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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 10 Jun 2023 at 01:52 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: (( "climate change"[TITLE] OR "global warming"[TITLE] )) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-06-08

Segaran TC, Azra MN, Lananan F, et al (2023)

Microbe, climate change and marine environment: Linking trends and research hotspots.

Marine environmental research pii:S0141-1136(23)00143-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes, or microorganisms, have been the foundation of the biosphere for over 3 billion years and have played an essential role in shaping our planet. The available knowledge on the topic of microbes associated with climate change has the potential to reshape upcoming research trends globally. As climate change impacts the ocean or marine ecosystem, the responses of these "unseen life" will heavily influence the achievement of a sustainable evolutionary environment. The present study aims to identify microbial-related research under changing climate within the marine environment through the mapping of visualized graphs of the available literature. We used scientometric methods to retrieve documents from the Web of Science platform in the Core Collection (WOSCC) database, analyzing a total of 2767 documents based on scientometric indicators. Our findings show that this research area is growing exponentially, with the most influential keywords being "microbial diversity," "bacteria," and "ocean acidification," and the most cited being "microorganism" and "diversity." The identification of influential clusters in the field of marine science provides insight into the hot spots and frontiers of research in this area. Prominent clusters include "coral microbiome," "hypoxic zone," "novel Thermoplasmatota clade," "marine dinoflagellate bloom," and "human health." Analyzing emerging trends and transformative changes in this field can inform the creation of special issues or research topics in selected journals, thus increasing visibility and engagement among the scientific community.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Doorga JRS, Pasnin O, Dindoyal Y, et al (2023)

Risk assessment of coral reef vulnerability to climate change and stressors in tropical islands: The case of Mauritius.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03271-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Coral reefs play a critical role in the socio-economic development of oceanic islands, besides offering coastal protection against the destructive forces of the sea under storm conditions. A Multi-Criteria Decision Making-based geospatial model is used which combine highly influential climatic, ecological, and anthropogenic reef degradation factors in view of revealing regions of high coral reef vulnerabilities to inform ecosystems conservation and management. Further investigation of the coastal seawater temperature trend revealed a rise in sea surface temperature approximating 0.66 °C over the 2003-2020 period as compared to the 1985-2003 interval, with a decadal temperature rise of 0.16 °C reported to be higher than the global average. The bleaching threshold in the region is frequently exceeded during the postmillennial period, further reducing coral fitness. Finally, management strategies are proposed here, which include the adequate design of Marine Protected Area networks, and the implementation of policy strategies for fertilizer use, sustainable coastal development projects, and control of reef predator population. The insights in this paper are expected to be applicable in the reef management of other oceanic islands.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Liang J, K Liang (2023)

Nanobiohybrids: Synthesis strategies and environmental applications from micropollutants sensing and removal to global warming mitigation.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01121-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Micropollutants contamination and global warming are critical environmental issues that require urgent attention due to natural and anthropogenic activities posing serious threats to human health and ecosystems. However, traditional technologies (such as adsorption, precipitation, biodegradation, and membrane separation et al.) are facing challenges of low utilization efficiency of oxidants, poor selectivity, and complex in-situ monitoring operations. To address these technical bottlenecks, nanobiohybrids, synthesized by interfacing the nanomaterials and biosystems, have recently emerged as eco-friendly technologies. In this review, we summarize the synthesis approaches of nanobiohybrids and their utilization as emerging environmental technologies for addressing environmental problems. Studies demonstrate that enzymes, cells, and living plants can be integrated with a wide range of nanomaterials including reticular frameworks, semiconductor nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes. Moreover, nanobiohybrids demonstrate excellent performance for micropollutant removal, carbon dioxide conversion, and sensing of toxic metal ions and organic micropollutants. Therefore, nanobiohybrids are expected to be environmental friendly, efficient, and cost-effective techniques for addressing environmental micropollutants issues and mitigating global warming, benefiting both humans and ecosystems alike.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Clark RG, Pryor S, WH Dietz (2023)

Where Was Climate Change at the White House Conference on Hunger, Nutrition, and Health?.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Sips GJ, Limaheluw J, de Roda Husman AM, et al (2023)

[Climate change and infectious diseases].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 167: pii:D7503.

Climate change can contribute to a global increase in the burden of infectious diseases. Both the number of geographical areas as well as the number of yearly days that are suitable for transmission of certain infectious diseases can increase due to global warming. At the same time, increased 'suitability' does not always lead to a factual increase in disease burden and economic development and public health measures have resulted in marked reductions in the burden of several important infectious diseases in recent years. The net effect of global environmental change on infectious disease burden will be determined by a multitude of factors, including unpredictable outbreaks of pathogens and the extent to which public health programs can effectively function and adjust to changing health risks.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Goorhuis AB, de Mast Q, Hovius JW, et al (2023)

[New infectious diseases in Europe; the effect of climate change, globalisation and human behaviour].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 167: pii:D7675.

Climate change directly and indirectly contributes to the emergence of vector and water borne infections. Other infectious diseases may be introduced to new geographical areas as a result of globalisation and changing human behaviour. Despite the still low absolute risk, the pathogenicity of some of these infections creates a significant challenge for clinicians. Awareness of changing disease epidemiology helps in timely recognition of such infections. Vaccination guidelines for emerging vaccine-preventable diseases, such as tick-borne encephalitis and leptospirosis, may need to be updated.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Luykx JJ, Vinkers CH, JK Tijdink (2023)

[Mental health and climate change: reconceptualizing eco-anxiety].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 167: pii:D7410.

Climate change may bring about anxiety, which may be referred to as eco-anxiety. Commonly accepted conceptual or diagnostic criteria for eco-anxiety are currently lacking. Here, we briefly summarize the current literature on climate change and mental illness. We suggest dividing the concept of eco-anxiety into adaptive eco-anxiety and an anxiety disorder where climate change plays a major role. This distinction may be helpful in clinical practice to discern relatively common and potentially healthy eco-anxiety from a disorder causing impairment in daily functioning. Benefits of adaptive eco-anxiety include the development of active coping strategies (increasing resilience) as well as behavioural changes to mitigate climate change. When debilitating anxiety comes with avoidance and centers around climate change, a specific phobia called eco-anxiety disorder may be considered. Importantly, as validated diagnostic criteria for this disorder are currently lacking, further conceptualization is highly needed. Future clinical research may help fill these current knowledge gaps.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Ali S, Yan Q, Dilanchiev A, et al (2023)

Economic development, social media awareness, and technological innovation in biogas sector under climate change in the post-COVID-19 pandemic conditions.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

After COVID-19, financing for emerging nation reserves in renewable energy bases was deemed a crucial aspect of sustainable development. Investing in biogas energy plants can be highly beneficial for lowering the use of fossil fuels. Using a survey of shareholders, investors, biogas energy professionals, and active social media participants in Pakistan, this study evaluates the intentions of individual investors to invest in biogas energy plants. The primary purpose of this study is to increase investment intent for biogas energy projects following COVID-19. This study focuses on financing biogas energy plants in the post-COVID-19 era and evaluates the research's assumptions using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The study employed the technique of purposive sampling to acquire data for this investigation. The results indicate that attitudes, perceived biogas energy benefits, perceived investment attitudes, and supervisory structure evaluations inspire one's propensity to finance biogas vitality plant efforts. The study found a link between eco-friendly responsiveness, monetary benefits, and investors' actions. The aspiration of investors to mark such reserves was set up to be unpretentious by their risk aversion. Conferring to the facts, evaluating the monitoring structure is the critical factor. The previous studies on investment behavior and other forms of pro-environmental intent and action yielded contradictory results. In addition, the regulatory environment was evaluated to see how the theory of planned behavior (TPB) affects financiers' objectives to participate in biogas power plants. The consequences of the study indicate that feelings of pride and discernment of energy expansively affect people's desire to invest in biogas plants. Biogas energy efficacy has little effect on investors' decisions to invest in biogas energy plants. This study offers policymakers practical ideas on enhancing investments in biogas energy plants.

RevDate: 2023-06-08

Zandlová M, Skokanová H, M Trnka (2023)

Landscape Change Scenarios: Developing Participatory Tools for Enhancing Resilience to Climate Change.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

The impacts of climate change on people and ecosystems have been studied at both local and global levels. The environment is expected to change significantly, and the role of local communities in shaping more resilient landscapes is considered crucial. This research focuses on rural regions highly susceptible to climate change impacts. The objective was to enhance conditions for climate resilient development on a microlocal level by encouraging diverse stakeholders to participate in developing sustainable landscape management. This paper introduces a novel interdisciplinary mixed-method approach to landscape scenario development, combining research-driven and participatory approaches and integrating quantitative methods with qualitative ethnographic inquiry. Two scenarios for 2050 were built: a research-driven, business-as-usual scenario accounting for mandatory adaptation policies and an optimistic scenario combining research-driven and participatory approaches, including additional feasible community-based measures. While the differences between the projected land use seem to be relatively subtle, the optimistic scenario would in fact lead to a considerably more resilient landscape. The results highlight the role of interdisciplinarity and ethnography in gaining good local knowledge and building an atmosphere of trust. These factors supported the research credibility, strengthened the legitimacy of the intervention in local affairs, and contributed to the active participation of the stakeholders. We argue that despite its time, intense effort and limited direct policy impact, the mixed-method approach is highly suitable for the microlocal level. It encourages citizens to think about how their environment is threatened by climate change impacts and increases their willingness to contribute to climate resilience.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Kebir Z, Chambers C, Frainier A, et al (2023)

Fifteen research needs for understanding climate change impacts on ecosystems and society in the Norwegian High North.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

There is an urgent need to understand and address the risks associated with a warming climate for ecosystems and societies in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. There are major gaps in our understanding of the complex effects of climate change-including extreme events, cascading impacts across ecosystems, and the underlying socioecological dynamics and feedbacks-all of which need collaborative efforts to be resolved. Here, we present results where climate scientists, ecologists, social scientists, and practitioners were asked to identify the most urgent research needs for understanding climate change impacts and to identify the actions for reducing future risks in catchment areas in the Norwegian High North, a region that encompasses both Arctic and sub-Arctic climates in northern Norway. From a list of 77 questions, our panel of 19 scientists and practitioners identified 15 research needs that should be urgently addressed. We particularly urge researchers to investigate cross-ecosystem impacts and the socioecological feedbacks that could amplify or reduce risks for society.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Chen Y, Y Wang (2023)

The green wave for climate: overcoming financial intermediation challenges in climate change mitigation through credit subsidies.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this research is to investigate the role of credit subsidies in overcoming financial intermediation challenges. The study seeks to evaluate the current financial intermediation landscape in both countries with respect to climate change mitigation, and to determine the effectiveness of credit subsidies as a policy instrument for promoting mitigation efforts. We apply the unit root test and the error correction modeling technique in examining data from 2012 to 2018 originating from China and Japan, respectively. After that, an explanation for the data is constructed utilizing a regression method. Among the most important findings are the contributions of credit subsidies to eliminating fiscal imbalances, the positive effects they have on global commerce, and the relevance of credit subsidies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in China and Japan. A 28% and 37% reduction in climate change, respectively, can be achieved by implementing credit subsidy programs for local residents in China and Japan. To provide households with the finance they require to tackle climate change, the financial systems of the industrialized world, particularly those in China and Japan, need to be upgraded.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Katzman JG, Balbus J, Herring D, et al (2023)

Clinician education on climate change and health: virtual learning community models.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 7(6):e444-e446.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Walter K (2023)

COPD Mortality, Goals-of-Care Conversations in Serious Illness, and Advocating for Climate Change Science and Gun Violence Prevention-Highlights From the American Thoracic Society Conference.

JAMA pii:2806022 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Kelly G, Idubor OI, Binney S, et al (2023)

The Impact of Climate Change on Asthma and Allergic-Immunologic Disease.

Current allergy and asthma reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses climate change-related impacts on asthma and allergic-immunologic disease, relevant US public health efforts, and healthcare professional resources.

RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change can impact people with asthma and allergic-immunologic disease through various pathways, including increased exposure to asthma triggers (e.g., aeroallergens, ground-level ozone). Climate change-related disasters (e.g., wildfires, floods) disrupting healthcare access can complicate management of any allergic-immunologic disease. Climate change disproportionately affects some communities, which can exacerbate disparities in climate-sensitive diseases like asthma. Public health efforts include implementing a national strategic framework to help communities track, prevent, and respond to climate change-related health threats. Healthcare professionals can use resources or tools to help patients with asthma and allergic-immunologic disease prevent climate change-related health impacts. Climate change can affect people with asthma and allergic-immunologic disease and exacerbate health disparities. Resources and tools are available to help prevent climate change-related health impacts at the community and individual level.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Allen AJ (2023)

Selected advances in small-angle scattering and applications they serve in manufacturing, energy and climate change.

Journal of applied crystallography, 56(Pt 3):787-800.

Innovations in small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAXS and SANS) at major X-ray and neutron facilities offer new characterization tools for researching materials phenomena relevant to advanced applications. For SAXS, the new generation of diffraction-limited storage rings, incorporating multi-bend achromat concepts, dramatically decrease electron beam emittance and significantly increase X-ray brilliance over previous third-generation sources. This results in intense X-ray incident beams that are more compact in the horizontal plane, allowing significantly improved spatial resolution, better time resolution, and a new era for coherent-beam SAXS methods such as X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. Elsewhere, X-ray free-electron laser sources provide extremely bright, fully coherent, X-ray pulses of <100 fs and can support SAXS studies of material processes where entire SAXS data sets are collected in a single pulse train. Meanwhile, SANS at both steady-state reactor and pulsed spallation neutron sources has significantly evolved. Developments in neutron optics and multiple detector carriages now enable data collection in a few minutes for materials characterization over nanometre-to-micrometre scale ranges, opening up real-time studies of multi-scale materials phenomena. SANS at pulsed neutron sources is becoming more integrated with neutron diffraction methods for simultaneous structure characterization of complex materials. In this paper, selected developments are highlighted and some recent state-of-the-art studies discussed, relevant to hard matter applications in advanced manufacturing, energy and climate change.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Gebre GG, Amekawa Y, Fikadu AA, et al (2023)

Farmers' use of climate change adaptation strategies and their impacts on food security in Kenya.

Climate risk management, 40:100495.

Climate change threatens the sustainability of food production among farmers in Kenya who depend on rain-fed agriculture. To minimize the negative impacts of climate change, farmers have sought to adopt different adaptation strategies. This study investigates factors influencing farmers' choice of climate change adaptation strategies and associated effects on their food security in Kenya using data collected from 540 farmers from six counties. A multivariate probit, censored least absolute deviation (CLAD), and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to identify the determinants in the farmers' choice of climate change adaptation strategies, the number of adaptation strategies adopted, and the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on their food security, respectively. Results show that planting drought-tolerant crop varieties (55%), growing diversified crops (34%), growing early maturing crops (22%), and diversifying the sources of household income (18%) were the four major adaptation strategies used by the farmers in the study area. Younger farmers and those with higher education levels are more likely to use these climate change adaptation practices. The number of adaptation strategies used was positively associated with male farmers, education level, family size, land size, farm income, extension contact, training, and information access. The farmers who adopt one adaptation strategy have higher food security status (approximately 7-11%) than those who do not. If they adopt two adaptation strategies, their food security status increases by approximately 11-14%; if they adopt three adaptation strategies, their food security status increases by nearly 12-15%; and if they adopt four adaptation practices, their food security status increases by about 14-18%, compared to those who do not adopt any strategy. Thus, the farmers' climate change adaptation practices have positive food security effects in Kenya according to the number of adaptation strategies adopted.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Tamura T (2023)

Is banning desflurane an essential measure to reduce global warming? Additional issues raised.

European journal of anaesthesiology, 40(7):534-535.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Weyhenmeyer GA, Obertegger U, Rudebeck H, et al (2023)

Author Correction: Towards critical white ice conditions in lakes under global warming.

Nature communications, 14(1):3283 pii:10.1038/s41467-023-39005-3.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Sheward RM, Liefer JD, Irwin AJ, et al (2023)

Elemental stoichiometry of the key calcifying marine phytoplankton Emiliania huxleyi under ocean climate change: A meta-analysis.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

The elemental composition of marine microorganisms (their C:N:P ratio, or stoichiometry) is central to understanding the biotic and biogeochemical processes underlying key marine ecosystem functions. Phytoplankton C:N:P is species specific and flexible to changing environmental conditions. However, bulk or fixed phytoplankton stoichiometry is usually assumed in biogeochemical and ecological models because more realistic, environmentally responsive C:N:P ratios have yet to be defined for key functional groups. Here, a comprehensive meta-analysis of experimental laboratory data reveals the variable C:N:P stoichiometry of Emiliania huxleyi, a globally significant calcifying phytoplankton species. Mean C:N:P of E. huxleyi is 124C:16N:1P under control conditions (i.e. growth not limited by one or more environmental stressors) and shows a range of responses to changes in nutrient and light availability, temperature and pCO2 . Macronutrient limitation caused strong shifts in stoichiometry, increasing N:P and C:P under P deficiency (by 305% and 493% respectively) and doubling C:N under N deficiency. Responses to light, temperature and pCO2 were mixed but typically shifted cellular elemental content and C:N:P stoichiometry by ca. 30% or less. Besides these independent effects, the interactive effects of multiple environmental changes on E. huxleyi stoichiometry under future ocean conditions could be additive, synergistic or antagonistic. To synthesise our meta-analysis results, we explored how the cellular elemental content and C:N:P stoichiometry of E. huxleyi may respond to two hypothetical future ocean scenarios (increased temperature, irradiance and pCO2 combined with either N deficiency or P deficiency) if an additive effect is assumed. Both future scenarios indicate decreased calcification (which is predominantly sensitive to elevated pCO2), increased C:N, and up to fourfold shifts in C:P and N:P. Our results strongly suggest that climate change will significantly alter the role of E. huxleyi (and potentially other calcifying phytoplankton species) in marine biogeochemical processes.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Miranda AV, Lestari BW, Indrarini A, et al (2023)

Adaptation of health systems to climate change-related infectious disease outbreaks in the ASEAN: Protocol for a scoping review of national and regional policies.

PloS one, 18(6):e0286869.

BACKGROUND: The Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states (AMS) are among the countries most at risk to the impacts of climate change on health and outbreaks being a major hotspot of emerging infectious diseases.

OBJECTIVE: To map the current policies and programs on the climate change adaptation in the ASEAN health systems, with particular focus on policies related to infectious diseases control.

METHODS: This is a scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology. Literature search will be conducted on the ASEAN Secretariat website, government websites, Google, and six research databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Embase, World Health Organization (WHO) Institutional Repository Information Sharing (IRIS), and Google Scholar). The article screening will be based on specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. Policy analysis will be conducted in accordance with the WHO operational framework on climate-resilient health systems. Findings will be analyzed in the form of narrative report. The reporting of this scoping review follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR).

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required for this study as this is a scoping review protocol. Findings from this study will be disseminated through electronic channels.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Breakey S, Starodub R, Nicholas PK, et al (2023)

A cross-sectional study to assess faculty and student knowledge of climate change and health: Readiness for curricular integration.

Journal of advanced nursing [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To examine the perceived knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding climate change and health of academic faculty and students in programmes for health professionals and to identify barriers/facilitators to and resources required for curriculum integration.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey eliciting quantitative and open-ended responses.

METHODS: A 22-question survey to assess climate-health knowledge/attitudes/beliefs was distributed to all students and faculty (n = 224) at one academic institution in the United States. Open-ended questions addressed barriers, facilitators and required resources. Descriptive statistics are reported, and thematic analysis was used to identify themes from open-ended responses.

RESULTS: Response rate was 15%. Most respondents (76%) were between 20 and 34 years old. The majority were from nursing (39%), occupational therapy (13%) and communication speech disorders (12.5%). Most respondents perceived climate change as relevant to direct patient care (78%) and believed that it is impacting the health of individuals (86%) and should be integrated into curricula (89%). Yet, most (60%) reported modest to no knowledge about the health impacts. Faculty reported little to no comfort teaching climate change and health concepts (76%). Open-ended responses identified student/faculty receptivity and professional/clinical relevance as important facilitators of successful integration. Barriers included intensity of programmes; time and competing curricular priorities; and a lack of faculty expertise, resources, institutional and professional commitment.

CONCLUSIONS: Most health professions students and faculty indicated that educating future health professionals about climate change and health is important, but existing barriers must be addressed.

IMPACT: This study addressed student and faculty perceptions of integrating climate change and health into health professions curricula. Discipline-specific and interprofessional educational approaches are necessary to optimize future health professionals' efforts to prevent and mitigate climate change impacts for at-risk patients, communities and populations.

RevDate: 2023-06-06

Shang Y, Bi C, Wei X, et al (2023)

Eco-tourism, climate change, and environmental policies: empirical evidence from developing economies.

Humanities & social sciences communications, 10(1):275.

Developing ecotourism services is a suitable solution to help developing countries improve the status of sustainable development indicators and protect their environment. The primary purpose of this paper is to find out the effects of green governance variables and carbon dioxide emissions on ecotourism for 40 developing economies from 2010 to 2021. The results confirmed a uni-directional causal relationship between the green governance indicator and the inflation rate of the ecotourism indicator. In addition, with a 1% improvement in the green governance index of developing countries, the ecotourism of these countries will increase by 0.43%. In comparison, with a 1% increase in the globalization index of these countries, ecotourism will increase by 0.32%. Moreover, ecotourism in developing countries is more sensitive to macroeconomic variables changes than in developed economies. Geopolitical risk is an influential factor in the developing process of ecotourism. The practical policies recommended by this research are developing the green financing market, establishing virtual tourism, granting green loans to small and medium enterprises, and government incentives to motivate active businesses.

RevDate: 2023-06-07

Tisné S, Denis M, Domonhédo H, et al (2020)

Environmental and trophic determinism of fruit abscission and outlook with climate change in tropical regions.

Plant-environment interactions (Hoboken, N.J.), 1(1):17-28.

Fruit abscission facilitates the optimal conditions and timing of seed dispersal. Environmental regulation of tropical fruit abscission has received little attention, even though climate change may have its strongest impacts in tropical regions. In this study, oil palm fruit abscission was monitored during multiple years in the Benin Republic to take advantage of the climatic seasonality and the continuous fruit production by this species. An innovative multivariable statistical method was used to identify the best predictors of fruit abscission among a set of climate and ecophysiological variables, and the stage of inflorescence and fruit bunch development when the variables are perceived. The effects of climate scenarios on fruit abscission were then predicted based on the calibrated model. We found complex regulation takes place at specific stages of inflorescence and bunch development, even long before the fruit abscission zone is competent to execute abscission. Among the predictors selected, temperature variations during inflorescence and fruit bunch development are major determinants of the fruit abscission process. Furthermore, the timing of ripe fruit drop is determined by temperature in combination with the trophic status. Finally, climate simulations revealed that the abscission process is robust and is more affected by seasonal variations than by extreme scenarios. Our investigations highlighted the central function of the abscission zone as the sensor of environmental signals during reproductive development. Coupling ecophysiological and statistical modeling was an efficient approach to disentangle this complex environmental regulation.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Jiang J, Ye B, Sun Z, et al (2023)

Low-carbon energy policies benefit climate change mitigation and air pollutant reduction in megacities: An empirical examination of Shenzhen, China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03267-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The low-carbon transformation of energy system has great significance for megacities to mitigate climate change, which brings co-benefits to improve urban air quality. Taking China's megacity, Shenzhen, as an example, this study examines the potential of wide-ranging energy policies in urban GHG emission reduction and the associated synergistic effect on decreasing major air pollutant emissions. Based on the low emissions analysis platform (LEAP) model, the major results show that an effective implementation of newly emerging energy policies could help cap GHG emissions of Shenzhen in 2025 and nearly halve them by 2035, which would contribute substantially to reducing urban air pollutant emissions. At the sectoral level, the synergistic effect of emission reduction would be the strongest in the transportation sector, followed by the electricity and manufacturing sectors, while it is not significant in the building sector. Moreover, all policies on energy efficiency improvement and demand management that reduce fossil energy consumption show synergistic effects on decreasing air pollutants, while policies on energy structural optimization show differentiated impacts across SO2, NOx, VOCs, and PM2.5. Urban managers should prioritize energy policies with strong synergistic effects and specifically promote the wide application of rooftop PV system and deep electrification of road transportation.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Liu J, B Fan (2023)

What contributes to local-level institutional adaptation under climate change? A configurational approach based on evidence from China's Sponge City Program.

Journal of environmental management, 342:118292 pii:S0301-4797(23)01080-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Unrestrained human industrial and agricultural production activities exacerbate climate change and environmental pollution. Climate change leads to an increase in flood risks and the spread of water and soil pollution, resulting in challenges in urban stormwater management. Institutional adaptation to climate change is vital for realizing effective local urban stormwater management. However, the accumulated knowledge on climate adaptation over the past decade has been concentrated at the technical and economic levels, with limited research on institutional adaptation. The Sponge City Program in China selects 30 pilot cities to promote a novel stormwater management approach that combines the reliability of traditional gray infrastructures made of concrete materials with the adaptability and sustainability of green-blue infrastructures based on natural-based solutions, but the extent of institutional adaptation in this process varies considerably across pilot cities. To explain what drives institutional adaptation, a configurational analysis of pilot cities is conducted using the fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis method. Based on data from 628 official reports and 36 interviews, we demonstrate local governments are significant institutional entrepreneurs, and high institutional adaptation occurs with the combined effects of institutional capacity, financial resources, and reputational incentives. There are three types of paths driving institutional adaptation: "strong institutional capacity-strong financial resource-low reputational reserve," "strong institutional capacity-strong financial resource-high reputational competition," and "strong institutional capacity-weak financial resource-low reputational reserve." These three paths account for 72% of the instances of high institutional adaptation outcomes, and 90% of cases share a given configuration of conditions associated with an outcome. Our conclusion advances a theoretical understanding of the drivers of institutional adaptation and provides guidelines for future climate adaptation practices.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Li YJ, Chen SY, Jørgensen LB, et al (2023)

Interspecific differences in thermal tolerance landscape explain aphid community abundance under climate change.

Journal of thermal biology, 114:103583 pii:S0306-4565(23)00124-9 [Epub ahead of print].

A single critical thermal limit is often used to explain and infer the impact of climate change on geographic range and population abundance. However, it has limited application in describing the temporal dynamic and cumulative impacts of extreme temperatures. Here, we used a thermal tolerance landscape approach to address the impacts of extreme thermal events on the survival of co-existing aphid species (Metopolophium dirhodum, Sitobion avenae and Rhopalosiphum padi). Specifically, we built the thermal death time (TDT) models based on detailed survival datasets of three aphid species with three ages across a broad range of stressful high (34-40 °C) and low (-3∼-11 °C) temperatures to compare the interspecific and developmental stage variations in thermal tolerance. Using these TDT parameters, we performed a thermal risk assessment by calculating the potential daily thermal injury accumulation associated with the regional temperature variations in three wheat-growing sites along a latitude gradient. Results showed that M. dirhodum was the most vulnerable to heat but more tolerant to low temperatures than R. padi and S. avenae. R. padi survived better at high temperatures than Sitobion avenae and M. dirhodum but was sensitive to cold. R. padi was estimated to accumulate higher cold injury than the other two species during winter, while M. dirhodum accrued more heat injury during summer. The warmer site had higher risks of heat injury and the cooler site had higher risks of cold injury along a latitude gradient. These results support recent field observations that the proportion of R. padi increases with the increased frequency of heat waves. We also found that young nymphs generally had a lower thermal tolerance than old nymphs or adults. Our results provide a useful dataset and method for modelling and predicting the consequence of climate change on the population dynamics and community structure of small insects.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Dong S, Li S, Xu Y, et al (2023)

Different responses of alpine plants to natural climate change reduced coexistence through phenological niche overlap.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03143-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant phenology is the bridge between climate change and ecosystem functions. Time coordination of interspecific and intraspecific phenology changes overlap or separate can be regarded as an important characteristic of species coexistence. To confirm the hypothesis that plant phenological niche promotes species coexistence, three key alpine plants, Kobresia humilis (sedge), Stipa purpurea (grass), and Astragalus laxmannii (forb) were investigated in this study in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Phenological niches represented as the duration of green up-flowering, flowering-fruiting, and fruiting-withering by 2-day intervals for phenological dynamics of three key alpine plants from 1997 to 2016. We found the role of precipitation on regulating the phenological niches of alpine plants was highlighted in the context of climate warming. The response of the intraspecific phenological niche of the three species to temperature and precipitation is different, and the phenological niche of Kobresia humilis and Stipa purpurea was separate, especially in the green up-flowering. But the overlapping degree of interspecific phenological niche of the three species has continued to increase in the past 20 years, reducing possibility of species coexistence. Our findings have profound implications for understanding the adaptation strategies of key alpine plants to climate change in the dimension of phenological niche.

RevDate: 2023-06-04

Godwin A, McGill C, Ward A, et al (2023)

Phenological phase affects carrot seed production sensitivity to climate change - A panel data analysis.

The Science of the total environment, 892:164502 pii:S0048-9697(23)03123-6 [Epub ahead of print].

New Zealand is a major producer of carrot seeds globally. Carrots are an important nutritional crop for human consumption. Since the growth and development of carrot seed crops mainly depend on climatic factors, seed yield is extremely susceptible to climate change. This modeling study was undertaken using a panel data approach to determine the impact of the atmospheric conditions (proxied by maximum and minimum temperature) and precipitation during the critical growth stages for seed production in carrot, viz., juvenile phase, vernalization phase, floral development phase, and flowering and seed development phase on carrot seed yield. The panel dataset was created using cross-sections from 28 locations within the Canterbury and Hawke's Bay regions of New Zealand that cultivate carrot seed crops and time series from 2005 to 2022. Pre-diagnostic tests were performed to test the model assumptions, and a fixed effect model was selected subsequently. There was significant (p < 0.01) variability in temperature and rainfall throughout different growing phases, except for precipitation at the vernalization phase. The highest rate of changes in maximum temperature, minimum temperature, and precipitation were recorded during the vernalization phase (+0.254 °C per year), floral development phase (+0.18 °C per year), and juvenile phase (-6.508 mm per year), respectively. Based on marginal effect analysis, the highest significant influence of minimum (187.724 kg/ha of seed yield decrease for each 1 °C increment) and maximum temperature (1 °C rise increases seed yield by 132.728 kg/ha), and precipitation (1 mm increment of rainfall decreases the seed yield by 1.745 kg/ha) on carrot seed yield were reported at vernalization, and flowering and seed development, respectively. The minimum and maximum temperatures have a higher marginal effect on carrot seed production. Analysis of the panel data demonstrates that the production of carrot seeds will be vulnerable to climatic change.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Puchałka R, Paź-Dyderska S, Woziwoda B, et al (2023)

Climate change will cause climatic niche contraction of Vaccinium myrtillus L. and V. vitis-idaea L. in Europe.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)03104-2 [Epub ahead of print].

We estimated climate niche shifts and threat levels under various climate change scenarios for Vaccinium myrtillus L. and V. vitis-idaea L. We developed the MaxEnt species distribution models, and predicted future climatic optima for climate change scenarios for 2041-2060 and 2061-2080. The precipitation of the warmest quarter was the most important factor shaping the climatic niches of the studied species. We predicted the largest shifts in climate niches from the present to the 2040-2060 period, with the most pessimistic scenario predicting significant range losses for both species, mainly in Western Europe. Under the most optimistic SSP126 scenario, both species will lose 39 % of their climatic niche for both periods. In the worst-case scenario (SSP585) for 2061-2080, climatic niche contraction will cover 47 % and 39 % of the current climatic niche for V. myrtillus and V. vitis-idaea, respectively. The predicted changes in species distribution could have far-reaching consequences for temperate and boreal forests due to their crucial biocenotic role in forest ecosystems, high potential for carbon sequestration, and prevention of soil erosion. Furthermore, the changes would likely affect the economic potential regarding fruit production and culturally relevant uses of different parts of the plants, mainly fruits.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Bertolini C, Glaser D, Canu M, et al (2023)

Coupling habitat-specific temperature scenarios with tolerance landscape to predict the impacts of climate change on farmed bivalves.

Marine environmental research, 188:106038 pii:S0141-1136(23)00166-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to climate change, heatwaves are likely to become more frequent, prolonged and characterized by higher peak values, compared with climatological averages. However, the thermal tolerance of organisms depends on the actual exposure, which can be modulated by environmental context and microhabitat characteristics. This study investigated the frequency of occurrence of mass mortality events in the next decades for two species of farmed bivalves, the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum, in a shallow coastal lagoon, characterised by marked diurnal oscillations of water temperature. The effect of heatwaves was estimated by means of tolerance landscape models, which predict the occurrence of 50% mortality based on the exposure intensity and duration. Scenarios of water temperature up to the year 2100 were modelled by combining two mechanistic components, namely: 1) monthly mean water temperatures, simulated using a hydrodynamic model including the heat budget; 2) daily oscillations, estimated from the harmonic analysis of a twenty year-long site-specific time series of water temperature. Scenarios of mean daily sediment temperature were estimated by means of a cross-correlation model, using as input the water temperature one: the model parameters were estimated based on a comprehensive set of site-specific water and sediment temperature observations. The results indicate that for both species the risk of mass mortality rapidly increases starting from the 2060s. Furthermore, the daily patterns of water temperature seemed to be relevant, as overnight it falls below the predicted mortality thresholds for a few hours. These findings suggest that further studies should address: 1) the improvement of tolerance landscape models, in order to take into account the integrated effect of repeated non-lethal stress events on mortality rate; 2) the prediction of environmental temperature in specific habitat, by means of both process-based and data driven models.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Seifert M, Nissen C, Rost B, et al (2023)

Interaction matters: Bottom-up driver interdependencies alter the projected response of phytoplankton communities to climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Phytoplankton growth is controlled by multiple environmental drivers, which are all modified by climate change. While numerous experimental studies identify interactive effects between drivers, large-scale ocean biogeochemistry models mostly account for growth responses to each driver separately and leave the results of these experimental multiple-driver studies largely unused. Here, we amend phytoplankton growth functions in a biogeochemical model by dual-driver interactions (CO2 and temperature, CO2 and light), based on data of a published meta-analysis on multiple-driver laboratory experiments. The effect of this parametrization on phytoplankton biomass and community composition is tested using present-day and future high-emission (SSP5-8.5) climate forcing. While the projected decrease in future total global phytoplankton biomass in simulations with driver interactions is similar to that in control simulations without driver interactions (5%-6%), interactive driver effects are group-specific. Globally, diatom biomass decreases more with interactive effects compared with the control simulation (-8.1% with interactions vs. no change without interactions). Small-phytoplankton biomass, by contrast, decreases less with on-going climate change when the model accounts for driver interactions (-5.0% vs. -9.0%). The response of global coccolithophore biomass to future climate conditions is even reversed when interactions are considered (+33.2% instead of -10.8%). Regionally, the largest difference in the future phytoplankton community composition between the simulations with and without driver interactions is detected in the Southern Ocean, where diatom biomass decreases (-7.5%) instead of increases (+14.5%), raising the share of small phytoplankton and coccolithophores of total phytoplankton biomass. Hence, interactive effects impact the phytoplankton community structure and related biogeochemical fluxes in a future ocean. Our approach is a first step to integrate the mechanistic understanding of interacting driver effects on phytoplankton growth gained by numerous laboratory experiments into a global ocean biogeochemistry model, aiming toward more realistic future projections of phytoplankton biomass and community composition.

RevDate: 2023-06-02

Bhoite R, Han Y, Chaitanya AK, et al (2023)

Genomic approaches to enhance adaptive plasticity to cope with soil constraints amidst climate change in wheat.

The plant genome [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is varying the availability of resources, soil physicochemical properties, and rainfall events, which collectively determines soil physical and chemical properties. Soil constraints-acidity (pH < 6), salinity (pH ≤ 8.5), sodicity, and dispersion (pH > 8.5)-are major causes of wheat yield loss in arid and semiarid cropping systems. To cope with changing environments, plants employ adaptive strategies such as phenotypic plasticity, a key multifaceted trait, to promote shifts in phenotypes. Adaptive strategies for constrained soils are complex, determined by key functional traits and genotype × environment × management interactions. The understanding of the molecular basis of stress tolerance is particularly challenging for plasticity traits. Advances in sequencing and high-throughput genomics technologies have identified functional alleles in gene-rich regions, haplotypes, candidate genes, mechanisms, and in silico gene expression profiles at various growth developmental stages. Our review focuses on favorable alleles for enhanced gene expression, quantitative trait loci, and epigenetic regulation of plant responses to soil constraints, including heavy metal stress and nutrient limitations. A strategy is then described for quantitative traits in wheat by investigating significant alleles and functional characterization of variants, followed by gene validation using advanced genomic tools, and marker development for molecular breeding and genome editing. Moreover, the review highlights the progress of gene editing in wheat, multiplex gene editing, and novel alleles for smart control of gene expression. Application of these advanced genomic technologies to enhance plasticity traits along with soil management practices will be an effective tool to build yield, stability, and sustainability on constrained soils in the face of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-06-03

Duncanson L, Liang M, Leitold V, et al (2023)

The effectiveness of global protected areas for climate change mitigation.

Nature communications, 14(1):2908.

Forests play a critical role in stabilizing Earth's climate. Establishing protected areas (PAs) represents one approach to forest conservation, but PAs were rarely created to mitigate climate change. The global impact of PAs on the carbon cycle has not previously been quantified due to a lack of accurate global-scale carbon stock maps. Here we used ~412 million lidar samples from NASA's GEDI mission to estimate a total PA aboveground carbon (C) stock of 61.43 Gt (+/- 0.31), 26% of all mapped terrestrial woody C. Of this total, 9.65 + /- 0.88 Gt of additional carbon was attributed to PA status. These higher C stocks are primarily from avoided emissions from deforestation and degradation in PAs compared to unprotected forests. This total is roughly equivalent to one year of annual global fossil fuel emissions. These results underscore the importance of conservation of high biomass forests for avoiding carbon emissions and preserving future sequestration.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Vilà-Cabrera A, Astigarraga J, Jump AS, et al (2023)

Anthropogenic land-use legacies underpin climate change-related risks to forest ecosystems.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(23)00155-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Forest ecosystems with long-lasting human imprints can emerge worldwide as outcomes of land-use cessation. However, the interaction of these anthropogenic legacies with climate change impacts on forests is not well understood. Here, we set out how anthropogenic land-use legacies that persist in forest properties, following alterations in forest distribution, structure, and composition, can interact with climate change stressors. We propose a risk-based framework to identify anthropogenic legacies of land uses in forest ecosystems and quantify the impact of their interaction with climate-related stress on forest responses. Considering anthropogenic land-use legacies alongside environmental drivers of forest ecosystem dynamics will improve our predictive capacity of climate-related risks to forests and our ability to promote ecosystem resilience to climate change.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Deivanayagam TA, English S, Hickel J, et al (2023)

Envisioning environmental equity: climate change, health, and racial justice.

Lancet (London, England) pii:S0140-6736(23)00919-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has a broad range of health impacts and tackling climate change could be the greatest opportunity for improving global health this century. Yet conversations on climate change and health are often incomplete, giving little attention to structural discrimination and the need for racial justice. Racism kills, and climate change kills. Together, racism and climate change interact and have disproportionate effects on the lives of minoritised people both within countries and between the Global North and the Global South. This paper has three main aims. First, to survey the literature on the unequal health impacts of climate change due to racism, xenophobia, and discrimination through a scoping review. We found that racially minoritised groups, migrants, and Indigenous communities face a disproportionate burden of illness and mortality due to climate change in different contexts. Second, this paper aims to highlight inequalities in responsibility for climate change and the effects thereof. A geographical visualisation of responsibility for climate change and projected mortality and disease risk attributable to climate change per 100 000 people in 2050 was conducted. These maps visualise the disproportionate burden of illness and mortality due to climate change faced by the Global South. Our third aim is to highlight the pathways through which climate change, discrimination, and health interact in most affected areas. Case studies, testimony, and policy analysis drawn from multidisciplinary perspectives are presented throughout the paper to elucidate these pathways. The health community must urgently examine and repair the structural discrimination that drives the unequal impacts of climate change to achieve rapid and equitable action.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Roy S, L Ayalon (2023)

"They did not know what they were doing": Climate change and intergenerational compassion.

The Gerontologist pii:7188247 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Compassion is described as an affective experience arising from witnessing the undeserved suffering of another that propels one to provide protection and cooperation. Climate change is often associated with "underserved suffering", especially of younger and future generations. Consequently, contemporary climate discourse has expressed hostility toward older generations for inflicting such suffering. Studies on intergenerational relations within the context of climate change agree that intergenerational solidarity, rather than conflict, is necessary for effective climate action. Since compassion is instrumental to solidarity, in this study, we explore intergenerational climate-related expressions of compassion leading to intergenerational solidarity.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We interviewed 16 climate activists from 8 countries (aged 16-76 years) to understand how they view climate responsibility. Thematic analysis was undertaken to create and explore themes related to intergenerational compassion and solidarity.

RESULTS: Compassion flowed in both directions: from younger to older generations in the form of forgiveness, empathy, and understanding, and from older to younger generations through advocacy, lifestyle changes, and transmission of knowledge and skills. All participants emphasised solutions over accusations. Areas of focus varied between industrialized and developing countries. Cultural factors played an essential role in intergenerational perceptions.

DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Climate change can be a polarizing issue with older adults fielding accusations and younger people facing criticism for demanding climate action. Examples of intergenerational compassion can counter ageism, re-shape climate narratives, encourage intergenerational cooperation, harness the skills of different generations, and create a sustainable world for all ages.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Isa Z, Sawa BA, Abdussalam AF, et al (2023)

Impact of climate change on climate extreme indices in Kaduna River basin, Nigeria.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

This study examined the impact of climate change on climate extreme indices in the Kaduna River basin, Nigeria. Large-scale atmospheric variables derived from the Global Climate Model (GCM), Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) (CanESM2) were used to develop a high-resolution climate using a Statistical Down Scaling Model. The adapted Caussinus-Mestre algorithm for homogenizing networks of temperature series and multivariate bias correction based on an N-dimension probability function were used to homogenize and correct the climate data, respectively. Fifteen climate extreme indices were computed using RClimdex. The coefficient of variance, Kruskal-Wallis test, and the modified Mann-Kendall test were used to assess the variation and trends. Wavelet analysis was used to determine the periodicities of the indices (1980-2020). The findings revealed a significant warming trend with low variability of temperature indices. The moderate variability with an insignificant decreasing trend was found for rainfall indices. Similarly, the future climate indices indicate a continuing positive trend in the temperature extreme indices. The majority of climate indices have a periodicity of less than or equal to 10 years for high frequency, except for PRCPTOT, R10MM, R20MM, Rx5day, SDII, TN90p, and TX90p for temperature indices. The findings conclude that the periodicity pattern of climate extreme indices is related to atmospheric phenomena (such as quasi-biennial oscillation, QBO), which indicate the impact of climate change. As a result, this can serve as an early warning for possible extreme event occurrences in the basin. The CMIP6 should be used to compare with the results of this study to provide a detailed assessment of the current implication of climate change on the catchment.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

van Bergen L, M Birch (2023)

Conflict, climate change and the need for safe spaces: the interlocking problems that urgently need joined up solutions.

Medicine, conflict, and survival, 39(2):111-113.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Demissie TA (2023)

Impact of climate change on hydrologic components using CORDEX Africa climate model in Gilgel Gibe 1 watershed Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 9(6):e16701.

This study aimed to assess the impact of climate change on the hydrological components of Gilgel Gibe-1 using the ensemble of Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiments (CORDEX) Africa Domain namely REMO2009, HIRAM5, CCLM4-8 and RCA4 Regional Climate Models (RCMs) simulations. The performance of these RCM models was evaluated using the observed data from 1985 to 2005 and the ensemble was shown to simulate rainfall and air temperature better than individual RCMs. Then the RCMs ensemble data for historical and future projections from 2026 to 2055 years under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 were corrected for bias and used to evaluate the impact of climate change. A non-linear bias correction and the monthly mean biases corrections method is used to adjust precipitation and temperature respectively. The future projection shows that; rainfall is expected to increase from August to December with maximum values of 1.97-235.23% under RCP4.5. The maximum temperature is expected to increase with maximum value of 1.62 °C under RCP8.5 in the study area. The calibrated and validated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to investigate the impact of climate change on hydrologic components such as surface runoff, lateral flow, water yield, evapotranspiration and sediment yield. The SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly stream flow with the statistical performance of R[2] value of 0.82 and NSE value of 0.72 for calibration and R[2] of 0.79 and NSE of 0.67 for validation. Surface runoff and sediment yield are expected to increase from August to December under RCP4.5 and from August to February under RCP8.5. Overall both surface runoff and sediment yield are expected to increase in the future.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Squires E (2023)

Effects of climate change on patients with respiratory and cardiovascular conditions.

Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987) pii:e12087 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is one of the most significant global challenges and is already having detrimental effects on people's health. Pollution levels and ambient temperatures continue to increase, resulting in higher levels of humidity and pollen production. These environmental threats can affect many vulnerable patients, particularly those with respiratory and cardiovascular conditions, and nurses have a crucial role in raising awareness of the health implications of climate change. This article explores the pathophysiological effects of climate change on patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular disease, and aims to enhance nurses' understanding of the health challenges of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-06-01

Gençay G, B Durkaya (2023)

What is meant by land-use change? Effects of mining activities on forest and climate change.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(6):778 pii:10.1007/s10661-023-11396-2.

The ownership of 99.9% of forests in Turkey belongs to the State. According to the mandatory provisions of the Turkish Constitution of 1982, the ownership of State forests cannot be transferred to third parties. However, forest legislation permits several activities within the State forests, other than forestry, under certain conditions. Thus, in this study, the legal process of mining permits granted in State forests in Turkey was analyzed, and the policies implemented in mining permits were tried to be evaluated. Then, how mining activities affect forestlands and the environment has been compared by taking international studies in the literature into account. The change in the amount of carbon stored in the forests where the land use changed as a result of the given mining permit was calculated using the biomass expansion factor (BEF) method. After the mining permit was granted, 53% of the land-use change occurred in the sample area, and there was a 43% decrease in the amount of carbon stored. According to the results of the analysis, before the mining permit was granted, the amount of carbon stored by the area in 2009 was calculated as 4400.23 tons. However, with the start of mining activities in 2011, nearly half of the trees in the area were cut down, which was caused this value to drop to 1911.12 tons. As a result of the mining activities that continued after this date, it was determined by 2021 that all the trees in the area were cut down, and the amount of carbon stored in the area decreased to zero.

RevDate: 2023-06-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-01

Cavalcante AMB, Sampaio ACP, Duarte AS, et al (2023)

Impacts of climate change on the potential distribution of epiphytic cacti in the Caatinga biome, Brazil.

Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 95(2):e20200904 pii:S0001-37652023000301003.

The Caatinga biome is the largest dry tropical forest region in South America as well as one of the most vulnerable regions in the world to the climate changes forecast for this century. Climate forecasts for the biome include increased air temperature, reduced rainfall and aridization. This biome does not have a homogeneous landscape; instead it has several rainforest enclaves. This article describes a study to model the potential distribution of four epiphytic cactus species (Epiphyllum phyllanthus (L.) Haw., Rhipsalis floccosa Salm-Dyck ex Pfeiff., Rhipsalis lindbergiana K. Schum and Rhipsalis russellii Britton & Rose.) in the biome under future climate scenarios and traces out a prognosis for the enclaves and the biome. For that purpose, we used the MaxEnt modeling method, considering two future time intervals (2041-2060 and 2061-2080) and the interval 1961-1990 for the current situation, with the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The projections for future potential distribution showed a spatial contractions greater than 88% found in the areas of high potential presence for the target species throughout the biome and in all the scenarios. The results strengthen the expectation of aridization in the Caatinga biome, with the loss or shrinkage of rainforest enclaves as time progresses.

RevDate: 2023-06-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-01

Frémont P, Gehlen M, O Jaillon (2023)

Plankton biogeography in the 21st century and impacts of climate change: advances through genomics.

Comptes rendus biologies, 346:13-24.

This article summarizes recent advances in our knowledge of plankton biogeography obtained by genomic approaches and the impacts of global warming on it. Large-scale comparison of the genomic content of samples of different plankton size fractions revealed a partitioning of the oceans into genomic provinces and the impact of major oceanic currents on them. By defining ecological niches, these provinces are extrapolated to all oceans, with the exception of the Arctic Ocean. By the end of the 21st century, a major restructuring of these provinces is projected in response to a high emission greenhouse gas scenario over 50% of the surface of the studied oceans. Such a restructuring could lead to a decrease in export production by 4%. Finally, obtaining assembled sequences of a large number of plankton genomes defining this biogeography has allowed to better characterize the genomic content of the provinces and to identify the species structuring them. These genomes similarly enabled a better description of potential future changes of plankton communities under climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Sanders B, M Davis (2023)

Effects of Climate Change and Air Pollution on Perinatal Health.

Journal of midwifery & women's health [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is often framed as an environmental concern; however, the burning of fossil fuels both directly and indirectly impacts air quality and, thus, human health. Gas byproducts of combustion lead to increased levels of atmospheric ozone and carbon dioxide, which in turn elevate surface temperatures of the earth. This process exposes individuals to respiratory irritants and contributes to increased frequency of natural disasters such as wildfires, negatively impacting respiratory health. Normal physiologic changes in the respiratory system make pregnant people particularly vulnerable to the effects of air pollution. Asthma and allergic rhinitis are 2 common respiratory diseases that can be triggered by poor air quality. Solutions to limit the impact of climate change on respiratory disease include risk mitigation and reduction of fossil fuel consumption on individual, organization, and community levels. Midwives are well positioned as clinicians to educate people about individual strategies to reduce environmental exposure to respiratory irritants and advocate for policy changes to limit future health effects of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-06-01
CmpDate: 2023-06-01

Houniuhi C (2023)

Why I'm leading Pacific Islands students in the fight on climate change.

Nature, 618(7963):9.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Hensel MJS, Patrick CJ, Orth RJ, et al (2023)

Rise of Ruppia in Chesapeake Bay: Climate change-driven turnover of foundation species creates new threats and management opportunities.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(23):e2220678120.

Global change has converted many structurally complex and ecologically and economically valuable coastlines to bare substrate. In the structural habitats that remain, climate-tolerant and opportunistic species are increasing in response to environmental extremes and variability. The shifting of dominant foundation species identity with climate change poses a unique conservation challenge because species vary in their responses to environmental stressors and to management. Here, we combine 35 y of watershed modeling and biogeochemical water quality data with species comprehensive aerial surveys to describe causes and consequences of turnover in seagrass foundation species across 26,000 ha of habitat in the Chesapeake Bay. Repeated marine heatwaves have caused 54% retraction of the formerly dominant eelgrass (Zostera marina) since 1991, allowing 171% expansion of the temperature-tolerant widgeongrass (Ruppia maritima) that has likewise benefited from large-scale nutrient reductions. However, this phase shift in dominant seagrass identity now presents two significant shifts for management: Widgeongrass meadows are not only responsible for rapid, extensive recoveries but also for the largest crashes over the last four decades; and, while adapted to high temperatures, are much more susceptible than eelgrass to nutrient pulses driven by springtime runoff. Thus, by selecting for rapid post-disturbance recolonization but low resistance to punctuated freshwater flow disturbance, climate change could threaten the Chesapeake Bay seagrass' ability to provide consistent fishery habitat and sustain functioning over time. We demonstrate that understanding the dynamics of the next generation of foundation species is a critical management priority, because shifts from relatively stable habitat to high interannual variability can have far-reaching consequences across marine and terrestrial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Worku TA, Aman TF, Wubneh MA, et al (2023)

Impact of climate change on shumbrite small scale irrigation project, South Gojjam subbasin, Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16352.

Climate change has the potential to affect climate parameters like rainfall and temperature which lead to a change in the irrigation water requirement of the irrigation system. As irrigation water requirement is highly dependent on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, climate change impact studies are necessary. Therefore, this study aims to assess the impact of climate change on the irrigation water requirement of the Shumbrite irrigation project. For this study, climate variables of precipitation and temperature were generated from CORDEX-Africa simulations downscaled from MPI Global Circulation Model (GCM) under three emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5). The climate data covers from 1981 to 2005 for the baseline period and 2021-2045 for the future period for all scenarios. Future precipitation shows a decrease for all scenarios with a maximum decrease under RCP2.6 (4.2%) and temperature show an increase in the future as compared to the baseline period. The reference evapotranspiration and Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) were calculated by using CROPWAT 8.0 software. Results showed that the mean annual reference evapotranspiration is expected to increase in the future by 2.7%, 2.6%, and 3.3% for RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 respectively as compared to the baseline period. Mean annual irrigation water requirement shows an increase of 2.58%, 0.74%, and 8.4% for the future under RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 respectively. The Crop Water Requirement (CWR) also increases for the future period under all RCP scenarios, with maximum CWR for tomato, potato, and pepper crops. To ensure the sustainability of the project, crops with high irrigation water requirements should be replaced by other crops with low water requirements.

RevDate: 2023-05-31

Zhang Q, Akhtar R, Saif ANM, et al (2023)

The symmetric and asymmetric effects of climate change on rice productivity in Malaysia.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16118.

The current study aims to examine the symmetric and asymmetric effects of climate change (CC) on rice productivity (RP) in Malaysia. The Autoregressive-Distributed Lag (ARDL) and Non-linear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (NARDL) models were employed in this study. Time series data from 1980 to 2019 were collected from the World Bank and the Department of Statistics, Malaysia. The estimated results are also validated using Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS), Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS), and Canonical Cointegration Regression (CCR). The findings of symmetric ARDL show that rainfall and cultivated area have significant and advantageous effects on rice output. The NARDL-bound test outcomes display that climate change has an asymmetrical long-run impact on rice productivity. Climate change has had varying degrees of positive and negative impacts on rice productivity in Malaysia. Positive changes in temperature and rainfall have a substantial and destructive impact on RP. At the same time, negative variations in temperature and rainfall have a substantial and positive impact on rice production in the Malaysian agriculture sector. Changes in cultivated areas, both positive and negative, have a long-term optimistic impact on rice output. Additionally, we discovered that only temperature affects rice output in both directions. Malaysian policymakers must understand the symmetric and asymmetric effects of CC on RP and agricultural policies that will promote sustainable agricultural development and food security.

RevDate: 2023-05-30

Xu K, Liu X, Zhao C, et al (2023)

Nitrogen deposition further increases Ambrosia trifida root exudate invasiveness under global warming.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 195(6):759.

Invasive plants can change the soil ecological environment in the invasion area to adapt to their growth and reproduction through root exudates. Root exudates are the most direct manifestation of plant responses to external environmental changes, but there is a lack of studies on root exudates of invasive plants in the context of inevitable global warming and nitrogen deposition. In this research, we used widely targeted metabolomics to investigate Ambrosia trifida root exudates during seedling and maturity under warming and nitrogen deposition to reveal the possible mechanisms of A. trifida adaptation to climate change. The results showed that the organic acids increased under warming condition but decreased after nitrogen addition in the seedling stage. Phenolic acids increased greatly after nitrogen addition in the mature stage. Most phenolic acids were annotated in the phenylpropane metabolic pathway and tyrosine metabolism. Therefore, nitrogen deposition may increase the adaptability of A. trifida through root exudates, making it more invasive under global warming. The results provide new ideas for preventing and controlling the invasion of A. trifida under climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-29

Williams CE, Williams CL, ML Logan (2023)

Climate change is not just global warming: Multidimensional impacts on animal gut microbiota.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has rapidly altered many ecosystems, with detrimental effects for biodiversity across the globe. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the microorganisms that live in and on animals can substantially affect host health and physiology, and the structure and function of these microbial communities can be highly sensitive to environmental variables. To date, most studies have focused on the effects of increasing mean temperature on gut microbiota, yet other aspects of climate are also shifting, including temperature variation, seasonal dynamics, precipitation and the frequency of severe weather events. This array of environmental pressures might interact in complex and non-intuitive ways to impact gut microbiota and consequently alter animal fitness. Therefore, understanding the impacts of climate change on animals requires a consideration of multiple types of environmental stressors and their interactive effects on gut microbiota. Here, we present an overview of some of the major findings in research on climatic effects on microbial communities in the animal gut. Although ample evidence has now accumulated that shifts in mean temperature can have important effects on gut microbiota and their hosts, much less work has been conducted on the effects of other climatic variables and their interactions. We provide recommendations for additional research needed to mechanistically link climate change with shifts in animal gut microbiota and host fitness.

RevDate: 2023-05-30
CmpDate: 2023-05-30

Fatimi AS, O Mahmud (2022)

The costs of protecting health in the face of climate change - feasibility lies in proactivity.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 72(12):2584.

RevDate: 2023-05-30
CmpDate: 2023-05-30

Malchow AK, Hartig F, Reeg J, et al (2023)

Demography-environment relationships improve mechanistic understanding of range dynamics under climate change.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 378(1881):20220194.

Species respond to climate change with range and abundance dynamics. To better explain and predict them, we need a mechanistic understanding of how the underlying demographic processes are shaped by climatic conditions. Here, we aim to infer demography-climate relationships from distribution and abundance data. For this, we developed spatially explicit, process-based models for eight Swiss breeding bird populations. These jointly consider dispersal, population dynamics and the climate-dependence of three demographic processes-juvenile survival, adult survival and fecundity. The models were calibrated to 267 nationwide abundance time series in a Bayesian framework. The fitted models showed moderate to excellent goodness-of-fit and discriminatory power. The most influential climatic predictors for population performance were the mean breeding-season temperature and the total winter precipitation. Contemporary climate change benefitted the population trends of typical mountain birds leading to lower population losses or even slight increases, whereas lowland birds were adversely affected. Our results emphasize that generic process-based models embedded in a robust statistical framework can improve our predictions of range dynamics and may allow disentangling of the underlying processes. For future research, we advocate a stronger integration of experimental and empirical studies in order to gain more precise insights into the mechanisms by which climate affects populations. This article is part of the theme issue 'Detecting and attributing the causes of biodiversity change: needs, gaps and solutions'.

RevDate: 2023-05-29
CmpDate: 2023-05-29

Yaqoob E, Javed S, SA Khan (2023)

Trauma care in the face of climate change in Pakistan.

Lancet (London, England), 401(10390):1769-1770.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Wang Z, Xing A, H Shen (2023)

Effects of nitrogen addition on the combined global warming potential of three major soil greenhouse gases: A global meta-analysis.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00850-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Increased nitrogen (N) deposition has a great impact on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and numerous studies have revealed the individual effects of N addition on three major GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O). Nevertheless, quantitative evaluation of the effects of N addition on the global warming potential (GWP) of GHGs based on simultaneous measurements is needed not only to better understand the comprehensive effect of N deposition on GHGs but also for precise estimation of ecosystem GHG fluxes in response to N deposition. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis using a dataset with 124 simultaneous measurements of the three major GHGs from 54 studies to assess the effects of N addition on the combined global warming potential (CGWP) of these soil GHGs. The results showed that the relative sensitivity of the CGWP to N addition was 0.43%/kg N ha[-1] yr[-1], indicating an increase in the CGWP. Among the ecosystems studied, wetlands are considerable GHG sources with the highest relative sensitivity to N addition. Overall, CO2 contributed the most to the N addition-induced CGWP change (72.61%), followed by N2O (27.02%) and CH4 (0.37%), but the contributions of the three GHGs varied across ecosystems. Moreover, the effect size of the CGWP had a positive relationship with N addition rate and mean annual temperature and a negative relationship with mean annual precipitation. Our findings suggest that N deposition may influence global warming from the perspective of the CGWP of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Our results also provide reference values that may reduce uncertainties in future projections of the effects of N deposition on GHGs.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Chang H, Zhao Y, Bisinella V, et al (2023)

Climate change impacts of conventional sewage sludge treatment and disposal.

Water research, 240:120109 pii:S0043-1354(23)00545-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Sewage sludge (SS) management remains a challenge across the world. We quantified the potential climate change impacts of eight conventional technology configurations (TCs) for SS treatment and disposal by considering four different energy exchanges and using a life cycle assessment (LCA) model that employed uncertainty distributions for 104 model parameters. All TCs showed large climate change loads and savings (net values ranging from 123 to 1148 kg CO2-eq/t TS) when the energy exchange was with a fossil-based energy system, whereas loads and savings were approximately three times lower when the energy exchange was with a renewable energy system. Uncertainty associated with the climate change results was more than 100% with fossil-energy exchange and low TS content of SS but was lower for renewable energy. Landfilling had the greatest climate change impact, while thermal drying with incineration had the highest probability of providing better climate change performance than other TCs. The global sensitivity analysis identified nine critical technological parameters. Many of them can be easily measured for relevant SS and technology levels to improve specific estimates of climate change impact. When all scenarios were optimized to the 20% best cases, thermal drying with incineration outperformed the other TCs. This paper contributes to better quantifying the climate change impacts of different technologies used for sludge treatment given changing energy systems and identifies crucial parameters for further technological development.

RevDate: 2023-05-29
CmpDate: 2023-05-29

Rogers HH, Tucker M, Couig MP, et al (2023)

Facilitating an Interprofessional Course on Climate Change and Public Health Preparedness.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(10):.

In this paper, we share the theories that guided the design of an interprofessional education course on Climate Change and Public Health Preparedness and how the course supported students' professional interest and action competence as they move through their education and into their professional work in the context of our unfolding climate crisis. The course was guided by the public health emergency preparedness domains and was built to allow for students to explore applications of the content for themselves and their own profession. We designed the learning activities to support personal and professional interest development and help students move into perceived and demonstrated action competence. For the evaluation of our course, we asked the following research questions: What kinds of personal and professional commitments to action did students propose by the end of the course? Did these vary in depth and specificity and by the number of credits they enrolled in? In what ways did students develop personal and professional action competence over the course? Finally, how did they show personal, professional, and collective agency related to the course content on adaptation, preparedness, and mitigation of the health impacts from climate change? Using qualitative analysis guided by action competence and interest development theories, we coded student writing from course assignments. We also conducted comparative statistical analysis to assess differential impacts for students who enrolled for one versus three credits. The results show that this course design supported students' progression of knowledge and perceived ability in specific individual and professional collective actions to reduce the health impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Longman J, Patrick R, Bernays S, et al (2023)

Three Reasons Why Expecting 'Recovery' in the Context of the Mental Health Impacts of Climate Change Is Problematic.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(10): pii:ijerph20105882.

Global warming is bringing with it continued long-term changes in the climate system. Extreme weather-related events, which are already becoming a daily reality around the world, are predicted to be more intense and frequent in the future. The widespread occurrence of these events and climate change more broadly are being experienced collectively and at scale and do not affect populations evenly. These climate changes have profound impacts on mental health and wellbeing. Existing reactive responses include frequent implied and direct references to the concept of 'recovery'. This is problematic in three ways: it conceives of extreme weather events as single, one-off occurrences; implies their unexpected nature; and contains an integral assumption of an end point where individuals/communities are 'recovered'. Models of mental health and wellbeing support (including funding) need to change, shifting away from 'recovery' towards a focus on adaptation. We argue that this presents a more constructive approach that may be used to collectively support communities.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Adam D, B Thompson (2023)

Audio long read: Can giant surveys of scientists fight misinformation on COVID, climate change and more?.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Li ZJ, Yu CY, Liu SY, et al (2023)

Radial growth responses of three coniferous species to climate change on the southern slope of Funiu Mountains, China.

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 34(5):1178-1186.

Funiu Mountains are located in a transition region between warm temperate zone and northern subtropical region, where a variety of plant species are distributed with sensitive response to climate change. Their response characteristics to climate change are still unclear. We developed the basal area increment (BAI) index chronologies of Pinus tabuliformis, P. armandii, and P. massoniana in the Funiu Mountains to examine their growth trend and their sensitivity to climatic change. The results showed that the BAI chronologies gave a clue that the three conife-rous species had similar radial growth rate. The large Gleichlufigkeit (GLK) indices among the three BAI chronologies also indicated that the three species had a similar growth trend. Results of correlation analysis showed that the three species also had similar response to climatic change to a certain extent. Radial growth of all the three species was significantly positively correlated with the total monthly precipitation in December of previous year and June of the current year, but negatively correlated with the precipitation in September and the mean monthly temperature in June of the current year. There were some differences in the responses of the three coniferous to climate change. P. massoniana had a significant negative correlation with the mean temperature in March, and a significant positive correlation with the precipitation in March, while P. armandii and P. massoniana were affected negatively by the maximum temperature in August. Results of the moving correlation analysis showed that the three coniferous species had some similar sensitivity to climate change. Their positive responses to precipitation in previous December consistently increased, as well as the negative correlation with precipitation in current September. As to P. masso-niana, they had a relatively stronger climatic sensitivity and higher stability than the other two species. It would be more suitable for P. massoniana trees on the southern slope of the Funiu Mountains under global warming.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Veldhuizen R (2023)

[Climate change and the health frame].

Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde, 167: pii:D7598.

Climate change is framed often as a health issue, to urge quick action and policy. But a health frame doesn't seamlessly mix well with existing frames and climate change, and there is no guarantee that a health frame will finally convince people into action.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Tanaka K, Mudgil Y, M Tunc-Ozdemir (2023)

Editorial: Abiotic stress and plant immunity - a challenge in climate change.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1197435.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Fanta SS, Yesuf MB, TA Demissie (2023)

Investigation of climate change impact on the optimal operation of koka reservoir, upper awash watershed, Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16287.

The objectives of this study were to predict the inflow and optimal operation of the Koka reservoir under the impact of climate change for the 2020s (2011-2040), 2050s (2041-2070), and 2080s (2071-2100) with respect to the reference period (1981-2010). The optimal elevation, storage, and hydropower capacity were modeled using the HEC-ResPRM, whereas the inflow to Koka reservoir was simulated using the calibrated SWAT model. Based on the result, the average annual inflow of the reference period was 139.675 Million Cubic Meter (MCM). However, from 2011 to 2100 an increase of +4.179% to +11.694 is expected. The inflow analysis at different flow regimes shows that the high flow may decline by (-28.528%) to (-22.856%) due to climate change. On the other hand, the low flow is projected to increase by (+78.407%) to (+90.401%) as compared to the low flow of the reference period. Therefore, the impact of climate change on the inflow to the Koka reservoir is positive. The study also indicates that the optimum values of elevation and storage capacity of the Koka reservoir during the reference period were 1590.771 m above mean sea level (a.m.s.l) and 1860.818 MCM, respectively. However, the optimum level and storage capacity are expected to change by (-0.016%) to (-0.039%) and (-2.677%) to (+6.164%), respectively from 2020s to 2080s as compared with their corresponding values during the reference period. On the other hand, the optimum power capacity during the reference period was 16.489 MCM, while it will likely fluctuates between (-0.948%) - (+0.386%) in the face of climate change. The study shows that the optimum elevation, storage, and power capacity were all higher than the corresponding observed values. However, the occurrence month of their peak value will likely shift due to climate change. The study can be used as a first-hand information for the development of reservoir operation guidelines that can account for the uncertainty caused by the impacts of climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-27

Sztandera-Tymoczek M, A Szuster-Ciesielska (2023)

Fungal Aeroallergens-The Impact of Climate Change.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(5):.

The incidence of allergic diseases worldwide is rapidly increasing, making allergies a modern pandemic. This article intends to review published reports addressing the role of fungi as causative agents in the development of various overreactivity-related diseases, mainly affecting the respiratory tract. After presenting the basic information on the mechanisms of allergic reactions, we describe the impact of fungal allergens on the development of the allergic diseases. Human activity and climate change have an impact on the spread of fungi and their plant hosts. Particular attention should be paid to microfungi, i.e., plant parasites that may be an underestimated source of new allergens.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Liu T, Liu H, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Climate Change Impacts on the Potential Distribution Pattern of Osphya (Coleoptera: Melandryidae), an Old but Small Beetle Group Distributed in the Northern Hemisphere.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050476.

Exploring the development of species distribution patterns under climate change is the basis of biogeography and macroecology. However, under the background of global climate change, few studies focus on how the distribution pattern and the range of insects have or will change in response to long-term climate change. An old but small, Northern-Hemisphere-distributed beetle group Osphya is an ideal subject to conduct the study in this aspect. Here, based on a comprehensive geographic dataset, we analyzed the global distribution pattern of Osphya using ArcGIS techniques, which declared a discontinuous and uneven distribution pattern across the USA, Europe, and Asia. Furthermore, we predicted the suitable habitats of Osphya under different climate scenarios via the MaxEnt model. The results showed that the high suitability areas were always concentrated in the European Mediterranean and the western coast of USA, while a low suitability exhibited in Asia. Moreover, by integrating the analyses of biogeography and habitat suitability, we inferred that the Osphya species conservatively prefer a warm, stable, and rainy climate, and they tend to expand towards higher latitude in response to the climate warming from the past to future. These results are helpful in exploring the species diversity and protection of Osphya.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Gao H, Qian Q, Liu L, et al (2023)

Predicting the Distribution of Sclerodermus sichuanensis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) under Climate Change in China.

Insects, 14(5): pii:insects14050475.

Sclerodermus sichuanensis is the natural enemy of the longicorn beetle due to its strong attack ability and high parasitic rate. Its good resistance and fecundity make it have significant biological control value. The Maxent model and ArcGIS software were used to simulate the current distribution of S. sichuanensis in China by combining the known distribution information and environmental variables and predict the suitable area of the 2050s (2041-2060) and 2090s (2081-2000) under three climate scenarios (SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5. and SSP5-8.5). The results showed that the Mean Diurnal Range (bio2), Min Temperature of the Coldest Month (bio6), Precipitation of the Warmest Quarter (bio18), and Max Temperature of the Warmest Month (bio5) were the key environmental variables affecting the distribution of S. sichuanensis. Southwest China and part of North China are the main concentrations of the current high-suitability areas of S. sichuanensis. The moderately suitable areas are concentrated in South China and Central China. Under the SSP5-8.5 scenario, the suitable area predicted in the 2050s will expand significantly to North China and Northwest China, with a total increase of 81,295 km[2]. This work provides an essential reference for future research on S. sichuanensis and the application of forestry pest control.

RevDate: 2023-05-26

Biagioni B, Cecchi L, D'Amato G, et al (2023)

Environmental influences on childhood asthma: Climate change.

Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 34(5):e13961.

Climate change is a key environmental factor for allergic respiratory diseases, especially in childhood. This review describes the influences of climate change on childhood asthma considering the factors acting directly, indirectly and with their amplifying interactions. Recent findings on the direct effects of temperature and weather changes, as well as the influences of climate change on air pollution, allergens, biocontaminants and their interplays, are discussed herein. The review also focusses on the impact of climate change on biodiversity loss and on migration status as a model to study environmental effects on childhood asthma onset and progression. Adaptation and mitigation strategies are urgently needed to prevent further respiratory diseases and human health damage in general, especially in younger and future generations.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Hadré E, Küpper J, Tschirschwitz J, et al (2023)

Quantifying generational and geographical inequality of climate change.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8483.

We relate greenhouse gas emissions and global warming experienced over a lifetime by individual birth cohorts, resolved by world regions. We reveal outstanding geographical inequality between high- and low-emission regions corresponding to the nations of the Global North and Global South, respectively. Additionally, we highlight the inequality different birth cohorts (generations) experience regarding the burden of recent and ongoing warming temperatures as a time-delayed consequence of past emissions. We achieve precise quantification of the number of birth cohorts and populations who see a difference between Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), emphasizing the potential for action and the chances for improvement that exist under the different scenarios. The method is designed to realistically display inequality, as it is experienced by people while motivating action and change needed to achieve emission reduction to reduce climate change and generational and geographical inequality simultaneously.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Leschied JR, Maturen KE, Brown M, et al (2023)

Letter to the Editor: Radiology Action for Climate Change.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: Urgent Action Needed for Africa and the World: Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

The Journal of nutrition, 152(12):2631-2633.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Alcantara LB, Creencia LA, Madarcos JRV, et al (2023)

Climate change awareness and risk perceptions in the coastal marine ecosystem of Palawan, Philippines.

UCL open environment, 5:e054.

Understanding coastal communities' awareness and risk perceptions of climate change impact is essential in developing effective risk communication tools and mitigation strategies to reduce the vulnerability of these communities. In this study, we examined coastal communities' climate change awareness and risk perceptions of climate change impact on the coastal marine ecosystem, sea level rise impact on the mangrove ecosystem and as a factor affecting coral reefs and seagrass beds. The data were gathered by conducting face-to-face surveys with 291 respondents from the coastal areas of Taytay, Aborlan and Puerto Princesa in Palawan, Philippines. Results showed that most participants (82%) perceived that climate change is happening and a large majority (75%) perceived it as a risk to the coastal marine ecosystem. Local temperature rise and excessive rainfall were found to be significant predictors of climate change awareness. Sea level rise was perceived by most participants (60%) to cause coastal erosion and to affect the mangrove ecosystem. On coral reefs and seagrass ecosystems, anthropogenic drivers and climate change were perceived to have a high impact, while marine livelihoods had a low impact. In addition, we found that climate change risk perceptions were influenced by direct experiences of extreme weather events (i.e., temperature rise and excessive rainfall) and climate-related livelihood damages (i.e., declining income). Climate change risk perceptions were also found to vary with household income, education, age group and geographical location. The results suggest that addressing poverty and effectively communicating climate change risks can improve climate change awareness and risk perceptions.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Costa JM, Egipto R, Aguiar FC, et al (2023)

The role of soil temperature in mediterranean vineyards in a climate change context.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1145137.

The wine sector faces important challenges related to sustainability issues and the impact of climate change. More frequent extreme climate conditions (high temperatures coupled with severe drought periods) have become a matter of concern for the wine sector of typically dry and warm regions, such as the Mediterranean European countries. Soil is a natural resource crucial to sustaining the equilibrium of ecosystems, economic growth and people's prosperity worldwide. In viticulture, soils have a great influence on crop performance (growth, yield and berry composition) and wine quality, as the soil is a central component of the terroir. Soil temperature (ST) affects multiple physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in the soil as well as in plants growing on it. Moreover, the impact of ST is stronger in row crops such as grapevine, since it favors soil exposition to radiation and favors evapotranspiration. The role of ST on crop performance remains poorly described, especially under more extreme climatic conditions. Therefore, a better understanding of the impact of ST in vineyards (vine plants, weeds, microbiota) can help to better manage and predict vineyards' performance, plant-soil relations and soil microbiome under more extreme climate conditions. In addition, soil and plant thermal data can be integrated into Decision Support Systems (DSS) to support vineyard management. In this paper, the role of ST in Mediterranean vineyards is reviewed namely in terms of its effect on vines' ecophysiological and agronomical performance and its relation with soil properties and soil management strategies. The potential use of imaging approaches, e.g. thermography, is discussed as an alternative or complementary tool to assess ST and vertical canopy temperature profiles/gradients in vineyards. Soil management strategies to mitigate the negative impact of climate change, optimize ST variation and crop thermal microclimate (leaf and berry) are proposed and discussed, with emphasis on Mediterranean systems.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Umair M, Hu X, Cheng Q, et al (2023)

Distribution patterns of fern species richness along elevations the Tibetan Plateau in China: regional differences and effects of climate change variables.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1178603.

Because of its distinct geological history, frigid temperature, and rich biodiversity, the Tibetan Plateau gives an excellent opportunity to assess the effect of climate change on determining species richness. The distribution patterns of fern species richness and their underlying processes have long been a matter of debate in ecology research, with various hypotheses suggested over the years. Here, we explore richness patterns of fern species in Xizang on the southern and western Tibetan Plateau along an elevational gradient (100-5300 m a.s.l.) and evaluate climatic factors causing the spatial decrease and increase of fern species richness. We used regression and correlation analyses to relate the species richness with elevation and climatic variables. Throughout our research, we identified 441 fern species from 97 genera and 30 families. The Dryopteridaceae family (S = 97) has the highest number of species. All energy-temperature and moisture variables except drought index (DI) had a significant correlation with elevation. The altitude has a unimodal relationship with fern species, and the species richness is the largest at an altitude of 2500 m. The horizontal richness pattern of fern species on the Tibetan Plateau also showed that areas of extremely high species richness are mainly distributed in Zayü and Mêdog County, with an average elevation of 2800 m and 2500 m, respectively. The richness of fern species has a log-linear relationship with moisture-related factors such as moisture index (MI), mean annual precipitation (MAP), and drought index (DI). Because the peak corresponds spatially with the MI index, the unimodal patterns confirm the significance of moisture on fern distributions. Our results showed that mid-altitudes have the highest species richness (high MI), but high elevations have lower richness due to high solar radiation, and low elevations have lower richness due to high temperatures and low precipitation. Twenty-two of the total species are classified as nearly threatened, vulnerable or critically endangered, and varied in elevation from 800 m to 4200 m. Such relationships between the distribution and richness of fern species and climates on the Tibetan Plateau can provide data support for future predictions of the impacts of climate change scenarios on fern species, the ecological protection of representative fern species, and references for the planning and construction of nature reserves in the future.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Gao M, Zhao G, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Priority conservation area of Larix gmelinii under climate change: application of an ensemble modeling.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1177307.

Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Kuzen is a major tree species with high economic and ecological value in the Greater Khingan Mountains coniferous forest of Northeast China. Reconstructing the priority Conservation Area of Larix gmelinii under Climate could provide a scientific basis for its germplasm conservation and management. The present study used ensemble and Marxan model simulations to predict species distribution areas and delineate priority conservation areas for Larix gmelinii in relation to productivity characteristics, understory plant diversity characteristics, and climate change impacts. The study revealed that the Greater Khingan Mountains and the Xiaoxing'an Mountains, with an area of approximately 300 974.2 km[2], were the most suitable for L. gmelinii. The stand productivity of L. gmelinii in the most suitable area was significantly higher than that in the less suitable and marginally suitable areas, but understory plant diversity was not dominant. The increase in temperature under future climate change scenarios will reduce the potential distribution and area under L. gmelinii; the species will migrate to higher latitudes of the Greater Khingan Mountains, while the degree of niche migration will gradually increase. Under the 2090s-SSP585 climate scenario, the most suitable area for L. gmelinii will completely disappear, and the climate model niche will be completely separated. Therefore, the protected area of L. gmelinii was demarcated with a target of the productivity characteristics, understory plant diversity characteristics and climate change sensitive area, and the current key protected area was 8.38 × 10[4] km[2]. Overall, the study's findings will lay a foundation for the protection and rational development and utilization of cold temperate coniferous forests dominated by L. gmelinii in the northern forested region of the Greater Khingan Mountains.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Chmura HE, Duncan C, Burrell G, et al (2023)

Climate change is altering the physiology and phenology of an arctic hibernator.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 380(6647):846-849.

Climate warming is rapid in the Arctic, yet impacts to biological systems are unclear because few long-term studies linking biophysiological processes with environmental conditions exist for this data-poor region. In our study spanning 25 years in the Alaskan Arctic, we demonstrate that climate change is affecting the timing of freeze-thaw cycles in the active layer of permafrost soils and altering the physiology of arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Soil freeze has been delayed and, in response, arctic ground squirrels have delayed when they up-regulate heat production during torpor to prevent freezing. Further, the termination of hibernation in spring has advanced 4 days per decade in females but not males. Continued warming and phenological shifts will alter hibernation energetics, change the seasonal availability of this important prey species, and potentially disrupt intraspecific interactions.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Graham F (2023)

Daily briefing: What 1.5 ℃ of global warming really means.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Sun H, Ma J, L Wang (2023)

Changes in per capita wheat production in China in the context of climate change and population growth.

Food security, 15(3):597-612.

UNLABELLED: To address challenges associated with climate change, population growth and decline in international trade linked to the COVID-19 pandemic, determining whether national crop production can meet populations' requirements and contribute to socio-economic resilience is crucial. Three crop models and three global climate models were used in conjunction with predicted population changes. Compared with wheat production in 2000-2010, total production and per capita wheat production were significantly (P < 0.05) increase in 2020-2030, 2030-2040 and 2040-2050, respectively, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 due to climate change in China. However, when considering population and climate changes, the predicted per capita production values were 125.3 ± 0.3, 127.1 ± 2.3 and 128.8 ± 2.7 kg during the 2020-2030, 2030-2040, 2040-2050 periods under RCP4.5, or 126.2 ± 0.7, 128.7 ± 2.5, and 131.0 ± 4.1 kg, respectively, under RCP8.5. These values do not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the baseline level (127.9 ± 1.3 kg). The average per capita production in Loess Plateau and Gansu-Xinjiang subregions declined. In contrast, per capita production in the Huanghuai, Southwestern China, and Middle-Lower Yangtze Valleys subregions increased. The results suggest that climate change will increase total wheat production in China, but population change will partly offset the benefits to the grain market. In addition, domestic grain trade will be influenced by both climate and population changes. Wheat supply capacity will decline in the main supply areas. Further research is required to address effects of the changes on more crops and in more countries to obtain deeper understanding of the implications of climate change and population growth for global food production and assist formulation of robust policies to enhance food security.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12571-023-01351-x.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Tirivangasi HM, Dzvimbo MA, Chaminuka N, et al (2023)

Assessing climate change and urban poverty in the context of the COVID 19 lockdowns: Rethinking personality and societal challenges in Zimbabwe.

Scientific African, 20:e01710.

The study explored the challenges urbanites faced due to climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic. Urban vulnerability ills such as food insecurity, poverty and malnutrition have increased as climate change and COVID-19 jointly affect societies. Urban residents have resorted to urban farming and street vending as coping strategies. COVID-19 protocols and strategies for social distancing have compromised the urban poor livelihoods. Due to lockdown protocols such as curfew, closure of businesses, and the limited number of people doing certain activities, the urban poor often compromised lockdown rules to earn a living. The study used document analysis to gather data on climate change and poverty amidst the COVID-19 pandemic. Academic journals, newspaper articles, books and information from various reliable websites were used for data collection. Content and thematic analysis were used to analyse data, while data triangulation from various sources enhanced data reliability and trustworthiness. The study found that climate change increased food insecurity in urban areas. Low agricultural output and climate change impacts compromised food availability and affordability for urbanites. The COVID-19 protocols increased financial constraints on urbanites as lockdown restrictions negatively impacted income from formal and informal jobs. The study recommends looking beyond the virus for prevention strategies to improve poor peoples' livelihoods. Countries must develop response strategies to cushion the urban poor from climate change and the COVID-19 impact. Developing countries are urged to sustainably adapt to climate change through scientific innovation to promote people's livelihoods.

RevDate: 2023-05-25
CmpDate: 2023-05-24

Abermann J, Vandecrux B, Scher S, et al (2023)

Learning from Alfred Wegener's pioneering field observations in West Greenland after a century of climate change.

Scientific reports, 13(1):7583.

The cryosphere in Greenland is currently undergoing strong changes. While remote sensing improves our understanding of spatial and temporal changes across scales, particularly our knowledge of conditions during the pre-satellite era is fragmented. Therefore, high-quality field data from that period can be particularly valuable to better understand changes of the cryosphere in Greenland at climate time scales. At Graz University, the last work-place of Alfred Wegener we have access to the extensive expedition results from their epic 1929-1931 expedition to Greenland. The expedition coincides with the warmest phase of the Arctic early twentieth century warm period. We present an overview of the main findings of the Wegener expedition archive and set it into context with further monitoring activities that occurred since, as well as the results from reanalysis products and satellite imagery. We find that firn temperatures have increased significantly, while snow and firn densities and have remained similar or decreased since. Local conditions at the Qaamarujup Sermia have changed strongly, with a reduction in length of more than 2 km, in thickness by up to 120 m and a rise in terminus position of approximately 300 m. The elevation of the snow line of the years 1929 and 1930 was similar to the one from the extreme years 2012 and 2019. Compared to the satellite era, we find that during the time of the Wegener expedition fjord ice extent was smaller in early spring and larger in late spring. We demonstrate that a well-documented snapshot of archival data can provide a local and regional context for contemporary climate change and that it can serve as the basis for process-based studies on the atmospheric drivers of glacier changes.

RevDate: 2023-05-25

Washbourne CL, Bell S, D Osborn (2021)

Community responses to climate change: Editorial call for submissions to UCL Open: Environment Special Series.

UCL open environment, 3:e028.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Guidoboni MV, Duparque A, Boissy J, et al (2023)

Conservation agriculture reduces climate change impact of a popcorn and wheat crop rotation.

PloS one, 18(5):e0285586.

Urgent action is needed to ensure humanity's future under climate change. Agriculture faces major challenges as it is both influenced by and contributes to climate change. Conservation agriculture sequesters carbon (C) in the soil due to practices such as reduced tillage and planting of cover crops. This study assessed effects of an innovative conservation agriculture popcorn (Zea mays) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crop rotation in south-western France on soil C sequestration, GHG emissions and several environmental impacts. Two complementary approaches were used: i) a comparison based on field data and expert judgement to assess short-term effects and ii) modelling of three scenarios to quantify long-term outcomes. In both approaches Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare popcorn and wheat rotations. The conventional rotation used ploughing, and its soil was bare between wheat harvest and popcorn sowing. Conservation agriculture used reduced tillage, cover crops, and compost of green waste. Impacts of compost production were allocated mainly to its waste treatment function, based on waste treatment cost and compost price. Simulation modelling of soil C was used to estimate the amount of C sequestered by the conservation and conventional crop rotations. LCA was combined with soil C modelling over 100 years to assess the long-term climate change impact of three scenarios for the popcorn and wheat rotation. These scenarios were 1) Conventional agriculture, 2) Conservation agriculture with cover crops only, 3) Conservation agriculture with cover crops + compost. Mean annual C sequestration and net climate change impact were -0.24 t/ha and 3867 kg CO2-eq./ha, respectively, for the conventional rotation and 0.91 t/ha and 434 kg CO2-eq./ha, respectively, for the conservation rotation. The climate change impact of the conservation rotation depended strongly on the allocation of composting impacts between the waste treatment and compost production functions. Compared to the conventional rotation, the conservation rotation had a lower marine eutrophication impact (-7%) but higher impacts for terrestrial acidification (+9%), land competition (+3%), and cumulative energy demand (+2%). Modelling over 100 years revealed that, at near soil C equilibrium, a conventional scenario lost 9% of soil C, whereas conservation agriculture scenarios gained 14% (only cover crop) and 26% of soil C (cover crop + compost). Conservation agriculture resulted in soil C sequestration over several decades, until a new soil C equilibrium was reached.

RevDate: 2023-05-24

Bernhardt JM, Breakey S, Sipe M, et al (2023)

The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: The Critical Role of Nurses and Nurse Leaders in Addressing the Health Impacts of Climate Change.

The Journal of nursing administration, 53(6):E1-E3.

Climate change represents a looming health challenge and a critical area for nursing leadership at all levels of organizations and settings. With a lens on The Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity, addressing climate change-related health consequences should be a major focus and spotlight for nurses and nurse leaders with a lens on individuals, communities, populations, and from a national and global perspective.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Asadgol Z, Badirzadeh A, Mirahmadi H, et al (2023)

Simulation of the potential impact of climate change on malaria incidence using artificial neural networks (ANNs).

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change can increase the spread of infectious diseases and public health concerns. Malaria is one of the endemic infectious diseases of Iran, whose transmission is strongly influenced by climatic conditions. The effect of climate change on malaria in the southeastern Iran from 2021 to 2050 was simulated by using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Gamma test (GT) and general circulation models (GCMs) were used to determine the best delay time and to generate the future climate model under two distinct scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5). To simulate the various impacts of climate change on malaria infection, ANNs were applied using daily collected data for 12 years (from 2003 to 2014). The future climate of the study area will be hotter by 2050. The simulation of malaria cases elucidated that there is an intense increasing trend in malaria cases under the RCP8.5 scenario until 2050, with the highest number of infections occurring in the warmer months. Rainfall and maximum temperature were identified as the most influential input variables. Optimum temperatures and increased rainfall provide a suitable environment for the transmission of parasites and cause an intense increase in the number of infection cases with a delay of approximately 90 days. ANNs were introduced as a practical tool for simulating the impact of climate change on the prevalence, geographic distribution, and biological activity of malaria and for estimating the future trend of the disease in order to adopt protective measures in endemic areas.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Beridze B, Sękiewicz K, Walas Ł, et al (2023)

Biodiversity protection against anthropogenic climate change: Conservation prioritization of Castanea sativa in the South Caucasus based on genetic and ecological metrics.

Ecology and evolution, 13(5):e10068.

The climate drives species distribution and genetic diversity; the latter defines the adaptability of populations and species. The ongoing climate crisis induces tree decline in many regions, compromising the mitigation potential of forests. Scientific-based strategies for prioritizing forest tree populations are critical to managing the impact of climate change. Identifying future climate refugia, which are locations naturally buffering the negative impact of climate change, may facilitate local conservation. In this work, we conducted the populations' prioritization for Castanea sativa (sweet chestnut), a Neogene relict growing in the Caucasus global biodiversity hotspot. We generated genetic and ecological metrics for 21 sites in Georgia and Azerbaijan, which cover the natural range of sweet chestnut across the region. We demonstrated that climate primarily drives the pattern of genetic diversity in C. sativa, proved with a significant isolation-by-environment model. In future, climate change may significantly reorganize the species' genetic diversity, inducing even some genetic loss, especially in the very distinct eastern fringe of the species range in Azerbaijan. Based on our combined approach, we mapped populations suitable for ex situ and in situ conservation, accounting for genetic variability and the location of future climate refugia.

RevDate: 2023-05-23

Robinson Y, Khorram-Manesh A, Arvidsson N, et al (2023)

Does climate change transform military medicine and defense medical support?.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1099031.

BACKGROUND: Climate change has effects on multiple aspects of human life, such as access to food and water, expansion of endemic diseases as well as an increase of natural disasters and related diseases. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on climate change effects on military occupational health, military healthcare in a deployed setting, and defense medical logistics.

METHODS: Online databases and registers were searched on August 22[nd], 2022 and 348 papers retrieved, published between 2000 and 2022, from which we selected 8 publications that described climate effects on military health. Papers were clustered according to a modified theoretical framework for climate change effects on health, and relevant items from each paper were summarized.

RESULTS: During the last decades a growing body of climate change related publications was identified, which report that climate change has a significant impact on human physiology, mental health, water- and vector borne infectious diseases, as well as air pollution. However, regarding the specific climate effects on military health the level of evidence is low. The effects on defense medical logistics include vulnerabilities in the cold supply chain, in medical devices functioning, in need for air conditioning, and in fresh water supply.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change may transform both the theoretical framework and practical implementations in military medicine and military healthcare systems. There are significant knowledge gaps on climate change effects on the health of military personnel in operations of both combat and non-combat nature, alerting the need for prevention and mitigation of climate-related health issues. Further research within the fields of disaster and military medicine is needed to explore this novel field. As climate effects on humans and the medical supply chain may degrade military capability, significant investments in military medical research and development are needed.

RevDate: 2023-05-22

Singh DK, A Garg (2023)

Thermal hydrolysis of sewage sludge: Improvement in biogas generation and prediction of global warming potential.

Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA [Epub ahead of print].

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is a prominent treatment method for the sludge produced from sewage treatment plants. Poor solid reduction and longer retention time are the main drawbacks of AD. Thermal hydrolysis (TH) is a potential pretreatment method for solubilization of sewage sludge (SS) solids thereby improving biogas production during AD post-treatment. In this study, the SS sample (total solids = 1.75 wt% and total chemical oxygen demand (COD) = 15,450 mg L[-1]) was subjected to TH pretreatment (temperature = 140-180°C and reaction time = 60 minutes) in a 0.7-L capacity stainless-steel high-pressure reactor. At a reaction temperature of 180°C, the maximum solid solubilization (total dissolved solids = 4652 mg L[-1]) and improved dewaterability (time to filter = 4.7 s.L g[-1]) were observed. The biochemical methane potential test results showed almost doubling of methane generation from 145 to 284 mL gCOD[-1] after TH pretreatment at 180°C. The life cycle assessment approach was used to compare various SS treatment and disposal scenarios, two of which included hydrothermal pretreatment. The scenarios involving hydrothermal pretreatments showed the least global warming potential.

RevDate: 2023-05-21

Cevik Degerli B, M Cetin (2023)

Evaluation of UTFVI index effect on climate change in terms of urbanization.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Urban heat island density and occurrence are closely related to land use/land cover and land surface temperature variation. The effect of UHI can be described quantitatively with the urban thermal area variance index. This study aims to evaluate the UHI effect of the city of Samsun with the UTFVI index. LST data from 2000 ETM + and 2020 OLI/TIRS Landsat images were used to analyze UHI. The results showed that the UHI effect increased in Samsun's coastline band in 20 years. As a result of the field analysis made from the UTFVI maps created, in 20 years, 84% decrease in the none slice, 104% increase in the weak slice, 10% decrease in the middle slice, 15% decrease in the strong slice, 8% increase in the stronger slice, and 179% increase in the strongest slice are observed. The slice with the most intense increase is in the strongest slice and reveals the UHI effect.

RevDate: 2023-05-22
CmpDate: 2023-05-22

Yousefi M, Yousefkhani SH, Grünig M, et al (2023)

Identifying high snakebite risk area under climate change for community education and antivenom distribution.

Scientific reports, 13(1):8191.

Snakebite is one of the largest risks from wildlife, however little is known about venomous snake distribution, spatial variation in snakebite risk, potential changes in snakebite risk pattern due to climate change, and vulnerable human population. As a consequence, management and prevention of snakebite is hampered by this lack of information. Here we used habitat suitability modeling for 10 medically important venomous snakes to identify high snakebite risk area under climate change in Iran. We identified areas with high snakebite risk in Iran and showed that snakebite risk will increase in some parts of the country. Our results also revealed that mountainous areas (Zagros, Alborz, Kopet-Dagh mountains) will experience highest changes in species composition. We underline that in order to improve snakebite management, areas which were identified with high snakebite risk in Iran need to be prioritized for the distribution of antivenom medication and awareness rising programs among vulnerable human population.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Zhou J, Wu C, Yeh PJ, et al (2023)

Anthropogenic climate change exacerbates the risk of successive flood-heat extremes: Multi-model global projections based on the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02895-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The successive flood-heat extreme (SFHE) event, which threatens the securities of human health, economy, and building environment, has attracted extensive research attention recently. However, how the SFHE characteristics will change under anthropogenic warming and the potential population exposures under such SFHE events remain unclear. Here, we present a global-scale evaluation of the projected changes and the uncertainty in the SFHE characteristics and population exposure under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and 6.0 scenarios, based on the multi-model ensembles (five global water models forced by four global climate models) within the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project 2b framework. The results reveal that, relative to the 1970-1999 baseline period, the SFHE frequency is projected to increase nearly globally by the end of this century, especially in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (>20 events/30-year) and the tropical regions (e.g., northern South America, central Africa, and southeastern Asia, >15 events/30-year). The projected higher SFHE frequency is generally accompanied by a larger model uncertainty. By the end of this century, the SFHE land exposure is expected to increase by 12 % (20 %) under RCP2.6 (RCP6.0), and the intervals between flood and heatwave in SFHE tend to decrease by up to 3 days under both RCPs, implying the more intermittent SFHE occurrence under future warming. The SFHE events will lead to the higher exposed populations in the Indian Peninsula and central Africa (<10 million person-days) and eastern Asia (<5 million person-days) due to the higher population density and the longer SFHE duration. Partial correlation analysis indicates that the contribution of flood to the SFHE frequency is greater than that of heatwave for most global regions, but the SFHE frequency is dominated by the heatwave in northern North America and northern Asia.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Song H, Zhang X, Wang X, et al (2023)

Not the expected poleward migration: Impact of climate change scenarios on the distribution of two endemic evergreen broad-leaved Quercus species in China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02894-2 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the key strategies for species to respond to climate change is range shift. It is commonly believed that species will migrate towards the poles and higher elevations due to climate change. However, some species may also shift in opposite directions (i.e., equatorward) to adapt to changes in other climatic variables beyond climatic isotherms. In this study, we focused on two evergreen broad-leaved Quercus species endemic to China and used ensemble species distribution models to project their potential distribution shifts and extinction risk under two shared socioeconomic pathways of six general circulation models for the years 2050 and 2070. We also investigated the relative importance of each climatic variable in explaining range shifts of these two species. Our findings indicate a sharp reduction in the habitat suitability for both species. Q. baronii and Q. dolicholepis are projected to experience severe range contractions, losing over 30 % and 100 % of their suitable habitats under SSP585 in the 2070s, respectively. Under the assumption of universal migration in future climate scenarios, Q. baronii is expected to move towards the northwest (~105 km), southwest (~73 km), and high elevation (180-270 m). The range shifts of both species are driven by temperature and precipitation variables, not only annual mean temperature. Specifically, precipitation seasonality and temperature annual range were the most crucial environmental variables, causing the contraction and expansion of Q. baronii and contraction of Q. dolicholepis, respectively. Our results highlight the importance of considering additional climatic variables beyond the annual mean temperature to explain species range shifts in multiple directions.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Carneiro IM, Paiva PC, Bertocci I, et al (2023)

Distribution of a canopy-forming alga along the Western Atlantic Ocean under global warming: The importance of depth range.

Marine environmental research, 188:106013 pii:S0141-1136(23)00141-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Sargassum species are among the most important canopy-forming algae in the Western Atlantic Ocean (WAO), providing habitat for many species and contributing to carbon uptake. The future distribution of Sargassum and other canopy-forming algae has been modelled worldwide, indicating that their occurrence in many regions is threatened by increased seawater temperature. Surprisingly, despite the recognized variation in vertical distribution of macroalgae, these projections generally do not evaluate their results at different depth ranges. This study aimed to project the potential current and future distributions of the common and abundant benthic Sargassum natans in the WAO (from southern Argentina to eastern Canada), under RCP 4.5 and 8.5 climate change scenarios, through an ensemble SDM approach. Possible changes between present and future distributions were assessed within two depth ranges, namely areas up to 20 m and areas up to 100 m depth. Our models forecast different distributional trends for benthic S. natans depending on the depth range. Up to 100 m, suitable areas for the species will increase by 21% under RCP 4.5, and by 15% under RCP 8.5, when compared to the potential current distribution. On the contrary, up to 20 m, suitable areas for the species will decrease by 4% under RCP 4.5 and by 14% under RCP 8.5, when compared to the potential current distribution. Under the worst scenario, losses up to 20 m depth will affect approximately 45,000 km[2] of coastal areas across several countries and regions of WAO, with likely negative consequences for the structure and dynamics of coastal ecosystems. These findings highlight the importance of considering different depth ranges when building and interpreting predictive models of the distribution of habitat-forming subtidal macroalgae under climate change.

RevDate: 2023-05-20

Dorji T, Morrison-Saunders A, D Blake (2023)

Understanding How Community Wellbeing is Affected by Climate Change: Evidence From a Systematic Literature Review.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

Social science studies view community wellbeing to be a cumulative construct of multiple dimensions which include social, economic, environmental, physical, political, health, education indicators and more. The study of community wellbeing is compounded by climate change as it increases the frequency of disasters affecting all dimensions of community wellbeing. It becomes crucial for communities to build community resilience and address the impact on community wellbeing in the context of Disaster Risk Reduction and sustainable development. This systematic literature aimed to understand how community wellbeing is affected by climate change. It analysed 23 papers from Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Google Scholar, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method, to address three research questions: (i) how do climate change scholars understand community wellbeing, (ii) how community wellbeing is affected by specific climate change factors/conditions and the nature of impact, and (iii) how the impact on community wellbeing as a result of climate change is being addressed. The study found that climate change scholars hold mixed and multiple views or understanding of community wellbeing and climate change led to mental stress decreasing community wellbeing. The solutions to improve community wellbeing in the context of climate change suggests that adaptation should be the main policy instrument supplemented by mitigation strategies and recommends building a vibrant research culture in wellbeing and climate studies, among others. This review provides insights into the complex relationship between community wellbeing and climate change and identifies areas for future research and policy development.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Jones N (2023)

When will global warming actually hit the landmark 1.5 ºC limit?.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Atwoli L, Erhabor GE, Gbakima AA, et al (2022)

COP27 Climate Change Conference: urgent action needed for Africa and the world: Wealthy nations must step up support for Africa and vulnerable countries in addressing past, present and future impacts of climate change.

The American journal of clinical nutrition, 116(6):1457-1459.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Li Z, Qu H, Li L, et al (2023)

Effects of climate change on vegetation dynamics of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, a causality analysis using empirical dynamic modeling.

Heliyon, 9(5):e16001 pii:S2405-8440(23)03208-5.

Given the vital role of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) as water tower in Asia and regulator for regional and even global climate, the relationship between climate change and vegetation dynamics on it has received considerable focused attention. Climate change may influence the vegetation growth on the plateau, but clear empirical evidence of such causal linkages is sparse. Herein, using datasets CRU-TS v4.04 and AVHHR NDVI from 1981 to 2019, we quantify causal effects of climate factors on vegetation dynamics with an empirical dynamical model (EDM) -- a nonlinear dynamical systems analysis approach based on state-space reconstruction rather than correlation. Results showed the following: (1) climate change promotes the growth of vegetation on the QTP, and specifically, this favorable influence of temperature is stronger than precipitation's; (2) the direction and strength of climate effects on vegetation varied over time, and the effects are seasonally different; (3) a significant increase in temperature and a slight increase in precipitation are beneficial to vegetation growth, specifically, NDVI will increase within 2% in the next 40 years with the climate trend of warming and humidity. Besides the above results, another interesting finding is that the two seasons in which precipitation strongly influence vegetation in the Three-River Source region (part of the QTP) are spring and winter. This study provides insights into the mechanisms by which climate change affects vegetation growth on the QTP, aiding in the modeling of vegetation dynamics in future scenarios.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Kamran HW, Rafiq M, Abudaqa A, et al (2023)

Interconnecting Sustainable Development Goals 7 And 13: The Role of Renewable Energy Innovations Towards Combating the Climate Change.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

AbstractThis research examines the trends in environmental footprints through energy innovations, digital trade, economic freedom, and environmental regulation from the context of G7 economies. Quarterly observations from 1998-2020 have been utilized for the advanced-panel model entitled Method of Moments Quantile Regression (MMQR). The initial findings confirm slope heterogeneity, interdependence between the cross-sectional units, stationarity properties, and panel cointegration. The results through FM-OLS, D-OLS, and FE-OLS justify that energy innovations, digital trade, and environmental regulations control ecological damages. In contrast, economic freedom and growth are causing more damage to nature, like ecological footprints (EFP). Similarly, the results through MMQR confirm that the impact of energy innovations, digital trade, and environmental regulations is accepted as a panacea to control environmental degradation in G7. However, the magnitude of the coefficient varies across different quantiles. More specifically, the findings show that the impact of energy innovations is highly significant at 0.50[th] quantile. In contrast, through digital trade, the impact on EFP is only significant under medium and higher order quantiles (i.e., 0.50[th], 0.75[th]-1.0[th]). Contrarily, economic freedom is causing more EFP across all the quantiles, where the findings are highly significant at 0.75[th] quantile. Besides, a few other policy implications are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Maitra S, Praharaj S, Brestic M, et al (2023)

Rhizobium as Biotechnological Tools for Green Solutions: An Environment-Friendly Approach for Sustainable Crop Production in the Modern Era of Climate Change.

Current microbiology, 80(7):219.

Modern and industrialized agriculture enhanced farm output during the last few decades, but it became possible at the cost of agricultural sustainability. Industrialized agriculture focussed only on the increase in crop productivity and the technologies involved were supply-driven, where enough synthetic chemicals were applied and natural resources were overexploited with the erosion of genetic diversity and biodiversity. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient required for plant growth and development. Even though nitrogen is available in large quantities in the atmosphere, it cannot be utilized by plants directly with the only exception of legumes which have the unique ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen and the process is known as biological nitrogen fixation (BNF). Rhizobium, a group of gram-negative soil bacteria, helps in the formation of root nodules in legumes and takes part in the BNF. The BNF has great significance in agriculture as it acts as a fertility restorer in soil. Continuous cereal-cereal cropping system, which is predominant in a major part of the world, often results in a decline in soil fertility, while legumes add nitrogen and improve the availability of other nutrients too. In the present context of the declining trend of the yield of some important crops and cropping systems, it is the need of the hour for enriching soil health to achieve agricultural sustainability, where Rhizobium can play a magnificent role. Though the role of Rhizobium in biological nitrogen fixation is well documented, their behaviour and performance in different agricultural environments need to be studied further for a better understanding. In the article, an attempt has been made to give an insight into the behaviour, performance and mode of action of different Rhizobium species and strains under versatile conditions.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Pigot AL, Merow C, Wilson A, et al (2023)

Abrupt expansion of climate change risks for species globally.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is already exposing species to dangerous temperatures driving widespread population and geographical contractions. However, little is known about how these risks of thermal exposure will expand across species' existing geographical ranges over time as climate change continues. Here, using geographical data for approximately 36,000 marine and terrestrial species and climate projections to 2100, we show that the area of each species' geographical range at risk of thermal exposure will expand abruptly. On average, more than 50% of the increase in exposure projected for a species will occur in a single decade. This abruptness is partly due to the rapid pace of future projected warming but also because the greater area available at the warm end of thermal gradients constrains species to disproportionately occupy sites close to their upper thermal limit. These geographical constraints on the structure of species ranges operate both on land and in the ocean and mean that, even in the absence of amplifying ecological feedbacks, thermally sensitive species may be inherently vulnerable to sudden warming-driven collapse. With higher levels of warming, the number of species passing these thermal thresholds, and at risk of abrupt and widespread thermal exposure, increases, doubling from less than 15% to more than 30% between 1.5 °C and 2.5 °C of global warming. These results indicate that climate threats to thousands of species are expected to expand abruptly in the coming decades, thereby highlighting the urgency of mitigation and adaptation actions.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Grémillet D, S Descamps (2023)

Ecological impacts of climate change on Arctic marine megafauna.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(23)00082-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming affects the Arctic more than any other region. Mass media constantly relay apocalyptic visions of climate change threatening Arctic wildlife, especially emblematic megafauna such as polar bears, whales, and seabirds. Yet, we are just beginning to understand such ecological impacts on marine megafauna at the scale of the Arctic. This knowledge is geographically and taxonomically biased, with striking deficiencies in the Russian Arctic and strong focus on exploited species such as cod. Beyond a synthesis of scientific advances in the past 5 years, we provide ten key questions to be addressed by future work and outline the requested methodology. This framework builds upon long-term Arctic monitoring inclusive of local communities whilst capitalising on high-tech and big data approaches.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Pereira H, Picado A, Sousa MC, et al (2023)

Effects of climate change on aquaculture site selection at a temperate estuarine system.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)02871-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Aquaculture is one of the food industries that most evolved in recent years in response to increased human demand for seafood products, which has led to a progressive stock threat in nature. With a high seafood consumption per capita, Portugal has been exploring its coastal systems to improve the cultivation of fish and bivalve species with high commercial value. In this context, this study aims to propose the use of a numerical model as a tool to assess the impact of climate change on aquaculture site selection in a temperate estuarine system (Sado estuary). Therefore, the Delft3D model was calibrated and validated, showing good accuracy in predicting the local hydrodynamics, transport, and water quality. Furthermore, two simulations for the historical and future conditions were performed to establish a Suitability Index capable of identifying the most appropriate sites to exploit two bivalve species (one clam and one oyster), considering both winter and summer seasons. Results suggest that the estuary's northernmost region presents the best conditions for bivalves' exploitation, with more suitable conditions during summer than winter due to the higher water temperature and chlorophyll-a concentrations. Regarding future projections, the model results suggest that environmental conditions will likely benefit the production of both species due to the increase in chlorophyll-a concentration along the estuary.

RevDate: 2023-05-18

Álvarez-García O, Sureda-Negre J, Comas-Forgas R, et al (2023)

The Spanish population's interest in climate change based on Internet searches.

Humanities & social sciences communications, 10(1):231.

The climate crisis is one of the most important global problems facing humanity. Analyzing the search for information on climate change (CC) on the internet can be a predictor of public interest in this problem and, therefore, of the degree of concern exhibited by citizens. This study analyzes the interest in CC among the Spanish population and identifies some variables that may influence this interest. The methodology involves the collection and analysis of data obtained from SEMrush and Google Analytics. We analyzed the search trends of four key descriptors related to CC ("climate change," "global warming," "climate emergency" and "greenhouse effect") during two periods of time, and the relationship between these searches and three relational variables (volume of news in the media, occurrence of extreme weather events and CC-related events). The results indicate that the Spanish population's interest in CC via the Internet has increased in recent years and is directly influenced by variables such as media coverage of CC, events related to CC, and social pressure exerted by social movements for CC. Some proposals are discussed and presented in relation to the concern for this problem.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )