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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 29 Jun 2022 at 01:52 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-06-28

Salthammer T, Zhao J, Schieweck A, et al (2022)

A holistic modeling framework for estimating the influence of climate change on indoor air quality.

Indoor air, 32(6):e13039.

The IPCC 2021 report predicts rising global temperatures and more frequent extreme weather events in the future, which will have different effects on the regional climate and concentrations of ambient air pollutants. Consequently, changes in heat and mass transfer between the inside and outside of buildings will also have an increasing impact on indoor air quality. It is therefore surprising that indoor spaces and occupant well-being still play a subordinate role in the studies of climate change. To increase awareness for this topic, the Indoor Air Quality Climate Change (IAQCC) model system was developed, which allows short and long-term predictions of the indoor climate with respect to outdoor conditions. The IAQCC is a holistic model that combines different scenarios in the form of submodels: building physics, indoor emissions, chemical-physical reaction and transformation, mold growth, and indoor exposure. IAQCC allows simulation of indoor gas and particle concentrations with outdoor influences, indoor materials and activity emissions, particle deposition and coagulation, gas reactions, and SVOC partitioning. These key processes are fundamentally linked to temperature and relative humidity. With the aid of the building physics model, the indoor temperature and humidity, and pollutant transport in building zones can be simulated. The exposure model refers to the calculated concentrations and provides evaluations of indoor thermal comfort and exposure to gaseous, particulate, and microbial pollutants.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

González Svatetz CA (2022)

Nutrition, cardiovascular disease risk and climate change.

Clinica e investigacion en arteriosclerosis : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Arteriosclerosis pii:S0214-9168(22)00066-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Bhattarai U, Devkota LP, Marahatta S, et al (2022)

How will hydro-energy generation of the Nepalese Himalaya vary in the future? A climate change perspective.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)01073-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite being one of the proven clean-energy technologies, hydroelectricity is losing attention in global research. Hydroelectricity is extremely important for countries possessing the required water resources, already heavily reliant on it and those lacking the financial capacity to invest in other expensive energy technologies. This study assessed the possible impact of climate change (CC) on hydro-energy generation in the Nepalese Himalaya (possessing eight peaks out of 14 over 8000 m) with a tremendous hydropower potential (∼50,000 MW). A planned 1200 MW storage type Budhigandaki Hydroelectricity Project is taken as a case. We estimated the energy generation for the baseline as well as 10 CC scenarios considering RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 at monthly, seasonal, and annual temporal scales for the mid-century. Results show that energy generation is highly dependent on the reservoir operating rule. The average annual energy generation is expected to vary within -5 to +12% of the base case in the mid-century, with significant variations across the months. We also infer that designing hydro-projects based on ensembled climate values could lead to a "rosy" but less probable and risky picture of energy generation in the future. Therefore, assessment of a wide spectrum of plausible CC scenarios are recommended. Storage type projects with provision of flexible operating rules considering finer temporal resolution and allocation to competing users (in case of multipurpose projects) supported by appropriate policies are desirable for climate resiliency. Complementing the existing energy generation mix with other technologies in areas where hydroelectricity is expected to undergo adverse impacts of CC is warranted for attaining future energy security and environmental safeguarding. Possibility of additional energy due to CC is a strong motivation for this region to focus on hydroelectricity development in the future.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Zhu Z, Wang K, Lei M, et al (2022)

Identification of priority areas for water ecosystem services by a techno-economic, social and climate change modeling framework.

Water research, 221:118766 pii:S0043-1354(22)00719-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Water scarcity and quality deterioration often occur in economically developing regions, particularly during crises related to climate change or increasing human activities. The assignment of priority areas is considered a suitable strategy for stakeholders to mitigate water crises and cope with water stress. However, most studies focused on protecting water bodies in priority areas and did not consider the hydrological/hydrochemical/hydroecological interaction between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. We divided a watershed into manageable areas to select priority areas for multiple water-related ecosystem services (WES-priority areas), considering the aquatic-terrestrial interactions to predict the effects of climate change and human activities. The proposed novelty framework couples the soil and water assessment tool and maximum entropy models with a systematic conservation planning tool. It uses the gross domestic product as the economic cost to assess dynamic changes and social-environmental driving forces. A case study is conducted in the Xiangjiang River basin, a modified watershed of the main tributary of the Yangtze River, China. Results revealed that most of the WES-priority areas were located in the southern and southeastern regions of the upper reaches in all climatic scenarios. The conservation efficiency of the WES-priority areas decreased from 1.264 to 0.867 in 50 years, indicating that the level of protection declined as climate change accelerated. The precipitation was positively correlated with the WES-priority area selection in all climate scenarios. The temperature was only negatively correlated with the WES-priority areas when it exceeded 20 °C, and this effect became more pronounced as the temperature increased. The topographic factors had the most crucial impacts on the upstream priority areas selection. The water flow regulation service played a leading role in identifying WES-priority areas in the middle reaches because the priority areas' distribution here was closely related to the water yield, and its proportion decreased with the acceleration of global warming. The number of WES-priority areas was relatively low in the lower reaches. It was positively associated with the gross domestic product and the amount of built-up land. The proposed framework for WES-priority areas identification enables a sound trade-off between environmental protection and economic development.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Jacobson MJ, Pickett J, Gascoigne AL, et al (2022)

Settlement, environment, and climate change in SW Anatolia: Dynamics of regional variation and the end of Antiquity.

PloS one, 17(6):e0270295 pii:PONE-D-22-00644.

This paper develops a regional dataset of change at 381 settlements for Lycia-Pamphylia in southwest Anatolia (Turkey) from volume 8 of the Tabula Imperii Byzantini-a compilation of historical toponyms and archaeological evidence. This region is rich in archaeological remains and high-quality paleo-climatic and -environmental archives. Our archaeological synthesis enables direct comparison of these datasets to discuss current hypotheses of climate impacts on historical societies. A Roman Climatic Optimum, characterized by warmer and wetter conditions, facilitating Roman expansion in the 1st-2nd centuries CE cannot be supported here, as Early Byzantine settlement did not benefit from enhanced precipitation in the 4th-6th centuries CE as often supposed. However, widespread settlement decline in a period with challenging archaeological chronologies (c. 550-650 CE) was likely caused by a "perfect storm" of environmental, climatic, seismic, pathogenic and socio-economic factors, though a shift to drier conditions from c. 460 CE appears to have preceded other factors by at least a century.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Russell M, Olson MB, BA Love (2022)

Surf smelt accelerate usage of endogenous energy reserves under climate change.

PloS one, 17(6):e0270491 pii:PONE-D-21-27467.

Surf smelt (Hypomesus pretiosus) are ecologically critical forage fish in the North Pacific ecosystem. As obligate beach spawners, surf smelt embryos are exposed to wide-ranging marine and terrestrial environmental conditions. Despite this fact, very few studies have assessed surf smelt tolerance to climate stressors. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of climate co-stressors ocean warming and acidification on the energy demands of embryonic and larval surf smelt. Surf smelt embryos and larvae were collected from spawning beaches and placed into treatment basins under three temperature treatments (13°C, 15°C, and 18°C) and two pCO2 treatments (i.e. ocean acidification) of approximately 900 and 1900 μatm. Increased temperature significantly decreased yolk size in surf smelt embryos and larvae. Embryo yolk sacs in high temperature treatments were on average 7.3% smaller than embryo yolk sacs from ambient temperature water. Larval yolk and oil globules mirrored this trend. Larval yolk sacs in the high temperature treatment were 45.8% smaller and oil globules 31.9% smaller compared to larvae in ambient temperature. There was also a significant positive effect of acidification on embryo yolk size, indicating embryos used less maternally-provisioned energy under acidification scenarios. There was no significant effect of either temperature or acidification on embryo heartrates. These results indicate that near-future climate change scenarios may impact the energy demands of developing surf smelt, leading to potential effects on surf smelt fitness and contributing to variability in adult recruitment.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Di Santo V (2022)

EcoPhysioMechanics: Integrating energetics and biomechanics to understand fish locomotion under climate change.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6618653 [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological physiologists and biomechanists have been broadly investigating swimming performance in a diversity of fishes, however the connection between form, function and energetics of locomotion has been rarely evaluated in the same system and under climate change scenarios. In this perspective I argue that working within the framework of 'EcoPhysioMechanics', i.e., integrating energetics and biomechanics tools, to measure locomotor performance and behavior under different abiotic factors, improves our understanding of the mechanisms, limits and costs of movement. To demonstrate how ecophysiomechanics can be applied to locomotor studies, I outline how linking biomechanics and physiology allows us to understand how fishes may modulate their movement to achieve high speeds or reduce the costs of locomotion. I also discuss how the framework is necessary to quantify swimming capacity under climate change scenarios. Finally, I discuss current dearth of integrative studies and gaps in empirical datasets that are necessary to understand fish swimming under changing environments.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Budziszewska M, SE Jonsson (2022)

Talking about climate change and eco-anxiety in psychotherapy: A qualitative analysis of patients' experiences.

Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.) pii:2022-74632-001 [Epub ahead of print].

Citizens' worries about climate change are often realistic and legitimate. Simultaneously, these worries can also become a source of distress so severe as to impair everyday functioning and prompt someone to seek psychotherapy. These emergent phenomena are often referred to as "climate anxiety" or "climate depression" by the popular culture and by patients themselves. Psychotherapists around the world report seeing more and more patients who report that they are experiencing distress due to climate change. This article documents a study that involved engaging 10 Swedish adults who sought help for climate change-related emotional distress in in-depth conversations about their psychotherapeutic experience. This was followed by analyzing accounts of psychotherapeutic processes to understand patients' experiences and outcomes. Interviews were examined with interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). Therapists' knowledge about climate change and competence in coping with it, validation of climate change-related emotions, and learning to manage these emotions were salient aspects of psychotherapy from the patients' perspective. Connecting psychotherapy to personal values and action orientation, resulting in an enhanced sense of meaning and sense of community, was also considered important. In conclusion, based on participants' experience, we offer practical guidance for practitioners. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Ricciardi L, D'Odorico P, Galli N, et al (2022)

Hydrological implications of large-scale afforestation in tropical biomes for climate change mitigation.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 377(1857):20210391.

Rising interest in large-scale afforestation and reforestation as a strategy for climate change mitigation has recently motivated research efforts aiming at the identification of areas suitable for the plantation of trees. An often-overlooked aspect of agroforestry projects for carbon sequestration is their impact on water resources. It is often unclear to what extent the establishment of forest vegetation would be limited by water availability, whether it would engender competition with other local water uses or induce water scarcity. Here we use global water models to study the hydrologic constraints and impacts of afforestation in tropical biomes. We find that 36% of total suitable and available afforestation areas are in areas where the rain alone can meet just up to the 40% of total plant water requirement. Planting trees will substantially increase water scarcity and possible dispossession (green water grab) especially in dryland regions of Africa and Oceania. Moreover, the combination of tree restoration and irrigation expansion to rainfed agricultural areas is expected to further exacerbate water scarcity, with about half of the global suitable areas for tree restoration experiencing water scarcity at least 7 months per year. Thus, the unavailability of water can overall limit climate change adaptation strategies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Ecological complexity and the biosphere: the next 30 years'.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Desthieux G, F Joerin (2022)

Urban planning in Swiss cities has been slow to think about climate change: why and what to do?.

Journal of environmental studies and sciences pii:767 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent years have been marked by a strong popular and political mobilization around climate change. However, to what extent does this mobilization lead to reduce greenhouse gas emissions or the vulnerability of our society to the effects of climate change? This question is at the heart of the research presented, which sought to identify the barriers and levers to the integration of climate issues into urban planning of Swiss cities. The literature review first situates the integration of climate change in Swiss cities in relation to the evolution of practices at the international level. It emerged that Swiss cities have generally been late in integrating climate issues into their public policies. Practices still focus strongly on energy policies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions, but adaptation measures in urban planning are poorly implemented. In order to better understand the reasons for this slow and late integration of climate change into urban planning of Swiss cities, a survey was conducted among more than 200 professionals. It showed that the evolution of practices is generally driven by "pioneering" actors who are strongly mobilized by personal values and who use specialized and scientific sources of information. Finally, two focus groups with representative professionals were organized in order to deepen the barriers and levers observed and to formulate sound recommendations for integrating the climate issue into urban planning. Two lines of action emerged: prioritization (strengthening legal frameworks and organizational structures) and support (training and involvement of climate experts at all stages of urban planning).

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Alvares CA, Sentelhas PC, HB Dias (2022)

Southeastern Brazil inland tropicalization: Köppen system applied for detecting climate change throughout 100 years of meteorological observed data.

Theoretical and applied climatology pii:4122 [Epub ahead of print].

Many regions around the world are facing climate changes, with substantial increase in air temperature over the past decades, which is mainly related to continental and global warming forced by the higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study were to use the Köppen climate classification to detect local climate change based on a historical series of 100 years and to assess if such change is related to those that are occurring in other spatial scales as a likely consequence of increasing GHG. This paper brings a content full of innovative results. The study area presented an average annual air temperature increase by 0.9 °C between 1917 and 2016, rising from 21.4 °C for the first climatological normal (1917-1946) to 22.3 °C for the last one (1987-2016). Furthermore, in the summer months, the temperature rose from 24.5 to 25.3 °C, and in the winter months, such increase was from 17.1 (1917-1946) to 18.3 °C (1987-2016). Our findings showed the subtropical conditions (Cfa in Köppen's classification) in the study area persisted from the beginning of the analysis (1917-1946) until the climatological normal of 1979-2008, with a clear tendency of tropicalization after that with a change in the climate type of Piracicaba from subtropical to tropical, which can now be classified as tropical with dry winter (Aw climate type). The local average air temperature showed concordances with the long-term air temperature anomalies from regional, continental, and global scales, indicating that all of them may be linked with increasing GHG emissions, since well-defined long-term linear relationships (r 2 = 0.99) were observed between continental and global average air temperature anomalies and atmospheric CO2 concentration observed at the NOAA Lab in Mauna Loa in the last 59 years. While the local and regional forcing effects remain to be fully unraveled, our study provided a valid and strong scientific sound evidence that climate change occurred in Piracicaba, southeastern Brazil, in the last 100 years.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Orkodjo TP, Kranjac-Berisavijevic G, FK Abagale (2022)

Impact of climate change on future precipitation amounts, seasonal distribution, and streamflow in the Omo-Gibe basin, Ethiopia.

Heliyon, 8(6):e09711 pii:S2405-8440(22)00999-9.

This study projected the impact of climate change on the amount of precipitation, seasonal distribution, and streamflow of the Omo-gibe basin, Ethiopia. Projections of climate change using the results of high-resolution multimodal ensembles from fifteen regional climate models (RCMs) of the Coordinated Regional Climate Reduction Experiment (CORDEX)-Africa were statistically downscaled and bias-adjusted using a quantile mapping approach. Precipitation and temperature were projected under RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5 emission scenarios. Climate and streamflow projections from a mean ensemble of RCMs in the near future (2025-2050), medium future (2051-2075), and far future (2076-2100) were compared to the reference (1989-2019). Mann-Kendall (MK) trend testing was used to determine if a change is statistically significant and to detect trends in temperature, precipitation, and streamflow. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model was used to project the impact of climate change on the streamflow. According to RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, the emission scenarios predicted significant positive (rising) temperature, but significant negative (decreasing) precipitation and streamflow. The average temperature projected increases range from 2.40-3.34 °C under the RCP 4.5 emission scenarios and 2.6-4.54 °C under the RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Annual average precipitation projected decreases range between 10.77-13.11% under the RCP 4.5 emission scenario, while the RCP 8.5 emission scenarios decrease range between 11.10-13.86% in the rainy summer season (June-August) and the irregular rain season (March-May). Projected annual average streamflow decrease range between 7.08-10.99% under the RCP 4.5 emission scenarios and 10.98-12.88% under the RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Results on projected temperature increases and reductions in precipitation and streamflow will help to develop effective adaptation measures to reduce the ongoing impacts of climate change and draw up long-term water resource management plans in the river basin. Both the results and the multidisciplinary approach will be vital to irrigation and hydropower project planners.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Egea JA, Caro M, García-Brunton J, et al (2022)

Agroclimatic Metrics for the Main Stone Fruit Producing Areas in Spain in Current and Future Climate Change Scenarios: Implications From an Adaptive Point of View.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:842628.

Stone fruit production has enormous economic importance in Spain. Cultivation locations for these fruit species (i.e., peach, apricot, plum, and sweet cherry) cover wide and climatically diverse geographical areas within the country. Climate change is already producing an increase in average temperatures with special intensity in certain areas like the Mediterranean ones. These changes lead to a decrease in the accumulated chill, which can have a profound impact on the phenology of Prunus species like stone fruits due to, e.g., difficulties to cover the chilling requirements to break endodormancy, the occurrence of late frost events, or abnormal early high temperatures. All these factors can severely affect fruit production and quality and therefore provoke very negative consequences from the socio-economic point of view in the incumbent regions. Thus, characterization of current cultivation areas in terms of agroclimatic variables (e.g., chill and heat accumulation and probabilities of frost and early abnormal heat events), based on data from 270 weather stations for the past 20 years, is carried out in this work to produce an informative picture of the current situation. Besides, future climatic projections from different global climate models (data retrieved from the Meteorological State Agency of Spain-AEMET) up to 2065 for two Representative Concentration Pathway scenarios (i.e., RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) are also analyzed. Using the current situation as a baseline and considering the future scenarios, information on the current and future adaptive suitability of the different species/cultivars to the different growing areas can be inferred. This information could be the basis of a decision support tool to help the different stakeholders to take optimal decisions regarding current and future stone fruit or other temperate species cultivation in Spain.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Adhikari M, Longman RJ, Giambelluca TW, et al (2022)

Climate change impacts shifting landscape of the dairy industry in Hawai'i.

Translational animal science, 6(2):txac064 pii:txac064.

Proper knowledge and understanding of climatic variability across different seasons are important in farm management. To learn more about the potential effects of climate change on dairying in Hawaii, we conducted a study on site-specific climate characterization using several variables including rainfall, wind speed (WS), solar radiation, and temperature, at two dairy farms located on Hawai`i Island, Hawai`i, in Ookala named "OK DAIRY" and in Upolu Point named "UP DAIRY." Temperature-humidity index (THI) and WS variations in the hottest four months (June to September) were analyzed to determine when critical thresholds that affect animal health are exceeded. Rainfall data were used to estimate the capacity of forage production in 6-mo wet (November to April) and dry (May to October) seasons. Future projections of temperature and rainfall were assessed using mid- and end-century gridded data products for low (RCP 4.5) and high emissions (RCP 8.5) scenarios. Our results showed that the "OK DAIRY" site received higher rainfall than the "UP DAIRY" site, favoring grass growth and forage availability. In addition, the "UP DAIRY" site was more stressful for animals during the summer (THI 69 to 73) than the "OK DAIRY" site (THI 67 to 70) as the THI exceeded the critical threshold of 68, which is conducive for high-lactating cattle. On the "UP DAIRY" site, the THI did not drop below 68 during the summer nights, which created fewer opportunities for cattle to recover from heat stress. Future projections indicated that air temperature would increase 1.3 to 1.8 °C by mid-century and 1.6 to 3.2 °C by the end-century at both farms, and rainfall will increase at the "OK DAIRY" site and decrease at the "UP DAIRY" site by the end-century. The agriculture and livestock industries, particularly the dairy and beef subsectors in Hawai`i, are vulnerable to climate changes as higher temperatures and less rainfall will have adverse effects on cattle. The findings in this study demonstrated how both observed and projected changes in climate support the development of long-term strategies for breeding and holistic livestock management practices to adapt to changing climate conditions.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Qiu Y, Lamers P, Daioglou V, et al (2022)

Environmental trade-offs of direct air capture technologies in climate change mitigation toward 2100.

Nature communications, 13(1):3635.

Direct air capture (DAC) is critical for achieving stringent climate targets, yet the environmental implications of its large-scale deployment have not been evaluated in this context. Performing a prospective life cycle assessment for two promising technologies in a series of climate change mitigation scenarios, we find that electricity sector decarbonization and DAC technology improvements are both indispensable to avoid environmental problem-shifting. Decarbonizing the electricity sector improves the sequestration efficiency, but also increases the terrestrial ecotoxicity and metal depletion levels per tonne of CO2 sequestered via DAC. These increases can be reduced by improvements in DAC material and energy use efficiencies. DAC exhibits regional environmental impact variations, highlighting the importance of smart siting related to energy system planning and integration. DAC deployment aids the achievement of long-term climate targets, its environmental and climate performance however depend on sectoral mitigation actions, and thus should not suggest a relaxation of sectoral decarbonization targets.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Chen X, Chen X, Xu L, et al (2022)

Attention to climate change and downside risk: Evidence from China.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis [Epub ahead of print].

We explore the role of public climate attention, captured by the Baidu search volume index, in the downside risk. Using 45 keywords from five perspectives related to climate change, we construct a public climate attention index in China. We find a positive and significant relationship between climate attention and downside risk at the market-level and firm-level. Moreover, the risk-increase effect of climate attention becomes more prominent for state-owned and high-carbon-emission firms. Further analysis shows that excellent sustainable performance can moderate the adverse effect of rising climate attention, while the major climate disasters exacerbate the effect. Overall, our findings shed additional light on the important role of collective climate beliefs in corporate risk management and investor decision-making.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Ali MZ, Akmal A, L Fatima (2022)

Climate change - a monumental risk to Pakistani health.

JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 72(6):1249.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Shu Y, Hu J, Zhang S, et al (2022)

Analysis of the air pollution reduction and climate change mitigation effects of the Three-Year Action Plan for Blue Skies on the "2+26" Cities in China.

Journal of environmental management, 317:115455.

City clusters play an important role in air pollutant and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in China, primarily due to their high fossil energy consumption levels. The "2 + 26" Cities, i.e., Beijing, Tianjin and 26 other perfectures in northern China, has experienced serious air pollution in recent years. We employ the Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model adapted to the "2 + 26" Cities (GAINS-JJJ) to evaluate the impacts of structural adjustments in four major sectors, industry, energy, transport and land use, under the Three-Year Action Plan for Blue Skies (Three-Year Action Plan) on the emissions of both the major air pollutants and CO2 in the "2 + 26" Cities. The results indicate that the Three-Year Action Plan applied in the "2 + 26" Cities reduces the total emissions of primary fine particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5), SO2, NOx, NH3 and CO2 by 17%, 25%, 21%, 3% and 1%, respectively, from 2017 to 2020. The emission reduction potentials vary widely across the 28 prefectures, which may be attributed to the differences in energy structure, industrial composition, and policy enforcement rate. Among the four sectors, adjustment of industrial structure attains the highest co-benefits of CO2 reduction and air pollution control due to its high CO2 reduction potential, while structural adjustments in energy and transport attain much lower co-benefits, despite their relatively high air pollutant emissions reductions, primarily resulting from an increase in the coal-electric load and associated carbon emissions caused by electric reform policies..

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Zhang X, B Yan (2022)

Climate change and city size: the role of temperature difference in the spatial distribution of China's population.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

This paper examines the relationship between climate change and the spatial distribution of population in China. We establish a two-way fixed effects model to investigate the role of temperature difference in the spatial distribution of China's population. We find that the annual variation of temperature has an impact on city size in both large and small cities, and that city size tends to shrink as the temperature difference increases. Meanwhile, we also find that the population in the cities located south of Qinling-Huaihe Line and Aihui-Tengchong Line (Hu's Line) is more sensitive to temperature effects, and that the temperature difference has a significant negative effect on city size. Similarly, the same results are found for prefecture-level cities with low administrative levels. Considering the endogeneity between temperature change and city size, we adopt an instrumental variable using latitude to perform a more robust empirical analysis, the results of a series of robustness tests support these conclusions.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Preinstorfer P, Huber T, Reichenbach S, et al (2022)

Parametric Design Studies of Mass-Related Global Warming Potential and Construction Costs of FRP-Reinforced Concrete Infrastructure.

Polymers, 14(12): pii:polym14122383.

Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRPs) are a promising corrosion-resistant alternative to steel reinforcement. FRPs are, however, generally costly and have a high energy demand during production. The question arises whether the high performance of FRPs and possible savings in concrete mass can counterbalance initial costs and environmental impact. In this paper, a parametric design study that considers a broad range of concrete infrastructure, namely a rail platform barrier, a retaining wall and a bridge, is conducted to assess the mass-related global warming potential and material costs. Design equations are parametrised to derive optimum reinforced concrete cross-sectional designs that fulfil the stated requirements for the serviceability limit state and ultimate limit state. Conventional steel reinforcement, glass and carbon FRP reinforcement options are evaluated. It is observed that the cross-sectional design has a significant influence on the environmental impact and cost, with local extrema for both categories determinable when the respective values become a minimum. When comparing the cradle-to-gate impact of the different materials, the fibre-reinforced polymer-reinforced structures are found to provide roughly equivalent or, in some cases, slightly more sustainable solutions than steel-reinforced structures in terms of the global warming potential, but the material costs are higher. In general, the size of the structure determines the cost competitiveness and sustainability of the FRP-reinforced concrete options with the rail platform barrier application showing the greatest potential.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Arriagada O, Cacciuttolo F, Cabeza RA, et al (2022)

A Comprehensive Review on Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Breeding for Abiotic Stress Tolerance and Climate Change Resilience.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(12): pii:ijms23126794.

Chickpea is one of the most important pulse crops worldwide, being an excellent source of protein. It is grown under rain-fed conditions averaging yields of 1 t/ha, far from its potential of 6 t/ha under optimum conditions. The combined effects of heat, cold, drought, and salinity affect species productivity. In this regard, several physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms are reviewed to confer tolerance to abiotic stress. A large collection of nearly 100,000 chickpea accessions is the basis of breeding programs, and important advances have been achieved through conventional breeding, such as germplasm introduction, gene/allele introgression, and mutagenesis. In parallel, advances in molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing have allowed the development of specific molecular markers for the genus Cicer, facilitating marker-assisted selection for yield components and abiotic tolerance. Further, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics have permitted the identification of specific genes, proteins, and metabolites associated with tolerance to abiotic stress of chickpea. Furthermore, some promising results have been obtained in studies with transgenic plants and with the use of gene editing to obtain drought-tolerant chickpea. Finally, we propose some future lines of research that may be useful to obtain chickpea genotypes tolerant to abiotic stress in a scenario of climate change.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Standen JC, Spencer J, Lee GW, et al (2022)

Aboriginal Population and Climate Change in Australia: Implications for Health and Adaptation Planning.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(12): pii:ijerph19127502.

The health impacts of climate are widely recognised, and extensive modelling is available on predicted changes to climate globally. The impact of these changes may affect populations differently depending on a range of factors, including geography, socioeconomics and culture. This study reviewed current evidence on the health risks of climate change for Australian Aboriginal populations and linked Aboriginal demographic data to historical and projected climate data to describe the distribution of climate-related exposures in Aboriginal compared to non-Aboriginal populations in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The study showed Aboriginal populations were disproportionately exposed to a range of climate extremes in heat, rainfall and drought, and this disproportionate exposure was predicted to increase with climate change over the coming decades. Aboriginal people currently experience higher rates of climate-sensitive health conditions and socioeconomic disadvantages, which will impact their capacity to adapt to climate change. Climate change may also adversely affect cultural practices. These factors will likely impact the health and well-being of Aboriginal people in NSW and inhibit measures to close the gap in health between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations. Climate change, health and equity need to be key considerations in all policies at all levels of government. Effective Aboriginal community engagement is urgently needed to develop and implement climate adaptation responses to improve health and social service preparedness and secure environmental health infrastructure such as drinking water supplies and suitably managed social housing. Further Aboriginal-led research is required to identify the cultural impacts of climate change on health, including adaptive responses based on Aboriginal knowledges.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Li J, Xi M, Wang L, et al (2022)

Vegetation Responses to Climate Change and Anthropogenic Activity in China, 1982 to 2018.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(12): pii:ijerph19127391.

Climate change and human activities significantly affect vegetation growth in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, data reconstruction was performed to obtain a time series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for China (1982-2018) based on Savitzky-Golay filtered GIMMS NDVI3g and MOD13A2 datasets. Combining surface temperature and precipitation observations from more than 2000 meteorological stations in China, Theil-Sen trend analysis, Mann-Kendall significance tests, Pearson correlation analysis, and residual trend analysis were used to quantitatively analyze the long-term trends of vegetation changes and their sources of uncertainty. Significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity was observed in vegetation changes in the study area. From 1982 to 2018, the vegetation showed a gradually increasing trend, at a rate of 0.5%·10 a-1, significantly improving (37.15%, p < 0.05) more than the significant degradation (7.46%, p < 0.05). Broadleaf (0.66) and coniferous forests (0.62) had higher NDVI, and farmland had the fastest rate of increase (1.02%/10 a-1). Temperature significantly affected the vegetation growth in spring (R > 0; p < 0.05); however, the increase in summer temperatures significantly inhibited (R < 0; p < 0.05) the growth in North China (RNDVI-tem = -0.379) and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (RNDVI-tem = -0.051). Climate change has highly promoted the growth of vegetation in the plain region of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River (3.24%), Northwest China (1.07%). Affected by human activities only, 49.89% of the vegetation showed an increasing trend, of which 22.91% increased significantly (p < 0.05) and 9.97% decreased significantly (p < 0.05). Emergency mitigation actions are required in Northeast China, Xinjiang, Northwest China, and the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Therefore, monitoring vegetation changes is important for ecological environment construction and promoting regional ecological protection.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Han P, Tong Z, Sun Y, et al (2022)

Impact of Climate Change Beliefs on Youths' Engagement in Energy-Conservation Behavior: The Mediating Mechanism of Environmental Concerns.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(12): pii:ijerph19127222.

Global climate change presents a profound threat to the survival and continued development of humanity. The present study featured a survey of 3005 adolescents in China on 13 December 2021, aiming to determine whether climate change beliefs (including recognition of the existence of climate change, cognition of the causes of climate change, and climate change risk perception) influence their engagement in energy-conservation behaviors. Concurrently, the psychological mechanism underlying the influence of environmental concerns on the above relationship was also tested. The results showed that, among youths, climate change belief positively predicts engagement in energy-conservation behaviors. Specifically, awareness of the existence of climate change, knowledge of the causes of climate change, and climate change risk perception all positively predict engagement in energy-conservation behaviors. Further, environmental concerns were found to play a mediating role in the relationship between climate change beliefs and energy-conservation actions. From a practical perspective, the government and education departments should guide young people to develop accurate perceptions of climate change, and should raise their awareness of energy conservation and social responsibility, which should lead to their development of energy-conservation habits.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Liao J, Wang H, Xiao S, et al (2022)

Modeling and Prediction of the Species' Range of Neurobasis chinensis (Linnaeus, 1758) under Climate Change.

Biology, 11(6): pii:biology11060868.

Neurobasis chinensis is widely distributed in eastern tropical Asia. Its only congener in China, the N. anderssoni, has not been observed for decades. To protect N. chinensis, it is necessary to understand the ecological properties of its habitats and specie's range shift under climate change. In the present study, we modeled its potential distribution under one historical, current, and four future scenarios. We evaluated the importance of the factors that shape its distribution and habitats and predicted the historical and current core spatial distributions and their shifting in the future. Two historical core distribution areas were identified: the inland region of the Bay of Bengal and south-central Vietnam. The current potential distribution includes south China, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar, Luzon of Philippines, Malaysia, southwest and northeast India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia (Java, Sumatera), Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, and foothills of the Himalayas, in total, ca. 3.59 × 106 km2. Only one core distribution remained, concentrated in south-central Vietnam. In a warming future, the core distribution, high suitable habitats, and even the whole range of N. chinensis will expand and shift northwards. Currently, N. chinensis mainly resides in forest ecosystems below 1200 m above sea level (preferred 500 m to 1200 m a.s.l.). Annual precipitation, mean temperature of driest quarter, and seasonality of precipitation are important factors shaping the species distribution. Our study provides systematic information on habitats and geographical distribution, which is useful for the conservation of N. chinensis.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

López-Idiáquez D, Teplitsky C, Grégoire A, et al (2022)

Long-Term Decrease in Coloration: A Consequence of Climate Change?.

The American naturalist, 200(1):32-47.

AbstractClimate change has been shown to affect fitness-related traits in a wide range of taxa; for instance, warming leads to phenological advancements in many plant and animal species. The influence of climate change on social and secondary sexual traits, which are associated with fitness because of their role as quality signals, is, however, unknown. Here, we use more than 5,800 observations collected on two Mediterranean blue tit subspecies (Cyanistes caeruleus caeruleus and Cyanistes caeruleus ogliastrae) to explore whether blue crown and yellow breast patch colorations have changed over the past 15 years. Our data suggest that coloration has become duller and less chromatic in both sexes. In addition, in the Corsican C.c. ogliastrae, but not in the mainland C.c. caeruleus, the decrease is associated with an increase in temperature at molt. Quantitative genetic analyses do not reveal any microevolutionary change in the color traits over the study period, strongly suggesting that the observed change over time was caused by a plastic response to the environmental conditions. Overall, this study suggests that ornamental colorations could become less conspicuous because of warming, revealing climate change effects on sexual and social ornaments and calling for further research on the proximate mechanisms behind these effects.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Seddon N (2022)

Harnessing the potential of nature-based solutions for mitigating and adapting to climate change.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 376(6600):1410-1416.

Although many governments, financial institutions, and corporations are embracing nature-based solutions as part of their sustainability and net-zero carbon strategies, some nations, Indigenous peoples, local community groups, and grassroots organizations have rejected this term. This pushback is fueled by (i) critical uncertainties about when, where, how, and for whom nature-based solutions are effective and (ii) controversies surrounding their misuse in greenwashing, violations of human rights, and threats to biodiversity. To clarify how the scientific community can help address these issues, I provide an overview of recent research on the benefits and limits of nature-based solutions, including how they compare with technological approaches, and highlight critical areas for future research.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Moore JW, DE Schindler (2022)

Getting ahead of climate change for ecological adaptation and resilience.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 376(6600):1421-1426.

Changing the course of Earth's climate is increasingly urgent, but there is also a concurrent need for proactive stewardship of the adaptive capacity of the rapidly changing biosphere. Adaptation ultimately underpins the resilience of Earth's complex systems; species, communities, and ecosystems shift and evolve over time. Yet oncoming changes will seriously challenge current natural resource management and conservation efforts. We review forward-looking conservation approaches to enable adaptation and resilience. Key opportunities include expanding beyond preservationist approaches by including those that enable and facilitate ecological change. Conservation should not just focus on climate change losers but also on proactive management of emerging opportunities. Local efforts to conserve biodiversity and generate habitat complexity will also help to maintain a diversity of future options for an unpredictable future.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Zurek M, Hebinck A, O Selomane (2022)

Climate change and the urgency to transform food systems.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 376(6600):1416-1421.

Without rapid changes to agriculture and food systems, the goals of the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change will not be met. Food systems are one of the most important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but they also need to be adapted to cope with climate change impacts. Although many options exist to reduce GHG emissions in the food system, efforts to develop implementable transformation pathways are hampered by a combination of structural challenges such as fragmented decision-making, vested interests, and power imbalances in the climate policy and food communities, all of which are compounded by a lack of joint vision. New processes and governance arrangements are urgently needed for dealing with potential trade-offs among mitigation options and their food security implications.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Fyllas NM, Koufaki T, Sazeides CI, et al (2022)

Potential Impacts of Climate Change on the Habitat Suitability of the Dominant Tree Species in Greece.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(12): pii:plants11121616.

Climate change is affecting species distribution and ecosystem form and function. Forests provide a range of ecosystem services, and understanding their vulnerability to climate change is important for designing effective adaptation strategies. Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) has been extensively used to derive habitat suitability maps under current conditions and project species distribution shifts under climate change. In this study, we model the current and future habitat suitability of the dominant tree species in Greece (Abies cephalonica, Abies borisii-regis, Pinus brutia, Pinus halepensis, Pinus nigra, Quercus ilex, Quercus pubescens, Quercus frainetto and Fagus sylvatica), based on species-specific presence data from the EU-Forest database, enhanced with data from Greece that is currently under-represented in terms of tree species occurrence points. By including these additional presence data, areas with relatively drier conditions for some of the study species were included in the SDM development, yielding a potentially lower vulnerability under climate change conditions. SDMs were developed for each taxon using climate and soil data at a resolution of ~1 km2. Model performance was assessed under current conditions and was found to adequately simulate potential distributions. Subsequently, the models were used to project the potential distribution of each species under the SSP1-2.6 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios for the 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 time periods. Under climate change scenarios, a reduction in habitat-suitable areas was predicted for most study species, with higher elevation taxa experiencing more pronounced potential habitat shrinkages. An exception was the endemic A. cephalonica and its sister species A. borisii-regis, which, although currently found at mid and high elevations, seem able to maintain their potential distribution under most climate change scenarios. Our findings suggest that climate change could significantly affect the distribution and dynamics of forest ecosystems in Greece, with important ecological, economic and social implications, and thus adequate mitigation measures should be implemented.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Dong Z, He Y, Ren Y, et al (2022)

Seasonal and Year-Round Distributions of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) and Its Risk to Temperate Fruits under Climate Change.

Insects, 13(6): pii:insects13060550.

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important pest to fruits and vegetables. It can damage more than 300 plant species. The distribution of B. dorsalis has been expanding owing to international trade and other human activities. B. dorsalis occurrence is strongly related to suitable overwintering conditions and distribution areas, but it is unclear where these seasonal and year-round suitable areas are. We used maximum entropy (MaxEnt) to predict the potential seasonal and year-round distribution areas of B. dorsalis. We also projected suitable habitat areas in 2040 and 2060 under global warming scenarios, such as SSP126 and SSP585. These models achieved AUC values of 0.860 and 0.956 for the seasonal and year-round scenarios, respectively, indicating their good prediction capabilities. The precipitation of the wettest month (Bio13) and the mean diurnal temperature range (Bio2) contributed 83.9% to the seasonal distribution prediction model. Bio2 and the minimum temperature of the coldest month (Bio6) provided important information related to the year-round distribution prediction. In future scenarios, the suitable area of B. dorsalis will increase and the range will expand northward. Four important temperate fruits, namely, apples, peaches, pears, and oranges, will be seriously threatened. The information from this study provides a useful reference for implementing improved population management strategies for B. dorsalis.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Wåhlström I, Hammar L, Hume D, et al (2022)

Projected climate change impact on a coastal sea-as significant as all current pressures combined.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change influences the ocean's physical and biogeochemical conditions, causing additional pressures on marine environments and ecosystems, now and in the future. Such changes occur in environments that already today suffer under pressures from e.g. eutrophication, pollution, shipping and more. We demonstrate how to implement climate change into regional Marine Spatial Planning by introducing data of future temperature, salinity and sea-ice cover from regional ocean climate model projections to an existing cumulative impact model. This makes it possible to assess climate change impact in relation to pre-existing cumulative impact from current human activities. Results indicate that end-of-century projected climate change alone is a threat of the same magnitude as the combination of all current pressures to the marine environment. These findings give marine planners and policymakers forewarning on how future climate change may impact marine ecosystems, across space, emission scenarios and in relation to other pressures.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Pilotto F, Rojas A, PI Buckland (2022)

Late Holocene anthropogenic landscape change in northwestern Europe impacted insect biodiversity as much as climate change did after the last Ice Age.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1977):20212734.

Since the last Ice Age (ca 115 000-11 700 years ago), the geographical ranges of most plants and animals have shifted, expanded or contracted. Understanding the timing, geographical patterns and drivers of past changes in insect communities is essential for evaluating the biodiversity implications of future climate changes, yet our knowledge of long-term patterns is limited. We applied a network modelling approach to the recent fossil record of northwestern European beetles to investigate how their taxonomic and trait composition changed during the past 16 000 years. We found two major changes in beetle faunas 4000-3500 and 10 000-9500 years ago, coinciding with periods of human population growth in the Late Holocene and climate warming in the Early Holocene. Our results demonstrate that humans have affected insect biodiversity since at least the introduction of agropastoralism, with landscape-scale effects that can be observed at sites away from areas of direct human impact.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Chen YG, LE XG, Chen YH, et al (2022)

[Identification of the potential distribution area of Cunninghamia lanceolata in China under climate change based on the MaxEnt model].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 33(5):1207-1214.

Based on the distribution records of Cunninghamia lanceolata, we used the maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model and geographic information system (GIS) methods, combined with environmental factors such as climate and terrain, to predict the potential distribution areas suitable for C. lanceolata under current and future climate scenarios. The results showed that annual precipitation was the most important factor driving the distribution of C. lanceolata. Under the current climate scenario, the total area of suitable for C. lanceolata growth was about 3.28 million km2, accounting for about 34.5% of the total land area of China. Among all the suitable areas, the lowly, intermediately, and highly suitable areas accounted for 18.3%, 29.7% and 52.0% of the total, respectively. Under future climate scenarios, the suitable area of C. lanceolata would increase, showing a clear trend of northward expansion in China. A concentrated and contiguous distribution region highly suitable for C. lanceolata would appear in the humid subtropical areas of southern China. The model was tested by the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). The average area under the curve of ROC of the training set was 0.91, showing high reliability.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Giovanis E, O Ozdamar (2022)

The impact of climate change on budget balances and debt in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.

Climatic change, 172(3-4):34.

Lower tax revenues and greater government spending result in higher deficits and public debt. As a result, determining the degree of budgetary effects is vital, but important to assess the persistence of these effects. We aim to investigate the impact of climate change on the fiscal balance and public debt in the countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The empirical analysis relies on panel data in the period 1990-2019 and employs various models. The findings show that temperature changes adversely affect the government budget and increase debt, but we find no significant impact of changes in rainfall. The average temperature decreases fiscal balance by 0.3 percent and increases debt by 1.87 percent. Using projections of temperature and rainfall over the years 2020 to 2099, we find a significant decrease in the fiscal balance at 7.3 percent and an increase in the public debt at 16 percent in 2060-2079 and 18 percent in 2080-2099 under the assumption of a high greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenario. On the contrary, under the low GHG emission scenario, the fiscal balance deteriorates by 1.7 percent in 2020-2039 and 2.2 percent in 2080-2099, while public debt rises by 5 percent in 2020-2039 and 6.3 percent in 2080-2099.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10584-022-03388-x.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Johnson JV, Dick JTA, D Pincheira-Donoso (2022)

Correction: Marine protected areas do not buffer corals from bleaching under global warming.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):81.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Jackson HM, Johnson SA, Morandin LA, et al (2022)

Climate change winners and losers among North American bumblebees.

Biology letters, 18(6):20210551.

Mounting evidence suggests that climate change, agricultural intensification and disease are impacting bumblebee health and contributing to species' declines. Identifying how these factors impact insect communities at large spatial and temporal scales is difficult, partly because species may respond in different ways. Further, the necessary data must span large spatial and temporal scales, which usually means they comprise aggregated, presence-only records collected using numerous methods (e.g. diversity surveys, educational collections, citizen-science projects, standardized ecological surveys). Here, we use occupancy models, which explicitly correct for biases in the species observation process, to quantify the effect of changes in temperature, precipitation and floral resources on bumblebee site occupancy over the past 12 decades in North America. We find no evidence of genus-wide declines in site occupancy, but do find that occupancy is strongly related to temperature, and is only weakly related to precipitation or floral resources. We also find that more species are likely to be climate change 'losers' than 'winners' and that this effect is primarily associated with changing temperature. Importantly, all trends were highly species-specific, highlighting that genus or community-wide measures may not reflect diverse species-specific patterns that are critical in guiding allocation of conservation resources.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Rahman MM, McConnell R, Schlaerth H, et al (2022)

The Effects of Co-Exposure to Extremes of Heat and Particulate Air Pollution on Mortality in California: Implications for Climate Change.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Rationale Extremes of heat and particulate air pollution threaten human health and are becoming more frequent due to climate change. Understanding health impacts of co-exposure to extreme heat and air pollution is urgent. Objectives To estimate association of acute co-exposure to extreme heat and ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in California from 2014-2019. Methods We used a case-crossover study design with time-stratified matching using conditional logistic regression to estimate mortality associations with acute co-exposures to extreme heat and PM2.5. For each case day (date of death) and its control days, daily average PM2.5, maximum and minimum temperature were assigned (0-3-day lag) based on decedent's residence census tract. Main Results All-cause mortality risk increased 6.1% (95%confidence interval, CI: 4.1, 8.1) on extreme maximum temperature only days and 5.0% (95%CI: 3.0, 8.0) on extreme PM2.5 only days, compared to non-extreme days. Risk increased 21.0% (95%CI: 6.6, 37.3) on days with exposure to both extreme maximum temperature and PM2.5. Increased risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality on extreme co-exposure days was 29.9% (95%CI: 3.3, 63.3) and 38.0% (95%CI:-12.5, 117.7), respectively, and were more than the sum of individual effects of extreme temperature and PM2.5 only. A similar pattern was observed for co-exposure to extreme PM2.5 and minimum temperature. Effect estimates were larger over age 75 years. Conclusion Short-term exposure to extreme heat and air pollution alone were individually associated with increased risk of mortality, but their co-exposure had larger effects beyond the sum of their individual effects.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Urrutia-Pereira M, Badellino H, Ansotegui IJ, et al (2022)

Climate change and allergic diseases in children and adolescents.

Allergologia et immunopathologia, 50(S Pt 1):7-16.

INTRODUCTION: The Anthropocene is used to describe the most recent period where major disruptions in Earth's system processes have resulted from humanity's increasing ecological footprint. Climate change affects the social and environmental determinants of good health, such as clean air, stable ecosystems, safe drinking water, and sufficient and safe food, and they seem to be closely related to air pollution.

OBJECTIVES: This article aims to review the evidence of how extreme weather events and indoor and outdoor pollution are associated with insufficient lung growth in early life, changes in lung function, and the increase in respiratory infections, favoring the development of allergic respiratory diseases.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non-systematic review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles published in the last ten years in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO. The terms used were air pollution OR climate changes OR smoke, AND health OR allergic disease.

RESULTS: Climate change and air pollution are the leading contributors to health emergencies around the world. On a global scale, those most at risk of adverse health effects associated with climate change include children, the elderly, and other vulnerable groups. Climate change and air pollution have adverse impacts on respiratory allergies, and the mechanisms are complex and interactive.

CONCLUSION: Health professionals must receive information and education necessary to establish effective mitigation and adaptation strategies to minimize the effects of climate changes on the respiratory health of their patients.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Carnicer J, Alegria A, Giannakopoulos C, et al (2022)

Global warming is shifting the relationships between fire weather and realized fire-induced CO2 emissions in Europe.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10365.

Fire activity has significantly changed in Europe over the last decades (1980-2020s), with the emergence of summers attaining unprecedented fire prone weather conditions. Here we report a significant shift in the non-stationary relationship linking fire weather conditions and fire intensity measured in terms of CO2 emissions released during biomass burning across a latitudinal gradient of European IPCC regions. The reported trends indicate that global warming is possibly inducing an incipient change on regional fire dynamics towards increased fire impacts in Europe, suggesting that emerging risks posed by exceptional fire-weather danger conditions may progressively exceed current wildfire suppression capabilities in the next decades and impact forest carbon sinks.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Fu X, C Li (2022)

How resilient are localities planning for climate change? An evaluation of 50 plans in the United States.

Journal of environmental management, 318:115493 pii:S0301-4797(22)01066-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Resilience has increasingly become the principal management priority and planning goal for cities, especially for climate change adaptation. Yet few studies have evaluated whether and how well resilience are integrated into climate change adaptation planning. In this study, we first conceptualized resilience as five key elements (i.e., system, collaboration, uncertainty, coping capacity, and adaptive capacity) and developed a coding protocol based on these key elements. We then used it to evaluate a sample of 50 climate change plans in the United States (US) that has a major adaptation component. We found that the concept of resilience has not been adequately embedded in US climate change plans and that the predominant notions of resilience has limited influence on how well plans integrate resilience. We also found that standalone adaptation plans outperform hybrid plans in addressing uncertainty and fostering systems thinking. Ultimately, major barriers exist in translating the concept of resilience into climate change planning practice. We further offer implications for cities to more effectively plan for climate resilience.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Qin J, Mazomba M, Huang R, et al (2022)

Study on the relationship among typhoon, climate change, and acute Stanford type A aortic dissection in southern of Zhejiang in China.

General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between typhoon, climate change, and acute Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) in southern of Zhejiang Province in China.

METHOD: 371 patients with TAAD were admitted to three hospitals (the aortic dissection center) in southern of Zhejiang Province, China from January 2015 to December 2020, and data were retrospectively collected, the data included (1) the number of patients admitted in different months and seasons, (2) daily meteorological data in southern of Zhejiang Province, and (3) typhoon information were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS: The number of TAAD occurred in winter was the highest and in summer was the lowest. The incidence of TAAD was correlated with minimum temperature, maximum wind speed, mean wind speed, and water vapor pressure (P < 0.05). Maximum wind speed (RR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.80, P = 0.01) and water vapor pressure (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.92 to 1, P = 0.03) were the protective factor. The occurrence incidence of TAAD under the influence of typhoon climate was less than that during the period not affected by typhoon (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: There was a correlation between typhoon, climate change, and the occurrence of TAAD in southern Zhejiang Province. Wind speed, vapor pressure, and typhoon may be protective factors.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Ma B, Jing J, Liu B, et al (2022)

Quantitative assessment of the relative contributions of climate change and human activities to NPP changes in the Southwest Karst area of China.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Net primary production (NPP) is an essential component of the terrestrial carbon cycle and an essential factor of ecological processes. In global change research, it was the core content to study the driving forces of NPP change. In this paper, we focused on the Southwest Karst area of China and analyzed the response mechanisms of NPP to topography, land-use types, climatic change, and human activities. Our results showed that (1) changes in elevation and slope lead to significant differences in the spatial distribution of NPP. With the increase of elevation and slope, NPP first increased and then decreased, their critical values were 2000 m and 15°, respectively. (2) NPP varied significantly among different land-use types. The average NPP of the forest was the highest, and the average NPP of cultivated land increased fastest. (3) Temperature and precipitation had the most substantial influence on NPP, both of them promoted the increase of NPP, and the effect of temperature was more obvious in the Southwest Karst area. (4) Ecological engineering significantly promoted the change of NPP, while animal husbandry significantly inhibited the change of NPP. (5) There were significant spatial differences in the driving effects and corresponding contributions of climatic change and human activities; both of them promoted the increase of NPP in the Southwest Karst area of China. Under climatic change and human activities, NPP increased by 1.24 gC·m-2·year-1 and 2.29 gC·m-2·year-1, respectively. The contributions rates of climatic change and human activities separately accounted for 35% and 65%. The contribution of human activities on NPP was much higher than that of climatic change in the Southwest Karst area, and the results suggested that we should focus on the role of human activities on NPP change.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Flores-López CA, Moo-Llanes DA, Romero-Figueroa G, et al (2022)

Potential distributions of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and its vector Dipetalogaster maxima highlight areas at risk of Chagas disease transmission in Baja California Sur, Mexico, under climate change.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Dipetalogaster maxima is a primary vector of Chagas disease in the Cape region of Baja California Sur, Mexico. The geographic distribution of D. maxima is limited to this small region of the Baja California Peninsula in Mexico. Our study aimed to construct the ecological niche models (ENMs) of this understudied vector species and the parasite responsible for Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi). We modelled the ecological niches of both species under current and future climate change projections in 2050 using four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs): RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, and RCP 8.5. We also assessed the human population at risk of exposure to D. maxima bites, the hypothesis of ecological niche equivalency and similarity between D. maxima and T. cruzi, and finally the abundance centroid hypothesis. The ENM predicted a higher overlap between both species in the Western and Southern coastal regions of the Baja California Peninsula. The climate change scenarios predicted a Northern shift in the ecological niche of both species. Our findings suggested that the highly tourist destination of Los Cabos is a high-risk zone for Chagas disease circulation. Overall, the study provides valuable data to vector surveillance and control programs.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Wheat S, Gaughen S, Skeet J, et al (2022)

Climate Change and COVID-19: Assessing the Vulnerability and Resilience of U.S. Indigenous Communities to Syndemic Crises.

The journal of climate change and health pii:S2667-2782(22)00037-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The rapid emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic and the insidiously evolving climate crisis represent two of the most pressing public health threats to Indigenous Peoples in the United States. Understanding the ways in which these syndemics uniquely impact Indigenous Peoples, given the existing health disparities for such communities, is essential if we are to address modifiable root causes of health vulnerability and devise effective and equitable strategies to protect and improve health in the evolving climate landscape. We explore the compounding burden of the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change on Indigenous Peoples' health, and present several case studies which outline novel Indigenous approaches and perspectives that address climate change, COVID-19 and future health threats.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Paudel D, Tiwari KR, Raut N, et al (2022)

What affects farmers in choosing better agroforestry practice as a strategy of climate change adaptation? An experience from the mid-hills of Nepal.

Heliyon, 8(6):e09695 pii:S2405-8440(22)00983-5.

Determinants for choosing climate change adaptation strategies and selecting improved agroforestry practices have rarely been explored, while numerous studies have been conducted on climate change and agroforestry. This paper discusses; local understanding of climate change, climatic impacts, and factors that affect farmers' choices of adaptation strategies, and agroforestry practices. We focused on three districts located in the mid-hills of Nepal, where farmers were adopting agroforestry practices in two forms; traditional and improved practices. We followed three techniques of social survey; household survey (n = 420), focus group discussions (n = 6), and key informant interviews (n = 24). Almost all farmers of the study areas were experiencing climatic challenges, but only 59.29% of them accepted that the challenges are induced by climate change and, likewise, 55.24% have adopted climate change adaptation measures. Diversifying crop production, shifting farming practices, changing occupation, and emigration were local adaptation strategies. Livelihood improvement, income generation, and food production were the primary motives for adopting agroforestry practices in the study area. Agroforestry as an adaptation measure to climate change was considered secondary by most farmers. Statistical analysis using a logit model revealed that age, education, and habit of growing commercial species significantly influenced farmers adopting climate change adaptation strategies. Likewise, age, education, gender, habit of growing commercial species, and income from tree products significantly influenced the choice of improved agroforestry practices as a better option. Though agroforestry was widely considered a strategy to combat climate change, only some farmers accepted it due to their awareness level. Therefore, education programs such as training, farmer field schools, door-to-door visits, etc., should be intensified to sensitize farmers about climate change and encourage them to adopt improved agroforestry practices. The findings of the study could reinforce local, national, and international allied agencies to design operative actions in the days to come.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Solway J, Kenyon N, L Berglund (2022)

Clinical and translational science and climate change: Time for action.

Journal of clinical and translational science, 6(1):e57 pii:S2059866122000097.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Fischer I, Rubenstein DI, SA Levin (2022)

Vaccination-hesitancy and global warming: distinct social challenges with similar behavioural solutions.

Royal Society open science, 9(6):211515 pii:rsos211515.

Although the COVID-19 vaccine has dramatically changed the fight against the pandemic, many exhibit vaccination-hesitancy. At the same time, continued human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases pose an alarming threat to humanity. Based on the theory of Subjective Expected Relative Similarity (SERS) and a recent international study that drastically modified COVID-19 health-related attitudes, we explain why a similar approach and a corresponding public policy are expected to help resolve both behavioural issues: reduce vaccination hesitancy and motivate climate actions.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Khan MS, Mubeen I, Caimeng Y, et al (2022)

Waste to energy incineration technology: Recent development under climate change scenarios.

Waste management & research : the journal of the International Solid Wastes and Public Cleansing Association, ISWA [Epub ahead of print].

With the huge generation of municipal solid waste (MSW), proper management and disposal of MSW is a worldwide challenge for sustainable development of cities and high quality of citizens life. Although different disposal ways are available, incineration is a leading harmless approach to effectively recover energy among the applied technologies. The purpose of the present review paper is to detail the discussion of evolution of waste to energy incineration and specifically to highlight the currently used and advanced incineration technologies, including combined incineration with other energy, for instance, hydrogen production, coal and solar energy. In addition, the environmental performance is discussed, including the zero waste emission, leachate and fly ash treatment, climate change contribution and public behaviour. Finally, challenges, opportunities and business model are addressed. Trends and perspectives on policies and techno-economic aspects are also discussed in this review. Different simulation tools, which can be used for the thermodynamic assessment of incineration plants, are debated; life-cycle inventory emissions and most critical environmental impacts of such plants are evaluated by life-cycle analysis. This review shows that waste incineration with energy yield is advantageous to handle waste problems and it affects climate change positively.

RevDate: 2022-06-19

Gopalan SP, Sukhapunnaphan AT, Nakamura S, et al (2022)

Potential impact of diversion canals and retention areas as climate change adaptation measures on flood risk reduction: A hydrological modelling case study from the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03839-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The countries of Southeast Asia are projected to experience severe flood damage and economic impacts from climate change, compared with the global average. Hence adaptation by incorporating infrastructures is essential, but it has been seldom explicitly included in the simulations projecting climate change impacts on flood risk in these countries. Quantifying the effects of infrastructure is the key to climate change impact and adaptation assessment. Therefore, this study was conducted in the Chao Phraya River Basin (CPRB) in Thailand to examine the adaptation potential of (i) existing structural and non-structural measures that include reservoir and diversion dams, diversion canals, and water retention areas, and (ii) the combined adaptation measures, a combination of alterations made to the existing diversion canals and retention areas, on reducing future floods using the H08 global hydrological model (GHM). The results revealed that the impact of existing measures on the future flood reduction was smaller than the increase caused by warming in the CPRB. Conversely, the combined adaptation measures successfully mitigated the effect of warming by redirecting nearly 50 % of the diverted river flow to the ocean and storing 30 % of the diverted flow in the retention areas. Although a remarkable reduction was noted in the basin-wide flood risk, the effect of adaptation measures greatly varied across the basin. The combined adaptation measures largely reduced the number of flooding days by close to 100 at many of the considered stations within the basin, except for extreme flood events (historical 1-percentile flood events). This further reveals that the feasibility of adaptation measures in alleviating the extreme future floods will be limited in flood-vulnerable basins and thus require area-based prioritization for flood management. The modelling framework implemented in this study can be easily adapted to different GHMs and regions and should be examined for their applicability.

RevDate: 2022-06-19

Vardoulakis S, Matthews V, Bailie RS, et al (2022)

Building resilience to Australian flood disasters in the face of climate change.

The Medical journal of Australia [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-06-18

Zhu BR, Verhoeven MA, Velasco N, et al (2022)

Current breeding distributions and predicted range shifts under climate change in two subspecies of Black-tailed Godwits in Asia.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Habitat loss and shifts associated with climate change threaten global biodiversity, with impacts likely to be most pronounced at high latitudes. With the disappearance of the tundra breeding habitats, migratory shorebirds that breed at these high latitudes are likely to be even more vulnerable to climate change than those in temperate regions. We examined this idea using new distributional information on two subspecies of Black-tailed Godwits Limosa limosa in Asia: the northerly, bog-breeding L. l. bohaii and the more southerly, steppe-breeding L. l. melanuroides. Based on breeding locations of tagged and molecularly assayed birds, we modelled the current breeding distributions of the two subspecies with species distribution models, tested those models for robustness, and then used them to predict climatically suitable breeding ranges in 2070 according to bioclimatic variables and different climate change scenarios. Our models were robust and showed that climate change is expected to push bohaii into the northern rim of the Eurasian continent. Melanuroides is also expected to shift northward, stopping in the Yablonovyy and Stanovoy Ranges, and breeding elevation is expected to increase. Climatically suitable breeding habitat ranges would shrink to 16% and 11% of the currently estimated ranges of bohaii and melanuroides, respectively. Overall, this study provides the first predictions for the future distributions of two little-known Black-tailed Godwit subspecies and highlights the importance of factoring in shifts in bird distribution when designing climate-proof conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Singh L, Kanwar N, Bhatt ID, et al (2022)

Predicting the potential distribution of Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Don) Soo-an important medicinal orchid in the West Himalaya, under multiple climate change scenarios.

PloS one, 17(6):e0269673 pii:PONE-D-21-16347.

Climate variability coupled with anthropogenic pressures is the most critical driver in the Himalayan region for forest ecosystem vulnerability. Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D.Don) Soo is an important yet highly threatened medicinal orchid from the Himalayan region. Poor regenerative power and growing demand have resulted in the steep decline of its natural habitats populations. The present study aims to identify the habitat suitability of D. hatagirea in the Western Himalaya using the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt). The community climate system model (CCSM ver. 4) based on representative concentration pathways (RCPs) was used to determine suitable future areas. Sixteen least correlated (< 0.8) bioclimatic, topographical and geomorphic variables were used to construct the species climatic niche. The dominant contributing variables were elevation (34.85%) followed by precipitation of the coldest quarter (23.04%), soil type (8.77%), land use land cover (8.26%), mean annual temperature (5.51%), and temperature seasonality (5.11%). Compared to the present distribution, habitat suitability under future projection, i.e., RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 (2050 and 2070), was found to shift to higher elevation towards the northwest direction, while lower altitudes will invariably be less suitable. Further, as compared to the current distribution, the climatic niche space of the species is expected to expand in between11.41-22.13% in the near future. High habitats suitability areas are mainly concentrated in the forest range like Dharchula and Munsyari range, Pindar valley, Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, West of Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, and Uttarkashi forest division. The present study delineated the fundamental niche baseline map of D. hatagirea in the Western Himalayas and highlighted regions/areas where conservation and management strategies should be intensified in the next 50 years. In addition, as the species is commercially exploited illegally, the information gathered is essential for conservationists and planners who protect the species at the regional levels.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Parkes B, Buzan JR, M Huber (2022)

Heat stress in Africa under high intensity climate change.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

Extreme weather events are major causes of loss of life and damage infrastructure worldwide. High temperatures cause heat stress on humans, livestock, crops and infrastructure. Heat stress exposure is projected to increase with ongoing climate change. Extremes of temperature are common in Africa and infrastructure is often incapable of providing adequate cooling. We show how easily accessible cooling technology, such as evaporative coolers, prevent heat stress in historic timescales but are unsuitable as a solution under climate change. As temperatures increase, powered cooling, such as air conditioning, is necessary to prevent overheating. This will, in turn, increase demand on already stretched infrastructure. We use high temporal resolution climate model data to estimate the demand for cooling according to two metrics, firstly the apparent temperature and secondly the discomfort index. For each grid cell we calculate the heat stress value and the amount of cooling required to turn a heat stress event into a non heat stress event. We show the increase in demand for cooling in Africa is non uniform and that equatorial countries are exposed to higher heat stress than higher latitude countries. We further show that evaporative coolers are less effective in tropical regions than in the extra tropics. Finally, we show that neither low nor high efficiency coolers are sufficient to return Africa to current levels of heat stress under climate change.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Nili S, Asadgol Z, Dalaei H, et al (2022)

The effect of climate change on malaria transmission in the southeast of Iran.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

Malaria is a vector-borne disease, likely to be affected by climate change. In this study, general circulation model (GCM)-based scenarios were used for projecting future climate patterns and malaria incidence by artificial neural networks (ANN) in Zahedan district, Iran. Daily malaria incidence data of Zahedan district from 2000 to 2019 were inquired. The gamma test was used to select the appropriate combination of parameters for nonlinear modeling. The future climate pattern projections were obtained from HadGEM2-ES. The output was downscaled using LARS-WG stochastic weather generator under two Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP2.6 and RCP8.5) scenarios. The effect of climate change on malaria transmission for 2021-2060 was simulated by ANN. The designed model indicated that the future climate in Zahedan district will be warmer, more humid, and with more precipitation. Assessment of the potential impact of climate change on the incidence of malaria by ANN showed the number of malaria cases in Zahedan under both scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP 8.5). It should be noted that due to the lack of daily malaria data before 2013, monthly data from 2000 were used only for initial analysis; and in preprocessing and simulation analyses, the daily malaria data from 2013 to 2019 were used. Therefore, if proper interventions are not implemented, malaria will continue to be a health issue in this region.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Habeeb B, E Bastidas-Arteaga (2022)

Climate change indicators dataset for coastal locations of the European Atlantic area.

Data in brief, 43:108339 pii:S2352-3409(22)00541-8.

Over time, considerable changes in the earth's climate have always occurred due to a wide variety of natural processes. During the last century, these natural changes have all been accelerated by global warming, which has been driven by human activities. Climate change leads to wide variations in environmental variables such as temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide, etc. These changes could adversely affect the performance, serviceability, and safety of infrastructure assets. The challenge, therefore, is to not only understand the effect of extreme events and their links to climate change, but also to obtain data that could be used for assessing long-term gradual effects affecting infrastructure assets. In this paper is presented a climate indicators database that was collected and provided in an excel format. This database could be used for assessing the durability, vulnerability, and cost-effectiveness of adaptation measures for coastal infrastructure assets. The database contains information for specific coastal locations placed in five European countries: Caxias (Portugal), Saint Nazaire (France), Vigo (Spain), Brighton (UK), Dublin and Cork (Ireland). The database includes atmospheric, and oceanic indicators, as well as and the flow of rivers. It covers a time series of up to 2100 with various representative concentration pathways and climate models.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Bhatia S, Bansal D, Patil S, et al (2022)

A Retrospective Study of Climate Change Affecting Dengue: Evidences, Challenges and Future Directions.

Frontiers in public health, 10:884645.

Climate change is unexpected weather patterns that can create an alarming situation. Due to climate change, various sectors are affected, and one of the sectors is healthcare. As a result of climate change, the geographic range of several vector-borne human infectious diseases will expand. Currently, dengue is taking its toll, and climate change is one of the key reasons contributing to the intensification of dengue disease transmission. The most important climatic factors linked to dengue transmission are temperature, rainfall, and relative humidity. The present study carries out a systematic literature review on the surveillance system to predict dengue outbreaks based on Machine Learning modeling techniques. The systematic literature review discusses the methodology and objectives, the number of studies carried out in different regions and periods, the association between climatic factors and the increase in positive dengue cases. This study also includes a detailed investigation of meteorological data, the dengue positive patient data, and the pre-processing techniques used for data cleaning. Furthermore, correlation techniques in several studies to determine the relationship between dengue incidence and meteorological parameters and machine learning models for predictive analysis are discussed. In the future direction for creating a dengue surveillance system, several research challenges and limitations of current work are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Yousafzai MT, Shah T, Khan S, et al (2022)

Assessing Socioeconomic Risks of Climate Change on Tenant Farmers in Pakistan.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:870555.

The study uses a transformative worldview to give voice to an economically marginalized group of tenant farmers vulnerable to climate changes due to their calamity prone geographical location. Drawing on anthropogenic global warming (AGW) theory lens, we examine the impact of manmade actions on climate change in District "Swat" and "Malakand" of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province, Pakistan using a sequential mixed methods research design. Through this research design, the results of quantitative survey were complemented with a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews. In first phase, we conducted a survey of 200 tenant farmers, followed by second wave of data collection involving 12 open-ended in-depth interviews (IDIs). The both qualitative and quantitative results suggest that farmers in both districts are affected by climate change although their crop yield had progressively increased signaling better coping and survival skills than other parts of country. Majority of respondents believed that climate change is something beyond their control in disagreement with AGW theory. Major economic losses were specifically, due to sudden alterations in weather patterns, such as floods, and hailstorms that reduce productivity as well as results in food waste with no avenues available to reclaim the energy laden in organic food waste. Besides, a productivity loss was attributed to outdated farming, lack of awareness regarding sharecropping and crop loan insurance practices. The study concludes that farmers are most vulnerable to climate change in socioeconomic terms as such changes impact their income sources; This inwardly compels cash strapped tenant farmers to delve in practice of informal credit with substantive risks attached which further deteriorates their livelihoods. The study offers understanding of how low-literate and economically marginalized indigenous tenant farmers cope to climate change and offers policy recommendations to advocate for the rights to earn sustainable livelihoods in the face of grand climate challenge.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Dannevig H, Korsbrekke MH, GK Hovelsrud (2022)

Advancements of sustainable development goals in co-production for climate change adaptation research.

Climate risk management, 36:None.

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is a new discursive regime that encompasses global environmental change challenges and sustainability sciences, including adaptation to climate change. Co-production of knowledge has become a key, intrinsic component in both sustainability sciences and adaptation research. In this review article, we investigate if and how the SDG agenda is included in the application of participatory approaches and co-production of knowledge for climate change adaptation. We review findings from such processes in projects whose objective is to foster adaptation in the context of SDGs and to categorize the methods employed to forward co-production. We investigate 1) whether and how co-production approaches localize SDG targets and address tradeoffs and synergies, 2) whether they focus on power asymmetries and political dimensions in such participatory processes, and 3) whether and how the literature show that the SDG agenda contributes to a shift in the role of researchers towards a more interventionist approach to co-production. Our results show that there is little evidence that the SDG agenda contributes to a shift towards more interventionist or transformative approaches within climate change adaptation. Further, we have a identified a missed opportunity in the exclusion of "social" SDGs (SDG 5 and 10) in the discussions of adaptation and co-production and SGDs. Most importantly, we find that participatory efforts, including the co-production of knowledge, for localizing SDG goals and resolving tradeoffs and benefits, are the most salient aspects that tie the three co-production - adaptation - the SDG agenda together. Such participatory localizing processes have a great potential in facilitating long-enduring empowerment and legitimacy in adaptation efforts.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Caven AJ, JD Wiese (2022)

Reinventory of the vascular plants of Mormon Island Crane Meadows after forty years of restoration, invasion, and climate change.

Heliyon, 8(6):e09640 pii:S2405-8440(22)00928-8.

The majority of tallgrass prairie has been lost from North America's Great Plains, but remaining tracts often support significant biodiversity. Despite permanent protections for some remnants, they continue to face anthropogenic threats including habitat fragmentation, invasive species, and climate change. Conservationists have sought to buffer remnants from threats using prairie restoration but limited research has assessed such practices at the landscape-level. We reexamine the flora of Mormon Island, the largest tract of lowland tallgrass prairie remaining in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska, USA, nearly 40-years after it was initially inventoried and following widespread restoration. We also conducted preliminary inventories of nearby Shoemaker Island and adjacent off-island habitats using an ecotope-based stratified random sampling approach. We examined change at Mormon Island between 1980-1981 and 2015-2020 and compared it to adjacent conservation lands using a number of vegetation indices. We documented 389 vascular plant species on Mormon Island, 405 on Shoemaker Island, and 337 on off-island habitats from 2015-2020, which represented an increase in native and exotic species richness on Mormon Island compared to 1980-1981 results. Floristic quality index (FQI) values increased at Mormon Island between 1980-1981 and 2015-2020. Paradoxically, the distribution of exotic-invasive species also expanded. Mormon Island from 2015-2020 was more similar to Shoemaker Island and off-island habitats from 2015-2020 than Mormon Island from 1980-1981. Widespread restoration introduced a number of high conservation value species native to Nebraska but novel to the CPRV, which improved FQIs despite increased exotic species invasion. These concurrent trends appear to have driven biological homogenization across the study area. Restoration did not fully buffer Mormon Island from exotic species invasion but it may have partially mitigated the impact considering the persistence of most native species across a 40-year period. We recommend using "local ecotype" seed for restorations to preserve distinctive local communities.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

McColl-Gausden SC, Bennett LT, Clarke HG, et al (2022)

The fuel-climate-fire conundrum: How will fire regimes change in temperate eucalypt forests under climate change?.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Fire regimes are changing across the globe in response to complex interactions between climate, fuel, and fire across space and time. Despite these complex interactions, research into predicting fire regime change is often unidimensional, typically focusing on direct relationships between fire activity and climate, increasing the chances of erroneous fire predictions that have ignored feedbacks with, for example, fuel loads and availability. Here, we quantify the direct and indirect role of climate on fire regime change in eucalypt dominated landscapes using a novel simulation approach that uses a landscape fire modelling framework to simulate fire regimes over decades to centuries. We estimated the relative roles of climate-mediated changes as both direct effects on fire weather and indirect effects on fuel load and structure in a full factorial simulation experiment (present and future weather, present and future fuel) that included six climate ensemble members. We applied this simulation framework to predict changes in fire regimes across six temperate forested landscapes in south-eastern Australia that encompass a broad continuum from climate-limited to fuel-limited. Climate-mediated change in weather and fuel was predicted to intensify fire regimes in all six landscapes by increasing wildfire extent and intensity and decreasing fire interval, potentially led by an earlier start to the fire season. Future weather was the dominant factor influencing changes in all the tested fire regime attributes: area burnt, area burnt at high intensity, fire interval, high-intensity fire interval, and season midpoint. However, effects of future fuel acted synergistically or antagonistically with future weather depending on the landscape and the fire regime attribute. Our results suggest that fire regimes are likely to shift across temperate ecosystems in south-eastern Australia in coming decades, particularly in climate-limited systems where there is the potential for a greater availability of fuels to burn through increased aridity.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Guglielmi G (2022)

Climate change is turning more of Central Asia into desert.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Seritan AL, Hasser C, Burke MG, et al (2022)

Correction to: The Climate Change and Mental Health Task Force: One Academic Psychiatry Department's Efforts to Heed the Call to Action.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Edlinger M, Schneider M, Lagally L, et al (2022)

[Climate change and child health: A nationwide survey among paediatricians in Germany].

Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen pii:S1865-9217(22)00046-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Children are a vulnerable group affected by climate change. Paediatricians are important actors in protecting children from climate change-related health risks and in identifying and treating relevant health effects. The main objectives of this study were to determine how paediatricians assess the relevance of climate change-related health impacts, through which channels paediatricians can be reached most effectively, how often climate change-specific prevention measures are implemented and how they are assessed.

METHODS: Between February and July 2020, an online survey among paediatricians was conducted. The cross-sectional survey was designed to gather knowledge and attitudes about the relevance of climate change, sources of information and prevention measures. All participants who answered only one question or none at all were excluded. Differences between groups were determined using one-factorial analysis of variance. Correlations were determined using Pearson's bivariate correlation analysis and tested for two-sided significance.

RESULTS: A total of 408 questionnaires were analysed. Over 95% of the respondents were paediatricians, with just under half of them working in children's hospitals and a good third in paediatric practices. According to paediatricians, climate change has a relevant impact on children's health. The most significant effects on children's health were considered to be longer and stronger pollen seasons, neophytes and neozoa, Lyme disease and TBE (early summer meningoencephalitis), UV radiation and air pollutants. Certified training options in professional journals and participation in lectures or workshops at relevant congresses were identified as the two preferred types of training. Especially professional journals as the most frequently used source of information could function as a suitable tool to reach as many paediatricians as possible. 76% of the paediatricians have not yet carried out any corresponding prevention activities, although information activities for parents or children were seen as being effective by 80%. Whereas the possibilities of integrating climate change-oriented prevention activities into everyday practice, were perceived less positively. The most frequent reason given was lack of time.

DISCUSSION: To satisfy this future need for knowledge, but also for offerings from paediatricians for patients and their parents, concrete further continuous education and consultancy services must be prepared. In the future, further training offers, including the consultancy services, should be integrated into profession-specific training modules, presented at congresses, and then implemented into paediatricians' daily routine.

CONCLUSION: The results of the study illustrate that the topic "climate change and health" has a high relevance for paediatricians and that information measures for parents are considered to be effective. Although paediatricians are concerned with the topic, there is an implementation deficit. Support is needed in the form of intensifying awareness raising projects and educational modules for paediatricians to move from knowledge to action.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Voosen P (2022)

Studies tying weather extremes to global warming gain rigor.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 376(6599):1256-1257.

Record-shattering events spur climate attribution advances.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Navarro JM, Antolinos V, Robles JM, et al (2022)

Citrus Irrigation With Desalinated Seawater Under a Climate Change Scenario.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:909083.

In arid and semiarid regions, the current lack of natural water resources is driving the use of alternative sources for crop irrigation, such as desalinated seawater (DSW). However, the use of DSW could affect the crop productivity due to its chemical composition (predominance of phytotoxic ions: Na+, Cl-, and B). Citrus species are classified as salt and boron-sensitive; however, the rootstock plays a fundamental role in the tree's tolerance of abiotic stresses. One-year-old 'Verna' lemon trees grafted on two rootstocks (CM, Citrus macrophylla, and SO, sour orange) were used. These rootstocks differ in their salinity and boron tolerance, SO being more tolerant than CM. The experiment was carried out at high temperature (35/27°C), and the plants were irrigated with three types of water supplemented with Hoagland nutrients: DSW, DLB (DSW with low boron), and Control (distilled water). The plants were irrigated three times per week and harvested 7 months after the treatments started. The response to high levels of Cl-, Na+, and B was rootstock-dependent. Under the high temperature conditions, the growth of plants grafted on SO was not affected by DSW, and these plants did not reach the Cl- threshold of phytotoxicity, so the decrease in the shoot growth of plants grafted on CM due to DSW irrigation was related more to Cl- rather than the foliar Na+ accumulation. Plants grafted on SO and irrigated with DSW accumulated more B than those grafted on CM, surpassing the threshold of phytotoxicity and producing greater oxidative stress. As the growth of these plants was not reduced, the effects of DSW on plant growth were not directly related to the concentration of B and there must be some mechanisms that allow these plants to withstand the negative effects of high foliar B, such as the increased levels of quaternary ammonium compounds. Since the response of citrus plants to DSW depended on the rootstock, the results obtained in this experiment, using DSW at high temperature, could be useful for the future management of citrus crops, because climate change will increase temperatures and exacerbate the scarcity of water resources in citrus-growing areas.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Pastore MA (2022)

Bringing the underground to the surface: Climate change stressors negatively affect plant growth, with contrasting above and belowground physiological responses.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Terrestrial ecosystems sequester carbon from the atmosphere through a single biological process - photosynthesis - and thus considerable research has centered on how global change factors influence aboveground plant dynamics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Osborne BB, Bestelmeyer BT, Currier CM, et al (2022)

The consequences of climate change for dryland biogeochemistry.

Drylands, which cover more than 40% of Earth's terrestrial surface, are dominant drivers of global biogeochemical cycling and home to more than one third of the human population. Climate projections predict warming, drought frequency and severity, and evaporative demand will increase in drylands at faster rates than global means. Due to extreme temperatures and high biological dependency on limited water availability, drylands are predicted to be exceptionally sensitive to climate change and, indeed, significant climate impacts are already being observed. Yet our understanding and ability to forecast climate change effects on dryland biogeochemistry and ecosystem functions lag behind many mesic systems. To improve our capacity to forecast ecosystem change, we propose focusing on the controls and consequences of two key characteristics affecting dryland biogeochemistry: i) high spatial and temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions and ii) generalized resource scarcity. In addition to climate change, drylands are experiencing accelerating land use change. Building our understanding of dryland biogeochemistry in both intact and disturbed systems will better equip us to address the interacting effects of climate change and landscape degradation. Responding to these challenges will require a diverse, globally distributed, and interdisciplinary community of dryland experts united towards better understanding these vast and important ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Solomon CG, Salas RN, Malina D, et al (2022)

Fossil-Fuel Pollution and Climate Change - A New NEJM Group Series.

The New England journal of medicine, 386(24):2328-2329.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Perera F, K Nadeau (2022)

Climate Change, Fossil-Fuel Pollution, and Children's Health.

The New England journal of medicine, 386(24):2303-2314.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Amani-Male O, Feizabadi Y, G Norouzi (2022)

A model-based evaluation of farmers' income variability under climate change (case study: autumn crops in Iran).

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 84:e261997 pii:S1519-69842024000100333.

The study strives to analyze the potential variations of farmers' income under climate change by using Ricardian approach. The case study was Mazandaran province of Iran and three autumn crops, i.e. wheat, barley and canola were considered as the investigated crops. The Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG) model was selected to downscale the climate data. Three climate variables were downscaled for the years 2020-2080 under three climate scenarios: optimistic (RCP2.6), medium (RCP4.5), and pessimistic (RCP8.5). The Ricardian approach was also employed to predict the economics of climate change. Accordingly, the mean monthly temperature of the province is projected to have an upward trend under all climate scenarios, however, the rainfall pattern would be varied. The results of economic impacts of climate change also approved that the net income of investigated crops would be different trends under climate change scenarios. Accordingly, the variations of air temperature and rainfall would lead that the net income increases for wheat and barley, while it decreases for canola.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Selcuk MA, Celik F, Simsek S, et al (2022)

Genetic, haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of Ligula intestinalis by using mt-CO1 gene marker: ecological implications, climate change and eco-genetic diversity.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 84:e258626 pii:S1519-69842024000100335.

Ligula intestinalis is a cestode parasite that affects freshwater fish in different countries of the world. The current study aims to reveal the phylogenetic, genetic and haplotype diversity of mt-CO1 gene sequences sent to the NCBI database from different countries by using in-silico analysis. The 105 mt-CO1 (371 bp) gene sequences of L. intestinalis obtained from NCBI were used for bioinformatics analyses. Sequences were subjected to phylogenetic and haplotype analysis. As a result of the haplotype analysis of L. intestinalis, 38 haplotypes were obtained from 13 different countries. Hap24 constituted 44.76% of the obtained haplotype network. Changes in nucleotides between haplotypes occurred at 1-84 different points. China and Turkey have highest fixation index (Fst) values of 0.59761, while the lowest (-0.10526) was found between Russia and Turkey. This study provides a baseline for future studies on extensive scale on the epidemiology, ecological aspects, distribution pattern, transmission dynamics and population dispersion of L. intestinalis worldwide.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Dasandi N, Cai W, Friberg P, et al (2022)

The inclusion of health in major global reports on climate change and biodiversity.

BMJ global health, 7(6):.

This article argues that human health has become a key consideration in recent global reports on climate change and biodiversity produced by various international organisations; however, greater attention must be given to the unequal health impacts of climate change and biodiversity loss around the world and the different health adaptation measures that are urgently required.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Johnson SS (2022)

Creating Shared Value to Advance Racial Justice, Health Equity, and Meaningful Action on Climate Change.

American journal of health promotion : AJHP, 36(6):1045-1047.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Johnson SS (2022)

Knowing Well, Being Well: well-being born of understanding: Creating Shared Value to Advance Racial Justice, Health Equity, and Meaningful Action on Climate Change.

American journal of health promotion : AJHP, 36(6):1045-1067.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Austin MW, Cole PO, Olsen KM, et al (2022)

Climate change is associated with increased allocation to potential outcrossing in a common mixed mating species.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: The balance between cross- and self-fertilization is driven by the environment. Yet no long-term study has documented whether anthropogenic climate change is affecting reproductive strategy allocation in species with mixed mating systems. Here, we test whether the common blue violet (Viola sororia; Violaceae) has altered relative allocation to the production of potentially outcrossing flowers as the climate has changed across the 20th century.

METHODS: Using herbarium records spanning 1875 to 2015 from the central United States, we quantified production of obligately selfing cleistogamous (CL) flowers and potentially outcrossing chasmogamous (CH) flowers by V. sororia, coupled these records with historic temperature and precipitation data, and tested whether changes to the proportion of CL flowers correlate with temporal climate trends.

RESULTS: We find that V. sororia progressively produced lower proportions of CL flowers across the past century and in environments with lower mean annual temperature and higher total annual precipitation. We also find that both CL and CH flower phenology has advanced across this time period.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that V. sororia has responded to lower temperatures and greater water availability by shifting reproductive strategy allocation away from selfing and toward potential outcrossing. This provides the first long term study of how climate change may affect relative allocation to potential outcrossing in species with mixed mating systems. By revealing that CL flowering is associated with low water availability and high temperature, our results suggest the production of obligately selfing flowers is favored in water limited environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Kitchel ZJ, Conrad HM, Selden RL, et al (2022)

The role of continental shelf bathymetry in shaping marine range shifts in the face of climate change.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

As a consequence of anthropogenic climate change, marine species on continental shelves around the world are rapidly shifting deeper and poleward. However, whether these shifts deeper and poleward will allow species to access more, less, or equivalent amounts of continental shelf area and associated critical habitats remains unclear. By examining the proportion of seabed area at a range of depths for each large marine ecosystem (LME), we found that shelf area declined monotonically for 19% of LMEs examined. However, the majority exhibited a greater proportion of shelf area in mid-depths or across several depth ranges. By comparing continental shelf area across 2° latitudinal bands, we found that all coastlines exhibit multiple instances of shelf area expansion and contraction, which have the potential to promote or restrict poleward movement of marine species. Along most coastlines, overall shelf habitat increases or exhibits no significant change moving towards the poles. The exception is the Southern West Pacific, which experiences an overall loss of area with increasing latitude. Changes in continental shelf area availability across latitudes and depths are likely to affect the number of species local ecosystems can support. These geometric analyses help identify regions of conservation priority and ecological communities most likely to face attrition or expansion due to variations in available area.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Correia HE, Tveraa T, Stien A, et al (2022)

Correction to: Nonlinear spatial and temporal decomposition provides insight for climate change effects on sub-Arctic herbivore populations.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Badrzadeh N, Samani JMV, Mazaheri M, et al (2022)

Evaluation of management practices on agricultural nonpoint source pollution discharges into the rivers under climate change effects.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03740-8 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) has become the biggest threat to Aras River water quality by completing the Mughan irrigation and drainage network. Nutrient pollutants, including nitrate and phosphate, released into the river through drains have created a range of obstacles for locals living around the river. Agricultural activities are generally considered the largest source of non-point pollution. They have no complex and uniform impact along the river. Thus, the spatial distribution of ANPS and highly polluted areas should be identified to manage watershed management. This study proposes a simple framework for identifying pollutant-sensitive areas along the river and management strategies to improve water quality. To this aim, the main factors affecting ANPSP were identified, and the effectiveness of the scenarios selected to comply with water quality regulations for drinking and environment during 1993-2007 were simulated. Based on the sensitivity analysis, land use and fertilizer are the main factors affecting river ANPSP. Thus, their changes were modeled in different scenarios. Based on the results, the ANPSP load was higher downstream. The agricultural lands in region 3 were considered the main source of pollution. Comparing the management scenarios showed that the amount of nitrate and phosphate leaching into the river decreased to 18.1 and 8.35 %, respectively, by reducing the consumption of urea and phosphate fertilizers by 50 %. The results help watershed managers implement eco-friendly land use and nutrient management programs at specific locations during specific periods to control ANPSP along the rivers.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Lambert J (2022)

Tick Borne Infections in the EU:A New Epidemic in the Face of Global Warming.

Irish medical journal, 115(5):594.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Lokotola CL, R Mash (2022)

Climate change and primary health care in Africa - A call for short reports.

African journal of primary health care & family medicine, 14(1):e1-e2.

No abstract available.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Jansma A, van den Bos K, BA de Graaf (2022)

Unfairness in Society and Over Time: Understanding Possible Radicalization of People Protesting on Matters of Climate Change.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:778894.

In this manuscript, we introduce a theoretical model of climate radicalization that integrates social psychological theories of perceived unfairness with historical insights on radicalization to contribute to the knowledge of individuals' processes of radicalization and non-radicalization in relation to climate change. We define climate radicalization as a process of growing willingness to pursue and/or support radical changes in society that are in conflict with or could pose a threat to the status quo or democratic legal order to reach climate goals. We describe how perceptions of unfairness can play a pivotal role in processes of climate change related radicalization. Without taking any position or judgment regarding climate concerns and associated actions, we suggest that although these behaviors drive many people to participate in peaceful climate protest, they may also lead others to radicalize into breaking the law to achieve their climate goals, possibly in violent ways. This process of climate radicalization, we argue, can be driven by people perceiving certain situations to be blatantly unfair. Specifically, we discuss how radical attitudes and behaviors can be products of perceived unfairness stemming from the past, the future, the immediate social environments of perceivers, as well as those that are spatially distant from them. We further argue that because radicalization processes are shaped by an interaction between individuals and movements, on the one hand, and societal actors and developments, on the other, they tend to develop in non-linear and dynamic ways. We therefore propose that climate radicalization is a (1) dynamic, contingent, and non-linear process, often of an escalating (and sometimes de-escalating) kind, (2) that develops over time, (3) through various interactions between individuals and their contexts, and (4) in which people and groups move back and forth from peaceful protest, through disobedient and unlawful methods, to violent actions. Implications, strengths, and limitations of our model are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Luschkova D, Traidl-Hoffmann C, A Ludwig (2022)

Climate change and allergies.

Allergo journal international pii:212 [Epub ahead of print].

The climate crisis poses a major challenge to human health as well as the healthcare system and threatens to jeopardize the medical progress made in recent decades. However, addressing climate change may also be the greatest opportunity for global health in the 21st century. The climate crisis and its consequences, such as rising temperatures, forest fires, floods, droughts, and changes in the quality and quantity of food and water, directly and indirectly affect human physical and mental health. More intense and frequent heat waves and declining air quality have been shown to increase all-cause mortality, especially among the most vulnerable. Climate warming alters existing ecosystems and favors biological invasions by species that better tolerate heat and drought. Pathogen profiles are changing, and the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases are increasing. The spread of neophytes in Europe, such as ragweed, is creating new pollen sources that increase allergen exposure for allergy sufferers. In addition, the overall milder weather, especially in combination with air pollution and increased CO2 levels, is changing the production and allergenicity of pollen. The phenomenon of thunderstorm asthma is also occurring more frequently. In view of the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases due to climate change, early causal immunomodulatory therapy is therefore all the more important. During a climate consultation, patients can receive individual advice on climate adaptation and resilience and the benefits of CO2 reduction-for their own and the planet's health. Almost 5% of all greenhouse gas emissions in Europe come from the healthcare sector. It thus has a central responsibility for a climate-neutral and sustainable transformation.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Arias LA, Berli F, Fontana A, et al (2022)

Climate Change Effects on Grapevine Physiology and Biochemistry: Benefits and Challenges of High Altitude as an Adaptation Strategy.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:835425.

Grapevine berry quality for winemaking depends on complex and dynamic relationships between the plant and the environment. Winemakers around the world are demanding a better understanding of the factors that influence berry growth and development. In the last decades, an increment in air temperature, CO2 concentration and dryness occurred in wine-producing regions, affecting the physiology and the biochemistry of grapevines, and by consequence the berry quality. The scientific community mostly agrees in a further raise as a result of climate change during the rest of the century. As a consequence, areas most suitable for viticulture are likely to shift into higher altitudes where mean temperatures are suitable for grape cultivation. High altitude can be defined as the minimum altitude at which the grapevine growth and development are differentially affected. At these high altitudes, the environments are characterized by high thermal amplitudes and great solar radiations, especially ultraviolet-B (UV-B). This review summarizes the environmental contribution of global high altitude-related climatic variables to the grapevine physiology and wine composition, for a better evaluation of the possible establishment of vineyards at high altitude in climate change scenarios.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Junqueira AB, Fernández-Llamazares Á, Torrents-Ticó M, et al (2021)

Interactions between climate change and infrastructure projects in changing water resources: An ethnobiological perspective from the Daasanach, Kenya.

Journal of ethnobiology, 41(3):331-348.

The fast and widespread environmental changes that have intensified in the last decades are bringing disproportionate impacts to Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities. Changes that affect water resources are particularly relevant for subsistence-based peoples, many of whom already suffer from constraints regarding reliable access to safe water. Particularly in areas where water is scarce, climate change is expected to amplify existing stresses in water availability, which are also exacerbated by multiple socioeconomic drivers. In this paper, we look into the local perceptions of environmental change expressed by the Daasanach people of northern Kenya, where the impacts of climate change overlap with those brought by large infrastructure projects recently established in the Omo River. We show that the Daasanach have rich and detailed understanding of changes in their environment, especially in relation to water resources. Daasanach understand observations of change in different elements of the social-ecological system as an outcome of complex interactions between climatic and non-climatic drivers of change. Our findings highlight the perceived synergistic effects of climate change and infrastructure projects in water resources, driving multiple and cascading impacts on biophysical elements and local livelihoods. Our results also demonstrate the potential of Local Ecological Knowledge in enhancing the understanding of complex social-ecological issues, such as the impacts of environmental change in local communities. To minimize and mitigate the social-ecological impacts of development projects, it is essential to consider potential synergies between climatic and socioeconomic factors and to ensure inclusive governance rooted in local understandings of environmental change.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Zenios SA (2022)

The risks from climate change to sovereign debt.

Climatic change, 172(3-4):30.

The exposure of sovereigns to climate risks is priced and can affect credit ratings and debt servicing costs. I argue that the climate risks to fiscal stability are not receiving adequate attention and discuss how to remedy the situation. After providing evidence of divergent climate risks to advanced economies, I describe the transmission channels from climate change to public finance. Then, I suggest how integrated assessment models (IAMs) can be linked with stochastic debt sustainability analysis (DSA) to inform our understanding of climate risks to sovereign debt dynamics and assess the available fiscal space to finance climate policies. I argue for adopting the narrative scenario architecture developed within the IPCC to bring structure and transparency to the analysis. The analysis is complicated by deep uncertainty -risks, ambiguity, and mis-specifications- of climate change. Using scenario trees, narrative scenarios, and ensembles of models, respectively, we can deal with these three challenges. I illustrate using two prominent IAMs to generate the debt dynamics of a high-debt country under climate risks to economic growth and find adverse effects from as early as 2030. I conclude with the policy implications for fiscal stability authorities.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10584-022-03373-4.

RevDate: 2022-06-12

Liu B, Fan Y, Xue B, et al (2022)

Feature extraction and classification of climate change risks: a bibliometric analysis.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 194(7):495.

Risks brought by climate change are inevitable obstacles to global development. Clarifying the features of climate change risks helps us to further understand and cope with climate change. There lacks a systematic review of climate change risks in terms of feature extraction and classification. The bibliometric analysis can be used to analyze and extract climate change risk features. The literature in the field of climate change was searched in the Web of Science database. Coauthors, citations, bibliographic coupling, co-citations, and keyword co-occurrence were analyzed. From five dimensions including nature, politics, economy, society, and culture, the risk features of climate change were extracted and summarized. Through text mining and cluster analysis, the climate change risk feature system was established, which is embodied in five different aspects: ecosystem and sustainability; uncertainty, vulnerability, and efficiency; behavior and decision-making; governance and management; and adaptation and mitigation. The feature system reflects that the current climate change risk presents strong variability and that the risk boundary is gradually blurred. The areas affected by risk are expanding and deepening. The strategies and governance for addressing risks are gradually diversified. This research contributes to the domain of climate change risk identification and assessment. The features of climate change indicate that we need to adjust policymaking and managerial practices for climate change in the future. Interdisciplinary cooperation, human cognition and preferences, public participation in global governance, and other unnatural factors related to climate change should be strengthened with a more positive attitude.

RevDate: 2022-06-11

Liu Y, Liu H, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Quantifying the contributions of climate change and human activities to vegetation dynamic in China based on multiple indices.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03650-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Distinguishing the respective roles of climate change and anthropogenic activities can provide crucial information for sustainable management of the environment. Here, using the residual trend method (RESTREND), which measures the residue of the actual and potential trends of vegetation, we quantified the relative contributions of human activities (e.g., ecological restoration, overgrazing, and urbanization) and climate change (the warmer and wetter trend) to vegetation dynamics in China during 1988-2018 based on multiple vegetation indices, including the vegetation optical depth (Ku-VOD, C-VOD), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and gross primary productivity (GPP). The results showed that the VOD, NDVI, and GPP exhibited overall increasing trends during 1988-2018. Human activities contributed >70% to the increases in NDVI and GPP in China, whereas a counterbalanced contribution of human activities and climate change was identified for the VOD dynamics (51% vs. 49%). Regions with high contributions from human activities to NDVI, GPP, and VOD were located in northeastern, southern, central, and northwestern China. In northern China, the positive impacts of human activities on NDVI (78%) and BEPS-GPP (83%) were greater than those of climate change. In contrast, human activities contributed 96% to the decrease in Ku-VOD over the same period. Before 2000, climate change promoted increases in GPP and NDVI in most regions of southern China. The increasing rates of GPP and NDVI accelerated after 2000 due to afforestation. However, human activities like overgrazing and urbanization have led to decreases in Ku-VOD in northern and southwestern China, and in C-VOD in northeastern, eastern, central, southwestern, and southern China. In all, the relative roles of climate and human factors varied in different regions when NDVI, GPP, or VOD were individually considered. Our results highlighted that the regional-scale vegetation conditions should be taken into full account to achieve sustainable management of ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Prabakaran R, Sivalingam V, Kim SC, et al (2022)

Future refrigerants with low global warming potential for residential air conditioning system: a thermodynamic analysis and MCDM tool optimization.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing CO2 emission due to the practicing of high global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant like R22 in split air conditioning (AC) units needs the best substitute to match with environment and safety protocols along with good energy efficiency. In this study, 14 alternative refrigerants have been chosen to replace R22 in a 1.5 TR capacity of split AC from the existing studies. The performance of each refrigerant has been analysed thermodynamically and compared their results with R22 by accounting for discharge temperature, power consumption, coefficient of performance (COP), total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) index, and life-time cost. Overall from this theoretical analysis, it was observed that the best refrigerant for each considered measure is not unique; for example, R290 was best in terms of refrigerant charge and discharge pressure, while R444B was chosen to be superior in terms of COP, TEWI, and life-time cost. Therefore, a multi-criteria decision-making methodology tool-based optimization has been carried out for selecting a single superior refrigerant for the future by considering thermal properties, COP, TEWI, and life-time cost. Results of the evaluation based on the distance from average solution envisage R290 and R1123 as superior and worst choices to replace R22.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Leddin D, Omary MB, Metz G, et al (2022)

Climate change: a survey of global gastroenterology society leadership.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2022-327832 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Ong BAG, Rocimo AMR, JAC Lucero (2022)

Climate change and haematology: perspectives from the Philippines.

The Lancet. Haematology pii:S2352-3026(22)00174-0 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Xu Y, Huang WT, Dou SQ, et al (2022)

[Responding Mechanism of Vegetation Cover to Climate Change and Human Activities in Southwest China from 2000 to 2020].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 43(6):3230-3240.

Studying vegetation cover variation and its responding mechanism to climate change and human activities is of great significance for regional ecological protection and vegetation restoration. In this study, on the basis of MODIS NDVI, in situ climate data, and land use type data using Theil-Sen Median analysis, the Mann-Kendall significance test, residual analysis, partial correlation analysis, and multi-correlation analysis, the spatial and temporal variation in vegetation cover and its response to climate change and the land use/land cover change in each geomorphological unit in southwest China were analyzed. The vegetation cover showed a fluctuant increasing trend, and the changing trend exhibited obvious spatial heterogeneity, with the increasing rate being higher in the southeast and lower in the northwest of southwest China from 2000 to 2020. The vegetation variation was dominated by positive effects of the climate change and human activities in southwest China, and the positive effects were stronger in Guangxi Hill than those in other geomorphological units. Furthermore, from 2000 to 2020 the vegetation cover was positively associated with precipitation and temperature and negatively correlated with relative humidity and sunshine duration in southwest China. Temperature was considered to be the dominate climate factor controlling the vegetation variation in the study area. Urban expansion had decreased the region vegetation cover, but the overall vegetation cover had increased in southwest China due to the suitable regional climate conditions and the implementation of ecological reforestation projection. These results can provide scientific references for ecological protection and economic sustainable development in southwest China.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Yost RC (2022)

Resilience requires change. Assessing Pehuenche responses to climate change impacts in Southern Chile.

Environmental justice (Print), 15(3):185-195.

Indigenous peoples are one of the most vulnerable groups to climate change. Although many communities are already responding to these impacts, inequitable structures impose barriers to their capacity to recover and adapt. Through the case of the Pehuenche people of Southern Chile, this article addresses the question of what is the relationship between resilience and adaptation to climate change. From an ethnographic approach, the article characterizes the construction process of the contextual vulnerability of Pehuenche communities and evaluates their responses to cope with climate change impacts. Fieldwork was conducted in two stages between 2017 and 2019. Results show that current Pehuenche vulnerability to climate change is an ongoing process influenced by the state rather than a consequence of this phenomenon. Although Pehuenche communities are responding to climate change impacts, their resilience is constrained by the incidence of state policy. Identifying themselves as herders, Pehuenche responses aim to restore the conditions for livestock instead of changing the factors that make them vulnerable. Most of their responses can be considered maladaptation because they reinforce vulnerability by reproducing practices that damage their social capital and cause more pressure on the territory. A critical review and reformulation of the policy implemented at the local level are mandatory to strengthen community resilience.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Ma R, Xia C, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Spatiotemporal Change of Net Primary Productivity and Its Response to Climate Change in Temperate Grasslands of China.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:899800.

The temperate grasslands in China play a vital part in regulating regional carbon cycle and climate change. Net primary productivity (NPP) is a crucial index that reflects ecological function of plants and the carbon sequestration capacity of grassland ecosystem. Climate change can affect NPP by changing vegetation growth, but the effects of climate change on the NPP of China's temperate grasslands remain unclear. Based on MODIS data and monthly climate data during 2000-2020, this study explored the spatiotemporal changes in grassland NPP and its response to climate change in temperate grasslands of China. We found that the annual NPP over the entire China's temperate grasslands increased significantly by 4.0 gC/m2/year from 2000 to 2020. The annual NPP showed increasing trends for all the different grassland vegetation types, with the smallest increase for temperate desert steppe (2.2 gC/m2/year) and the largest increase for temperate meadow (5.4 gC/m2/year). The correlation results showed that increased annual precipitation had a positive relationship with the NPP of temperate grasslands. Increased summer and autumn precipitation could increase grassland NPP, particularly for the temperate meadow. With regard to the effects of temperatures, increased temperature, particularly the summer maximum temperature, could decrease annual NPP. However, increased spring minimum temperature could increase the NPP of temperate desert steppe. In addition, this study found, for the first time, an asymmetric relationship between summer nighttime and daytime warming and the NPP of temperate meadow. Specifically, nighttime warming can increase NPP, while daytime warming can reduce NPP in temperate meadow. Our results highlight the importance of including seasonal climate conditions in assessing the vegetation productivity for different grassland types of temperate grasslands and predicting the influences of future climate change on temperate grassland ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Freitas TR, Santos JA, Silva AP, et al (2022)

Correction: Freitas et al. Influence of Climate Change on Chestnut Trees: A Review. Plants 2021, 10, 1463.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(11): pii:plants11111518.

In the original article [...].

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Foong A, Pradhan P, Frör O, et al (2022)

Adjusting agricultural emissions for trade matters for climate change mitigation.

Nature communications, 13(1):3024.

Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in food systems is becoming more challenging as food is increasingly consumed away from producer regions, highlighting the need to consider emissions embodied in trade in agricultural emissions accounting. To address this, our study explores recent trends in trade-adjusted agricultural emissions of food items at the global, regional, and national levels. We find that emissions are largely dependent on a country's consumption patterns and their agricultural emission intensities relative to their trading partners'. The absolute differences between the production-based and trade-adjusted emissions accounting approaches are especially apparent for major agricultural exporters and importers and where large shares of emission-intensive items such as ruminant meat, milk products and rice are involved. In relative terms, some low-income and emerging and developing economies with consumption of high emission intensity food products show large differences between approaches. Similar trends are also found under various specifications that account for trade and re-exports differently. These findings could serve as an important element towards constructing national emissions reduction targets that consider trading partners, leading to more effective emissions reductions overall.

RevDate: 2022-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-08-02

Cabrera López C, Urrutia Landa I, CA Jiménez-Ruiz (2021)

Climate change: SEPAR's responsibilities.

Archivos de bronconeumologia, 57(6):381-382.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Pandey BD, Morita K, A Costello (2022)

Twin crises in Nepal: covid-19 and climate change.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 377:o1434.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Tijjani SB, Giri S, SA Woznicki (2022)

Quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on irrigation demand, crop yields, and green water scarcity in the New Jersey Coastal Plain.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03635-X [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change has significant implications for irrigated agriculture and global food security. Understanding how altered precipitation patterns and magnitudes, coupled with rising growing season temperatures, affect irrigation demand and crop production is a prerequisite for formulating effective water resources management strategies. This study evaluated the effects of near-term climate change (centered on 2035) on irrigation demand, green water scarcity, and row crop yields in a major agricultural watershed in southern New Jersey, USA. Downscaled precipitation and temperature from six General Circulation Models (GCMs) for two representative concentration pathways (RCP-4.5 and 8.5) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) were used to drive the Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydrological model. Temperature and precipitation increases resulted in greater surface runoff, lateral flow, groundwater recharge, and total streamflow. Seasonal ET for corn is projected to alter between -3.0 % to 0.5 %, with irrigation demand between -17 % to -1 %, and yield ranges between -4 % to +9 % depending on the GCMs in the RCP-4.5 scenario, with similar patterns projected by RCP-8.5 scenario. For soybean, the simulation also indicates a declining trend of ET and irrigation demand while increasing yield. Increasing yield for both crops is attributed to changes in agronomic management practices combined with genetically improved cultivars and higher soil fertility due to CO2 fertilization. Green water scarcity analysis under future climate change for corn and soybean display a decreased soil moisture stress due to increased water use efficiency resulting from reduced stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 concentration.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Harris OO, Bialous SA, Muench U, et al (2022)

Climate Change, Public Health, Health Policy, and Nurses Training.

American journal of public health, 112(S3):S321-S327.

There are few educational programs in the United States that have a primary focus on preparing nurses to engage in all levels of public health, health policy, and climate change. The United Nations sustainability development goals (SDG) and the Future of Nursing 2020-2030: Charting a Path to Achieve Health Equity (2021) report underscored the importance of key stakeholders, including nurses, engaging in advocacy and policy to promote health equity. We discuss the role of nursing at the intersection of public health, policy, climate change, and the SDG. We also discuss the history and merger of the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) School of Nursing public health and health policy specialties, a significant innovation in our effort to promote health equity. We provide a brief overview of the redesigning of our curriculum that meets the needs of today's learners by including content on climate change, data analytics, and racial, social, and environmental justice. Finally, we emphasize the need to train the next cadre of nurses interested in careers in public health and health policy for us to meet the challenges facing our communities. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S3):S321-S327. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306826).

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )