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Bibliography on: Topologically Associating Domains

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Jul 2024 at 01:57 Created: 

Topologically Associating Domains

"Recent studies have shown that chromosomes in a range of organisms are compartmentalized in different types of chromatin domains. In mammals, chromosomes form compartments that are composed of smaller Topologically Associating Domains (TADs). TADs are thought to represent functional domains of gene regulation but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of their formation and how they exert their regulatory effect on embedded genes. Further, similar domains have been detected in other organisms, including flies, worms, fungi and bacteria. Although in all these cases these domains appear similar as detected by 3C-based methods, their biology appears to be quite distinct with differences in the protein complexes involved in their formation and differences in their internal organization." QUOTE FROM: Dekker Job and Heard Edith (2015), Structural and functional diversity of Topologically Associating Domains, FEBS Letters, 589, doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2015.08.044

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "Topologically Associating Domains" OR "Topologically Associating Domain" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-07-15
CmpDate: 2024-07-15

Maisuradze L, King MC, Surovtsev IV, et al (2024)

Identifying topologically associating domains using differential kernels.

PLoS computational biology, 20(7):e1012221 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-23-01876.

Chromatin is a polymer complex of DNA and proteins that regulates gene expression. The three-dimensional (3D) structure and organization of chromatin controls DNA transcription and replication. High-throughput chromatin conformation capture techniques generate Hi-C maps that can provide insight into the 3D structure of chromatin. Hi-C maps can be represented as a symmetric matrix [Formula: see text], where each element represents the average contact probability or number of contacts between chromatin loci i and j. Previous studies have detected topologically associating domains (TADs), or self-interacting regions in [Formula: see text] within which the contact probability is greater than that outside the region. Many algorithms have been developed to identify TADs within Hi-C maps. However, most TAD identification algorithms are unable to identify nested or overlapping TADs and for a given Hi-C map there is significant variation in the location and number of TADs identified by different methods. We develop a novel method to identify TADs, KerTAD, using a kernel-based technique from computer vision and image processing that is able to accurately identify nested and overlapping TADs. We benchmark this method against state-of-the-art TAD identification methods on both synthetic and experimental data sets. We find that the new method consistently has higher true positive rates (TPR) and lower false discovery rates (FDR) than all tested methods for both synthetic and manually annotated experimental Hi-C maps. The TPR for KerTAD is also largely insensitive to increasing noise and sparsity, in contrast to the other methods. We also find that KerTAD is consistent in the number and size of TADs identified across replicate experimental Hi-C maps for several organisms. Thus, KerTAD will improve automated TAD identification and enable researchers to better correlate changes in TADs to biological phenomena, such as enhancer-promoter interactions and disease states.

RevDate: 2024-07-05
CmpDate: 2024-07-05

An J, Brik Chaouche R, Pereyra-Bistraín LI, et al (2024)

An atlas of the tomato epigenome reveals that KRYPTONITE shapes TAD-like boundaries through the control of H3K9ac distribution.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(28):e2400737121.

In recent years, the exploration of genome three-dimensional (3D) conformation has yielded profound insights into the regulation of gene expression and cellular functions in both animals and plants. While animals exhibit a characteristic genome topology defined by topologically associating domains (TADs), plants display similar features with a more diverse conformation across species. Employing advanced high-throughput sequencing and microscopy techniques, we investigated the landscape of 26 histone modifications and RNA polymerase II distribution in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Our study unveiled a rich and nuanced epigenetic landscape, shedding light on distinct chromatin states associated with heterochromatin formation and gene silencing. Moreover, we elucidated the intricate interplay between these chromatin states and the overall topology of the genome. Employing a genetic approach, we delved into the role of the histone modification H3K9ac in genome topology. Notably, our investigation revealed that the ectopic deposition of this chromatin mark triggered a reorganization of the 3D chromatin structure, defining different TAD-like borders. Our work emphasizes the critical role of H3K9ac in shaping the topology of the tomato genome, providing valuable insights into the epigenetic landscape of this agriculturally significant crop species.

RevDate: 2024-07-05

Mulero-Hernández J, Mironov V, Miñarro-Giménez JA, et al (2024)

Integration of chromosome locations and functional aspects of enhancers and topologically associating domains in knowledge graphs enables versatile queries about gene regulation.

Nucleic acids research pii:7706482 [Epub ahead of print].

Knowledge about transcription factor binding and regulation, target genes, cis-regulatory modules and topologically associating domains is not only defined by functional associations like biological processes or diseases but also has a determinative genome location aspect. Here, we exploit these location and functional aspects together to develop new strategies to enable advanced data querying. Many databases have been developed to provide information about enhancers, but a schema that allows the standardized representation of data, securing interoperability between resources, has been lacking. In this work, we use knowledge graphs for the standardized representation of enhancers and topologically associating domains, together with data about their target genes, transcription factors, location on the human genome, and functional data about diseases and gene ontology annotations. We used this schema to integrate twenty-five enhancer datasets and two domain datasets, creating the most powerful integrative resource in this field to date. The knowledge graphs have been implemented using the Resource Description Framework and integrated within the open-access BioGateway knowledge network, generating a resource that contains an interoperable set of knowledge graphs (enhancers, TADs, genes, proteins, diseases, GO terms, and interactions between domains). We show how advanced queries, which combine functional and location restrictions, can be used to develop new hypotheses about functional aspects of gene expression regulation.

RevDate: 2024-06-28
CmpDate: 2024-06-28

Murtaza G, Butaney B, Wagner J, et al (2024)

scGrapHiC: deep learning-based graph deconvolution for Hi-C using single cell gene expression.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 40(Supplement_1):i490-i500.

SUMMARY: Single-cell Hi-C (scHi-C) protocol helps identify cell-type-specific chromatin interactions and sheds light on cell differentiation and disease progression. Despite providing crucial insights, scHi-C data is often underutilized due to the high cost and the complexity of the experimental protocol. We present a deep learning framework, scGrapHiC, that predicts pseudo-bulk scHi-C contact maps using pseudo-bulk scRNA-seq data. Specifically, scGrapHiC performs graph deconvolution to extract genome-wide single-cell interactions from a bulk Hi-C contact map using scRNA-seq as a guiding signal. Our evaluations show that scGrapHiC, trained on seven cell-type co-assay datasets, outperforms typical sequence encoder approaches. For example, scGrapHiC achieves a substantial improvement of 23.2% in recovering cell-type-specific Topologically Associating Domains over the baselines. It also generalizes to unseen embryo and brain tissue samples. scGrapHiC is a novel method to generate cell-type-specific scHi-C contact maps using widely available genomic signals that enables the study of cell-type-specific chromatin interactions.

The GitHub link: contains the source code of scGrapHiC and associated scripts to preprocess publicly available datasets to produce the results and visualizations we have discuss in this manuscript.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Chen B, Ren C, Ouyang Z, et al (2024)

Stratifying TAD boundaries pinpoints focal genomic regions of regulation, damage, and repair.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 25(4):.

Advances in chromatin mapping have exposed the complex chromatin hierarchical organization in mammals, including topologically associating domains (TADs) and their substructures, yet the functional implications of this hierarchy in gene regulation and disease progression are not fully elucidated. Our study delves into the phenomenon of shared TAD boundaries, which are pivotal in maintaining the hierarchical chromatin structure and regulating gene activity. By integrating high-resolution Hi-C data, chromatin accessibility, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) data from various cell lines, we systematically explore the complex regulatory landscape at high-level TAD boundaries. Our findings indicate that these boundaries are not only key architectural elements but also vibrant hubs, enriched with functionally crucial genes and complex transcription factor binding site-clustered regions. Moreover, they exhibit a pronounced enrichment of DSBs, suggesting a nuanced interplay between transcriptional regulation and genomic stability. Our research provides novel insights into the intricate relationship between the 3D genome structure, gene regulation, and DNA repair mechanisms, highlighting the role of shared TAD boundaries in maintaining genomic integrity and resilience against perturbations. The implications of our findings extend to understanding the complexities of genomic diseases and open new avenues for therapeutic interventions targeting the structural and functional integrity of TAD boundaries.

RevDate: 2024-06-27
CmpDate: 2024-06-27

Zhu H, Liu T, Z Wang (2024)

C2c: Predicting Micro-C from Hi-C.

Genes, 15(6): pii:genes15060673.

MOTIVATION: High-resolution Hi-C data, capable of detecting chromatin features below the level of Topologically Associating Domains (TADs), significantly enhance our understanding of gene regulation. Micro-C, a variant of Hi-C incorporating a micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion step to examine interactions between nucleosome pairs, has been developed to overcome the resolution limitations of Hi-C. However, Micro-C experiments pose greater technical challenges compared to Hi-C, owing to the need for precise MNase digestion control and higher-resolution sequencing. Therefore, developing computational methods to derive Micro-C data from existing Hi-C datasets could lead to better usage of a large amount of existing Hi-C data in the scientific community and cost savings.

RESULTS: We developed C2c ("high" or upper case C to "micro" or lower case c), a computational tool based on a residual neural network to learn the mapping between Hi-C and Micro-C contact matrices and then predict Micro-C contact matrices based on Hi-C contact matrices. Our evaluation results show that the predicted Micro-C contact matrices reveal more chromatin loops than the input Hi-C contact matrices, and more of the loops detected from predicted Micro-C match the promoter-enhancer interactions. Furthermore, we found that the mutual loops from real and predicted Micro-C better match the ChIA-PET data compared to Hi-C and real Micro-C loops, and the predicted Micro-C leads to more TAD-boundaries detected compared to the Hi-C data. The website URL of C2c can be found in the Data Availability Statement.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Wong EWP, Sahin M, Yang R, et al (2024)

TAD hierarchy restricts poised LTR activation and loss of TAD hierarchy promotes LTR co-option in cancer.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.31.596845.

Transposable elements (TEs) are abundant in the human genome, and they provide the sources for genetic and functional diversity. The regulation of TEs expression and their functional consequences in physiological conditions and cancer development remain to be fully elucidated. Previous studies suggested TEs are repressed by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications. The effect of 3D chromatin topology on TE regulation remains elusive. Here, by integrating transcriptome and 3D genome architecture studies, we showed that haploinsufficient loss of NIPBL selectively activates alternative promoters at the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the TE subclasses. This activation occurs through the reorganization of topologically associating domain (TAD) hierarchical structures and recruitment of proximal enhancers. These observations indicate that TAD hierarchy restricts transcriptional activation of LTRs that already possess open chromatin features. In cancer, perturbation of the hierarchical chromatin topology can lead to co-option of LTRs as functional alternative promoters in a context-dependent manner and drive aberrant transcriptional activation of novel oncogenes and other divergent transcripts. These data uncovered a new layer of regulatory mechanism of TE expression beyond DNA and chromatin modification in human genome. They also posit the TAD hierarchy dysregulation as a novel mechanism for alternative promoter-mediated oncogene activation and transcriptional diversity in cancer, which may be exploited therapeutically.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Sun W, Xiong D, Ouyang J, et al (2024)

Altered chromatin topologies caused by balanced chromosomal translocation lead to central iris hypoplasia.

Nature communications, 15(1):5048.

Despite the advent of genomic sequencing, molecular diagnosis remains unsolved in approximately half of patients with Mendelian disorders, largely due to unclarified functions of noncoding regions and the difficulty in identifying complex structural variations. In this study, we map a unique form of central iris hypoplasia in a large family to 6q15-q23.3 and 18p11.31-q12.1 using a genome-wide linkage scan. Long-read sequencing reveals a balanced translocation t(6;18)(q22.31;p11.22) with intergenic breakpoints. By performing Hi-C on induced pluripotent stem cells from a patient, we identify two chromatin topologically associating domains spanning across the breakpoints. These alterations lead the ectopic chromatin interactions between APCDD1 on chromosome 18 and enhancers on chromosome 6, resulting in upregulation of APCDD1. Notably, APCDD1 is specifically localized in the iris of human eyes. Our findings demonstrate that noncoding structural variations can lead to Mendelian diseases by disrupting the 3D genome structure and resulting in altered gene expression.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Aharonoff A, Kim J, Washington A, et al (2024)

SMC-mediated dosage compensation in C. elegans evolved in the presence of an ancestral nematode mechanism.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.21.595224.

UNLABELLED: Mechanisms of X chromosome dosage compensation have been studied extensively in a few model species representing clades of shared sex chromosome ancestry. However, the diversity within each clade as a function of sex chromosome evolution is largely unknown. Here, we anchor ourselves to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans , for which a well-studied mechanism of dosage compensation occurs through a specialized structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complex, and explore the diversity of dosage compensation in the surrounding phylogeny of nematodes. Through phylogenetic analysis of the C. elegan s dosage compensation complex and a survey of its epigenetic signatures, including X-specific topologically associating domains (TADs) and X-enrichment of H4K20me1, we found that the condensin-mediated mechanism evolved recently in the lineage leading to Caenorhabditis through an SMC-4 duplication. Intriguingly, an independent duplication of SMC-4 and the presence of X-specific TADs in Pristionchus pacificus suggest that condensin-mediated dosage compensation arose more than once. mRNA-seq analyses of gene expression in several nematode species indicate that dosage compensation itself is ancestral, as expected from the ancient XO sex determination system. Indicative of the ancestral mechanism, H4K20me1 is enriched on the X chromosomes in Oscheius tipulae , which does not contain X-specific TADs or SMC-4 paralogs. Together, our results indicate that the dosage compensation system in C. elegans is surprisingly new, and condensin may have been co-opted repeatedly in nematodes, suggesting that the process of evolving a chromosome-wide gene regulatory mechanism for dosage compensation is constrained.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: X chromosome dosage compensation mechanisms evolved in response to Y chromosome degeneration during sex chromosome evolution. However, establishment of dosage compensation is not an endpoint. As sex chromosomes change, dosage compensation strategies may have also changed. In this study, we performed phylogenetic and epigenomic analyses surrounding Caenorhabditis elegans and found that the condensin-mediated dosage compensation mechanism in C. elegans is surprisingly new, and has evolved in the presence of an ancestral mechanism. Intriguingly, condensin-based dosage compensation may have evolved more than once in the nematode lineage, the other time in Pristionchus . Together, our work highlights a previously unappreciated diversity of dosage compensation mechanisms within a clade, and suggests constraints in evolving new mechanisms in the presence of an existing one.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Bhattacharya M, Lyda SF, EP Lei (2024)

Chromatin insulator mechanisms ensure accurate gene expression by controlling overall 3D genome organization.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 87:102208 pii:S0959-437X(24)00057-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Chromatin insulators are DNA-protein complexes that promote specificity of enhancer-promoter interactions and maintain distinct transcriptional states through control of 3D genome organization. In this review, we highlight recent work visualizing how mammalian CCCTC-binding factor acts as a boundary to dynamic DNA loop extrusion mediated by cohesin. We also discuss new studies in both mammals and Drosophila that elucidate biological redundancy of chromatin insulator function and interplay with transcription with respect to topologically associating domain formation. Finally, we present novel concepts in spatiotemporal regulation of chromatin insulator function during differentiation and development and possible consequences of disrupted insulator activity on cellular proliferation.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Zagirova D, Kononkova A, Vaulin N, et al (2024)

From compartments to loops: understanding the unique chromatin organization in neuronal cells.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 17(1):18.

The three-dimensional organization of the genome plays a central role in the regulation of cellular functions, particularly in the human brain. This review explores the intricacies of chromatin organization, highlighting the distinct structural patterns observed between neuronal and non-neuronal brain cells. We integrate findings from recent studies to elucidate the characteristics of various levels of chromatin organization, from differential compartmentalization and topologically associating domains (TADs) to chromatin loop formation. By defining the unique chromatin landscapes of neuronal and non-neuronal brain cells, these distinct structures contribute to the regulation of gene expression specific to each cell type. In particular, we discuss potential functional implications of unique neuronal chromatin organization characteristics, such as weaker compartmentalization, neuron-specific TAD boundaries enriched with active histone marks, and an increased number of chromatin loops. Additionally, we explore the role of Polycomb group (PcG) proteins in shaping cell-type-specific chromatin patterns. This review further emphasizes the impact of variations in chromatin architecture between neuronal and non-neuronal cells on brain development and the onset of neurological disorders. It highlights the need for further research to elucidate the details of chromatin organization in the human brain in order to unravel the complexities of brain function and the genetic mechanisms underlying neurological disorders. This research will help bridge a significant gap in our comprehension of the interplay between chromatin structure and cell functions.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Xu J, Xu X, Huang D, et al (2024)

A comprehensive benchmarking with interpretation and operational guidance for the hierarchy of topologically associating domains.

Nature communications, 15(1):4376.

Topologically associating domains (TADs), megabase-scale features of chromatin spatial architecture, are organized in a domain-within-domain TAD hierarchy. Within TADs, the inner and smaller subTADs not only manifest cell-to-cell variability, but also precisely regulate transcription and differentiation. Although over 20 TAD callers are able to detect TAD, their usability in biomedicine is confined by a disagreement of outputs and a limit in understanding TAD hierarchy. We compare 13 computational tools across various conditions and develop a metric to evaluate the similarity of TAD hierarchy. Although outputs of TAD hierarchy at each level vary among callers, data resolutions, sequencing depths, and matrices normalization, they are more consistent when they have a higher similarity of larger TADs. We present comprehensive benchmarking of TAD hierarchy callers and operational guidance to researchers of life science researchers. Moreover, by simulating the mixing of different types of cells, we confirm that TAD hierarchy is generated not simply from stacking Hi-C heatmaps of heterogeneous cells. Finally, we propose an air conditioner model to decipher the role of TAD hierarchy in transcription.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Sui P, Wang Z, Zhang P, et al (2024)

Three-dimensional chromatin landscapes in MLLr AML.

Experimental hematology & oncology, 13(1):56.

Rearrangements of the mixed lineage leukemia (MLLr) gene are frequently associated with aggressive acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the treatment options are limited due to the genomic complexity and dynamics of 3D structure, which regulate oncogene transcription and leukemia development. Here, we carried out an integrative analysis of 3D genome structure, chromatin accessibility, and gene expression in gene-edited MLL-AF9 AML samples. Our data revealed profound MLLr-specific alterations of chromatin accessibility, A/B compartments, topologically associating domains (TAD), and chromatin loops in AML. The local 3D configuration of the AML genome was rewired specifically at loci associated with AML-specific gene expression. Together, we demonstrate that MLL-AF9 fusion disrupts the 3D chromatin landscape, potentially contributing to the dramatic transcriptome remodeling in MLLr AML.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Moindrot B, Imaizumi Y, R Feil (2024)

Differential 3D genome architecture and imprinted gene expression: cause or consequence?.

Biochemical Society transactions pii:234465 [Epub ahead of print].

Imprinted genes provide an attractive paradigm to unravel links between transcription and genome architecture. The parental allele-specific expression of these essential genes - which are clustered in chromosomal domains - is mediated by parental methylation imprints at key regulatory DNA sequences. Recent chromatin conformation capture (3C)-based studies show differential organization of topologically associating domains between the parental chromosomes at imprinted domains, in embryonic stem and differentiated cells. At several imprinted domains, differentially methylated regions show allelic binding of the insulator protein CTCF, and linked focal retention of cohesin, at the non-methylated allele only. This generates differential patterns of chromatin looping between the parental chromosomes, already in the early embryo, and thereby facilitates the allelic gene expression. Recent research evokes also the opposite scenario, in which allelic transcription contributes to the differential genome organization, similarly as reported for imprinted X chromosome inactivation. This may occur through epigenetic effects on CTCF binding, through structural effects of RNA Polymerase II, or through imprinted long non-coding RNAs that have chromatin repressive functions. The emerging picture is that epigenetically-controlled differential genome architecture precedes and facilitates imprinted gene expression during development, and that at some domains, conversely, the mono-allelic gene expression also influences genome architecture.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Irastorza-Azcarate I, Kukalev A, Kempfer R, et al (2024)

Extensive folding variability between homologous chromosomes in mammalian cells.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.08.591087.

Genetic variation and 3D chromatin structure have major roles in gene regulation. Due to challenges in mapping chromatin conformation with haplotype-specific resolution, the effects of genetic sequence variation on 3D genome structure and gene expression imbalance remain understudied. Here, we applied Genome Architecture Mapping (GAM) to a hybrid mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) line with high density of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). GAM resolved haplotype-specific 3D genome structures with high sensitivity, revealing extensive allelic differences in chromatin compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), long-range enhancer-promoter contacts, and CTCF loops. Architectural differences often coincide with allele-specific differences in gene expression, mediated by Polycomb repression. We show that histone genes are expressed with allelic imbalance in mESCs, are involved in haplotype-specific chromatin contact marked by H3K27me3, and are targets of Polycomb repression through conditional knockouts of Ezh2 or Ring1b. Our work reveals highly distinct 3D folding structures between homologous chromosomes, and highlights their intricate connections with allelic gene expression.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Zhang B, Long Y, Pei L, et al (2024)

Drought response revealed by chromatin organization variation and transcriptional regulation in cotton.

BMC biology, 22(1):114.

BACKGROUND: Cotton is a major world cash crop and an important source of natural fiber, oil, and protein. Drought stress is becoming a restrictive factor affecting cotton production. To facilitate the development of drought-tolerant cotton varieties, it is necessary to study the molecular mechanism of drought stress response by exploring key drought-resistant genes and related regulatory factors.

RESULTS: In this study, two cotton varieties, ZY007 (drought-sensitive) and ZY168 (drought-tolerant), showing obvious phenotypic differences under drought stress, were selected. A total of 25,898 drought-induced genes were identified, exhibiting significant enrichment in pathways related to plant stress responses. Under drought induction, At subgenome expression bias was observed at the whole-genome level, which may be due to stronger inhibition of Dt subgenome expression. A gene co-expression module that was significantly associated with drought resistance was identified. About 90% of topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries were stable, and 6613 TAD variation events were identified between the two varieties under drought. We identified 92 genes in ZY007 and 98 in ZY168 related to chromatin 3D structural variation and induced by drought stress. These genes are closely linked to the cotton response to drought stress through canonical hormone-responsive pathways, modulation of kinase and phosphatase activities, facilitation of calcium ion transport, and other related molecular mechanisms.

CONCLUSIONS: These results lay a foundation for elucidating the molecular mechanism of the cotton drought response and provide important regulatory locus and gene resources for the future molecular breeding of drought-resistant cotton varieties.

RevDate: 2024-05-17
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Yuan T, Yan H, Bailey MLP, et al (2024)

Effect of loops on the mean-square displacement of Rouse-model chromatin.

Physical review. E, 109(4-1):044502.

Chromatin polymer dynamics are commonly described using the classical Rouse model. The subsequent discovery, however, of intermediate-scale chromatin organization known as topologically associating domains (TADs) in experimental Hi-C contact maps for chromosomes across the tree of life, together with the success of loop extrusion factor (LEF) model in explaining TAD formation, motivates efforts to understand the effect of loops and loop extrusion on chromatin dynamics. This paper seeks to fulfill this need by combining LEF-model simulations with extended Rouse-model polymer simulations to investigate the dynamics of chromatin with loops and dynamic loop extrusion. We show that loops significantly suppress the averaged mean-square displacement (MSD) of a gene locus, consistent with recent experiments that track fluorescently labeled chromatin loci. We also find that loops reduce the MSD's stretching exponent from the classical Rouse-model value of 1/2 to a loop-density-dependent value in the 0.45-0.40 range. Remarkably, stretching exponent values in this range have also been observed in recent experiments [Weber et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 238102 (2010)0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.238102; Bailey et al., Mol. Biol. Cell 34, ar78 (2023)1059-152410.1091/mbc.E23-04-0119]. We also show that the dynamics of loop extrusion itself negligibly affects chromatin mobility. By studying static "rosette" loop configurations, we also demonstrate that chromatin MSDs and stretching exponents depend on the location of the locus in question relative to the position of the loops and on the local friction environment.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Barozzi I, Slaven N, Canale E, et al (2024)

A functional survey of the regulatory landscape of estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer evolution.

Cancer discovery pii:745405 [Epub ahead of print].

Only a handful of somatic alterations have been linked to endocrine therapy resistance in hormone-dependent breast cancer (HDBC), potentially explaining ~40% of relapses. If other mechanisms underlie the evolution of HDBC under adjuvant therapy is currently unknown. In this work, we employ functional genomics to dissect the contribution of cis-regulatory elements (CREs) to cancer evolution by focusing on 12 megabases of non-coding DNA, including clonal enhancers, gene promoters, and boundaries of topologically associating domains. Parallel epigenetic perturbation (CRISPRi) in vitro reveals context-dependent roles for many of these CREs, with a specific impact on dormancy entrance and endocrine therapy resistance. Profiling of CRE somatic alterations in a unique, longitudinal cohort of patients treated with endocrine therapies identifies a limited set of non-coding changes potentially involved in therapy resistance. Overall, our data uncover how endocrine therapies triggers the emergence of transient features which could ultimately be exploited to hinder the adaptive process.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Semeigazin A, Iida S, Minami K, et al (2024)

Behaviors of nucleosomes with mutant histone H4s in euchromatic domains of living human cells.

Histochemistry and cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

Since Robert Feulgen first stained DNA in the cell, visualizing genome chromatin has been a central issue in cell biology to uncover how chromatin is organized and behaves in the cell. To approach this issue, we have developed single-molecule imaging of nucleosomes, a basic unit of chromatin, to unveil local nucleosome behavior in living cells. In this study, we investigated behaviors of nucleosomes with various histone H4 mutants in living HeLa cells to address the role of H4 tail acetylation, including H4K16Ac and others, which are generally associated with more transcriptionally active chromatin regions. We ectopically expressed wild-type (wt) or mutated H4s (H4K16 point; H4K5,8,12,16 quadruple; and H4 tail deletion) fused with HaloTag in HeLa cells. Cells that expressed wtH4-Halo, H4K16-Halo mutants, and multiple H4-Halo mutants had euchromatin-concentrated distribution. Consistently, the genomic regions of the wtH4-Halo nucleosomes corresponded to Hi-C contact domains (or topologically associating domains, TADs) with active chromatin marks (A-compartment). Utilizing single-nucleosome imaging, we found that none of the H4 deacetylation or acetylation mimicked H4 mutants altered the overall local nucleosome motion. This finding suggests that H4 mutant nucleosomes embedded in the condensed euchromatic domains with excess endogenous H4 nucleosomes cannot cause an observable change in the local motion. Interestingly, H4 with four lysine-to-arginine mutations displayed a substantial freely diffusing fraction in the nucleoplasm, whereas H4 with a truncated N-terminal tail was incorporated in heterochromatic regions as well as euchromatin. Our study indicates the power of single-nucleosome imaging to understand individual histone/nucleosome behavior reflecting chromatin environments in living cells.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Loke P, Zhao M, Jankovic D, et al (2024)

Genetic variation in IL-4 activated tissue resident macrophages alters the epigenetic state to determine strain specific synergistic responses to LPS.

Research square

How macrophages in the tissue environment integrate multiple stimuli will depend on the genetic background of the host, but this is poorly understood. Here, we investigated C57BL/6 and BALB/c strain specific in vivo IL-4 activation of tissue-resident macrophages (TRMs) from the peritoneal cavity. C57BL/6 TRMs are more transcriptionally responsive to IL-4 stimulation, with a greater association of induced genes with super enhancers, induced enhancers, and topologically associating domains (TAD) boundaries. IL-4-directed epigenomic remodeling revealed BL/6 specific enrichment of NF-κB, IRF, and STAT motifs. Additionally, IL-4-activated BL/6 TRMs demonstrated an augmented synergistic response upon in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure compared to BALB/c TRMs, despite naïve BALB/c TRMs displaying a more robust transcriptional response to LPS than naïve BL/6 TRMs. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) analysis of mixed bone marrow chimeric mice indicated that transcriptional differences between BL/6 and BALB/c TRMs, and synergy between IL-4 and LPS, are cell intrinsic within the same tissue environment. Hence, genetic variation alters IL-4-induced cell intrinsic epigenetic reprogramming resulting in strain specific synergistic responses to LPS exposure.

RevDate: 2024-05-05
CmpDate: 2024-05-05

Afanasyev AY, Kim Y, Tolokh IS, et al (2024)

The probability of chromatin to be at the nuclear lamina has no systematic effect on its transcription level in fruit flies.

Epigenetics & chromatin, 17(1):13.

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have demonstrated a negative correlation between gene expression and positioning of genes at the nuclear envelope (NE) lined by nuclear lamina, but the exact relationship remains unclear, especially in light of the highly stochastic, transient nature of the gene association with the NE.

RESULTS: In this paper, we ask whether there is a causal, systematic, genome-wide relationship between the expression levels of the groups of genes in topologically associating domains (TADs) of Drosophila nuclei and the probabilities of TADs to be found at the NE. To investigate the nature of this possible relationship, we combine a coarse-grained dynamic model of the entire Drosophila nucleus with genome-wide gene expression data; we analyze the TAD averaged transcription levels of genes against the probabilities of individual TADs to be in contact with the NE in the control and lamins-depleted nuclei. Our findings demonstrate that, within the statistical error margin, the stochastic positioning of Drosophila melanogaster TADs at the NE does not, by itself, systematically affect the mean level of gene expression in these TADs, while the expected negative correlation is confirmed. The correlation is weak and disappears completely for TADs not containing lamina-associated domains (LADs) or TADs containing LADs, considered separately. Verifiable hypotheses regarding the underlying mechanism for the presence of the correlation without causality are discussed. These include the possibility that the epigenetic marks and affinity to the NE of a TAD are determined by various non-mutually exclusive mechanisms and remain relatively stable during interphase.

CONCLUSIONS: At the level of TADs, the probability of chromatin being in contact with the nuclear envelope has no systematic, causal effect on the transcription level in Drosophila. The conclusion is reached by combining model-derived time-evolution of TAD locations within the nucleus with their experimental gene expression levels.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Liu C, Nagashima H, Fernando N, et al (2024)

A CTCF-binding site in the Mdm1-Il22-Ifng locus shapes cytokine expression profiles and plays a critical role in early Th1 cell fate specification.

Immunity pii:S1074-7613(24)00212-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Cytokine expression during T cell differentiation is a highly regulated process that involves long-range promoter-enhancer and CTCF-CTCF contacts at cytokine loci. Here, we investigated the impact of dynamic chromatin loop formation within the topologically associating domain (TAD) in regulating the expression of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin-22 (IL-22); these cytokine loci are closely located in the genome and are associated with complex enhancer landscapes, which are selectively active in type 1 and type 3 lymphocytes. In situ Hi-C analyses revealed inducible TADs that insulated Ifng and Il22 enhancers during Th1 cell differentiation. Targeted deletion of a 17 bp boundary motif of these TADs imbalanced Th1- and Th17-associated immunity, both in vitro and in vivo, upon Toxoplasma gondii infection. In contrast, this boundary element was dispensable for cytokine regulation in natural killer cells. Our findings suggest that precise cytokine regulation relies on lineage- and developmental stage-specific interactions of 3D chromatin architectures and enhancer landscapes.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Daly AF, A Beckers (2024)

The Genetic Pathophysiology and Clinical Management of the TADopathy, X-Linked Acrogigantism.

Endocrine reviews pii:7663320 [Epub ahead of print].

Pituitary gigantism is a rare manifestation of chronic growth hormone (GH) excess that begins before closure of the growth plates. Nearly half of pituitary gigantism patients have an identifiable genetic cause. X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG; 10% of pituitary gigantism) typically begins during infancy and can lead to the tallest individuals described. In the 10 years since its discovery, about 40 patients have been identified. Patients with X-LAG usually develop mixed GH and prolactin macroadenomas with occasional hyperplasia that secrete copious amounts of GH, and frequently prolactin. Circulating GH releasing hormone (GHRH) is also elevated in a proportion of patients. X-LAG is caused by constitutive or sporadic mosaic duplications at chromosome Xq26.3 that disrupt the normal chromatin architecture of a topologically associating domain (TAD) around the orphan G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR101. This leads to the formation of a neoTAD in which GPR101 over-expression is driven by ectopic enhancers ("TADopathy"). X-LAG has been seen in three families due to transmission of the duplication from affected mothers to sons. GPR101 is a constitutively active receptor with an unknown natural ligand that signals via multiple G proteins and protein kinases A and C to promote GH/prolactin hypersecretion. Treatment of X-LAG is challenging due to the young patient population and resistance to somatostatin analogs; the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant is often an effective option. GH, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and prolactin hypersecretion and physical overgrowth can be controlled before definitive adult gigantism occurs, often at the cost of permanent hypopituitarism.

RevDate: 2024-04-30
CmpDate: 2024-04-30

Liu H, Pan Z, Lin X, et al (2024)

A potassium-chloride co-transporter with altered genome architecture functions as a suppressor in glioma.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 28(9):e18352.

Gliomas, the most lethal tumours in brain, have a poor prognosis despite accepting standard treatment. Limited benefits from current therapies can be attributed to genetic, epigenetic and microenvironmental cues that affect cell programming and drive tumour heterogeneity. Through the analysis of Hi-C data, we identified a potassium-chloride co-transporter SLC12A5 associated with disrupted topologically associating domain which was downregulated in tumour tissues. Multiple independent glioma cohorts were included to analyse the characterization of SLC12A5 and found it was significantly associated with pathological features, prognostic value, genomic alterations, transcriptional landscape and drug response. We constructed two SLC12A5 overexpression cell lines to verify the function of SLC12A5 that suppressed tumour cell proliferation and migration in vitro. In addition, SLC12A5 was also positively associated with GABAA receptor activity and negatively associated with pro-tumour immune signatures and immunotherapy response. Collectively, our study provides a comprehensive characterization of SLC12A5 in glioma and supports SLC12A5 as a potential suppressor of disease progression.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Wang X, F Yue (2024)

Hijacked enhancer-promoter and silencer-promoter loops in cancer.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 86:102199 pii:S0959-437X(24)00048-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent work has shown that besides inducing fusion genes, structural variations (SVs) can also contribute to oncogenesis by disrupting the three-dimensional genome organization and dysregulating gene expression. At the chromatin-loop level, SVs can relocate enhancers or silencers from their original genomic loci to activate oncogenes or repress tumor suppressor genes. On a larger scale, different types of alterations in topologically associating domains (TADs) have been reported in cancer, such as TAD expansion, shuffling, and SV-induced neo-TADs. Furthermore, the transformation from normal cells to cancerous cells is usually coupled with active or repressive compartmental switches, and cancer-specific compartments have been proposed. This review discusses the sites, and the other latest advances in studying how SVs disrupt higher-order genome structure in cancer, which in turn leads to oncogene dysregulation. We also highlight the clinical implications of these changes and the challenges ahead in this field.

RevDate: 2024-04-26
CmpDate: 2024-04-26

Kuffler L, Skelly DA, Czechanski A, et al (2024)

Imputation of 3D genome structure by genetic-epigenetic interaction modeling in mice.

eLife, 12: pii:88222.

Gene expression is known to be affected by interactions between local genetic variation and DNA accessibility, with the latter organized into three-dimensional chromatin structures. Analyses of these interactions have previously been limited, obscuring their regulatory context, and the extent to which they occur throughout the genome. Here, we undertake a genome-scale analysis of these interactions in a genetically diverse population to systematically identify global genetic-epigenetic interaction, and reveal constraints imposed by chromatin structure. We establish the extent and structure of genotype-by-epigenotype interaction using embryonic stem cells derived from Diversity Outbred mice. This mouse population segregates millions of variants from eight inbred founders, enabling precision genetic mapping with extensive genotypic and phenotypic diversity. With 176 samples profiled for genotype, gene expression, and open chromatin, we used regression modeling to infer genetic-epigenetic interactions on a genome-wide scale. Our results demonstrate that statistical interactions between genetic variants and chromatin accessibility are common throughout the genome. We found that these interactions occur within the local area of the affected gene, and that this locality corresponds to topologically associated domains (TADs). The likelihood of interaction was most strongly defined by the three-dimensional (3D) domain structure rather than linear DNA sequence. We show that stable 3D genome structure is an effective tool to guide searches for regulatory elements and, conversely, that regulatory elements in genetically diverse populations provide a means to infer 3D genome structure. We confirmed this finding with CTCF ChIP-seq that revealed strain-specific binding in the inbred founder mice. In stem cells, open chromatin participating in the most significant regression models demonstrated an enrichment for developmental genes and the TAD-forming CTCF-binding complex, providing an opportunity for statistical inference of shifting TAD boundaries operating during early development. These findings provide evidence that genetic and epigenetic factors operate within the context of 3D chromatin structure.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Martitz A, EG Schulz (2024)

Spatial orchestration of the genome: topological reorganisation during X-chromosome inactivation.

Current opinion in genetics & development, 86:102198 pii:S0959-437X(24)00047-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Genomes are organised through hierarchical structures, ranging from local kilobase-scale cis-regulatory contacts to large chromosome territories. Most notably, (sub)-compartments partition chromosomes according to transcriptional activity, while topologically associating domains (TADs) define cis-regulatory landscapes. The inactive X chromosome in mammals has provided unique insights into the regulation and function of the three-dimensional (3D) genome. Concurrent with silencing of the majority of genes and major alterations of its chromatin state, the X chromosome undergoes profound spatial rearrangements at multiple scales. These include the emergence of megadomains, alterations of the compartment structure and loss of the majority of TADs. Moreover, the Xist locus, which orchestrates X-chromosome inactivation, has provided key insights into regulation and function of regulatory domains. This review provides an overview of recent insights into the control of these structural rearrangements and contextualises them within a broader understanding of 3D genome organisation.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Martins F, Machado AL, Ribeiro A, et al (2024)

KRAS silencing alters chromatin physical organization and transcriptional activity in colorectal cancer cells.

Research square

Clinical data revealed that KRAS mutant tumors, while initially sensitive to treatment, rapidly bypass KRAS dependence to acquire a drug-tolerant phenotype. However, the mechanisms underlying the transition from a drug-sensitive to a drug-tolerant state still elude us. Here, we show that global chromatin reorganization is a recurrent and specific feature of KRAS-dependent cells that tolerated KRAS silencing. We show that KRAS-dependent cells undergo G0/G1 cell cycle arrest after KRAS silencing, presenting a transcriptomic signature of quiescence. Proteomic analysis showed upregulated chromatin-associated proteins and transcription-associated biological processes. Accordingly, these cells shifted euchromatin/heterochromatin states, gained topologically associating domains, and altered the nanoscale physical organization of chromatin, more precisely by downregulating chromatin packing domains, a feature associated with the induction of quiescence. In addition, they also accumulated transcriptional alterations over time leading to a diversification of biological processes, linking chromatin alterations to transcriptional performance. Overall, our observations pinpoint a novel molecular mechanism of tolerance to KRAS oncogenic loss driven not by specific gene alterations but by global reorganization of genomic information, in which cells transition chromatin domain structure towards a more quiescent state and gain transcriptional reprogramming capacity.

RevDate: 2024-04-24

Banerjee A, Zhang S, I Bahar (2024)

Genome structural dynamics: insights from Gaussian network analysis of Hi-C data.

Briefings in functional genomics pii:7655813 [Epub ahead of print].

Characterization of the spatiotemporal properties of the chromatin is essential to gaining insights into the physical bases of gene co-expression, transcriptional regulation and epigenetic modifications. The Gaussian network model (GNM) has proven in recent work to serve as a useful tool for modeling chromatin structural dynamics, using as input high-throughput chromosome conformation capture data. We focus here on the exploration of the collective dynamics of chromosomal structures at hierarchical levels of resolution, from single gene loci to topologically associating domains or entire chromosomes. The GNM permits us to identify long-range interactions between gene loci, shedding light on the role of cross-correlations between distal regions of the chromosomes in regulating gene expression. Notably, GNM analysis performed across diverse cell lines highlights the conservation of the global/cooperative movements of the chromatin across different types of cells. Variations driven by localized couplings between genomic loci, on the other hand, underlie cell differentiation, underscoring the significance of the four-dimensional properties of the genome in defining cellular identity. Finally, we demonstrate the close relation between the cell type-dependent mobility profiles of gene loci and their gene expression patterns, providing a clear demonstration of the role of chromosomal 4D features in defining cell-specific differential expression of genes.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Baudic M, Murata H, Bosada FM, et al (2024)

TAD boundary deletion causes PITX2-related cardiac electrical and structural defects.

Nature communications, 15(1):3380.

While 3D chromatin organization in topologically associating domains (TADs) and loops mediating regulatory element-promoter interactions is crucial for tissue-specific gene regulation, the extent of their involvement in human Mendelian disease is largely unknown. Here, we identify 7 families presenting a new cardiac entity associated with a heterozygous deletion of 2 CTCF binding sites on 4q25, inducing TAD fusion and chromatin conformation remodeling. The CTCF binding sites are located in a gene desert at 1 Mb from the Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 gene (PITX2). By introducing the ortholog of the human deletion in the mouse genome, we recapitulate the patient phenotype and characterize an opposite dysregulation of PITX2 expression in the sinoatrial node (ectopic activation) and ventricle (reduction), respectively. Chromatin conformation assay performed in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes harboring the minimal deletion identified in family#1 reveals a conformation remodeling and fusion of TADs. We conclude that TAD remodeling mediated by deletion of CTCF binding sites causes a new autosomal dominant Mendelian cardiac disorder.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Farhadova S, Ghousein A, Charon F, et al (2024)

The long non-coding RNA Meg3 mediates imprinted gene expression during stem cell differentiation.

Nucleic acids research pii:7645245 [Epub ahead of print].

The imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 domain comprises the developmental genes Dlk1 and Rtl1, which are silenced on the maternal chromosome in different cell types. On this parental chromosome, the domain's imprinting control region activates a polycistron that produces the lncRNA Meg3 and many miRNAs (Mirg) and C/D-box snoRNAs (Rian). Although Meg3 lncRNA is nuclear and associates with the maternal chromosome, it is unknown whether it controls gene repression in cis. We created mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) that carry an ectopic poly(A) signal, reducing RNA levels along the polycistron, and generated Rian-/- mESCs as well. Upon ESC differentiation, we found that Meg3 lncRNA (but not Rian) is required for Dlk1 repression on the maternal chromosome. Biallelic Meg3 expression acquired through CRISPR-mediated demethylation of the paternal Meg3 promoter led to biallelic Dlk1 repression, and to loss of Rtl1 expression. lncRNA expression also correlated with DNA hypomethylation and CTCF binding at the 5'-side of Meg3. Using Capture Hi-C, we found that this creates a Topologically Associating Domain (TAD) organization that brings Meg3 close to Dlk1 on the maternal chromosome. The requirement of Meg3 for gene repression and TAD structure may explain how aberrant MEG3 expression at the human DLK1-DIO3 locus associates with imprinting disorders.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Xiong K, Zhang R, J Ma (2024)

scGHOST: identifying single-cell 3D genome subcompartments.

Nature methods [Epub ahead of print].

Single-cell Hi-C (scHi-C) technologies allow for probing of genome-wide cell-to-cell variability in three-dimensional (3D) genome organization from individual cells. Computational methods have been developed to reveal single-cell 3D genome features based on scHi-C, including A/B compartments, topologically associating domains and chromatin loops. However, no method exists for annotating single-cell subcompartments, which is important for understanding chromosome spatial localization in single cells. Here we present scGHOST, a single-cell subcompartment annotation method using graph embedding with constrained random walk sampling. Applications of scGHOST to scHi-C data and contact maps derived from single-cell 3D genome imaging demonstrate reliable identification of single-cell subcompartments, offering insights into cell-to-cell variability of nuclear subcompartments. Using scHi-C data from complex tissues, scGHOST identifies cell-type-specific or allele-specific subcompartments linked to gene transcription across various cell types and developmental stages, suggesting functional implications of single-cell subcompartments. scGHOST is an effective method for annotating single-cell 3D genome subcompartments in a broad range of biological contexts.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Funaya S, Takahashi Y, Suzuki MG, et al (2024)

H3.1/3.2 regulate the initial progression of the gene expression program.

Nucleic acids research pii:7639547 [Epub ahead of print].

In mice, transcription from the zygotic genome is initiated at the mid-one-cell stage, and occurs promiscuously in many areas of the genome, including intergenic regions. Regulated transcription from selected genes is established during the two-cell stage. This dramatic change in the gene expression pattern marks the initiation of the gene expression program and is essential for early development. We investigated the involvement of the histone variants H3.1/3.2 in the regulation of changes in gene expression pattern during the two-cell stage. Immunocytochemistry analysis showed low nuclear deposition of H3.1/3.2 in the one-cell stage, followed by a rapid increase in the late two-cell stage. Where chromatin structure is normally closed between the one- and two-cell stages, it remained open until the late two-cell stage when H3.1/3.2 were knocked down by small interfering RNA. Hi-C analysis showed that the formation of the topologically associating domain was disrupted in H3.1/3.2 knockdown (KD) embryos. Promiscuous transcription was also maintained in the late two-cell stage in H3.1/3.2 KD embryos. These results demonstrate that H3.1/3.2 are involved in the initial process of the gene expression program after fertilization, through the formation of a closed chromatin structure to execute regulated gene expression during the two-cell stage.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Ramírez-Cuéllar J, Ferrari R, Sanz RT, et al (2024)

LATS1 controls CTCF chromatin occupancy and hormonal response of 3D-grown breast cancer cells.

The EMBO journal [Epub ahead of print].

The cancer epigenome has been studied in cells cultured in two-dimensional (2D) monolayers, but recent studies highlight the impact of the extracellular matrix and the three-dimensional (3D) environment on multiple cellular functions. Here, we report the physical, biochemical, and genomic differences between T47D breast cancer cells cultured in 2D and as 3D spheroids. Cells within 3D spheroids exhibit a rounder nucleus with less accessible, more compacted chromatin, as well as altered expression of ~2000 genes, the majority of which become repressed. Hi-C analysis reveals that cells in 3D are enriched for regions belonging to the B compartment, have decreased chromatin-bound CTCF and increased fusion of topologically associating domains (TADs). Upregulation of the Hippo pathway in 3D spheroids results in the activation of the LATS1 kinase, which promotes phosphorylation and displacement of CTCF from DNA, thereby likely causing the observed TAD fusions. 3D cells show higher chromatin binding of progesterone receptor (PR), leading to an increase in the number of hormone-regulated genes. This effect is in part mediated by LATS1 activation, which favors cytoplasmic retention of YAP and CTCF removal.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Serra F, Nieto-Aliseda A, Fanlo-Escudero L, et al (2024)

p53 rapidly restructures 3D chromatin organization to trigger a transcriptional response.

Nature communications, 15(1):2821.

Activation of the p53 tumor suppressor triggers a transcriptional program to control cellular response to stress. However, the molecular mechanisms by which p53 controls gene transcription are not completely understood. Here, we uncover the critical role of spatio-temporal genome architecture in this process. We demonstrate that p53 drives direct and indirect changes in genome compartments, topologically associating domains, and DNA loops prior to one hour of its activation, which escort the p53 transcriptional program. Focusing on p53-bound enhancers, we report 340 genes directly regulated by p53 over a median distance of 116 kb, with 74% of these genes not previously identified. Finally, we showcase that p53 controls transcription of distal genes through newly formed and pre-existing enhancer-promoter loops in a cohesin dependent manner. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a previously unappreciated architectural role of p53 as regulator at distinct topological layers and provide a reliable set of new p53 direct target genes that may help designs of cancer therapies.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Li M, Yang J, Xiao R, et al (2024)

The effect of trisomic chromosomes on spatial genome organization and global transcription in embryonic stem cells.

Cell proliferation [Epub ahead of print].

Aneuploidy frequently occurs in cancer and developmental diseases such as Down syndrome, with its functional consequences implicated in dosage effects on gene expression and global perturbation of stress response and cell proliferation pathways. However, how aneuploidy affects spatial genome organization remains less understood. In this study, we addressed this question by utilizing the previously established isogenic wild-type (WT) and trisomic mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). We employed a combination of Hi-C, RNA-seq, chromosome painting and nascent RNA imaging technologies to compare the spatial genome structures and gene transcription among these cells. We found that trisomy has little effect on spatial genome organization at the level of A/B compartment or topologically associating domain (TAD). Inter-chromosomal interactions are associated with chromosome regions with high gene density, active histone modifications and high transcription levels, which are confirmed by imaging. Imaging also revealed contracted chromosome volume and weakened transcriptional activity for trisomic chromosomes, suggesting potential implications for the transcriptional output of these chromosomes. Our data resources and findings may contribute to a better understanding of the consequences of aneuploidy from the angle of spatial genome organization.

RevDate: 2024-03-19

Jeong D, Shi G, Li X, et al (2024)

Structural basis for the preservation of a subset of topologically associating domains in interphase chromosomes upon cohesin depletion.

eLife, 12: pii:88564.

Compartment formation in interphase chromosomes is a result of spatial segregation between euchromatin and heterochromatin on a few megabase pairs (Mbp) scale. On the sub-Mbp scales, topologically associating domains (TADs) appear as interacting domains along the diagonal in the ensemble averaged Hi-C contact map. Hi-C experiments showed that most of the TADs vanish upon deleting cohesin, while the compartment structure is maintained, and perhaps even enhanced. However, closer inspection of the data reveals that a non-negligible fraction of TADs is preserved (P-TADs) after cohesin loss. Imaging experiments show that, at the single-cell level, TAD-like structures are present even without cohesin. To provide a structural basis for these findings, we first used polymer simulations to show that certain TADs with epigenetic switches across their boundaries survive after depletion of loops. More importantly, the three-dimensional structures show that many of the P-TADs have sharp physical boundaries. Informed by the simulations, we analyzed the Hi-C maps (with and without cohesin) in mouse liver and human colorectal carcinoma cell lines, which affirmed that epigenetic switches and physical boundaries (calculated using the predicted 3D structures using the data-driven HIPPS method that uses Hi-C as the input) explain the origin of the P-TADs. Single-cell structures display TAD-like features in the absence of cohesin that are remarkably similar to the findings in imaging experiments. Some P-TADs, with physical boundaries, are relevant to the retention of enhancer-promoter/promoter-promoter interactions. Overall, our study shows that preservation of a subset of TADs upon removing cohesin is a robust phenomenon that is valid across multiple cell lines.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Wall BPG, Nguyen M, Harrell JC, et al (2024)

Machine and deep learning methods for predicting 3D genome organization.

ArXiv pii:2403.03231.

Three-Dimensional (3D) chromatin interactions, such as enhancer-promoter interactions (EPIs), loops, Topologically Associating Domains (TADs), and A/B compartments play critical roles in a wide range of cellular processes by regulating gene expression. Recent development of chromatin conformation capture technologies has enabled genome-wide profiling of various 3D structures, even with single cells. However, current catalogs of 3D structures remain incomplete and unreliable due to differences in technology, tools, and low data resolution. Machine learning methods have emerged as an alternative to obtain missing 3D interactions and/or improve resolution. Such methods frequently use genome annotation data (ChIP-seq, DNAse-seq, etc.), DNA sequencing information (k-mers, Transcription Factor Binding Site (TFBS) motifs), and other genomic properties to learn the associations between genomic features and chromatin interactions. In this review, we discuss computational tools for predicting three types of 3D interactions (EPIs, chromatin interactions, TAD boundaries) and analyze their pros and cons. We also point out obstacles of computational prediction of 3D interactions and suggest future research directions.

RevDate: 2024-03-15

Mizokami H, Okabe A, Choudhary R, et al (2024)

Enhancer infestation drives tumorigenic activation of inactive B compartment in Epstein-Barr virus-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EBioMedicine, 102:105057 pii:S2352-3964(24)00092-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignant epithelial tumor endemic to Southern China and Southeast Asia. While previous studies have revealed a low frequency of gene mutations in NPC, its epigenomic aberrations are not fully elucidated apart from DNA hypermethylation. Epigenomic rewiring and enhancer dysregulation, such as enhancer hijacking due to genomic structural changes or extrachromosomal DNA, drive cancer progression.

METHODS: We conducted Hi-C, 4C-seq, ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq analyses to comprehensively elucidate the epigenome and interactome of NPC using C666-1 EBV(+)-NPC cell lines, NP69T immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cells, clinical NPC biopsy samples, and in vitro EBV infection in HK1 and NPC-TW01 EBV(-) cell lines.

FINDINGS: In C666-1, the EBV genome significantly interacted with inactive B compartments of host cells; the significant association of EBV-interacting regions (EBVIRs) with B compartment was confirmed using clinical NPC and in vitro EBV infection model. EBVIRs in C666-1 showed significantly higher levels of active histone modifications compared with NP69T. Aberrant activation of EBVIRs after EBV infection was validated using in vitro EBV infection models. Within the EBVIR-overlapping topologically associating domains, 14 H3K4me3(+) genes were significantly upregulated in C666-1. Target genes of EBVIRs including PLA2G4A, PTGS2 and CITED2, interacted with the enhancers activated in EBVIRs and were highly expressed in NPC, and their knockdown significantly reduced cell proliferation.

INTERPRETATION: The EBV genome contributes to NPC tumorigenesis through "enhancer infestation" by interacting with the inactive B compartments of the host genome and aberrantly activating enhancers.

FUNDING: The funds are listed in the Acknowledgements section.

RevDate: 2024-03-14

Caruso M, Mazzatenta D, Asioli S, et al (2024)

Case report: Management of pediatric gigantism caused by the TADopathy, X-linked acrogigantism.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 15:1345363.

X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) is a rare form of pituitary gigantism that is associated with growth hormone (GH) and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas/pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) that develop in infancy. It is caused by a duplication on chromosome Xq26.3 that leads to the misexpression of the gene GPR101, a constitutively active stimulator of pituitary GH and prolactin secretion. GPR101 normally exists within its own topologically associating domain (TAD) and is insulated from surrounding regulatory elements. X-LAG is a TADopathy in which the duplication disrupts a conserved TAD border, leading to a neo-TAD in which ectopic enhancers drive GPR101 over-expression, thus causing gigantism. Here we trace the full diagnostic and therapeutic pathway of a female patient with X-LAG from 4C-seq studies demonstrating the neo-TAD through medical and surgical interventions and detailed tumor histopathology. The complex nature of treating young children with X-LAG is illustrated, including the achievement of hormonal control using a combination of neurosurgery and adult doses of first-generation somatostatin analogs.

RevDate: 2024-03-13

Plaisancié J, Chesneau B, Fares-Taie L, et al (2024)

Structural Variant Disrupting the Expression of the Remote FOXC1 Gene in a Patient with Syndromic Complex Microphthalmia.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(5): pii:ijms25052669.

Ocular malformations (OMs) arise from early defects during embryonic eye development. Despite the identification of over 100 genes linked to this heterogeneous group of disorders, the genetic cause remains unknown for half of the individuals following Whole-Exome Sequencing. Diagnosis procedures are further hampered by the difficulty of studying samples from clinically relevant tissue, which is one of the main obstacles in OMs. Whole-Genome Sequencing (WGS) to screen for non-coding regions and structural variants may unveil new diagnoses for OM individuals. In this study, we report a patient exhibiting a syndromic OM with a de novo 3.15 Mb inversion in the 6p25 region identified by WGS. This balanced structural variant was located 100 kb away from the FOXC1 gene, previously associated with ocular defects in the literature. We hypothesized that the inversion disrupts the topologically associating domain of FOXC1 and impairs the expression of the gene. Using a new type of samples to study transcripts, we were able to show that the patient presented monoallelic expression of FOXC1 in conjunctival cells, consistent with the abolition of the expression of the inverted allele. This report underscores the importance of investigating structural variants, even in non-coding regions, in individuals affected by ocular malformations.

RevDate: 2024-03-08

Pathak RU, Phanindhar K, RK Mishra (2023)

Transposable elements as scaffold/matrix attachment regions: shaping organization and functions in genomes.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 10:1326933 pii:1326933.

The hierarchical structure of eukaryotic genomes has regulatory layers, one of them being epigenetic "indexing" of the genome that leads to cell-type-specific patterns of gene expression. By establishing loops and defining chromatin domains, cells can achieve coordinated control over multi-locus segments of the genome. This is thought to be achieved using scaffold/matrix attachment regions (S/MARs) that establish structural and functional loops and topologically associating domains (TADs) that define a self-interacting region of the genome. Large-scale genome-wide mapping of S/MARs has begun to uncover these aspects of genome organization. A recent genome-wide study showed the association of transposable elements (TEs) with a significant fraction of S/MARs, suggesting that the multitude of TE-derived repeats constitute a class of anchorage sites of chromatin loops to nuclear architecture. In this study, we provide an insight that TE-driven dispersal of S/MARs has the potential to restructure the chromosomes by creating novel loops and domains. The combination of TEs and S/MARs, as elements that can hop through the genome along with regulatory capabilities, may provide an active mechanism of genome evolution leading to the emergence of novel features in biological systems. The significance is that a genome-wide study mapping developmental S/MARs reveals an intriguing link between these elements and TEs. This article highlights the potential of the TE-S/MAR combination to drive evolution by restructuring and shaping the genome.

RevDate: 2024-03-07

Kim KL, Rahme GJ, Goel VY, et al (2024)

Dissection of a CTCF topological boundary uncovers principles of enhancer-oncogene regulation.

Molecular cell pii:S1097-2765(24)00126-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Enhancer-gene communication is dependent on topologically associating domains (TADs) and boundaries enforced by the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) insulator, but the underlying structures and mechanisms remain controversial. Here, we investigate a boundary that typically insulates fibroblast growth factor (FGF) oncogenes but is disrupted by DNA hypermethylation in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The boundary contains an array of CTCF sites that enforce adjacent TADs, one containing FGF genes and the other containing ANO1 and its putative enhancers, which are specifically active in GIST and its likely cell of origin. We show that coordinate disruption of four CTCF motifs in the boundary fuses the adjacent TADs, allows the ANO1 enhancer to contact FGF3, and causes its robust induction. High-resolution micro-C maps reveal specific contact between transcription initiation sites in the ANO1 enhancer and FGF3 promoter that quantitatively scales with FGF3 induction such that modest changes in contact frequency result in strong changes in expression, consistent with a causal relationship.

RevDate: 2024-03-07

Liu E, Lyu H, Liu Y, et al (2024)

Identifying TAD-like domains on single-cell Hi-C data by graph embedding and changepoint detection.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:7623584 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Topologically associating domains (TADs) are fundamental building blocks of three-dimensional genome. TAD-like domains in single cells are regarded as the underlying genesis of TADs discovered in bulk cells. Understanding the organization of TAD-like domains helps to get deeper insights into their regulatory functions. Unfortunately, it remains a challenge to identify TAD-like domains on single-cell Hi-C data due to its ultra-sparsity.

RESULTS: We propose scKTLD, an in silico tool for the identification of TAD-like domains on single-cell Hi-C data. It takes Hi-C contact matrix as the adjacency matrix for a graph, embeds the graph structures into a low-dimensional space with the help of sparse matrix factorization followed by spectral propagation, and the TAD-like domains can be identified using a kernel-based changepoint detection in the embedding space. The results tell that our scKTLD is superior to the other methods on the sparse contact matrices, including downsampled bulk Hi-C data as well as simulated and experimental single-cell Hi-C data. Besides, we demonstrated the conservation of TAD-like domain boundaries at single-cell level apart from heterogeneity within and across cell types, and found that the boundaries with higher frequency across single cells are more enriched for architectural proteins and chromatin marks, and they preferentially occur at TAD boundaries in bulk cells, especially at those with higher hierarchical levels.

AVAILABILITY: scKTLD is freely available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2024-03-06

Liu Y, Zheng Z, Wang C, et al (2024)

Reorganization of 3D genome architecture provides insights into pathogenesis of early fatty liver disease in laying hens.

Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 15(1):40.

BACKGROUND: Fatty liver disease causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry due to its high occurrence and lethality rate. Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architecture takes part in disease processing by regulating transcriptional reprogramming. The study is carried out to investigate the alterations of hepatic 3D genome and H3K27ac profiling in early fatty liver (FLS) and reveal their effect on hepatic transcriptional reprogramming in laying hens.

RESULTS: Results show that FLS model is constructed with obvious phenotypes including hepatic visible lipid deposition as well as higher total triglyceride and cholesterol in serum. A/B compartment switching, topologically associating domain (TAD) and chromatin loop changes are identified by high-throughput/resolution chromosome conformation capture (HiC) technology. Targeted genes of these alternations in hepatic 3D genome organization significantly enrich pathways related to lipid metabolism and hepatic damage. H3K27ac differential peaks and differential expression genes (DEGs) identified through RNA-seq analysis are also enriched in these pathways. Notably, certain DEGs are found to correspond with changes in 3D chromatin structure and H3K27ac binding in their promoters. DNA motif analysis reveals that candidate transcription factors are implicated in regulating transcriptional reprogramming. Furthermore, disturbed folate metabolism is observed, as evidenced by lower folate levels and altered enzyme expression.

CONCLUSION: Our findings establish a link between transcriptional reprogramming changes and 3D chromatin structure variations during early FLS formation, which provides candidate transcription factors and folate as targets for FLS prevention or treatment.

RevDate: 2024-03-03

Fraile A, Cebrián J, Thuissard-Vasallo I, et al (2024)

Coexistent HCN4 and GATA5 rare variants and Atrial Fibrillation in a large Spanish Family.

The Canadian journal of cardiology pii:S0828-282X(24)00189-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Familial association of atrial fibrillation (AF) can involve single gene variants related to known arrhythmogenic mechanisms; however, genome-wide association studies often disclose complex genetic variants in familial and non-familial AF, making it difficult to relate to known pathogenetic mechanisms.

METHODS: The finding of 4 siblings with AF led to studying 47 members of a family. Long-term Holter monitoring (298 hours average) ruled out silent AFWhole-exome sequencing was performed and variants shared by the index cases were filtered and prioritized according to current recommendations. HCN4 currents (IHCN4) were recorded in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human p.P1163H and/or native Hcn4 channels using the patch-clamp technique and topologically associated domain analysis of GATA5 variant carriers were performed.

RESULTS: The clinical study diagnosed 2 more AF cases. Five family members carried the heterozygous p.P1163H, HCN4 variant, 14 the intronic 20,61040536,G,A GATA5 rare variant, and 9 carried both variants (HCN4+GATA5). Five of the 6 AF cases (onset age ranging 33-70 years) carried both variants and one the GATA5 variant alone. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of HCN4+GATA5 variants significantly and independently increased AF risk [OR=32.740 (1.812-591.408)] and not age, hypertension or overweight. Functional testing showed that IHcn4 generated by heterozygous p.P1163H were normal. Topologically associating domain analysis suggested that GATA5 could affect the expression of many genes, including those encoding microRNA-1.

CONCLUSION: The coincidence of two rare gene variants was independently associated with AF, but functional studies do not allow the postulation of the arrhythmogenic mechanism(s) involved.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Torres DE, Kramer HM, Tracanna V, et al (2024)

Implications of the three-dimensional chromatin organization for genome evolution in a fungal plant pathogen.

Nature communications, 15(1):1701.

The spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes is linked to their biological functions, although it is not clear how this impacts the overall evolution of a genome. Here, we uncover the three-dimensional (3D) genome organization of the phytopathogen Verticillium dahliae, known to possess distinct genomic regions, designated adaptive genomic regions (AGRs), enriched in transposable elements and genes that mediate host infection. Short-range DNA interactions form clear topologically associating domains (TADs) with gene-rich boundaries that show reduced levels of gene expression and reduced genomic variation. Intriguingly, TADs are less clearly insulated in AGRs than in the core genome. At a global scale, the genome contains bipartite long-range interactions, particularly enriched for AGRs and more generally containing segmental duplications. Notably, the patterns observed for V. dahliae are also present in other Verticillium species. Thus, our analysis links 3D genome organization to evolutionary features conserved throughout the Verticillium genus.

RevDate: 2024-02-14

Patta I, Zand M, Lee L, et al (2024)

Nuclear morphology is shaped by loop-extrusion programs.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

It is well established that neutrophils adopt malleable polymorphonuclear shapes to migrate through narrow interstitial tissue spaces[1-3]. However, how polymorphonuclear structures are assembled remains unknown[4]. Here we show that in neutrophil progenitors, halting loop extrusion-a motor-powered process that generates DNA loops by pulling in chromatin[5]-leads to the assembly of polymorphonuclear genomes. Specifically, we found that in mononuclear neutrophil progenitors, acute depletion of the loop-extrusion loading factor nipped-B-like protein (NIPBL) induced the assembly of horseshoe, banded, ringed and hypersegmented nuclear structures and led to a reduction in nuclear volume, mirroring what is observed during the differentiation of neutrophils. Depletion of NIPBL also induced cell-cycle arrest, activated a neutrophil-specific gene program and conditioned a loss of interactions across topologically associating domains to generate a chromatin architecture that resembled that of differentiated neutrophils. Removing NIPBL resulted in enrichment for mega-loops and interchromosomal hubs that contain genes associated with neutrophil-specific enhancer repertoires and an inflammatory gene program. On the basis of these observations, we propose that in neutrophil progenitors, loop-extrusion programs produce lineage-specific chromatin architectures that permit the packing of chromosomes into geometrically confined lobular structures. Our data also provide a blueprint for the assembly of polymorphonuclear structures, and point to the possibility of engineering de novo nuclear shapes to facilitate the migration of effector cells in densely populated tumorigenic environments.

RevDate: 2024-02-12

Liu S, Athreya A, Lao Z, et al (2024)

From Nucleosomes to Compartments: Physicochemical Interactions Underlying Chromatin Organization.

Annual review of biophysics [Epub ahead of print].

Chromatin organization plays a critical role in cellular function by regulating access to genetic information. However, understanding chromatin folding is challenging due to its complex, multiscale nature. Significant progress has been made in studying in vitro systems, uncovering the structure of individual nucleosomes and their arrays, and elucidating the role of physicochemical forces in stabilizing these structures. Additionally, remarkable advancements have been achieved in characterizing chromatin organization in vivo, particularly at the whole-chromosome level, revealing important features such as chromatin loops, topologically associating domains, and nuclear compartments. However, bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo studies remains challenging. The resemblance between in vitro and in vivo chromatin conformations and the relevance of internucleosomal interactions for chromatin folding in vivo are subjects of debate. This article reviews experimental and computational studies conducted at various length scales, highlighting the significance of intrinsic interactions between nucleosomes and their roles in chromatin folding in vivo. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biophysics, Volume 53 is May 2024. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2024-01-27

Nakamura T, Ueda J, Mizuno S, et al (2024)

Topologically associating domains define the impact of de novo promoter variants on autism spectrum disorder risk.

Cell genomics pii:S2666-979X(24)00001-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) studies of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have demonstrated the roles of rare promoter de novo variants (DNVs). However, most promoter DNVs in ASD are not located immediately upstream of known ASD genes. In this study analyzing WGS data of 5,044 ASD probands, 4,095 unaffected siblings, and their parents, we show that promoter DNVs within topologically associating domains (TADs) containing ASD genes are significantly and specifically associated with ASD. An analysis considering TADs as functional units identified specific TADs enriched for promoter DNVs in ASD and indicated that common variants in these regions also confer ASD heritability. Experimental validation using human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) showed that likely deleterious promoter DNVs in ASD can influence multiple genes within the same TAD, resulting in overall dysregulation of ASD-associated genes. These results highlight the importance of TADs and gene-regulatory mechanisms in better understanding the genetic architecture of ASD.

RevDate: 2024-01-23

Murtaza G, Jain A, Hughes M, et al (2023)

A Comprehensive Evaluation of Generalizability of Deep Learning-Based Hi-C Resolution Improvement Methods.

Genes, 15(1): pii:genes15010054.

Hi-C is a widely used technique to study the 3D organization of the genome. Due to its high sequencing cost, most of the generated datasets are of a coarse resolution, which makes it impractical to study finer chromatin features such as Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) and chromatin loops. Multiple deep learning-based methods have recently been proposed to increase the resolution of these datasets by imputing Hi-C reads (typically called upscaling). However, the existing works evaluate these methods on either synthetically downsampled datasets, or a small subset of experimentally generated sparse Hi-C datasets, making it hard to establish their generalizability in the real-world use case. We present our framework-Hi-CY-that compares existing Hi-C resolution upscaling methods on seven experimentally generated low-resolution Hi-C datasets belonging to various levels of read sparsities originating from three cell lines on a comprehensive set of evaluation metrics. Hi-CY also includes four downstream analysis tasks, such as TAD and chromatin loops recall, to provide a thorough report on the generalizability of these methods. We observe that existing deep learning methods fail to generalize to experimentally generated sparse Hi-C datasets, showing a performance reduction of up to 57%. As a potential solution, we find that retraining deep learning-based methods with experimentally generated Hi-C datasets improves performance by up to 31%. More importantly, Hi-CY shows that even with retraining, the existing deep learning-based methods struggle to recover biological features such as chromatin loops and TADs when provided with sparse Hi-C datasets. Our study, through the Hi-CY framework, highlights the need for rigorous evaluation in the future. We identify specific avenues for improvements in the current deep learning-based Hi-C upscaling methods, including but not limited to using experimentally generated datasets for training.

RevDate: 2024-01-20

Wahl N, Espeso-Gil S, Chietera P, et al (2024)

SATB2 organizes the 3D genome architecture of cognition in cortical neurons.

Molecular cell pii:S1097-2765(23)01070-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The DNA-binding protein SATB2 is genetically linked to human intelligence. We studied its influence on the three-dimensional (3D) epigenome by mapping chromatin interactions and accessibility in control versus SATB2-deficient cortical neurons. We find that SATB2 affects the chromatin looping between enhancers and promoters of neuronal-activity-regulated genes, thus influencing their expression. It also alters A/B compartments, topologically associating domains, and frequently interacting regions. Genes linked to SATB2-dependent 3D genome changes are implicated in highly specialized neuronal functions and contribute to cognitive ability and risk for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Non-coding DNA regions with a SATB2-dependent structure are enriched for common variants associated with educational attainment, intelligence, and schizophrenia. Our data establish SATB2 as a cell-type-specific 3D genome modulator, which operates both independently and in cooperation with CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) to set up the chromatin landscape of pyramidal neurons for cognitive processes.

RevDate: 2024-01-18

Hung TC, Kingsley DM, AN Boettiger (2024)

Boundary stacking interactions enable cross-TAD enhancer-promoter communication during limb development.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Although promoters and their enhancers are frequently contained within a topologically associating domain (TAD), some developmentally important genes have their promoter and enhancers within different TADs. Hypotheses about molecular mechanisms enabling cross-TAD interactions remain to be assessed. To test these hypotheses, we used optical reconstruction of chromatin architecture to characterize the conformations of the Pitx1 locus on single chromosomes in developing mouse limbs. Our data support a model in which neighboring boundaries are stacked as a result of loop extrusion, bringing boundary-proximal cis-elements into contact. This stacking interaction also contributes to the appearance of architectural stripes in the population average maps. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we found that increasing boundary strengths facilitates the formation of the stacked boundary conformation, counter-intuitively facilitating border bypass. This work provides a revised view of the TAD borders' function, both facilitating and preventing cis-regulatory interactions, and introduces a framework to distinguish border-crossing from border-respecting enhancer-promoter pairs.

RevDate: 2024-01-13

Hua D, Gu M, Zhang X, et al (2024)

DiffDomain enables identification of structurally reorganized topologically associating domains.

Nature communications, 15(1):502.

Topologically associating domains (TADs) are critical structural units in three-dimensional genome organization of mammalian genome. Dynamic reorganizations of TADs between health and disease states are associated with essential genome functions. However, computational methods for identifying reorganized TADs are still in the early stages of development. Here, we present DiffDomain, an algorithm leveraging high-dimensional random matrix theory to identify structurally reorganized TADs using high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) contact maps. Method comparison using multiple real Hi-C datasets reveals that DiffDomain outperforms alternative methods for false positive rates, true positive rates, and identifying a new subtype of reorganized TADs. Applying DiffDomain to Hi-C data from different cell types and disease states demonstrates its biological relevance. Identified reorganized TADs are associated with structural variations and epigenomic changes such as changes in CTCF binding sites. By applying to a single-cell Hi-C data from mouse neuronal development, DiffDomain can identify reorganized TADs between cell types with reasonable reproducibility using pseudo-bulk Hi-C data from as few as 100 cells per condition. Moreover, DiffDomain reveals differential cell-to-population variability and heterogeneous cell-to-cell variability in TADs. Therefore, DiffDomain is a statistically sound method for better comparative analysis of TADs using both Hi-C and single-cell Hi-C data.

RevDate: 2024-01-12

Rosen J, Lee L, Abnousi A, et al (2023)

HPTAD: A computational method to identify topologically associating domains from HiChIP and PLAC-seq datasets.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:931-939.

High-throughput chromatin conformation capture technologies, such as Hi-C and Micro-C, have enabled genome-wide view of chromatin spatial organization. Most recently, Hi-C-derived enrichment-based technologies, including HiChIP and PLAC-seq, offer attractive alternatives due to their high signal-to-noise ratio and low cost. While a series of computational tools have been developed for Hi-C data, methods tailored for HiChIP and PLAC-seq data are still under development. Here we present HPTAD, a computational method to identify topologically associating domains (TADs) from HiChIP and PLAC-seq data. We performed comprehensive benchmark analysis to demonstrate its superior performance over existing TAD callers designed for Hi-C data. HPTAD is freely available at

RevDate: 2024-01-11

Zhang M, Huang H, Li J, et al (2024)

ZNF143 deletion alters enhancer/promoter looping and CTCF/cohesin geometry.

Cell reports, 43(1):113663 pii:S2211-1247(23)01674-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The transcription factor ZNF143 contains a central domain of seven zinc fingers in a tandem array and is involved in 3D genome construction. However, the mechanism by which ZNF143 functions in chromatin looping remains unclear. Here, we show that ZNF143 directionally recognizes a diverse range of genomic sites directly within enhancers and promoters and is required for chromatin looping between these sites. In addition, ZNF143 is located between CTCF and cohesin at numerous CTCF sites, and ZNF143 removal narrows the space between CTCF and cohesin. Moreover, genetic deletion of ZNF143, in conjunction with acute CTCF degradation, reveals that ZNF143 and CTCF collaborate to regulate higher-order topological chromatin organization. Finally, CTCF depletion enlarges direct ZNF143 chromatin looping. Thus, ZNF143 is recruited by CTCF to the CTCF sites to regulate CTCF/cohesin configuration and TAD (topologically associating domain) formation, whereas directional recognition of genomic DNA motifs directly by ZNF143 itself regulates promoter activity via chromatin looping.

RevDate: 2024-01-11

Tang B, Wang X, He H, et al (2024)

Aging-disturbed FUS phase transition impairs hematopoietic stem cells by altering chromatin structure.

Blood, 143(2):124-138.

Aged hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit compromised reconstitution capacity. The molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not fully understood. Here, we observed that the expression of FUS is increased in aged HSCs, and enforced FUS recapitulates the phenotype of aged HSCs through arginine-glycine-glycine-mediated aberrant FUS phase transition. By using Fus-gfp mice, we observed that FUShigh HSCs exhibit compromised FUS mobility and resemble aged HSCs both functionally and transcriptionally. The percentage of FUShigh HSCs is increased upon physiological aging and replication stress, and FUSlow HSCs of aged mice exhibit youthful function. Mechanistically, FUShigh HSCs exhibit a different global chromatin organization compared with FUSlow HSCs, which is observed in aged HSCs. Many topologically associating domains (TADs) are merged in aged HSCs because of the compromised binding of CCCTC-binding factor with chromatin, which is invoked by aberrant FUS condensates. It is notable that the transcriptional alteration between FUShigh and FUSlow HSCs originates from the merged TADs and is enriched in HSC aging-related genes. Collectively, this study reveals for the first time that aberrant FUS mobility promotes HSC aging by altering chromatin structure.

RevDate: 2024-01-03

Li Y, Xiao P, Boadu F, et al (2023)

The counterpart congenital overgrowth syndromes Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome in human and large offspring syndrome in bovine involve alterations in DNA methylation, transcription, and chromatin configuration.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences pii:2023.12.14.23299981.

Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS, OMIM #130650) is a congenital epigenetic disorder in humans which affects approximately 1 in 10,340 children. The incidence is likely an underestimation as the condition is usually recognized based on observable phenotypes at birth. BWS children have up to a 28% risk of developing tumors and currently, only 80% of patients can be corroborated molecularly (epimutations/variants). It is unknown how the subtypes of this condition are molecularly similar/dissimilar globally, therefore there is a need to deeply characterize the syndrome at the molecular level. Here we characterize the methylome, transcriptome and chromatin configuration of 18 BWS individuals together with the animal model of the condition, the bovine large offspring syndrome (LOS). Sex specific comparisons are performed for a subset of the BWS patients and LOS. Given that this epigenetic overgrowth syndrome has been characterized as a loss-of-imprinting condition, parental allele-specific comparisons were performed using the bovine animal model. In general, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) detected in BWS and LOS showed significant enrichment for CTCF binding sites. Altered chromosome compartments in BWS and LOS were positively correlated with gene expression changes, and the promoters of differentially expressed genes showed significant enrichment for DMRs, differential topologically associating domains, and differential A/B compartments in some comparisons of BWS subtypes and LOS. We show shared regions of dysregulation between BWS and LOS, including several HOX gene clusters, and also demonstrate that altered DNA methylation differs between the clinically epigenetically identified BWS patients and those identified as having DNA variants (i.e. CDKN1C microdeletion). Lastly, we highlight additional genes and genomic regions that have the potential to serve as targets for biomarker development to improve current molecular methodologies. In summary, our results suggest that genome-wide alternation of chromosome architecture, which is partially caused by DNA methylation changes, also contribute to the development of BWS and LOS.

RevDate: 2024-01-03

Sun L, Zhou J, Xu X, et al (2024)

Mapping nucleosome-resolution chromatin organization and enhancer-promoter loops in plants using Micro-C-XL.

Nature communications, 15(1):35.

Although chromatin organizations in plants have been dissected at the scales of compartments and topologically associating domain (TAD)-like domains, there remains a gap in resolving fine-scale structures. Here, we use Micro-C-XL, a high-throughput chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C)-based technology that involves micrococcal nuclease (instead of restriction enzymes) and long cross-linkers, to dissect single nucleosome-resolution chromatin organization in Arabidopsis. Insulation analysis reveals more than 14,000 boundaries, which mostly include chromatin accessibility, epigenetic modifications, and transcription factors. Micro-C-XL reveals associations between RNA Pols and local chromatin organizations, suggesting that gene transcription substantially contributes to the establishment of local chromatin domains. By perturbing Pol II both genetically and chemically at the gene level, we confirm its function in regulating chromatin organization. Visible loops and stripes are assigned to super-enhancers and their targeted genes, thus providing direct insights for the identification and mechanistic analysis of distal CREs and their working modes in plants. We further investigate possible factors regulating these chromatin loops. Subsequently, we expand Micro-C-XL to soybean and rice. In summary, we use Micro-C-XL for analyses of plants, which reveal fine-scale chromatin organization and enhancer-promoter loops and provide insights regarding three-dimensional genomes in plants.

RevDate: 2023-12-22

Malachowski T, Chandradoss KR, Boya R, et al (2023)

Spatially coordinated heterochromatinization of long synaptic genes in fragile X syndrome.

Cell, 186(26):5840-5858.e36.

Short tandem repeat (STR) instability causes transcriptional silencing in several repeat expansion disorders. In fragile X syndrome (FXS), mutation-length expansion of a CGG STR represses FMR1 via local DNA methylation. Here, we find megabase-scale H3K9me3 domains on autosomes and encompassing FMR1 on the X chromosome in FXS patient-derived iPSCs, iPSC-derived neural progenitors, EBV-transformed lymphoblasts, and brain tissue with mutation-length CGG expansion. H3K9me3 domains connect via inter-chromosomal interactions and demarcate severe misfolding of TADs and loops. They harbor long synaptic genes replicating at the end of S phase, replication-stress-induced double-strand breaks, and STRs prone to stepwise somatic instability. CRISPR engineering of the mutation-length CGG to premutation length reverses H3K9me3 on the X chromosome and multiple autosomes, refolds TADs, and restores gene expression. H3K9me3 domains can also arise in normal-length iPSCs created with perturbations linked to genome instability, suggesting their relevance beyond FXS. Our results reveal Mb-scale heterochromatinization and trans interactions among loci susceptible to instability.

RevDate: 2023-12-21

Jessberger G, Várnai C, Stocsits RR, et al (2023)

Cohesin and CTCF do not assemble TADs in Xenopus sperm and male pronuclei.

Genome research pii:gr.277865.123 [Epub ahead of print].

Paternal genomes are compacted during spermiogenesis and decompacted following fertilization. These processes are fundamental for inheritance but incompletely understood. We analyzed these processes in the frog Xenopus laevis, whose sperm can be assembled into functional pronuclei in egg extracts in vitro. In such extracts, cohesin extrudes DNA into loops, but in vivo cohesin only assembles topologically associating domains (TADs) at the mid-blastula transition (MBT). Why cohesin assembles TADs only at this stage is unknown. We first analyzed genome architecture in frog sperm and compared it to human and mouse. Our results indicate that sperm genome organization is conserved between frogs and humans and occurs without formation of TADs. TADs can be detected in mouse sperm samples, as reported, but these structures might originate from somatic chromatin contaminations. We therefore discuss the possibility that the absence of TADs might be a general feature of vertebrate sperm. To analyze sperm genome remodeling upon fertilization, we reconstituted male pronuclei in Xenopus egg extracts. In pronuclei, chromatin compartmentalization increases, but cohesin does not accumulate at CTCF sites and assemble TADs. However, if pronuclei are formed in the presence of exogenous CTCF, CTCF binds to its consensus sites, and cohesin accumulates at these and forms short-range chromatin loops, which are preferentially anchored at CTCF's N terminus. These results indicate that TADs are only assembled at MBT because before this stage CTCF sites are not occupied and cohesin only forms short-range chromatin loops.

RevDate: 2023-12-15

Xiao M, Kondo S, Nomura M, et al (2023)

BRD9 determines the cell fate of hematopoietic stem cells by regulating chromatin state.

Nature communications, 14(1):8372.

ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complexes exist in three subcomplexes: canonical BAF (cBAF), polybromo BAF (PBAF), and a newly described non-canonical BAF (ncBAF). While cBAF and PBAF regulate fates of multiple cell types, roles for ncBAF in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have not been investigated. Motivated by recent discovery of disrupted expression of BRD9, an essential component of ncBAF, in multiple cancers, including clonal hematopoietic disorders, we evaluate here the role of BRD9 in normal and malignant HSCs. BRD9 loss enhances chromatin accessibility, promoting myeloid lineage skewing while impairing B cell development. BRD9 significantly colocalizes with CTCF, whose chromatin recruitment is augmented by BRD9 loss, leading to altered chromatin state and expression of myeloid-related genes within intact topologically associating domains. These data uncover ncBAF as critical for cell fate specification in HSCs via three-dimensional regulation of gene expression and illuminate roles for ncBAF in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

RevDate: 2023-12-13

Fok ET, Moorlag SJCFM, Negishi Y, et al (2023)

A chromatin-regulated biphasic circuit coordinates IL-1β-mediated inflammation.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammation is characterized by a biphasic cycle consisting initially of a proinflammatory phase that is subsequently resolved by anti-inflammatory processes. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a master regulator of proinflammation and is encoded within the same topologically associating domain (TAD) as IL-37, which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that opposes the function of IL-1β. Within this TAD, we identified a long noncoding RNA called AMANZI, which negatively regulates IL-1β expression and trained immunity through the induction of IL37 transcription. We found that the activation of IL37 occurs through the formation of a dynamic long-range chromatin contact that leads to the temporal delay of anti-inflammatory responses. The common variant rs16944 present in AMANZI augments this regulatory circuit, predisposing individuals to enhanced proinflammation or immunosuppression. Our work illuminates a chromatin-mediated biphasic circuit coordinating expression of IL-1β and IL-37, thereby regulating two functionally opposed states of inflammation from within a single TAD.

RevDate: 2023-12-12

Balasubramanian D, Borges Pinto P, Grasso A, et al (2023)

Enhancer-promoter interactions can form independently of genomic distance and be functional across TAD boundaries.

Nucleic acids research pii:7469969 [Epub ahead of print].

Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) have been suggested to facilitate and constrain enhancer-promoter interactions. However, the role of TAD boundaries in effectively restricting these interactions remains unclear. Here, we show that a significant proportion of enhancer-promoter interactions are established across TAD boundaries in Drosophila embryos, but that developmental genes are strikingly enriched in intra- but not inter-TAD interactions. We pursued this observation using the twist locus, a master regulator of mesoderm development, and systematically relocated one of its enhancers to various genomic locations. While this developmental gene can establish inter-TAD interactions with its enhancer, the functionality of these interactions remains limited, highlighting the existence of topological constraints. Furthermore, contrary to intra-TAD interactions, the formation of inter-TAD enhancer-promoter interactions is not solely driven by genomic distance, with distal interactions sometimes favored over proximal ones. These observations suggest that other general mechanisms must exist to establish and maintain specific enhancer-promoter interactions across large distances.

RevDate: 2023-12-11

Rossini R, Oshaghi M, Nekrasov M, et al (2023)

Multi-level 3D genome organization deteriorates during breast cancer progression.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.26.568711.

Breast cancer entails intricate alterations in genome organization and expression. However, how three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure changes in the progression from a normal to a breast cancer malignant state remains unknown. To address this, we conducted an analysis combining Hi-C data with lamina-associated domains (LADs), epigenomic marks, and gene expression in an in vitro model of breast cancer progression. Our results reveal that while the fundamental properties of topologically associating domains (TADs) remain largely stable, significant changes occur in the organization of compartments and subcompartments. These changes are closely correlated with alterations in the expression of oncogenic genes. We also observe a restructuring of TAD-TAD interactions, coinciding with a loss of spatial compartmentalization and radial positioning of the 3D genome. Notably, we identify a previously unrecognized interchromosomal insertion event, wherein a locus on chromosome 8 housing the MYC oncogene is inserted into a highly active subcompartment on chromosome 10. This insertion leads to the formation of de novo enhancer contacts and activation of the oncogene, illustrating how structural variants can interact with the 3D genome to drive oncogenic states. In summary, our findings provide evidence for the degradation of genome organization at multiple scales during breast cancer progression revealing novel relationships between genome 3D structure and oncogenic processes.

RevDate: 2023-12-07

Long Y, Wendel JF, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Evolutionary insights into the organization of chromatin structure and landscape of transcriptional regulation in plants.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(23)00368-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Development of complex traits necessitates the functioning and coordination of intricate regulatory networks involving multiple genes. Understanding 3D chromatin structure can facilitate insight into the regulation of gene expression by regulatory elements. This potential, of visualizing the role of chromatin organization in the evolution and function of regulatory elements, remains largely unexplored. Here, we describe new perspectives that arise from the dual considerations of sequence variation of regulatory elements and chromatin structure, with a special focus on whole-genome doubling or polyploidy. We underscore the significance of hierarchical chromatin organization in gene regulation during evolution. In addition, we describe strategies for exploring chromatin organization in future investigations of regulatory evolution in plants, enabling insights into the evolutionary influence of regulatory elements on gene expression and, hence, phenotypes.

RevDate: 2023-12-04

Leeman-Neill RJ, Song D, Bizarro J, et al (2023)

Noncoding mutations cause super-enhancer retargeting resulting in protein synthesis dysregulation during B cell lymphoma progression.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Whole-genome sequencing of longitudinal tumor pairs representing transformation of follicular lymphoma to high-grade B cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 rearrangements (double-hit lymphoma) identified coding and noncoding genomic alterations acquired during lymphoma progression. Many of these transformation-associated alterations recurrently and focally occur at topologically associating domain resident regulatory DNA elements, including H3K4me3 promoter marks located within H3K27ac super-enhancer clusters in B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. One region found to undergo recurrent alteration upon transformation overlaps a super-enhancer affecting the expression of the PAX5/ZCCHC7 gene pair. ZCCHC7 encodes a subunit of the Trf4/5-Air1/2-Mtr4 polyadenylation-like complex and demonstrated copy number gain, chromosomal translocation and enhancer retargeting-mediated transcriptional upregulation upon lymphoma transformation. Consequently, lymphoma cells demonstrate nucleolar dysregulation via altered noncoding 5.8S ribosomal RNA processing. We find that a noncoding mutation acquired during lymphoma progression affects noncoding rRNA processing, thereby rewiring protein synthesis leading to oncogenic changes in the lymphoma proteome.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Llinàs-Arias P, Ensenyat-Mendez M, Íñiguez-Muñoz S, et al (2023)

Chromatin insulation orchestrates matrix metalloproteinase gene cluster expression reprogramming in aggressive breast cancer tumors.

Molecular cancer, 22(1):190.

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype that exhibits a high incidence of distant metastases and lacks targeted therapeutic options. Here we explored how the epigenome contributes to matrix metalloprotease (MMP) dysregulation impacting tumor invasion, which is the first step of the metastatic process.

METHODS: We combined RNA expression and chromatin interaction data to identify insulator elements potentially associated with MMP gene expression and invasion. We employed CRISPR/Cas9 to disrupt the CCCTC-Binding Factor (CTCF) binding site on an insulator element downstream of the MMP8 gene (IE8) in two TNBC cellular models. We characterized these models by combining Hi-C, ATAC-seq, and RNA-seq with functional experiments to determine invasive ability. The potential of our findings to predict the progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), was tested in data from clinical specimens.

RESULTS: We explored the clinical relevance of an insulator element located within the Chr11q22.2 locus, downstream of the MMP8 gene (IE8). This regulatory element resulted in a topologically associating domain (TAD) boundary that isolated nine MMP genes into two anti-correlated expression clusters. This expression pattern was associated with worse relapse-free (HR = 1.57 [1.06 - 2.33]; p = 0.023) and overall (HR = 2.65 [1.31 - 5.37], p = 0.005) survival of TNBC patients. After CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of IE8, cancer cells showed a switch in the MMP expression signature, specifically downregulating the pro-invasive MMP1 gene and upregulating the antitumorigenic MMP8 gene, resulting in reduced invasive ability and collagen degradation. We observed that the MMP expression pattern predicts DCIS that eventually progresses into invasive ductal carcinomas (AUC = 0.77, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates how the activation of an IE near the MMP8 gene determines the regional transcriptional regulation of MMP genes with opposing functional activity, ultimately influencing the invasive properties of aggressive forms of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Jehangir M, Ahmad SF, Singchat W, et al (2023)

Hi-C sequencing unravels dynamic three-dimensional chromatin interactions in muntjac lineage: insights from chromosome fusions in Fea's muntjac genome.

Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 31(4):34.

Eukaryotes have varying numbers and structures of characteristic chromosomes across lineages or species. The evolutionary trajectory of species may have been affected by spontaneous genome rearrangements. Chromosome fusion drastically alters karyotypes. However, the mechanisms and consequences of chromosome fusions, particularly in muntjac species, are poorly understood. Recent research-based advancements in three-dimensional (3D) genomics, particularly high-throughput chromatin conformation capture (Hi-C) sequencing, have allowed for the identification of chromosome fusions and provided mechanistic insights into three muntjac species: Muntiacus muntjak, M. reevesi, and M. crinifrons. This study aimed to uncover potential genome rearrangement patterns in the threatened species Fea's muntjac (Muntiacus feae), which have not been previously examined for such characteristics. Deep Hi-C sequencing (31.42 × coverage) was performed to reveal the 3D chromatin architecture of the Fea's muntjac genome. Patterns of repeated chromosome fusions that were potentially mediated by high-abundance transposable elements were identified. Comparative Hi-C maps demonstrated linkage homology between the sex chromosomes in Fea's muntjac and autosomes in M. reevesi, indicating that fusions may have played a crucial role in the evolution of the sex chromosomes of the lineage. The species-level dynamics of topologically associated domains (TADs) suggest that TAD organization could be altered by differential chromosome interactions owing to repeated chromosome fusions. However, research on the effect of TADs on muntjac genome evolution is insufficient. This study generated Hi-C data for the Fea's muntjac, providing a genomic resource for future investigations of the evolutionary patterns of chromatin conformation at the chromosomal level.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Zhao H, Lin Y, Lin E, et al (2023)

Genome folding principles revealed in condensin-depleted mitotic chromosomes.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.09.566494.

During mitosis, condensin activity interferes with interphase chromatin structures. Here, we generated condensin-free mitotic chromosomes to investigate genome folding principles. Co- depletion of condensin I and II, but neither alone, triggered mitotic chromosome compartmentalization in ways that differ from interphase. Two distinct euchromatic compartments, indistinguishable in interphase, rapidly emerged upon condensin loss with different interaction preferences and dependence on H3K27ac. Constitutive heterochromatin gradually self-aggregated and co-compartmentalized with the facultative heterochromatin, contrasting with their separation during interphase. While topologically associating domains (TADs) and CTCF/cohesin mediated structural loops remained undetectable, cis-regulatory element contacts became apparent, providing an explanation for their quick re-establishment during mitotic exit. HP1 proteins, which are thought to partition constitutive heterochromatin, were absent from mitotic chromosomes, suggesting, surprisingly, that constitutive heterochromatin can self-aggregate without HP1. Indeed, in cells traversing from M- to G1-phase in the combined absence of HP1α, HP1Π and HP1γ, re-established constitutive heterochromatin compartments normally. In sum, "clean-slate" condensin-deficient mitotic chromosomes illuminate mechanisms of genome compartmentalization not revealed in interphase cells.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Singh AK, Walavalkar K, Tavernari D, et al (2023)

Cis-regulatory effect of HPV integration is constrained by host chromatin architecture in cervical cancers.

Molecular oncology [Epub ahead of print].

HPV infections are the primary drivers of cervical cancers, and often HPV DNA gets integrated into the host genome. Although the oncogenic impact of HPV encoded genes is relatively well known, the cis-regulatory effect of integrated HPV DNA on host chromatin structure and gene regulation remains less understood. We investigated genome-wide patterns of HPV integrations and associated host gene expression changes in the context of host chromatin states and TADs. HPV integrations were significantly enriched in active chromatin regions and depleted in inactive ones. Interestingly, regardless of chromatin state, genomic regions flanking HPV integrations showed transcriptional upregulation. Nevertheless, upregulation (both local and long-range) was mostly confined to TADs with integration, but not affecting adjacent TADs. Few TADs showed recurrent integrations associated with overexpression of oncogenes within them (e.g. MYC, PVT1, TP63 and ERBB2) regardless of proximity. Hi-C and 4C-seq analyses in cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) demonstrated chromatin looping interactions between integrated HPV and MYC/PVT1 regions (~500kb apart), leading to allele-specific overexpression. Based on these, we propose HPV integrations can trigger multimodal oncogenic activation to promote cancer progression.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Siqueira E, Kim BH, Reser L, et al (2023)

Analysis of the interplay between MeCP2 and histone H1 during in vitro differentiation of human ReNCell neural progenitor cells.

Epigenetics, 18(1):2276425.

An immortalized neural cell line derived from the human ventral mesencephalon, called ReNCell, and its MeCP2 knock out were used. With it, we characterized the chromatin compositional transitions undergone during differentiation, with special emphasis on linker histones. While the WT cells displayed the development of dendrites and axons the KO cells did not, despite undergoing differentiation as monitored by NeuN. ReNCell expressed minimal amounts of histone H1.0 and their linker histone complement consisted mainly of histone H1.2, H1.4 and H1.5. The overall level of histone H1 exhibited a trend to increase during the differentiation of MeCP2 KO cells. The phosphorylation levels of histone H1 proteins decreased dramatically during ReNCell's cell differentiation independently of the presence of MeCP2. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that MeCP2 exhibits an extensive co-localization with linker histones. Interestingly, the average size of the nucleus decreased during differentiation but in the MeCP2 KO cells, the smaller size of the nuclei at the start of differentiation increased by almost 40% after differentiation by 8 days (8 DIV). In summary, our data provide a compelling perspective on the dynamic changes of H1 histones during neural differentiation, coupled with the intricate interplay between H1 variants and MeCP2.Abbreviations: ACN, acetonitrile; A230, absorbance at 230 nm; bFGF, basic fibroblast growth factor; CM, chicken erythrocyte histone marker; CNS, central nervous system; CRISPR, clustered regulated interspaced short palindromic repeatsDAPI, 4,'6-diaminidino-2-phenylindole; DIV, days in vitro (days after differentiation is induced); DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium; EGF, epidermal growth factor; ESC, embryonic stem cell; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic proteinHPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography; IF, immunofluorescence; iPSCs, induced pluripotent stem cells; MAP2, microtubule-associated protein 2; MBD, methyl-binding domain; MeCP2, methyl-CpG binding protein 2; MS, mass spectrometry; NCP, nucleosome core particle; NeuN, neuron nuclear antigen; NPC, neural progenitor cellPAGE, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; PFA, paraformaldehyde; PTM, posttranslational modification; RP-HPLC, reversed phase HPLC; ReNCells, ReNCells VM; RPLP0, ribosomal protein lateral stalk subunit P0; RT-qPCR, reverse transcription quantitative polymerase-chain reaction; RTT, Rett Syndrome; SDS, sodium dodecyl sulphate; TAD, topologically associating domain; Triple KO, triple knockout.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

He J, Yan A, Chen B, et al (2023)

3D genome remodeling and homologous pairing during meiotic prophase of mouse oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

Developmental cell pii:S1534-5807(23)00553-1 [Epub ahead of print].

During meiosis, the chromatin and transcriptome undergo prominent switches. Although recent studies have explored the genome reorganization during spermatogenesis, the chromatin remodeling in oogenesis and characteristics of homologous pairing remain largely elusive. We comprehensively compared chromatin structures and transcriptomes at successive substages of meiotic prophase in both female and male mice using low-input high-through chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs) gradually disappeared and slowly recovered in both sexes. We found that homologs adopted different sex-conserved pairing strategies prior to and after the leptotene-to-zygotene transition, changing from long interspersed nuclear element (LINE)-enriched compartments B to short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-enriched compartments A. We complemented marker genes and predicted the sex-specific meiotic sterile genes for each substage. This study provides valuable insights into the similarities and distinctions between sexes in chromosome architecture, homologous pairing, and transcriptome during meiotic prophase of both oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-11-03

Zhu Y, Rosenfeld MG, Y Suh (2023)

Ultrafine mapping of chromosome conformation at hundred basepair resolution reveals regulatory genome architecture.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(45):e2313285120.

The resolution limit of chromatin conformation capture methodologies (3Cs) has restrained their application in detection of fine-level chromatin structure mediated by cis-regulatory elements (CREs). Here, we report two 3C-derived methods, Tri-4C and Tri-HiC, which utilize multirestriction enzyme digestions for ultrafine mapping of targeted and genome-wide chromatin interaction, respectively, at up to one hundred basepair resolution. Tri-4C identified CRE loop interaction networks and quantitatively revealed their alterations underlying dynamic gene control. Tri-HiC uncovered global fine-gauge regulatory interaction networks, identifying >20-fold more enhancer:promoter (E:P) loops than in situ Hi-C. In addition to vastly improved identification of subkilobase-sized E:P loops, Tri-HiC also uncovered interaction stripes and contact domain insulation from promoters and enhancers, revealing their loop extrusion behaviors resembling the topologically associating domain boundaries. Tri-4C and Tri-HiC provide robust approaches to achieve the high-resolution interactome maps required for characterizing fine-gauge regulatory chromatin interactions in analysis of development, homeostasis, and disease.

RevDate: 2023-10-31

Chu X, J Wang (2023)

Quantifying the large-scale chromosome structural dynamics during the mitosis-to-G1 phase transition of cell cycle.

Open biology, 13(11):230175.

Cell cycle is known to be regulated by the underlying gene network. Chromosomes, which serve as the scaffold for gene expressions, undergo significant structural reorganizations during mitosis. Understanding the mechanism of the cell cycle from the chromosome structural perspective remains a grand challenge. In this study, we applied an integrated theoretical approach to investigate large-scale chromosome structural dynamics during the mitosis-to-G1 phase transition. We observed that the chromosome structural expansion and adaptation of the structural asphericity do not occur synchronously and attributed this behaviour to the unique unloading sequence of the two types of condensins. Furthermore, we observed that the coherent motions between the chromosomal loci are primarily enhanced within the topologically associating domains (TADs) as cells progress to the G1 phase, suggesting that TADs can be considered as both structural and dynamical units for organizing the three-dimensional chromosome. Our analysis also reveals that the quantified pathways of chromosome structural reorganization during the mitosis-to-G1 phase transition exhibit high stochasticity at the single-cell level and show nonlinear behaviours in changing TADs and contacts formed at the long-range regions. Our findings offer valuable insights into large-scale chromosome structural dynamics after mitosis.

RevDate: 2023-10-29

Gao GF, Li P, WJ Leonard (2023)

Co-localization of clusters of TCR-regulated genes with TAD rearrangements.

BMC genomics, 24(1):650.

BACKGROUND: Gene expression has long been known to be influenced by the relative proximity of DNA regulatory elements. Topologically associating domains (TADs) are self-interacting genomic regions involved in regulating gene expression by controlling the proximity of these elements. Prior studies of TADs and their biological roles have revealed correlations between TAD changes and cellular differentiation. Here, we used Hi-C and RNA-seq data to correlate TCR-induced changes in TAD structure and gene expression in human CD4[+] T cells.

RESULTS: We developed a pipeline, Differentially Expressed Gene Enrichment Finder (DEGEF), that identifies regions of differentially expressed gene enrichment. Using DEGEF, we found that TCR-regulated genes cluster non-uniformly across the genome and that these clusters preferentially localized in regions of TAD rearrangement. Interestingly, clusters of upregulated genes preferentially formed new Hi-C contacts compared to downregulated clusters, suggesting that TCR-activated CD4[+] T cells may regulate genes by changing stimulatory contacts rather than inhibitory contacts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our observations support a significant relationship between TAD rearrangements and changes in local gene expression. These findings indicate potentially important roles for TAD rearrangements in shaping their local regulatory environments and thus driving differential expression of nearby genes during CD4[+] T cell activation. Moreover, they provide new insights into global mechanisms that regulate gene expression.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Song C, Zhang G, Mu X, et al (2023)

eRNAbase: a comprehensive database for decoding the regulatory eRNAs in human and mouse.

Nucleic acids research pii:7331015 [Epub ahead of print].

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) transcribed from distal active enhancers serve as key regulators in gene transcriptional regulation. The accumulation of eRNAs from multiple sequencing assays has led to an urgent need to comprehensively collect and process these data to illustrate the regulatory landscape of eRNAs. To address this need, we developed the eRNAbase ( to store the massive available resources of human and mouse eRNAs and provide comprehensive annotation and analyses for eRNAs. The current version of eRNAbase cataloged 10 399 928 eRNAs from 1012 samples, including 858 human samples and 154 mouse samples. These eRNAs were first identified and uniformly processed from 14 eRNA-related experiment types manually collected from GEO/SRA and ENCODE. Importantly, the eRNAbase provides detailed and abundant (epi)genetic annotations in eRNA regions, such as super enhancers, enhancers, common single nucleotide polymorphisms, expression quantitative trait loci, transcription factor binding sites, CRISPR/Cas9 target sites, DNase I hypersensitivity sites, chromatin accessibility regions, methylation sites, chromatin interactions regions, topologically associating domains and RNA spatial interactions. Furthermore, the eRNAbase provides users with three novel analyses including eRNA-mediated pathway regulatory analysis, eRNA-based variation interpretation analysis and eRNA-mediated TF-target gene analysis. Hence, eRNAbase is a powerful platform to query, browse and visualize regulatory cues associated with eRNAs.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Fischer EF, Pilarczyk G, M Hausmann (2023)

Microscopic Analysis of Heterochromatin, Euchromatin and Cohesin in Cancer Cell Models and under Anti-Cancer Treatment.

Current issues in molecular biology, 45(10):8152-8172 pii:cimb45100515.

The spatial organization of euchromatin (EC) and heterochromatin (HC) appears as a cell-type specific network, which seems to have an impact on gene regulation and cell fate. The spatial organization of cohesin should thus also be characteristic for a cell type since it is involved in a TAD (topologically associating domain) formation, and thus in gene regulation or DNA repair processes. Based on the previous hypotheses and results on the general importance of heterochromatin organization on genome functions in particular, the configurations of these organizational units (EC represented by H3K4me3-positive regions, HC represented by H3K9me3-positive regions, cohesins) are investigated in the cell nuclei of different cancer and non-cancerous cell types and under different anti-cancer treatments. Confocal microscopic images of the model cell systems were used and analyzed using analytical processes of quantification created in Fiji, an imaging tool box well established in different fields of science. Human fibroblasts, breast cancer and glioblastoma cells as well as murine embryonal terato-carcinoma cells were used as these cell models and compared according to the different parameters of spatial arrangements. In addition, proliferating, quiescent and from the quiescent state reactivated fibroblasts were analyzed. In some selected cases, the cells were treated with X-rays or azacitidine. Heterogeneous results were obtained by the analyses of the configurations of the three different organizational units: granulation and a loss of H3K4me3-positive regions (EC) occurred after irradiation with 4 Gy or azacitidine treatment. While fibroblasts responded to irradiation with an increase in cohesin and granulation, in breast cancer cells, it resulted in decreases in cohesin and changes in granulation. H3K9me3-positive regions (HC) in fibroblasts experienced increased granulation, whereas in breast cancer cells, the amount of such regions increased. After azacitidine treatment, murine stem cells showed losses of cohesin and granulation and an increase in the granulation of H3K9me3-positive regions. Fibroblasts that were irradiated with 2 Gy only showed irregularities in structural amounts and granulation. Quiescent fibroblasts contained less euchromatin-related H3K4me3-positive signals and cohesin levels as well as higher heterochromatin-related H3K9me3-positive signals than non-quiescent ones. In general, fibroblasts responded more intensely to X-ray irradiation than breast cancer cells. The results indicate the usefulness of model cell systems and show that, in general, characteristic differences initially existing in chromatin and cohesin organizations result in specific responses to anti-cancer treatment.

RevDate: 2023-10-26

Lee H, PJ Seo (2023)

Accessible gene borders establish a core structural unit for chromatin architecture in Arabidopsis.

Nucleic acids research, 51(19):10261-10277.

Three-dimensional (3D) chromatin structure is linked to transcriptional regulation in multicellular eukaryotes including plants. Taking advantage of high-resolution Hi-C (high-throughput chromatin conformation capture), we detected a small structural unit with 3D chromatin architecture in the Arabidopsis genome, which lacks topologically associating domains, and also in the genomes of tomato, maize, and Marchantia polymorpha. The 3D folding domain unit was usually established around an individual gene and was dependent on chromatin accessibility at the transcription start site (TSS) and transcription end site (TES). We also observed larger contact domains containing two or more neighboring genes, which were dependent on accessible border regions. Binding of transcription factors to accessible TSS/TES regions formed these gene domains. We successfully simulated these Hi-C contact maps via computational modeling using chromatin accessibility as input. Our results demonstrate that gene domains establish basic 3D chromatin architecture units that likely contribute to higher-order 3D genome folding in plants.

RevDate: 2023-10-26

Sreenivas P, Wang L, Wang M, et al (2023)

A SNAI2/CTCF Interaction is Required for NOTCH1 Expression in Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Molecular and cellular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric malignancy of the muscle with characteristics of cells blocked in differentiation. NOTCH1 is an oncogene that promotes self-renewal and blocks differentiation in the fusion negative-RMS sub-type. However, how NOTCH1 expression is transcriptionally maintained in tumors is unknown. Analyses of SNAI2 and CTCF chromatin binding and HiC analyses revealed a conserved SNAI2/CTCF overlapping peak downstream of the NOTCH1 locus marking a sub-topologically associating domain (TAD) boundary. Deletion of the SNAI2-CTCF peak showed that it is essential for NOTCH1 expression and viability of FN-RMS cells. Reintroducing constitutively activated NOTCH1-ΔE in cells with the SNAI2-CTCF peak deleted restored cell-viability. Ablation of SNAI2 using CRISPR/Cas9 reagents resulted in the loss of majority of RD and SMS-CTR FN-RMS cells. However, the few surviving clones that repopulate cultures have recovered NOTCH1. Cells that re-establish NOTCH1 expression after SNAI2 ablation are unable to differentiate robustly as SNAI2 shRNA knockdown cells; yet, SNAI2-ablated cells continued to be exquisitely sensitive to ionizing radiation. Thus, we have uncovered a novel mechanism by which SNAI2 and CTCF maintenance of a sub-TAD boundary promotes rather than represses NOTCH1 expression. Further, we demonstrate that SNAI2 suppression of apoptosis post-radiation is independent of SNAI2/NOTCH1 effects on self-renewal and differentiation.

RevDate: 2023-10-21

Messina O, Raynal F, Gurgo J, et al (2023)

3D chromatin interactions involving Drosophila insulators are infrequent but preferential and arise before TADs and transcription.

Nature communications, 14(1):6678.

In mammals, insulators contribute to the regulation of loop extrusion to organize chromatin into topologically associating domains. In Drosophila the role of insulators in 3D genome organization is, however, under current debate. Here, we addressed this question by combining bioinformatics analysis and multiplexed chromatin imaging. We describe a class of Drosophila insulators enriched at regions forming preferential chromatin interactions genome-wide. Notably, most of these 3D interactions do not involve TAD borders. Multiplexed imaging shows that these interactions occur infrequently, and only rarely involve multiple genomic regions coalescing together in space in single cells. Finally, we show that non-border preferential 3D interactions enriched in this class of insulators are present before TADs and transcription during Drosophila development. Our results are inconsistent with insulators forming stable hubs in single cells, and instead suggest that they fine-tune existing 3D chromatin interactions, providing an additional regulatory layer for transcriptional regulation.

RevDate: 2023-10-18

Arnould C, Rocher V, Saur F, et al (2023)

Chromatin compartmentalization regulates the response to DNA damage.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

The DNA damage response is essential to safeguard genome integrity. Although the contribution of chromatin in DNA repair has been investigated[1,2], the contribution of chromosome folding to these processes remains unclear[3]. Here we report that, after the production of double-stranded breaks (DSBs) in mammalian cells, ATM drives the formation of a new chromatin compartment (D compartment) through the clustering of damaged topologically associating domains, decorated with γH2AX and 53BP1. This compartment forms by a mechanism that is consistent with polymer-polymer phase separation rather than liquid-liquid phase separation. The D compartment arises mostly in G1 phase, is independent of cohesin and is enhanced after pharmacological inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) or R-loop accumulation. Importantly, R-loop-enriched DNA-damage-responsive genes physically localize to the D compartment, and this contributes to their optimal activation, providing a function for DSB clustering in the DNA damage response. However, DSB-induced chromosome reorganization comes at the expense of an increased rate of translocations, also observed in cancer genomes. Overall, we characterize how DSB-induced compartmentalization orchestrates the DNA damage response and highlight the critical impact of chromosome architecture in genomic instability.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Calandrelli R, Wen X, Charles Richard JL, et al (2023)

Genome-wide analysis of the interplay between chromatin-associated RNA and 3D genome organization in human cells.

Nature communications, 14(1):6519.

The interphase genome is dynamically organized in the nucleus and decorated with chromatin-associated RNA (caRNA). It remains unclear whether the genome architecture modulates the spatial distribution of caRNA and vice versa. Here, we generate a resource of genome-wide RNA-DNA and DNA-DNA contact maps in human cells. These maps reveal the chromosomal domains demarcated by locally transcribed RNA, hereafter termed RNA-defined chromosomal domains. Further, the spreading of caRNA is constrained by the boundaries of topologically associating domains (TADs), demonstrating the role of the 3D genome structure in modulating the spatial distribution of RNA. Conversely, stopping transcription or acute depletion of RNA induces thousands of chromatin loops genome-wide. Activation or suppression of the transcription of specific genes suppresses or creates chromatin loops straddling these genes. Deletion of a specific caRNA-producing genomic sequence promotes chromatin loops that straddle the interchromosomal target sequences of this caRNA. These data suggest a feedback loop where the 3D genome modulates the spatial distribution of RNA, which in turn affects the dynamic 3D genome organization.

RevDate: 2023-10-09

Bonaglia MC, Salvo E, Sironi M, et al (2023)

Case Report: Decrypting an interchromosomal insertion associated with Marfan's syndrome: how optical genome mapping emphasizes the morbid burden of copy-neutral variants.

Frontiers in genetics, 14:1244983.

Optical genome mapping (OGM), which allows analysis of ultra-high molecular weight (UHMW) DNA molecules, represents a response to the restriction created by short-read next-generation-sequencing, even in cases where the causative variant is a neutral copy-number-variant insensitive to quantitative investigations. This study aimed to provide a molecular diagnosis to a boy with Marfan syndrome (MFS) and intellectual disability (ID) carrying a de novo translocation involving chromosomes 3, 4, and 13 and a 1.7 Mb deletion at the breakpoint of chromosome 3. No FBN1 alteration explaining his Marfan phenotype was highlighted. UHMW gDNA was isolated from both the patient and his parents and processed using OGM. Genome assembly was followed by variant calling and annotation. Multiple strategies confirmed the results. The 3p deletion, which disrupted ROBO2, (MIM*602431) included three copy-neutral insertions. Two came from chromosome 13; the third contained 15q21.1, including the FBN1 from intron-45 onwards, thus explaining the MFS phenotype. We could not attribute the ID to a specific gene variant nor to the reshuffling of topologically associating domains (TADs). Our patient did not have vesicular reflux-2, as reported by missense alterations of ROBO2 (VUR2, MIM#610878), implying that reduced expression of all or some isoforms has a different effect than some of the point mutations. Indeed, the ROBO2 expression pattern and its role as an axon-guide suggests that its partial deletion is responsible for the patient's neurological phenotype. Conclusion: OGM testing 1) highlights copy-neutral variants that could remain invisible if no loss of heterozygosity is observed and 2) is mandatory before other molecular studies in the presence of any chromosomal rearrangement for an accurate genotype-phenotype relationship.

RevDate: 2023-10-04

Hristov BH, Noble WS, A Bertero (2023)

Systematic identification of inter-chromosomal interaction networks supports the existence of RNA factories.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.21.558852.

Most studies of genome organization have focused on intra-chromosomal (cis) contacts because they harbor key features such as DNA loops and topologically associating domains. Inter-chromosomal (trans) contacts have received much less attention, and tools for interrogating potential biologically relevant trans structures are lacking. Here, we develop a computational framework to identify sets of loci that jointly interact in trans from Hi-C data. This method, trans-C, initiates probabilistic random walks with restarts from a set of seed loci to traverse an input Hi-C contact network, thereby identifying sets of trans -contacting loci. We validate trans-C in three increasingly complex models of established trans contacts: the Plasmodium falciparum var genes, the mouse olfactory receptor "Greek islands", and the human RBM20 cardiac splicing factory. We then apply trans-C to systematically test the hypothesis that genes co-regulated by the same trans -acting element (i.e., a transcription or splicing factor) co-localize in three dimensions to form "RNA factories" that maximize the efficiency and accuracy of RNA biogenesis. We find that many loci with multiple binding sites of the same transcription factor interact with one another in trans , especially those bound by transcription factors with intrinsically disordered domains. Similarly, clustered binding of a subset of RNA binding proteins correlates with trans interaction of the encoding loci. These findings support the existence of trans interacting chromatin domains (TIDs) driven by RNA biogenesis. Trans-C provides an efficient computational framework for studying these and other types of trans interactions, empowering studies of a poorly understood aspect of genome architecture.

RevDate: 2023-10-03

Parodi L, Comeau ME, Georgakis MK, et al (2023)

Deep resequencing of the 1q22 locus in non-lobar intracerebral hemorrhage.

Annals of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies have identified 1q22 as a susceptibility locus for cerebral small vessel diseases (CSVDs), including non-lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and lacunar stroke. In the present study we performed targeted high-depth sequencing of 1q22 in ICH cases and controls to further characterize this locus and prioritize potential causal mechanisms, which remain unknown.

METHODS: 95,000 base pairs spanning 1q22, including SEMA4A, SLC25A44 and PMF1/PMF1-BGLAP were sequenced in 1,055 spontaneous ICH cases (534 lobar and 521 non-lobar) and 1,078 controls. Firth regression and RIFT analysis were used to analyze common and rare variants, respectively. Chromatin interaction analyses were performed using Hi-C, ChIP-Seq and ChIA-PET databases. Multivariable Mendelian randomization (MVMR) assessed whether alterations in gene-specific expression relative to regionally co-expressed genes at 1q22 could be causally related to ICH risk.

RESULTS: Common and rare variant analyses prioritized variants in SEMA4A 5'-UTR and PMF1 intronic regions, overlapping with active promoter and enhancer regions based on ENCODE annotation. Hi-C data analysis determined that 1q22 is spatially organized in a single chromatin loop and that the genes therein belong to the same Topologically Associating Domain. ChIP-Seq and ChIA-PET data analysis highlighted the presence of long-range interactions between the SEMA4A-promoter and PMF1-enhancer regions prioritized by association testing. MVMR analyses demonstrated that PMF1 overexpression could be causally related to non-lobar ICH risk.

INTERPRETATION: Altered promoter-enhancer interactions leading to PMF1 overexpression, potentially dysregulating polyamine catabolism, could explain demonstrated associations with non-lobar ICH risk at 1q22, offering a potential new target for prevention of ICH and CSVD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-29

Kaur P, Lu X, Xu Q, et al (2023)

High-speed AFM imaging reveals DNA capture and loop extrusion dynamics by cohesin-NIPBL.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(23)02324-4 [Epub ahead of print].

3D chromatin organization plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, DNA replication, recombination, and repair. While initially discovered for its role in sister chromatid cohesion, emerging evidence suggests that the cohesin complex (SMC1, SMC3, RAD21, and SA1/SA2), facilitated by NIPBL, mediates topologically associating domains (TADs) and chromatin loops through DNA loop extrusion. However, information on how conformational changes of cohesin-NIPBL drive its loading onto DNA, initiation, and growth of DNA loops is still lacking. In this study, high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) imaging reveals that cohesin-NIPBL captures DNA through arm extension, assisted by feet (shorter protrusions), and followed by transfer of DNA to its lower compartment (SMC heads, RAD21, SA1 and NIPBL). While binding at the lower compartment, arm extension leads to the capture of a second DNA segment and the initiation of a DNA loop that is independent of ATP hydrolysis. The feet are likely contributed by the C-terminal domains of SA1 and NIPBL and can transiently bind to DNA to facilitate the loading of the cohesin complex onto DNA. Furthermore, HS-AFM imaging reveals distinct forward and reverse DNA loop extrusion steps by cohesin-NIPBL. These results advance our understanding of cohesin by establishing direct experimental evidence for a multi-step DNA binding mechanism mediated by dynamic protein conformational changes.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yang J, Zhu X, Wang R, et al (2023)

Revisiting Assessment of Computational Methods for Hi-C Data Analysis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813814.

The performances of algorithms for Hi-C data preprocessing, the identification of topologically associating domains, and the detection of chromatin interactions and promoter-enhancer interactions have been mostly evaluated using semi-quantitative or synthetic data approaches, without utilizing the most recent methods, since 2017. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated 24 popular state-of-the-art methods for the complete end-to-end pipeline of Hi-C data analysis, using manually curated or experimentally validated benchmark datasets, including a CRISPR dataset for promoter-enhancer interaction validation. Our results indicate that, although no single method exhibited superior performance in all situations, HiC-Pro, DomainCaller, and Fit-Hi-C2 showed relatively balanced performances of most evaluation metrics for preprocessing, topologically associating domain identification, and chromatin interaction/promoter-enhancer interaction detection, respectively. The comprehensive comparison presented in this manuscript provides a reference for researchers to choose Hi-C analysis tools that best suit their needs.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Nakato R, Sakata T, Wang J, et al (2023)

Context-dependent perturbations in chromatin folding and the transcriptome by cohesin and related factors.

Nature communications, 14(1):5647.

Cohesin regulates gene expression through context-specific chromatin folding mechanisms such as enhancer-promoter looping and topologically associating domain (TAD) formation by cooperating with factors such as cohesin loaders and the insulation factor CTCF. We developed a computational workflow to explore how three-dimensional (3D) structure and gene expression are regulated collectively or individually by cohesin and related factors. The main component is CustardPy, by which multi-omics datasets are compared systematically. To validate our methodology, we generated 3D genome, transcriptome, and epigenome data before and after depletion of cohesin and related factors and compared the effects of depletion. We observed diverse effects on the 3D genome and transcriptome, and gene expression changes were correlated with the splitting of TADs caused by cohesin loss. We also observed variations in long-range interactions across TADs, which correlated with their epigenomic states. These computational tools and datasets will be valuable for 3D genome and epigenome studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

He X, Huang X, Long Y, et al (2023)

Tcbf: A novel user-friendly tool for pan-3D genome analysis of topologically associating domain in eukaryotic organisms.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:7277199 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: TAD boundaries are essential for organizing the chromatin spatial structure and regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. However, for large-scale pan-3D genome research, identifying conserved and specific TAD boundaries across different species or individuals is computationally challenging. Here, we present Tcbf, a rapid and powerful Python/R tool that integrates gene synteny blocks and homologous sequences to automatically detect conserved and specific TAD boundaries among multiple species, which can efficiently analyze huge genome datasets, greatly reduce the computational burden and enable pan-3D genome research.

Tcbf is implemented by Python/R and is available at under the MIT license.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Oprescu SN, Baumann N, Chen X, et al (2023)

Sox11 is enriched in myogenic progenitors but dispensable for development and regeneration of the skeletal muscle.

Skeletal muscle, 13(1):15.

Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in regulating differentiation and function of stem cells, including muscle satellite cells (MuSCs), a resident stem cell population responsible for postnatal regeneration of the skeletal muscle. Sox11 belongs to the Sry-related HMG-box (SOX) family of TFs that play diverse roles in stem cell behavior and tissue specification. Analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) datasets identify a specific enrichment of Sox11 mRNA in differentiating but not quiescent MuSCs. Consistent with the scRNA-seq data, Sox11 levels increase during differentiation of murine primary myoblasts in vitro. scRNA-seq data comparing muscle regeneration in young and old mice further demonstrate that Sox11 expression is reduced in aged MuSCs. Age-related decline of Sox11 expression is associated with reduced chromatin contacts within the topologically associating domains. Unexpectedly, Myod1[Cre]-driven deletion of Sox11 in embryonic myoblasts has no effects on muscle development and growth, resulting in apparently healthy muscles that regenerate normally. Pax7[CreER]- or Rosa26[CreER]- driven (MuSC-specific or global) deletion of Sox11 in adult mice similarly has no effects on MuSC differentiation or muscle regeneration. These results identify Sox11 as a novel myogenic differentiation marker with reduced expression in quiescent and aged MuSCs, but the specific function of Sox11 in myogenesis remains to be elucidated.

RevDate: 2023-09-12

Chang LH, Ghosh S, Papale A, et al (2023)

Multi-feature clustering of CTCF binding creates robustness for loop extrusion blocking and Topologically Associating Domain boundaries.

Nature communications, 14(1):5615.

Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) separate vertebrate genomes into insulated regulatory neighborhoods that focus genome-associated processes. TADs are formed by Cohesin-mediated loop extrusion, with many TAD boundaries consisting of clustered binding sites of the CTCF insulator protein. Here we determine how this clustering of CTCF binding contributes to the blocking of loop extrusion and the insulation between TADs. We identify enrichment of three features of CTCF binding at strong TAD boundaries, consisting of strongly bound and closely spaced CTCF binding peaks, with a further enrichment of DNA-binding motifs within these peaks. Using multi-contact Nano-C analysis in cells with normal and perturbed CTCF binding, we establish that individual CTCF binding sites contribute to the blocking of loop extrusion, but in an incomplete manner. When clustered, individual CTCF binding sites thus create a stepwise insulation between neighboring TADs. Based on these results, we propose a model whereby multiple instances of temporal loop extrusion blocking create strong insulation between TADs.

RevDate: 2023-08-22

Chen Y, Zhou T, Liao Z, et al (2023)

Hnrnpk is essential for embryonic limb bud development as a transcription activator and a collaborator of insulator protein Ctcf.

Cell death and differentiation [Epub ahead of print].

Proper development of the limb bud relies on the concordance of various signals, but its molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully illustrated. Here we report that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) is essential for limb bud development. Its ablation in the limb bud results in limbless forelimbs and severe deformities of the hindlimbs. In terms of mechanism, hnRNPK functions as a transcription activator for the vital genes involved in the three regulatory axes of limb bud development. Simultaneously, for the first time we elucidate that hnRNPK binds to and coordinates with the insulator protein CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) to maintain a three-dimensional chromatin architecture. Ablation of hnRNPK weakens the binding strength of CTCF to topologically associating domain (TAD) boundaries, then leading to the loose TADs, and decreased interactions between promoters and enhancers, and further decreased transcription of developmental genes. Our study establishes a fundamental and novel role of hnRNPK in regulating limb bud development.

RevDate: 2023-08-21

Agarwal A, Korsak S, Choudhury A, et al (2023)

The dynamic role of cohesin in maintaining human genome architecture.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advances in genomic and imaging techniques have revealed the complex manner of organizing billions of base pairs of DNA necessary for maintaining their functionality and ensuring the proper expression of genetic information. The SMC proteins and cohesin complex primarily contribute to forming higher-order chromatin structures, such as chromosomal territories, compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs) and chromatin loops anchored by CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) protein or other genome organizers. Cohesin plays a fundamental role in chromatin organization, gene expression and regulation. This review aims to describe the current understanding of the dynamic nature of the cohesin-DNA complex and its dependence on cohesin for genome maintenance. We discuss the current 3C technique and numerous bioinformatics pipelines used to comprehend structural genomics and epigenetics focusing on the analysis of Cohesin-centred interactions. We also incorporate our present comprehension of Loop Extrusion (LE) and insights from stochastic modelling.

RevDate: 2023-08-17

Yan T, Wang K, Feng K, et al (2023)

Remodeling of the 3D chromatin architecture in the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica during lipid accumulation.

Biotechnology for biofuels and bioproducts, 16(1):129.

BACKGROUND: Genomic three-dimensional (3D) spatial organization plays a key role in shaping gene expression and associated chromatin modification, and it is highly sensitive to environmental stress conditions. In microalgae, exposure to nitrogen stress can drive lipid accumulation, yet the associated functional alterations in the spatial organization of the microalgal genome have yet to be effectively characterized.

RESULTS: Accordingly, the present study employed RNA-seq, Hi-C, and ChIP-seq approaches to explore the relationship between 3D chromosomal architecture and gene expression during lipid accumulation in the marine microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica in response to nitrogen deprivation (ND). These analyses revealed that ND resulted in various changes in chromosomal organization, including A/B compartment transitions, topologically associating domain (TAD) shifts, and the disruption of short-range interactions. Significantly higher levels of gene expression were evident in A compartments and TAD boundary regions relative to B compartments and TAD interior regions, consistent with observed histone modification enrichment in these areas. ND-induced differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were notably enriched in altered TAD-associated regions and regions exhibiting differential genomic contact. These DEGs were subjected to Gene Ontology (GO) term analyses that indicated they were enriched in the 'fatty acid metabolism', 'response to stress', 'carbon fixation' and 'photosynthesis' functional categories, in line with the ND treatment conditions used to conduct this study. These data indicate that Nannochloropsis cells exhibit a clear association between chromatin organization and transcriptional activity under nitrogen stress conditions. Pronounced and extensive histone modifications were evident in response to ND. Observed changes in chromatin architecture were linked to shifts in histone modifications and gene expression.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the reprogramming of many lipid metabolism-associated genes was evident under nitrogen stress conditions with respect to both histone modifications and chromosomal organization. Together these results revealed that higher-order chromatin architecture represents a new layer that can guide efforts to understand the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in nitrogen-deprived microalgae.

RevDate: 2023-08-14

Tav C, Fournier É, Fournier M, et al (2023)

Glucocorticoid stimulation induces regionalized gene responses within topologically associating domains.

Frontiers in genetics, 14:1237092.

Transcription-factor binding to cis-regulatory regions regulates the gene expression program of a cell, but occupancy is often a poor predictor of the gene response. Here, we show that glucocorticoid stimulation led to the reorganization of transcriptional coregulators MED1 and BRD4 within topologically associating domains (TADs), resulting in active or repressive gene environments. Indeed, we observed a bias toward the activation or repression of a TAD when their activities were defined by the number of regions gaining and losing MED1 and BRD4 following dexamethasone (Dex) stimulation. Variations in Dex-responsive genes at the RNA levels were consistent with the redistribution of MED1 and BRD4 at the associated cis-regulatory regions. Interestingly, Dex-responsive genes without the differential recruitment of MED1 and BRD4 or binding by the glucocorticoid receptor were found within TADs, which gained or lost MED1 and BRD4, suggesting a role of the surrounding environment in gene regulation. However, the amplitude of the response of Dex-regulated genes was higher when the differential recruitment of the glucocorticoid receptor and transcriptional coregulators was observed, reaffirming the role of transcription factor-driven gene regulation and attributing a lesser role to the TAD environment. These results support a model where a signal-induced transcription factor induces a regionalized effect throughout the TAD, redefining the notion of direct and indirect effects of transcription factors on target genes.

RevDate: 2023-08-10
CmpDate: 2023-08-07

Wang Y, Guo Z, J Cheng (2023)

Single-cell Hi-C data enhancement with deep residual and generative adversarial networks.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 39(8):.

MOTIVATION: The spatial genome organization of a eukaryotic cell is important for its function. The development of single-cell technologies for probing the 3D genome conformation, especially single-cell chromosome conformation capture techniques, has enabled us to understand genome function better than before. However, due to extreme sparsity and high noise associated with single-cell Hi-C data, it is still difficult to study genome structure and function using the HiC-data of one single cell.

RESULTS: In this work, we developed a deep learning method ScHiCEDRN based on deep residual networks and generative adversarial networks for the imputation and enhancement of Hi-C data of a single cell. In terms of both image evaluation and Hi-C reproducibility metrics, ScHiCEDRN outperforms the four deep learning methods (DeepHiC, HiCPlus, HiCSR, and Loopenhance) on enhancing the raw single-cell Hi-C data of human and Drosophila. The experiments also show that it can generate single-cell Hi-C data more suitable for identifying topologically associating domain boundaries and reconstructing 3D chromosome structures than the existing methods. Moreover, ScHiCEDRN's performance generalizes well across different single cells and cell types, and it can be applied to improving population Hi-C data.

The source code of ScHiCEDRN is available at the GitHub repository:

RevDate: 2023-06-13

Xiong K, Zhang R, J Ma (2023)

scGHOST: Identifying single-cell 3D genome subcompartments.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

New single-cell Hi-C (scHi-C) technologies enable probing of the genome-wide cell-to-cell variability in 3D genome organization from individual cells. Several computational methods have been developed to reveal single-cell 3D genome features based on scHi-C data, including A/B compartments, topologically-associating domains, and chromatin loops. However, no scHi-C analysis method currently exists for annotating single-cell subcompartments, which are crucial for providing a more refined view of large-scale chromosome spatial localization in single cells. Here, we present SCGHOST, a single-cell subcompartment annotation method based on graph embedding with constrained random walk sampling. Applications of SCGHOST to scHi-C data and single-cell 3D genome imaging data demonstrate the reliable identification of single-cell subcompartments and offer new insights into cell-to-cell variability of nuclear subcompartments. Using scHi-C data from the human prefrontal cortex, SCGHOST identifies cell type-specific subcompartments that are strongly connected to cell type-specific gene expression, suggesting the functional implications of single-cell subcompartments. Overall, SCGHOST is an effective new method for single-cell 3D genome subcompartment annotation based on scHi-C data for a broad range of biological contexts.

RevDate: 2023-07-01
CmpDate: 2023-04-25

Okonechnikov K, Camgöz A, Chapman O, et al (2023)

3D genome mapping identifies subgroup-specific chromosome conformations and tumor-dependency genes in ependymoma.

Nature communications, 14(1):2300.

Ependymoma is a tumor of the brain or spinal cord. The two most common and aggressive molecular groups of ependymoma are the supratentorial ZFTA-fusion associated and the posterior fossa ependymoma group A. In both groups, tumors occur mainly in young children and frequently recur after treatment. Although molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases have recently been uncovered, they remain difficult to target and innovative therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Here, we use genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), complemented with CTCF and H3K27ac ChIP-seq, as well as gene expression and DNA methylation analysis in primary and relapsed ependymoma tumors, to identify chromosomal conformations and regulatory mechanisms associated with aberrant gene expression. In particular, we observe the formation of new topologically associating domains ('neo-TADs') caused by structural variants, group-specific 3D chromatin loops, and the replacement of CTCF insulators by DNA hyper-methylation. Through inhibition experiments, we validate that genes implicated by these 3D genome conformations are essential for the survival of patient-derived ependymoma models in a group-specific manner. Thus, this study extends our ability to reveal tumor-dependency genes by 3D genome conformations even in tumors that lack targetable genetic alterations.

RevDate: 2023-04-12
CmpDate: 2023-04-12

Sabaté T, Lelandais B, Bertrand E, et al (2023)

Polymer simulations guide the detection and quantification of chromatin loop extrusion by imaging.

Nucleic acids research, 51(6):2614-2632.

Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) has revealed the organization of chromatin into topologically associating domains (TADs) and loops, which are thought to help regulate genome functions. TADs and loops are understood as the result of DNA extrusion mediated by the cohesin complex. However, despite recent efforts, direct visualization and quantification of this process in single cells remains an open challenge. Here, we use polymer simulations and dedicated analysis methods to explore if, and under which conditions, DNA loop extrusion can be detected and quantitatively characterized by imaging pairs of fluorescently labeled loci located near loop or TAD anchors in fixed or living cells. We find that under realistic conditions, extrusion can be detected and the frequency of loop formation can be quantified from fixed cell images alone, while the lifetime of loops and the speed of extrusion can be estimated from dynamic live-cell data. Our delineation of appropriate imaging conditions and the proposed analytical methods lay the groundwork for a systematic quantitative characterization of loop extrusion in fixed or living cells.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )