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Bibliography on: Topologically Associating Domains

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 18 Jun 2021 at 01:35 Created: 

Topologically Associating Domains

"Recent studies have shown that chromosomes in a range of organisms are compartmentalized in different types of chromatin domains. In mammals, chromosomes form compartments that are composed of smaller Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). TADs are thought to represent functional domains of gene regulation but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of their formation and how they exert their regulatory effect on embedded genes. Further, similar domains have been detected in other organisms, including flies, worms, fungi and bacteria. Although in all these cases these domains appear similar as detected by 3C-based methods, their biology appears to be quite distinct with differences in the protein complexes involved in their formation and differences in their internal organization." QUOTE FROM: Dekker Job and Heard Edith (2015), Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains, FEBS Letters, 589, doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.044

Created with PubMed® Query: "Topologically Associating Domains" OR "Topologically Associating Domain" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-06-10

Bauer M, Vidal E, Zorita E, et al (2021)

Chromosome compartments on the inactive X guide TAD formation independently of transcription during X-reactivation.

Nature communications, 12(1):3499.

A hallmark of chromosome organization is the partition into transcriptionally active A and repressed B compartments, and into topologically associating domains (TADs). Both structures were regarded to be absent from the inactive mouse X chromosome, but to be re-established with transcriptional reactivation and chromatin opening during X-reactivation. Here, we combine a tailor-made mouse iPSC reprogramming system and high-resolution Hi-C to produce a time course combining gene reactivation, chromatin opening and chromosome topology during X-reactivation. Contrary to previous observations, we observe A/B-like compartments on the inactive X harbouring multiple subcompartments. While partial X-reactivation initiates within a compartment rich in X-inactivation escapees, it then occurs rapidly along the chromosome, concomitant with downregulation of Xist. Importantly, we find that TAD formation precedes transcription and initiates from Xist-poor compartments. Here, we show that TAD formation and transcriptional reactivation are causally independent during X-reactivation while establishing Xist as a common denominator.

RevDate: 2021-06-08

Niu L, Shen W, Shi Z, et al (2021)

Three-dimensional folding dynamics of the Xenopus tropicalis genome.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Animal interphase chromosomes are organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). How TADs are formed is not fully understood. Here, we combined high-throughput chromosome conformation capture and gene silencing to obtain insights into TAD dynamics in Xenopus tropicalis embryos. First, TAD establishment in X. tropicalis is similar to that in mice and flies and does not depend on zygotic genome transcriptional activation. This process is followed by further refinements in active and repressive chromatin compartments and the appearance of loops and stripes. Second, within TADs, higher self-interaction frequencies at one end of the boundary are associated with higher DNA occupancy of the architectural proteins CTCF and Rad21. Third, the chromatin remodeling factor ISWI is required for de novo TAD formation. Finally, TAD structures are variable in different tissues. Our work shows that X. tropicalis is a powerful model for chromosome architecture analysis and suggests that chromatin remodeling plays an essential role in de novo TAD establishment.

RevDate: 2021-06-08

Sahin M, Wong W, Zhan Y, et al (2021)

HiC-DC+ enables systematic 3D interaction calls and differential analysis for Hi-C and HiChIP.

Nature communications, 12(1):3366.

Recent genome-wide chromosome conformation capture assays such as Hi-C and HiChIP have vastly expanded the resolution and throughput with which we can study 3D genomic architecture and function. Here, we present HiC-DC+, a software tool for Hi-C/HiChIP interaction calling and differential analysis using an efficient implementation of the HiC-DC statistical framework. HiC-DC+ integrates with popular preprocessing and visualization tools and includes topologically associating domain (TAD) and A/B compartment callers. We found that HiC-DC+ can more accurately identify enhancer-promoter interactions in H3K27ac HiChIP, as validated by CRISPRi-FlowFISH experiments, compared to existing methods. Differential HiC-DC+ analyses of published HiChIP and Hi-C data sets in settings of cellular differentiation and cohesin perturbation systematically and quantitatively recovers biological findings, including enhancer hubs, TAD aggregation, and the relationship between promoter-enhancer loop dynamics and gene expression changes. HiC-DC+ therefore provides a principled statistical analysis tool to empower genome-wide studies of 3D chromatin architecture and function.

RevDate: 2021-06-08

Gillani R, Seong BKA, Crowdis J, et al (2021)

Gene fusions create partner and collateral dependencies essential to cancer cell survival.

Cancer research pii:0008-5472.CAN-21-0791 [Epub ahead of print].

Gene fusions frequently result from rearrangements in cancer genomes. In many instances, gene fusions play an important role in oncogenesis; in other instances, they are thought to be passenger events. Although regulatory element rearrangements and copy number alterations resulting from these structural variants (SV) are known to lead to transcriptional dysregulation across cancers, the extent to which these events result in functional dependencies with an impact on cancer cell survival is variable. Here we used CRISPR-Cas9 dependency screens to evaluate the fitness impact of 3,277 fusions across 645 cell lines from the Cancer Dependency Map (DepMap). We found that 35% of cell lines harbored either a fusion partner dependency or a collateral dependency on a gene within the same topologically associating domain (TAD) as a fusion partner. Fusion-associated dependencies revealed numerous novel oncogenic drivers and clinically translatable alterations. Broadly, fusions can result in partner and collateral dependencies that have biological and clinical relevance across cancer types.

RevDate: 2021-06-08

Furlan-Magaril M, Ando-Kuri M, Arzate-Mejía RG, et al (2021)

The global and promoter-centric 3D genome organization temporally resolved during a circadian cycle.

Genome biology, 22(1):162.

BACKGROUND: Circadian gene expression is essential for organisms to adjust their physiology and anticipate daily changes in the environment. The molecular mechanisms controlling circadian gene transcription are still under investigation. In particular, how chromatin conformation at different genomic scales and regulatory elements impact rhythmic gene expression has been poorly characterized.

RESULTS: Here we measure changes in the spatial chromatin conformation in mouse liver using genome-wide and promoter-capture Hi-C alongside daily oscillations in gene transcription. We find topologically associating domains harboring circadian genes that switch assignments between the transcriptionally active and inactive compartment at different hours of the day, while their boundaries stably maintain their structure over time. To study chromatin contacts of promoters at high resolution over time, we apply promoter capture Hi-C. We find circadian gene promoters displayed a maximal number of chromatin contacts at the time of their peak transcriptional output. Furthermore, circadian genes, as well as contacted and transcribed regulatory elements, reach maximal expression at the same timepoints. Anchor sites of circadian gene promoter loops are enriched in DNA binding sites for liver nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, some exclusively present in either rhythmic or stable contacts. Finally, by comparing the interaction profiles between core clock and output circadian genes, we show that core clock interactomes are more dynamic compared to output circadian genes.

CONCLUSION: Our results identify chromatin conformation dynamics at different scales that parallel oscillatory gene expression and characterize the repertoire of regulatory elements that control circadian gene transcription through rhythmic or stable chromatin configurations.

RevDate: 2021-06-07

Chyr J, Zhang Z, Chen X, et al (2021)

PredTAD: A machine learning framework that models 3D chromatin organization alterations leading to oncogene dysregulation in breast cancer cell lines.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 19:2870-2880 pii:S2001-0370(21)00194-X.

Topologically associating domains, or TADs, play important roles in genome organization and gene regulation; however, they are often altered in diseases. High-throughput chromatin conformation capturing assays, such as Hi-C, can capture domains of increased interactions, and TADs and boundaries can be identified using well-established analytical tools. However, generating Hi-C data is expensive. In our study, we addressed the relationship between multi-omics data and higher-order chromatin structures using a newly developed machine-learning model called PredTAD. Our tool uses already-available and cost-effective datatypes such as transcription factor and histone modification ChIPseq data. Specifically, PredTAD utilizes both epigenetic and genetic features as well as neighboring information to classify the entire human genome as boundary or non-boundary regions. Our tool can predict boundary changes between normal and breast cancer genomes. Among the most important features for predicting boundary alterations were CTCF, subunits of cohesin (RAD21 and SMC3), and chromosome number, suggesting their roles in conserved and dynamic boundaries formation. Upon further analysis, we observed that genes near altered TAD boundaries were found to be involved in several important breast cancer signaling pathways such as Ras, Jak-STAT, and estrogen signaling pathways. We also discovered a TAD boundary alteration that contributes to RET oncogene overexpression. PredTAD can also successfully predict TAD boundary changes in other conditions and diseases. In conclusion, our newly developed machine learning tool allowed for a more complete understanding of the dynamic 3D chromatin structures involved in signaling pathway activation, altered gene expression, and disease state in breast cancer cells.

RevDate: 2021-06-03

Olgun G, Nabi A, O Tastan (2021)

NoRCE: non-coding RNA sets cis enrichment tool.

BMC bioinformatics, 22(1):294.

BACKGROUND: While some non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are assigned critical regulatory roles, most remain functionally uncharacterized. This presents a challenge whenever an interesting set of ncRNAs needs to be analyzed in a functional context. Transcripts located close-by on the genome are often regulated together. This genomic proximity on the sequence can hint at a functional association.

RESULTS: We present a tool, NoRCE, that performs cis enrichment analysis for a given set of ncRNAs. Enrichment is carried out using the functional annotations of the coding genes located proximal to the input ncRNAs. Other biologically relevant information such as topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, co-expression patterns, and miRNA target prediction information can be incorporated to conduct a richer enrichment analysis. To this end, NoRCE includes several relevant datasets as part of its data repository, including cell-line specific TAD boundaries, functional gene sets, and expression data for coding & ncRNAs specific to cancer. Additionally, the users can utilize custom data files in their investigation. Enrichment results can be retrieved in a tabular format or visualized in several different ways. NoRCE is currently available for the following species: human, mouse, rat, zebrafish, fruit fly, worm, and yeast.

CONCLUSIONS: NoRCE is a platform-independent, user-friendly, comprehensive R package that can be used to gain insight into the functional importance of a list of ncRNAs of any type. The tool offers flexibility to conduct the users' preferred set of analyses by designing their own pipeline of analysis. NoRCE is available in Bioconductor and .

RevDate: 2021-06-02

Peterson SC, Samuelson KB, SL Hanlon (2021)

Multi-Scale Organization of the Drosophila melanogaster Genome.

Genes, 12(6): pii:genes12060817.

Interphase chromatin, despite its appearance, is a highly organized framework of loops and bends. Chromosomes are folded into topologically associating domains, or TADs, and each chromosome and its homolog occupy a distinct territory within the nucleus. In Drosophila, genome organization is exceptional because homologous chromosome pairing is in both germline and somatic tissues, which promote interhomolog interactions such as transvection that can affect gene expression in trans. In this review, we focus on what is known about genome organization in Drosophila and discuss it from TADs to territory. We start by examining intrachromosomal organization at the sub-chromosome level into TADs, followed by a comprehensive analysis of the known proteins that play a key role in TAD formation and boundary establishment. We then zoom out to examine interhomolog interactions such as pairing and transvection that are abundant in Drosophila but rare in other model systems. Finally, we discuss chromosome territories that form within the nucleus, resulting in a complete picture of the multi-scale organization of the Drosophila genome.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Lee DI, S Roy (2021)

GRiNCH: simultaneous smoothing and detection of topological units of genome organization from sparse chromatin contact count matrices with matrix factorization.

Genome biology, 22(1):164.

High-throughput chromosome conformation capture assays, such as Hi-C, have shown that the genome is organized into organizational units such as topologically associating domains (TADs), which can impact gene regulatory processes. The sparsity of Hi-C matrices poses a challenge for reliable detection of these units. We present GRiNCH, a constrained matrix-factorization-based approach for simultaneous smoothing and discovery of TADs from sparse contact count matrices. GRiNCH shows superior performance against seven TAD-calling methods and three smoothing methods. GRiNCH is applicable to multiple platforms including SPRITE and HiChIP and can predict novel boundary factors with potential roles in genome organization.

RevDate: 2021-05-25

Kim J, Kang J, Kim YW, et al (2021)

The human β-globin enhancer LCR HS2 plays a role in forming a TAD by activating chromatin structure at neighboring CTCF sites.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 35(6):e21669.

The human β-globin locus control region (LCR) hypersensitive site 2 (HS2) is one of enhancers for transcription of the β-like globin genes in erythroid cells. Our previous study showed that the LCR HS2 has active chromatin structure before transcriptional induction of the β-globin gene, while another enhancer LCR HS3 is activated by the induction. To compare functional difference between them, we deleted each HS (ΔHS2 and ΔHS3) from the human β-globin locus in hybrid MEL/ch11 cells. Deletion of either HS2 or HS3 dramatically diminished the β-globin transcription and disrupted locus-wide histone H3K27ac and chromatin interaction between LCR HSs and gene. Surprisingly, ΔHS2 weakened interactions between CTCF sites forming the β-globin topologically associating domain (TAD), while ΔHS3 did not. CTCF occupancy and chromatin accessibility were reduced at the CTCF sites in the ΔHS2 locus. To further characterize the HS2, we deleted the maf-recognition elements for erythroid activator NF-E2 at HS2. This deletion decreased the β-globin transcription and enhancer-promoter interaction, but did not affect interactions between CTCF sites for the TAD. In light of these results, we propose that the HS2 has a role in forming a β-globin TAD by activating neighboring CTCF sites and this role is beyond typical enhancer activity.

RevDate: 2021-05-25

Ulianov SV, SV Razin (2021)

The two waves in single-cell 3D genomics.

Seminars in cell & developmental biology pii:S1084-9521(21)00130-0 [Epub ahead of print].

For decades, biochemical methods for the analysis of genome structure and function provided cell-population-averaged data that allowed general principles and tendencies to be disclosed. Microscopy-based studies, which immanently involve single-cell analysis, did not provide sufficient spatial resolution to investigate the particularly small details of 3D genome folding. Nevertheless, these studies demonstrated that mutual positions of chromosome territories within cell nuclei and individual genomic loci within chromosomal territories can vary significantly in individual cells. The development of new technologies in biochemistry and the advent of super-resolution microscopy in the last decade have made possible the full-scale study of 3D genome organization in individual cells. Maps of the 3D genome build based on C-data and super-resolution microscopy are highly consistent and, therefore, biologically relevant. The internal structures of individual chromosomes, loci, and topologically associating domains (TADs) are resolved as well as cell-cycle dynamics. 3D modeling allows one to investigate the physical mechanisms underlying genome folding. Finally, joint profiling of genome topology and epigenetic features will allow 3D genomics to handle complex cell-to-cell heterogeneity. In this review, we summarize the present state of studies into 3D genome organization in individual cells, analyze the technical problems of single-cell studies, and outline perspectives of 3D genomics.

RevDate: 2021-05-21

Requena F, Abdallah HH, García A, et al (2021)

CNVxplorer: a web tool to assist clinical interpretation of CNVs in rare disease patients.

Nucleic acids research pii:6279834 [Epub ahead of print].

Copy Number Variants (CNVs) are an important cause of rare diseases. Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization tests yield a ∼12% diagnostic rate, with ∼8% of patients presenting CNVs of unknown significance. CNVs interpretation is particularly challenging on genomic regions outside of those overlapping with previously reported structural variants or disease-associated genes. Recent studies showed that a more comprehensive evaluation of CNV features, leveraging both coding and non-coding impacts, can significantly improve diagnostic rates. However, currently available CNV interpretation tools are mostly gene-centric or provide only non-interactive annotations difficult to assess in the clinical practice. Here, we present CNVxplorer, a web server suited for the functional assessment of CNVs in a clinical diagnostic setting. CNVxplorer mines a comprehensive set of clinical, genomic, and epigenomic features associated with CNVs. It provides sequence constraint metrics, impact on regulatory elements and topologically associating domains, as well as expression patterns. Analyses offered cover (a) agreement with patient phenotypes; (b) visualizations of associations among genes, regulatory elements and transcription factors; (c) enrichment on functional and pathway annotations and (d) co-occurrence of terms across PubMed publications related to the query CNVs. A flexible evaluation workflow allows dynamic re-interrogation in clinical sessions. CNVxplorer is publicly available at

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Yuan R, Zhang J, Wang Y, et al (2021)

Reorganization of chromatin architecture during prenatal development of porcine skeletal muscle.

DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes pii:6261936 [Epub ahead of print].

Myofibers (primary and secondary myofiber) are the basic structure of muscle and the determinant of muscle mass. To explore the skeletal muscle developmental processes from primary myofibers to secondary myofibers, we conducted an integrative 3 D structure of genome and transcriptomic characterization of longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) of pig from primary myofiber formation stage [embryonic day 35 (E35)] to secondary myofiber formation stage (E80). In the hierarchical genomic structure, we found that 11.43% of genome switched compartment A/B status, 14.53% of topologically associating domains (TADs) are changed intra-domain interactions (D-scores) and 3,166 genes with differential promoter-enhancer interactions (PEIs) and (or) enhancer activity from E35 to E80. The alterations of genome architecture were found to affect expression of genes that play significant roles in neuromuscular junction (NMJ), embryonic morphogenesis, and skeletal muscle development or metabolism, typically NEFL, MuSK, SLN, Mef2D and GCK. Significantly, Sox6 and MATN2 play important roles in the process of primary to secondary myofibers form and increase the RPS and genes expression in it. In brief, we reveal the genomic reorganization from E35 to E80 and construct genome-wide high-resolution interaction maps that provide a resource for studying long-range control of gene expression from E35 to E80.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Huang H, Zhu Q, Jussila A, et al (2021)

CTCF mediates dosage- and sequence-context-dependent transcriptional insulation by forming local chromatin domains.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Insulators play a critical role in spatiotemporal gene regulation in animals. The evolutionarily conserved CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is required for insulator function in mammals, but not all of its binding sites act as insulators. Here we explore the sequence requirements of CTCF-mediated transcriptional insulation using a sensitive insulator reporter in mouse embryonic stem cells. We find that insulation potency depends on the number of CTCF-binding sites in tandem. Furthermore, CTCF-mediated insulation is dependent on upstream flanking sequences at its binding sites. CTCF-binding sites at topologically associating domain boundaries are more likely to function as insulators than those outside topologically associating domain boundaries, independently of binding strength. We demonstrate that insulators form local chromatin domain boundaries and weaken enhancer-promoter contacts. Taken together, our results provide genetic, molecular and structural evidence connecting chromatin topology to the action of insulators in the mammalian genome.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Wang M, Li J, Wang P, et al (2021)

Comparative genome analyses highlight transposon-mediated genome expansion and the evolutionary architecture of 3D genomic folding in cotton.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6262643 [Epub ahead of print].

Transposable element (TE) amplification has been recognized as a driving force mediating genome size expansion and evolution, but the consequences for shaping 3D genomic architecture remains largely unknown in plants. Here, we report reference-grade genome assemblies for three species of cotton ranging three-fold in genome size, namely Gossypium rotundifolium (K2), G. arboreum (A2), and G. raimondii (D5), using Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Comparative genome analyses document the details of lineage-specific TE amplification contributing to the large genome size differences (K2, 2.44 Gb; A2, 1.62 Gb; D5, 750.19 Mb), and indicate relatively conserved gene content and synteny relationships among genomes. We found that approximately 17% of syntenic genes exhibit chromatin status change between active ("A") and inactive ("B") compartments, and TE amplification was associated with the increase of the proportion of A compartment in gene regions (∼ 7,000 genes) in K2 and A2 relative to D5. Only 42% of topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries were conserved among the three genomes. Our data implicate recent amplification of TEs following formation of lineage-specific TAD boundaries. This study sheds light on the role of transposon-mediated genome expansion in the evolution of higher-order chromatin structure in plants.

RevDate: 2021-05-08

Maksimenko OG, Fursenko DV, Belova EV, et al (2021)

CTCF As an Example of DNA-Binding Transcription Factors Containing Clusters of C2H2-Type Zinc Fingers.

Acta naturae, 13(1):31-46.

In mammals, most of the boundaries of topologically associating domains and all well-studied insulators are rich in binding sites for the CTCF protein. According to existing experimental data, CTCF is a key factor in the organization of the architecture of mammalian chromosomes. A characteristic feature of the CTCF is that the central part of the protein contains a cluster consisting of eleven domains of C2H2-type zinc fingers, five of which specifically bind to a long DNA sequence conserved in most animals. The class of transcription factors that carry a cluster of C2H2-type zinc fingers consisting of five or more domains (C2H2 proteins) is widely represented in all groups of animals. The functions of most C2H2 proteins still remain unknown. This review presents data on the structure and possible functions of these proteins, using the example of the vertebrate CTCF protein and several well- characterized C2H2 proteins in Drosophila and mammals.

RevDate: 2021-05-12

Marinov GK, Trevino AE, Xiang T, et al (2021)

Transcription-dependent domain-scale three-dimensional genome organization in the dinoflagellate Breviolum minutum.

Nature genetics, 53(5):613-617.

Dinoflagellate chromosomes represent a unique evolutionary experiment, as they exist in a permanently condensed, liquid crystalline state; are not packaged by histones; and contain genes organized into tandem gene arrays, with minimal transcriptional regulation. We analyze the three-dimensional genome of Breviolum minutum, and find large topological domains (dinoflagellate topologically associating domains, which we term 'dinoTADs') without chromatin loops, which are demarcated by convergent gene array boundaries. Transcriptional inhibition disrupts dinoTADs, implicating transcription-induced supercoiling as the primary topological force in dinoflagellates.

RevDate: 2021-04-27

Bohrer CH, DR Larson (2021)

The Stochastic Genome and Its Role in Gene Expression.

Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology pii:cshperspect.a040386 [Epub ahead of print].

Mammalian genomes have distinct levels of spatial organization and structure that have been hypothesized to play important roles in transcription regulation. Although much has been learned about these architectural features with ensemble techniques, single-cell studies are showing a new universal trend: Genomes are stochastic and dynamic at every level of organization. Stochastic gene expression, on the other hand, has been studied for years. In this review, we probe whether there is a causative link between the two phenomena. We specifically discuss the functionality of chromatin state, topologically associating domains (TADs), and enhancer biology in light of their stochastic nature and their specific roles in stochastic gene expression. We highlight persistent fundamental questions in this area of research.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Du G, Li H, Ding Y, et al (2021)

The hierarchical folding dynamics of topologically associating domains are closely related to transcriptional abnormalities in cancers.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 19:1684-1693.

Recent studies have shown that the three-dimensional (3D) structure of chromatin is associated with cancer progression. However, the roles of the 3D genome structure and its dynamics in cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated hierarchical topologically associating domain (TAD) structures in cancers and defined a "TAD hierarchical score (TH score)" for genes, which allowed us to assess the TAD nesting level of all genes in a simplified way. We demonstrated that the TAD nesting levels of genes in a tumor differ from those in normal tissue. Furthermore, the hierarchical TAD level dynamics were related to transcriptional changes in cancer, and some of the genes in which the hierarchical level was altered were significantly related to the prognosis of cancer patients. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the folding dynamics of TADs are closely related to transcriptional abnormalities in cancers, emphasizing that the function of hierarchical chromatin organization goes beyond simple chromatin packaging efficiency.

RevDate: 2021-04-21

Zamariolli M, Burssed B, Moysés-Oliveira M, et al (2021)

Novel MYT1 variants expose the complexity of oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum genetic mechanisms.

American journal of medical genetics. Part A [Epub ahead of print].

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a developmental disorder characterized by anomalies mainly involving the structures derived from the first and second pharyngeal arches. The spectrum presents with heterogeneous clinical features and complex etiology with genetic factors not yet completely understood. To date, MYT1 is the most important gene unambiguously associated with the spectrum and with functional data confirmation. In this work, we aimed to identify new single nucleotide variants (SNVs) affecting MYT1 in a cohort of 73 Brazilian patients diagnosed with OAVS. In addition, we investigated copy number variations (CNVs) encompassing this gene or its cis-regulatory elements and compared the frequency of these events in patients versus a cohort of 455 Brazilian control individuals. A new SNV, predicted as likely deleterious, was identified in five unrelated patients with OAVS. All five patients presented hearing impairment and orbital asymmetry suggesting an association with the variant. CNVs near MYT1, located in its neighboring topologically associating domain (TAD), were found to be enriched in patients when compared to controls, indicating a possible involvement of this region with OAVS pathogenicity. Our findings highlight the genetic complexity of the spectrum that seems to involve more than one variant type and inheritance patterns.

RevDate: 2021-05-02
CmpDate: 2021-04-28

Zhao Y, Hou Y, Xu Y, et al (2021)

A compendium and comparative epigenomics analysis of cis-regulatory elements in the pig genome.

Nature communications, 12(1):2217.

Although major advances in genomics have initiated an exciting new era of research, a lack of information regarding cis-regulatory elements has limited the genetic improvement or manipulation of pigs as a meat source and biomedical model. Here, we systematically characterize cis-regulatory elements and their functions in 12 diverse tissues from four pig breeds by adopting similar strategies as the ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics projects, which include RNA-seq, ATAC-seq, and ChIP-seq. In total, we generate 199 datasets and identify more than 220,000 cis-regulatory elements in the pig genome. Surprisingly, we find higher conservation of cis-regulatory elements between human and pig genomes than those between human and mouse genomes. Furthermore, the differences of topologically associating domains between the pig and human genomes are associated with morphological evolution of the head and face. Beyond generating a major new benchmark resource for pig epigenetics, our study provides basic comparative epigenetic data relevant to using pigs as models in human biomedical research.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Majumder K, AJ Morales (2021)

Utilization of Host Cell Chromosome Conformation by Viral Pathogens: Knowing When to Hold and When to Fold.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:633762.

Though viruses have their own genomes, many depend on the nuclear environment of their hosts for replication and survival. A substantial body of work has therefore been devoted to understanding how viral and eukaryotic genomes interact. Recent advances in chromosome conformation capture technologies have provided unprecedented opportunities to visualize how mammalian genomes are organized and, by extension, how packaging of nuclear DNA impacts cellular processes. Recent studies have indicated that some viruses, upon entry into host cell nuclei, produce factors that alter host chromatin topology, and thus, impact the 3D organization of the host genome. Additionally, a variety of distinct viruses utilize host genome architectural factors to advance various aspects of their life cycles. Indeed, human gammaherpesviruses, known for establishing long-term reservoirs of latent infection in B lymphocytes, utilize 3D principles of genome folding to package their DNA and establish latency in host cells. This manipulation of host epigenetic machinery by latent viral genomes is etiologically linked to the onset of B cell oncogenesis. Small DNA viruses, by contrast, are tethered to distinct cellular sites that support virus expression and replication. Here, we briefly review the recent findings on how viruses and host genomes spatially communicate, and how this impacts virus-induced pathology.

RevDate: 2021-04-27
CmpDate: 2021-04-27

Xing H, Wu Y, Zhang MQ, et al (2021)

Deciphering hierarchical organization of topologically associated domains through change-point testing.

BMC bioinformatics, 22(1):183.

BACKGROUND: The nucleus of eukaryotic cells spatially packages chromosomes into a hierarchical and distinct segregation that plays critical roles in maintaining transcription regulation. High-throughput methods of chromosome conformation capture, such as Hi-C, have revealed topologically associating domains (TADs) that are defined by biased chromatin interactions within them.

RESULTS: We introduce a novel method, HiCKey, to decipher hierarchical TAD structures in Hi-C data and compare them across samples. We first derive a generalized likelihood-ratio (GLR) test for detecting change-points in an interaction matrix that follows a negative binomial distribution or general mixture distribution. We then employ several optimal search strategies to decipher hierarchical TADs with p values calculated by the GLR test. Large-scale validations of simulation data show that HiCKey has good precision in recalling known TADs and is robust against random collisions of chromatin interactions. By applying HiCKey to Hi-C data of seven human cell lines, we identified multiple layers of TAD organization among them, but the vast majority had no more than four layers. In particular, we found that TAD boundaries are significantly enriched in active chromosomal regions compared to repressed regions.

CONCLUSIONS: HiCKey is optimized for processing large matrices constructed from high-resolution Hi-C experiments. The method and theoretical result of the GLR test provide a general framework for significance testing of similar experimental chromatin interaction data that may not fully follow negative binomial distributions but rather more general mixture distributions.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Rozenwald MB, Galitsyna AA, Sapunov GV, et al (2020)

A machine learning framework for the prediction of chromatin folding in Drosophila using epigenetic features.

PeerJ. Computer science, 6:e307.

Technological advances have lead to the creation of large epigenetic datasets, including information about DNA binding proteins and DNA spatial structure. Hi-C experiments have revealed that chromosomes are subdivided into sets of self-interacting domains called Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). TADs are involved in the regulation of gene expression activity, but the mechanisms of their formation are not yet fully understood. Here, we focus on machine learning methods to characterize DNA folding patterns in Drosophila based on chromatin marks across three cell lines. We present linear regression models with four types of regularization, gradient boosting, and recurrent neural networks (RNN) as tools to study chromatin folding characteristics associated with TADs given epigenetic chromatin immunoprecipitation data. The bidirectional long short-term memory RNN architecture produced the best prediction scores and identified biologically relevant features. Distribution of protein Chriz (Chromator) and histone modification H3K4me3 were selected as the most informative features for the prediction of TADs characteristics. This approach may be adapted to any similar biological dataset of chromatin features across various cell lines and species. The code for the implemented pipeline, Hi-ChiP-ML, is publicly available:

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Miyazaki K, M Miyazaki (2021)

The Interplay Between Chromatin Architecture and Lineage-Specific Transcription Factors and the Regulation of Rag Gene Expression.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:659761.

Cell type-specific gene expression is driven through the interplay between lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs) and the chromatin architecture, such as topologically associating domains (TADs), and enhancer-promoter interactions. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the cell fate decisions and cell type-specific functions, it is important to understand the interplay between chromatin architectures and TFs. Among enhancers, super-enhancers (SEs) play key roles in establishing cell identity. Adaptive immunity depends on the RAG-mediated assembly of antigen recognition receptors. Hence, regulation of the Rag1 and Rag2 (Rag1/2) genes is a hallmark of adaptive lymphoid lineage commitment. Here, we review the current knowledge of 3D genome organization, SE formation, and Rag1/2 gene regulation during B cell and T cell differentiation.

RevDate: 2021-04-23
CmpDate: 2021-04-20

Espinola SM, Götz M, Bellec M, et al (2021)

Cis-regulatory chromatin loops arise before TADs and gene activation, and are independent of cell fate during early Drosophila development.

Nature genetics, 53(4):477-486.

Acquisition of cell fate is thought to rely on the specific interaction of remote cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), for example, enhancers and target promoters. However, the precise interplay between chromatin structure and gene expression is still unclear, particularly within multicellular developing organisms. In the present study, we employ Hi-M, a single-cell spatial genomics approach, to detect CRM-promoter looping interactions within topologically associating domains (TADs) during early Drosophila development. By comparing cis-regulatory loops in alternate cell types, we show that physical proximity does not necessarily instruct transcriptional states. Moreover, multi-way analyses reveal that multiple CRMs spatially coalesce to form hubs. Loops and CRM hubs are established early during development, before the emergence of TADs. Moreover, CRM hubs are formed, in part, via the action of the pioneer transcription factor Zelda and precede transcriptional activation. Our approach provides insight into the role of CRM-promoter interactions in defining transcriptional states, as well as distinct cell types.

RevDate: 2021-03-30

Davidson IF, JM Peters (2021)

Genome folding through loop extrusion by SMC complexes.

Nature reviews. Molecular cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

Genomic DNA is folded into loops and topologically associating domains (TADs), which serve important structural and regulatory roles. It has been proposed that these genomic structures are formed by a loop extrusion process, which is mediated by structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes. Recent single-molecule studies have shown that the SMC complexes condensin and cohesin are indeed able to extrude DNA into loops. In this Review, we discuss how the loop extrusion hypothesis can explain key features of genome architecture; cellular functions of loop extrusion, such as separation of replicated DNA molecules, facilitation of enhancer-promoter interactions and immunoglobulin gene recombination; and what is known about the mechanism of loop extrusion and its regulation, for example, by chromatin boundaries that depend on the DNA binding protein CTCF. We also discuss how the loop extrusion hypothesis has led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of both genome architecture and the functions of SMC complexes.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Goldfarb CN, DJ Waxman (2021)

Global analysis of expression, maturation and subcellular localization of mouse liver transcriptome identifies novel sex-biased and TCPOBOP-responsive long non-coding RNAs.

BMC genomics, 22(1):212.

BACKGROUND: While nuclear transcription and RNA processing and localization are well established for protein coding genes (PCGs), these processes are poorly understood for long non-coding (lnc)RNAs. Here, we characterize global patterns of transcript expression, maturation and localization for mouse liver RNA, including more than 15,000 lncRNAs. PolyA-selected liver RNA was isolated and sequenced from four subcellular fractions (chromatin, nucleoplasm, total nucleus, and cytoplasm), and from the chromatin-bound fraction without polyA selection.

RESULTS: Transcript processing, determined from normalized intronic to exonic sequence read density ratios, progressively increased for PCG transcripts in going from the chromatin-bound fraction to the nucleoplasm and then on to the cytoplasm. Transcript maturation was similar for lncRNAs in the chromatin fraction, but was significantly lower in the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. LncRNA transcripts were 11-fold more likely to be significantly enriched in the nucleus than cytoplasm, and 100-fold more likely to be significantly chromatin-bound than nucleoplasmic. Sequencing chromatin-bound RNA greatly increased the sensitivity for detecting lowly expressed lncRNAs and enabled us to discover and localize hundreds of novel regulated liver lncRNAs, including lncRNAs showing sex-biased expression or responsiveness to TCPOBOP a xenobiotic agonist ligand of constitutive androstane receptor (Nr1i3).

CONCLUSIONS: Integration of our findings with prior studies and lncRNA annotations identified candidate regulatory lncRNAs for a variety of hepatic functions based on gene co-localization within topologically associating domains or transcription divergent or antisense to PCGs associated with pathways linked to hepatic physiology and disease.

RevDate: 2021-03-29

Zhang L, Zhao J, Bi H, et al (2021)

Bioinformatic analysis of chromatin organization and biased expression of duplicated genes between two poplars with a common whole-genome duplication.

Horticulture research, 8(1):62.

The nonrandom three-dimensional organization of chromatin plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether this organization is conserved and whether it is involved in regulating gene expression during speciation after whole-genome duplication (WGD) in plants. In this study, high-resolution interaction maps were generated using high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) techniques for two poplar species, Populus euphratica and Populus alba var. pyramidalis, which diverged ~14 Mya after a common WGD. We examined the similarities and differences in the hierarchical chromatin organization between the two species, including A/B compartment regions and topologically associating domains (TADs), as well as in their DNA methylation and gene expression patterns. We found that chromatin status was strongly associated with epigenetic modifications and gene transcriptional activity, yet the conservation of hierarchical chromatin organization across the two species was low. The divergence of gene expression between WGD-derived paralogs was associated with the strength of chromatin interactions, and colocalized paralogs exhibited strong similarities in epigenetic modifications and expression levels. Thus, the spatial localization of duplicated genes is highly correlated with biased expression during the diploidization process. This study provides new insights into the evolution of chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation during the speciation process of poplars after WGD.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Wang L, Jia G, Jiang X, et al (2021)

Altered chromatin architecture and gene expression during polyploidization and domestication of soybean.

The Plant cell pii:6175070 [Epub ahead of print].

Polyploidy or whole-genome duplication (WGD) is widespread in plants and is a key driver of evolution and speciation, accompanied by rapid and dynamic changes in genomic structure and gene expression. The three-dimensional structure of the genome is intricately linked to gene expression, but its role in transcription regulation following polyploidy and domestication remains unclear. Here, we generated high-resolution (∼2 kb) Hi-C maps for cultivated soybean (Glycine max), wild soybean (Glycine soja) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). We found polyploidization in soybean may induce architecture changes of topologically associating domains and subsequent diploidization led to chromatin topology alteration around chromosome-rearrangement sites. Compared with single-copy and small-scale duplicated genes, WGD genes displayed more long-range chromosomal interactions and were coupled with higher levels of gene expression and chromatin accessibilities but void of DNA methylation. Interestingly, chromatin loop reorganization was involved in expression divergence of the genes during soybean domestication. Genes with chromatin loops were under stronger artificial selection than genes without loops. These findings provide insights into roles of dynamic chromatin structures on gene expression during polyploidization, diploidization and domestication of soybean.

RevDate: 2021-05-14

Soto C, Bryner D, Neretti N, et al (2021)

Toward a Three-Dimensional Chromosome Shape Alphabet.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

The study of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of chromosomes-the largest macromolecules in biology-is one of the most challenging to date in structural biology. Here, we develop a novel representation of 3D chromosome structures, as sequences of shape letters from a finite shape alphabet, which provides a compact and efficient way to analyze ensembles of chromosome shape data, akin to the analysis of texts in a language by using letters. We construct a Chromosome Shape Alphabet from an ensemble of chromosome 3D structures inferred from Hi-C data-via SIMBA3D or other methods-by segmenting curves based on topologically associating domains (TADs) boundaries, and by clustering all TADs' 3D structures into groups of similar shapes. The median shapes of these groups, with some pruning and processing, form the Chromosome Shape Letters (CSLs) of the alphabet. We provide a proof of concept for these CSLs by reconstructing independent test curves by using only CSLs (and corresponding transformations) and comparing these reconstructions with the original curves. Finally, we demonstrate how CSLs can be used to summarize shapes in an ensemble of chromosome 3D structures by using generalized sequence logos.

RevDate: 2021-05-05

Tian L, Ku L, Yuan Z, et al (2021)

Large-scale reconstruction of chromatin structures of maize temperate and tropical inbred lines.

Journal of experimental botany, 72(10):3582-3596.

Maize is a model plant species often used for genetics and genomics research because of its genetic diversity. There are prominent morphological, genetic, and epigenetic variations between tropical and temperate maize lines. However, the genome-wide chromatin conformations of these two maize types remain unexplored. We applied a Hi-C approach to compare the genome-wide chromatin interactions between temperate inbred line D132 and tropical line CML288. A reconstructed maize three-dimensional genome model revealed the spatial segregation of the global A and B compartments. The A compartments contain enriched genes and active epigenome marks, whereas the B compartments are gene-poor, transcriptionally silent chromatin regions. Whole-genome analyses indicated that the global A compartment content of CML288 was 3.12% lower than that of D132. Additionally, global and A/B sub-compartments were associated with differential gene expression and epigenetic changes between two inbred lines. About 25.3% of topologically associating domains (TADs) were determined to be associated with complex domain-level modifications that induced transcriptional changes, indicative of a large-scale reorganization of chromatin structures between the inbred maize lines. Furthermore, differences in chromatin interactions between the two lines correlated with epigenetic changes. These findings provide a solid foundation for the wider plant community to further investigate the genome-wide chromatin structures in other plant species.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Liu X, Sun Q, Wang Q, et al (2021)

Epithelial Cells in 2D and 3D Cultures Exhibit Large Differences in Higher-order Genomic Interactions.

Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics pii:S1672-0229(21)00026-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies have characterized the genomic structures of many eukaryotic cells, often with a focus on their relation to gene expression. So far, these studies have largely only investigated cells grown in 2D culture, although the transcriptomes of 3D cultured cells are generally closer to their in vivo phenotypes. To examine the effects of spatial constraints on chromosome conformation, we investigated the genomic architecture of mouse hepatocytes grown in 2D and 3D cultures using in situ Hi-C. Our results reveal significant differences in higher-order genomic interactions, notably in compartment identity and strength as well as in topologically associating domain (TAD)-TAD interactions, but only minor differences at the TAD level. RNA-seq analysis reveals an up-regulation in the 3D cultured cells of those genes involved in physiological hepatocyte functions. We find that these genes are associated with a subset of the structural changes, suggesting that the differences in genomic structure are indeed critically important for transcriptional regulation. However, there are also many structural differences that are not directly associated with changed expression, whose cause remains to be determined. Overall, our results indicate that growth in 3D significantly alters higher-order genomic interactions, which may be consequential for a subset of genes that are important for the physiological functioning of the cell.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Arnould C, Rocher V, Finoux AL, et al (2021)

Loop extrusion as a mechanism for formation of DNA damage repair foci.

Nature, 590(7847):660-665.

The repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) is essential for safeguarding genome integrity. When a DSB forms, the PI3K-related ATM kinase rapidly triggers the establishment of megabase-sized, chromatin domains decorated with phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), which act as seeds for the formation of DNA-damage response foci1. It is unclear how these foci are rapidly assembled to establish a 'repair-prone' environment within the nucleus. Topologically associating domains are a key feature of 3D genome organization that compartmentalize transcription and replication, but little is known about their contribution to DNA repair processes2,3. Here we show that topologically associating domains are functional units of the DNA damage response, and are instrumental for the correct establishment of γH2AX-53BP1 chromatin domains in a manner that involves one-sided cohesin-mediated loop extrusion on both sides of the DSB. We propose a model in which H2AX-containing nucleosomes are rapidly phosphorylated as they actively pass by DSB-anchored cohesin. Our work highlights the importance of chromosome conformation in the maintenance of genome integrity and demonstrates the establishment of a chromatin modification by loop extrusion.

RevDate: 2021-03-26
CmpDate: 2021-03-26

Li D, Sun X, Yu F, et al (2021)

Application of counter-selectable marker PIGA in engineering designer deletion cell lines and characterization of CRISPR deletion efficiency.

Nucleic acids research, 49(5):2642-2654.

The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a technology for genome engineering, which has been applied to indel mutations in genes as well as targeted gene deletion and replacement. Here, we describe paired gRNA deletions along the PIGA locus on the human X chromosome ranging from 17 kb to 2 Mb. We found no compelling linear correlation between deletion size and the deletion efficiency, and there is no substantial impact of topologically associating domains on deletion frequency. Using this precise deletion technique, we have engineered a series of designer deletion cell lines, including one with deletions of two X-chromosomal counterselectable (negative selection) markers, PIGA and HPRT1, and additional cell lines bearing each individual deletion. PIGA encodes a component of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthetic apparatus. The PIGA gene counterselectable marker has unique features, including existing single cell level assays for both function and loss of function of PIGA and the existence of a potent counterselectable agent, proaerolysin, which we use routinely for selection against cells expressing PIGA. These designer cell lines may serve as a general platform with multiple selection markers and may be particularly useful for large scale genome engineering projects such as Genome Project-Write (GP-write).

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Zheng W, Yang Z, Ge X, et al (2020)

Freeze substitution Hi-C, a convenient and cost-effective method for capturing the natural 3D chromatin conformation from frozen samples.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(20)30188-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Chromatin interactions functionally affect genome architecture and gene regulation, but to date, only fresh samples must be used in Hi-C (High-through chromosome conformation capture) to keep natural chromatin conformation intact. This requirement has impeded the advancement of 3D genome research by limiting sample collection and storage options for researchers and severely limiting the number of samples that can be processed in a short time. Here, we developed a freeze substitution Hi-C (FS-Hi-C) technique that overcomes the need for fresh samples. FS-Hi-C can be used with samples stored in liquid nitrogen (LN2): the water in a vitreous form in the sample cells is replaced with ethanol via automated freeze substitution. After confirming that the FS step preserves the natural chromosome conformation during sample thawing, we tested the performance of FS-Hi-C with Drosophila melanogaster and Gossypium hirsutum. Beyond allowing the use of frozen samples and confirming that FS-Hi-C delivers robust data for generating contact heat maps and delineating A/B compartments and topologically associating domains, we found that FS-Hi-C outperforms the in situ Hi-C in terms of library quality, reproducibility, and valid interactions. Thus, FS-Hi-C will probably extend the application of 3D genome structure analysis to the vast number of experimental contexts in biological and medical research for which Hi-C methods have been unfeasible to date.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Liao Y, Zhang X, Chakraborty M, et al (2021)

Topologically associating domains and their role in the evolution of genome structure and function in Drosophila.

Genome research, 31(3):397-410.

Topologically associating domains (TADs) were recently identified as fundamental units of three-dimensional eukaryotic genomic organization, although our knowledge of the influence of TADs on genome evolution remains preliminary. To study the molecular evolution of TADs in Drosophila species, we constructed a new reference-grade genome assembly and accompanying high-resolution TAD map for D. pseudoobscura Comparison of D. pseudoobscura and D. melanogaster, which are separated by ∼49 million years of divergence, showed that ∼30%-40% of their genomes retain conserved TADs. Comparative genomic analysis of 17 Drosophila species revealed that chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints are enriched at TAD boundaries but depleted within TADs. Additionally, genes within conserved TADs show lower expression divergence than those located in nonconserved TADs. Furthermore, we found that a substantial proportion of long genes (>50 kbp) in D. melanogaster (42%) and D. pseudoobscura (26%) constitute their own TADs, implying transcript structure may be one of the deterministic factors for TAD formation. By using structural variants (SVs) identified from 14 D. melanogaster strains, its three closest sibling species from the D. simulans species complex, and two obscura clade species, we uncovered evidence of selection acting on SVs at TAD boundaries, but with the nature of selection differing between SV types. Deletions are depleted at TAD boundaries in both divergent and polymorphic SVs, suggesting purifying selection, whereas divergent tandem duplications are enriched at TAD boundaries relative to polymorphism, suggesting they are adaptive. Our findings highlight how important TADs are in shaping the acquisition and retention of structural mutations that fundamentally alter genome organization.

RevDate: 2021-03-05
CmpDate: 2021-02-19

McArthur E, JA Capra (2021)

Topologically associating domain boundaries that are stable across diverse cell types are evolutionarily constrained and enriched for heritability.

American journal of human genetics, 108(2):269-283.

Topologically associating domains (TADs) are fundamental units of three-dimensional (3D) nuclear organization. The regions bordering TADs-TAD boundaries-contribute to the regulation of gene expression by restricting interactions of cis-regulatory sequences to their target genes. TAD and TAD-boundary disruption have been implicated in rare-disease pathogenesis; however, we have a limited framework for integrating TADs and their variation across cell types into the interpretation of common-trait-associated variants. Here, we investigate an attribute of 3D genome architecture-the stability of TAD boundaries across cell types-and demonstrate its relevance to understanding how genetic variation in TADs contributes to complex disease. By synthesizing TAD maps across 37 diverse cell types with 41 genome-wide association studies (GWASs), we investigate the differences in disease association and evolutionary pressure on variation in TADs versus TAD boundaries. We demonstrate that genetic variation in TAD boundaries contributes more to complex-trait heritability, especially for immunologic, hematologic, and metabolic traits. We also show that TAD boundaries are more evolutionarily constrained than TADs. Next, stratifying boundaries by their stability across cell types, we find substantial variation. Compared to boundaries unique to a specific cell type, boundaries stable across cell types are further enriched for complex-trait heritability, evolutionary constraint, CTCF binding, and housekeeping genes. Thus, considering TAD boundary stability across cell types provides valuable context for understanding the genome's functional landscape and enabling variant interpretation that takes 3D structure into account.

RevDate: 2021-02-07

Halsall JA, Andrews S, Krueger F, et al (2021)

Histone modifications form a cell-type-specific chromosomal bar code that persists through the cell cycle.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3009.

Chromatin configuration influences gene expression in eukaryotes at multiple levels, from individual nucleosomes to chromatin domains several Mb long. Post-translational modifications (PTM) of core histones seem to be involved in chromatin structural transitions, but how remains unclear. To explore this, we used ChIP-seq and two cell types, HeLa and lymphoblastoid (LCL), to define how changes in chromatin packaging through the cell cycle influence the distributions of three transcription-associated histone modifications, H3K9ac, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3. We show that chromosome regions (bands) of 10-50 Mb, detectable by immunofluorescence microscopy of metaphase (M) chromosomes, are also present in G1 and G2. They comprise 1-5 Mb sub-bands that differ between HeLa and LCL but remain consistent through the cell cycle. The same sub-bands are defined by H3K9ac and H3K4me3, while H3K27me3 spreads more widely. We found little change between cell cycle phases, whether compared by 5 Kb rolling windows or when analysis was restricted to functional elements such as transcription start sites and topologically associating domains. Only a small number of genes showed cell-cycle related changes: at genes encoding proteins involved in mitosis, H3K9 became highly acetylated in G2M, possibly because of ongoing transcription. In conclusion, modified histone isoforms H3K9ac, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 exhibit a characteristic genomic distribution at resolutions of 1 Mb and below that differs between HeLa and lymphoblastoid cells but remains remarkably consistent through the cell cycle. We suggest that this cell-type-specific chromosomal bar-code is part of a homeostatic mechanism by which cells retain their characteristic gene expression patterns, and hence their identity, through multiple mitoses.

RevDate: 2021-04-21
CmpDate: 2021-03-04

Laffleur B, Lim J, Zhang W, et al (2021)

Noncoding RNA processing by DIS3 regulates chromosomal architecture and somatic hypermutation in B cells.

Nature genetics, 53(2):230-242.

Noncoding RNAs are exquisitely titrated by the cellular RNA surveillance machinery for regulating diverse biological processes. The RNA exosome, the predominant 3' RNA exoribonuclease in mammalian cells, is composed of nine core and two catalytic subunits. Here, we developed a mouse model with a conditional allele to study the RNA exosome catalytic subunit DIS3. In DIS3-deficient B cells, integrity of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus in its topologically associating domain is affected, with accumulation of DNA-associated RNAs flanking CTCF-binding elements, decreased CTCF binding to CTCF-binding elements and disorganized cohesin localization. DIS3-deficient B cells also accumulate activation-induced cytidine deaminase-mediated asymmetric nicks, altering somatic hypermutation patterns and increasing microhomology-mediated end-joining DNA repair. Altered mutation patterns and Igh architectural defects in DIS3-deficient B cells lead to decreased class-switch recombination but increased chromosomal translocations. Our observations of DIS3-mediated architectural regulation at the Igh locus are reflected genome wide, thus providing evidence that noncoding RNA processing is an important mechanism for controlling genome organization.

RevDate: 2021-02-01

Franzini S, Di Stefano M, C Micheletti (2021)

essHi-C: Essential component analysis of Hi-C matrices.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6125382 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Hi-C matrices are cornerstones for qualitative and quantitative studies of genome folding, from its territorial organization to compartments and topological domains. The high dynamic range of genomic distances probed in Hi-C assays reflects in an inherent stochastic background of the interactions matrices, which inevitably convolve the features of interest with largely non-specific ones.

RESULTS: Here we introduce and discuss essHi-C, a method to isolate the specific, or essential component of Hi-C matrices from the non-specific portion of the spectrum that is compatible with random matrices. Systematic comparisons show that essHi-C improves the clarity of the interaction patterns, enhances the robustness against sequencing depth of topologically associating domains identification, allows the unsupervised clustering of experiments in different cell lines and recovers the cell-cycle phasing of single-cells based on Hi-C data. Thus, essHi-C provides means for isolating significant biological and physical features from Hi-C matrices.

AVAILABILITY: The essHi-C software package is available at: .

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2021-04-21

Qi Q, Cheng L, Tang X, et al (2021)

Dynamic CTCF binding directly mediates interactions among cis-regulatory elements essential for hematopoiesis.

Blood, 137(10):1327-1339.

While constitutive CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites are needed to maintain relatively invariant chromatin structures, such as topologically associating domains, the precise roles of CTCF to control cell-type-specific transcriptional regulation remain poorly explored. We examined CTCF occupancy in different types of primary blood cells derived from the same donor to elucidate a new role for CTCF in gene regulation during blood cell development. We identified dynamic, cell-type-specific binding sites for CTCF that colocalize with lineage-specific transcription factors. These dynamic sites are enriched for single-nucleotide polymorphisms that are associated with blood cell traits in different linages, and they coincide with the key regulatory elements governing hematopoiesis. CRISPR-Cas9-based perturbation experiments demonstrated that these dynamic CTCF-binding sites play a critical role in red blood cell development. Furthermore, precise deletion of CTCF-binding motifs in dynamic sites abolished interactions of erythroid genes, such as RBM38, with their associated enhancers and led to abnormal erythropoiesis. These results suggest a novel, cell-type-specific function for CTCF in which it may serve to facilitate interaction of distal regulatory emblements with target promoters. Our study of the dynamic, cell-type-specific binding and function of CTCF provides new insights into transcriptional regulation during hematopoiesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-08

Luo X, Liu Y, Dang D, et al (2021)

3D Genome of macaque fetal brain reveals evolutionary innovations during primate corticogenesis.

Cell, 184(3):723-740.e21.

Elucidating the regulatory mechanisms of human brain evolution is essential to understanding human cognition and mental disorders. We generated multi-omics profiles and constructed a high-resolution map of 3D genome architecture of rhesus macaque during corticogenesis. By comparing the 3D genomes of human, macaque, and mouse brains, we identified many human-specific chromatin structure changes, including 499 topologically associating domains (TADs) and 1,266 chromatin loops. The human-specific loops are significantly enriched in enhancer-enhancer interactions, and the regulated genes show human-specific expression changes in the subplate, a transient zone of the developing brain critical for neural circuit formation and plasticity. Notably, many human-specific sequence changes are located in the human-specific TAD boundaries and loop anchors, which may generate new transcription factor binding sites and chromatin structures in human. Collectively, the presented data highlight the value of comparative 3D genome analyses in dissecting the regulatory mechanisms of brain development and evolution.

RevDate: 2021-04-27

Cavalheiro GR, Pollex T, EE Furlong (2021)

To loop or not to loop: what is the role of TADs in enhancer function and gene regulation?.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 67:119-129.

The past decade has seen a huge jump in the resolution and scale at which we can interrogate the three-dimensional properties of the genome. This revealed different types of chromatin structures including topologically associating domains, partitioning genes and their enhancers into interacting domains. While the visualisation of these topologies and their dynamics has dramatically improved, our understanding of their underlying mechanisms and functional roles in gene expression has lagged behind. A suite of recent studies have addressed this using genetic manipulations to perturb topological features and loops at different scales. Here we assess the new biological insights gained on the functional relationship between genome topology and gene expression, with a particular focus on enhancer function.

RevDate: 2021-03-01

Beccari L, Jaquier G, Lopez-Delisle L, et al (2021)

Dbx2 regulation in limbs suggests interTAD sharing of enhancers.

Developmental dynamics : an official publication of the American Association of Anatomists [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: During tetrapod limb development, the HOXA13 and HOXD13 transcription factors are critical for the emergence and organization of the autopod, the most distal aspect where digits will develop. Since previous work had suggested that the Dbx2 gene is a target of these factors, we set up to analyze in detail this potential regulatory interaction.

RESULTS: We show that HOX13 proteins bind to mammalian-specific sequences at the vicinity of the Dbx2 locus that have enhancer activity in developing digits. However, the functional inactivation of the DBX2 protein did not elicit any particular phenotype related to Hox genes inactivation in digits, suggesting either redundant or compensatory mechanisms. We report that the neighboring Nell2 and Ano6 genes are also expressed in distal limb buds and are in part controlled by the same Dbx2 enhancers despite being localized into two different topologically associating domains (TADs) flanking the Dbx2 locus.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that Hoxa13 and Hoxd genes cooperatively activate Dbx2 expression in developing digits through binding to mammalian specific regulatory sequences in the Dbx2 neighborhood. Furthermore, these enhancers can overcome TAD boundaries in either direction to co-regulate a set of genes located in distinct chromatin domains.

RevDate: 2021-01-30

Zhang YW, Wang MB, SC Li (2021)

SuperTAD: robust detection of hierarchical topologically associated domains with optimized structural information.

Genome biology, 22(1):45.

Topologically associating domains (TADs) are the organizational units of chromosome structures. TADs can contain TADs, thus forming a hierarchy. TAD hierarchies can be inferred from Hi-C data through coding trees. However, the current method for computing coding trees is not optimal. In this paper, we propose optimal algorithms for this computation. In comparison with seven state-of-art methods using two public datasets, from GM12878 and IMR90 cells, SuperTAD shows a significant enrichment of structural proteins around detected boundaries and histone modifications within TADs and displays a high consistency between various resolutions of identical Hi-C matrices.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Madani Tonekaboni SA, Haibe-Kains B, M Lupien (2021)

Large organized chromatin lysine domains help distinguish primitive from differentiated cell populations.

Nature communications, 12(1):499.

The human genome is partitioned into a collection of genomic features, inclusive of genes, transposable elements, lamina interacting regions, early replicating control elements and cis-regulatory elements, such as promoters, enhancers, and anchors of chromatin interactions. Uneven distribution of these features within chromosomes gives rise to clusters, such as topologically associating domains (TADs), lamina-associated domains, clusters of cis-regulatory elements or large organized chromatin lysine (K) domains (LOCKs). Here we show that LOCKs from diverse histone modifications discriminate primitive from differentiated cell types. Active LOCKs (H3K4me1, H3K4me3 and H3K27ac) cover a higher fraction of the genome in primitive compared to differentiated cell types while repressive LOCKs (H3K9me3, H3K27me3 and H3K36me3) do not. Active LOCKs in differentiated cells lie proximal to highly expressed genes while active LOCKs in primitive cells tend to be bivalent. Genes proximal to bivalent LOCKs are minimally expressed in primitive cells. Furthermore, bivalent LOCKs populate TAD boundaries and are preferentially bound by regulators of chromatin interactions, including CTCF, RAD21 and ZNF143. Together, our results argue that LOCKs discriminate primitive from differentiated cell populations.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Melnikova LS, Georgiev PG, AK Golovnin (2020)

The Functions and Mechanisms of Action of Insulators in the Genomes of Higher Eukaryotes.

Acta naturae, 12(4):15-33.

The mechanisms underlying long-range interactions between chromatin regions and the principles of chromosomal architecture formation are currently under extensive scrutiny. A special class of regulatory elements known as insulators is believed to be involved in the regulation of specific long-range interactions between enhancers and promoters. This review focuses on the insulators of Drosophila and mammals, and it also briefly characterizes the proteins responsible for their functional activity. It was initially believed that the main properties of insulators are blocking of enhancers and the formation of independent transcription domains. We present experimental data proving that the chromatin loops formed by insulators play only an auxiliary role in enhancer blocking. The review also discusses the mechanisms involved in the formation of topologically associating domains and their role in the formation of the chromosomal architecture and regulation of gene transcription.

RevDate: 2021-01-16

Bediaga NG, Coughlan HD, Johanson TM, et al (2021)

Multi-level remodelling of chromatin underlying activation of human T cells.

Scientific reports, 11(1):528.

Remodelling of chromatin architecture is known to regulate gene expression and has been well characterized in cell lineage development but less so in response to cell perturbation. Activation of T cells, which triggers extensive changes in transcriptional programs, serves as an instructive model to elucidate how changes in chromatin architecture orchestrate gene expression in response to cell perturbation. To characterize coordinate changes at different levels of chromatin architecture, we analyzed chromatin accessibility, chromosome conformation and gene expression in activated human T cells. T cell activation was characterized by widespread changes in chromatin accessibility and interactions that were shared between activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and with the formation of active regulatory regions associated with transcription factors relevant to T cell biology. Chromatin interactions that increased and decreased were coupled, respectively, with up- and down-regulation of corresponding target genes. Furthermore, activation was associated with disruption of long-range chromatin interactions and with partitioning of topologically associating domains (TADs) and remodelling of their TAD boundaries. Newly formed/strengthened TAD boundaries were associated with higher nucleosome occupancy and lower accessibility, linking changes in lower and higher order chromatin architecture. T cell activation exemplifies coordinate multi-level remodelling of chromatin underlying gene transcription.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Ha E, Bang SY, Lim J, et al (2021)

Genetic variants shape rheumatoid arthritis-specific transcriptomic features in CD4+ T cells through differential DNA methylation, explaining a substantial proportion of heritability.

Annals of the rheumatic diseases pii:annrheumdis-2020-219152 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: CD4+ T cells have been suggested as the most disease-relevant cell type in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in which RA-risk non-coding variants exhibit allele-specific effects on regulation of RA-driving genes. This study aimed to understand RA-specific signatures in CD4+ T cells using multi-omics data, interpreting inter-omics relationships in shaping the RA transcriptomic landscape.

METHODS: We profiled genome-wide variants, gene expression and DNA methylation in CD4+ T cells from 82 patients with RA and 40 healthy controls using high-throughput technologies. We investigated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differential methylated regions (DMRs) in RA and localised quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for expression and methylation. We then integrated these based on individual-level correlations to inspect DEG-regulating sources and investigated the potential regulatory roles of RA-risk variants by a partitioned-heritability enrichment analysis with RA genome-wide association summary statistics.

RESULTS: A large number of RA-specific DEGs were identified (n=2575), highlighting T cell differentiation and activation pathways. RA-specific DMRs, preferentially located in T cell regulatory regions, were correlated with the expression levels of 548 DEGs mostly in the same topologically associating domains. In addition, expressional variances in 771 and 83 DEGs were partially explained by expression QTLs for DEGs and methylation QTLs (meQTLs) for DEG-correlated DMRs, respectively. A large number of RA variants were moderately to strongly correlated with meQTLs. DEG-correlated DMRs, enriched with meQTLs, had strongly enriched heritability of RA.

CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that the methylomic changes, driven by RA heritability-explaining variants, shape the differential expression of a substantial fraction of DEGs in CD4+ T cells in patients with RA, reinforcing the importance of a multidimensional approach in disease-relevant tissues.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Peters JM (2021)

How DNA loop extrusion mediated by cohesin enables V(D)J recombination.

Current opinion in cell biology, 70:75-83.

'Structural maintenance of chromosomes' (SMC) complexes are required for the folding of genomic DNA into loops. Theoretical considerations and single-molecule experiments performed with the SMC complexes cohesin and condensin indicate that DNA folding occurs via loop extrusion. Recent work indicates that this process is essential for the assembly of antigen receptor genes by V(D)J recombination in developing B and T cells of the vertebrate immune system. Here, I review how recent studies of the mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain locus Igh have provided evidence for this hypothesis and how the formation of chromatin loops by cohesin and regulation of this process by CTCF and Wapl might ensure that all variable gene segments in this locus (VH segments) participate in recombination with a re-arranged DJH segment, to ensure generation of a maximally diverse repertoire of B-cell receptors and antibodies.

RevDate: 2021-03-24
CmpDate: 2021-01-28

Sun Q, Perez-Rathke A, Czajkowsky DM, et al (2021)

High-resolution single-cell 3D-models of chromatin ensembles during Drosophila embryogenesis.

Nature communications, 12(1):205.

Single-cell chromatin studies provide insights into how chromatin structure relates to functions of individual cells. However, balancing high-resolution and genome wide-coverage remains challenging. We describe a computational method for the reconstruction of large 3D-ensembles of single-cell (sc) chromatin conformations from population Hi-C that we apply to study embryogenesis in Drosophila. With minimal assumptions of physical properties and without adjustable parameters, our method generates large ensembles of chromatin conformations via deep-sampling. Our method identifies specific interactions, which constitute 5-6% of Hi-C frequencies, but surprisingly are sufficient to drive chromatin folding, giving rise to the observed Hi-C patterns. Modeled sc-chromatins quantify chromatin heterogeneity, revealing significant changes during embryogenesis. Furthermore, >50% of modeled sc-chromatin maintain topologically associating domains (TADs) in early embryos, when no population TADs are perceptible. Domain boundaries become fixated during development, with strong preference at binding-sites of insulator-complexes upon the midblastula transition. Overall, high-resolution 3D-ensembles of sc-chromatin conformations enable further in-depth interpretation of population Hi-C, improving understanding of the structure-function relationship of genome organization.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Jia J, Xie Y, Cheng J, et al (2021)

Homology-mediated inter-chromosomal interactions in hexaploid wheat lead to specific subgenome territories following polyploidization and introgression.

Genome biology, 22(1):26.

BACKGROUND: Polyploidization and introgression are major events driving plant genome evolution and influencing crop breeding. However, the mechanisms underlying the higher-order chromatin organization of subgenomes and alien chromosomes are largely unknown.

RESULTS: We probe the three-dimensional chromatin architecture of Aikang 58 (AK58), a widely cultivated allohexaploid wheat variety in China carrying the 1RS/1BL translocation chromosome. The regions involved in inter-chromosomal interactions, both within and between subgenomes, have highly similar sequences. Subgenome-specific territories tend to be connected by subgenome-dominant homologous transposable elements (TEs). The alien 1RS chromosomal arm, which was introgressed from rye and differs from its wheat counterpart, has relatively few inter-chromosome interactions with wheat chromosomes. An analysis of local chromatin structures reveals topologically associating domain (TAD)-like regions covering 52% of the AK58 genome, the boundaries of which are enriched with active genes, zinc-finger factor-binding motifs, CHH methylation, and 24-nt small RNAs. The chromatin loops are mostly localized around TAD boundaries, and the number of gene loops is positively associated with gene activity.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the impact of the genetic sequence context on the higher-order chromatin structure and subgenome stability in hexaploid wheat. Specifically, we characterized the sequence homology-mediated inter-chromosome interactions and the non-canonical role of subgenome-biased TEs. Our findings may have profound implications for future investigations of the interplay between genetic sequences and higher-order structures and their consequences on polyploid genome evolution and introgression-based breeding of crop plants.

RevDate: 2021-01-11

Russo R, Marra R, Rosato BE, et al (2020)

Genetics and Genomics Approaches for Diagnosis and Research Into Hereditary Anemias.

Frontiers in physiology, 11:613559.

The hereditary anemias are a relatively heterogeneous set of disorders that can show wide clinical and genetic heterogeneity, which often hampers correct clinical diagnosis. The classical diagnostic workflow for these conditions generally used to start with analysis of the family and personal histories, followed by biochemical and morphological evaluations, and ending with genetic testing. However, the diagnostic framework has changed more recently, and genetic testing is now a suitable approach for differential diagnosis of these patients. There are several approaches to this genetic testing, the choice of which depends on phenotyping, genetic heterogeneity, and gene size. For patients who show complete phenotyping, single-gene testing remains recommended. However, genetic analysis now includes next-generation sequencing, which is generally based on custom-designed targeting panels and whole-exome sequencing. The use of next-generation sequencing also allows the identification of new causative genes, and of polygenic conditions and genetic factors that modify disease severity of hereditary anemias. In the research field, whole-genome sequencing is useful for the identification of non-coding causative mutations, which might account for the disruption of transcriptional factor occupancy sites and cis-regulatory elements. Moreover, advances in high-throughput sequencing techniques have now resulted in the identification of genome-wide profiling of the chromatin structures known as the topologically associating domains. These represent a recurrent disease mechanism that exposes genes to inappropriate regulatory elements, causing errors in gene expression. This review focuses on the challenges of diagnosis and research into hereditary anemias, with indications of both the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we consider the future perspectives for the use of next-generation sequencing technologies in this era of precision medicine.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Deschamps S, Crow JA, Chaidir N, et al (2021)

Chromatin loop anchors contain core structural components of the gene expression machinery in maize.

BMC genomics, 22(1):23.

BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional chromatin loop structures connect regulatory elements to their target genes in regions known as anchors. In complex plant genomes, such as maize, it has been proposed that loops span heterochromatic regions marked by higher repeat content, but little is known on their spatial organization and genome-wide occurrence in relation to transcriptional activity.

RESULTS: Here, ultra-deep Hi-C sequencing of maize B73 leaf tissue was combined with gene expression and open chromatin sequencing for chromatin loop discovery and correlation with hierarchical topologically-associating domains (TADs) and transcriptional activity. A majority of all anchors are shared between multiple loops from previous public maize high-resolution interactome datasets, suggesting a highly dynamic environment, with a conserved set of anchors involved in multiple interaction networks. Chromatin loop interiors are marked by higher repeat contents than the anchors flanking them. A small fraction of high-resolution interaction anchors, fully embedded in larger chromatin loops, co-locate with active genes and putative protein-binding sites. Combinatorial analyses indicate that all anchors studied here co-locate with at least 81.5% of expressed genes and 74% of open chromatin regions. Approximately 38% of all Hi-C chromatin loops are fully embedded within hierarchical TAD-like domains, while the remaining ones share anchors with domain boundaries or with distinct domains. Those various loop types exhibit specific patterns of overlap for open chromatin regions and expressed genes, but no apparent pattern of gene expression. In addition, up to 63% of all unique variants derived from a prior public maize eQTL dataset overlap with Hi-C loop anchors. Anchor annotation suggests that < 7% of all loops detected here are potentially devoid of any genes or regulatory elements. The overall organization of chromatin loop anchors in the maize genome suggest a loop modeling system hypothesized to resemble phase separation of repeat-rich regions.

CONCLUSIONS: Sets of conserved chromatin loop anchors mapping to hierarchical domains contains core structural components of the gene expression machinery in maize. The data presented here will be a useful reference to further investigate their function in regard to the formation of transcriptional complexes and the regulation of transcriptional activity in the maize genome.

RevDate: 2021-04-30
CmpDate: 2021-03-31

Kubo N, Ishii H, Xiong X, et al (2021)

Promoter-proximal CTCF binding promotes distal enhancer-dependent gene activation.

Nature structural & molecular biology, 28(2):152-161.

The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) works together with the cohesin complex to drive the formation of chromatin loops and topologically associating domains, but its role in gene regulation has not been fully defined. Here, we investigated the effects of acute CTCF loss on chromatin architecture and transcriptional programs in mouse embryonic stem cells undergoing differentiation to neural precursor cells. We identified CTCF-dependent enhancer-promoter contacts genome-wide and found that they disproportionately affect genes that are bound by CTCF at the promoter and are dependent on long-distance enhancers. Disruption of promoter-proximal CTCF binding reduced both long-range enhancer-promoter contacts and transcription, which were restored by artificial tethering of CTCF to the promoter. Promoter-proximal CTCF binding is correlated with the transcription of over 2,000 genes across a diverse set of adult tissues. Taken together, the results of our study show that CTCF binding to promoters may promote long-distance enhancer-dependent transcription at specific genes in diverse cell types.

RevDate: 2021-01-13
CmpDate: 2021-01-13

Ulianov SV, Zakharova VV, Galitsyna AA, et al (2021)

Order and stochasticity in the folding of individual Drosophila genomes.

Nature communications, 12(1):41.

Mammalian and Drosophila genomes are partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs). Although this partitioning has been reported to be functionally relevant, it is unclear whether TADs represent true physical units located at the same genomic positions in each cell nucleus or emerge as an average of numerous alternative chromatin folding patterns in a cell population. Here, we use a single-nucleus Hi-C technique to construct high-resolution Hi-C maps in individual Drosophila genomes. These maps demonstrate chromatin compartmentalization at the megabase scale and partitioning of the genome into non-hierarchical TADs at the scale of 100 kb, which closely resembles the TAD profile in the bulk in situ Hi-C data. Over 40% of TAD boundaries are conserved between individual nuclei and possess a high level of active epigenetic marks. Polymer simulations demonstrate that chromatin folding is best described by the random walk model within TADs and is most suitably approximated by a crumpled globule build of Gaussian blobs at longer distances. We observe prominent cell-to-cell variability in the long-range contacts between either active genome loci or between Polycomb-bound regions, suggesting an important contribution of stochastic processes to the formation of the Drosophila 3D genome.

RevDate: 2021-03-25
CmpDate: 2021-03-25

Decker B, Liput M, Abdellatif H, et al (2020)

Global Genome Conformational Programming during Neuronal Development Is Associated with CTCF and Nuclear FGFR1-The Genome Archipelago Model.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(1):.

During the development of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) to neuronal committed cells (NCC), coordinated changes in the expression of 2851 genes take place, mediated by the nuclear form of FGFR1. In this paper, widespread differences are demonstrated in the ESC and NCC inter- and intra-chromosomal interactions, chromatin looping, the formation of CTCF- and nFGFR1-linked Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) on a genome-wide scale and in exemplary HoxA-D loci. The analysis centered on HoxA cluster shows that blocking FGFR1 disrupts the loop formation. FGFR1 binding and genome locales are predictive of the genome interactions; likewise, chromatin interactions along with nFGFR1 binding are predictive of the genome function and correlate with genome regulatory attributes and gene expression. This study advances a topologically integrated genome archipelago model that undergoes structural transformations through the formation of nFGFR1-associated TADs. The makeover of the TAD islands serves to recruit distinct ontogenic programs during the development of the ESC to NCC.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Takemata N, SD Bell (2021)

Multi-scale architecture of archaeal chromosomes.

Molecular cell, 81(3):473-487.e6.

Chromosome conformation capture (3C) technologies have identified topologically associating domains (TADs) and larger A/B compartments as two salient structural features of eukaryotic chromosomes. These structures are sculpted by the combined actions of transcription and structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) superfamily proteins. Bacterial chromosomes fold into TAD-like chromosomal interaction domains (CIDs) but do not display A/B compartment-type organization. We reveal that chromosomes of Sulfolobus archaea are organized into CID-like topological domains in addition to previously described larger A/B compartment-type structures. We uncover local rules governing the identity of the topological domains and their boundaries. We also identify long-range loop structures and provide evidence of a hub-like structure that colocalizes genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In addition to providing high-resolution descriptions of archaeal chromosome architectures, our data provide evidence of multiple modes of organization in prokaryotic chromosomes and yield insights into the evolution of eukaryotic chromosome conformation.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Rullens PMJ, J Kind (2021)

Attach and stretch: Emerging roles for genome-lamina contacts in shaping the 3D genome.

Current opinion in cell biology, 70:51-57.

A large proportion of the metazoan genome is spatially segregated at the nuclear periphery through genomic contacts with the nuclear lamina, a thin meshwork of lamin filaments that lines the inner-nuclear membrane. Lamina-associated domains are believed to contribute to the regulation of gene transcription and to provide structural three-dimensional support to the organization of the genome in A and B compartments and topologically associating domains. In this review, we will evaluate recent work addressing the role of lamina-associated domains in three-dimensional genome organization and propose experimental frameworks that may expand our understanding of their interdependence.

RevDate: 2021-04-06

Kruse K, Hug CB, JM Vaquerizas (2020)

FAN-C: a feature-rich framework for the analysis and visualisation of chromosome conformation capture data.

Genome biology, 21(1):303.

Chromosome conformation capture data, particularly from high-throughput approaches such as Hi-C, are typically very complex to analyse. Existing analysis tools are often single-purpose, or limited in compatibility to a small number of data formats, frequently making Hi-C analyses tedious and time-consuming. Here, we present FAN-C, an easy-to-use command-line tool and powerful Python API with a broad feature set covering matrix generation, analysis, and visualisation for C-like data ( Due to its compatibility with the most prevalent Hi-C storage formats, FAN-C can be used in combination with a large number of existing analysis tools, thus greatly simplifying Hi-C matrix analysis.

RevDate: 2021-01-21
CmpDate: 2021-01-21

Torosin NS, Anand A, Golla TR, et al (2020)

3D genome evolution and reorganization in the Drosophila melanogaster species group.

PLoS genetics, 16(12):e1009229.

Topologically associating domains, or TADs, are functional units that organize chromosomes into 3D structures of interacting chromatin. TADs play an important role in regulating gene expression by constraining enhancer-promoter contacts and there is evidence that deletion of TAD boundaries leads to aberrant expression of neighboring genes. While the mechanisms of TAD formation have been well-studied, current knowledge on the patterns of TAD evolution across species is limited. Due to the integral role TADs play in gene regulation, their structure and organization is expected to be conserved during evolution. However, more recent research suggests that TAD structures diverge relatively rapidly. We use Hi-C chromosome conformation capture to measure evolutionary conservation of whole TADs and TAD boundary elements between D. melanogaster and D. triauraria, two early-branching species from the melanogaster species group which diverged ∼15 million years ago. We find that the majority of TADs have been reorganized since the common ancestor of D. melanogaster and D. triauraria, via a combination of chromosomal rearrangements and gain/loss of TAD boundaries. TAD reorganization between these two species is associated with a localized effect on gene expression, near the site of disruption. By separating TADs into subtypes based on their chromatin state, we find that different subtypes are evolving under different evolutionary forces. TADs enriched for broadly expressed, transcriptionally active genes are evolving rapidly, potentially due to positive selection, whereas TADs enriched for developmentally-regulated genes remain conserved, presumably due to their importance in restricting gene-regulatory element interactions. These results provide novel insight into the evolutionary dynamics of TADs and help to reconcile contradictory reports related to the evolutionary conservation of TADs and whether changes in TAD structure affect gene expression.

RevDate: 2020-12-16
CmpDate: 2020-12-16

Guerrero-Martínez JA, Ceballos-Chávez M, Koehler F, et al (2020)

TGFβ promotes widespread enhancer chromatin opening and operates on genomic regulatory domains.

Nature communications, 11(1):6196.

The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ) signaling pathway controls transcription by regulating enhancer activity. How TGFβ-regulated enhancers are selected and what chromatin changes are associated with TGFβ-dependent enhancers regulation are still unclear. Here we report that TGFβ treatment triggers fast and widespread increase in chromatin accessibility in about 80% of the enhancers of normal mouse mammary epithelial-gland cells, irrespective of whether they are activated, repressed or not regulated by TGFβ. This enhancer opening depends on both the canonical and non-canonical TGFβ pathways. Most TGFβ-regulated genes are located around enhancers regulated in the same way, often creating domains of several co-regulated genes that we term TGFβ regulatory domains (TRD). CRISPR-mediated inactivation of enhancers within TRDs impairs TGFβ-dependent regulation of all co-regulated genes, demonstrating that enhancer targeting is more promiscuous than previously anticipated. The area of TRD influence is restricted by topologically associating domains (TADs) borders, causing a bias towards co-regulation within TADs.

RevDate: 2021-03-12
CmpDate: 2020-12-15

Sanders JT, Freeman TF, Xu Y, et al (2020)

Radiation-induced DNA damage and repair effects on 3D genome organization.

Nature communications, 11(1):6178.

The three-dimensional structure of chromosomes plays an important role in gene expression regulation and also influences the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage. Genomic aberrations that disrupt chromosome spatial domains can lead to diseases including cancer, but how the 3D genome structure responds to DNA damage is poorly understood. Here, we investigate the impact of DNA damage response and repair on 3D genome folding using Hi-C experiments on wild type cells and ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) patient cells. We irradiate fibroblasts, lymphoblasts, and ATM-deficient fibroblasts with 5 Gy X-rays and perform Hi-C at 30 minutes, 24 hours, or 5 days after irradiation. We observe that 3D genome changes after irradiation are cell type-specific, with lymphoblastoid cells generally showing more contact changes than irradiated fibroblasts. However, all tested repair-proficient cell types exhibit an increased segregation of topologically associating domains (TADs). This TAD boundary strengthening after irradiation is not observed in ATM deficient fibroblasts and may indicate the presence of a mechanism to protect 3D genome structure integrity during DNA damage repair.

RevDate: 2021-05-08
CmpDate: 2021-03-01

Yang H, Luan Y, Liu T, et al (2020)

A map of cis-regulatory elements and 3D genome structures in zebrafish.

Nature, 588(7837):337-343.

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been widely used in the study of human disease and development, and about 70% of the protein-coding genes are conserved between the two species1. However, studies in zebrafish remain constrained by the sparse annotation of functional control elements in the zebrafish genome. Here we performed RNA sequencing, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing (ATAC-seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation with sequencing, whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, and chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) experiments in up to eleven adult and two embryonic tissues to generate a comprehensive map of transcriptomes, cis-regulatory elements, heterochromatin, methylomes and 3D genome organization in the zebrafish Tübingen reference strain. A comparison of zebrafish, human and mouse regulatory elements enabled the identification of both evolutionarily conserved and species-specific regulatory sequences and networks. We observed enrichment of evolutionary breakpoints at topologically associating domain boundaries, which were correlated with strong histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) signals. We performed single-cell ATAC-seq in zebrafish brain, which delineated 25 different clusters of cell types. By combining long-read DNA sequencing and Hi-C, we assembled the sex-determining chromosome 4 de novo. Overall, our work provides an additional epigenomic anchor for the functional annotation of vertebrate genomes and the study of evolutionarily conserved elements of 3D genome organization.

RevDate: 2021-01-29
CmpDate: 2021-01-29

Rodríguez-Carballo E, Lopez-Delisle L, Willemin A, et al (2020)

Chromatin topology and the timing of enhancer function at the HoxD locus.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(49):31231-31241.

The HoxD gene cluster is critical for proper limb formation in tetrapods. In the emerging limb buds, different subgroups of Hoxd genes respond first to a proximal regulatory signal, then to a distal signal that organizes digits. These two regulations are exclusive from one another and emanate from two distinct topologically associating domains (TADs) flanking HoxD, both containing a range of appropriate enhancer sequences. The telomeric TAD (T-DOM) contains several enhancers active in presumptive forearm cells and is divided into two sub-TADs separated by a CTCF-rich boundary, which defines two regulatory submodules. To understand the importance of this particular regulatory topology to control Hoxd gene transcription in time and space, we either deleted or inverted this sub-TAD boundary, eliminated the CTCF binding sites, or inverted the entire T-DOM to exchange the respective positions of the two sub-TADs. The effects of such perturbations on the transcriptional regulation of Hoxd genes illustrate the requirement of this regulatory topology for the precise timing of gene activation. However, the spatial distribution of transcripts was eventually resumed, showing that the presence of enhancer sequences, rather than either their exact topology or a particular chromatin architecture, is the key factor. We also show that the affinity of enhancers to find their natural target genes can overcome the presence of both a strong TAD border and an unfavorable orientation of CTCF sites.

RevDate: 2021-05-16

Eres IE, Y Gilad (2021)

A TAD Skeptic: Is 3D Genome Topology Conserved?.

Trends in genetics : TIG, 37(3):216-223.

The notion that topologically associating domains (TADs) are highly conserved across species is prevalent in the field of 3D genomics. However, what exactly is meant by 'highly conserved' and what are the actual comparative data that support this notion? To address these questions, we performed a historical review of the relevant literature and retraced numerous citation chains to reveal the primary data that were used as the basis for the widely accepted conclusion that TADs are highly conserved across evolution. A thorough review of the available evidence suggests the answer may be more complex than what is commonly presented.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-03-02

Ehrlich KC, Baribault C, M Ehrlich (2020)

Epigenetics of Muscle- and Brain-Specific Expression of KLHL Family Genes.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(21):.

KLHL and the related KBTBD genes encode components of the Cullin-E3 ubiquitin ligase complex and typically target tissue-specific proteins for degradation, thereby affecting differentiation, homeostasis, metabolism, cell signaling, and the oxidative stress response. Despite their importance in cell function and disease (especially, KLHL40, KLHL41, KBTBD13, KEAP1, and ENC1), previous studies of epigenetic factors that affect transcription were predominantly limited to promoter DNA methylation. Using diverse tissue and cell culture whole-genome profiles, we examined 17 KLHL or KBTBD genes preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle or brain to identify tissue-specific enhancer and promoter chromatin, open chromatin (DNaseI hypersensitivity), and DNA hypomethylation. Sixteen of the 17 genes displayed muscle- or brain-specific enhancer chromatin in their gene bodies, and most exhibited specific intergenic enhancer chromatin as well. Seven genes were embedded in super-enhancers (particularly strong, tissue-specific clusters of enhancers). The enhancer chromatin regions typically displayed foci of DNA hypomethylation at peaks of open chromatin. In addition, we found evidence for an intragenic enhancer in one gene upregulating expression of its neighboring gene, specifically for KLHL40/HHATL and KLHL38/FBXO32 gene pairs. Many KLHL/KBTBD genes had tissue-specific promoter chromatin at their 5' ends, but surprisingly, two (KBTBD11 and KLHL31) had constitutively unmethylated promoter chromatin in their 3' exons that overlaps a retrotransposed KLHL gene. Our findings demonstrate the importance of expanding epigenetic analyses beyond the 5' ends of genes in studies of normal and abnormal gene regulation.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Chang L, Li M, Shao S, et al (2020)

Nuclear peripheral chromatin-lamin B1 interaction is required for global integrity of chromatin architecture and dynamics in human cells.

Protein & cell pii:10.1007/s13238-020-00794-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The eukaryotic genome is folded into higher-order conformation accompanied with constrained dynamics for coordinated genome functions. However, the molecular machinery underlying these hierarchically organized three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture and dynamics remains poorly understood. Here by combining imaging and sequencing, we studied the role of lamin B1 in chromatin architecture and dynamics. We found that lamin B1 depletion leads to detachment of lamina-associated domains (LADs) from the nuclear periphery accompanied with global chromatin redistribution and decompaction. Consequently, the inter-chromosomal as well as inter-compartment interactions are increased, but the structure of topologically associating domains (TADs) is not affected. Using live-cell genomic loci tracking, we further proved that depletion of lamin B1 leads to increased chromatin dynamics, owing to chromatin decompaction and redistribution toward nucleoplasm. Taken together, our data suggest that lamin B1 and chromatin interactions at the nuclear periphery promote LAD maintenance, chromatin compaction, genomic compartmentalization into chromosome territories and A/B compartments and confine chromatin dynamics, supporting their crucial roles in chromatin higher-order structure and chromatin dynamics.

RevDate: 2021-05-04
CmpDate: 2020-11-30

Nora EP, Caccianini L, Fudenberg G, et al (2020)

Molecular basis of CTCF binding polarity in genome folding.

Nature communications, 11(1):5612.

Current models propose that boundaries of mammalian topologically associating domains (TADs) arise from the ability of the CTCF protein to stop extrusion of chromatin loops by cohesin. While the orientation of CTCF motifs determines which pairs of CTCF sites preferentially stabilize loops, the molecular basis of this polarity remains unclear. By combining ChIP-seq and single molecule live imaging we report that CTCF positions cohesin, but does not control its overall binding dynamics on chromatin. Using an inducible complementation system, we find that CTCF mutants lacking the N-terminus cannot insulate TADs properly. Cohesin remains at CTCF sites in this mutant, albeit with reduced enrichment. Given the orientation of CTCF motifs presents the N-terminus towards cohesin as it translocates from the interior of TADs, these observations explain how the orientation of CTCF binding sites translates into genome folding patterns.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Kong N, I Jung (2020)

Long-range chromatin interactions in pathogenic gene expression control.

Transcription, 11(5):211-216.

A large number of distal cis-regulatory elements (cREs) have been annotated in the human genome, which plays a central role in orchestrating spatiotemporal gene expression. Since many cREs regulate non-adjacent genes, long-range cRE-promoter interactions are an important factor in the functional characterization of the engaged cREs. In this regard, recent studies have demonstrated that identification of long-range target genes can decipher the effect of genetic mutations residing within cREs on abnormal gene expression. In addition, investigation of altered long-range cREs-promoter interactions induced by chromosomal rearrangements has revealed their critical roles in pathogenic gene expression. In this review, we briefly discuss how the analysis of 3D chromatin structure can help us understand the functional impact of cREs harboring disease-associated genetic variants and how chromosomal rearrangements disrupting topologically associating domains can lead to pathogenic gene expression.

RevDate: 2020-10-28

Chu X, J Wang (2020)

Microscopic Chromosomal Structural and Dynamical Origin of Cell Differentiation and Reprogramming.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany), 7(20):2001572.

As an essential and fundamental process of life, cell development involves large-scale reorganization of the 3D genome architecture, which forms the basis of gene regulation. Here, a landscape-switching model is developed to explore the microscopic chromosomal structural origin of embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. It is shown that chromosome structure exhibits significant compartment-switching in the unit of topologically associating domain. It is found that the chromosome during differentiation undergoes monotonic compaction with spatial repositioning of active and inactive chromosomal loci toward the chromosome surface and interior, respectively. In contrast, an overexpanded chromosome, which exhibits universal localization of loci at the chromosomal surface with erasing the structural characteristics formed in the somatic cells, is observed during reprogramming. An early distinct differentiation pathway from the ESC to the terminally differentiated cell, giving rise to early bifurcation on the Waddington landscape for the ESC differentiation is suggested. The theoretical model herein including the non-equilibrium effects, draws a picture of the highly irreversible cell differentiation and reprogramming processes, in line with the experiments. The predictions provide a physical understanding of cell differentiation and reprogramming from the chromosomal structural and dynamical perspective and can be tested by future experiments.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Li Y, Gao G, Lin Y, et al (2020)

Pacific Biosciences assembly with Hi-C mapping generates an improved, chromosome-level goose genome.

GigaScience, 9(10):.

BACKGROUND: The domestic goose is an economically important and scientifically valuable waterfowl; however, a lack of high-quality genomic data has hindered research concerning its genome, genetics, and breeding. As domestic geese breeds derive from both the swan goose (Anser cygnoides) and the graylag goose (Anser anser), we selected a female Tianfu goose for genome sequencing. We generated a chromosome-level goose genome assembly by adopting a hybrid de novo assembly approach that combined Pacific Biosciences single-molecule real-time sequencing, high-throughput chromatin conformation capture mapping, and Illumina short-read sequencing.

FINDINGS: We generated a 1.11-Gb goose genome with contig and scaffold N50 values of 1.85 and 33.12 Mb, respectively. The assembly contains 39 pseudo-chromosomes (2n = 78) accounting for ∼88.36% of the goose genome. Compared with previous goose assemblies, our assembly has more continuity, completeness, and accuracy; the annotation of core eukaryotic genes and universal single-copy orthologs has also been improved. We have identified 17,568 protein-coding genes and a repeat content of 8.67% (96.57 Mb) in this genome assembly. We also explored the spatial organization of chromatin and gene expression in the goose liver tissues, in terms of inter-pseudo-chromosomal interaction patterns, compartments, topologically associating domains, and promoter-enhancer interactions.

CONCLUSIONS: We present the first chromosome-level assembly of the goose genome. This will be a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies on geese.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2020-12-07

Gu B, Comerci CJ, McCarthy DG, et al (2020)

Opposing Effects of Cohesin and Transcription on CTCF Organization Revealed by Super-resolution Imaging.

Molecular cell, 80(4):699-711.e7.

CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin play critical roles in organizing mammalian genomes into topologically associating domains (TADs). Here, by combining genetic engineering with quantitative super-resolution stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, we demonstrate that in living cells, CTCF forms clusters typically containing 2-8 molecules. A fraction of CTCF clusters, enriched for those with ≥3 molecules, are coupled with cohesin complexes with a characteristic physical distance suggestive of a defined molecular interaction. Acute degradation of the cohesin unloader WAPL or transcriptional inhibition (TI) result in increased CTCF clustering. Furthermore, the effect of TI on CTCF clusters is alleviated by the acute loss of the cohesin subunit SMC3. Our study provides quantitative characterization of CTCF clusters in living cells, uncovers the opposing effects of cohesin and transcription on CTCF clustering, and highlights the power of quantitative super-resolution microscopy as a tool to bridge the gap between biochemical and genomic methodologies in chromatin research.

RevDate: 2020-10-22

Tinker RJ, Burghel GJ, Garg S, et al (2020)

Haploinsufficiency of ATP6V0C possibly underlies 16p13.3 deletions that cause microcephaly, seizures, and neurodevelopmental disorder.

We recently contributed to the description of eight individuals with a novel condition caused by 16p13.3 microdeletions encompassing TBC1D24, ATP6V0C, and PDPK1 and resulting in epilepsy, microcephaly and neurodevelopmental problems. The phenotypic spectrum, the minimum overlapping region and the underlying disease mechanism for this disorder remain to be clarified. Here we report a 3.5-year-old male, with microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder and a de novo 16p13.3 microdeletion. We performed detailed in silico analysis to show that the minimum overlapping region for the condition is ~80Kb encompassing five protein coding genes. Analysis of loss of function constraint metrics, transcript-aware evaluation of the population variants, GeVIR scores, analysis of reported pathogenic point variants, detailed review of the known functions of gene products and their animal models showed that the haploinsufficiency of ATP6V0C likely underlies the phenotype of this condition. Protein-protein interaction network, gene phenology and analysis of topologically associating domain showed that it was unlikely that the disorder has an epistatic or regulatory basis. 16p13.3 deletions encompassing ATP6V0C cause a neurodevelopmental disorder. Our results broaden the phenotypic spectrum of this disorder and clarify the likely underlying disease mechanism for the condition.

RevDate: 2021-04-19
CmpDate: 2020-12-29

Szabo Q, Donjon A, Jerković I, et al (2020)

Regulation of single-cell genome organization into TADs and chromatin nanodomains.

Nature genetics, 52(11):1151-1157.

The genome folds into a hierarchy of three-dimensional structures within the nucleus. At the sub-megabase scale, chromosomes form topologically associating domains (TADs)1-4. However, how TADs fold in single cells is elusive. Here, we reveal TAD features inaccessible to cell population analysis by using super-resolution microscopy. TAD structures and physical insulation associated with their borders are variable between individual cells, yet chromatin intermingling is enriched within TADs compared to adjacent TADs in most cells. The spatial segregation of TADs is further exacerbated during cell differentiation. Favored interactions within TADs are regulated by cohesin and CTCF through distinct mechanisms: cohesin generates chromatin contacts and intermingling while CTCF prevents inter-TAD contacts. Furthermore, TADs are subdivided into discrete nanodomains, which persist in cells depleted of CTCF or cohesin, whereas disruption of nucleosome contacts alters their structural organization. Altogether, these results provide a physical basis for the folding of individual chromosomes at the nanoscale.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Paik S, Maule F, M Gallo (2021)

Dysregulation of chromatin organization in pediatric and adult brain tumors: oncoepigenomic contributions to tumorigenesis and cancer stem cell properties.

Genome, 64(4):326-336.

The three-dimensional (3D) organization of the genome is a crucial enabler of cell fate, identity, and function. In this review, we will focus on the emerging role of altered 3D genome organization in the etiology of disease, with a special emphasis on brain cancers. We discuss how different genetic alterations can converge to disrupt the epigenome in childhood and adult brain tumors, by causing aberrant DNA methylation and by affecting the amounts and genomic distribution of histone post-translational modifications. We also highlight examples that illustrate how epigenomic alterations have the potential to affect 3D genome architecture in brain tumors. Finally, we will propose the concept of "epigenomic erosion" to explain the transition from stem-like cells to differentiated cells in hierarchically organized brain cancers.

RevDate: 2021-05-14

Huang Y, Neijts R, W de Laat (2020)

How chromosome topologies get their shape: views from proximity ligation and microscopy methods.

FEBS letters, 594(21):3439-3449.

The 3D organization of our genome is an important determinant for the transcriptional output of a gene in (patho)physiological contexts. The spatial organization of linear chromosomes within nucleus is dominantly inferred using two distinct approaches, chromosome conformation capture (3C) and DNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (DNA-FISH). While 3C and its derivatives score genomic interaction frequencies based on proximity ligation events, DNA-FISH methods measure physical distances between genomic loci. Despite these approaches probe different characteristics of chromosomal topologies, they provide a coherent picture of how chromosomes are organized in higher-order structures encompassing chromosome territories, compartments, and topologically associating domains. Yet, at the finer topological level of promoter-enhancer communication, the imaging-centered and the 3C methods give more divergent and sometimes seemingly paradoxical results. Here, we compare and contrast observations made applying visual DNA-FISH and molecular 3C approaches. We emphasize that the 3C approach, due to its inherently competitive ligation step, measures only 'relative' proximities. A 3C interaction enriched between loci, therefore does not necessarily translates into a decrease in absolute spatial distance. Hence, we advocate caution when modeling chromosome conformations.

RevDate: 2021-03-09
CmpDate: 2021-03-09

Iwasaki Y, Ikemura T, Kurokawa K, et al (2020)

Implication of a new function of human tDNAs in chromatin organization.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17440.

Transfer RNA genes (tDNAs) are essential genes that encode tRNAs in all species. To understand new functions of tDNAs, other than that of encoding tRNAs, we used ENCODE data to examine binding characteristics of transcription factors (TFs) for all tDNA regions (489 loci) in the human genome. We divided the tDNAs into three groups based on the number of TFs that bound to them. At the two extremes were tDNAs to which many TFs bound (Group 1) and those to which no TFs bound (Group 3). Several TFs involved in chromatin remodeling such as ATF3, EP300 and TBL1XR1 bound to almost all Group 1 tDNAs. Furthermore, almost all Group 1 tDNAs included DNase I hypersensitivity sites and may thus interact with other chromatin regions through their bound TFs, and they showed highly conserved synteny across tetrapods. In contrast, Group 3 tDNAs did not possess these characteristics. These data suggest the presence of a previously uncharacterized function of these tDNAs. We also examined binding of CTCF to tDNAs and their involvement in topologically associating domains (TADs) and lamina-associated domains (LADs), which suggest a new perspective on the evolution and function of tDNAs.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Saha P, Sowpati DT, Soujanya M, et al (2020)

Interplay of pericentromeric genome organization and chromatin landscape regulates the expression of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatic genes.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 13(1):41.

BACKGROUND: Transcription of genes residing within constitutive heterochromatin is paradoxical to the tenets of epigenetic code. The regulatory mechanisms of Drosophila melanogaster heterochromatic gene transcription remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence suggests that genome organization and transcriptional regulation are inter-linked. However, the pericentromeric genome organization is relatively less studied. Therefore, we sought to characterize the pericentromeric genome organization and understand how this organization along with the pericentromeric factors influences heterochromatic gene expression.

RESULTS: Here, we characterized the pericentromeric genome organization in Drosophila melanogaster using 5C sequencing. Heterochromatic topologically associating domains (Het TADs) correlate with distinct epigenomic domains of active and repressed heterochromatic genes at the pericentromeres. These genes are known to depend on the heterochromatic landscape for their expression. However, HP1a or Su(var)3-9 RNAi has minimal effects on heterochromatic gene expression, despite causing significant changes in the global Het TAD organization. Probing further into this observation, we report the role of two other chromatin proteins enriched at the pericentromeres-dMES-4 and dADD1 in regulating the expression of a subset of heterochromatic genes.

CONCLUSIONS: Distinct pericentromeric genome organization and chromatin landscapes maintained by the interplay of heterochromatic factors (HP1a, H3K9me3, dMES-4 and dADD1) are sufficient to support heterochromatic gene expression despite the loss of global Het TAD structure. These findings open new avenues for future investigations into the mechanisms of heterochromatic gene expression.

RevDate: 2021-02-11
CmpDate: 2020-12-09

de Bruijn SE, Fiorentino A, Ottaviani D, et al (2020)

Structural Variants Create New Topological-Associated Domains and Ectopic Retinal Enhancer-Gene Contact in Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.

American journal of human genetics, 107(5):802-814.

The cause of autosomal-dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP), which leads to loss of vision and blindness, was investigated in families lacking a molecular diagnosis. A refined locus for adRP on Chr17q22 (RP17) was delineated through genotyping and genome sequencing, leading to the identification of structural variants (SVs) that segregate with disease. Eight different complex SVs were characterized in 22 adRP-affected families with >300 affected individuals. All RP17 SVs had breakpoints within a genomic region spanning YPEL2 to LINC01476. To investigate the mechanism of disease, we reprogrammed fibroblasts from affected individuals and controls into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and differentiated them into photoreceptor precursor cells (PPCs) or retinal organoids (ROs). Hi-C was performed on ROs, and differential expression of regional genes and a retinal enhancer RNA at this locus was assessed by qPCR. The epigenetic landscape of the region, and Hi-C RO data, showed that YPEL2 sits within its own topologically associating domain (TAD), rich in enhancers with binding sites for retinal transcription factors. The Hi-C map of RP17 ROs revealed creation of a neo-TAD with ectopic contacts between GDPD1 and retinal enhancers, and modeling of all RP17 SVs was consistent with neo-TADs leading to ectopic retinal-specific enhancer-GDPD1 accessibility. qPCR confirmed increased expression of GDPD1 and increased expression of the retinal enhancer that enters the neo-TAD. Altered TAD structure resulting in increased retinal expression of GDPD1 is the likely convergent mechanism of disease, consistent with a dominant gain of function. Our study highlights the importance of SVs as a genomic mechanism in unsolved Mendelian diseases.

RevDate: 2021-04-22
CmpDate: 2020-12-29

Akdemir KC, Le VT, Kim JM, et al (2020)

Somatic mutation distributions in cancer genomes vary with three-dimensional chromatin structure.

Nature genetics, 52(11):1178-1188.

Somatic mutations in driver genes may ultimately lead to the development of cancer. Understanding how somatic mutations accumulate in cancer genomes and the underlying factors that generate somatic mutations is therefore crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies. To understand the interplay between spatial genome organization and specific mutational processes, we studied 3,000 tumor-normal-pair whole-genome datasets from 42 different human cancer types. Our analyses reveal that the change in somatic mutational load in cancer genomes is co-localized with topologically-associating-domain boundaries. Domain boundaries constitute a better proxy to track mutational load change than replication timing measurements. We show that different mutational processes lead to distinct somatic mutation distributions where certain processes generate mutations in active domains, and others generate mutations in inactive domains. Overall, the interplay between three-dimensional genome organization and active mutational processes has a substantial influence on the large-scale mutation-rate variations observed in human cancers.

RevDate: 2020-10-17

Goel VY, AS Hansen (2020)

The macro and micro of chromosome conformation capture.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

The 3D organization of the genome facilitates gene regulation, replication, and repair, making it a key feature of genomic function and one that remains to be properly understood. Over the past two decades, a variety of chromosome conformation capture (3C) methods have delineated genome folding from megabase-scale compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs) down to kilobase-scale enhancer-promoter interactions. Understanding the functional role of each layer of genome organization is a gateway to understanding cell state, development, and disease. Here, we discuss the evolution of 3C-based technologies for mapping 3D genome organization. We focus on genomics methods and provide a historical account of the development from 3C to Hi-C. We also discuss ChIP-based techniques that focus on 3D genome organization mediated by specific proteins, capture-based methods that focus on particular regions or regulatory elements, 3C-orthogonal methods that do not rely on restriction digestion and proximity ligation, and methods for mapping the DNA-RNA and RNA-RNA interactomes. We consider the biological discoveries that have come from these methods, examine the mechanistic contributions of CTCF, cohesin, and loop extrusion to genomic folding, and detail the 3D genome field's current understanding of nuclear architecture. Finally, we give special consideration to Micro-C as an emerging frontier in chromosome conformation capture and discuss recent Micro-C findings uncovering fine-scale chromatin organization in unprecedented detail. This article is categorized under: Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Regulatory Mechanisms Gene Expression and Transcriptional Hierarchies > Gene Networks and Genomics.

RevDate: 2020-11-06
CmpDate: 2020-11-06

Xie WJ, Qi Y, B Zhang (2020)

Characterizing chromatin folding coordinate and landscape with deep learning.

PLoS computational biology, 16(9):e1008262.

Genome organization is critical for setting up the spatial environment of gene transcription, and substantial progress has been made towards its high-resolution characterization. The underlying molecular mechanism for its establishment is much less understood. We applied a deep-learning approach, variational autoencoder (VAE), to analyze the fluctuation and heterogeneity of chromatin structures revealed by single-cell imaging and to identify a reaction coordinate for chromatin folding. This coordinate connects the seemingly random structures observed in individual cohesin-depleted cells as intermediate states along a folding pathway that leads to the formation of topologically associating domains (TAD). We showed that folding into wild-type-like structures remain energetically favorable in cohesin-depleted cells, potentially as a result of the phase separation between the two chromatin segments with active and repressive histone marks. The energetic stabilization, however, is not strong enough to overcome the entropic penalty, leading to the formation of only partially folded structures and the disappearance of TADs from contact maps upon averaging. Our study suggests that machine learning techniques, when combined with rigorous statistical mechanical analysis, are powerful tools for analyzing structural ensembles of chromatin.

RevDate: 2021-03-03

Chan WF, Coughlan HD, Iannarella N, et al (2021)

Identification and characterization of the long noncoding RNA Dreg1 as a novel regulator of Gata3.

Immunology and cell biology, 99(3):323-332.

The eukaryotic genome is three-dimensionally segregated into discrete globules of topologically associating domains (TADs), within which numerous cis-regulatory elements such as enhancers and promoters interact to regulate gene expression. In this study, we identify a T-cell-specific sub-TAD containing the Gata3 locus, and reveal a previously uncharacterized long noncoding RNA (Dreg1) within a distant enhancer lying approximately 280 kb downstream of Gata3. Dreg1 expression is highly correlated with that of Gata3 during early immune system development and T helper type 2 cell differentiation. Inhibition and overexpression of Dreg1 suggest that it may be involved in the establishment, but not in the maintenance of Gata3 expression. Overall, we propose that Dreg1 is a novel regulator of Gata3 and may inform therapeutic strategies in diseases such allergy and lymphoma, where Gata3 has a pathological role.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Wang YXR, Sarkar P, Ursu O, et al (2019)


The annals of applied statistics, 13(3):1511-1536.

Chromosome conformation capture experiments such as Hi-C are used to map the three-dimensional spatial organization of genomes. One specific feature of the 3D organization is known as topologically associating domains (TADs), which are densely interacting, contiguous chromatin regions playing important roles in regulating gene expression. A few algorithms have been proposed to detect TADs. In particular, the structure of Hi-C data naturally inspires application of community detection methods. However, one of the drawbacks of community detection is that most methods take exchangeability of the nodes in the network for granted; whereas the nodes in this case, that is, the positions on the chromosomes, are not exchangeable. We propose a network model for detecting TADs using Hi-C data that takes into account this nonexchangeability. in addition, our model explicitly makes use of cell-type specific CTCF binding sites as biological covariates and can be used to identify conserved TADs across multiple cell types. The model leads to a likelihood objective that can be efficiently optimized via relaxation. We also prove that when suitably initialized, this model finds the underlying TAD structure with high probability. using simulated data, we show the advantages of our method and the caveats of popular community detection methods, such as spectral clustering, in this application. Applying our method to real Hi-C data, we demonstrate the domains identified have desirable epigenetic features and compare them across different cell types.

RevDate: 2021-03-23
CmpDate: 2021-01-11

Mitter M, Gasser C, Takacs Z, et al (2020)

Conformation of sister chromatids in the replicated human genome.

Nature, 586(7827):139-144.

The three-dimensional organization of the genome supports regulated gene expression, recombination, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation during mitosis. Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)1,2 analysis has revealed a complex genomic landscape of internal chromosomal structures in vertebrate cells3-7, but the identical sequence of sister chromatids has made it difficult to determine how they topologically interact in replicated chromosomes. Here we describe sister-chromatid-sensitive Hi-C (scsHi-C), which is based on labelling of nascent DNA with 4-thio-thymidine and nucleoside conversion chemistry. Genome-wide conformation maps of human chromosomes reveal that sister-chromatid pairs interact most frequently at the boundaries of topologically associating domains (TADs). Continuous loading of a dynamic cohesin pool separates sister-chromatid pairs inside TADs and is required to focus sister-chromatid contacts at TAD boundaries. We identified a subset of TADs that are overall highly paired and are characterized by facultative heterochromatin and insulated topological domains that form separately within individual sister chromatids. The rich pattern of sister-chromatid topologies and our scsHi-C technology will make it possible to investigate how physical interactions between identical DNA molecules contribute to DNA repair, gene expression, chromosome segregation, and potentially other biological processes.

RevDate: 2021-03-17

Miron E, Oldenkamp R, Brown JM, et al (2020)

Chromatin arranges in chains of mesoscale domains with nanoscale functional topography independent of cohesin.

Science advances, 6(39):.

Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin organization plays a key role in regulating mammalian genome function; however, many of its physical features at the single-cell level remain underexplored. Here, we use live- and fixed-cell 3D super-resolution and scanning electron microscopy to analyze structural and functional nuclear organization in somatic cells. We identify chains of interlinked ~200- to 300-nm-wide chromatin domains (CDs) composed of aggregated nucleosomes that can overlap with individual topologically associating domains and are distinct from a surrounding RNA-populated interchromatin compartment. High-content mapping uncovers confinement of cohesin and active histone modifications to surfaces and enrichment of repressive modifications toward the core of CDs in both hetero- and euchromatic regions. This nanoscale functional topography is temporarily relaxed in postreplicative chromatin but remarkably persists after ablation of cohesin. Our findings establish CDs as physical and functional modules of mesoscale genome organization.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Fu AX, Lui KN, Tang CS, et al (2020)

Whole-genome analysis of noncoding genetic variations identifies multiscale regulatory element perturbations associated with Hirschsprung disease.

Genome research, 30(11):1618-1632.

It is widely recognized that noncoding genetic variants play important roles in many human diseases, but there are multiple challenges that hinder the identification of functional disease-associated noncoding variants. The number of noncoding variants can be many times that of coding variants; many of them are not functional but in linkage disequilibrium with the functional ones; different variants can have epistatic effects; different variants can affect the same genes or pathways in different individuals; and some variants are related to each other not by affecting the same gene but by affecting the binding of the same upstream regulator. To overcome these difficulties, we propose a novel analysis framework that considers convergent impacts of different genetic variants on protein binding, which provides multiscale information about disease-associated perturbations of regulatory elements, genes, and pathways. Applying it to our whole-genome sequencing data of 918 short-segment Hirschsprung disease patients and matched controls, we identify various novel genes not detected by standard single-variant and region-based tests, functionally centering on neural crest migration and development. Our framework also identifies upstream regulators whose binding is influenced by the noncoding variants. Using human neural crest cells, we confirm cell stage-specific regulatory roles of three top novel regulatory elements on our list, respectively in the RET, RASGEF1A, and PIK3C2B loci. In the PIK3C2B regulatory element, we further show that a noncoding variant found only in the patients affects the binding of the gliogenesis regulator NFIA, with a corresponding up-regulation of multiple genes in the same topologically associating domain.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Serna-Pujol N, Salinas-Pena M, Mugianesi F, et al (2021)

TADs enriched in histone H1.2 strongly overlap with the B compartment, inaccessible chromatin, and AT-rich Giemsa bands.

The FEBS journal, 288(6):1989-2013.

Giemsa staining of metaphase chromosomes results in a characteristic banding useful for identification of chromosomes and its alterations. We have investigated in silico whether Giemsa bands (G bands) correlate with epigenetic and topological features of the interphase genome. Staining of G-positive bands decreases with GC content; nonetheless, G-negative bands are GC heterogeneous. High GC bands are enriched in active histone marks, RNA polymerase II, and SINEs and associate with gene richness, gene expression, and early replication. Low GC bands are enriched in repressive marks, lamina-associated domains, and LINEs. Histone H1 variants distribute heterogeneously among G bands: H1X is enriched at high GC bands and H1.2 is abundant at low GC, compacted bands. According to epigenetic features and H1 content, G bands can be organized in clusters useful to compartmentalize the genome. Indeed, we have obtained Hi-C chromosome interaction maps and compared topologically associating domains (TADs) and A/B compartments to G banding. TADs with high H1.2/H1X ratio strongly overlap with B compartment, late replicating, and inaccessible chromatin and low GC bands. We propose that GC content is a strong driver of chromatin compaction and 3D genome organization, that Giemsa staining recapitulates this organization denoted by high-throughput techniques, and that H1 variants distribute at distinct chromatin domains. DATABASES: Hi-C data on T47D breast cancer cells have been deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus and are accessible through GEO Series accession number GSE147627.

RevDate: 2021-03-15
CmpDate: 2021-03-15

Forcato M, S Bicciato (2021)

Computational Analysis of Hi-C Data.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2157:103-125.

The chromatin organization in the 3D nuclear space is essential for genome functionality. This spatial organization encompasses different topologies at diverse scale lengths with chromosomes occupying distinct volumes and individual chromosomes folding into compartments, inside which the chromatin fiber is packed in large domains (as the topologically associating domains, TADs) and forms short-range interactions (as enhancer-promoter loops). The widespread adoption of high-throughput techniques derived from chromosome conformation capture (3C) has been instrumental in investigating the nuclear organization of chromatin. In particular, Hi-C has the potential to achieve the most comprehensive characterization of chromatin 3D structures, as in principle it can detect any pair of restriction fragments connected as a result of ligation by proximity. However, the analysis of the enormous amount of genomic data produced by Hi-C techniques requires the application of complex, multistep computational procedures that may constitute a difficult task also for expert computational biologists. In this chapter, we describe the computational analysis of Hi-C data obtained from the lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878, detailing the processing of raw data, the generation and normalization of the Hi-C contact map, the detection of TADs and chromatin interactions, and their visualization and annotation.

RevDate: 2021-03-15
CmpDate: 2021-03-15

Di Stefano M, Castillo D, Serra F, et al (2021)

Analysis, Modeling, and Visualization of Chromosome Conformation Capture Experiments.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2157:35-63.

Chromatin Conformation Capture techniques have unveiled several layers of chromosome organization such as the segregation in compartments, the folding in topologically associating domains (TADs), and site-specific looping interactions. The discovery of this genome hierarchical organization emerged from the computational analysis of chromatin capture data. With the increasing availability of such data, automatic pipelines for the robust comparison, grouping, and classification of multiple experiments are needed. Here we present a pipeline based on the TADbit framework that emphasizes reproducibility, automation, quality check, and statistical robustness. This comprehensive modular pipeline covers all the steps from the sequencing products to the visualization of reconstructed 3D models of the chromatin.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Nath N, Hagenau L, Weiss S, et al (2020)

Genome-Wide DNA Alterations in X-Irradiated Human Gingiva Fibroblasts.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(16):.

While ionizing radiation (IR) is a powerful tool in medical diagnostics, nuclear medicine, and radiology, it also is a serious threat to the integrity of genetic material. Mutagenic effects of IR to the human genome have long been the subject of research, yet still comparatively little is known about the genome-wide effects of IR exposure on the DNA-sequence level. In this study, we employed high throughput sequencing technologies to investigate IR-induced DNA alterations in human gingiva fibroblasts (HGF) that were acutely exposed to 0.5, 2, and 10 Gy of 240 kV X-radiation followed by repair times of 16 h or 7 days before whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Our analysis of the obtained WGS datasets revealed patterns of IR-induced variant (SNV and InDel) accumulation across the genome, within chromosomes as well as around the borders of topologically associating domains (TADs). Chromosome 19 consistently accumulated the highest SNVs and InDels events. Translocations showed variable patterns but with recurrent chromosomes of origin (e.g., Chr7 and Chr16). IR-induced InDels showed a relative increase in number relative to SNVs and a characteristic signature with respect to the frequency of triplet deletions in areas without repetitive or microhomology features. Overall experimental conditions and datasets the majority of SNVs per genome had no or little predicted functional impact with a maximum of 62, showing damaging potential. A dose-dependent effect of IR was surprisingly not apparent. We also observed a significant reduction in transition/transversion (Ti/Tv) ratios for IR-dependent SNVs, which could point to a contribution of the mismatch repair (MMR) system that strongly favors the repair of transitions over transversions, to the IR-induced DNA-damage response in human cells. Taken together, our results show the presence of distinguishable characteristic patterns of IR-induced DNA-alterations on a genome-wide level and implicate DNA-repair mechanisms in the formation of these signatures.

RevDate: 2021-03-09
CmpDate: 2021-03-09

Zhang X, Lei F, Wang XM, et al (2020)

NULP1 Alleviates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Suppressing NFAT3 Transcriptional Activity.

Journal of the American Heart Association, 9(16):e016419.

Background The development of pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the coordination of a series of transcription activators and repressors, while their interplay to trigger pathological gene reprogramming remains unclear. NULP1 (nuclear localized protein 1) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and its biological functions in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are barely understood. Methods and Results Immunoblot and immunostaining analyses showed that NULP1 expression was consistently reduced in the failing hearts of patients and hypertrophic mouse hearts and rat cardiomyocytes. Nulp1 knockout exacerbates aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy pathology, which was significantly blunted by transgenic overexpression of Nulp1. Signal pathway screening revealed the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway to be dramatically suppressed by NULP1. Coimmunoprecipitation showed that NULP1 directly interacted with the topologically associating domain of NFAT3 via its C-terminal region, which was sufficient to suppress NFAT3 transcriptional activity. Inactivation of the NFAT pathway by VIVIT peptides in vivo rescued the aggravated pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy resulting from Nulp1 deficiency. Conclusions NULP1 is an endogenous suppressor of NFAT3 signaling under hypertrophic stress and thus negatively regulates the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Targeting overactivated NFAT by NULP1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

RevDate: 2020-10-23

Nanni L, Ceri S, C Logie (2020)

Spatial patterns of CTCF sites define the anatomy of TADs and their boundaries.

Genome biology, 21(1):197.

BACKGROUND: Topologically associating domains (TADs) are genomic regions of self-interaction. Additionally, it is known that TAD boundaries are enriched in CTCF binding sites. In turn, CTCF sites are known to be asymmetric, whereby the convergent configuration of a pair of CTCF sites leads to the formation of a chromatin loop in vivo. However, to date, it has been unclear how to reconcile TAD structure with CTCF-based chromatin loops.

RESULTS: We approach this problem by analysing CTCF binding site strengths and classifying clusters of CTCF sites along the genome on the basis of their relative orientation. Analysis of CTCF site orientation classes as a function of their spatial distribution along the human genome reveals that convergent CTCF site clusters are depleted while divergent CTCF clusters are enriched in the 5- to 100-kb range. We then analyse the distribution of CTCF binding sites as a function of TAD boundary conservation across seven primary human blood cell types. This reveals divergent CTCF site enrichment at TAD boundaries. Furthermore, convergent arrays of CTCF sites separate the left and right sections of TADs that harbour internal CTCF sites, resulting in unequal TAD 'halves'.

CONCLUSIONS: The orientation-based CTCF binding site cluster classification that we present reconciles TAD boundaries and CTCF site clusters in a mechanistically elegant fashion. This model suggests that the emergent structure of nuclear chromatin in the form of TADs relies on the obligate alternation of divergent and convergent CTCF site clusters that occur at different length scales along the genome.

RevDate: 2021-05-12
CmpDate: 2021-05-12

Khazeem MM, Cowell IG, Harkin LF, et al (2020)

Transcription of carbonyl reductase 1 is regulated by DNA topoisomerase II beta.

FEBS letters, 594(20):3395-3405.

DNA topoisomerase II beta (TOP2B) has a role in transcriptional regulation. Here, to further investigate transcriptional regulation by TOP2B, we used RNA-sequencing and real-time PCR to analyse the differential gene expression profiles of wild-type and two independent TOP2B-null pre-B Nalm-6 cell lines, one generated by targeted insertion and the other using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. We identified carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) among the most significantly downregulated genes in these TOP2B-null cells. Reduced CBR1 expression was accompanied by loss of binding of the transcription factors USF2 and MAX to the CBR1 promoter. We describe possible mechanisms by which loss of TOP2B results in CBR1 downregulation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a link between TOP2B and CBR1.

RevDate: 2020-10-23

Heurteau A, Perrois C, Depierre D, et al (2020)

Insulator-based loops mediate the spreading of H3K27me3 over distant micro-domains repressing euchromatin genes.

Genome biology, 21(1):193.

RevDate: 2021-05-10
CmpDate: 2021-05-10

Matthews BJ, DJ Waxman (2020)

Impact of 3D genome organization, guided by cohesin and CTCF looping, on sex-biased chromatin interactions and gene expression in mouse liver.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 13(1):30.

Several thousand sex-differential distal enhancers have been identified in mouse liver; however, their links to sex-biased genes and the impact of any sex-differences in nuclear organization and chromatin interactions are unknown. To address these issues, we first characterized 1847 mouse liver genomic regions showing significant sex differential occupancy by cohesin and CTCF, two key 3D nuclear organizing factors. These sex-differential binding sites were primarily distal to sex-biased genes but rarely generated sex-differential TAD (topologically associating domain) or intra-TAD loop anchors, and were sometimes found in TADs without sex-biased genes. A substantial subset of sex-biased cohesin-non-CTCF binding sites, but not sex-biased cohesin-and-CTCF binding sites, overlapped sex-biased enhancers. Cohesin depletion reduced the expression of male-biased genes with distal, but not proximal, sex-biased enhancers by >10-fold, implicating cohesin in long-range enhancer interactions regulating sex-biased genes. Using circularized chromosome conformation capture-based sequencing (4C-seq), we showed that sex differences in distal sex-biased enhancer-promoter interactions are common. Intra-TAD loops with sex-independent cohesin-and-CTCF anchors conferred sex specificity to chromatin interactions indirectly, by insulating sex-biased enhancer-promoter contacts and by bringing sex-biased genes into closer proximity to sex-biased enhancers. Furthermore, sex-differential chromatin interactions involving sex-biased gene promoters, enhancers, and lncRNAs were associated with sex-biased binding of cohesin and/or CTCF. These studies elucidate how 3D genome organization impacts sex-biased gene expression in a non-reproductive tissue through both direct and indirect effects of cohesin and CTCF looping on distal enhancer interactions with sex-differentially expressed genes.

RevDate: 2021-04-06
CmpDate: 2021-04-06

Liang M, Soomro A, Tasneem S, et al (2020)

Enhancer-gene rewiring in the pathogenesis of Quebec platelet disorder.

Blood, 136(23):2679-2690.

Quebec platelet disorder (QPD) is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder with a unique, platelet-dependent, gain-of-function defect in fibrinolysis, without systemic fibrinolysis. The hallmark feature of QPD is a >100-fold overexpression of PLAU, specifically in megakaryocytes. This overexpression leads to a >100-fold increase in platelet stores of urokinase plasminogen activator (PLAU/uPA); subsequent plasmin-mediated degradation of diverse α-granule proteins; and platelet-dependent, accelerated fibrinolysis. The causative mutation is a 78-kb tandem duplication of PLAU. How this duplication causes megakaryocyte-specific PLAU overexpression is unknown. To investigate the mechanism that causes QPD, we used epigenomic profiling, comparative genomics, and chromatin conformation capture approaches to study PLAU regulation in cultured megakaryocytes from participants with QPD and unaffected controls. QPD duplication led to ectopic interactions between PLAU and a conserved megakaryocyte enhancer found within the same topologically associating domain (TAD). Our results support a unique disease mechanism whereby the reorganization of sub-TAD genome architecture results in a dramatic, cell-type-specific blood disorder phenotype.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Danieli A, A Papantonis (2020)

Spatial genome architecture and the emergence of malignancy.

Human molecular genetics, 29(R2):R197-R204.

Human chromosomes are large spatially and hierarchically structured entities, the integrity of which needs to be preserved throughout the lifespan of the cell and in conjunction with cell cycle progression. Preservation of chromosomal structure is important for proper deployment of cell type-specific gene expression programs. Thus, aberrations in the integrity and structure of chromosomes will predictably lead to disease, including cancer. Here, we provide an updated standpoint with respect to chromatin misfolding and the emergence of various cancer types. We discuss recent studies implicating the disruption of topologically associating domains, switching between active and inactive compartments, rewiring of promoter-enhancer interactions in malignancy as well as the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms in non-coding regions involved in long-range regulatory interactions. In light of these findings, we argue that chromosome conformation studies may now also be useful for patient diagnosis and drug target discovery.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )