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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 30 Sep 2022 at 02:19 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-09-29

Mitchell EP (2022)

Disparities in Impact of Global Warming and Climate Change in the United States.

Journal of the National Medical Association, 114(5):465-466.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Hendriks SL, Montgomery H, Benton T, et al (2022)

Global environmental climate change, covid-19, and conflict threaten food security and nutrition.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 378:e071534.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Qi D, Ouyang Z, Chen L, et al (2022)

Climate change drives rapid decadal acidification in the Arctic Ocean from 1994 to 2020.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6614):1544-1550.

The Arctic Ocean has experienced rapid warming and sea ice loss in recent decades, becoming the first open-ocean basin to experience widespread aragonite undersaturation [saturation state of aragonite (Ωarag) < 1]. However, its trend toward long-term ocean acidification and the underlying mechanisms remain undocumented. Here, we report rapid acidification there, with rates three to four times higher than in other ocean basins, and attribute it to changing sea ice coverage on a decadal time scale. Sea ice melt exposes seawater to the atmosphere and promotes rapid uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide, lowering its alkalinity and buffer capacity and thus leading to sharp declines in pH and Ωarag. We predict a further decrease in pH, particularly at higher latitudes where sea ice retreat is active, whereas Arctic warming may counteract decreases in Ωarag in the future.

RevDate: 2022-09-30

Liu H, Tong M, Guo F, et al (2022)

Deaths attributable to anomalous temperature: A generalizable metric for the health impact of global warming.

Environment international, 169:107520 pii:S0160-4120(22)00447-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The U-shaped association between health outcomes and ambient temperatures has been extensively investigated. However, such analyses cannot fully estimate the mortality burden of climate change because the features of the association (e.g., minimum mortality temperature) vary with human adaptation; thus, they are not generalizable to different locations. In this study, we assumed that humans could adapt to regular temperature variations; and thus examined the all-cause mortality attributable to temperature anomaly (TA), an indicator widely utilized in climate science to measure irregular temperature fluctuations, across 115 cities in the United States (US). We first used quasi-Poisson regressions to obtain the city-specific TA-mortality associations, then used meta-regression to pool these city-specific estimates. Finally, we calculated the number of TA-related deaths using the uniform pooled association, then compared it to the estimates from city-specific associations, which had been controlled for adaptation. Meta-regression showed a U-shaped TA-mortality association, centered at a TA near 0. According to the pooled association, 0.579 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.465-0.681 %), 0.394 % (95 % CI: 0.332-0.451 %), and 0.185 % (95 % CI: 0.107-0.254 %) of all-cause deaths were attributable to all anomalous temperatures (TA ≠ 0), anomalous heat (TA > 0), and anomalous cold (TA < 0), respectively. At the city level, heat-related deaths estimated from the pooled association were in good agreement with heat-related deaths estimated from the city-specific associations (R2 = 0.84). However, the cold-related deaths estimated from the two methods showed a weaker correlation (R2 = 0.07). Our findings suggest that TA constitutes a generalizable indicator that can uniformly evaluate deaths attributable to anomalous heat in distinct geographical locations.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Glavinovic K, Eggleton K, Davis R, et al (2022)

Understanding and experience of climate change in rural general practice in Aotearoa-New Zealand.

Family practice pii:6726513 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Climate change is already affecting Aotearoa New Zealand (Aotearoa-NZ). The public health effects are varied and complex, and rural primary care staff will be at the front line of effects and responses. However, little is known about their understanding and experience.

OBJECTIVES: To determine understanding, experiences and preparedness of rural general practice staff in Aotearoa-NZ about climate change and health equity.

METHODS: A mixed-methods national cross-sectional survey of rural general practice staff was undertaken that included Likert-style and free-text responses. Quantitative data were analysed with simple descriptive analysis and qualitative data were thematically analysed using a deductive framework based on Te Whare Tapa Whā.

RESULTS: A proportion of survey respondents remained unsure about climate science and health links, although many others already reported a range of negative climate change health impacts on their communities, and expected these to worsen. Twenty to thirty percent of respondents lacked confidence in their health service's capability to provide support following extreme weather. Themes included acknowledgement that the health effects of climate change are highly varied and complex, that the health risks for rural communities combine climate change and wider environmental degradation and that climate change will exacerbate existing health inequities.

CONCLUSIONS: The study adds to sparse information on climate change effects on health in rural primary care. We suggest that tailored professional education on climate change science and rural health equity is still needed, while urgent resourcing and training for interagency disaster response within rural and remote communities is needed.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Brooks SK, N Greenberg (2022)

Climate change effects on mental health: are there workplace implications?.

Occupational medicine (Oxford, England) pii:6726511 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Climate change can negatively affect mental health, and poor mental health can negatively affect work. However, less is known about the relationship between mental health and workplace behaviours within the climate change context.

AIMS: To explore existing literature relating to climate-induced mental ill-health as a potential predictor of workplace behaviours.

METHODS: Scoping review, searching five databases for relevant literature using two separate search strategies.

RESULTS: Only five studies with any relevant data were found. Results could not be easily synthesized because each of the five considered different work-related outcomes. However, the available data suggest that the psychological impact of extreme events could lead to increased job tension, higher turnover intentions and workplace hostility. Stress about extreme weather could also impede the ability to make essential work-related decisions and, for those who work in the environmental sector, concerns about climate could lead to overcommitment to work. There was some evidence that social support might lessen the effects of climate-induced stress on work outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Very little literature considers the impacts of climate change on employees' mental health and associated workplace function. The available evidence suggests there are potential negative impacts which may be mitigated by social support. It is important for future research to explore ways of supporting staff and fostering resilience.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Cutcu I, Keser A, MV Eren (2022)

Causation between energy consumption and climate change in the countries with the highest global climate risk.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The study aims to examine if there is causation between "energy consumption" and "climate change" through the data of ten countries with the highest Climate Risk Index (CRI) scores. The ten highest CRI score countries include Puerto Rico, Myanmar, Haiti, Philippines, Mozambique, The Bahamas, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Thailand, and Nepal. The annual data for the years 2005-2019 was used because of the data constraints. CRI is selected as the dependent variable. As for the independent variables, the ratios of the energy consumption of the key sectors indicated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to the total energy consumption are chosen. These key sectors in energy consumption are industry (IND), transportation (TRA), trade and public services (TPS), and housing (HOU). Economic growth (EG), which is one of the main factors affecting climate change in the literature, is included in the model as the control variable. According to the results of the Dumitrescu-Hurlin causality test, there is one-way causality from transportation towards CRI, but not any causality between others. It is evaluated that since the transportation sector is heavily dependent on fossil fuels, it has a strong effect on the amount of CO2 emissions and a significant determining role on climate change.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Sergio F, Tavecchia G, Blas J, et al (2022)

Hardship at birth alters the impact of climate change on a long-lived predator.

Nature communications, 13(1):5517.

Climate change is increasing the frequency of extreme events, such as droughts or hurricanes, with substantial impacts on human and wildlife communities. Extreme events can affect individuals through two pathways: by altering the fitness of adults encountering a current extreme, and by affecting the development of individuals born during a natal extreme, a largely overlooked process. Here, we show that the impact of natal drought on an avian predator overrode the effect of current drought for decades, so that individuals born during drought were disadvantaged throughout life. Incorporation of natal effects caused a 40% decline in forecasted population size and a 21% shortening of time to extinction. These results imply that climate change may erode populations more quickly and severely than currently appreciated, suggesting the urgency to incorporate "penalties" for natal legacies in the analytical toolkit of impact forecasts. Similar double impacts may apply to other drivers of global change.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Aryal B, Gurung R, Camargo AF, et al (2022)

Nitrous oxide emission in altered nitrogen cycle and implications for climate change.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)01486-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Natural processes and human activities play a crucial role in changing the nitrogen cycle and increasing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, which are accelerating at an unprecedented rate. N2O has serious global warming potential (GWP), about 310 times higher than that of carbon dioxide. The food production, transportation, and energy required to sustain a world population of seven billion have required dramatic increases in the consumption of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, leading to increased N2O in air and water. These changes have radically disturbed the nitrogen cycle and reactive nitrogen species, such as nitrous oxide (N2O), and have impacted the climatic system. Yet, systematic and comprehensive studies on various underlying processes and parameters in the altered nitrogen cycle, and their implications for the climatic system are still lacking. This paper reviews how the nitrogen cycle has been disturbed and altered by anthropogenic activities, with a central focus on potential pathways of N2O generation. The authors also estimate the N2O-N emission mainly due to anthropogenic activities will be around 8.316 Tg N2O-N yr-1 in 2050. In order to minimize and tackle the N2O emissions and its consequences on the global ecosystem and climate change, holistic mitigation strategies and diverse adaptations, policy reforms, and public awareness are suggested as vital considerations. This study concludes that rapidly increasing anthropogenic perturbations, the identification of new microbial communities, and their role in mediating biogeochemical processes now shape the modern nitrogen cycle.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Sisodia R, G Jobbins (2022)

Climate change and psychosocial resilience in drylands: the need for more evidence.

International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 34(5):520-524.

There is increasing recognition of the mental health and psychosocial impacts of climate change. Relatively less attention is paid to the psychosocial dimensions of climate resilience, how interplays between psychological and social factors shape the behaviour of people and groups faced with climate shocks and stresses. In drylands of the Global South, farming and pastoralist communities in drylands are exposed to multiple sources of psychosocial stress, including climate change, conflict, political marginalisation, and rapid social and economic transformation. We argue that public policy, projects, and programmes intended to reduce poverty and strengthen climate resilience in these contexts should be aware of their potential to undermine psychosocial climate resilience. However, at present, the evidence base is not sufficient to inform policy or project and programme design; there is an urgent need for more high-quality transdisciplinary research on these topics.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Lawrance EL, Thompson R, Newberry Le Vay J, et al (2022)

The Impact of Climate Change on Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing: A Narrative Review of Current Evidence, and its Implications.

International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 34(5):443-498.

Converging global evidence highlights the dire consequences of climate change for human mental health and wellbeing. This paper summarises literature across relevant disciplines to provide a comprehensive narrative review of the multiple pathways through which climate change interacts with mental health and wellbeing. Climate change acts as a risk amplifier by disrupting the conditions known to support good mental health, including socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions, and living and working conditions. The disruptive influence of rising global temperatures and extreme weather events, such as experiencing a heatwave or water insecurity, compounds existing stressors experienced by individuals and communities. This has deleterious effects on people's mental health and is particularly acute for those groups already disadvantaged within and across countries. Awareness and experiences of escalating climate threats and climate inaction can generate understandable psychological distress; though strong emotional responses can also motivate climate action. We highlight opportunities to support individuals and communities to cope with and act on climate change. Consideration of the multiple and interconnected pathways of climate impacts and their influence on mental health determinants must inform evidence-based interventions. Appropriate action that centres climate justice can reduce the current and future mental health burden, while simultaneously improving the conditions that nurture wellbeing and equality. The presented evidence adds further weight to the need for decisive climate action by decision makers across all scales.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Arman N, Salam Shaoli S, S Hossain (2022)

Mental health and climate change in Bangladesh.

International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 34(5):513-515.

Climate change adversely impacts the health and well-being of billions of people worldwide and will increasingly do so over the next few decades. Although all populations are at risk, some are more vulnerable than others. It is therefore critical to increase resilience to climate-related risks and build the capacity of national health systems by considering climate risks in health policy and decision making, strengthening leadership and governance to address impacts, and implementing strategies to build climate-resilient health care systems.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Byron J, SW Hossain (2022)

Climate change in Bangladesh: meeting the mental health needs in times of crisis.

International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 34(5):534-536.

Access to quality and affordable mental health care is not always available to disaster-prone countries experiencing climate change, which may result in psychological trauma. Although environmental support has been provided, the consequences of disasters have not been addressed within the mental health realm. Inadequate knowledge and practice about crisis responses for mental health was addressed in Bangladesh with the influx of Rohingya people escaping persecution. To provide mental health support, Crisis Preparedness for Mental Health (CPM-MH) was developed and implemented addressing the psychological consequences of traumatic events. CP M-MH has its foundation in post-trauma stabilization through establishment of psychological equilibrium providing proactive rather than reactive methods linked to positive mental health outcomes. With adoption of CPM-MH in Bangladesh addressing mental health needs after traumatic events, mental health damage experienced by manmade and natural disasters may be considered the best strategy to build coping skills and resiliency for further traumatic event.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Dos Santos M (2022)

Climate change and mental health within the African context.

International review of psychiatry (Abingdon, England), 34(5):510-512.

Africa is ecologically sensitive, with vulnerable communities which are at particular risk of the associations and impacts of climate change. Serious climatic events can result in traumatic stress, developing into chronic psychopathological and psychiatric patterns. Nonetheless, there remains a lack of psychiatric studies on mental disorders associated with climate change within the African context. There is a need in Africa for robust complex adaptive integrated research concerning climate change impacts and associations on and with mental health and healthcare systems, policy and practice, so that relevant interventions may be implemented and strengthened.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Rothschild J, E Haase (2022)

The Mental Health of Women and Climate Change: Direct Neuropsychiatric Impacts and Associated Psychological Concerns.

International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change brings exposures to heat, air pollution, poorer quality food and infectious disease that have significant direct effects on women and their mental health. These environmental impacts are multifaceted in their consequences and raise risks of depression, suicide, violent victimization, PTSD, and various other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Women also suffer increased climate psychological risks from higher rates of stillbirth, preterm birth and developmental problems in their children. Here we review what is known about the overlap of women's individual mental health and climate change, and highlight areas where more research is needed.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Jacobsen AP, Khiew YC, Duffy E, et al (2022)

Climate change and the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

American journal of preventive cardiology, 12:100391.

Climate change is a worsening global crisis that will continue negatively impacting population health and well-being unless adaptation and mitigation interventions are rapidly implemented. Climate change-related cardiovascular disease is mediated by air pollution, increased ambient temperatures, vector-borne disease and mental health disorders. Climate change-related cardiovascular disease can be modulated by climate change adaptation; however, this process could result in significant health inequity because persons and populations of lower socioeconomic status have fewer adaptation options. Clear scientific evidence for climate change and its impact on human health have not yet resulted in the national and international impetus and policies necessary to slow climate change. As respected members of society who regularly communicate scientific evidence to patients, clinicians are well-positioned to advocate on the importance of addressing climate change. This narrative review summarizes the links between climate change and cardiovascular health, proposes actionable items clinicians and other healthcare providers can execute both in their personal life and as an advocate of climate policies, and encourages communication of the health impacts of climate change when counseling patients. Our aim is to inspire the reader to invest more time in communicating the most crucial public health issue of the 21st century to their patients.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Datta P, B Behera (2022)

Factors Influencing the Feasibility, Effectiveness, and Sustainability of Farmers' Adaptation Strategies to Climate Change in The Indian Eastern Himalayan Foothills.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

The rapidly changing climatic conditions are adversely impacting the Indian agricultural sector. Farmers are frequently seen adopting several adaptation measures, which are neither equally efficient nor mutually exclusive. Based on the primary data collected from 300 farming households of the Indian Eastern Himalayan foothills, the present study attempts to examine the efficiency of local farmers' adaptation by developing indices combining the feasibility, effectiveness, and sustainability of the adaptation measures with the scale of actual adoption. Further, by employing multiple linear regression, the study analyzes the internal (psychological) and external (physical and socio-economic) factors influencing higher scores of these indices. Results show that local farmers are well aware of climate change and are responding through implementing at least one and up to seven adaptation measures. Farmers preferred agroforestry, a shift from cereals to low water-intensive commercials, irrigation, and intensification of winter crops as the most efficient. There was, however, a misalignment between the perceived efficiency of adaptation measures and their scale of adoption. Farmers' perceptions of pest infestation, satisfaction with farming, soil characteristics, farm size, remittances, and access to credit were found to be positively and significantly influencing the adaptation indices, while open-mindedness toward changing farming practices and crop-raiding by elephants were found to be negatively and significantly associated with adaptation indices. Lastly, the study made relevant recommendations for improving farmers' efficiency in adopting appropriate adaptation measures and strengthening the "State Action Plan on Climate Change".

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Rej S, Bandyopadhyay A, Das N, et al (2022)

The asymmetric influence of environmental-related technological innovation on climate change mitigation: what role do FDI and renewable energy play?.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

This study aims to provide a new perspective on environmental studies by examining the influence of environmental-related technological innovation, foreign direct investment, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on the climate change index (CCI), a novel proxy for environmental quality indicators. From the econometric standpoint, this study employs the "non-linear autoregressive distributed lag" model and spectral causality over the period of 1999-2018 for India. The results show that positive shocks to economic growth have detrimental long- and short-term effects on environmental quality, whereas negative shocks have no effect. While a positive shock has an insignificant impact, a negative shock to environmental technology innovation has a long-term negative impact on environmental quality. This study provides evidence for the pollution halo hypothesis in India. Besides, a long-term negative shock to the usage of renewable energy fosters environmental degradation. Furthermore, in short-, medium-, and long-term frequency, spectral causality demonstrates unidirectional causation from CCI to environmental-related technological innovation. Bidirectional causation is demonstrated between the CCI and renewable energy consumption in the short and medium term. In addition, environmental-related technological innovation and foreign direct investment are demonstrating a bidirectional relationship in the short term. This study has advocated the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)-centric policy paradigm, which can assist the Indian government in achieving SDG-13 (mitigating climate change) and SDG-7 (clean energy consumption).

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Bellehumeur CR, Bilodeau C, C Kam (2022)

Integrating positive psychology and spirituality in the context of climate change.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:970362.

In the context of climate change and its accompanying impact on stress and mental health, we argue that positive psychology (PP) may benefit from an integration of spirituality to better support people's wellbeing. Starting with an overview of climate change's impact on wellbeing and health, we explore the paradoxical and complex relationship between humans and nature. Following which, we will briefly define spirituality and present an evocative metaphor of the wave to portray the evolution of the field of PP. In our conclusive remarks, we argue that the field of PP has gradually become more open to integrate spirituality (since the first wave), as it evolves towards greater complexity (in its third wave). In addition to meaning, some spiritual perspectives potentially relevant to positive psychology facilitate an ecocentric view (i.e., eco-spiritualities) which allow for a better understanding of the paradoxical human-nature relationship, as we struggle to deal with the complex issues related to climate change.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Clark S, Hubbard KA, McGillicuddy DJ, et al (2022)

Projected effects of climate change on Pseudo-nitzschia bloom dynamics in the Gulf of Maine.

Journal of marine systems : journal of the European Association of Marine Sciences and Techniques, 230:.

Worldwide, warming ocean temperatures have contributed to extreme harmful algal bloom events and shifts in phytoplankton species composition. In 2016 in the Gulf of Maine (GOM), an unprecedented Pseudo-nitzschia bloom led to the first domoic-acid induced shellfishery closures in the region. Potential links between climate change, warming temperatures, and the GOM Pseudo-nitzschia assemblage, however, remain unexplored. In this study, a global climate change projection previously downscaled to 7-km resolution for the Northwest Atlantic was further refined with a 1-3-km resolution simulation of the GOM to investigate the effects of climate change on HAB dynamics. A 25-year time slice of projected conditions at the end of the 21st century (2073-2097) was compared to a 25-year hindcast of contemporary ocean conditions (1994-2018) and analyzed for changes to GOM inflows, transport, and Pseudo-nitzschia australis growth potential. On average, climate change is predicted to lead to increased temperatures, decreased salinity, and increased stratification in the GOM, with the largest changes occurring in the late summer. Inflows from the Scotian Shelf are projected to increase, and alongshore transport in the Eastern Maine Coastal Current is projected to intensify. Increasing ocean temperatures will likely make P. australis growth conditions less favorable in the southern and western GOM but improve P. australis growth conditions in the eastern GOM, including a later growing season in the fall, and a longer growing season in the spring. Combined, these changes suggest that P. australis blooms in the eastern GOM could intensify in the 21st century, and that the overall Pseudo-nitzschia species assemblage might shift to warmer-adapted species such as P. plurisecta or other Pseudo-nitzschia species that may be introduced.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Mazzalai E, Chiappetta M, G La Torre (2022)

Knowledge on causes and consequences of Climate Change in a cohort of Italian students.

La Clinica terapeutica, 173(5):443-452.

Background: Climate change (CC) is the greatest threat to the health of the planet. The scientific community has established its connection to human activities and its role in emerging and premature diseases. Our study helps to understand how students of various backgrounds and academic fields retrieve information on CC and highlights the knowledge on the main causes and consequences of global warming and on the role of healthcare workers in the fight towards this threat.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed through an online questionnaire administered to university students between January and December 2020. Univariable analyses were performed, Chi-square was calculated and multivariable analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the answers and socio-demographic variables. Statistical significance was set at a p-value of less than 5%.

Results: More than 80% of the sample correctly identifies as major consequences of CCs the increase in Earth's temperature (95.0%), melting of ice caps (89.4%), rising sea levels (81.8%), and the more frequent occurrence of climate-related natural disasters. Across courses of study, the frequency on how CC is addressed differs (p<0.001): 31.5% of the students from the medical field reported the topic to be taught in class, compared to 49.0% from humanities and 63.4% from science and technology.

Conclusion: The study shows that medical students are less prepared and less aware of the consequences and causes of CC than students in other faculties. Since CC will play a role in every aspect of patients' lives, barriers to health care will have to be overcome through the knowledge and skills acquired during undergraduate courses.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Hou Q, Ji Z, Yang H, et al (2022)

Impacts of climate change and human activities on different degraded grassland based on NDVI.

Scientific reports, 12(1):15918.

Grassland degradation has emerged as a serious socio-economic and ecological problem, endangering both long-term usage and the regional biogeochemical cycle. Climate change and human activities are the two leading factors leading to grassland degradation. However, it is unclear what the degradation level caused by these two factors is. Using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and coefficient of variation of NDVI (CVNDVI), the spatial distribution features of grassland degradation or restoration were analyzed in Qilian County in the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The dominant climate variables affecting NDVI variation were selected through the combination of random forest model and stepwise regression method to improve the residual trend analysis, and on this basis, twelve possible scenarios were established to evaluate the driving factors of different degraded grasslands. Finally, used the Hurst index to forecast the trend of grassland degradation or restoration. The results showed that approximately 55.0% of the grassland had been degraded between 2000 and 2019, and the area of slight degradation (NDVIslope > 0; CVNDVI (slope) > 0; NDVIvalue > 0.2) accounted for 48.6%. These regions were centered in the northwest of Qilian County. Climate and human activities had a joint impact on grassland restoration or degradation. Human activities played a leading role in grassland restoration, while climate change was primarily a driver of grassland degradation. The regions with slight degradation or re-growing (NDVIslope > 0; CVNDVI (slope) > 0), moderate degradation (NDVIslope < 0; CVNDVI (slope) > 0), and severe degradation or desertification (NDVIslope < 0; CVNDVI (slope) < 0) were dominated by the joint effects of climate and anthropogenic activity accounted for 34.3%, 3.3%, and 1.3%, respectively, of the total grassland area. Grasslands in most areas of Qilian County are forecasted to continue to degrade, including the previously degraded areas, with continuous degradation areas accounting for 54.78%. Accurately identifying the driving factors of different degraded grassland and predicting the dynamic change trend of grassland in the future is the key to understand the mechanism of grassland degradation and prevent grassland degradation. The findings offer a reference for accurately identifying the driving forces in grassland degradation, as well as providing a scientific basis for the policy-making of grassland ecological management.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Quinn Griffin MT, Alfes CM, Chavez F, et al (2022)

Incorporating climate change into Doctor of Nursing Practice curricula.

Journal of professional nursing : official journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 42:156-161.

Climate change is a global crisis with major impacts on planetary health and quality of life. Nurses are well positioned to recognize the major health consequences of climate change on health. Therefore, highlighting nurses' active engagement in mitigating climate change impact and resilience efforts is essential. However, there is little evidence of climate change content in nursing curricula. Climate change/planetary health content could be integrated into existing Doctor of Nursing Practice programs so that graduates, as influential leaders, are equipped to meet the challenges ahead. The domains, competencies and sub-competencies outlined in the Essentials: Core competencies for professional nursing education (American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), 2021) are proposed as a curricular scaffold to integrate climate change content in DNP curricula. Climate change content matched to the AACN domains and competencies could be included in many existing DNP courses. Climate change would become a consistent concept throughout all DNP curricular programs rather than a specified course addressing climate change. The curricular structure presented would provide a foundation for enhancing DNP students' knowledge, attitudes and skills related to climate change. These students and future graduates would be well prepared to introduce changes in practices and policies at the local, national, and global levels.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Wortzel JR, Lee J, Benoit L, et al (2022)

Perspectives on Climate Change and Pediatric Mental Health: a Qualitative Analysis of Interviews with Researchers in the Field.

Academic psychiatry : the journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: There is a growing appreciation that climate change is affecting pediatric mental health, yet research in this field is in its infancy. The authors aimed to interview researchers in this space to identify themes that can help shape curricula and inform mentors guiding trainees entering this research area.

METHOD: A literature review was completed within PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for articles written in English and indexed between January 1, 2016, and August 1, 2021. The first and last authors of relevant articles were invited to be interviewed and to recommend other experts, from which 20 of 74 (27%) eligible participants were recruited. Standardized interviews were conducted virtually, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed.

RESULTS: Participant responses clustered into two domains, each comprising three themes: (1) current and future research: epidemiology and education, interventions, and gaps in research; and (2) barriers: limited funding, psychological resistance, and logistical impediments. Research has been primarily limited to the phenomenology of eco-anxiety, the aftermath of natural disasters, and psychoeducational interventions. Participants provided insights into how the field can become more interventional, overcome psychological resistance among colleagues through education, and improve funding through calls for grants specific to this topic.

CONCLUSIONS: This study outlines perspectives on the cutting-edge directions of research in climate mental health for children and impediments to its progress. Generalizability is limited by the small sample of experts interviewed; however, these content experts' opinions can inform curriculum development and help mentors support mentees hoping to develop research careers in climate mental health.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Berio Fortini L, Kaiser LR, Xue L, et al (2022)

Bioclimatic variables dataset for baseline and future climate scenarios for climate change studies in Hawai'i.

Data in brief, 45:108572 pii:S2352-3409(22)00779-X.

Gridded bioclimatic variables representing yearly, seasonal, and monthly means and extremes in temperature and precipitation have been widely used for ecological modeling purposes and in broader climate change impact and biogeographical studies. As a result of their utility, numerous sets of bioclimatic variables have been developed on a global scale (e.g., WorldClim) but rarely represent the finer regional scale pattern of climate in Hawai'i. Recognizing the value of having such regionally downscaled products, we integrated more detailed projections from recent climate models developed for Hawai'i with current climatological datasets to generate updated regionally defined bioclimatic variables. We derived updated bioclimatic variables from new projections of baseline and future monthly minimum, mean, and maximum temperature (Tmin, Tmean, Tmax) and mean precipitation (Pmean) data at 250 m resolution. We used the most up-to-date dynamically downscaled projections based on the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model from the International Pacific Research Center (IPRC) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We summarized the monthly data from these two climate projections into a suite of 19 standard bioclimatic variables that provide detailed information about annual and seasonal mean climatic conditions for the Hawaiian Islands. These bioclimatic variables are available for three climate scenarios: baseline climate (1990-2009) and future climate (2080-2099) under representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 (IPRC projections only) and RCP 8.5 (both IPRC and NCAR projections) climate scenarios. The resulting dataset provides a more robust set of climate products that can be used for modeling purposes, impact studies, and management planning.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Wu M, Long R, Yang S, et al (2022)

Evolution of the Knowledge Mapping of Climate Change Communication Research: Basic Status, Research Hotspots, and Prospects.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(18): pii:ijerph191811305.

Climate change communication is a crucial strategy for addressing the major challenges of climate change, and the knowledge mapping analysis and overview of it helps to clarify research progress. Based on CiteSpace, 428 pieces of domestic and foreign literature are collected to clarify the basic status of climate change communication research and summarize research hotspots and prospects. The study found that: (1) The earliest traceable English literature on climate change communication appeared in 2000. The number of articles published has risen steadily since 2008, reaching its first peak in 2015. (2) In contrast, research into Chinese climate change communication began late and progressed slowly. The Chinese literature on climate change communication first appeared in 2009. Although domestic research generally continues to pay attention to this phenomenon, there is still room for development compared with international research. (3) The research hotspots for climate change communication are obtained through keyword co-occurrence analysis. Public perceptions of climate change are strongly influenced by political ideology. Since climate change has political attributes, people from different political parties or groups form their views on climate change through identity protection. (4) The research content on climate change communication can be summarized into the following six aspects: the development of climate change communication research; differences in public perceptions of climate change; factors influencing climate change communication; key elements of the climate change communication process; the important role of the media in climate change communication; and effective strategies for climate change communication. Finally, the shortcomings of this study are summarized and future research prospects on climate change communication are put forward from the perspectives of research methods, research contexts, and research paradigms.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Ma J, Zhou W, Guo S, et al (2022)

Effects of Conformity Tendencies on Farmers' Willingness to Take Measures to Respond to Climate Change: Evidence from Sichuan Province, China.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(18): pii:ijerph191811246.

Encouraging farmers to respond to climate change is very important for agricultural production and environmental governance. Based on the data of 540 farmers in Sichuan Province, China, the effects of conformity tendencies on farmers' adaptive behavior decisions to climate change were analyzed using the binary logistic model and propensity score matching method (PSM). The results show that (1) relatives' and friends' adaptive behaviors to climate change positively affect farmers' adaptive behaviors to climate change. (2) Compared with relatives and friends who do not visit each other during the New Year (weak ties), the climate change adaptation behavior of relatives and friends who visit each other during the New Year (strong ties) has a more significant impact on the climate change adaptation behavior of farmers. (3) Farmers with higher education levels and agricultural products without disaster experience are more significantly affected by peer effects and more inclined to take measures to respond to climate change. (4) Social networks and social trust play a partially mediating role in the peer effects of farmers' adaptation to climate change, but there are differences between relatives and friends with different strong and weak ties.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Woodcock LV (2022)

Global Warming by Geothermal Heat from Fracking: Energy Industry's Enthalpy Footprints.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(9): pii:e24091316.

Hypothetical dry adiabatic lapse rate (DALR) air expansion processes in atmosphere climate models that predict global warming cannot be the causal explanation of the experimentally observed mean lapse rate (approx.-6.5 K/km) in the troposphere. The DALR hypothesis violates the 2nd law of thermodynamics. A corollary of the heat balance revision of climate model predictions is that increasing the atmospheric concentration of a weak molecular transducer, CO2, could only have a net cooling effect, if any, on the biosphere interface temperatures between the lithosphere and atmosphere. The greenhouse-gas hypothesis, moreover, does not withstand scientific scrutiny against the experimental data. The global map of temperature difference contours is heterogeneous with various hotspots localized within specific land areas. There are regional patches of significant increases in time-average temperature differences, (∆) = 3 K+, in a ring around the arctic circle, with similar hotspots in Brazil, South Africa and Madagascar, a 2-3 K band across central Australia, SE Europe centred in Poland, southern China and the Philippines. These global-warming map hotspots coincide with the locations of the most intensive fracking operational regions of the shale gas industry. Regional global warming is caused by an increase in geothermal conductivity following hydraulic fracture operations. The mean lapse rate (d/dz)z at the surface of the lithosphere will decrease slightly in the regions where these operations have enhanced heat transfer. Geothermal heat from induced seismic activity has caused an irreversible increase in enthalpy (H) input into the overall energy balance at these locations. Investigating global warming further, we report the energy industry's enthalpy outputs from the heat generated by all fuel consumption. We also calculate a global electricity usage enthalpy output. The global warming index, <∆T-biosphere> since 1950, presently +0.875 K, first became non-zero in the early 1970's around the same time as natural gas usage began and has increased linearly by 0.0175 K/year ever since. Le Chatelier's principle, applied to the dissipation processes of the biosphere's ΔH-contours and [CO2] concentrations, helps to explain the global warming statistics.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Agboka KM, Tonnang HEZ, Abdel-Rahman EM, et al (2022)

A Fuzzy-Based Model to Predict the Spatio-Temporal Performance of the Dolichogenidea gelechiidivoris Natural Enemy against Tuta absoluta under Climate Change.

Biology, 11(9): pii:biology11091280.

The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, causes up to 100% tomato crop losses. As Tuta absoluta is non-native to African agroecologies and lacks efficient resident natural enemies, the microgastrine koinobiont solitary oligophagous larval endoparasitoid, Dolichogenidea gelechiidivoris (Marsh) (Syn.: Apanteles gelechiidivoris Marsh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was released for classical biological control. This study elucidates the current and future spatio-temporal performance of D. gelechiidivoris against T. absoluta in tomato cropping systems using a fuzzy logic modelling approach. Specifically, the study considers the presence of the host and the host crop, as well as the parasitoid reproductive capacity, as key variables. Results show that the fuzzy algorithm predicted the performance of the parasitoid (in terms of net reproductive rate (R0)), with a low root mean square error (RMSE) value (<0.90) and a considerably high R2 coefficient (=0.98), accurately predicting the parasitoid performance over time and space. Under the current climatic scenario, the parasitoid is predicted to perform well in all regions throughout the year, except for the coastal region. Under the future climatic scenario, the performance of the parasitoid is projected to improve in all regions throughout the year. Overall, the model sheds light on the varying performance of the parasitoid across different regions of Kenya, and in different seasons, under both current and future climatic scenarios.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Zhao Y, Xiao D, Bai H, et al (2022)

Climate Change Impact on Yield and Water Use of Rice-Wheat Rotation System in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

Biology, 11(9): pii:biology11091265.

Global climate change has had a significant impact on crop production and agricultural water use. Investigating different future climate scenarios and their possible impacts on crop production and water consumption is critical for proposing effective responses to climate change. In this study, based on daily downscaled climate data from 22 Global Climate Models (GCMs) provided by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 (CMIP6), we applied the well-validated Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) to simulate crop phenology, yield, and water use of the rice-wheat rotation at four representative stations (including Hefei and Shouxian stations in Anhui province and Kunshan and Xuzhou stations in Jiangsu province) across the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China during the 2041-2070 period (2050s) under four Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (i.e., SSP126, SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585). The results showed a significant increase in annual mean temperature (Temp) and solar radiation (Rad), and annual total precipitation (Prec) at four investigated stations, except Rad under SSP370. Climate change mainly leads to a consistent advance in wheat phenology, but inconsistent trends in rice phenology across four stations. Moreover, the reproductive growth period (RGP) of wheat was prolonged while that of rice was shorted at three of four stations. Both rice and wheat yields were negatively correlated with Temp, but positively correlated with Rad, Prec, and CO2 concentration ([CO2]). However, crop ET was positively correlated with Rad, but negatively correlated with [CO2], as elevated [CO2] decreased stomatal conductance. Moreover, the water use efficiency (WUE) of rice and wheat was negatively correlated with Temp, but positively correlated with [CO2]. Overall, our study indicated that the change in Temp, Rad, Prec, and [CO2] have different impacts on different crops and at different stations. Therefore, in the impact assessment for climate change, it is necessary to explore and analyze different crops in different regions. Additionally, our study helps to improve understanding of the impacts of climate change on crop production and water consumption and provides data support for the sustainable development of agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Troia MJ, Kaz AL, Niemeyer JC, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Species traits and reduced habitat suitability limit efficacy of climate change refugia in streams.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Skeirytė A, Krikštolaitis R, G Liobikienė (2022)

The differences of climate change perception, responsibility and climate-friendly behavior among generations and the main determinants of youth's climate-friendly actions in the EU.

Journal of environmental management, 323:116277 pii:S0301-4797(22)01850-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The role of society to mitigate climate change is particularly important. However, generations, different age cohorts are differently related to and concerned about climate change. The main criticism of the young generation is that they talk about climate change a lot but do not behave in a climate-friendly manner. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the difference of climate change perception, responsibility and climate-friendly behavior among Baby Boomer generation, Generations X, Y and Z in all European Union (EU) countries. After applying the Chi-square test, the results showed that younger people in the EU tend to have the perception of climate change more often than their older counterparts. Moreover, people from younger generations tend to place responsibility of solving climate change on the business/industrial sectors and environmental groups more often than the preceding generations do. Furthermore, more of young people assumed personal responsibility, used environmentally friendly alternatives to personal cars, and considered carbon footprint before purchasing a product, as opposed to older generations. However, the youth separated waste and decreased the use of disposable items less comparing with older generations. Applying binary logistic regression, the results showed that climate change perception and placement of responsibility on environmental groups positively and statistically significantly influenced all climate-friendly actions of the youth. Personal responsibility statistically significantly decreased probability of all climate-friendly actions. Responsibility placement on the government and business/industrial sectors reduced the probability to carry out waste reduction behavior. Thus, this study revealed that young people are not always climate-friendly, and this study provides the insights into how to promote climate-friendly behavior among youths.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Bornmann L, Haunschild R, Boyack K, et al (2022)

How relevant is climate change research for climate change policy? An empirical analysis based on Overton data.

PloS one, 17(9):e0274693 pii:PONE-D-22-08381.

Climate change is an ongoing topic in nearly all areas of society since many years. A discussion of climate change without referring to scientific results is not imaginable. This is especially the case for policies since action on the macro scale is required to avoid costly consequences for society. In this study, we deal with the question of how research on climate change and policy are connected. In 2019, the new Overton database of policy documents was released including links to research papers that are cited by policy documents. The use of results and recommendations from research on climate change might be reflected in citations of scientific papers in policy documents. Although we suspect a lot of uncertainty related to the coverage of policy documents in Overton, there seems to be an impact of international climate policy cycles on policy document publication. We observe local peaks in climate policy documents around major decisions in international climate diplomacy. Our results point out that IGOs and think tanks-with a focus on climate change-have published more climate change policy documents than expected. We found that climate change papers that are cited in climate change policy documents received significantly more citations on average than climate change papers that are not cited in these documents. Both areas of society (science and policy) focus on similar climate change research fields: biology, earth sciences, engineering, and disease sciences. Based on these and other empirical results in this study, we propose a simple model of policy impact considering a chain of different document types: The chain starts with scientific assessment reports (systematic reviews) that lead via science communication documents (policy briefs, policy reports or plain language summaries) and government reports to legislative documents.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Rohatyn S, Yakir D, Rotenberg E, et al (2022)

Limited climate change mitigation potential through forestation of the vast dryland regions.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6613):1436-1439.

Forestation of the vast global drylands has been considered a promising climate change mitigation strategy. However, its actual climatic benefits are uncertain because the forests' reduced albedo can produce large warming effects. Using high-resolution spatial analysis of global drylands, we found 448 million hectares suitable for afforestation. This area's carbon sequestration potential until 2100 is 32.3 billion tons of carbon (Gt C), but 22.6 Gt C of that is required to balance albedo effects. The net carbon equivalent would offset ~1% of projected medium-emissions and business-as-usual scenarios over the same period. Focusing forestation only on areas with net cooling effects would use half the area and double the emissions offset. Although such smart forestation is clearly important, its limited climatic benefits reinforce the need to reduce emissions rapidly.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Belcher O (2022)

Greening national securityThe Pentagon, Climate Change, and War Neta C. Crawford MIT Press, 2022. 392 pp.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6613):1389.

The US military's eye-watering carbon footprint must be mitigated, argues a political scientist.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Bahrami G, Rafiey H, Shakiba A, et al (2022)

Climate Change and Respiratory Diseases: Relationship between SARS and Climatic Parameters and Impact of Climate Change on the Geographical Distribution of SARS in Iran.

Advances in respiratory medicine, 90(5):378-390 pii:arm90050048.

Climate change affects human health, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) incidence is one of the health impacts of climate change. This study is a retrospective cohort study. Data have been collected from the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education between 17 February 2016 and17 February 2018. The Neural Network Model has been used to predict SARS infection. Based on the results of the multivariate Poisson regression and the analysis of the coexistence of the variables, the minimum daily temperature was positively associated with the risk of SARS in men and women. The risk of SARS has increased in women and men with increasing daily rainfall. According to the result, by changes in bioclimatic parameters, the number of SARS patients will be increased in cities of Iran. Our study has shown a significant relationship between SARS and the climatic variables by the type of climate and gender. The estimates suggest that hospital admissions for climate-related respiratory diseases in Iran will increase by 36% from 2020 to 2050. This study demonstrates one of the health impacts of climate change. Policymakers can control the risks of climate change by mitigation and adaptation strategists.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Aibaidula D, Ates N, F Dadaser-Celik (2022)

Modelling climate change impacts at a drinking water reservoir in Turkey and implications for reservoir management in semi-arid regions.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change can have severe impacts on the water availability in semi-arid regions. In this study, we assessed the impact of climatic changes on water availability in the Altınapa Reservoir Watershed, located in the Konya province, south-central Turkey. Altınapa Reservoir supplies drinking water to Konya, a city of about 2 million population. We investigated possible changes in streamflow and reservoir storage over 2021-2098 under two representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) developed based on GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, and MPI-ESM-MR global circulation models. We used a physically based model (SWAT-Soil and Water Assessment Tool) for understanding the hydrologic response of the basin to climatic changes. Results show that upward trends in air temperatures in the range of 0.01-0.04 °C/year and 0.005-0.06 °C/year are expected from 2021 to 2098 under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. According to the HadGEM2-ES model, precipitation and streamflow would show a downward trend at a rate of 0.96 mm/year and 0.007 m3/s/year under the RCP4.5 scenario and at a rate of 1.62 mm/year and 0.01 m3/s/year under the RCP8.5 scenario, respectively. GFDL-ESM2M and MPI-ESM-MR models project upward trends in precipitation and streamflow under the RCP4.5 scenario (in the range of 0.64-1.28 mm/year and 0.0003-0.006 m3/s/year, respectively), and downward trends under the RCP8.5 scenario (in the range of 0.47-0.76 mm/year and 0.0015-0.003 m3/s/year, respectively). Reservoir storage is projected to increase slightly according to GFDL-ESM2M model and decrease according to the HadGEM2-ES, and MPI-ESM-MR models under both scenarios. Precipitation, streamflow, and reservoir storage predictions of GFDL-ESM2M and MPI-ESM-MR models are considerably lower than those observed in the basin in recent decades, showing that water resources will decrease in the future. The changes in water withdrawal patterns could cause further reductions in water availability. Good resilience to climate change can be achieved by a flexible water management system and by reducing water consumption and water losses in the watershed and from the reservoirs.

RevDate: 2022-09-22

Wieler LH (2022)

Climate change - a burning topic for public health.

Journal of health monitoring, 7(Suppl 4):3-6.

RevDate: 2022-09-21

Roubille F, Matzner-Lober E, Aguilhon S, et al (2022)

Impact of global warming on weight in patients with heart failure during the 2019 heatwave in France.

ESC heart failure [Epub ahead of print].

Heatwaves affect human health and should be more and more frequent because of global warming and could lead to increase mortality in general population, especially regarding cardiovascular mortality. During the summer 2019, Europe experienced a strong episode of heatwave. Telemonitoring of patients with heart failure (HF) provide an elegant tool to monitor closely the weights, and we assumed to be able to assess our hypothesis through a nationwide telemonitoring system. Here, we hypothesize that (i) there will be a change in patients' weight during the heatwave and (ii) that the telemonitoring would enable us to follow these changes. The change in weight would be a surrogate for clinical worsening (with or without decompensated HF). Briefly, 1420 patients with a median age of 73.0 years and mean weight of 78.1 kg have been included in this analysis. The relationship between temperature and weight is very strong (P < 10-7). The magnitude of the effect seems clinically relevant with a variation of 1.5 kg during a short period. This could expose patients to increased symptoms, HF decompensations, and poor outcomes. These results suggest a new way to implement weight telemonitoring in HF. This suggests also a direct impact of global warming on Human health, with acute episodes that are expected to occur more often, threatening patients with chronic diseases, especially patients with heart failure. In clinical practice, this urges to take into consideration the episodes of extreme heatwave and suggest that we have already useful tools including telemonitoring available in frail patients.

RevDate: 2022-09-21

Effrosynidis D, Sylaios G, A Arampatzis (2022)

Exploring climate change on Twitter using seven aspects: Stance, sentiment, aggressiveness, temperature, gender, topics, and disasters.

PloS one, 17(9):e0274213 pii:PONE-D-22-01801.

How do climate change deniers differ from believers? Is there any correlation between human sentiment and deviations from historic temperature? We answer nine such questions using 13 years of Twitter data and 15 million tweets. Seven aspects are explored, namely, user gender, climate change stance and sentiment, aggressiveness, deviations from historic temperature, topics discussed, and environmental disaster events. We found that: a) climate change deniers use the term global warming much often than believers and use aggressive language, while believers tweet more about taking actions to fight the phenomenon, b) deniers are more present in the American Region, South Africa, Japan, and Eastern China and less present in Europe, India, and Central Africa, c) people connect much more the warm temperatures with man-made climate change than cold temperatures, d) the same regions that had more climate change deniers also tweet with negative sentiment, e) a positive correlation is observed between human sentiment and deviations from historic temperature; when the deviation is between -1.143°C and +2.401°C, people tweet the most positive, f) there exist 90% correlation between sentiment and stance, and -94% correlation between sentiment and aggressiveness, g) no clear patterns are observed to correlate sentiment and stance with disaster events based on total deaths, number of affected, and damage costs, h) topics discussed on Twitter indicate that climate change is a politicized issue and people are expressing their concerns especially when witnessing extreme weather; the global stance could be considered optimistic, as there are many discussions that point out the importance of human intervention to fight climate change and actions are being taken through events to raise the awareness of this phenomenon.

RevDate: 2022-09-21

Katavoutas G, Founda D, Varotsos KV, et al (2022)

Climate change impacts on thermal stress in four climatically diverse European cities.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

The thermal conditions that prevail in cities pose a number of challenges to urban residents and policy makers related to quality of life, health and welfare as well as to sustainable urban development. However, the changes in thermal stress due to climate change are probably not uniform among cities with different background climates. In this work, a comparative analysis of observed and projected thermal stress (cold stress, heat stress, no thermal stress) across four European cities (Helsinki, Rotterdam, Vienna, and Athens), which are representative of different geographical and climatic regions of the continent, for a recent period (1975 - 2004) and two future periods (2029 - 2058, 2069 - 2098) has been conducted. Applying a rational thermal index (Universal Thermal Climate Index) and considering two models of the EURO-CORDEX experiment (RCA4-MOHC, RCA4-MPI) under two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5, RCP8.5), the projected future changes in thermal conditions are inspected. The distribution of thermal stress in the current climate varies greatly between the cities, reflecting their climatic and urban heterogeneity. In the future climate, a reduction in the frequency of cold stress is expected across all cities, ranging between - 2.9% and - 16.2%. The projected increase in the frequency of optimal thermal conditions increases with increasing latitude, while the projected increase in the frequency of heat stress (ranging from + 0.2 to + 14.6%) decreases with increasing latitudes. Asymmetrical changes in cold- and heat-related stress between cities were found to affect the annual percentage of optimal (no thermal stress) conditions in future. Although future projections are expected to partly bridge the gap between the less-privileged cities (with respect to annual frequency of optimal thermal conditions) like Helsinki and Rotterdam and the more privileged ones like Athens, the former will still lag behind on an annual basis.

RevDate: 2022-09-21

Christie K, Pierson NR, Lowry DB, et al (2022)

Local adaptation of seed and seedling traits along a natural aridity gradient may both predict and constrain adaptive responses to climate change.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE OF STUDY: Variation in seed and seedling traits underlies how plants interact with their environment during establishment, a crucial life history stage. We quantified genetic-based variation in seed and seedling traits in populations of the annual plant Plantago patagonica across a natural aridity gradient, leveraging natural intraspecific variation to predict how populations might evolve in response to increasing aridity associated with climate change in the Southwestern U.S.

METHODS: We quantified seed size, seed size variation, germination timing, and specific leaf area in a greenhouse common garden, and related these traits to the climates of source populations. We then conducted a terminal drought experiment to determine which traits were most predictive of survival under early-season drought.

KEY RESULTS: All traits showed evidence of clinal variation - seed size decreased, germination timing accelerated, and specific leaf area increased with increasing aridity. Populations with more variable historical precipitation regimes showed greater variation in seed size, suggestive of past selection shaping a diversified bet-hedging strategy mediated by seed size. Seedling height, achieved via larger seeds or earlier germination, was a significant predictor of survival under drought.

CONCLUSIONS: We documented substantial interspecific trait variation as well as clinal variation in several important seed and seedling traits, yet these slopes were often opposite to predictions for how individual traits might confer drought tolerance. This work shows that plant populations may adapt to increasing aridity via correlated trait responses associated with alternative life history strategies, but that trade-offs might constrain adaptive responses in individual traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Ratnakaran B, R Barman (2022)

Climate Change and Older Adults: an Important Reason to Prepare Trainees for the Imminent Geriatric Mental Health Crisis.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Réveillet M, Dumont M, Gascoin S, et al (2022)

Black carbon and dust alter the response of mountain snow cover under climate change.

Nature communications, 13(1):5279.

By darkening the snow surface, mineral dust and black carbon (BC) deposition enhances snowmelt and triggers numerous feedbacks. Assessments of their long-term impact at the regional scale are still largely missing despite the environmental and socio-economic implications of snow cover changes. Here we show, using numerical simulations, that dust and BC deposition advanced snowmelt by 17 ± 6 days on average in the French Alps and the Pyrenees over the 1979-2018 period. BC and dust also advanced by 10-15 days the peak melt water runoff, a substantial effect on the timing of water resources availability. We also demonstrate that the decrease in BC deposition since the 1980s moderates the impact of current warming on snow cover decline. Hence, accounting for changes in light-absorbing particles deposition is required to improve the accuracy of snow cover reanalyses and climate projections, that are crucial for better understanding the past and future evolution of mountain social-ecological systems.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Chandra A, Ashley L, MY Arthur (2022)

Climate Change, Migration, and Health: Strategic Opportunities for Health Security.

Health security [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-19

Carrillo-García C, Girola-Iglesias L, Guijarro M, et al (2022)

Ecological niche models applied to post-megafire vegetation restoration in the context of climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)05957-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and land-use changes are the main drivers altering fire regimes and leading to the occurrence of megafires. Current management policies mainly focus on short-term restoration without considering how climate change might affect regeneration dynamics. We aimed to test the usefulness of ecological niche models (ENMs) to integrate the effects of climate change on tree species distributions into post-fire restoration planning. We also examined different important conceptual and methodological aspects during this novel process. We constructed ENM at fine spatial resolution (25 m) for the four main tree species (Pinus pinaster, Quercus pyrenaica, Q. faginea and Q. ilex) in an area affected by a megafire in Central Spain at two scales (local and regional), two periods (2 and 14 years after the fire) at the local scale, and under two future climate change scenarios. The usefulness of ENMs as support tools in decision-making for post-fire management was confirmed for the first time. As hypothesized, models developed at both scales are different, since they represent different scale dependent drivers of species distribution patterns. However, both provide objective information to be considered by stakeholders in combination with other sources of information. Local models generated with vegetation data 14 years after the fire provided valuable information about local and current vegetation dynamics (i.e., current microecology spatial niche prediction). Regional models are capable of considering a higher proportion of the climatic niche of species to generate reliable climate change forecasts (i.e., future macroclimate spatial niche forecast). The use of precise ENMs provide both an objective interpretation of potential habitat conditions and the opportunity of examining vegetation patches, that can be very valuable in managing restoration of areas affected by megafires under climate change conditions.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Huggel C, Bouwer LM, Juhola S, et al (2022)

The existential risk space of climate change.

Climatic change, 174(1-2):8.

Climate change is widely recognized as a major risk to societies and natural ecosystems but the high end of the risk, i.e., where risks become existential, is poorly framed, defined, and analyzed in the scientific literature. This gap is at odds with the fundamental relevance of existential risks for humanity, and it also limits the ability of scientific communities to engage with emerging debates and narratives about the existential dimension of climate change that have recently gained considerable traction. This paper intends to address this gap by scoping and defining existential risks related to climate change. We first review the context of existential risks and climate change, drawing on research in fields on global catastrophic risks, and on key risks and the so-called Reasons for Concern in the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. We also consider how existential risks are framed in the civil society climate movement as well as what can be learned in this respect from the COVID-19 crisis. To better frame existential risks in the context of climate change, we propose to define them as those risks that threaten the existence of a subject, where this subject can be an individual person, a community, or nation state or humanity. The threat to their existence is defined by two levels of severity: conditions that threaten (1) survival and (2) basic human needs. A third level, well-being, is commonly not part of the space of existential risks. Our definition covers a range of different scales, which leads us into further defining six analytical dimensions: physical and social processes involved, systems affected, magnitude, spatial scale, timing, and probability of occurrence. In conclusion, we suggest that a clearer and more precise definition and framing of existential risks of climate change such as we offer here facilitates scientific analysis as well societal and political discourse and action.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Reddy GP, Rajamouli J, Arora KD, et al (2022)

Knowledge, perceptions and practices of medical students towards climate change and global warming: A cross sectional study.

Journal of family medicine and primary care, 11(6):2557-2564.

Context: Climate change is the biggest global health threat and also the greatest health opportunity of the 21st century. Five warmest years among the last 140 years occurred between 2015 and 2019. Limited information is available regarding the knowledge and practices of medical students towards climate change, especially in India.

Settings and Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two medical colleges of Karimnagar city from January 2021 to July 2021 involving MBBS and Post-graduate students as study participants.

Methods and Material: 903 undergraduate and post-graduate medical students who consented for the study were included. A pre-structured questionnaire was used.

Statistical Analysis Used: Data is presented in frequencies and proportions with 95% confidence interval and Chi-square test is used as test of significance.

Results: Poor knowledge regarding Sustainable Developmental Goal for climate action, Organisations dealing climate change and Government actions towards climate change were observed among study participants. Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases (84%) were answered as the major health impacts of climate change. Majority (97.4%) of the participants agreed that 'human actions are also the cause for global warming'. Environment-friendly practices were observed significantly high among participants with adequate knowledge. Major (72%) source of learning about climate change was via internet.

Conclusions: Our study found that major proportion of participants doesn't have environment-friendly practices. However, the participants with adequate knowledge about climate change were observed to have more eco-friendly practices compared to participants with inadequate knowledge.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Danylchuk AJ, Griffin LP, Ahrens R, et al (2022)

Cascading effects of climate change on recreational marine flats fishes and fisheries.

Environmental biology of fishes [Epub ahead of print].

Tropical and subtropical coastal flats are shallow regions of the marine environment at the intersection of land and sea. These regions provide myriad ecological goods and services, including recreational fisheries focused on flats-inhabiting fishes such as bonefish, tarpon, and permit. The cascading effects of climate change have the potential to negatively impact coastal flats around the globe and to reduce their ecological and economic value. In this paper, we consider how the combined effects of climate change, including extremes in temperature and precipitation regimes, sea level rise, and changes in nutrient dynamics, are causing rapid and potentially permanent changes to the structure and function of tropical and subtropical flats ecosystems. We then apply the available science on recreationally targeted fishes to reveal how these changes can cascade through layers of biological organization-from individuals, to populations, to communities-and ultimately impact the coastal systems that depend on them. We identify critical gaps in knowledge related to the extent and severity of these effects, and how such gaps influence the effectiveness of conservation, management, policy, and grassroots stewardship efforts.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Temudo MP, Cabral AIR, P Reis (2022)

The Sea Swallowed our Houses and Rice Fields: The Vulnerability to Climate Change of Coastal People in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa.

Human ecology: an interdisciplinary journal [Epub ahead of print].

Guinea-Bissau remains among the African countries most vulnerable to climate change due to its flat topography and large meandering coastal area invaded by the tides.We present a case study of the island-village of Djobel, showing the dramatic consequences of socio-environmental change. The inhabitants' attempts to mitigate the impact of extreme weather events and sea-level rise and adapt to the new circumstances have been hampered by the seizure of their upland territory by a neighboring village. In the context of a disconnect between state and society, Djobel's inhabitants want the state to guarantee their rights to productive land, water, and safe housing conditions. This case shows the need for legal protection of the rights of poor, marginalized, and underrepresented populations at risk of becoming climate refugees in the fragile context of politically unstable, failed, and often authoritarian states.

RevDate: 2022-09-18

do Carmo TLL, de Lima MCM, de Vasconcelos Lima JL, et al (2022)

Tissue distribution of appetite regulation genes and their expression in the Amazon fish Colossoma macropomum exposed to climate change scenario.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)05828-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change leads to an increase in water acidification and temperature, two environmental factors that can change fish appetite and metabolism, affecting fish population in both wild and aquaculture facilities. Therefore, our study tested if climate change affects gene expression levels of two appetite-regulating peptides - Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Cholecystokinin (CCK) - in the brain of tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum. Additionally, we show the distribution of these genes throughout the body. Amino acid sequences of CCK and NPY of tambaqui showed high similarity with other Characiformes, with the closely related order Cypriniformes, and even with the more distantly related order Salmoniformes. High apparent levels of both peptides were expressed in all brain areas, while expression levels varied for peripheral tissues. NPY and CCK mRNA were detected in all peripheral tissues but cephalic kidney for CCK. As for the effects of climate change, we found that fish exposed to extreme climate scenario (800 ppm CO2 and 4.5 °C above current climate scenario) had higher expression levels of NPY and lower expression levels of CCK in the telencephalon. The extreme climate scenario also increased food intake, weight gain, and body length. These results suggest that the telencephalon is probably responsible for sensing the metabolic status of the organism and controlling feeding behavior through NPY, likely an orexigenic hormone, and CCK, which may act as an anorexigenic hormone. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the effects of climate change on the endocrine regulation of appetite in an endemic and economically important fish from the Amazon. Our results can help us predict the impact of climate change on both wild and farmed fish populations, thus contributing to the elaboration of future policies regarding their conservation and sustainable use.

RevDate: 2022-09-21

Trájer AJ, Sebestyén V, Domokos E, et al (2022)

Indicators for climate change-driven urban health impact assessment.

Journal of environmental management, 323:116165 pii:S0301-4797(22)01738-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change can cause multiply potential health issues in urban areas, which is the most susceptible environment in terms of the presently increasing climate volatility. Urban greening strategies make an important part of the adaptation strategies which can ameliorate the negative impacts of climate change. It was aimed to study the potential impacts of different kinds of greenings against the adverse effects of climate change, including waterborne, vector-borne diseases, heat-related mortality, and surface ozone concentration in a medium-sized Hungarian city. As greening strategies, large and pocket parks were considered, based on our novel location identifier algorithm for climate risk minimization. A method based on publicly available data sources including satellite pictures, climate scenarios and urban macrostructure has been developed to evaluate the health-related indicator patterns in cities. The modelled future- and current patterns of the indicators have been compared. The results can help the understanding of the possible future state of the studied indicators and the development of adequate greening strategies. Another outcome of the study is that it is not the type of health indicator but its climate sensitivity that determines the extent to which it responds to temperature rises and how effective greening strategies are in addressing the expected problem posed by the factor.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Hurst Loo AM, BR Walker (2022)

Climate change knowledge influences attitude to mitigation via efficacy beliefs.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis [Epub ahead of print].

Theories proposing climate change apathy is explained by inadequate knowledge do not account for why many informed and concerned Americans fail to act. While correlations between knowledge, efficacy for climate change, and attitude to mitigation have been observed, few studies have examined efficacy for climate change as a mediator. This study aimed to investigate the influence of specific climate change knowledge on attitude to mitigation via efficacy beliefs. A cross-sectional survey of 205 US adults recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk assessed participants' climate change knowledge, efficacy for climate change, and attitude to mitigation. Indirect effects of self-efficacy for climate change were observed in three mediation models, suggesting efficacy for climate change explains some of the relationship between specific climate change knowledge and attitude to mitigation. The findings suggest risk communication can motivate pro-environmental attitudes with interventions that deliver information about climate change and develop efficacy for mitigation behavior.

RevDate: 2022-09-21
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

Dunne H, Rizan C, Jones A, et al (2022)

Effectiveness of an online module: climate-change and sustainability in clinical practice.

BMC medical education, 22(1):682.

BACKGROUND: Climate change has significant implications for health, yet healthcare provision itself contributes significant greenhouse gas emission. Medical students need to be prepared to address impacts of the changing environment and fulfil a key role in climate mitigation. Here we evaluate the effectiveness of an online module on climate-change and sustainability in clinical practice designed to achieve learning objectives adapted from previously established sustainable healthcare priority learning outcomes.

METHODS: A multi-media, online module was developed, and 3rd and 4th year medical students at Brighton and Sussex Medical School were invited to enrol. Students completed pre- and post-module questionnaires consisting of Likert scale and white space answer questions. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of responses was performed.

RESULTS: Forty students enrolled and 33 students completed the module (83% completion rate). There was a significant increase in reported understanding of key concepts related to climate change and sustainability in clinical practice (p < 0.001), with proportion of students indicating good or excellent understanding increasing from between 2 - 21% students to between 91 - 97% students. The majority (97%) of students completed the module within 90 min. All students reported the module was relevant to their training. Thematic analysis of white space responses found students commonly reported they wanted access to more resources related to health and healthcare sustainability, as well as further guidance on how to make practical steps towards reducing the environmental impact within a clinical setting.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study to evaluate learner outcomes of an online module in the field of sustainable health and healthcare. Our results suggest that completion of the module was associated with significant improvement in self-assessed knowledge of key concepts in climate health and sustainability. We hope this approach is followed elsewhere to prepare healthcare staff for impacts of climate change and to support improving the environmental sustainability of healthcare delivery.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Study registered with Brighton and Sussex Medical School Research Governance and Ethics Committee (BSMS RGEC). Reference: ER/BSMS3576/8, Date: 4/3/2020.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

An N, Turp MT, Orgen B, et al (2022)

Analysis of the impact of climate change on grapevines in Turkey using heat unit accumulation-based indices.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

Temperature is the most important factor influencing grapevine phenology and yield. Various indices have been developed that deal with the temperature sums that grapevines are exposed to during growth and maturation. With the help of these indices, predictions are made about whether the grapes will grow in a certain region and the quality of the grapevines. In this study, the future impacts of climate change on viticultural conditions in Turkey were projected by using Huglin index (HI), Winkler index (WI), and cool night index (CI). Under the RCP8.5 scenario, HI, WI, and CI indices for the future period of 2022-2050 were calculated for Turkey at 10 km spatial resolution with the RegCM4.4 model and compared with the 1972-2000 reference period. As a result of the study, a substantial increase in CI, HI, and WI and at least one level of categorical change were observed in the climatic conditions of the next 30 years in Turkey. These categorical shifts in CI, HI, and WI indicate that there may be changes in the geographical pattern of grapevine species grown in Turkey as well as the aroma and quality.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Hatfield J, Domingo A, Ivicek Lanciotti K, et al (2022)

An Interprofessional, Solutions-oriented Approach to Raising Awareness about the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health for Health Profession Students.

International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-20
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

Escalante MA, Marková S, Searle JB, et al (2022)

Genic distribution modelling predicts adaptation of the bank vole to climate change.

Communications biology, 5(1):981.

The most likely pathway for many species to survive future climate change is by pre-existing trait variation providing a fitness advantage under the new climate. Here we evaluate the potential role of haemoglobin (Hb) variation in bank voles under future climate change. We model gene-climate relationships for two functionally distinct Hb types, HbS and HbF, which have a north-south distribution in Britain presenting an unusually tractable system linking genetic variation in physiology to geographical and temporal variation in climate. Projections to future climatic conditions suggest a change in relative climatic suitability that would result in HbS being displaced by HbF in northern Britain. This would facilitate local adaptation to future climate-without Hb displacement, populations in northern Britain would likely be suboptimally adapted because their Hb would not match local climatic conditions. Our study shows how pre-existing physiological differences can influence the adaptive capacity of species to climate change.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Adam C, P Drakos (2022)

Climate change: north and south EU economies-an application of dynamic asymmetric panel data models.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The need for a cleaner environment and wealthier economies has been highly recognized by European Union (EU) policymakers of the last years, as evidenced by the creation of a plethora of laws and regulations for reducing carbon dioxide emissions while promoting the economic prosperity of EU countries. Indeed, many works have been done in this field, remarking on climate change's impacts on economies and the need for determinant environmental policies inside the EU. This paper investigates the effect of climate change on economic growth using nonlinear dynamic panel methods for 15 countries of the EU in the period 1981-2019. Specifically, it is examined the impact of temperature, precipitation, and CO2 emissions on economic growth. So, autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) methods were employed, overcoming cross-dependency and also considering linearity and nonlinearity. The results showed that economic growth has positive nonlinear relationship with long-run temperature, but in short-run they have a symmetric negative association. Moreover, precipitation has long-run negative and a short-run positive relationship with economic growth. However, when CO2 emissions are added, then model's performance is decreased, and precipitation has a positive effect on economic growth, but all others, except from temperature increase, become insignificant. Finally, actions should be taken for more stable climate conditions and consistent environmental policies by EU countries.

RevDate: 2022-09-16

Young I, Sanchez JJ, J Tustin (2022)

Recreational water illness in Canada: a changing risk landscape in the context of climate change.

Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique [Epub ahead of print].

Swimming and other recreational water activities at public beaches are popular outdoor leisure activities among Canadians. However, these activities can lead to increased risks of acquiring acute gastrointestinal illness and other illnesses among beachgoers. Young children have much higher rates of exposure and illness than other age groups. These illnesses have a significant health and economic burden on society. Climate change is expected to influence both the risk of exposure and illness. A warming climate in Canada, including more severe summer heatwave events, will likely lead to increased recreational water use. Warmer temperatures will also contribute to the growth and increased range of harmful algal blooms and other climate-sensitive pathogens. Increased precipitation and heavy rainfall events will contribute to fecal and nutrient contamination of beach waters, increasing risks of gastrointestinal illness and harmful algal bloom events. There is a need to enhance recreational water research and surveillance in Canada to prepare for and adapt to these changing risks. Key research and policy needs are suggested and discussed, including evaluating and monitoring risks of recreational water illness in Canadian contexts, improving timely reporting of recreational water quality conditions, and enhancing approaches for routine beach water surveillance.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Haase E (2022)

Using Case-Based Teaching of Climate Change to Broaden Appreciation of Socio-Environmental Determinants of Mental Health.

RevDate: 2022-09-15

Steg L (2022)

Psychology of Climate Change.

Annual review of psychology [Epub ahead of print].

Human behavior plays a critical role in causing global climate change as well as in responding to it. In this article, I review important insights on the psychology of climate change. I first discuss factors that affect the likelihood that individuals engage in a wide range of climate actions. Next, I review the processes through which values affect climate actions and reflect on how to motivate climate actions among people who do not strongly care about nature, the environment, and climate change. Then I explain that even people who may be motivated to engage in climate actions may not do so when they face major barriers to act. This implies that to promote wide-scale climate actions, broader system changes are needed. I discuss relevant factors that affect public support for system changes that facilitate and enable climate action. Finally, I summarize key lessons learned and identify important questions for future research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology, Volume 74 is January 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2022-09-16
CmpDate: 2022-09-16

Ring J (2022)

Climate change - dermatology must act as well.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, 36(10):1680.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Riaz K, Ahmad M, Gul S, et al (2022)

Climate change and its implications on health and the healthcare system: A perspective from Pakistan.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 81:104507.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Leal Filho W, Ng AW, Sharifi A, et al (2022)

Global tourism, climate change and energy sustainability: assessing carbon reduction mitigating measures from the aviation industry.

Sustainability science [Epub ahead of print].

As many business activities-especially those associated with the energy-intensive industries-continue to be major sources of greenhouse gas emissions, and hence significantly contributing to global warming, there is a perceived need to identify ways to make business activities eventually carbon neutral. This paper explores the implications of a changing climate for the global tourism business and its intertwining global aviation industry that operates in a self-regulatory environment. Adopting a bibliometric analysis of the literature in the domain of global tourism and climate change (772 articles), the paper reveals the underlying sustainability issues that entail unsustainable energy consumption. The aviation industry as a significant source of carbon emission within the sector is then examined by analyzing the top 20 largest commercial airlines in the world with respect to its ongoing mitigating measures in meeting the Paris Agreement targets. While self-regulatory initiatives are taken to adopt Sustainable Aviation Fuels (SAF) as alternative fuel production and consumption for drastically reducing carbon emission, voluntary alignment and commitment to long-term targets remain inconsistent. A concerted strategic approach to building up complementary sustainable infrastructures among the global network of airports based in various international tourist destination cities to enable a measurable reduction in carbon emission is necessary to achieve a transformational adaptation of a business sector that is of essence to the recovery of the global economy while attempting to tackle climate change in a post-COVID-19 era.

RevDate: 2022-09-17
CmpDate: 2022-09-16

Fongnzossie E, Sonwa DJ, Mbevo P, et al (2022)

Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment in Mangrove-Dependent Communities of Manoka Island, Littoral Region of Cameroon.

TheScientificWorldJournal, 2022:7546519.

This study was conducted on Manoka Island (Littoral Region of Cameroon) with the aim of analyzing climate change vulnerability and local adaptation strategies based on the local community's perceptions and biophysical evidence. We used household surveys, focus group discussions, field observation, GIS, and remote sensing to collect data on variables of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Historical changes in rainfall and temperature, mangrove cover, and the occurrence of extreme climatic events were used as indicators of exposure. Property losses and income structure were used as indicators of sensitivity, while human, natural, social, financial, and physical assets represented adaptive capacity. 89 households were interviewed in the nine settlements of the island. Results show that Manoka Island is experiencing irregular rainfall patterns (with average annual values deviating from the mean by -1.9 to +1.8 mm) and increasing temperature (with annual values deviating from the mean by -1.2 to +3.12). The dynamics of the coastline between 1975 and 2017 using EPR show average setbacks of more than ±3 m/year, with erosion levels varying depending on the period and location. The number of households perceiving extreme climatic events like seasonal variability, flood, and rain storm was higher. From respondents' perception, housing and health are the sectors most affected by climate change. The reported high dependence of households on fishing for income, their overall low livelihood diversification, and their poor access to climate information reported by 65% of respondents portray their poor adaptive capacity. Local response initiatives are ineffective and include among others constructing buildings on stilts and using car wheels to counter the advancement of seawater inland. The study concludes that households on Manoka Island are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Income diversification, mangrove reforestation, the development of sustainable supply chains for wood fuel, and sustainable fish smoking devices are the main pathways for adaptation planning in this area.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Chen H, Zhao L, Cheng L, et al (2022)

Projections of heatwave-attributable mortality under climate change and future population scenarios in China.

The Lancet regional health. Western Pacific, 28:100582.

Background: In China, most previous projections of heat-related mortality have been based on modeling studies using global climate models (GCMs), which can help to elucidate the risks of extreme heat events in a changing climate. However, spatiotemporal changes in the health effects of climate change considering specific regional characteristics remain poorly understood. We aimed to use credible climate and population projections to estimate future heatwave-attributable deaths under different emission scenarios and to explore the drivers underlying these patterns of changes.

Methods: We derived climate data from a regional climate model driven by three CMIP5 GCM models and calculated future heatwaves in China under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. The future gridded population data were based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 2 assumption with different fertility rates. By applying climate zone-specific exposure-response functions to mortality during heatwave events, we projected the scale of heatwave-attributable deaths under each RCP scenario. We further analyzed the factors driving changes in heatwave-related deaths and main sources of uncertainty using a decomposition method. We compared differences in death burden under the 1.5°C target, which is closely related to achieving carbon neutrality by mid-century.

Findings: The number of heatwave-related deaths will increase continuously to the mid-century even under RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 scenarios, and will continue increasing throughout the century under RCP8.5. There will be 20,303 deaths caused by heatwaves in 2090 under RCP2.6, 35,025 under RCP4.5, and 72,260 under RCP8.5, with half of all heatwave-related deaths in any scenario concentrated in east and central China. Climate effects are the main driver for the increase in attributable deaths in the near future till 2060, explaining 78% of the total change. Subsequent population decline cannot offset the losses caused by higher incidence of heatwaves and an aging population under RCP8.5. Although health loss under the 1.5°C warming scenario is 1.6-fold higher than the baseline period 1986-2005, limiting the temperature rise to 1.5°C can reduce the annual mortality burden in China by 3,534 deaths in 2090 compared with RCP2.6 scenarios.

Interpretation: With accelerating climate change and population aging, the effects of future heatwaves on human health in China are likely to increase continuously even under a low emission scenario. Significant health benefits are expected if the optimistic 1.5°C goal is achieved, suggesting that carbon neutrality by mid-century is a critical target for China's sustainable development. Policymakers need to tighten climate mitigation policies tailored to local conditions while enhancing climate resilience technically and infrastructurally, especially for vulnerable elderly people.

Funding: National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFA0606200), Wellcome Trust (209734/Z/17/Z), Natural Science Foundation of China (41790471), and Guangdong Major Project of Basic and Applied Basic Research (2020B0301030004).

RevDate: 2022-09-19
CmpDate: 2022-09-16

Xu Y, Deng Y, Zheng T, et al (2022)

New evidence for linking the formation of high arsenic aquifers in the central Yangtze River Basin to climate change since Last Glacial Maximum.

Journal of hazardous materials, 439:129684.

The prevalence of arsenic (As)-affected groundwater in the Late Pleistocene and Holocene aquifers leads to serious arsenicosis worldwide. However, the geogenic foundational processes underlying the high As aquifers remain elusive. Here we present joint lines of evidences from chronological, sediment geochemical and geomicrobial analysis that climate change since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) initiates the genesis of high As aquifers in the central Yangtze River Basin, which represents Quaternary alluvial-lacustrine floodplains affected by arsenicosis occurrence. Optically stimulated luminescence-based sediments dating and grain size characterization indicate that the LGM depositional boundary also separates the Late-Pleistocene/Holocene high arsenic aquifers from the underlying arsenic-depleted aquifers. Further examination of solid-phase As/Fe/S speciation and associated microbial communities function suggests that the pre-LGM depositional environments characteristic of S metabolism engender the fixation of As in pyrite, whereas during the post-LGM period climate change to warm and humid leads to As repartitioning to Fe/Mn oxides in response to strong chemical weathering. This may have contributed to a dynamic fate of As in the post-LGM depositional environments and thus a highly variable aqueous As concentrations over depth. Our results highlight the important roles of climate change has played in the genesis of high As aquifers, with implications for other LGM-affected regions worldwide as well as for the evolution of high arsenic aquifers under future climate change.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

PLOS ONE Editors (2022)

Retraction: Recent global warming as a proximate cause of deforestation and forest degradation in northern Pakistan.

PloS one, 17(9):e0274410.

RevDate: 2022-09-14

Zuo J, Tang X, Zhang H, et al (2022)

Analysis of niche shift and potential suitable distributions of Dendrobium under the impact of global climate change.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Dendrobium is a valuable traditional Chinese herb that contains active ingredients such as polysaccharides and alkaloids that have anti-aging, antioxidant, and immunomodulating effects. The appropriate distribution range of Dendrobium should be predicted from the perspective of ecological niche theory in order to preserve and utilize medicinal plant resources. In this study, Dendrobium nobile, Dendrobium officinale, and Dendrobium moniliforme were selected to predict the potential suitable distributions and ecological niche shifts. A comparison of 19 environmental variables of the three Dendrobium species revealed three climatic factors that differed significantly when the species were compared two at a time. The principal component analysis was carried out in order to screen seven climatic factors for ecological niche shift analysis. All three Dendrobium species were found to have a very similar ecological niche, but with a relatively small range of variability regarding certain climatic factors. Finally, the current and future suitable areas for these three Dendrobium species in China were predicted using the MaxEnt model and ArcGIS using the two representative concentration pathways (RCP 2.6 and 8.5). Overall, the analysis of the climatic factors' comparisons, niche shift, and current and future suitable areas of these three Dendrobium species provides a basis for medicinal plant resource conservation and utilization, and our methods could be applied to the study of other similar valuable medicinal plants.

RevDate: 2022-09-15
CmpDate: 2022-09-15

Raulino JBS, Silveira CS, I E L Neto (2022)

Eutrophication risk assessment of a large reservoir in the Brazilian semiarid region under climate change scenarios.

Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 94(4):e20201689 pii:S0001-37652022000601701.

The present study assesses the risk of eutrophication of a large semiarid reservoir under SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios for three future periods and different conditions of influent total phosphorus (TP) concentration and reservoir withdrawal. An integrated approach coupling climate, hydrological and water quality models was proposed for forecasting the climate change impacts on the trophic condition of the reservoir. The projected TP concentrations were organized as probability-based cumulative distribution functions to quantify the risk of eutrophication. The results indicated changes of eutrophication status in the three future periods, with the end of the 21st century experiencing the highest impacts on water quality. On the other hand, major reductions both in the inlet TP concentration and the reservoir withdrawal are necessary to significantly improve the trophic status and minimize the risk of eutrophication. The results also showed that the dry period is more susceptible to eutrophication than the rainy period, suggesting that tropical semiarid reservoirs are more vulnerable to eutrophication under climate change than reservoirs in other regions of the world. The proposed approach and model results are important to better understand the impact of climate change on reservoir water quality and improve water resources management in tropical semiarid regions.

RevDate: 2022-09-15
CmpDate: 2022-09-15

Salgueirinho C, H Pereira (2022)

The anesthesiologist and global climate change: An ethical obligation to act and being scientifically rigorous.

European journal of anaesthesiology, 39(10):840.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Gauff RPM, Lejeusne C, Greff S, et al (2022)

Impact of in Situ Simulated Climate Change on Communities and Non-Indigenous Species: Two Climates, Two Responses.

Journal of chemical ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change constitutes a major challenge for marine urban ecosystems and ocean warming will likely strongly affect local communities. Non-Indigenous Species (NIS) have been shown to often have higher heat resistance than natives, but studies investigating how forthcoming global warming might affect them in marine urban environments remain scarce, especially in Situ studies. Here we used an in Situ warming experiment in a NW Mediterranean (warm temperate) and a NE Atlantic (cold temperate) marina to see how global warming might affect recruited communities in the near future. In both marinas, warming resulted in significantly different community structure, lower biomass, and more empty space compared to control. However, while in the warm temperate marina, NIS showed an increased surface cover, it was reduced in the cold temperate one. Metabolomic analyses on Bugula neritina in the Atlantic marina revealed potential heat stress experienced by this introduced bryozoan and a potential link between heat stress and the expression of a halogenated alkaloid, Caelestine A. The present results might indicate that the effects of global warming on the prevalence of NIS may differ between geographical provinces, which could be investigated by larger scale studies.

RevDate: 2022-09-12

Zepernick BN, Wilhelm SW, Bullerjahn GS, et al (2022)

Climate change and the aquatic continuum: A cyanobacterial comeback story.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Billions of years ago, the Earth's waters were dominated by cyanobacteria. These microbes amassed to such formidable numbers, they ushered in a new era-starting with the Great Oxidation Event-fuelled by oxygenic photosynthesis. Throughout the following eon, cyanobacteria ceded portions of their global aerobic power to new photoautotrophs with the rise of eukaryotes (i.e. algae and higher plants), which co-existed with cyanobacteria in aquatic ecosystems. Yet while cyanobacteria's ecological success story is one of the most notorious within our planet's biogeochemical history, scientists to this day still seek to unlock the secrets of their triumph. Now, the Anthropocene has ushered in a new era fuelled by excessive nutrient inputs and greenhouse gas emissions, which are again reshaping the Earth's biomes. In response, we are experiencing an increase in global cyanobacterial bloom distribution, duration, and frequency, leading to unbalanced, and in many instances degraded, ecosystems. A critical component of the cyanobacterial resurgence is the freshwater-marine continuum: which serves to transport blooms, and the toxins they produce, on the premise that "water flows downhill". Here, we identify drivers contributing to the cyanobacterial comeback and discuss future implications in the context of environmental and human health along the aquatic continuum. This Minireview addresses the overlooked problem of the freshwater to marine continuum and the effects of nutrients and toxic cyanobacterial blooms moving along these waters. Marine and freshwater research have historically been conducted in isolation and independently of one another. Yet, this approach fails to account for the interchangeable transit of nutrients and biology through and between these freshwater and marine systems, a phenomenon that is becoming a major problem around the globe. This Minireview highlights what we know and the challenges that lie ahead.

RevDate: 2022-09-16
CmpDate: 2022-09-16

Rasmussen SA, DJ Jamieson (2022)

Protecting Pregnant People and Babies from the Health Effects of Climate Change.

The New England journal of medicine, 387(11):957-959.

RevDate: 2022-09-12

Phuong J, Riches NO, Calzoni L, et al (2022)

Toward informatics-enabled preparedness for natural hazards to minimize health impacts of climate change.

Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA pii:6696157 [Epub ahead of print].

Natural hazards (NHs) associated with climate change have been increasing in frequency and intensity. These acute events impact humans both directly and through their effects on social and environmental determinants of health. Rather than relying on a fully reactive incident response disposition, it is crucial to ramp up preparedness initiatives for worsening case scenarios. In this perspective, we review the landscape of NH effects for human health and explore the potential of health informatics to address associated challenges, specifically from a preparedness angle. We outline important components in a health informatics agenda for hazard preparedness involving hazard-disease associations, social determinants of health, and hazard forecasting models, and call for novel methods to integrate them toward projecting healthcare needs in the wake of a hazard. We describe potential gaps and barriers in implementing these components and propose some high-level ideas to address them.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Sorvali J, Liu X, J Kaseva (2022)

Climate change opportunities reduce farmers' risk perception: Extension of the value-belief-norm theory in the context of Finnish agriculture.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:939201.

Global agriculture faces severe challenges due to climate change. For boreal agriculture, climate change might also bring opportunities as the growing season lengthens, if the risks of climate change are managed properly. Agricultural production is a source of greenhouse gases, while agricultural land has also a great possibility to mitigate climate change as a carbon sink. Farmers are the central group for implementing these actions. Their views and beliefs contribute to their corresponding pro-environmental agricultural behavior. This research is based on the theory of value-belief-norm (VBN) as a predictive model of pro-environmental agricultural behavior. We extend the theory by studying how opportunities caused by climate change affect pro-environmental behavior in agriculture and present differences between farmer groups and experiment with the longitudinal possibilities of the theoretical model. Based on the structured survey responses from 4,401 farmers in Finland in 2018 and 2000 responses in 2020, we found that all the elements of VBN theory did help to predict intention for climate change mitigation, among which felt possibility to perform mitigation practices was the strongest predictor while risk perception was rather an unimportant one. Furthermore, opportunities caused directly or indirectly by climate change have an effect on Finnish farmer's implementation of mitigation practices. Therefore, future efforts in agricultural research and policy in Finland should concentrate to bring forth concrete farm-level mitigation practices with proven environmental benefits and the direct and indirect opportunities should be given more attention.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Weinmayr G, F Forastiere (2022)

A health-based long term vision to face air pollution and climate change.

Frontiers in public health, 10:947971.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Valdivielso Martínez E, S Houge Mackenzie (2022)

Climate change and adventure guiding: The role of nature connection in guide wellbeing.

Frontiers in public health, 10:946093.

Ecological challenges are quickly shaping the future of the tourism industry with an increasing focus on how to develop more sustainable adventure tourism practises. Adventure guides play an important role in this transition and in shaping client experiences, however there is a need to better understand how climate change may have important impacts on guides' wellbeing. This study explored adventure guides' experiences of nature connectedness and potential links between climate change, nature connexion, and wellbeing for adventure guides. Semi-structured qualitative interviews (x = 11) with adventure guides were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis to explore these relationships. Adventure guides reported experiencing meaningful connexions and relationships with the natural environments in which they worked, while also highlighting why not all types of nature nor time spent outdoors facilitated this connexion. Guides that reported being more connected to nature also reported a higher sense of environmental responsibility, and guides described how this often created "ethical dilemmas" in seeking to resolve tensions between their deep connexion to nature and unsustainable practises that their guiding work often entailed. Analysis also highlighted the value and wellbeing guides derived from sharing their love of nature with clients. These findings expand emerging theoretical models of adventure guide wellbeing, and suggest a range of practises that can support a more ecologically sustainable adventure tourism industry.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Gulati M (2022)

The role of the preventive cardiologist in addressing climate change.

American journal of preventive cardiology, 11:100375.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Russell KA, QS McFrederick (2022)

Floral nectar microbial communities exhibit seasonal shifts associated with extreme heat: Potential implications for climate change and plant-pollinator interactions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:931291.

Floral nectar contains vital nutrients for pollinators, including sugars, amino acids, proteins, and secondary compounds. As pollinators forage, they inoculate nectar with bacteria and fungi. These microbes can colonize nectaries and alter nectar properties, including volume and chemistry. Abiotic factors, such as temperature, can influence microbial community structure and nectar traits. Considering current climate change conditions, studying the effects of increased temperature on ecosystem processes like pollination is ever more important. In a manipulative field experiment, we used a passive-heating technique to increase the ambient temperature of a California native plant, Penstemon heterophyllus, to test the hypothesis that temperatures elevated an average of 0.5°C will affect nectar properties and nectar-inhabiting microbial communities. We found that passive-heat treatment did not affect nectar properties or microbial communities. Penstemon heterophyllus fruit set also was not affected by passive-heat treatments, and neither was capsule mass, however plants subjected to heat treatments produced significantly more seeds than control. Although we conducted pollinator surveys, no pollinators were recorded for the duration of our experiment. A naturally occurring extreme temperature event did, however, have large effects on nectar sugars and nectar-inhabiting microbial communities. The initially dominant Lactobacillus sp. was replaced by Sediminibacterium, while Mesorhizobium, and Acinetobacter persisted suggesting that extreme temperatures can interrupt nectar microbiome community assembly. Our study indicates that the quality and attractiveness of nectar under climate change conditions could have implications on plant-pollinator interactions.

RevDate: 2022-09-11

Valdés LRA, RAS Guillén (2022)

The evolutionary outcomes of climate change-induced hybridization in insect populations.

Current opinion in insect science pii:S2214-5745(22)00101-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Rapid range shifts are one of the most frequent responses to climate change in insect populations. Climate-induced range shifts can lead to the breakdown of isolation barriers, and thus, to an increase in hybridization and introgression. Long-term evolutionary consequences such as the formation of hybrid zones, introgression, speciation and extinction have been predicted as the result of climate-induced hybridization. Our review shows that there has been an increase in the number of published cases of climate-induced hybridization in insects; and that the formation of hybrid zones and introgression seems to be, at the moment, the most frequent outcomes. Although introgression is considered positive, since it increases species' genetic diversity, in the long term it could lead to negative outcomes such as species fusion or genetic swamping.

RevDate: 2022-09-10

Xian C, Gong C, Lu F, et al (2022)

The evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from sewage treatment with urbanization: Understanding the opportunities and challenges for climate change mitigation in China's low-carbon pilot city, Shenzhen.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)05728-X [Epub ahead of print].

Sewage treatment provides a pathway for anthropogenic water purification that can address the growth in domestic sewage volumes due to urbanization and protect the aquatic environment. However, the process can also generate greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are sometimes termed "unrestricted" GHG emissions and are neglected by low carbon policies. A combination of a life cycle analysis (LCA), data envelopment analysis (DEA), and questionnaire survey was used to evaluate sewage treatment related GHG emissions and assess the GHG emission reduction efficiencies during 2005-2020, as well as determine the opinions of environmental managers regarding the threats to climate change mitigation posed by sewage treatment in the low carbon pilot city of Shenzhen, China. There were four main results. (1) GHG emissions from sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Shenzhen increased gradually from 0.22 Mt. CO2-eq in 2005 to 1.16 Mt. CO2-eq in 2020 with an emission intensity ranging from 0.41 to 0.58 kg CO2-eq/m3, mainly due to the indirect emissions from sludge disposal (35-57 %). Longgang administrative district was the hotspot of these GHG emissions during the study period. (2) Reductions in GHG emissions were achieved in most years since 2012 with the greatest efficiency observed in 2020. (3) Beyond the environmental managers' perceptions of the challenges in GHG mitigation, future sewage treatment may create the potential for more substantial GHG emission growth compared to the emissions from energy combustion, due to policy deficiencies, growth in sewage volumes, and the enforcement of stricter effluent quality control. (4) Several opportunities to overcome these barriers were considered including innovational environmental management, planting of constructed wetlands, and the promotion of water-saving behavior. This case study of Shenzhen has valuable implications for the synergistic governance of water pollution and climate change mitigation in megacities in China and elsewhere, enabling a move towards a future carbon-neutral society.

RevDate: 2022-09-21
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Lawrance EL, Jennings N, Kioupi V, et al (2022)

Psychological responses, mental health, and sense of agency for the dual challenges of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic in young people in the UK: an online survey study.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 6(9):e726-e738.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are both significant and pressing global challenges, posing threats to public health and wellbeing. Young people are particularly vulnerable to the distress both crises can cause, but understanding of the varied psychological responses to both issues is poor. We aimed to investigate these responses and their links with mental health conditions and feelings of agency.

METHODS: We conducted an online survey between Aug 5 and Oct 26, 2020, targeting a diverse sample of young people (aged 16-24 years, n=530) in the UK. The survey was distributed using a combination of a survey panel (panel sample) and direct approaches to youth groups and schools who shared the survey with young people in their networks (community sample). We collected data on respondents' psychological responses to both climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic, their sense of agency to respond to each crisis, and the range of impacts on their lives. We also collected demographics data and screened for mental health and wellbeing indicators. We used non-parametric tests for most statistical comparisons. For paired samples, we used Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, and used Mann-Whitney U-tests or Kruskal-Wallis tests for two or more independent samples. Summed scale scores were considered as interval-level data and analysed with Student's t tests and ANOVAs. Effect sizes are reported as Cohen's d and partial eta-squared (η·2p), respectively.

FINDINGS: After excluding 18 suspected bots and 94 incomplete responses, 530 responses were retained for analysis. Of the 518 respondents who provided demographic data, 63% were female, 71·4% were White, and the mean family affluence score was 8·22 (SD 2·29). Most participants (n=343; 70%) did not report a history of diagnosis or treatment for a mental health disorder, but mental health scores indicated a common experience of (relatively mild) symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Although UK youth reported more life disruption and concern for their future due to the COVID-19 pandemic, climate change was associated with significantly greater distress overall, particularly for individuals with low levels of generalised anxiety. The COVID-19 pandemic was more associated with feelings of anxiety, isolation, disconnection, and frustration; distress around loss and grief; and effects on quality of life. Climate change was more likely to evoke emotions such as interest and engagement, guilt, shame, anger, and disgust. The greater distress attributed to climate change overall was due, in particular, to higher levels of guilt, sense of personal responsibility, and greater distress triggered by upsetting media coverage. Agency to address climate change was associated with greater climate distress, but pandemic-related distress and agency were unrelated.

INTERPRETATION: The COVID-19 pandemic and climate change are affecting the wellbeing of UK young people in distinct ways, with implications for health service, policy, and research responses. There is a need for mental health practitioners, policy makers, and other societal actors to account for the complex relationship between climate agency, distress, and mental wellbeing in young people.

FUNDING: Imperial College London.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Longden T, Kompas T, Norman R, et al (2022)

Considering health damages and co-benefits in climate change policy assessment.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 6(9):e712-e713.

RevDate: 2022-09-10

Zeng Y, Rao Y, Z Xu (2022)

Anticipated cancer burden of low individual fruit and vegetable consumption under climate change: A modelling study in China.

The International journal of health planning and management [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns with a high intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) are associated with a reduced risk of various cancers. It is not yet clear where and to what extent a decline in crop productivity caused by climate change may modify the distribution of related cancer burdens through reducing FV consumption in China. To design policies and interventions aimed at improving FV intake, regional monitoring is required on how consumption-changing factors might impact the associated cancer burdens by socio-demographic subpopulations.

METHODS: A microsimulation study was conducted from a societal perspective to project the effects of cancers associated with inadequate FV intake attributable to climate change. We linked the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade to a health modelling framework for obesity, gastric cancer, lung cancer, and oesophageal cancer in a close-to-reality synthetic population.

RESULTS: In the presence of climate constantly change, the relative reduction in FV consumption would induce an additional 9.73 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) nationally over the period 2010-2050 ([CrI]: 7.83-12.13). The climate change-induced cancer burden is projected to disproportionately affect socio-demographic index regions from 0.65 to 5.06 million DALYs.

CONCLUSIONS: Effects of climate change on FV consumption are anticipated to exacerbate intra-regional inequalities in the associated cancer burdens of China by 2050. By quantitatively analysing the impact of such dietary changes on regional health in light of climate change, our research can inform the design of public health interventions for heterogeneous populations, as health impact assessments based solely on the population as a whole cannot reflect significant differences across subpopulations.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Li L, Zhang Y, Zhou T, et al (2022)

Mitigation of China's carbon neutrality to global warming.

Nature communications, 13(1):5315.

Projecting mitigations of carbon neutrality from individual countries in relation to future global warming is of great importance for depicting national climate responsibility but is poorly quantified. Here, we show that China's carbon neutrality (CNCN) can individually mitigate global warming by 0.48 °C and 0.40 °C, which account for 14% and 9% of the global warming over the long term under the shared socioeconomic pathway (SSP) 3-7.0 and 5-8.5 scenarios, respectively. Further incorporating changes in CH4 and N2O emissions in association with CNCN together will alleviate global warming by 0.21 °C and 0.32 °C for SSP1-2.6 and SSP2-4.5 over the long term, and even by 0.18 °C for SSP2-4.5 over the mid-term, but no significant impacts are shown for all SSPs in the near term. Divergent responses in alleviated warming are seen at regional scales. The results provide a useful reference for the global stocktake, which assesses the collective progress towards the climate goals of the Paris Agreement.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Facciola N, Houde M, Muir DCG, et al (2022)

Feeding and contaminant patterns of sub-arctic and arctic ringed seals: Potential insight into climate change-contaminant interactions.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 313:120108 pii:S0269-7491(22)01322-7 [Epub ahead of print].

To provide insight into how climate-driven diet shifts may impact contaminant exposures of Arctic species, we compared feeding ecology and contaminant concentrations in ringed seals (Pusa hispida) from two Canadian sub-Arctic (Nain at 56.5°N, Arviat at 61.1°N) and two Arctic sites (Sachs Harbour at 72.0 °N, Resolute Bay at 74.7 °N). In the sub-Arctic, empirical evidence of changing prey fish communities has been documented, while less community change has been reported in the Arctic to date, suggesting current sub-Arctic conditions may be a harbinger of future Arctic conditions. Here, Indigenous partners collected tissues from subsistence-harvested ringed seals in 2018. Blubber fatty acids (FAs) and muscle stable isotopes (δ15N, δ13C) indicated dietary patterns, while measured contaminants included heavy metals (e.g., total mercury (THg)), legacy persistent organic pollutants (e.g., dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and per-/polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). FA signatures are distinct between sub-Arctic and Resolute Bay seals, likely related to higher consumption of southern prey species including capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the sub-Arctic but on-going feeding on Arctic species in Resolute Bay. Sachs Harbour ringed seals show FA overlap with all locations, possibly consuming both southern and endemic Arctic species. Negative δ13C estimates for PFAS models suggest that more pelagic, sub-Arctic type prey (e.g., capelin) increases PFAS concentrations, whereas the reverse occurs for, e.g., THg, ΣPBDE, and ΣDDT. Inconsistent directionality of δ15N estimates in the models likely reflects baseline isotopic variation not trophic position differences. Adjusting for the influence of diet suggests that if Arctic ringed seal diets become more like sub-Arctic seals due to climate change, diet-driven increases may occur for newer contaminants like PFASs, but not for more legacy contaminants. Nonetheless, temporal trends studies are still needed, as are investigations into the potential confounding influence of baseline isotope variation in spatial studies of contaminants in Arctic biota.

RevDate: 2022-09-12

Hai Z, RL Perlman (2022)

Extreme weather events and the politics of climate change attribution.

Science advances, 8(36):eabo2190.

The consequences of climate change are becoming increasingly visible in the form of more severe wildfires, hurricanes, and flooding. As the science linking these disasters to climate change has grown more robust, it has led to pressure on politicians to acknowledge the connection. While an analysis of U.S. Congressional press releases reveals a slight increase in politicians' willingness to do so, many remain hesitant. Why? We hypothesize that climate change attribution can backfire, harming politicians' popularity and undermining their ability to adapt to the visible manifestations of climate change. We conduct an original survey experiment on a representative sample of American adults and show that when a politician links wildfires to climate change, Republicans perceive the official as less capable of addressing weather-related disasters. In addition, Republicans become less supportive of efforts to protect against similar disasters in the future. Our findings shed light on the potential trade-offs of conveying the link between climate change and its impacts.

RevDate: 2022-09-16
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Koch M, Matzke I, Huhn S, et al (2022)

Wearables for Measuring Health Effects of Climate Change-Induced Weather Extremes: Scoping Review.

JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 10(9):e39532 pii:v10i9e39532.

BACKGROUND: Although climate change is one of the biggest global health threats, individual-level and short-term data on direct exposure and health impacts are still scarce. Wearable electronic devices (wearables) present a potential solution to this research gap. Wearables have become widely accepted in various areas of health research for ecological momentary assessment, and some studies have used wearables in the field of climate change and health. However, these studies vary in study design, demographics, and outcome variables, and existing research has not been mapped.

OBJECTIVE: In this review, we aimed to map existing research on wearables used to detect direct health impacts and individual exposure during climate change-induced weather extremes, such as heat waves or wildfires.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review according to the PRISMA-ScR (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews) framework and systematically searched 6 databases (PubMed [MEDLINE], IEEE Xplore, CINAHL [EBSCOhost], WoS, Scopus, Ovid [MEDLINE], and Google Scholar). The search yielded 1871 results. Abstracts and full texts were screened by 2 reviewers (MK and IM) independently using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The inclusion criteria comprised studies published since 2010 that used off-the-shelf wearables that were neither invasive nor obtrusive to the user in the setting of climate change-related weather extremes. Data were charted using a structured form, and the study outcomes were narratively synthesized.

RESULTS: The review included 55,284 study participants using wearables in 53 studies. Most studies were conducted in upper-middle-income and high-income countries (50/53, 94%) in urban environments (25/53, 47%) or in a climatic chamber (19/53, 36%) and assessed the health effects of heat exposure (52/53, 98%). The majority reported adverse health effects of heat exposure on sleep, physical activity, and heart rate. The remaining studies assessed occupational heat stress or compared individual- and area-level heat exposure. In total, 26% (14/53) of studies determined that all examined wearables were valid and reliable for measuring health parameters during heat exposure when compared with standard methods.

CONCLUSIONS: Wearables have been used successfully in large-scale research to measure the health implications of climate change-related weather extremes. More research is needed in low-income countries and vulnerable populations with pre-existing conditions. In addition, further research could focus on the health impacts of other climate change-related conditions and the effectiveness of adaptation measures at the individual level to such weather extremes.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Miezïte LE, Ameztegui A, De Cáceres M, et al (2022)

Trajectories of wildfire behavior under climate change. Can forest management mitigate the increasing hazard?.

Journal of environmental management, 322:116134 pii:S0301-4797(22)01707-8 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Shin Y, Kim S, S Kim (2022)

Searching for New Human Behavior Model in the Climate Change Age: Analyzing the Impact of Risk Perception and Government Factors on Intention-Action Consistency in Particulate Matter Mitigation.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(17): pii:ijerph191711068.

This study aims to analyze factors influencing citizens' intentions to take protective action against particulate matter (PM) and their actual actions in response to PM. There were few research on the role of government factors and the issue of intention-action inconsistency in the context of PM mitigation action. Therefore, this study set not only variables in the risk perception paradigm but also ones in government factors as independent variables, while intention and action in response to PM were set as dependent variables. This study's analysis was based on survey data collected from Korean people. For representativeness of the samples, this study adopted the quota sampling method, considering region, gender, and age. Five hundred respondents finished the survey. To verify the hypotheses, this study used regression and binomial logistic analysis. Analysis showed that (1) negative emotions, trust, knowledge, government competency, policy satisfaction, and policy awareness had significant effects on intention and action in response to PM, and (2) perceived benefits only affected intention, whereas government accountability only affected action. Logistic analysis showed that there were groups in which intentions and actions did not match. Negative emotions and government competence induce intention-action consistency, whereas the perceived benefits and trust in government tend to encourage inconsistency. Knowledge is a variable that induces both consistency and inconsistency in the intention-action relationship. The determinant structures of independent variables affecting the likelihood of belonging to the four groups differed.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Guerrero-Lucendo A, García-Orenes F, Navarro-Pedreño J, et al (2022)

General Mapping of the Environmental Performance in Climate Change Mitigation of Spanish Universities through a Standardized Carbon Footprint Calculation Tool.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(17): pii:ijerph191710964.

Higher education institutions (HEIs) can be considered role models of small cities that contribute to the fight against climate change. Therefore, assessing their own carbon footprints (CFs) and drawing conclusions gives significance to this study. In this study, 77 CFs from 14 HEIs were obtained through a tool developed by the Spanish Government. They were analyzed along with different variables and recalculated using the same standardized activity ratios. As a result, a general mapping of the environmental performance in climate change mitigation of Spanish universities has been obtained. Although there is an overall decrease in total CF (72.7%), direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Scope 1) remain stable, while the decrease is due to the reduction of emissions caused by electricity consumption (Scope 2) through the use electricity suppliers that guarantee the energy provided is generated from renewable sources. A lack of consensus in the definition of "student" and "employee", used for the activity ratios, causes large variations in the relative CF values. For worldwide benchmarking of HEIs' climate change performance, CF can be a valid indicator only if they: (1) include standardized Scope 1 and 2 emission sources, (2) use the same emission factors, and (3) calculate activity ratios from standardized functional units.

RevDate: 2022-09-13
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Zhang J, Tong Z, Ji Z, et al (2022)

Effects of Climate Change Knowledge on Adolescents' Attitudes and Willingness to Participate in Carbon Neutrality Education.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(17): pii:ijerph191710655.

The achievement of carbon neutrality has become increasingly important. Therefore, it the use of education to increase public understanding of carbon neutrality and facilitate low-carbon behaviors is urgent. Climate change knowledge is an effective measure to promote people's interest and enthusiasm for specific educational projects. The present study analyzed the effects of climate change knowledge on adolescents' attitudes and their willingness to participate in carbon neutrality education and validated the mediating effect of environmental responsibility. The findings showed that climate change knowledge improves adolescents' attitudes toward carbon neutrality education and that environmental responsibility plays a mediating role in this. The findings provide insightful implications for carbon neutrality related policymaking and education promotion.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Wu Y, Tian W, Chen C, et al (2022)

Adaptive Responses of the Sea Anemone Heteractis crispa to the Interaction of Acidification and Global Warming.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(17):.

Ocean acidification and warming are two of the most important threats to the existence of marine organisms and are predicted to co-occur in oceans. The present work evaluated the effects of acidification (AC: 24 ± 0.1 °C and 900 μatm CO2), warming (WC: 30 ± 0.1 °C and 450 μatm CO2), and their combination (CC: 30 ± 0.1 °C and 900 μatm CO2) on the sea anemone, Heteractis crispa, from the aspects of photosynthetic apparatus (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PS II), chlorophyll level, and Symbiodiniaceae density) and sterol metabolism (cholesterol content and total sterol content). In a 15-day experiment, acidification alone had no apparent effect on the photosynthetic apparatus, but did affect sterol levels. Upregulation of their chlorophyll level is an important strategy for symbionts to adapt to high partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). However, after warming stress, the benefits of high pCO2 had little effect on stress tolerance in H. crispa. Indeed, thermal stress was the dominant driver of the deteriorating health of H. crispa. Cholesterol and total sterol contents were significantly affected by all three stress conditions, although there was no significant change in the AC group on day 3. Thus, cholesterol or sterol levels could be used as important indicators to evaluate the impact of climate change on cnidarians. Our findings suggest that H. crispa might be relatively insensitive to the impact of ocean acidification, whereas increased temperature in the future ocean might impair viability of H. crispa.

RevDate: 2022-09-08

Maier PA, Vandergast AG, Ostoja SM, et al (2022)

Landscape genetics of a sub-alpine toad: climate change predicted to induce upward range shifts via asymmetrical migration corridors.

Heredity [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is expected to have a major hydrological impact on the core breeding habitat and migration corridors of many amphibians in the twenty-first century. The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus canorus) is a species of meadow-specializing amphibian endemic to the high-elevation Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Despite living entirely on federal lands, it has recently faced severe extirpations, yet our understanding of climatic influences on population connectivity is limited. In this study, we used a previously published double-digest RADseq dataset along with numerous remotely sensed habitat features in a landscape genetics framework to answer two primary questions in Yosemite National Park: (1) Which fine-scale climate, topographic, soil, and vegetation features most facilitate meadow connectivity? (2) How is climate change predicted to influence both the magnitude and net asymmetry of genetic migration? We developed an approach for simultaneously modeling multiple toad migration paths, akin to circuit theory, except raw environmental features can be separately considered. Our workflow identified the most likely migration corridors between meadows and used the unique cubist machine learning approach to fit and forecast environmental models of connectivity. We identified the permuted modeling importance of numerous snowpack-related features, such as runoff and groundwater recharge. Our results highlight the importance of considering phylogeographic structure, and asymmetrical migration in landscape genetics. We predict an upward elevational shift for this already high-elevation species, as measured by the net vector of anticipated genetic movement, and a north-eastward shift in species distribution via the network of genetic migration corridors across the park.

RevDate: 2022-09-08

Bearer CF, Molloy EJ, Tessema MT, et al (2022)

Global climate change: the defining issue of our time for our children's health.

RevDate: 2022-09-14
CmpDate: 2022-09-13

Armstrong McKay DI, Staal A, Abrams JF, et al (2022)

Exceeding 1.5°C global warming could trigger multiple climate tipping points.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 377(6611):eabn7950.

Climate tipping points occur when change in a part of the climate system becomes self-perpetuating beyond a warming threshold, leading to substantial Earth system impacts. Synthesizing paleoclimate, observational, and model-based studies, we provide a revised shortlist of global "core" tipping elements and regional "impact" tipping elements and their temperature thresholds. Current global warming of ~1.1°C above preindustrial temperatures already lies within the lower end of some tipping point uncertainty ranges. Several tipping points may be triggered in the Paris Agreement range of 1.5 to <2°C global warming, with many more likely at the 2 to 3°C of warming expected on current policy trajectories. This strengthens the evidence base for urgent action to mitigate climate change and to develop improved tipping point risk assessment, early warning capability, and adaptation strategies.

RevDate: 2022-09-12
CmpDate: 2022-09-12

Sarquis JA, Giraudo AR, Cristaldi MA, et al (2022)

Threatened birds, climate change, and human footprint: protected areas network in Neotropical grassland hotspot.

Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 94(3):e20201773 pii:S0001-37652022000501307.

Climate change (CC) and human footprint (HF) shape species spatial patterns and may affect the effectiveness of Protected Areas (PAs) network. Spatial patterns of threatened bird species of Subtropical-temperate hotspots in Southeastern South American grasslands are relevant biodiversity features to guide conservation policies. However, the PAs network covers less than 1% of grassland areas and does not overlap areas with the most suitable environmental conditions for threatened birds. Our aim was to find the most environmentally suitable areas for both current and future threatened birds (2050 and 2070) in Entre Ríos. We applied Systematic Conservation Planning protocols with Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) and ZONATION using distribution interaction function and HF as a cost. Then we overlapped binary maps to find priority areas among time periods. HF showed a more fragmented spatial configuration. The PAs network may include environmentally suitable conditions for threatened birds in CC scenarios and HF. We found areas that showed more connectivity in landscape prioritization over time and ensure high-quality environmental conditions for birds. We concluded that the effectiveness of the PAs network could be improved by overlapping priority areas. Our approach provides a knowledge base as a contribution to conservation-related decisions by considering HF and CC.

RevDate: 2022-09-08

Parker ER, MD Boos (2022)

Dermatology's call to emergency action on climate change.

International journal of dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-16
CmpDate: 2022-09-16

Parker ER, MD Boos (2022)

Dermatology's call to emergency action on climate change.

Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV, 36(10):1681-1682.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )