-induced anxiety, depression, and colitis in mice.

Journal of ginseng research, 47(2):255-264.

BACKGROUND: Red ginseng (RG) alleviates psychiatric disorders. Fermented red ginseng (fRG) alleviates stress-induced gut inflammation. Gut dysbiosis causes psychiatric disorders with gut inflammation. To understand the gut microbiota-mediated action mechanism of RG and fRG against anxiety/depression (AD), we investigated the effects of RG, fRG, ginsenoside Rd, and 20(S)-β-D-glucopyranosyl protopanaxadiol (CK) on gut microbiota dysbiosis-induced AD and colitis in mice.

METHODS: Mice with AD and colitis were prepared by exposing to immobilization stress (IS) or transplanting the feces of patients with ulcerative colitis and depression (UCDF). AD-like behaviors were measured in the elevated plus maze, light/dark transition, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests.

RESULTS: Oral gavage of UCDF increased AD-like behaviors and induced neuroinflammation, gastrointestinal inflammation, and gut microbiota fluctuation in mice. Oral administration of fRG or RG treatment reduced UCDF-induced AD-like behaviors, hippocampal and hypothalamic IL-6 expression, and blood corticosterone level, whereas UCDF-suppressed hippocampal BDNF[+]NeuN[+] cell population and dopamine and hypothalamic serotonin levels increased. Furthermore, their treatments suppressed UCDF-induced colonic inflammation and partially restored UCDF-induced gut microbiota fluctuation. Oral administration of fRG, RG, Rd, or CK also decreased IS-induced AD-like behaviors, blood IL-6 and corticosterone and colonic IL-6 and TNF-α levels, and gut dysbiosis, while IS-suppressed hypothalamic dopamine and serotonin levels increased.

CONCLUSION: Oral gavage of UCDF caused AD, neuroinflammation, and gastrointestinal inflammation in mice. fRG mitigated AD and colitis in UCDF-exposed mice by the regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis and IS-exposed mice by the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Baldanzi G, Sayols-Baixeras S, Theorell-Haglöw J, et al (2023)

Obstructive sleep apnea was associated with the human gut microbiota composition and functional potential in the population-based Swedish CardioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS).

Chest pii:S0012-3692(23)00352-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep-breathing disorder linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Intermittent hypoxia and intermittent airway obstruction, hallmarks of OSA, have been shown in animal models to induce substantial changes to the gut microbiota composition and subsequent transplantation of fecal matter to other animals induced changes in blood pressure and glucose metabolism.

RESEARCH QUESTION: Does obstructive sleep apnea in adults associate with the composition and metabolic potential of the human gut microbiota?

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We used respiratory polygraphy data from up to 3,570 individuals aged 50-64 from the population-based Swedish CardioPulmonary bioImage Study combined with deep shotgun metagenomics of fecal samples to identify cross-sectional associations between three OSA parameters covering apneas and hypopneas, cumulative sleep time in hypoxia and number of oxygen desaturation events with gut microbiota composition. Data collection about potential confounders was based on questionnaires, on-site anthropometric measurements, plasma metabolomics, and linkage with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register.

RESULTS: We found that all three OSA parameters were associated with lower diversity of species in the gut. Further, the OSA-related hypoxia parameters were in multivariable-adjusted analysis associated with the relative abundance of 128 gut bacterial species, including higher abundance of Blautia obeum and Collinsela aerofaciens. The latter species was also independently associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Further, the cumulative time in hypoxia during sleep was associated with the abundance of genes involved in nine gut microbiota metabolic pathways, including propionate production from lactate. Lastly, we observed two heterogeneous sets of plasma metabolites with opposite association with species positively and negatively associated with hypoxia parameters, respectively.

INTERPRETATION: OSA-related hypoxia, but not the number of apneas/hypopneas, is associated with specific gut microbiota species and functions. Our findings lay the foundation for future research on the gut microbiota-mediated health effects of OSA.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Jiang X, Liu Z, Ma Y, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation affects the recovery of AD-skin lesions and enhances gut microbiota homeostasis.

International immunopharmacology, 118:110005 pii:S1567-5769(23)00326-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has shown that gut microbiota plays a key role in the progression of atopic dermatitis (AD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), as an effective method to restore gut microbiota homeostasis, has been successfully applied for treating many inflammatory diseases. However, the therapeutic effect of FMT on AD remains unclear. The following study examined the effect and mechanism of FMT on AD-skin lesions in an AD mouse model.

METHODS: In this study, we exposed the shaved back skin of BALB/c mice to calcipotriol (MC903) to induce AD model. Mice were then treated with FMT, which was performed with gut microbiota from healthy mice. The gut microbiota of treated mice was tracked by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Mice skin tissues were examined by histopathology and inflammatory cytokines change in serum by ELISA.

RESULTS: FMT had a faster trend on the reversion of the increases in skin epidermal layer thicknesses and suppressed some of the representative inflammatory cytokines. The gut microbial community in the natural recovery process varied significantly in the FMT group at day 7 (ANOSIM P = 0.0229, r = 0.2593). Notably, FMT had a long-lasting and beneficial impact on the gut microbial compositions of AD mice by increasing the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and the amount of butyric-producing bacteria (BPB), including Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Eubacteriacea. Furthermore, the relative abundances of gut microbiota-mediated functional pathways involved in the cell growth and death, amino acid, energy, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolisms, and immune system increased after FMT treatment.

CONCLUSION: FMT modulated the gut microbiota homeostasis and affected the recovery from AD-related inflammations, suggesting that it could be used as a treatment strategy for AD patients in the clinic.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Shim JA, Ryu JH, Jo Y, et al (2023)

The role of gut microbiota in T cell immunity and immune mediated disorders.

International journal of biological sciences, 19(4):1178-1191.

Gut microbiota was only considered as a commensal organism that aids in digestion, but recent studies revealed that the microbiome play a critical role in both physiological and pathological immune system. The gut microbiome composition is altered by environmental factors such as diet and hygiene, and the alteration affects immune cells, especially T cells. Advanced genomic techniques in microbiome research defined that specific microbes regulate T cell responses and the pathogenesis of immune-mediated disorders. Here, we review features of specific microbes-T cell crosstalk and relationship between the microbes and immunopathogenesis of diseases including in cancers, autoimmune disorders and allergic inflammations. We also discuss the limitations of current experimental animal models, cutting-edge developments and current challenges to overcome in the field, and the possibility of considering gut microbiome in the development of new drug.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Chen P, Wang K, Zhuang M, et al (2023)

An insight into gut microbiota and metabolites in the mice with adenomyosis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1075387.

BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis (AM) is a benign uterine disease characterized pathologically by the invasion of endometrial tissue into the myometrium. The pathogenesis of AM is still far from clear. Although the gut microbiome and metabolomics are thought to contribute to a variety of diseases, the role of them in AM has not been revealed.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in the gut microbiota and derived metabolites in AM mice.

METHOD: Female ICR mice were randomly assigned to AM and control groups, and pituitary transplantation was employed to perform AM modeling. Then, the fecal samples were obtained for microbial (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and metabolomic (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, LC-MS) analysis.

RESULT: The results of gut microbiota analysis showed that the intestinal microbiota composition of AM mice was altered. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus in AM group increased compared with the control group. Sixty differential expressed metabolites were identified in intestinal metabolites, mainly involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism. Further, correlation analysis verified that L-methionine and L-cystine were negatively correlated with Bacteroides and positively correlated with Desulfovibrio. The Pregnenolone, Androsterone glucuronide, and Testosterone glucuronide were negatively correlated with Unidentified_Ruminococcaceae and Alistipes, whereas they positively correlated with Bacteroides.

CONCLUSION: AM mice have a unique gut microbiome and intestinal metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Costa CJ, Cohen MW, Goldberg DC, et al (2023)

Nicotinamide Riboside Improves Enteric Neuropathy in Streptozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Through Myenteric Plexus Neuroprotection.

Digestive diseases and sciences [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus causes a systemic oxidative stress due in part to the hyperglycemia and the reactive oxygen species generated. Up to 75% of diabetic patients present with an autonomic neuropathy affecting the Enteric Nervous System. Deficits in the human population are chronic dysmotilities with either increased (i.e., constipation) or decreased (i.e., diarrhea) total gastrointestinal transit times. These are recapitulated in the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat, which is a model of Type I Diabetes Mellitus.

AIMS: Examine the effects that a precursor of nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide (NAD), nicotinamide riboside (NR), had on the development of dysmotility in induced diabetic rats and if fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) could produce the same results.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing a 6-week treatment paradigm, NR was administered intraperitoneally every 48 h. Total gastrointestinal transit time was assessed weekly utilizing the carmine red method. Three weeks following hyperglycemic induction, FMT was performed between NR-treated animals and untreated animals.

SIGNIFICANT RESULTS: There is improvement in overall gastrointestinal transit time with the use of NR. 16S microbiome sequencing demonstrated decreased alpha and beta diversity in induced diabetic rats without change in animals receiving FMT. Improvements in myenteric plexus ganglia density in small and large intestines in diabetic animals treated with NR were seen.

CONCLUSIONS: NR treatment led to functional improvement in total gastrointestinal transit time in induced diabetic animals. This was associated with neuroprotection in the myenteric plexuses of both small and large intestines of induced diabetic rats. This represents an important first step in showing NR's benefit as a treatment for diabetic enteric neuropathy. Streptozocin-induced diabetic rats have improved transit times and increased myenteric plexus ganglia density when treated with intraperitoneal nicotinamide riboside.

RevDate: 2023-03-16
CmpDate: 2023-03-16

Merenstein D, Pot B, Leyer G, et al (2023)

Emerging issues in probiotic safety: 2023 perspectives.

Gut microbes, 15(1):2185034.

Probiotics are used for both generally healthy consumers and in clinical settings. However, theoretical and proven adverse events from probiotic consumption exist. New probiotic strains and products, as well as expanding use of probiotics into vulnerable populations, warrants concise, and actionable recommendations on how to work toward their safe and effective use. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics convened a meeting to discuss and produce evidence-based recommendations on potential acute and long-term risks, risks to vulnerable populations, the importance for probiotic product quality to match the needs of vulnerable populations, and the need for adverse event reporting related to probiotic use. The importance of whole genome sequencing, which enables determination of virulence, toxin, and antibiotic resistance genes, as well as clear assignment of species and strain identity, is emphasized. We present recommendations to guide the scientific and medical community on judging probiotic safety.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Russell MW, Muste JC, Kuo BL, et al (2023)

Clinical trials targeting the gut-microbiome to effect ocular health: a systematic review.

Eye (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Clinical trials targeting the gut microbiome to mitigate ocular disease are now on the horizon. A review of clinical data thus far is essential to determine future directions in this novel promising field. This review examines recent clinical trials that support the plausibility of a gut-eye axis, and may form the basis of novel clinical interventions. PubMed was queried for English language clinical studies examining the relationships between gut microbiota and ocular pathology. 25 studies were extracted from 828 candidate publications, which suggest that gut imbalance is associated with ocular pathology. Of these, only four interventional studies exist which suggest probiotic supplementation or fecal microbiota transplant can reduce symptoms of chalazion or uveitis. The gut-eye axis appears to hold clinical relevance, but current data is limited in sample size and design. Further investigation via longitudinal clinical trials may be warranted.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Kapoor B, Gulati M, Gupta R, et al (2023)

Microbiota dysbiosis and myasthenia gravis: Do all roads lead to Rome?.

Autoimmunity reviews pii:S1568-9972(23)00047-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Dysregulated immune system with a failure to recognize self from non-self-antigens is one of the common pathogeneses seen in autoimmune diseases. The complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors is important for the occurrence and development of the disease. Among the environmental factors, disturbed gut microbiota (gut dysbiosis) has recently attracted particular attention, especially with advancement in human microbiome research. Although the alterations in microbiota have been seen in various autoimmune diseases, including those of nervous system, there is paucity of information on neuromuscular system diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is one such rare autoimmune disease of neuromuscular junction, and is caused by generation of pathogenic autoantibodies to components of the postsynaptic muscle endplate. In the recent years, accumulating evidences have endorsed the key role of host microbiota, particularly those of gut, in the pathogenesis of MG. Differential microbiota composition, characterized by increased abundance of Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and decreased abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, has been seen in MG patients in comparison to healthy subjects. Disturbance of microbiota composition, particularly reduced ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, alter the gut permeability, subsequently triggering the immunological response. Resultant reduction in levels of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) is another factor contributing to the immunological response in MG patients. Modulation of gut microbiota via intervention of probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics (metabiotics), and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is considered to be the futuristic approach for the management of MG. This review summarizes the role of gut microbiota and their metabolites (postbiotics) in the progression of MG. Also, various bacteriotherapeutic approaches involving gut microbiota are discussed for the prevention of MG progression.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Aoi W, Inoue R, Mizushima K, et al (2023)

Exercise-acclimated microbiota improves skeletal muscle metabolism via circulating bile acid deconjugation.

iScience, 26(3):106251.

Habitual exercise alters the intestinal microbiota composition, which may mediate its systemic benefits. We examined whether transplanting fecal microbiota from trained mice improved skeletal muscle metabolism in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Fecal samples from sedentary and exercise-trained mice were gavage-fed to germ-free mice. After receiving fecal samples from trained donor mice for 1 week, recipient mice had elevated levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and insulin growth factor-1 in skeletal muscle. In plasma, bile acid (BA) deconjugation was found to be promoted in recipients transplanted with feces from trained donor mice; free-form BAs also induced more AMPK signaling and glucose uptake than tauro-conjugated BAs. The transplantation of exercise-acclimated fecal microbiota improved glucose tolerance after 8 weeks of HFD administration. Intestinal microbiota may mediate exercise-induced metabolic improvements in mice by modifying circulating BAs. Our findings provide insights into the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Rehman A, Tyree SM, Fehlbaum S, et al (2023)

A water-soluble tomato extract rich in secondary plant metabolites lowers trimethylamine-n-oxide and modulates gut microbiota: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study in overweight and obese adults.

The Journal of nutrition, 153(1):96-105.

BACKGROUND: Natural products rich in polyphenols have been shown to lower plasma trimethylamine-n-oxide (TMAO) known for its proatherogenic effects by modulating the intestinal microbiota.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of Fruitflow, a water-soluble tomato extract, on TMAO, fecal microbiota, and plasma and fecal metabolites.

METHODS: Overweight and obese adults (n = 22, BMI 28-35 kg/m[2]) were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study receiving 2×150 mg Fruitflow per day or placebo (maltodextrin) for 4 wk with a 6-week wash-out between interventions. Stool, blood, and urine samples were collected to assess changes in plasma TMAO (primary outcome) as well as fecal microbiota, fecal and plasma metabolites, and urine TMAO (secondary outcomes). In a subgroup (n = 9), postprandial TMAO was evaluated following a choline-rich breakfast (∼450 mg). Statistical methods included paired t-tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests and permutational multivariate analysis of variance.

RESULTS: Fruitflow, but not placebo, reduced fasting levels of plasma (-1.5 μM, P ≤ 0.05) and urine (-19.1 μM, P ≤ 0.01) TMAO as well as plasma lipopolysaccharides (-5.3 ng/mL, P ≤ 0.05) from baseline to the end of intervention. However, these changes were significant only for urine TMAO levels when comparing between the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Changes in microbial beta, but not alpha, diversity paralleled this with a significant difference in Jaccard distance-based Principal Component (P ≤ 0.05) as well as decreases in Bacteroides, Ruminococccus, and Hungatella and increases in Alistipes when comparing between and within groups (P ≤ 0.05, respectively). There were no between-group differences in SCFAs and bile acids (BAs) in both faces and plasma but several changes within groups such as an increase in fecal cholic acid or plasma pyruvate with Fruitflow (P ≤ 0.05, respectively). An untargeted metabolomic analysis revealed TMAO as the most discriminant plasma metabolite between groups (P ≤ 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support earlier findings that polyphenol-rich extracts can lower plasma TMAO in overweight and obese adults related to gut microbiota modulation. This trial was registered at as NCT04160481 ( Fruitflow&draw= 2&rank= 2).

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Wang L, Wei Z, Pan F, et al (2023)

Case report: Fecal microbiota transplantation in refractory ankylosing spondylitis.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1093233.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is the prototype of a group of systemic inflammatory diseases referred to as spondyloarthritis. Comorbid inflammatory bowel disease and changed gut microbiota in AS have attracted attention to the influence of gut-joint axis and encouraged treating AS by targeting gut microbiota. Here we first reported a patient with refractory AS and comorbid ulcerative colitis (UC) who underwent three fecal microbiota transplantations (FMTs). Inadequate response to conventional treatments including tumor necrosis factor inhibitors impelled FMT as alternative therapy. Notable improvements in AS and UC accompanied with changed fecal microbiota were recorded at 1 week post-FMT1. Further recovery was found after the other two FMTs, and a roughly stable status was maintained in the follow-up period. More studies are needed to validate the effectiveness of FMT in AS and its mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Gholam-Mostafaei FS, Azimirad M, Naseri K, et al (2023)

Intestinal microbiota changes pre- and post-fecal microbiota transplantation for treatment of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection among Iranian patients with concurrent inflammatory bowel disease.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1147945.

INTRODUCTION: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at a greater risk for the recurrence of Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) that is triggered by intestinal microbiota dysbiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a highly effective therapeutic option for this complication. However, little is known about the impact of FMT on intestinal microbiota alterations in rCDI patients suffering from IBD. In this study, we aimed to investigate post-FMT intestinal microbiota alterations in Iranian rCDI patients with underlying IBD.

METHODS: A total of 21 fecal samples were collected including 14 samples pre- and post-FMT and 7 samples from healthy donors. Microbial analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) assay targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The pre-FMT profile and composition of the fecal microbiota were compared to the microbial changes of samples collected 28 days after FMT.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, the fecal microbiota profile of recipients was more similar to donor samples after the transplantation. We observed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes post-FMT, compared to the pre-FMT microbial profile. Furthermore, there were remarkable differences between the microbial profile of pre-FMT, post-FMT, and healthy donor samples by PCoA analysis based on the ordination distance. This study demonstrates FMT as a safe and effective approach to restore the indigenous composition of the intestinal microbiota in rCDI patients and ultimately results in the treatment of concurrent IBD.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

van Lingen EE, Baunwall SSMD, Lieberknecht SSC, et al (2023)

Short- and long-term follow-up after fecal microbiota transplantation as treatment for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 16:17562848231156285.

BACKGROUND: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at an increased risk of developing Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Treatment of CDI in patients with IBD is challenging due to higher failure rates and concomitant IBD activity.

OBJECTIVES: We performed a multicentre cohort study in patients with IBD who received fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent CDI (rCDI), to further investigate factors that influence the clinical outcome and course of both rCDI and IBD.

DESIGN: This is a multicentre cohort study conducted in five European FMT centres.

METHODS: Adult IBD patients treated with FMT for rCDI were studied. Cure was defined as clinical resolution of diarrhoea or diarrhoea with a negative C. difficile test. The definition of an IBD flare was record based. Long-term follow-up data were collected including new episodes of CDI, IBD flares, infections, hospital admissions, and death.

RESULTS: In total, 113 IBD patients underwent FMT because of rCDI. Mean age of the patients was 48 years; 64% had ulcerative colitis. Concomitant rCDI was associated with an IBD flare in 54%, of whom 63% had received IBD remission-induction therapy prior to FMT. All FMT procedures were preceded by vancomycin treatment, 40% of patients received FMT via colonoscopy. CDI cure rate was 71%. Long-term follow-up data were available in 90 patients with a median follow-up of 784 days (402-1251). IBD activity decreased in 39% of patients who had active IBD at baseline, whereas an IBD flare occurred in only 5%. During follow-up of up to 2 years, 27% of the patients had infections, 39% were hospitalized, 5% underwent colectomy, and 10% died (median age of these latter patients: 72 years).

CONCLUSION: FMT for rCDI in IBD patients is safe and effective, and IBD exacerbation after FMT is infrequent. Further studies should investigate the effects on IBD course following FMT.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Zou B, Liu S, Li X, et al (2023)

Repeated and multiple fecal microbiota transplantations plus partial enteral nutrition as the first-line treatment in active pediatric Crohn's disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1083236.

BACKGROUND: Most studies have reported fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as an effective secondary option for Crohn's disease (CD). However, there is little data on FMT as a first-line treatment for CD. In our study we explore the rates of clinical and endoscopic remission and mucosal healing after FMT plus partial enteral nutrition (PEN), as a first-line treatment for active CD in children.

METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled pediatric CD patients who underwent PEN or PEN plus FMT treatment at diagnosis from November 2016 to July 2019 at the Pediatric Department, Tongji Hospital. The two groups were defined as FMT group (repeated and multiple doses of FMT plus PEN) or PEN group (PEN alone). All the patients received PEN intervention. At baseline and week 8- 10, the FMT group was administered multiple doses of FMT to help induce and maintain remission. All patients were evaluated at week 8- 10 and 18-22 via clinical and relevant laboratory parameters and endoscopic results. The clinical and endoscopic remission and mucosal healing rates were compared between the two groups at different time points after the therapy.

RESULTS: Twenty-five newly diagnosed active CD patients were included in the study, containing 7 females and 18 males with a median age of 11. 1 ± 2.3 years. 13 and 12 patients were assigned to the PEN and FMT groups, respectively. At week 8-10, clinical remission was obtained in 83.3% and 53.8% of the FMT and PEN groups, respectively (p=0.202). The endoscopic remission rates were 72.7% for FMT and 25.0% for PEN (p=0.039), whereas the mucosal healing rates were 27.2% for FMT and 0% for PEN (p=0.093). At week 18-22, clinical remission was achieved in 72.7% and 20.0% of patients in the FMT and PEN groups, respectively (p=0.03). Theendoscopic remission rates were 66.6% and 12.5% in the FMT and PEN groups, respectively (p=0.05), whereas the mucosal healing rates were 55.5% and 0% in FMT and PEN groups, respectively (p=0.029).

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrate that FMT plus PEN can be used as a first-line treatment for active CD in children.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Gao T, Feng M, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Microbiota-gut-adipose axis: butyrate-mediated the improvement effect on inflammatory response and fatty acid oxidation dysregulation attenuates obesity in sleep-restricted mice.

Microbes and infection pii:S1286-4579(23)00028-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Insufficient sleep was considered as a substantial cause of obesity. The present study further explored the mechanism whereby sleep restriction (SR)-mediated intestinal dysbiosis induced metabolic disorder and ultimately lead to obesity in mice and the improvement effect of butyrate exerting on it.

METHODS: A continuous 3 months SR mouse model with or without butyrate supplementation and fecal microbiota transplantation to explore the key role of intestinal microbiota in butyrate improving inflammatory response in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and fatty acid oxidation dysfunction in brown adipose tissue (BAT), further ameliorating SR-induced obesity.

RESULTS: SR-mediated gut microbiota dysbiosis (down-regulation in butyrate level and up-regulation in LPS level) induced intestinal permeability increase and inflammatory response in iWAT and fatty acid oxidation dysfunction in BAT, ultimately resulting in obesity. Further, we demonstrated butyrate ameliorated gut microbiota homeostasis, suppressed inflammatory response via GPR43/LPS/TLR4/MyD88/GSK-3β/β-catenin loop in iWAT and restored fatty acid oxidation function via HDAC3/PPARα/PGC-1α/UCP1/Calpain1 pathway in BAT, ultimately reversing SR-induced obesity.

CONCLUSIONS: We revealed that gut dysbiosis is a key factor for SR-induced obesity and provided a better understanding of the effects of butyrate. We further expected that reversing SR-induced obesity by improving microbiota-gut-adipose axis disorder could be a possible treatment for metabolic diseases.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Zhang CE, Yu XH, Cui YT, et al (2023)

Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction ameliorates antibiotic-associated diarrhea by altering the gut microbiota and intestinal metabolic homeostasis.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 113:154737 pii:S0944-7113(23)00095-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) has had a significant increase in the last years, with limited available effective therapies. Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction (SXD), a classic traditional Chinese medicine formula for treating diarrhea, is a promising alternative for reducing the incidence of AAD.

PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of SXD on AAD and to investigate its potential therapeutic mechanism by integrated analysis of the gut microbiome and intestinal metabolic profile.

METHODS: 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of the gut microbiota and untargeted-metabolomics analysis of feces were performed. The mechanism was further explored by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: SXD could effectively ameliorate AAD symptoms and restore intestinal barrier function. In addition, SXD could significantly improve the diversity of the gut microbiota and accelerate the recovery of the gut microbiota. At the genus level, SXD significantly increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides spp (p < 0.01) and decreased the relative abundance of Escherichia_Shigela spp (p < 0.001). Untargeted metabolomics showed that SXD significantly improved gut microbiota and host metabolic function, particularly bile acid metabolism and amino acid metabolism.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that SXD could extensively modulate the gut microbiota and intestinal metabolic homeostasis to treat AAD.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Yuan C, Fan J, Jiang L, et al (2023)

Integrated Analysis of Gut Microbiome and Liver Metabolome to Evaluate the Effects of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation on Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice.

Nutrients, 15(5): pii:nu15051149.

Acute liver failure (ALF) refers to the occurrence of massive hepatocyte necrosis in a short time, with multiple complications, including inflammatory response, hepatic encephalopathy, and multiple organ failure. Additionally, effective therapies for ALF are lacking. There exists a relationship between the human intestinal microbiota and liver, so intestinal microbiota modulation may be a strategy for therapy of hepatic diseases. In previous studies, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from fit donors has been used to modulate intestinal microbiota widely. Here, we established a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactosamine (D-gal) induced ALF to explore the preventive and therapeutic effects of FMT, and its mechanism of action. We found that FMT decreased hepatic aminotransferase activity and serum total bilirubin levels, and decreased hepatic pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS/D-gal challenged mice (p < 0.05). Moreover, FMT gavage ameliorated LPS/D-gal induced liver apoptosis and markedly reduced cleaved caspase-3 levels, and improved histopathological features of the liver. FMT gavage also restored LPS/D-gal-evoked gut microbiota dysbiosis by modifying the colonic microbial composition, improving the abundance of unclassified_o_Bacteroidales (p < 0.001), norank_f_Muribaculaceae (p < 0.001), and Prevotellaceae_UCG-001 (p < 0.001), while reducing that of Lactobacillus (p < 0.05) and unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae (p < 0.05). Metabolomics analysis revealed that FMT significantly altered LPS/D-gal induced disordered liver metabolites. Pearson's correlation revealed strong correlations between microbiota composition and liver metabolites. Our findings suggest that FMT ameliorate ALF by modulating gut microbiota and liver metabolism, and can used as a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for ALF.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Rodrigues T, Rodrigues Fialho S, Araújo JR, et al (2023)

Procedures in Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Treating Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(5): pii:jcm12051725.

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease with no effective treatment. Altered microbiota composition seems implicated in disease etiology and therefore fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a possible treatment therapy. To clarify the clinical parameters impacting FMT efficacy, we conducted a systematic review with subgroup analysis.

METHODS: A literature search was performed identifying randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing FMT with placebo in IBS adult patients (8-week follow-up) with a reported improvement in global IBS symptoms.

RESULTS: Seven RCTs (489 participants) met the eligibility requirements. Although FMT seems not to be effective in global improvement of IBS symptoms, subgroup analysis shows that FMT through gastroscopy or nasojejunal tube are effective IBS treatments (RR 3.03; 95% CI 1.94-4.73; I[2] = 10%, p < 0.00001). When considering non-oral ingestion routes, IBS patients with constipation symptoms are more likely to benefit from FMT administration (p = 0.003 for the difference between IBS subtypes regarding constipation). Fresh fecal transplant and bowel preparation seem also to have impact on FMT efficacy (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis revealed a set of critical steps that could affect the efficacy of FMT as clinical procedure to treat IBS, nevertheless more RCTs are needed.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Celiberto F, Losurdo G, Pricci M, et al (2023)

The State of the Art of Molecular Fecal Investigations for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) Antibiotic Resistances.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(5): pii:ijms24054361.

A new paradigm shift for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection would be timely due to a progressive increase in antibiotic resistance. Such a shift in the perspective of the H. pylori approach should include the preliminary assessment of antibiotic resistance. However, the availability of sensitivity tests is not widespread and the guidelines have always indicated empirical treatments without taking into account the need to make sensitivity tests accessible, i.e., the necessary starting point for improving results in different geographical areas. Currently, the traditional tools for this purpose (culture) are based on performing an invasive investigation (endoscopy) and often involve technical difficulties; thus, they were only confined to the settings where multiple attempts at eradication have failed. In contrast, genotypic resistance testing of fecal samples using molecular biology methods is much less invasive and more acceptable to patients. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the art of molecular fecal susceptibility testing for the management of this infection and to extensively discuss the potential benefits of their large-scale deployment, i.e., novel pharmacological opportunities.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Song L (2023)

Toward Understanding Microbial Ecology to Restore a Degraded Ecosystem.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(5): pii:ijerph20054647.

The microbial community plays an important role in maintaining human health, addressing climate change, maintaining environmental quality, etc. High-throughput sequencing leads to the discovery and identification of more microbial community composition and function in diverse ecosystems. Microbiome therapeutics such as fecal microbiota transplantation for human health and bioaugmentation for activated sludge restoration have drawn great attention. However, microbiome therapeutics cannot secure the success of microbiome transplantation. This paper begins with a view on fecal microbiota transplantation and bioaugmentation and is followed by a parallel analysis of these two microbial therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, the microbial ecology mechanisms behind them were discussed. Finally, future research on microbiota transplantation was proposed. Successful application of both microbial therapeutics for human disease and bioremediation for contaminated environments relies on a better understanding of the microbial "entangled bank" and microbial ecology of these environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Jia X, He Y, Kang Z, et al (2023)

Comparison of Fecal Microbiota Communities between Primiparous and Multiparous Cows during Non-Pregnancy and Pregnancy.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(5): pii:ani13050869.

Imbalances in the gut microbiota composition may lead to several reproductive disorders and diseases during pregnancy. This study investigates the fecal microbiome composition between primiparous and multiparous cows during non-pregnancy and pregnancy to analyze the host-microbial balance at different stages. The fecal samples obtained from six cows before their first pregnancy (BG), six cows during their first pregnancy (FT), six open cows with more than three lactations (DCNP), and six pregnant cows with more than three lactations (DCP) were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing, and a differential analysis of the fecal microbiota composition was performed. The three most abundant phyla in fecal microbiota were Firmicutes (48.68%), Bacteroidetes (34.45%), and Euryarchaeota (15.42%). There are 11 genera with more than 1.0% abundance at the genus level. Both alpha diversity and beta diversity showed significant differences among the four groups (p < 0.05). Further, primiparous women were associated with a profound alteration of the fecal microbiota. The most representative taxa included Rikenellaceae_RC9_gut_group, Prevotellaceae_UCG_003, Christensenellaceae_R_7_group, Ruminococcaceae UCG-005, Ruminococcaceae UCG-013, Ruminococcaceae UCG-014, Methanobrevibacter, and [Eubacterium] coprostanoligenes group, which were associated with energy metabolism and inflammation. The findings indicate that host-microbial interactions promote adaptation to pregnancy and will benefit the development of probiotics or fecal transplantation for treating dysbiosis and preventing disease development during pregnancy.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Clottes P, Benech N, Dumot C, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota and stroke: new avenues to improve prevention and outcome.

European journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite major recent therapeutic advances, stroke remains a leading cause of disability and death. Consequently, new therapeutic targets need to be found to improve stroke outcome. The deleterious role of gut microbiota alteration (often mentioned as "dysbiosis") on cardiovascular diseases, including stroke and its risk factors, has been increasingly recognized. Gut microbiota metabolites, such as Trimethylamine-N-Oxyde (TMAO), Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA), and tryptophan, play a key role. Evidence of a link between alteration of the gut microbiota and cardiovascular risk factors exists, with a possible causality link supported by several pre-clinical studies. Gut microbiota alteration also seems to be implicated at the acute phase of stroke, with observational studies showing more non-neurological complications, higher infarct size and worse clinical outcome in stroke patients with altered microbiota. Microbiota targeted strategies have been developed, including prebiotics/probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, SCFA and TMAO inhibitors. Research teams have been using different time windows and endpoint for their studies, with various results. Considering the available evidence, we believe that studies focusing on microbiota targeted strategies in association with conventional stroke care should be conducted. Such strategies should be considered according to three therapeutic time windows: first, at the pre-stroke (primary prevention) or post-stroke (secondary prevention) phases, to enhance the control of cardiovascular risk factors. Secondly, at the acute phase of stroke, to limit the infarct size and the systemic complications and enhance the overall clinical outcome. Thirdly, at the subacute phase of stroke, to prevent stroke recurrence and promote neurological recovery.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Zhang B, Fan X, Du H, et al (2023)

Foodborne Carbon Dot Exposure Induces Insulin Resistance through Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Damaged Intestinal Mucus Layer.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Foodborne carbon dots (CDs), an emerging food nanocontaminant, are an increasing risk factor for metabolic toxicity in mammals. Here, we report that chronic CD exposure induced glucose metabolism disorders via disruption of the gut-liver axis in mice. 16s rRNA analysis demonstrated that CD exposure decreased the abundance of beneficial bacteria (Bacteroides, Coprococcus, and S24-7) and increased the abundance of harmful bacteria (Proteobacteria, Oscillospira, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Ruminococcaceae), as well as increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Mechanistically, the increased pro-inflammatory bacteria release the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide, which induces an intestinal inflammation and disruption of the intestinal mucus layer, activating systemic inflammation and inducing hepatic insulin resistance in mice via the TLR4/NFκB/MAPK signaling pathway. Furthermore, these changes were almost completely reversed by probiotics. Fecal microbiota transplantation from CD-exposed mice induced glucose intolerance, damaged liver function, intestinal mucus layer injury, hepatic inflammation, and insulin resistance in the recipient mice. However, microbiota-depleted mice exposed to CDs had normal levels of these biomarkers consistent with microbiota-depleted control mice, which revealed that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to CD-induced inflammation-mediated insulin resistance. Together, our findings revealed that gut microbiota dysbiosis contributes to CD-induced inflammation-mediated insulin resistance and attempted to elucidate the specific underlying mechanism. Furthermore, we emphasized the importance of assessing the hazards associated with foodborne CDs.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Zhao JW, Chang B, LX Sang (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation as potential first-line treatment for patients with Clostridioides difficile infection and prior appendectomy.

World journal of gastrointestinal surgery, 15(2):303-306.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is a global health problem. The association of appendectomy on the severity and prognosis of CDI has been reported in many literatures, but there are still contradictions. In a retrospective study entitled "Patients with Closterium diffuse infection and prior appendectomy may be prone to word outcomes" published in World J Gastrointest Surg 2021, the author found that prior appendectomy affects the severity of CDI. Appendectomy may be a risk factor for increasing the severity of CDI. Therefore, it is necessary to seek alternative treatment for patients with prior appendectomy when they are more likely to have severe or fulminant CDI.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Wang J, Zhang X, Li M, et al (2023)

Shifts in Intestinal Metabolic Profile Among Kidney Transplantation Recipients with Antibody-Mediated Rejection.

Therapeutics and clinical risk management, 19:207-217.

BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is emerging as the main cause of graft loss after kidney transplantation. Our previous study revealed the gut microbiota alternation associated with AMR in kidney transplant recipients, which was predicted to affect the metabolism-related pathways.

METHODS: To further investigate the shifts in intestinal metabolic profile among kidney transplantation recipients with AMR, fecal samples from kidney transplant recipients and patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were subjected to untargeted LC-MS-based metabolomics.

RESULTS: A total of 86 individuals were enrolled in this study, including 30 kidney transplantation recipients with AMR, 35 kidney transplant recipients with stable renal function (KT-SRF), and 21 participants with ESRD. Fecal metabolome in patients with ESRD and kidney transplantation recipients with KT-SRF were parallelly detected as controls. Our results demonstrated that intestinal metabolic profile of patients with AMR differed significantly from those with ESRD. A total of 172 and 25 differential metabolites were identified in the KT-AMR group, when compared with the ESRD group and the KT-SRF group, respectively, and 14 were common to the pairwise comparisons, some of which had good discriminative ability for AMR. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the different metabolites between the KT-AMR and ESRD groups or between KT-AMR and KT-SRF groups were significantly enriched in 33 or 36 signaling pathways, respectively.

CONCLUSION: From the metabolic point of view, our findings may provide key clues for developing effective diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for AMR after kidney transplantation.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Yang J, Wang L, Mei M, et al (2023)

Electroacupuncture repairs intestinal barrier by upregulating CB1 through gut microbiota in DSS-induced acute colitis.

Chinese medicine, 18(1):24.

BACKGROUND: A few studies have reported that electroacupuncture (EA) can repair the intestinal barrier through unknown mechanisms. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) was shown to play an important role in the protection of the gut barrier in recent studies. Gut microbiota can influence the expression of CB1. In this study, we explored the effect of EA on the gut barrier in acute colitis and its mechanism.

METHODS: A dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis model, CB1 antagonist model and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) model were used in this study. The disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length, histological score, and inflammatory factors were detected to evaluate colonic inflammation. Methods for detecting intestinal barrier functions included the expression of tight junction proteins, intestinal permeability, and the number of goblet cells. Moreover, 16S rRNA sequencing was applied to analyze alterations in the gut microbiota. Western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to assess the levels of CB1 and autophagy-related proteins. Autophagosomes were observed by transmission electron microscopy.

RESULTS: EA reduced the DAI score, histological score, levels of inflammatory factors, and restored the colon length. Moreover, EA increased the expression of tight junction proteins and the number of goblet cells, and decreased intestinal permeability. In addition, EA remodeled the community structure of the gut microbiota, increased the expression of CB1, and enhanced the degree of autophagy. However, the therapeutic effects were reversed by CB1 antagonists. In addition, FMT in the EA group exhibited similar effects to EA and upregulated CB1.

CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that EA may protect intestinal barrier functions by increasing the expression of CB1 to enhance autophagy through gut microbiota in DSS-induced acute colitis.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Yang T, Guan Q, Shi JS, et al (2023)

Metformin alleviates liver fibrosis in mice by enriching Lactobacillus sp. MF-1 in the gut microbiota.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease, 1869(5):166664 pii:S0925-4439(23)00030-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Liver fibrosis is associated with gut dysbiosis. Metformin administration has emerged as a promising method for the treatment of organ fibrosis. We aimed to investigate whether metformin ameliorates liver fibrosis by enhancing the gut microbiota in mice with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis and the underlying mechanism.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A liver fibrosis mouse model was established, and the therapeutic effects of metformin were observed. We administered antibiotic treatment and performed fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), and 16S rRNA-based microbiome analysis to evaluate the effects of the gut microbiome on metformin-treated liver fibrosis. We isolated the bacterial strain preferably enriched by metformin and assessed its antifibrotic effects.

RESULTS: Metformin treatment repaired the gut integrity of the CCl4-treated mice. It reduced the number of bacteria in colon tissues and reduced the portal vein lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels. The FMT performed on the metformin-treated CCl4 mice alleviated their liver fibrosis and reduced their portal vein LPS levels. The markedly changed gut microbiota was screened out from the feces and named Lactobacillus sp. MF-1 (L. sp. MF-1). In the CCl4-treated mice, daily gavage of L. sp. MF-1 maintained gut integrity, inhibited bacterial translocation, and reduced liver fibrosis. Mechanistically, metformin or L. sp. MF-1 inhibited the apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells and restored CD3[+] intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in the ileum and CD4[+]Foxp3[+] lamina propria lymphocytes in the colon.

CONCLUSIONS: Metformin and its enriched L. sp. MF-1 can reinforce the intestinal barrier to alleviate liver fibrosis by restoring immune function.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Trinh S, Keller L, Herpertz-Dahlmann B, et al (2023)

[Fecal Microbiota Transplants in the Context of (Child and Adolescent) Psychiatric Disorders].

Zeitschrift fur Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal Microbiota Transplants in the Context of (Child and Adolescent) Psychiatric Disorders Abstract: There has recently been a significant increase in interest in gut microbiota and its interaction with the brain (gut-brain axis). Not only are the findings of microbiome research interesting for basic scientists, they also offer relevant insights for clinical practice. A causal relationship between gut microbiome and various somatic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, and obesity as well as psychiatric diseases such as major depression, anxiety disorders, and eating disorders seems plausible. To study the causal relationship of intestinal bacteria with individual phenotypes, researchers apply so-called stool transplantations (fecal microbiota transplantations) in the preclinical context. For this purpose, they transfer microbiota samples from patients into laboratory animals to observe possible changes in phenotype. In the clinical context, fecal microbiota transplantation is already being used with therapeutic intentions for selected diseases, for example, recurrent infections with Clostridioides difficile or inflammatory bowel diseases; they have already become part of the official clinical guidelines for C. difficile. For many other diseases, however, including mental illnesses, the potential of using fecal transplantations for therapeutic purposes is still being explored. Previous findings suggest that the intestinal microbiome, particularly fecal microbiota transplantations, represent a promising starting point for new therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

He J, Yang M, Quan X, et al (2023)

Microbial and metabolic features in renal transplant recipients with post-transplantation diabetes mellitus.

International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Post-transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Gut microbiome plays important roles in a variety of chronic metabolic diseases, but its association with the occurrence and development of PTDM is still unknown. The present study integrates the analysis of gut microbiome and metabolites to further identify the characteristics of PTDM.

METHODS: A total of 100 RTRs fecal samples were collected in our study. Among them, 55 samples were submitted to Hiseq sequencing, and 100 samples were used for non-targeted metabolomics analysis. The gut microbiome and metabolomics of RTRs were comprehensively characterized.

RESULTS: The species Dialister invisus was significantly associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG). The functions of tryptophan and phenylalanine biosynthesis were enhanced in RTRs with PTDM, while the functions of fructose and butyric acid metabolism were reduced. Fecal metabolome analysis indicated that RTRs with PTDM had unique metabolite distribution characteristics, and two differentially expressed specific metabolites were significantly correlated with FPG. The correlation analysis of gut microbiome and metabolites showed that gut microbiome had an obvious effect on the metabolic characteristics of RTRs with PTDM. Moreover, the relative abundance of microbial function is associated with the expression of several specific gut microbiome and metabolites.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified the characteristics of gut microbiome and fecal metabolites in RTRs with PTDM, and we also found two important metabolites and a bacterium were significantly associated with PTDM, which might be used as novel targets in the research field of PTDM.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Gao P, Liu L, Zhang Z, et al (2023)

Abdominal catheter-induced intussusception following renal transplantation in two pediatric recipients: 2 cases report and literature review.

Translational pediatrics, 12(2):280-286.

BACKGROUND: Intussusception is a frequent abdominal emergency in the pediatric population when the proximal bowel invaginates into the distal bowel. However, catheter-induced intussusception has not previously been described in pediatric renal transplant recipients, and the risk factors need to be investigated.

CASE DESCRIPTION: We report 2 cases of post-transplant intussusception which were caused by abdominal catheters. Case 1 experienced ileocolonic intussusception 3 months after renal transplantation and presented with intermittent abdominal pain; the intussusception was successfully managed using air enema. However, this child experienced a total of 3 episodes of intussusception within 4 days, which discontinued only after removal of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. No further intussusception recurrence was observed and the patient's intermittent pain disappeared during the follow-up. Case 2 developed ileocolonic intussusception 2 days after renal transplantation and presented currant jelly stools. The intussusception was completely irreducible until the intraperitoneal drainage catheter was eliminated; the patient discharged normal feces during the following days. A search in the databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase yielded 8 similar cases. Our 2 cases had a younger age at disease onset than those retrieved in the search, and abdominal catheter was revealed as a lead point. Possible leading points of the 8 previously reported cases included post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), acute appendicitis, tuberculosis, lymphocele, and firm adhesions. We noted that our cases were managed successfully with nonoperative treatment, whereas the 8 reported cases underwent surgical intervention. All of the 10 cases of intussusception occurred after renal transplantation and showed that intussusception had been induced by a lead point.

CONCLUSIONS: Our 2 cases implied that abdominal catheter could be a lead point to induce intussusception, especially in pediatric recipients with abdominal disorder. This experience may be applicable to other surgeries involving indwelling abdominal catheters in children. Health practitioners should consider this pathologic lead point and avoid serious consequences when intussusception occurs.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Liu X, Tang H, Zhou Q, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota composition in patients with advanced malignancies experiencing immune-related adverse events.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1109281.

INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota is implicated in the occurrence and severity of immune-related adverse events (irAEs), but the role it plays as well as its causal relationship with irAEs has yet to be established.

METHODS: From May 2020 to August 2021, 93 fecal samples were prospectively collected from 37 patients with advanced thoracic cancers treated with anti-PD-1 therapy, and 61 samples were collected from 33 patients with various cancers developing different irAEs. 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing was performed. Antibiotic-treated mice underwent fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with samples from patients with and without colitic irAEs.

RESULTS: Microbiota composition was significantly different in patients with and without irAEs (P=0.001) and with and without colitic-type irAEs (P=0.003). Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, and Agathobacter were less abundant and Erysipelatoclostridium more abundant in irAE patients, while Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium were less abundant and Enterococcus more abundant in colitis-type irAE patients. Major butyrate-producing bacteria were also less abundant in patients with irAEs than those without (P=0.007) and in colitic vs. non-colitic irAE patients (P=0.018). An irAE prediction model had an AUC of 86.4% in training and 91.7% in testing. Immune-related colitis was more common in colitic-irAE-FMT (3/9) than non-irAE-FMT mice (0/9).

CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiota is important in dictating irAE occurrence and type, especially for immune-related colitis, possibly by modulating metabolic pathways.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Wu D, Zhang C, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Beyond faecal microbiota transplantation, the non-negligible role of faecal virome or bacteriophage transplantation.

Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi pii:S1684-1182(23)00042-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Intestinal microbiota, which contains bacteria, archaea, fungi, protists, and viruses including bacteriophages, is symbiotic and evolves together with humans. The balanced intestinal microbiota plays indispensable roles in maintaining and regulating host metabolism and health. Dysbiosis has been associated with not only intestinal diseases but other diseases such as neurology disorders and cancers. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or faecal virome or bacteriophage transplantation (FVT or FBT), transfers faecal bacteria or viruses, with a focus on bacteriophage, from one healthy individual to another individual (normally unhealthy condition), and aims to restore the balanced gut microbiota and assist in subduing diseases. In this review, we summarized the applications of FMT and FVT in clinical settings, discussed the advantages and challenges of FMT and FVT currently and proposed several considerations prospectively. We further provided our understanding of why FMT and FVT have their limitations and raised the possible future development strategy of FMT and FVT.

RevDate: 2023-03-09

Kumei S, Ishioh M, Nozu T, et al (2023)

Prostaglandin I2 suppresses the development of gut-brain axis disorder in irritable bowel syndrome in rats.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects, 1867(5):130344 pii:S0304-4165(23)00042-9 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we attempted to clarify a role of prostaglandin (PG) I2 and its specific receptor, IP in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using a maternal separation (MS)-induced IBS model. Administration of beraprost (BPS), a specific IP agonist, improved visceral hypersensitivity and depressive state with decreased serum CRF level in the IBS rats. To clarify the mechanism of the effect of BPS, we performed serum metabolome analysis and 1-methylnicotinamide (1-MNA) was identified as a possible candidate for a clue metabolite of pathogenesis of IBS. The serum 1-MNA levels revealed inverse correlation to the level of visceral sensitivity, and positive correlation to a depression marker, immobilizing time. Administration of 1-MNA induced visceral hypersensitivity and depression with increased levels of serum CRF. Since fecal 1-MNA is known for a marker of dysbiosis, we examined the composition of fecal microbiota by T-RFLP analysis. The proportion of clostridium cluster XI, XIVa and XVIII was significantly changed in MS-induced IBS rats treated with BPS. Fecal microbiota transplant of BPS-treated rats improved visceral hypersensitivity and depression in IBS rats. These results suggest for the first time that PGI2-IP signaling plays an important role in IBS phenotypes such as visceral hypersensitivity and depressive state. BPS modified microbiota, thereby inhibition of 1-MNA-CRF pathway, followed by improvement of MS-induced IBS phenotype. These results suggest that the PGI2-IP signaling could be considered to be a therapeutic option for IBS.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Wu Y, Zheng Y, Wang X, et al (2023)

Ginseng-Containing Sijunzi Decoction Ameliorates Ulcerative Colitis by Orchestrating Gut Homeostasis in Microbial Modulation and Intestinal Barrier Integrity.

The American journal of Chinese medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Ulcerative colitis (UC) has become a global epidemic, and the lack of an effective cure highlights the necessity and urgency to explore novel therapies. Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD), a classical Chinese herbal formula, has been comprehensively applied and clinically proven effective in treating UC; however, the pharmacological mechanism behind its therapeutic benefits is largely obscure. Here, we find that SJZD can restore microbiota homeostasis and intestinal barrier integrity in DSS-induced colitis. SJZD significantly alleviated the colonic tissue damage and improved the goblet cell count, MUC2 secretion, and tight junction protein expressions, which indicated enhanced intestinal barrier integrity. SJZD remarkedly suppressed the abundance of phylum Proteobacteria and genus Escherichia-Shigella, which are typical features of microbial dysbiosis. Escherichia-Shigella was negatively correlated with body weight and colon length, and positively correlated with disease activity index and IL-1[Formula: see text]. Furthermore, through gut microbiota depletion, we confirmed that SJZD exerted anti-inflammatory activities in a gut microbiota-dependent manner, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) validated the mediating role of gut microbiota in the SJZD treatment of UC. Through gut microbiota, SJZD modulates the biosynthesis of bile acids (BAs), especially tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), which has been identified as the signature BA during SJZD treatment. Cumulatively, our findings disclose that SJZD attenuates UC via orchestrating gut homeostasis in microbial modulation and intestinal barrier integrity, thus offering a promising alternative approach to the clinical management of UC.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Zhou S, Cui Y, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation for induction of remission in Crohn's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):62.

PURPOSE: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been found to be a potential treatment for Crohn's disease (CD). We sought to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of FMT in CD.

METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for studies until January 2023. Clinical remission was established as the primary outcome. The secondary outcome was clinical response, endoscopic remission, minor adverse events, serious adverse events, and changes in disease activity indices, biochemical indicators, and microbial diversities. Pooled effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated under the random effects model.

RESULTS: Eleven cohort studies and one randomized controlled trial involving 228 patients were included. In a meta-analysis, the pooled proportion of adult patients with active CD that achieved clinical remission 2 to 4 weeks after FMT was 57% (95% CI = 49-64%) with a low risk of heterogeneity (I[2] = 37%). Furthermore, our results showed that FMT significantly (standardized mean difference = -0.66; 95% CI = -1.12 to -0.20; I[2] = 0) reduced Crohn's disease activity index scores 4 to 8 weeks after FMT. Subgroup analyses showed no difference between FMT methodologies, except for pre-FMT treatment with antibiotics (P = 0.02). Most adverse events were self-limiting and disappeared spontaneously within hours or days after FMT. Microbiota analysis showed an increased Shannon diversity and a shift toward donor-like microbiome after FMT.

CONCLUSION: FMT could be a promising therapy in the short-term treatment of active CD. More placebo-controlled randomized trials with a long-term follow-up treatment are necessary.


RevDate: 2023-03-07

Körner E, A Lorentz (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: an overview of current studies.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7071894 [Epub ahead of print].

As dysbiosis is a key factor associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), modulation of the intestinal microbiota could improve IBS symptoms and quality of life. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) could be one efficient way to restore bacterial composition in IBS patients. This review comprises 12 clinical trials published from 2017 to 2021. Inclusion criteria were the assessment of IBS symptoms using the IBS symptom severity score (IBS-SSS), quality of life measured by the lBS quality of life scale (IBS-QOL) and gut microbiota analysis. Improved symptoms were reported in all 12 studies, paralleling with an increased quality of life after FMT, but also partly after placebo treatment. The use of oral capsules showed that the placebo treatment can have similar or even stronger positive effects on IBS patients than FMT. Gastroscopic FMT appears to link modulation of the gut microbiome to significant symptom reduction in patients. The patient's microbiota profile shifted towards their respective donors. Symptom worsening or decreased quality of life after FMT was not reported. The results show, that FMT could be a therapeutic approach in IBS patients. Further research is needed to investigate whether FMT has a more beneficial effect on IBS patient than placebo treatment with the patient's own stool, placebo capsules or bowel cleansing. Moreover, optimal donor selection, frequency, dosage and route of delivery still need to be defined.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-08

Chopra T (2023)

A profile of the live biotherapeutic product RBX2660 and its role in preventing recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 21(3):243-253.

INTRODUCTION: Clostridiodes difficile infection (CDI) is a life-threatening illness that has been labelled as an urgent threat by the Centers for Disease prevention (CDC).

AREAS COVERED: RBX2660, a live biotherapeutic product offers a very promising treatment option for patients with recurrent Clostridiodes difficile infection(rCDI). RBX2660 restores the healthy gut microbiome and shows clinically meaningful benefits for patients suffering from rCDI. Safety, efficacy, and tolerability of RBX2660 have been thoroughly assessed .

EXPERT OPINION: An FDA-approved, standardized, and accessible microbiota restoration product like RBX2660 would provide a new option for patients in need of treatment for rCDI by breaking the cycle of disease recurrence.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Daoust L, Choi BS, Agrinier AL, et al (2022)

Gnotobiotic mice housing conditions critically influence the phenotype associated with transfer of faecal microbiota in a context of obesity.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2021-326475 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in germ-free (GF) mice is a common approach to study the causal role of the gut microbiota in metabolic diseases. Lack of consideration of housing conditions post-FMT may contribute to study heterogeneity. We compared the impact of two housing strategies on the metabolic outcomes of GF mice colonised by gut microbiota from mice treated with a known gut modulator (cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC)) or vehicle.

DESIGN: High-fat high-sucrose diet-fed GF mice underwent FMT-PAC colonisation in sterile individual positive flow ventilated cages under rigorous housing conditions and then maintained for 8 weeks either in the gnotobiotic-axenic sector or in the specific pathogen free (SPF) sector of the same animal facility.

RESULTS: Unexpectedly, 8 weeks after colonisation, we observed opposing liver phenotypes dependent on the housing environment of mice. Mice housed in the GF sector receiving the PAC gut microbiota showed a significant decrease in liver weight and hepatic triglyceride accumulation compared with control group. Conversely, exacerbated liver steatosis was observed in the FMT-PAC mice housed in the SPF sector. These phenotypic differences were associated with housing-specific profiles of colonising bacterial in the gut and of faecal metabolites.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the housing environment in which gnotobiotic mice are maintained post-FMT strongly influences gut microbiota composition and function and can lead to distinctive phenotypes in recipient mice. Better standardisation of FMT experiments is needed to ensure reproducible and translatable results.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Kundu S, Nayak S, Rakshit D, et al (2023)

The microbiome-gut-brain axis in Epilepsy: Pharmacotherapeutic target from bench evidence for potential bedside applications.

European journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Gut-brain axis confers to the bidirectional intimation between the gut and brain and modulates gut homeostasis and central nervous system through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, enteroendocrine system, neuroendocrine system, inflammatory and immune pathways. The preclinical and clinical report showed that gut dysbiosis might play a major regulatory role in neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Parkinson's, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease that causes recurrent and unprovoked seizures, and numerous risk factors are implicated in developing epilepsy. Advanced consideration of the gut-microbiota-brain axis can reduce ambiguity about epilepsy pathology, antiepileptic drugs, and effective therapeutic targets. Gut microbiota sequencing analysis reported that the level of Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Fusobacteria, and Firmicutes was increased, and the level of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes was decreased in the epilepsy patients. The clinical and preclinical studies have also indicated that probiotics, ketogenic diet, faecal microbiota transplantation and antibiotic can improve gut dysbiosis and alleviate seizure by enhancing the abundance of healthy biota. This study aims to give an overview of the connection between gut microbiota and epilepsy, how gut microbiome changes may cause epilepsy, and whether gut microbiome restoration could be used as a treatment for epilepsy.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Liu J, Liu H, Teng Y, et al (2023)

A high-sucrose diet causes microbiota composition shift and promotes the susceptibility of mice to Salmonella Typhimurium infection.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

A westernized diet characterized by high fat and sugar is tightly associated with the development of metabolic diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. Although a high-fat diet has been extensively studied for its involvement in various diseases, fewer studies have examined the impact of a high-sugar diet on the development of certain diseases, particularly enteric infections. This study aimed to explore the effect of a high sucrose diet on Salmonella Typhimurium-induced infection. C57BL/6 mice received a normal diet (Control) or a high sucrose diet (HSD) for eight weeks and then were infected by Salmonella Typhimurium. The high-sugar diet profoundly altered the relative abundance of certain microbial taxa. Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobiota were more abundant in normal diet-fed mice than in HSD-fed mice. Moreover, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) were significantly higher in mice from the control group than the HSD group. More S. Typhimurium counts in feces and other tissues were observed in HSD-fed mice after infection. Tight junction proteins and antimicrobial peptides were significantly decreased in HSD-fed mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) demonstrated that mice that received normal fecal microbiota had lower Salmonella Typhimurium burdens compared with mice that received HSD fecal microbiota, indicating that the altered microbial communities are associated with the severity of infection. Together, these findings suggest that the excessive intake of sucrose disturbs intestinal homeostasis and predisposes mice to Salmonella-induced infection.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Renteria K, Nguyen H, GY Koh (2023)

The role of vitamin D in depression and anxiety disorders: a review of the literature.

Nutritional neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Prevalence of mental health disorders continue to increase worldwide. Over the past decades, suboptimal vitamin D (VD) levels and gut dysbiosis have been associated with neurological dysfunction and psychiatric disorders.

METHODS: In this review, we examined the available literature on VD and mental health disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, in both clinical and pre-clinical studies.

RESULTS: Our extensive review failed to find a link between VD deficiency, depression, and anxiety-related behavior in preclinical animal models. However, strong evidence suggests that VD supplementation may alleviate symptoms in chronically stressed rodents, with some promising evidence from clinical studies. Further, fecal microbiota transplantations suggest a potential role of gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders, although the underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. It has been postulated that serotonin, primarily produced by gut bacteria, may be a crucial factor. Hence, whether VD has the ability to impact gut microbiota and modulate serotonin synthesis warrants further investigation.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, literature has suggested that VD may serve as a key regulator in the gut-brain axis to modulate gut microbiota and alleviate symptoms of depression and anxiety. The inconsistent results of VD supplementation in clinical studies, particularly among VD deficient participants, suggests that current intake recommendations may need to be re-evaluated for individuals at-risk (i.e. prior to diagnosis) of developing depression and/or anxiety.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Ballif A (2023)

[Not Available].

Revue medicale suisse, 19(816):434.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Brenig A, Broekaert I, Gerner P, et al (2023)

Microbiome analysis and fecal microbiota transfer in pediatric gastroenterology - a structured online survey in German-speaking countries.

International journal of colorectal disease, 38(1):59.

PURPOSE: To assess the current attitude and the status quo towards the use of microbiome analysis and fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) in pediatric patients in German-speaking pediatric gastroenterology centers.

METHODS: A structured online survey among all certified facilities of the German-speaking society of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition (GPGE) was conducted from November 01, 2020, until March 30, 2021.

RESULTS: A total of 71 centers were included in the analysis. Twenty-two centers (31.0%) use diagnostic microbiome analysis, but only a few perform analysis frequently (2; 2.8%) or regularly (1; 1.4%). Eleven centers (15.5%) have performed FMT as a therapeutic approach. Most of these centers use individual in-house donor screening programs (61.5%). One-third (33.8%) of centers rate the therapeutic impact of FMT as high or moderate. More than two-thirds (69.0%) of all participants are willing to participate in studies assessing the therapeutic effect of FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines for microbiome analyses and FMT in pediatric patients and clinical studies investigating their benefits are absolutely necessary to improve the patient-centered care in pediatric gastroenterology. The long-term and successful establishment of pediatric FMT centers with standardized procedures for patient selection, donor screening, application route, volume, and frequency of use is highly required to obtain a safe therapy.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Teng T, Sun G, Song X, et al (2023)

The early faecal microbiota transfer alters bile acid circulation and amino acid transport of the small intestine in piglets.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 107(2):564-573.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) with lactation Min sows as faecal donor on blood immunity, small intestine amino acid transport capacity, bile acid circulation, and colon microbiota of recipient piglets. From Days 1 to 10, the recipient group (R group) was orally inoculated with a faecal suspension. The control group (Con group) was orally inoculated with sterile physiological saline. On Day 21, the results showed that the immunoglobulin A (IgA) concentration in plasma of the R group was increased (p < 0.05). The expression of 4F2hc in the jejunal mucosa and ileum mucosa of the R group was ameliorated (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Synergistetes in the colon of the R group was increased, Proteobacteria was diminished by FMT (p < 0.05). On Day 40, the concentrations of IgA, IgG, and interleukin-2 detected in the plasma of the R group were increased (p < 0.05). FXR and fibroblast growth factor 19 gene expression was upregulated in ileum mucosa, CYP7A1 and Na[+] taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide gene expression were downregulated in the liver and organic solute transporters α/β was downregulated in colonic mucosa (p < 0.05). The relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Spirochaetes in the colon of the R group was decreased (p < 0.05). In conclusion, an early FMT with lactation Min sows as faecal donors can alter the small intestine amino acid transport capacity, bile acid circulation, and colonic microbiota of recipient piglets during lactation and after weaning.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Takimoto Y, Chu PS, Nakamoto N, et al (2023)

Myeloid TLR4 signaling promotes post-injury withdrawal resolution of murine liver fibrosis.

iScience, 26(3):106220.

The fate of resolution of liver fibrosis after withdrawal of liver injury is still incompletely elucidated. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in tissue fibroblasts is pro-fibrogenic. After withdrawal of liver injury, we unexpectedly observed a significant delay of fibrosis resolution as TLR4 signaling was pharmacologically inhibited in vivo in two murine models. Single-cell transcriptome analysis of hepatic CD11b[+] cells, main producers of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), revealed a prominent cluster of restorative Tlr4-expressing Ly6c2-low myeloid cells. Delayed resolution after gut sterilization suggested its microbiome-dependent nature. Enrichment of a metabolic pathway linking to a significant increase of bile salt hydrolase-possessing family Erysipelotrichaceae during resolution. Farnesoid X receptor-stimulating secondary bile acids including 7-oxo-lithocholic acids upregulated MMP12 and TLR4 in myeloid cells in vitro. Fecal material transplant in germ-free mice confirmed phenotypical correlations in vivo. These findings highlight a pro-fibrolytic role of myeloid TLR4 signaling after injury withdrawal and may provide targets for anti-fibrotic therapy.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Maestri M, Santopaolo F, Pompili M, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota modulation in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Effects of current treatments and future strategies.

Frontiers in nutrition, 10:1110536.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is frequently associated with metabolic disorders, being highly prevalent in obese and diabetic patients. Many concomitant factors that promote systemic and liver inflammation are involved in NAFLD pathogenesis, with a growing body of evidence highlighting the key role of the gut microbiota. Indeed, the gut-liver axis has a strong impact in the promotion of NAFLD and in the progression of the wide spectrum of its manifestations, claiming efforts to find effective strategies for gut microbiota modulation. Diet is among the most powerful tools; Western diet negatively affects intestinal permeability and the gut microbiota composition and function, selecting pathobionts, whereas Mediterranean diet fosters health-promoting bacteria, with a favorable impact on lipid and glucose metabolism and liver inflammation. Antibiotics and probiotics have been used to improve NAFLD features, with mixed results. More interestingly, medications used to treat NAFLD-associated comorbidities may also modulate the gut microbiota. Drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), such as metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors, are not only effective in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, but also in the reduction of liver fat content and inflammation, and they are associated with a shift in the gut microbiota composition towards a healthy phenotype. Even bariatric surgery significantly changes the gut microbiota, mostly due to the modification of the gastrointestinal anatomy, with a parallel improvement in histological features of NAFLD. Other options with promising effects in reprogramming the gut-liver axis, such as fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) and next-generation probiotics deserve further investigation for future inclusion in the therapeutic armamentarium of NAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Matošević M, Kos I, Davidović M, et al (2023)

Hemolytic uremic syndrome in the setting of COVID-19 successfully treated with complement inhibition therapy: An instructive case report of a previously healthy toddler and review of literature.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 11:1092860.

INTRODUCTION: As the global pandemic continues, new complications of COVID-19 in pediatric population have turned up, one of them being hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (CM-TMA) characterized by triad of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute kidney injury (AKI). With both multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and HUS sharing complement dysregulation as one of the key factors, the aim of this case report is to highlight differences between these two conditions and also emphasize the importance of complement blockade as a treatment modality.

CASE REPORT: We describe a 21-month-old toddler who initially presented with fever and confirmed COVID-19. His condition quickly deteriorated and he developed oliguria, accompanied with diarrhea, vomiting and oral intake intolerance. HUS was suspected, supported with compelling laboratory findings, including decreased platelets count and C3 levels, elevated LDH, urea, serum creatinine and sC5b-9 and presence of schistocytes in peripheral blood, negative fecal Shiga toxin and normal ADAMTS13 metalloprotease activity. The patient was given C5 complement blocker Ravulizumab and started to display rapid improvement.

CONCLUSION: Although reports of HUS in the setting of COVID-19 continue to pour in, the questions of exact mechanism and similarities to MIS-C remain. Our case for the first time accentuates the use of complement blockade as a valuable treatment option in this scenario. We sincerely believe that reporting on HUS as a complication of COVID-19 in children will give rise to improved diagnosis and treatment, as well as better understanding of both of these intricating diseases.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Liu Y, Ji X, Huang Y, et al (2023)

Older patients benefit more from sequential courses of washed microbiota transplantation than younger population with ulcerative colitis.

Scandinavian journal of gastroenterology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The short-term efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for ulcerative colitis (UC) has increasingly been evaluated. However, few studies have examined the long-term efficacy and its predictors. This study aimed to assess the clinical factors affecting the long-term efficacy of FMT for patients with UC.

METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospective trial (NCT01790061) for patients with UC undergoing washed microbiota transplantation (WMT), which is the improved methodology of FMT. The long-term clinical efficacy of WMT and the factors affecting efficacy were analyzed.

RESULTS: A total of 259 patients were included for analysis. Of 70.7% (183/259) of patients achieved a clinical response at 1 month after WMT and 29.7% (77/259) achieved steroid-free clinical remission 6 months after WMT. Total 44 patients maintained a clinical response for ≥24 months, and 33 (17.1%, 33/193) achieved steroid-free clinical remission for ≥24 months with WMT monotherapy. Patients with age at UC onset of ≥60 years, mild disease severity and undergoing ≥2 courses of WMT during the response within 6 months were more likely to achieve steroid-free clinical remission 6 months after WMT. Besides, independent factors associated with the long-term response of WMT for UC were age at onset of ≥60 years and ≥2 courses of WMT during the response.

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated WMT could induce short-term steroid-free clinical remission and maintain long-term response in UC, especially for older patients and patients undergoing sequential courses.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Spreafico A, Heirali AA, Araujo DV, et al (2023)

First-in-class Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic 4 (MET4) in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with advanced solid tumors (MET4-IO Trial).

Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology pii:S0923-7534(23)00088-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The intestinal microbiome has been associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) in humans, and causally implicated in ICI responsiveness in animal models. Two recent human trials demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) from ICI responders can rescue ICI responses in refractory melanoma, but FMT has specific limitations to scaled use.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted an early phase clinical trial of a cultivated, orally-delivered 30-species microbial consortium (Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutic-4, MET4) designed for co-administration with ICIs as an alternative to FMT and assessed safety, tolerability and ecological responses in patients with advanced solid tumors.

RESULTS: The trial achieved its primary safety and tolerability outcomes. There were no statistically significant differences in the primary ecological outcomes, however, differences in MET4-species relative abundance were evident after randomization that varied by patient and species. Increases in the relative abundance of several MET4 taxa, including Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium, taxa previously associated with ICI responsiveness, were observed and MET4 engraftment was associated with decreases in plasma and stool primary bile acids.

CONCLUSIONS: This trial is the first report of the use of a microbial consortium as an alternative to FMT in advanced cancer patients receiving ICI and the results justify the further development of microbial consortia as a therapeutic co-intervention for ICI treatment in cancer.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Lian Z, Xu Y, Wang C, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota-derived melatonin from Puerariae Lobatae Radix-resistant starch supplementation attenuates ischemic stroke injury via a positive microbial co-occurrence pattern.

Pharmacological research pii:S1043-6618(23)00070-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Ischemic stroke is closely associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis and intestinal barrier dysfunction. Prebiotic intervention could modulate the intestinal microbiota, thus considered a practical strategy for neurological disorders. Puerariae Lobatae Radix-resistant starch (PLR-RS) is a potential novel prebiotic; however, its role in ischemic stroke remains unknown. This study aimed to clarify the effects and underlying mechanisms of PLR-RS in ischemic stroke. Middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery was performed to establish a model of ischemic stroke in rats. After gavage for 14 days, PLR-RS attenuated ischemic stroke-induced brain impairment and gut barrier dysfunction. Moreover, PLR-RS rescued gut microbiota dysbiosis and enriched Akkermansia and Bifidobacterium. We transplanted the fecal microbiota from PLR-RS-treated rats into rats with ischemic stroke and found that the brain and colon damage were also ameliorated. Notably, we found that PLR-RS promoted the gut microbiota to produce a higher level of melatonin. Intriguingly, exogenous gavage of melatonin attenuated ischemic stroke injury. In particular, melatonin attenuated brain impairment via a positive co-occurrence pattern in the intestinal microecology. Specific beneficial bacteria served as leaders or keystone species to promoted gut homeostasis, such as Enterobacter, Bacteroidales_S24-7_group, Prevotella_9, Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae. Thus, this new underlying mechanism could explain that the therapeutic efficacy of PLR-RS on ischemic stroke at least partly attributed to gut microbiota-derived melatonin. In summary, improving intestinal microecology by prebiotic intervention and melatonin supplementation in the gut were found to be effective therapies for ischemic stroke.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Grover S (2023)

Continuing Medical Education Questions: March 2023.

The American journal of gastroenterology, 118(3):404.

Article Title: Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Across the Lifespan- Balancing Efficacy, Safety, and Innovation.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Zhang Y, Peng Y, X Xia (2023)

Autoimmune diseases and gut microbiota: a bibliometric and visual analysis from 2004 to 2022.

Clinical and experimental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Many studies have shown that gut microbiota is closely related to autoimmune diseases (ADs). Studies on gut microbiota and ADs have also increased significantly, but no bibliometric analysis has summarized the association between gut microbiota and ADs. This study aimed to conduct a bibliometric and visual analysis of published studies on gut microbiota and ADs. Based on the Web of Science Core Collection SCI-expanded database, we utilize Excel 2019 and visualization analysis tools VOSviewer and co-occurrence13.2 (COOC13.2) for analysis. A total of 2516 related kinds of literature were included, and the number of papers presented an overall increasing trend. The country/region with the most publications is the USA, the institution is the Harvard Medical School, and the author is Mikael Knip from the USA. Hot research areas include intestinal regulation (such as dysbiosis, short chain fatty acids, and probiotics), multisystem ADs (such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease), and immune-related cells (such as T cells, and dendritic cells). Psoriasis, dysbiosis, autoimmune liver disease, and fecal microbiota transplantation may be the future research direction. Our research results can help researchers grasp the current status of ADs and gut microbiota research and find new research directions in the future.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Guo P, Yang X, Guo X, et al (2023)

Dietary fish oil improves autistic behaviors and gut homeostasis by altering the gut microbial composition in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(23)00050-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited intellectual disability, caused by a lack of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders frequently experience gastrointestinal problems that are primarily linked to gut microbial dysbiosis, inflammation, and increased intestinal permeability. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) are non-pharmacological agents that exert potential therapeutic effects against neurological disorders. However, it is unclear whether omega-3 PUFAs improve autistic behaviors in fragile X syndrome (FXS) by altering the gut microbial composition. Here, we describe gastrointestinal problems in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice. FMRP deficiency causes intestinal homeostasis dysfunction in mice. Fish oil (FO) as a source of omega-3 PUFAs reduces intestinal inflammation but increases the mRNA and protein levels of TJP3 in the colon of juvenile Fmr1 KO mice. Fecal microbiota transplantation from FO-fed Fmr1 KO mice increased the gut abundance of Akkermansia and Gordonibacter in recipient Fmr1 KO mice and improved gut homeostasis and autistic behaviors. Our findings demonstrate that omega-3 PUFAs improve autistic behaviors and gut homeostasis in FMRP-deficient mice by suppressing gut microbiota dysbiosis, thereby presenting a novel therapeutic approach for juvenile FXS treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-02
CmpDate: 2023-03-02

Bolia R (2023)

Transanal Irrigation in Children With Functional Constipation: Doing It the Right Way for the Right Indication.

Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition, 76(3):e67.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Saleh A, Parsa S, Garza M, et al (2023)

The Role of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Induction of Remission in Ulcerative Colitis.

Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) pii:000529591 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Considerable research supports an important role for the microbiome and/or microbiome-host immune system interactions in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Consequently, microbiota-modulating interventions, such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), have attracted interest in the management of IBD, including ulcerative colitis (UC).

SUMMARY: While the clinical response to FMT in UC has varied between different studies, results to date may offer guidance towards optimal use of FMT. Thus, increased microbiome biodiversity, the presence of short-chain fatty acid producing bacteria, Clostridium Cluster IV and XIVa, Odoribacter splanchnicus and reduced levels of Caudovirales bacteriophages have been identified as characteristics of the donor microbiome that predict a positive response. However, inconsistency in FMT protocol between studies confounds their interpretation, so it is currently difficult to predict response and premature to recommend FMT, in general, as a treatment for UC. Additional randomized controlled trials designed based on previous findings and employing a standardized protocol are needed to define the role of FMT in the management of UC.

KEY MESSAGES: There is a well-developed rationale for the use of microbiome-modulating interventions in UC. Despite variations in study protocol and limitations in study design that confound their interpretation, FMT seems to benefit patients with UC, overall. Available data identify factors predicting FMT response and should lead to the development of optimal FMT study protocols.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Tong M, Yang X, Liu H, et al (2023)

The Trichinella spiralis-derived antigens alleviate HFD-induced obesity and inflammation in mice.

International immunopharmacology, 117:109924 pii:S1567-5769(23)00244-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity, an increasingly prevalent disease worldwide, is accompanied by chronic inflammation and intestinal dysbiosis. Helminth infections have been increasingly proved to exhibit a protective role in several inflammation-associated diseases. Considering the side effects of live parasite therapy, efforts have been made to develop helminth-derived antigens as promising candidates with fewer adverse effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effect and mechanisms of TsAg (T. spiralis-derived antigens) on obesity and the associated inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal diet or HFD with or without TsAg treatment. The results reported that TsAg treatment alleviated body weight gain and chronic inflammation induced by HFD. In the adipose tissue, TsAg treatment prevented macrophage infiltration, reduced the expression of Th1-type (IFN-γ) and Th17-type (IL-17A) cytokines while upregulating the production of Th2-type (IL-4) cytokines. Furthermore, TsAg treatment enhanced brown adipose tissue activation and energy and lipid metabolism and reduced intestinal dysbiosis, intestinal barrier permeability and LPS/TLR4 axis inflammation. Finally, the protective role of TsAg against obesity was transmissible via the fecal microbiota transplantation approach. For the first time, our findings showed that TsAg alleviated HFD-induced obesity and inflammation via modulation of the gut microbiota and balancing the immune disorders, suggesting that TsAg might be a safer promising therapeutic strategy for obesity.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Erguibi D, Kamal K, Eddaoudi Y, et al (2023)

Parietal mass caused by a fish bone: case report.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 85(2):299-301.

UNLABELLED: It is a great challenge to distinguish the parietal inflammation, centered on the foreign body that pierced the digestive tract and remained in the wall before surgery, because of its atypical clinical nature. Ingestion of foreign bodies is not uncommon. Fish bones are particularly notorious culprits; however, most will pass through the gastrointestinal tract uneventfully.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors report a case of a patient who presented with periumbilical abdominal pain and a computed tomography (CT) scan that revealed the presence of periumbilical fat infiltration on a foreign body admitted on the Department of Digestive Cancer Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Casablanca, Morocco. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a parietal mass centered by a fish bone.

RESULTS: Accidental ingestion of foreign bodies is common in clinical practice. However, perforation of the intestine by a foreign body is less common because the majority of foreign bodies pass without incident into the feces and only 1% of them (the sharpest and most elongated objects) will perforate the gastrointestinal tract, usually at the level of the ileum.CT, especially multidetector CT, is considered the method of choice for preoperative diagnoses of ingested foreign bodies and their complications due to its high-quality multiplanar capabilities and high resolution.Foreign body ingestion usually goes unnoticed, but the complications of this incident can be severe.

CONCLUSION: This case report highlights the fact that intestinal perforation caused by an ingested foreign body is a difficult diagnosis that should always be suspected in an attack of abdominal pain. Frequently, the clinical diagnosis is difficult, and recourse to imaging is sometimes necessary. Most of the time, the treatment is only surgical.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Hatahet J, Cook TM, Bonomo RR, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiome transplantation and tributyrin improves early cardiac dysfunction and modifies the BCAA metabolic pathway in a diet induced pre-HFpEF mouse model.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 10:1105581.

More than 50% of patients with heart failure present with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and 80% of them are overweight or obese. In this study we developed an obesity associated pre-HFpEF mouse model and showed an improvement in both systolic and diastolic early dysfunction following fecal microbiome transplant (FMT). Our study suggests that the gut microbiome-derived short-chain fatty acid butyrate plays a significant role in this improvement. Cardiac RNAseq analysis showed butyrate to significantly upregulate ppm1k gene that encodes protein phosphatase 2Cm (PP2Cm) which dephosphorylates and activates branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) enzyme, and in turn increases the catabolism of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). Following both FMT and butyrate treatment, the level of inactive p-BCKDH in the heart was reduced. These findings show that gut microbiome modulation can alleviate early cardiac mechanics dysfunction seen in the development of obesity associated HFpEF.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Halper-Stromberg A, SR Dalal (2023)

The Role of the Microbiome in the Etiology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 36(2):120-126.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) result from dysregulated immune responses to environmental and microbial triggers in genetically susceptible hosts. Many clinical observations and animal studies support the role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of IBD. Restoration of the fecal stream leads to postoperative Crohn's recurrence, while diversion can treat active inflammation. Antibiotics can be effective in prevention of postoperative Crohn's recurrence and in pouch inflammation. Several gene mutations associated with Crohn's risk lead to functional changes in microbial sensing and handling. However, the evidence linking the microbiome to the IBD is largely correlative, given the difficulty in studying the microbiome before disease occurs. Attempts to modify the microbial triggers of inflammation have had modest success to date. Exclusive enteral nutrition can treat Crohn's inflammation though no whole food diet to date has been shown to treat inflammation. Manipulation of the microbiome through fecal microbiota transplant and probiotics have had limited success. Further focus on early changes in the microbiome and functional consequences of microbial changes through the study of metabolomics are needed to help advance the field.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Paine H, Jones F, J Kinross (2023)

Preparing the Bowel (Microbiome) for Surgery: Surgical Bioresilience.

Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 36(2):138-145.

The preparation of the bowel for radical surgery is a corner stone of elective colorectal practice. The evidence for this intervention is of variable quality and it is often contradictory, yet there is now a global move toward the adoption of oral antibiotic therapy for the reduction of perioperative infective complications, such as surgical site infections. The gut microbiome is a critical mediator of the systemic inflammatory response to surgical injury, wound healing, and perioperative gut function. The loss of critical microbial symbiotic functions caused by bowel preparation and surgery has an adverse impact on surgical outcomes, yet the mechanisms through which this occurs are poorly defined. In this review, the evidence for bowel preparation strategies is critically appraised in the context of the gut microbiome. The impact of antibiotic therapy on the surgical gut microbiome and the importance of the intestinal "resistome" to surgical recovery is described. Data to support the augmentation of the microbiome through diet, probiotic and symbiotic approaches, as well as fecal transplantation are also appraised. Finally, we propose a novel strategy of bowel preparation defined as " surgical bioresilience " and define areas or prioritization in this emerging field. This describes the optimization of surgical intestinal homeostasis and core surgical exposome-microbiome interactions that regulate the wound immune microenvironment, the systemic inflammatory response to surgical injury, and gut function across the perioperative time course.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Cheng YW, M Fischer (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Clinics in colon and rectal surgery, 36(2):151-156.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the process of transplanting stool from a healthy donor into the gut of a patient for therapeutic purposes. Current guidelines recommend FMT for the prevention of multiply recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) after two recurrences, with cure rates approaching 90%. Emerging evidence also supports the use of FMT in the management of severe and fulminant CDI, resulting in decreased mortality and colectomy rates compared with standard of care approach. FMT shows promise as salvage therapy for critically-ill, refractory CDI patients who are poor surgical candidates. FMT should be considered early in the clinical course of severe CDI, preferably within 48 hours of failing to respond to antibiotic therapy and volume resuscitation. Besides CDI, ulcerative colitis was more recently identified as a potential treatment target for FMT. Several live biotherapeutics for microbiome restoration are on the horizon.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Brumfield KD, Cox P, Geyer J, et al (2023)

A Taxonomy-Agnostic Approach to Targeted Microbiome Therapeutics-Leveraging Principles of Systems Biology.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2):.

The study of human microbiomes has yielded insights into basic science, and applied therapeutics are emerging. However, conflicting definitions of what microbiomes are and how they affect the health of the "host" are less understood. A major impediment towards systematic design, discovery, and implementation of targeted microbiome therapeutics is the continued reliance on taxonomic indicators to define microbiomes in health and disease. Such reliance often confounds analyses, potentially suggesting associations where there are none, and conversely failing to identify significant, causal relationships. This review article discusses recent discoveries pointing towards a molecular understanding of microbiome "dysbiosis" and away from a purely taxonomic approach. We highlight the growing role of systems biological principles in the complex interrelationships between the gut microbiome and host cells, and review current approaches commonly used in targeted microbiome therapeutics, including fecal microbial transplant, bacteriophage therapies, and the use of metabolic toxins to selectively eliminate specific taxa from dysbiotic microbiomes. These approaches, however, remain wholly or partially dependent on the bacterial taxa involved in dysbiosis, and therefore may not capitalize fully on many therapeutic opportunities presented at the bioactive molecular level. New technologies capable of addressing microbiome-associated diseases as molecular problems, if solved, will open possibilities of new classes and categories of targeted microbiome therapeutics aimed, in principle, at all dysbiosis-driven disorders.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Eribo OA, Naidoo CC, Theron G, et al (2023)

An Archetypical Model for Engrafting Bacteroides fragilis into Conventional Mice Following Reproducible Antibiotic Conditioning of the Gut Microbiota.

Microorganisms, 11(2):.

Bacteroides fragilis is a commonly investigated commensal bacterium for its protective role in host diseases. Here, we aimed to develop a reproducible antibiotic-based model for conditioning the gut microbiota and engrafting B. fragilis into a conventional murine host. Initially, we selected different combinations of antibiotics, including metronidazole, imipenem, and clindamycin, and investigated their efficacy in depleting the mouse Bacteroides population. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing of DNA isolated from fecal samples at different time points. The α-diversity was similar in mice treated with metronidazole (MET) and differed only at weeks 1 (p = 0.001) and 3 (p = 0.009) during metronidazole/imipenem (MI) treatment. Bacteroides compositions, during the MET and MI exposures, were similar to the pre-antibiotic exposure states. Clindamycin supplementation added to MET or MI regimens eliminated the Bacteroides population. We next repeated metronidazole/clindamycin (MC) treatment in two additional independent experiments, followed by a B. fragilis transplant. MC consistently and reproducibly eliminated the Bacteroides population. The depleted Bacteroides did not recover in a convalescence period of six weeks post-MC treatment. Finally, B. fragilis was enriched for ten days following engraftment into Bacteroides-depleted mice. Our model has potential use in gut microbiota studies that selectively investigate Bacteroides' role in diseases of interest.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Bainum TB, Reveles KR, Hall RG, et al (2023)

Controversies in the Prevention and Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection in Adults: A Narrative Review.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020387.

Clostridioides difficile remains a problematic pathogen resulting in significant morbidity and mortality, especially for high-risk groups that include immunocompromised patients. Both the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (IDSA/SHEA), as well as the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) and the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) recently provided guideline updates for C. difficile infection (CDI). In this narrative review, the authors reviewed available literature regarding the prevention or treatment of CDI in adults and focused on disagreements between the IDSA/SHEA and ACG guidelines, as well as articles that have been published since the updates. Several options for primary prophylaxis are available, including probiotics and antibiotics (vancomycin, fidaxomicin). The literature supporting fidaxomicin is currently quite limited. While there are more studies evaluating probiotics and vancomycin, the optimal patient populations and regimens for their use have yet to be defined. While the IDSA/SHEA guidelines discourage metronidazole use for mild CDI episodes, evidence exists that it may remain a reasonable option for these patients. Fidaxomicin has an advantage over vancomycin in reducing recurrences, but its use is limited by cost. Despite this, recent studies suggest fidaxomicin's cost-effectiveness as a first-line therapy, though this is highly dependent on institutional contracts and payment structures. Secondary prophylaxis should focus on non-antimicrobial options to lessen the impact on the microbiome. The oral option of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), SER109, and the now FDA-approved RBX2660 represent exciting new options to correct dysbiosis. Bezlotoxumab is another attractive option to prevent recurrences. Further head-to-head studies of newer agents will be needed to guide selection of the optimal therapies for CDI primary and secondary prophylaxis.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Loublier C, Taminiau B, Heinen J, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Bacterial Composition and Viability of Equine Feces after Processing for Transplantation.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020231.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been used empirically for decades in equine medicine to treat intestinal dysbiosis but evidence-based information is scarce. This in vitro study aimed at assessing the effect of a commonly used pre-FMT processing method on the bacterial composition and viability of the fecal filtrate. Three samples of fresh equine manure (T0) were processed identically: the initial manure was mixed with 1 L of lukewarm water and chopped using an immersion blender to obtain a mixture (T1), which was left uncovered during 30 min (T2) and percolated through a sieve to obtain a fecal filtrate (T3). Samples were taken throughout the procedure (Tn) and immediately stored at 4 °C until processing. The 16S rDNA amplicon profiling associated with propidium monoazide treatment was performed on each sample to select live bacteria. Analyses of α and β diversity and main bacterial populations and quantitative (qPCR) analysis were performed and statistically compared (significance p < 0.05) between time points (T0-T3). No significant differences in ecological indices or mean estimated total living bacteria were found in the final fecal filtrate (T3) in regard to the original manure (T0); however, relative abundances of some minor genera (Fibrobacter, WCHB1-41_ge and Akkermansia) were significantly different in the final filtrate. In conclusion, the results support the viability of the major bacterial populations in equine feces when using the described pre-FMT protocol.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Katsimichas T, Theofilis P, Tsioufis K, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiota and Coronary Artery Disease: Current Therapeutic Perspectives.

Metabolites, 13(2): pii:metabo13020256.

The human gut microbiota is the community of microorganisms living in the human gut. This microbial ecosystem contains bacteria beneficial to their host and plays important roles in human physiology, participating in energy harvest from indigestible fiber, vitamin synthesis, and regulation of the immune system, among others. Accumulating evidence suggests a possible link between compositional and metabolic aberrations of the gut microbiota and coronary artery disease in humans. Manipulating the gut microbiota through targeted interventions is an emerging field of science, aiming at reducing the risk of disease. Among the interventions with the most promising results are probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) inhibitors. Contemporary studies of probiotics have shown an improvement of inflammation and endothelial cell function, paired with attenuated extracellular matrix remodeling and TMAO production. Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria, and Bacteroides are some of the most well studied probiotics in experimental and clinical settings. Prebiotics may also decrease inflammation and lead to reductions in blood pressure, body weight, and hyperlipidemia. Synbiotics have been associated with an improvement in glucose homeostasis and lipid abnormalities. On the contrary, no evidence yet exists on the possible benefits of postbiotic use, while the use of antibiotics is not warranted, due to potentially deleterious effects. TMAO inhibitors such as 3,3-dimethyl-1-butanol, iodomethylcholine, and fluoromethylcholine, despite still being investigated experimentally, appear to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-fibrotic properties. Finally, fecal transplantation carries conflicting evidence, mandating the need for further research. In the present review we summarize the links between the gut microbiota and coronary artery disease and elaborate on the varied therapeutic measures that are being explored in this context.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Stadlbauer V (2023)

Liver-Gut-Interaction: Role of Microbiome Transplantation in the Future Treatment of Metabolic Disease.

Journal of personalized medicine, 13(2): pii:jpm13020220.

The association between shifts in gut microbiome composition and metabolic disorders is a well-recognized phenomenon. Clinical studies and experimental data suggest a causal relationship, making the gut microbiome an attractive therapeutic goal. Fecal microbiome transplantation (FMT) is a method to alter a person's microbiome composition. Although this method allowed for the establishment of proof of concept for using microbiome modulation to treat metabolic disorders, the method is not yet ready for broad application. It is a resource-intensive method that also carries some procedural risks and whose effects are not always reproducible. This review summarizes the current knowledge on FMT to treat metabolic diseases and gives an outlook on open research questions. Further research is undoubtedly required to find applications that are less resource-intensive, such as oral encapsulated formulations, and have strong and predictable results. Furthermore, a clear commitment from all stakeholders is necessary to move forward in the direction of developing live microbial agents, next-generation probiotics, and targeted dietary interventions.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Zhao Y, Gong C, Xu J, et al (2023)

Research Progress of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Liver Diseases.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(4): pii:jcm12041683.

A growing body of evidence suggested that gut microbiota is associated with liver diseases through the gut-liver axis. The imbalance of gut microbiota could be correlated with the occurrence, development, and prognosis of a series of liver diseases, including alcoholic liver disease (ALD), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) seems to be a method to normalize the patient's gut microbiota. This method has been traced back to the 4th century. In recent decade, FMT has been highly regarded in several clinical trials. As a novel approach to reconstruct the intestinal microecological balance, FMT has been used to treat the chronic liver diseases. Therefore, in this review, the role of FMT in the treatment of liver diseases was summarized. In addition, the relationship between gut and liver was explored through the gut-liver axis, and the definition, objectives, advantages, and procedures of FMT were described. Finally, the clinical value of FMT therapy in liver transplant (LT) recipients was briefly discussed.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Tiwari P, Dwivedi R, Bansal M, et al (2023)

Role of Gut Microbiota in Neurological Disorders and Its Therapeutic Significance.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(4): pii:jcm12041650.

In humans, the gut microbiota (GM) are known to play a significant role in the metabolism of nutrients and drugs, immunomodulation, and pathogen defense by inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The role of the GM in the gut-brain axis (GBA) has been documented for different regulatory mechanisms and associated pathways and it shows different behaviors with individualized bacteria. In addition, the GM are known as susceptibility factor for neurological disorders in the central nervous system (CNS), regulating disease progression and being amenable to intervention. Bidirectional transmission between the brain and the GM occurs in the GBA, implying that it performs a significant role in neurocrine, endocrine, and immune-mediated signaling pathways. The GM regulates multiple neurological disorders by supplementing them with prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics, synbiotics, fecal transplantations, and/or antibiotics. A well-balanced diet is critically important for establishing healthy GM, which can alter the enteric nervous system (ENS) and regulate multiple neurological disorders. Here, we have discussed the function of the GM in the GBA from the gut to the brain and the brain to the gut, the pathways associated with neurology that interacts with the GM, and the various neurological disorders associated with the GM. Furthermore, we have highlighted the recent advances and future prospects of the GBA, which may require addressing research concerns about GM and associated neurological disorders.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Singh S, Pal N, Shubham S, et al (2023)

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Etiology, Current Management, and Future Therapeutics.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(4): pii:jcm12041454.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, typically characterized by anovulation, infertility, obesity, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Lifestyle or diet, environmental pollutants, genetics, gut dysbiosis, neuroendocrine alterations, and obesity are among the risk factors that predispose females to PCOS. These factors might contribute to upsurging metabolic syndrome by causing hyperinsulinemia, oxidative stress, hyperandrogenism, impaired folliculogenesis, and irregular menstrual cycles. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may play a pathogenic role in the development of PCOS. The restoration of gut microbiota by probiotics, prebiotics, or a fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) might serve as an innovative, efficient, and noninvasive way to prevent and mitigate PCOS. This review deliberates on the variety of risk factors potentially involved in the etiology, prevalence, and modulation of PCOS, in addition to plausible therapeutic interventions, including miRNA therapy and the eubiosis of gut microbiota, that may help treat and manage PCOS.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Haneishi Y, Furuya Y, Hasegawa M, et al (2023)

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Gut Microbiota.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(4): pii:ijms24043817.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, the incidence of which has rapidly increased worldwide, especially in developing and Western countries. Recent research has suggested that genetic factors, the environment, microbiota, and immune responses are involved in the pathogenesis; however, the underlying causes of IBD are unclear. Recently, gut microbiota dysbiosis, especially a decrease in the abundance and diversity of specific genera, has been suggested as a trigger for IBD-initiating events. Improving the gut microbiota and identifying the specific bacterial species in IBD are essential for understanding the pathogenesis and treatment of IBD and autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the different aspects of the role played by gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBD and provide a theoretical basis for modulating gut microbiota through probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and microbial metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Stec A, Sikora M, Maciejewska M, et al (2023)

Bacterial Metabolites: A Link between Gut Microbiota and Dermatological Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(4): pii:ijms24043494.

Dysbiosis has been identified in many dermatological conditions (e.g., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus). One of the ways by which the microbiota affect homeostasis is through microbiota-derived molecules (metabolites). There are three main groups of metabolites: short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), tryptophan metabolites, and amine derivatives including trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO). Each group has its own uptake and specific receptors through which these metabolites can exert their systemic function. This review provides up-to-date knowledge about the impact that these groups of gut microbiota metabolites may have in dermatological conditions. Special attention is paid to the effect of microbial metabolites on the immune system, including changes in the profile of the immune cells and cytokine disbalance, which are characteristic of several dermatological diseases, especially psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Targeting the production of microbiota metabolites may serve as a novel therapeutic approach in several immune-mediated dermatological diseases.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Tain YL, CN Hsu (2023)

Role of the Gut Microbiota in Children with Kidney Disease.

Children (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:children10020269.

Disruption of the composition and structure of the gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, dictates the pathophysiology of kidney diseases. The bidirectional kidney-gut axis is of interest in chronic kidney disease (CKD); the uremic milieu leads to intestinal dysbiosis and gut microbial metabolites and toxins implicated in the loss of kidney function and increased comorbidity burden. Considering that kidney diseases can originate in childhood or even earlier in fetal life, identification of the pathogenetic connection between gut microbiota dysbiosis and the development of pediatric renal diseases deserves more attention. This review concentrates on the pathogenic link between dysbiotic gut microbiota and pediatric renal diseases, covering CKD, kidney transplantation, hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis, and idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. Gut microbiota-targeted therapies including dietary intervention, probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics and fecal microbial transplantation are discussed for their potential for the treatment of pediatric renal diseases. A deeper understanding of gut microbiota in pediatric renal diseases will aid in developing innovative gut microbiota-targeted interventions for preventing or attenuating the global burden of kidney diseases.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Gholami H, Chmiel JA, Burton JP, et al (2023)

The Role of Microbiota-Derived Vitamins in Immune Homeostasis and Enhancing Cancer Immunotherapy.

Cancers, 15(4): pii:cancers15041300.

Not all cancer patients who receive immunotherapy respond positively and emerging evidence suggests that the gut microbiota may be linked to treatment efficacy. Though mechanisms of microbial contributions to the immune response have been postulated, one likely function is the supply of basic co-factors to the host including selected vitamins. Bacteria, fungi, and plants can produce their own vitamins, whereas humans primarily obtain vitamins from exogenous sources, yet despite the significance of microbial-derived vitamins as crucial immune system modulators, the microbiota is an overlooked source of these nutrients in humans. Microbial-derived vitamins are often shared by gut bacteria, stabilizing bioenergetic pathways amongst microbial communities. Compositional changes in gut microbiota can affect metabolic pathways that alter immune function. Similarly, the immune system plays a pivotal role in maintaining the gut microbiota, which parenthetically affects vitamin biosynthesis. Here we elucidate the immune-interactive mechanisms underlying the effects of these microbially derived vitamins and how they can potentially enhance the activity of immunotherapies in cancer.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Knight A, Karapetyan L, JM Kirkwood (2023)

Immunotherapy in Melanoma: Recent Advances and Future Directions.

Cancers, 15(4): pii:cancers15041106.

The use of immunotherapy in the treatment of advanced and high-risk melanoma has led to a striking improvement in outcomes. Although the incidence of melanoma has continued to rise, median survival has improved from approximately 6 months to nearly 6 years for patients with advanced inoperable stage IV disease. Recent understanding of the tumor microenvironment and its interplay with the immune system has led to the explosive development of novel immunotherapy treatments. Since the approval of the therapeutic cytokines interleukin-2 and interferon alfa-2 in the 1990s, the development of novel immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs), oncolytic virus therapy, and modulators of the tumor microenvironment have given way to a new era in melanoma treatment. Monoclonal antibodies directed at programmed cell death protein 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand (PDL-1), cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) have provided robust activation of the adaptive immune system, restoring immune surveillance leading to host tumor recognition and destruction. Multiple other immunomodulatory therapeutics are under investigation to overcome resistance to ICI therapy, including the toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) and 7/8 (TLR-7/8) agonists, stimulator of interferon genes (STING) agonists, and fecal microbiota transplantation. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in immunotherapy for the treatment of melanoma and provide an update on novel therapies currently under investigation.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Campbell C, Kandalgaonkar MR, Golonka RM, et al (2023)

Crosstalk between Gut Microbiota and Host Immunity: Impact on Inflammation and Immunotherapy.

Biomedicines, 11(2): pii:biomedicines11020294.

Gut microbes and their metabolites are actively involved in the development and regulation of host immunity, which can influence disease susceptibility. Herein, we review the most recent research advancements in the gut microbiota-immune axis. We discuss in detail how the gut microbiota is a tipping point for neonatal immune development as indicated by newly uncovered phenomenon, such as maternal imprinting, in utero intestinal metabolome, and weaning reaction. We describe how the gut microbiota shapes both innate and adaptive immunity with emphasis on the metabolites short-chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. We also comprehensively delineate how disruption in the microbiota-immune axis results in immune-mediated diseases, such as gastrointestinal infections, inflammatory bowel diseases, cardiometabolic disorders (e.g., cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and hypertension), autoimmunity (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis), hypersensitivity (e.g., asthma and allergies), psychological disorders (e.g., anxiety), and cancer (e.g., colorectal and hepatic). We further encompass the role of fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, and dietary polyphenols in reshaping the gut microbiota and their therapeutic potential. Continuing, we examine how the gut microbiota modulates immune therapies, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, JAK inhibitors, and anti-TNF therapies. We lastly mention the current challenges in metagenomics, germ-free models, and microbiota recapitulation to a achieve fundamental understanding for how gut microbiota regulates immunity. Altogether, this review proposes improving immunotherapy efficacy from the perspective of microbiome-targeted interventions.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Helmy YA, Taha-Abdelaziz K, Hawwas HAE, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial Resistance and Recent Alternatives to Antibiotics for the Control of Bacterial Pathogens with an Emphasis on Foodborne Pathogens.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2): pii:antibiotics12020274.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most important global public health problems. The imprudent use of antibiotics in humans and animals has resulted in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The dissemination of these strains and their resistant determinants could endanger antibiotic efficacy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify and develop novel strategies to combat antibiotic resistance. This review provides insights into the evolution and the mechanisms of AMR. Additionally, it discusses alternative approaches that might be used to control AMR, including probiotics, prebiotics, antimicrobial peptides, small molecules, organic acids, essential oils, bacteriophage, fecal transplants, and nanoparticles.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Maeda Y, T Murakami (2023)

Diagnosis by Microbial Culture, Breath Tests and Urinary Excretion Tests, and Treatments of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2): pii:antibiotics12020263.

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is characterized as the increase in the number and/or alteration in the type of bacteria in the upper gastrointestinal tract and accompanies various bowel symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, gases, diarrhea, and so on. Clinically, SIBO is diagnosed by microbial culture in duodenum/jejunum fluid aspirates and/or the breath tests (BT) of hydrogen/methane gases after ingestion of carbohydrates such as glucose. The cultural analysis of aspirates is regarded as the golden standard for the diagnosis of SIBO; however, this is invasive and is not without risk to the patients. BT is an inexpensive and safe diagnostic test but lacks diagnostic sensitivity and specificity depending on the disease states of patients. Additionally, the urinary excretion tests are used for the SIBO diagnosis using chemically synthesized bile acid conjugates such as cholic acid (CA) conjugated with para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA-CA), ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) conjugated with PABA (PABA-UDCA) or conjugated with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA-UDCA). These conjugates are split by bacterial bile acid (cholylglycine) hydrolase. In the tests, the time courses of the urinary excretion rates of PABA or 5-ASA, including their metabolites, are determined as the measure of hydrolytic activity of intestinal bacteria. Although the number of clinical trials with this urinary excretion tests is small, results demonstrated the usefulness of bile acid conjugates as SIBO diagnostic substrates. PABA-UDCA disulfate, a single-pass type unabsorbable compound without the hydrolysis of conjugates, was likely to offer a simple and rapid method for the evaluation of SIBO without the use of radioisotopes or expensive special apparatus. Treatments of SIBO with antibiotics, probiotics, therapeutic diets, herbal medicines, and/or fecal microbiota transplantation are also reviewed.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Janczy A, Szymanski M, Stankiewicz M, et al (2023)

Increased Amount of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Intestinal Contents of Patients with Morbid Obesity.

Obesity surgery pii:10.1007/s11695-023-06518-1 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is associated with disturbed gut microbiota homeostasis that translates into altered intestinal and blood metabolite profiles. The long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) may be absorbed in the intestine, but until now, their composition in intestinal contents of patients with obesity has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to verify whether obesity is related to any changes in fecal LCFA content and whether intestinal LCFA content may be associated with the health status of patients with obesity.

METHODS: The fatty acid composition has been studied in stool samples obtained from 26 patients with morbid obesity and 25 lean subjects by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dietary habits were assessed using the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ-6).

RESULTS: Our results show for the first time that lean subjects and patients with obesity differ in their stool LCFA profiles. The levels of most n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and n-6 PUFAs were significantly higher in fecal samples from people with obesity than in those from lean controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the current knowledge, we have defined three hypotheses that may explain proving the cause-and-effect relationships observed differences in fecal LCFA profiles between patients with obesity and lean subjects. They may be related to alterations in fat digestion and/or LCFA absorption and diet. However, proving the cause-and-effect relationships requires further research.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Caggiano G, Stasi A, Franzin R, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Reducing Uremic Toxins Accumulation in Kidney Disease: Current Understanding and Future Perspectives.

Toxins, 15(2): pii:toxins15020115.

During the past decades, the gut microbiome emerged as a key player in kidney disease. Dysbiosis-related uremic toxins together with pro-inflammatory mediators are the main factors in a deteriorating kidney function. The toxicity of uremic compounds has been well-documented in a plethora of pathophysiological mechanisms in kidney disease, such as cardiovascular injury (CVI), metabolic dysfunction, and inflammation. Accumulating data on the detrimental effect of uremic solutes in kidney disease supported the development of many strategies to restore eubiosis. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) spread as an encouraging treatment for different dysbiosis-associated disorders. In this scenario, flourishing studies indicate that fecal transplantation could represent a novel treatment to reduce the uremic toxins accumulation. Here, we present the state-of-the-art concerning the application of FMT on kidney disease to restore eubiosis and reverse the retention of uremic toxins.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Liu L, Zhang T, Sui Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota affects pancreatic fibrotic progression through immune modulation in chronic pancreatitis.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00068-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by chronic progressive pancreatic inflammation, which leads to the permanent damage of exocrine and endocrine cells. CP causes irreversible morphological and functional changes, and the clinical manifestations includes abdomen pain, steatorrhea and diabetes. CP induces changes in the composition of gut microbiota that could be used as potential biomarkers for pancreatic fibrosis evaluation. Gut microbiota has emerged as key regulator of immunomodulation and gut microbiota-induced immune activation has not been explored in CP. In current study, we profiled gut microbial signatures in mouse CP model, and found that higher proportion of Streptomyces, Turicibacter, Methylobacterium, Enterococcus and Candidatus_Paenicardiniummore were positively associated with the occurrence of pancreatic fibrosis. We then identified increased CD3[+]T cells and macrophage infiltration in mouse and human CP tissues by transcriptome sequencing data from GEO database. Subsequently, we demonstrated that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from CP mouse (FMT-CP) exacerbated pancreatic fibrosis by increasing CD4[+]T cells and macrophage infiltration compared to fecal samples obtained from healthy mouse donor (FMT-HC). Our study describes the link between gut microbiota dysbiosis and immune activation in pancreatic fibrotic progression, and highlights the potential therapeutic roles of FMT and CP treatment.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Ohkusa T, Nishikawa Y, N Sato (2022)

Gastrointestinal disorders and intestinal bacteria: Advances in research and applications in therapy.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:935676.

Intestinal bacteria coexist with humans and play a role in suppressing the invasion of pathogens, producing short-chain fatty acids, producing vitamins, and controlling the immune system. Studies have been carried out on culturable bacterial species using bacterial culture methods for many years. However, as metagenomic analysis of bacterial genes has been developed since the 1990s, it has recently revealed that many bacteria in the intestine cannot be cultured and that approximately 1,000 species and 40 trillion bacteria are present in the gut microbiota. Furthermore, the composition of the microbiota is different in each disease state compared with the healthy state, and dysbiosis has received much attention as a cause of various diseases. Regarding gastrointestinal diseases, dysbiosis has been reported to be involved in inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Recent findings have also suggested that dysbiosis is involved in colon cancer, liver cancer, pancreatic cancer, esophageal cancer, and so on. This review focuses on the relationship between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal/hepatobiliary diseases and also discusses new therapies targeting the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Hammond TC, Messmer S, Frank JA, et al (2022)

Gut microbial dysbiosis correlates with stroke severity markers in aged rats.

Frontiers in stroke, 1:.

BACKGROUND: An imbalanced gut microbial community, or dysbiosis, has been shown to occur following stroke. It is possible that this dysbiosis negatively impacts stroke recovery and rehabilitation. Species level resolution measurements of the gut microbiome following stroke are needed to develop and test precision interventions such as probiotic or fecal microbiota transplant therapies that target the gut microbiome. Previous studies have used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in young male mice to obtain broad profiling of the gut microbiome at the genus level following stroke, but further investigations will be needed with whole genome shotgun sequencing in aged rats of both sexes to obtain species level resolution in a model which will better translate to the demographics of human stroke patients.

METHODS: Thirty-nine aged male and female rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Fecal samples were collected before stroke and 3 days post stroke to measure gut microbiome. Machine learning was used to identify the top ranked bacteria which were changed following stroke. MRI imaging was used to obtain infarct and edema size and cerebral blood flow (CBF). ELISA was used to obtain inflammatory markers.

RESULTS: Dysbiosis was demonstrated by an increase in pathogenic bacteria such as Butyricimonas virosa (15.52 fold change, p < 0.0001), Bacteroides vulgatus (7.36 fold change, p < 0.0001), and Escherichia coli (47.67 fold change, p < 0.0001). These bacteria were positively associated with infarct and edema size and with the inflammatory markers Ccl19, Ccl24, IL17a, IL3, and complement C5; they were negatively correlated with CBF. Conversely, beneficial bacteria such as Ruminococcus flavefaciens (0.14 fold change, p < 0.0001), Akkermansia muciniphila (0.78 fold change, p < 0.0001), and Lactobacillus murinus (0.40 fold change, p < 0.0001) were decreased following stroke and associated with all the previous parameters in the opposite direction of the pathogenic species. There were not significant microbiome differences between the sexes.

CONCLUSION: The species level resolution measurements found here can be used as a foundation to develop and test precision interventions targeting the gut microbiome following stroke. Probiotics that include Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Akkermansia muciniphila, and Lactobacillus murinus should be developed to target the deficit following stroke to measure the impact on stroke severity.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Ikeda Y, Saigo N, Y Nagasaki (2023)

Direct evidence for the involvement of intestinal reactive oxygen species in the progress of depression via the gut-brain axis.

Biomaterials, 295:122053 pii:S0142-9612(23)00061-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Depression is a serious global social problem. Various therapeutic drugs have been developed based on the monoamine hypothesis; however, treatment-resistant depression is a common clinical issue. Recently, the gut-brain axis, which is associated with the hypothesis that the intestinal environment affects the brain, has garnered significant interest, and several studies have attempted to treat brain disorders based on this axis. These attempts include fecal transplantation, probiotics and prebiotics. In this study, we focused on intestinal reactive oxygen species (ROS) because excessive ROS levels disturb the intestinal environment. To elucidate the impact of scavenging intestinal ROS on depression treatment via the gut-brain axis, a novel polymer-based antioxidant (siSMAPo[TN]), which was distributed only in the intestine and did not diffuse into the whole body after oral administration, was used. siSMAPo[TN] selectively scavenged intestinal ROS and protected the intestinal environment from damage caused by chronic restraint stress (CRS). In addition, siSMAPo[TN] suppressed physiological and behavioral depression-related symptoms in the CRS mouse model.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Søfteland JM (2023)

Modulation of the intestinal bacterial flora: a viable strategy to alleviate acute mesenteric ischemia?.

Annals of translational medicine, 11(2):30.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Miró-González ÁA, Maldonado-Chaar SM, Zambrana-Valenzuela R, et al (2023)

Development of Very-Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease After Multiple Early-Life Antibiotic Exposures: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Cureus, 15(1):e33813.

The use of antibiotics has increased drastically over the last few decades. Many antibiotics can target the commensal microbiota and promote gut dysbiosis. These alterations contribute to disease onset and exacerbation. Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is mostly unknown, it involves a complex interaction among host genetics, microbiota, environmental factors, and aberrant immune responses. Studies have shown a relationship between very-early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) and microbiota alterations. The case discussed in this report endorses the current clinical evidence for this interaction. This is an anonymous record review with no identifiers involving a 23-month-old female patient who was brought to the emergency department by her parents due to persistent bloody diarrhea. Eight days before the presentation, she had experienced watery diarrhea that progressed to bloody stools. The patient had a history of acute otitis media, acute enteritis, and right-arm cutaneous abscess, for which she had received multiple antibiotic therapies. Strategies to manipulate the microbiome through diet, probiotics, antibiotics, or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be used therapeutically to modulate disease activity. A high index of clinical suspicion for VEO-IBD should be maintained for patients with a history of multiple, recurrent antibiotic use. We believe this case report will raise awareness about the issue of early anaerobic antibiotic exposure and help prevent its unnecessary use and, consequently, prevent gut microbiota dysbiosis that can lead to VEO-IBD. Also, our literature review will hopefully prompt clinicians to consider alternative therapeutic options for this patient population, such as rebuilding intestinal microbiota composition to improve VEO-IBD activity.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Zhu D, Jin X, Guo P, et al (2023)

Efficacy of Faecal Microbiota Transplantation for the Treatment of Autism in Children: Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM, 2023:5993628.

OBJECTIVE: Evidence-based research methods were applied to assess the efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for the treatment of autism in children.

METHODS: We searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature, CNKI, Wanfang, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases to collect randomised controlled trials on faecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of autism in children. The search included studies published from the creation of the respective database to 5 April 2022. Literature screening, data extraction, and quality evaluation were implemented by three investigators according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software.

RESULTS: Nine studies with population-based subjects and four studies with animal-based subjects were included. Five papers were screened for the meta-analysis. The results showed that FMT markedly reduced Autism Behaviour Checklist (ABC) scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (weighted mean difference (WMD) = -14.96; 95% confidence intervals (CI), -21.68 to -8.24; P < 0.001; I [2] = 0%). FMT also reduced Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores (WMD = -6.95; 95% CI, -8.76 to -5.14; P < 0.001; I [2] = 28.1%).

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that FMT can benefit children with autism by reducing ABC and CARS scores, but more high-quality studies are needed to verify these results.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Wu N, Li X, Ma H, et al (2023)

The role of the gut microbiota and fecal microbiota transplantation in neuroimmune diseases.

Frontiers in neurology, 14:1108738.

The gut microbiota plays a key role in the function of the host immune system and neuroimmune diseases. Alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota can lead to pathology and altered formation of microbiota-derived components and metabolites. A series of neuroimmune diseases, such as myasthenia gravis (MG), multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and autoimmune encephalitis (AIE), are associated with changes in the gut microbiota. Microecological therapy by improving the gut microbiota is expected to be an effective measure for treating and preventing some neuroimmune diseases. This article reviews the research progress related to the roles of gut microbiota and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in neuroimmune diseases.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )