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Bibliography on: Climate Change

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 22 Jan 2022 at 01:36 Created: 

Climate Change

The year 2014 was the hottest year on record, since the beginning of record keeping over 100 years ago. The year 2015 broke that record, and 2016 will break the record of 2015. The Earth seems to be on a significant warming trend.

Created with PubMed® Query: "climate change"[TITLE] or "global warming"[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-01-20

Tonnang HEZ, Sokame BM, Abdel-Rahman EM, et al (2022)

Measuring and modelling crop yield losses due to invasive insect pests under climate change.

Current opinion in insect science pii:S2214-5745(22)00001-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and agriculture are strongly correlated, and the fast pace of climate change will have impacts on agroecosystems and crop productivity. This review summarizes potential impacts of rising temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on insect pest-crop interactions and provides two-way approaches for integrating these impacts into crop models for sustainable pest management strategies designing. Rising temperatures and CO2 levels affect insect physiology, accelerate their metabolism and increase their consumption, ultimately increasing population densities, which result in greater crop injury and damage, and yield loss. Whereas these direct effects are empirically demonstrated for temperature rises, they are less straightforward for CO2 increases. Furthermore, indirect effects of rising temperatures and CO2 levels remain largely unexploited and therefore unknown. Coupling insect pests and crops using a two-way feedback system model, whereby pest variables drive crop variables and vice versa, will improve analysis and forecasting of yield losses to better guide preparedness and intervention strategies.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Mutinda ES, Mkala EM, Dong X, et al (2022)

Comparative Genomics, Phylogenetics, Biogeography, and Effects of Climate Change on Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. (Rutaceae) from Africa and Asia.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(2): pii:plants11020231.

In the present study, two samples of Toddalia asiatica species, both collected from Kenya, were sequenced and comparison of their genome structures carried out with T. asiatica species from China, available in the NCBI database. The genome size of both species from Africa was 158, 508 base pairs, which was slightly larger, compared to the reference genome of T. asiatica from Asia (158, 434 bp). The number of genes was 113 for both species from Africa, consisting of 79 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Toddalia asiatica from Asia had 115 genes with 81 protein-coding genes, 30 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 4 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Both species compared displayed high similarity in gene arrangement. The gene number, orientation, and order were highly conserved. The IR/SC boundary structures were the same in all chloroplast genomes. A comparison of pairwise sequences indicated that the three regions (trnH-psbA, rpoB, and ycf1) were more divergent and can be useful in developing effective genetic markers. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete cp genomes and 79 protein-coding genes indicated that the Toddalia species collected from Africa were sister to T. asiatica collected from Asia. Both species formed a sister clade to the Southwest Pacific and East Asian species of Zanthoxylum. These results supported the previous studies of merging the genus Toddalia with Zanthoxylum and taxonomic change of Toddalia asiatica to Zanthoxylum asiaticum, which should also apply for the African species of Toddalia. Biogeographic results demonstrated that the two samples of Toddalia species from Africa diverged from T. asiatica from Asia (3.422 Mya, 95% HPD). These results supported an Asian origin of Toddalia species and later dispersal to Africa and Madagascar. The maxent model analysis showed that Asia would have an expansion of favorable areas for Toddalia species in the future. In Africa, there will be contraction and expansion of the favorable areas for the species. The availability of these cp genomes will provide valuable genetic resources for further population genetics and biogeographic studies of these species. However, more T. asiatica species collected from a wide geographical range are required.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Perry WB (2022)

The devastating duo: bycatch and climate change hit the Atlantic wolffish Anarhichas lupus.

Journal of fish biology, 100(1):3.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Pant G, Maraseni T, Apan A, et al (2022)

Identifying and prioritising climate change adaptation actions for greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) conservation in Nepal.

PeerJ, 10:e12795 pii:12795.

Climate change has started impacting species, ecosystems, genetic diversity within species, and ecological interactions and is thus a serious threat to conserving biodiversity globally. In the absence of adequate adaptation measures, biodiversity may continue to decline, and many species will possibly become extinct. Given that global temperature continues to increase, climate change adaptation has emerged as an overarching framework for conservation planning. We identified both ongoing and probable climate change adaptation actions for greater one-horned rhinoceros conservation in Nepal through a combination of literature review, key informant surveys (n = 53), focus group discussions (n = 37) and expert consultation (n = 9), and prioritised the identified adaptation actions through stakeholder consultation (n = 17). The majority of key informants (>80%) reported that climate change has been impacting rhinoceros, and more than 65% of them believe that rhinoceros habitat suitability in Nepal has been shifting westwards. Despite these perceived risks, climate change impacts have not been incorporated well into formal conservation planning for rhinoceros. Out of 20 identified adaptation actions under nine adaptation strategies, identifying and protecting climate refugia, restoring the existing habitats through wetland and grassland management, creating artificial highlands in floodplains to provide rhinoceros with refuge during severe floods, and translocating them to other suitable habitats received higher priority. These adaptation actions may contribute to reducing the vulnerability of rhinoceros to the likely impacts of climate change. This study is the first of its kind in Nepal and is expected to provide a guideline to align ongoing conservation measures into climate change adaptation planning for rhinoceros. Further, we emphasise the need to integrating likely climate change impacts while planning for rhinoceros conservation and initiating experimental research and monitoring programs to better inform adaptation planning in the future.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Nagai K (2022)

Climate change and demand of emergency care in Japan.

Journal of rural medicine : JRM, 17(1):57-58.

Both the frequency and severity of heat stress-related health problems have been increasing globally, probably due to global warming. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change published a landmark climate report, the 6th Assessment Report, which shocked the world. It emphasized that anthropogenic activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels, oil, gas, and coal, were responsible for climate change. The combination of population aging, and increased temperatures has meant that the number of people requiring emergency transport for heatstroke has been increasing in Japan from 2008 to 2020. The increase in ambient temperatures and the number of patients requiring emergency transport were strongly correlated (Spearman correlation coefficient: r=0.669 and P=0.008). Like many human activities, medical care is resource intensive and contributes significantly to climate change through the consumption of energy and water, as well as the emission of greenhouse gases. As healthcare professionals, we need to be cognizant of how our eco-friendly activities both on and off the job can contribute to saving both the patients and us.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Gull E Fareen A, Mahmood T, Bodlah I, et al (2022)

Modeling potential distribution of newly recorded ant, Brachyponera nigrita using Maxent under climate change in Pothwar region, Pakistan.

PloS one, 17(1):e0262451 pii:PONE-D-21-34713.

Climate change has been discussed as to exert shifts in geographical range of plants, animals or insect species by increasing, reducing or shifting its appropriate climatic habitat. Globally, Pakistan has been ranked at 5th position on the list of countries most vulnerable to climate change in 2020. Climate change has resulted in the losses of biodiversity and alteration in ecosystem as a result of depletion of natural habitats of species in Pakistan as well as in the world. Ants have been regarded as indicators of environmental change and ecosystem processes. Brachyponera nigrita (Emery, 1895) was reported for the first time from Pakistan (Pothwar region). Objective of our studies was to model geographic distribution of newly recorded ant species, B. nigrita based on two representative concentration pathways (RCP) (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) for 2050s using maximum entropy model (Maxent) in Pakistan. In modeling procedure, 21occurrence records and 8 variables namely Bio4 (Temperature seasonality), Bio8 (Mean temperature of wettest quarter), Bio10 (Mean temperature of warmest quarter), Bio12 (Annual precipitation), Bio13 (Precipitation of wettest month), Bio15 (Precipitation seasonality), Bio17 (Precipitation of driest quarter) and Bio18 (Precipitation of warmest quarter) were used to determine the current and future distributions. Performance of the model was evaluated using AUC (area under curves) values, partial ROC, omission rates (E = 5%) and AICc (Model complexity).The results showed the average AUC value of the model was 0.930, which indicated that the accuracy of the model was excellent. The jackknife test also showed that Bio4, Bio18, Bio17 and Bio15 contributed 98% for the prediction of potential distribution of the species as compared to all other variables. Maxent results indicated that distribution area of B. nigrita under future predicted bioclimatics 2050 (RCP 4.5 and RCP8.5) would be increased in various localities of Pakistan as compared to its current distribution. In Pothwar region, moderately suitable and highly suitable areas of this species would increase by 505.932321km2and 572.118421km2as compared to current distribution under 2050 (RCP 4.5), while under 2050 (RCP 8.5), there would be an increase of 6427.2576km2and 3765.140493km2 respectively in moderately suitable and highly suitable areas of B. nigrita. This species was associated with termites, collembolans and larval stages of different insects. White eggs, creamy white pupae and many workers of this species were observed in a variety of habitats. Unknown nesting ecology, species identification characters supported with micrographs has been given which will help researchers for further ecological studies.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Spisak BR, State B, van de Leemput I, et al (2022)

Large-scale decrease in the social salience of climate change during the COVID-19 pandemic.

PloS one, 17(1):e0256082 pii:PONE-D-21-15169.

There are concerns that climate change attention is waning as competing global threats intensify. To investigate this possibility, we analyzed all link shares and reshares on Meta's Facebook platform (e.g., shares and reshares of news articles) in the United States from August 2019 to December 2020 (containing billions of aggregated and de-identified shares and reshares). We then identified all link shares and reshares on "climate change" and "global warming" from this repository to develop a social media salience index-the Climate SMSI score-and found an 80% decrease in climate change content sharing and resharing as COVID-19 spread during the spring of 2020. Climate change salience then briefly rebounded in the autumn of 2020 during a period of record-setting wildfires and droughts in the United States before returning to low content sharing and resharing levels. This fluctuating pattern suggests new climate communication strategies-focused on "systemic sustainability"-are necessary in an age of competing global crises.

RevDate: 2022-01-19

Alpino TMA, Mazoto ML, Barros DC, et al (2022)

The impacts of climate change on Food and Nutritional Security: a literature review.

Ciencia & saude coletiva, 27(1):273-286.

The interface between Climate Changes and Food and Nutrition Security (FNS) has been standing out in the sustainable development agenda since the early 1990's. Since then, studies show that climate changes have negative effects on the FNS, aggravated by poverty and social inequality. The purpose of this paper is to perform a review evidencing the relationships between climate changes and FNS. The research was carried out in PubMed using the descriptors "climate change and food security" on the headline, selecting only papers in Portuguese, Spanish, and English languages, and with a direct relation to the themes. The main impacts of climate changes on the FNS were related to the access, production, nutritional quality, and volatility of food prices. The studies also indicated mitigation/adaptation strategies to the effects of climate changes on the FNS, as well as a geographic panorama of the publications with fields of study in Africa and Asia, continents marked by social inequality and poverty. Climate changes affect the dimensions of FNS, especially in poorer populations in situation of social inequality. The relevance of the themes raises concern on the urgency of higher investments in public policies, studies, and research on the subject around the world.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Gomez-Gomez JD, Pulido-Velazquez D, Collados-Lara AJ, et al (2022)

The impact of climate change scenarios on droughts and their propagation in an arid Mediterranean basin. A useful approach for planning adaptation strategies.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)00218-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Areas where there is a scarcity of water frequently experience significant drought periods, which may become exacerbated in the future due to climate change. In this paper we propose a novel and integrated method for a semi-distributed analysis of the impact on potential future meteorological, hydrological, agronomical and operational droughts within a basin. We analyse the propagation and correlation of the different types of droughts, and then this analysis can be used to plan sustainable adaptation strategies. The proposed method is based on sequential applications of different statistical techniques and mathematical models. We have applied several statistical downscaling techniques to generate consistent local future climate scenarios considering both basic and drought statistics. This allows us to analyse the sensitivity of the results to the applied technique and the spatial distribution. A chain of models has been used to propagate climate scenarios to analyse the hydrological, agricultural, and operational impact. We have applied a clustering analysis to historical data to identify homogeneous hydro-climate areas used to analyse the spatial distribution of the impact. The approach has been applied in the Segura basin (in south-eastern Spain). The simulations of the impact in the 3 generated ensemble scenarios on the whole Segura Basin system for the horizon 2071-2100 under the RCP8.5 emission scenario show a significant mean reduction (40.9-59.1%) of the available resources, an increase in pumping rates in aquifers (36.4-42.7%) and lower guarantees (96.3% in the historical period and 75.0-77.6% in the future scenarios) for demand supply. The spatial distribution of the impact is heterogeneous, with the hydro-climate areas near to the coast for agricultural and operational droughts being more affected. An analysis of correlation between the meteorological and operational droughts shows the maximum correlation for a time delay of around 4 months. This information could help to identify when measures to reduce the operational impact should start to be applied when a meteorological drought starts.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Igawa TK, Toledo PM, LJS Anjos (2022)

Climate change could reduce and spatially reconfigure cocoa cultivation in the Brazilian Amazon by 2050.

PloS one, 17(1):e0262729 pii:PONE-D-20-32684.

Cocoa is a plant with origins in northwestern South America with high relevance in the global economy. Evidence indicates that cocoa is sensitive to a dry climate, under which crop production is reduced. Projections for future climate change scenarios suggest a warmer and drier climate in the Amazon basin. In this paper, we quantify the potential effects in cocoa production due to its edaphoclimatic suitability changes to the Brazilian Amazon biome and account for regional differences in planning occupation territories. We modeled the suitability of cocoa's geographical distribution using an ensemble of 10 correlative models that were run in the "biomod2" library and projected to two future climate scenarios (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5) by 2050. Combining information on climate and soil suitability and installed infrastructure in the macro-regions of the Brazilian Amazon. We defined a zoning system to indicate how cocoa production may respond to climate change according to the current and future suitability model. Our results suggest that a reduction in precipitation and an increase in temperature may promote a reduction in the suitability of cocoa production in the Brazilian Amazon biome. In addition of the areas suitable for cocoa plantation, we found a 37.05% and 73.15% decrease in the areas suitable for intensification and expansion zones under RCP 4.5 and 8.5, respectively, compared with the current scenario. We conclude that there may be a need to expand land to cocoa production in the future, or else it will be necessary to plant a cocoa variety resistant to new climatic conditions. Besides, we recommend procedures to combat illegal deforestation to prevent the most critical climate change scenarios from occurring.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Campbell TG, S Al-Qureshi (2022)

Ophthalmologists and climate change.

Clinical & experimental ophthalmology [Epub ahead of print].

It is indisputable that human activities have caused climate change and that, if left unchecked, these activities will lead to worsening of weather extremes including fire, drought, and flood with all their attendant human suffering. Reducing future climate change requires limiting cumulative emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases including methane. We have written this evidence-based perspective to highlight interventions with the largest effect to help the average ophthalmologist make the changes with the highest impact in their day-to-day lives.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Mohammed IN, Bolten JD, Souter NJ, et al (2022)

Diagnosing challenges and setting priorities for sustainable water resource management under climate change.

Scientific reports, 12(1):796.

Managing transboundary river basins requires balancing tradeoffs of sustainable water use and coping with climate uncertainty. We demonstrate an integrated approach to exploring these issues through the lens of a social-ecological system, combining remote and in-situ earth observations, hydrologic and climate models, and social surveys. Specifically, we examine how climate change and dam development could impact the Se Kong, Se San and Sre Pok rivers in the Mekong region. We find that climate change will lead to increased precipitation, necessitating a shift in dam operations, from maintaining low flows to reducing flood hazards. We also find that existing water governance systems in Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia are ill-prepared to address the problem. We conclude that the solution space for addressing these complex issues will be highly constrained unless major deficiencies in transboundary water governance, strategic planning, financial capacity, information sharing, and law enforcement are remedied in the next decades.

RevDate: 2022-01-17

Abbas S (2022)

Global warming and export competitiveness of agriculture sector: evidence from heterogeneous econometric analysis of Pakistan.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The increase in average annual temperature due to greenhouse gases emission is posing threat to the agriculture sector across the globe. Pakistan is labor abundant agrarian country that heavily depends on the agriculture sector for food, employment, and raw material for industries. This study is a preliminary investigation that explores the effect of increasing average annual temperature on the competitiveness of 24 major agricultural exports from 2003 to 2020. The revealed export advantage (RXA) is used to explore the competitive performance of selected agricultural exports, which is then normalized to examine the effect of increasing average annual temperature along with official exchange rate, urbanization, and globalization. The panel fixed-effect model with heteroscedasticity consistent robust standard error recommended by White (Econometrica 48(4):817-838, 1980) is used to explore model estimates, whereas the robustness check has been performed by using heteroscedasticity and multicollinearity consistent robust standard error model of Driscoll and Kaary (Rev Econ Stat 80(4):549-559, 1998). The estimated result reveals that the increasing average annual temperature has a negative but insignificant impact on the export competitiveness of selected agricultural exports. While, urbanization and exchange rate deprecation show a significant negative effect of higher intensity, respectively. Globalization, however, reveals a significant positive impact on the competitiveness of selected agricultural exports. This study, therefore, urges for the development of the agriculture sector by adopting SDGs proposed by the United Nations for sustainable economic growth and development.

RevDate: 2022-01-17

Welsch H (2022)

What shapes cognitions of climate change in Europe? Ideology, morality, and the role of educational attainment.

Journal of environmental studies and sciences pii:745 [Epub ahead of print].

Cognitions about climate change are of critical importance for climate change mitigation as they influence climate-relevant behaviors and the support of climate policy. Using about 30,000 observations from a large-scale representative survey from 23 European countries, this study provides two major findings. First, important policy-relevant climate change cognitions do not only differ by individuals' ideological identity (left versus right) but-independently-by their moral identity, that is, the pattern of endorsement of the moral foundations: Care, Fairness, Liberty, Loyalty, Authority, and Purity/Sanctity. In particular, controlling for ideological position, the cognitions that the world climate is changing, that climate change is human-made, and that climate change impacts are bad are significantly negatively related to stronger endorsement of the Authority and Sanctity foundations while being positively related to stronger endorsement of the Loyalty and Fairness foundations. Second, not only the ideology-related cognitive divide but the morality-related divide is larger in individuals with tertiary education, consistent with the idea that individuals with greater science literacy and numeracy use these skills to adjust their cognitions to their group identity. The finding that better education may amplify rather than attenuate the ideology and morality dependence of decision-relevant climate change cognitions sheds doubt on the proposition that better education unambiguously furthers the prospects for climate change mitigation.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Cifuentes-Faura J (2022)

European Union policies and their role in combating climate change over the years.

Air quality, atmosphere, & health [Epub ahead of print].

The worrying environmental situation and increased public awareness in recent years have led many countries to take measures to reduce negative impacts on the environment. The European Union (EU) has been one of the most active in environmental protection with the formulation of policies aimed at preserving the health and well-being of citizens and protecting natural resources. One of the objectives of environmental policies is to make the economy of its member states more environmentally friendly, although this requires finding solutions to major challenges such as climate change, the scarcity of natural resources, the emission of polluting gases, and unsustainable consumption and production. This article reviews the main policies that have been implemented in the EU to reduce environmental problems and the scope of climate change conferences. It offers solutions to promote sustainability that could be adopted by companies, individuals, and governmental institutions to jointly contribute to achieving a more sustainable world, where problems such as climate change or the emission of polluting gases are minimized. The aim is to follow the principles of the Circular Economy and the European Green Deal.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Rowland J, Estevens J, Krzewińska A, et al (2022)

Trust and Mistrust in Sources of Scientific Information on Climate Change and Vaccines: Insights from Portugal and Poland.

Science & education [Epub ahead of print].

Public trust in science and expertise remains a contentious issue. When public trust is analysed, it often simplifies a complex process of information retrieval and interpretation. Questionnaire surveys help us make sense of differences among actors and countries, but they fail to provide a comprehensive analysis of the reasons that lead citizens to trust a specific actor to differing degrees. Hence, we opted for using a qualitative grounded approach to understand how citizens make sense of their trust in several actors. This article draws from the results of public consultations with citizens in Portugal and Poland about two specific science-related topics-climate change and vaccines-focusing on citizens' perceptions of trust in several sources of scientific information. The results show that citizens' trust varies depending on the source of scientific information, and it is affected by the topic's visibility and different national levels of institutional trust. It also concludes that citizens use different criteria to evaluate trustworthiness and that this process leads to different ways of expressing trust/mistrust: unquestioned confidence, justified trust, reflexive trust, and active distrust. Such knowledge leads to a more in depth understanding of how trust in science is constructed, which can help science communicators and educators choose sources and materials.

RevDate: 2022-01-16

Baig IA, Chandio AA, Ozturk I, et al (2022)

Assessing the long- and short-run asymmetrical effects of climate change on rice production: empirical evidence from India.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, environmental change has arisen as a ubiquitous problem and gained environmentalist's attention across the globe due to its long-term harmful effects on agricultural production, food supply, water supply, and livelihoods of rural households. The present study aims to explore the asymmetrical dynamic relationship between climate change and rice production with other explanatory variables. Based on the time series data of India, covering the period 1991-2018, the current study applied the nonlinear autoregressive distributed lag (NARDL) model and Granger causality approach. The results of the NARDL reveal that mean temperature negatively affects rice production in the long run while positively affecting it in the short run. Furthermore, positive shocks in rainfall and carbon emission have negative and significant impacts on rice production in the long and short run. In comparison, negative rainfall shocks significantly affect rice production in the long and short run. Wald test confirms the asymmetrical relationship between climate change and rice production. The Granger causality test shows feedback effect among mean temperature, decreasing rainfall, increasing carbon emission, and rice production. While no causal relationship between increasing temperature and decreasing carbon emission. Based on the empirical investigations, some critical policy implications emerged. Toward sustainable rice production in India, there is a need to improve irrigation infrastructure through increasing public investment and to develop climate-resilient seeds varieties to cope with climate change. Along with, at the district level government should provide proper training to farmers regarding the usage of pesticides, the proper amount of fertilizers, and irrigation systems.

RevDate: 2022-01-16

Arepally A, Omary RA, MP Vandenbergh (2022)

Scanning the Planet: Radiology's Grand Opportunity to Address Climate Change.

Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR, 19(1 Pt B):217-219.

RevDate: 2022-01-15

Khan AA, Khan SU, Ali MAS, et al (2022)

Identifying impact of international trade and renewable energy consumption on environmental quality improvement and their role in global warming.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

There is a lack of proper research that highlights the impact of institutional quality (IQ) and renewable energy consumption (REC) on the carbon emission (CE). The significance of IQ and REC in the achievement of zero CE is highlighted in this research. The current research reports the effects of these important factors on the consumption-based carbon emissions in the G-7 countries from 1995 to 2018. Based on the outcome of the cointegration test, the long-run connection is recognized between IQ, REC, GDP, exports, imports, and consumption-based CE. The findings also validated that there exist significant decrease and increase in the CE in both the short and long run; for instance, IQ, REC, and exports decrease the CE, while imports and GDP increase the CE. The estimates of causality test showed that policies aimed at improving IQ, REC, GDP, exports, and imports have a significant impact on the CE. Consequently, based on these results, policymakers in the G-7 must prioritize IQ and REC to enhance environmental quality and attain carbon neutrality.

RevDate: 2022-01-15

Connare BM, K Islam (2022)

Failure to advance migratory phenology in response to climate change may pose a significant threat to a declining Nearctic-Neotropical songbird.

International journal of biometeorology [Epub ahead of print].

Populations of long-distance migrants that breed in seasonal habitats can be significantly impacted by climate change. We examined the migratory and breeding phenologies of the cerulean warbler (Setophaga cerulea), a declining long-distance Nearctic-Neotropical migrant that breeds in deciduous forests of Indiana. Our primary objectives were to determine temporal trends in cerulean warbler migratory timing, and to identify climate variables that explain variation in this species' migratory and breeding phenologies. We reviewed trends in cerulean warbler first arrival to Indiana from 1982 to 2019, and compared them to several explanatory climate variables: spring temperature, growing degree days (GDD), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, and Oceanic Niño Index (ONI). We also compared the timing of cerulean warbler first lay dates from 2012 to 2019 with the aforementioned climate variables and annual spring precipitation. Cerulean warblers exhibited a minimal advance in first arrival timing (≤4 days in 38 years). Arrival timing was best predicted by GDD and a null model, but trends in GDD indicate that spring warming in Indiana has advanced by a greater margin, approximately 14 days. Climate variables did not predict first lay timing better than a null model. Springtime in Indiana is occurring earlier, but cerulean warblers are advancing their migratory timing to a much smaller degree. This failure to adapt may have a detrimental effect on warbler populations if it results in an asynchronization of important biological timings between them and their prey. Further studies of cerulean warbler breeding and prey phenologies are necessary to determine how climate change is impacting this species' reproductive success.

RevDate: 2022-01-15

Zhong F, Cheng W, Guo A, et al (2022)

Are Chinese social scientists concerned about climate change? A bibliometric analysis and literature review.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

China has been the world's largest emitter of carbon dioxide since 2006. To achieve the goal of carbon neutrality by 2060, social scientists must become involved in China's deep decarbonization process. However, Chinese social scientists have given little attention to climate change in their bibliometric research. Based on the Chinese Social Sciences Citation Index journal catalog of the four essential social sciences, namely, management, economics, politics, and sociology, we used the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database to quantify the extent to which Chinese social scientists are concerned about climate change. The results showed that from 1978 to 2020, 1179 articles on climate change were published in management, economics, politics, and sociology journals, which represented only 26.8% of the 4397 articles published on pollution in the same journals. Politics journals published the most articles (38.76%), while sociology journals published the fewest (2.37%). Thus, Chinese social scientists rarely considered climate change, mainly because this topic remains controversial in some fields and because of the influence of international politics in addition to the promotion and incentive mechanisms for researchers. We analyzed the keywords and evolution of climate change research in the four social sciences and our results show that social scientists should give greater emphasis to climate change in their research.

RevDate: 2022-01-15

Arasaradnam RP, T Hillman (2022)

Climate change and health research - lessons from COP26.

Clinical medicine (London, England) pii:clinmed.2021-0780 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-01-15

Pang X, Gu Y, Launiainen S, et al (2022)

Urban hydrological responses to climate change and urbanization in cold climates.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)00156-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This study explores hydrological response of urban catchment in Southern Finland to climate change and urbanization. Process-based urban hydrological modelling and statistical analysis are applied to various urbanization and climate scenarios. Future changes in precipitation and temperature under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5 (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, respectively) clearly influence urban streamflow all year-round. We found snowpack shrinks during 2061 to 2090, snowmelt becomes earlier and the amount of melted runoff is reduced under both climate scenarios. The most significant runoff increase occurs in winter with the growth rates of 79% and 127%, respectively. It is also found that the dominant portion of urban streamflow shifts from summer to autumn in the future under both RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. Results indicate that urbanization has direct impact on hydrological response due to the change of imperviousness, but climate change will have more significant impact on seasonal distribution of urban streamflow. Additionally, urbanization impacts shrink monthly streamflow differences along with climate change.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Ahmed Hanifi SMM, Menon N, A Quisumbing (2022)

The impact of climate change on children's nutritional status in coastal Bangladesh.

Social science & medicine (1982), 294:114704 pii:S0277-9536(22)00007-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper studies the impact of climate change on the nutritional status of very young children between the ages of 0-3 years by using weather data from the last half century merged with rich information on child, mother, and household characteristics in rural coastal Bangladesh. We evaluate the health consequences of rising temperature and relative humidity and varying rainfall jointly employing alternate functional forms. Leveraging models that control for annual trends and location-specific seasonality, and that allow the impacts of temperature to vary non-parametrically while rainfall and humidity have flexible non-linear forms, we find that temperatures that exceed 25 °C (the "comfortable" benchmark) in the month of birth exert negative effects on children's nutritional status as measured by mid upper arm circumference. Humidity has a positive impact which persists when child, mother and household controls are included. We find that exposure to changing climate in utero also matters. Explanations for these results include consequences of weather fluctuations on the extent of pasture, cropland, and rainfed lands planted with rice and other crops, and on mother's age at first marriage. Our results underline that climate change has real consequences for the health of very young populations in vulnerable areas.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Qin X, Xia W, Hu X, et al (2022)

Dynamic variations of cyanobacterial blooms and their response to urban development and climate change in Lake Chaohu based on Landsat observations.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-022-18616-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Recurring cyanobacterial blooms have seriously hindered the sustainable development of cities. In this study, the variation trend of cyanobacterial blooms was analyzed by taking Lake Chaohu in China as the study area, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Landsat observations combined with the development index of surrounding cities from 2009 to 2019 was used to quantitatively analyze the response of cyanobacterial blooms to urban development and climate change. The results showed that the NDVI of the Northwest Lake region was significantly higher than that of other regions. Summer and autumn were the main seasons for the outbreak of cyanobacterial blooms. The NDVI of Lake Chaohu and Baohe Lake region showed a significant correlation with the gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of Hefei city (HF), the districts and counties around the lake (DCL), Baohe District (BH), and the population (P). As the economic regions gradually focused on BH rather than on HF and DCL, there was an increasing trend correlation between the NDVI of Baohe Lake region and the GDP growth rate. However, the elimination of GDP in BH did not affect the consistency relationship between the economic growth of other regions and the NDVI of Lake Chaohu on a large scale. In addition, the results of relative importance analysis indicated that the GDP growth rate of BH and the area of Hefei except DCL (HF-DCL) accounted for important contribution to the [Formula: see text] of the regression. This study has momentous reference value for understanding the coupling relationship between urban development and lake environment.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Balima LH, Nacoulma BMI, Da SS, et al (2022)

Impacts of climate change on the geographic distribution of African oak tree (Afzelia africana Sm.) in Burkina Faso, West Africa.

Heliyon, 8(1):e08688 pii:S2405-8440(21)02791-2.

Afzelia africana Sm - a multipurpose leguminous tree species - is threatened in West Africa - a climate change hotspot region. Yet, although the impacts of land use on this species dynamics have been widely reported, there is a little literature on the impacts of climate change on its spatial distribution. This study aimed to predict the impacts of climate change on the geographic distribution of A. africana in Burkina Faso. A total of 4,066 records of A. africana was compiled from personal fieldwork and vegetation database. Current and future bioclimatic variables were obtained from WorldClim website. For future climatic projections, six global climate models (GCMs) were selected under two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 & RCP 8.5) and two horizons (2050 & 2070). Presence data and bioclimatic variables were processed in ArcGIS software and used in the algorithm MaxEnt (maximum of entropy) to predict the species distribution. Findings showed that maximum temperature of warmest month and mean temperature of coldest quarter mostly affect the habitat suitability of A. africana. About 25.54% of Burkina Faso land surface was currently suitable for A. africana conservation. Under future climatic projections, all the climate models predict climate-driven habitat loss of the species with a southward range shift. Across the two emission scenarios, the spatial extent of suitable habitats was predicted to decline from 9.43 to 23.99% and from 12.29 to 25% by the horizons 2050 and 2070, respectively. Habitat loss and range shifts predicted in this study underline the high vulnerability of A. africana to future climate change. Reforestation actions and the protection of predicted suitable habitats are recommended to sustain the species conservation.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Karatayev M, Clarke M, Salnikov V, et al (2022)

Monitoring climate change, drought conditions and wheat production in Eurasia: the case study of Kazakhstan.

Heliyon, 8(1):e08660 pii:S2405-8440(21)02763-8.

Wheat is an important global food security commodity. Kazakhstan is currently a producer and exporter of high-quality wheat to global markets. The most important wheat-growing regions, which lie in the northern part of Kazakhstan, are based on spring-sown rain-fed cultivation and are susceptible to climate change and drought. Using the monthly surface air temperature and precipitation data from 1950 to 2020 from 110 meteorological stations over Kazakhstan and in addition wheat cultivation data, the research aims to analyze climate change, drought occurrence, and wheat cultivation trends in Kazakhstan in recent 70 years and investigate relationships between wheat productivity and drought. The linear method and two drought indices (Standardized Precipitation Index and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index) and in addition, Pearson's correlation coefficient have been used to characterise the climate change trends and vulnerability of agriculture in Kazakhstan to drought. The geographic information system (GIS) was applied to display climate change, drought, and wheat referenced information. The research has shown that the 70-year (1950-2020) linear rates of annual mean surface temperature in Kazakhstan have significantly increased (on average 0.31 °C per decade) with the precipitation trends are not obvious and fluctuated trends of drought. The wheat yield demonstrates strong internal variability and wheat yields were significantly correlated with 3-month June and July drought indices over the period of 1950-2020. The results underline the potential susceptibility of wheat yields in Kazakhstan to any future reductions in precipitation and increase in drought occurrence and intensity.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Keyser AR, Kimball JS, Nemani RR, et al (2000)

Simulating the effects of climate change on the carbon balance of North American high-latitude forests.

Global change biology, 6(S1):185-195.

The large magnitude of predicted warming at high latitudes and the potential feedback of ecosystems to atmospheric CO2 concentrations make it important to quantify both warming and its effects on high-latitude carbon balance. We analysed long-term, daily surface meteorological records for 13 sites in Alaska and north-western Canada and an 82-y record of river ice breakup date for the Tanana River in interior Alaska. We found increases in winter and spring temperature extrema for all sites, with the greatest increases in spring minimum temperature, average 0.47 °C per 10 y, and a 0.7-day per 10 y advance in ice breakup on the Tanana River. We used the climate records to drive an ecosystem process model, BIOME_BGC, to simulate the effects of climate change on the carbon and water balances of boreal forest ecosystems. The growing season has lengthened by an average of 2.6 days per 10 y with an advance in average leaf onset date of 1.10 days per 10 y. This advance in the start of the active growing season correlates positively with progressively earlier ice breakup on the Tanana River in interior Alaska. The advance in the start of the growing season resulted in a 20% increase in net primary production for both aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white spruce (Picea glauca) stands. Aspen had a greater mean increase in maintenance respiration than spruce, whereas spruce had a greater mean increase in evapotranspiration. Average decomposition rates also increased for both species. Both net primary production and decomposition are enhanced in our simulations, suggesting that productive forest types may not experience a significant shift in net carbon flux as a result of climate warming.

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Wang Y, Tao F, Chen Y, et al (2022)

Interactive impacts of climate change and agricultural management on soil organic carbon sequestration potential of cropland in China over the coming decades.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)00107-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Cropland plays an important role in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) sequestration. Although the SOC stock and its dynamic in the past decades have been extensively investigated, the information as to where, how much, and how SOC could be potentially sequestered in the coming decades has rarely been available. Here, the Rothamsted Carbon model was applied to investigate the spatiotemporal pattern of SOC sequestration potential for China's cropland in 2021-2040 at 1 km resolution, as well as the interactive impacts of climate change and agricultural management on SOC sequestration. Under the combined impacts of climate change and C input, the SOC sequestration of China's cropland in 2021-2040 would be about 0.56 Mg C ha-1 (0.06% yr-1), 1.33 Mg C ha-1 (0.15% yr-1), 2.10 Mg C ha-1 (0.24% yr-1), and 3.65 Mg C ha-1 (0.41% yr-1), with no increase, 5%, 10%, and 20% increase of C input, respectively. Therefore, a >20% increase in C input would be necessary to realize the promise of the '4 per 1000' initiative. Climate change would decrease SOC sequestration by 26.6-27.6 Tg yr-1 (or 60.4-62.7%). An increase of C input by 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% relative to business as usual (BAU) would increase SOC sequestration by 4.8 (or 10.8%), 6.6 (or 14.9%), 13.1 (or 29.8%), and 26.2 (or 59.6%) Tg yr-1, respectively. The contributions of temperature, precipitation, and C input to SOC sequestration will be averagely 18.6%, 22.4%, and 59.0%, respectively. Our findings quantify the SOC sequestration in 2021-2040 at a high spatial resolution under the interactive impacts of climate change and agricultural management, which help to identify potential foci and develop region-specific measures to increase SOC sequestration efficiently.

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Fricke EC, Ordonez A, Rogers HS, et al (2022)

The effects of defaunation on plants' capacity to track climate change.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 375(6577):210-214.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Sun L, Fang S, Iqbal S, et al (2022)

Financial stability role on climate risks, and climate change mitigation: Implications for green economic recovery.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-021-17439-w [Epub ahead of print].

As a response to the topic of how financial stability might be used to effectively finance for the mitigation of climate change and climate risks, it is important to look at the carbon risk that is still present in G-5 nations. The goal of our research is to determine the impact of financial stability on climate risk in order to effectively manage climate mitigation efforts. A technique called GMM is used to achieve this goal. Climate change mitigation was found to be substantial at 18 percent, while financial stability and carbon hazards were found significant at 21 percent, according to the conclusions of the study. Furthermore, the G-5 countries' 19.5% correlation between financial stability and emissions drift, which raises climate change concerns, is noteworthy. In order to implement green economic recovery methods, one of the most strongly regarded approaches to mitigating climate change and ensuring long-term financial potential at the national scale, a country's financial stability is required. The research on green economic expansion also offers the associated stakeholders with detailed policy implications on this relevance.

RevDate: 2022-01-12

Haddock R, de Latour R, Siau K, et al (2022)

Climate Change and Gastroenterology: Planetary Primum Non Nocere and How Industry Must Help.

The American journal of gastroenterology pii:00000434-990000000-00195 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is a global emergency. Increasing awareness has led to policy changes regarding global industry emissions. The healthcare industry carbon footprint is large and growing more and more. Gastroenterology, with its heavy reliance on industry, is a major contributor toward this growth. For a significant change toward reducing the field's carbon footprint, it would involve serious industry commitment. At present, there are no clear guidelines or regulations on controlling healthcare-related industry emissions and improving sustainability. This narrative review aims to provide practical suggestions at each step of the supply chain can lead to greater sustainability.

RevDate: 2022-01-12

Álvarez-Miño L, RT Montoya (2022)

Taxonomy for citizen actions on public health and climate change: a proposal.

Revista de saude publica, 55:119 pii:S0034-89102021000100602.

Facing complex issues such as climate change and its effects on public health require the participation of various actors. The research tool citizen science is one way for people to get involved. Through it, citizens collaborate with scientists to find solutions to problems in their territories. From a participatory work with citizens, we designed a taxonomy proposal, which can facilitate citizen and community action in suggesting research ideas. We expect stakeholders to use it to systematically classify and code initial questions and answers on public health and climate change issues. The development of this taxonomy integrates the global agenda of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in such a way that citizens not only help their communities but also, the direct fulfillment of SDGs such as Climate Action (SDG 13), indirectly impacting other SDGs - given their interdependent nature (SDG 3, SDG 5, SDG 6, SDG 7, SDG 11, SDG 12). The systematic classification and coding of citizens' contributions worldwide will contribute to the large-scale organized collection of information to be analyzed in proposing better responses to reduce the impacts of climate change on health.

RevDate: 2022-01-12

Anonymous (2022)

Global Climate Change and News of Difference: Collective Action for Planetary Health and Family Health.

RevDate: 2022-01-12

Chatterjee R, Chatterjee A, SH Islam (2022)

Deep learning techniques for observing the impact of the global warming from satellite images of water-bodies.

Multimedia tools and applications pii:11811 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming is a threat to modern human civilization. There are different reasons for speed up the global average temperature. The consequences are catastrophic for human existence. Seafloor rise, drought, flood, wildfire, dry riverbed are some of the consequences. This paper analyzes the changes in boundaries of different water bodies such as fresh-water lakes and glacial lakes. Over time, the area covered by a water body has been varied due to human interventions or natural causes. Here, variants of Detectron2 instance segmentation architectures have been employed to detect a water-body and compute the changes in its area from the time-lapsed images captured over 32 years, that is, 1984 to 2016. The models are validated using water-bodies images taken by the Sentinel-2 Satellite and compared based on the average precision (AP), 99.95 and 94.51 at A P 50 and A P 75 metrics, respectively. In addition, an ensemble approach has also been introduced for the efficient identification of shrinkage or expansion of water bodies.

RevDate: 2022-01-12

Paudel Timilsena B, Niassy S, Kimathi E, et al (2022)

Potential distribution of fall armyworm in Africa and beyond, considering climate change and irrigation patterns.

Scientific reports, 12(1):539.

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (FAW), first invaded Africa in 2016 and has since become established in many areas across the continent where it poses a serious threat to food and nutrition security. We re-parameterized the existing CLIMEX model to assess the FAW global invasion threat, emphasizing the risk of transient and permanent population establishment in Africa under current and projected future climates, considering irrigation patterns. FAW can establish itself in almost all countries in eastern and central Africa and a large part of western Africa under the current climate. Climatic barriers, such as heat and dry stresses, may limit the spread of FAW to North and South Africa. Future projections suggest that FAW invasive range will retract from both northern and southern regions towards the equator. However, a large area in eastern and central Africa is projected to have an optimal climate for FAW persistence. These areas will serve as FAW 'hotspots' from where it may migrate to the north and south during favorable seasons and then pose an economic threat. Our projections can be used to identify countries at risk for permanent and transient FAW-population establishment and inform timely integrated pest management interventions under present and future climate in Africa.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Carmen E, Fazey I, Ross H, et al (2022)

Building community resilience in a context of climate change: The role of social capital.

Ambio [Epub ahead of print].

Social capital is considered important for resilience across social levels, including communities, yet insights are scattered across disciplines. This meta-synthesis of 187 studies examines conceptual and empirical understandings of how social capital relates to resilience, identifying implications for community resilience and climate change practice. Different conceptualisations are highlighted, yet also limited focus on underlying dimensions of social capital and proactive types of resilience for engaging with the complex climate change challenge. Empirical insights show that structural and socio-cultural aspects of social capital, multiple other factors and formal actors are all important for shaping the role of social capital for guiding resilience outcomes. Thus, finding ways to work with these different elements is important. Greater attention on how and why outcomes emerge, interactions between factors, approaches of formal actors and different socio-cultural dimensions will advance understandings about how to nurture social capital for resilience in the context of climate change.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Bhardwaj M, Kumar P, Kumar S, et al (2022)

A district-level analysis for measuring the effects of climate change on production of agricultural crops, i.e., wheat and paddy: evidence from India.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The present study aims to examine the impact of climate change on wheat and rice yield in Punjab, India, during 1981-2017. The study employs fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), and pooled mean group (PMG) approaches. The Pedroni cointegration has established a long-run relationship of climate variables with rice and wheat crops. FMOLS and DOLS models show that minimum temperature has a positive effect on both wheat and rice. In contrast, the maximum temperature is found to be negatively contributing to both crops. Rainfall has a significant adverse impact on the production of wheat. In the study period, seasonal rainfall has been found detrimental for the production of wheat and rice crops, indicating that excess rainfall proved counterproductive. Moreover, the Dumitrescu-Hurlin causality test has revealed a unidirectional causality running from minimum temperature, rainfall, and maximum temperature for rice and wheat production. The findings of the study suggest that the government should invest in developing stress-tolerant varieties of wheat and rice, managing crop residuals to curb other environmental effects, and sustaining natural resources for ensuring food security.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Kaufman J, Vicedo-Cabrera AM, Tam V, et al (2022)

The impact of heat on kidney stone presentations in South Carolina under two climate change scenarios.

Scientific reports, 12(1):369.

The risk of kidney stone presentations increases after hot days, likely due to greater insensible water losses resulting in more concentrated urine and altered urinary flow. It is thus expected that higher temperatures from climate change will increase the global prevalence of kidney stones if no adaptation measures are put in place. This study aims to quantify the impact of heat on kidney stone presentations through 2089, using South Carolina as a model state. We used a time series analysis of historical kidney stone presentations (1997-2014) and distributed lag non-linear models to estimate the temperature dependence of kidney stone presentations, and then quantified the projected impact of climate change on future heat-related kidney stone presentations using daily projections of wet-bulb temperatures to 2089, assuming no adaptation or demographic changes. Two climate change models were considered-one assuming aggressive reduction in greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 4.5) and one representing uninibited greenhouse gas emissions (RCP 8.5). The estimated total statewide kidney stone presentations attributable to heat are projected to increase by 2.2% in RCP 4.5 and 3.9% in RCP 8.5 by 2085-89 (vs. 2010-2014), with an associated total excess cost of ~ $57 million and ~ $99 million, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Van Doren BM (2022)

How migratory birds might have tracked past climate change.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(3):.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Leal Filho W, Nagy GJ, Martinho F, et al (2022)

Influences of Climate Change and Variability on Estuarine Ecosystems: An Impact Study in Selected European, South American and Asian Countries.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1): pii:ijerph19010585.

It is well-known that climate change significantly impacts ecosystems (at the macro-level) and individual species (at the micro-level). Among the former, estuaries are the most vulnerable and affected ecosystems. However, despite the strong relations between climate change and estuaries, there is a gap in the literature regarding international studies across different regions investigating the impacts of climate change and variability on estuaries in different geographical zones. This paper addresses this need and reviews the impacts of climate change, variability and extreme weather on estuaries. It emphasises the following: (i) a set of climate parameters governing estuarine hydrology and processes; and (ii) a sample of countries in Asia (Bangladesh), Europe (Portugal) and South America (Uruguay). We reviewed the influences of the climatic drivers of the estuarine hydrology, ecological processes and specific species in estuarine communities across the selected geographical regions, along with an analysis of their long-term implications. The key results from the three estuaries are as following: (i) Hilsa fish, of which the catches contribute to 10% of the total earnings of the fishery sector (1% of GDP), are affected by climate-forced hydrological and productivity changes in the Meghna; (ii) extreme droughts and short-term severe precipitation have driven the long-term abundance and spatial distribution of both fish larvae and juveniles/adults in the Mondego; and (iii) the river inflow and fluctuations increases since the early 1970s have contributed to variations in the salinity, the stratification, the oxygen, nutrient and trophic levels and the spatial pattern for the life stages of planktonic species, fish biomass and captures in the Rio de la Plata. The results suggested that immediate action is needed to reduce the vulnerability of estuaries to climate stressors, mainly the changing river flows, storms and sea-level rise. As a contribution to addressing current problems, we described a set of adaptation strategies to foster climate resilience and adaptive capacity (e.g., early-warning systems, dam management to prevent overflows and adaptive fisheries management). The implications of this paper are two-fold. Firstly, it showcases a variety of problems that estuaries face from changing climate conditions. Secondly, the paper outlines the need for suitable adaptive management strategies to safeguard the integrity of such vital ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Shen J, Duan W, Wang Y, et al (2022)

Household Livelihood Vulnerability to Climate Change in West China.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1): pii:ijerph19010551.

Climate change disproportionately affects natural resource-dependent communities in the ecologically vulnerable regions of western China. This study used the household livelihood vulnerability index under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (HLV-IPCC) to assess vulnerability. Data were collected from 823 households in Ningxia, Gansu, Guangxi, and Yunnan provinces, these being ecologically vulnerable regions in China. With a composite HLVI-IPCC and multiple regression model, the factors that affect households' adaptive capability to HLVI-IPCC was estimated. Results indicate that Ningxia is the most vulnerable community, while Guangxi is the least vulnerable community across all indices. Moreover, Gansu has the heaviest sensitivity and exposure to climate change, whereas Ningxia has the highest adaptive capability to climate change. In addition, the age of household head and distance of the home to the town center had significant negative impacts on households' adaptive capacity to HLVI-IPCC. The results also suggest that the HLVI assessment can provide an effective tool for local authorities to formulate prioritizing strategies with promoting climate-resilient development and increasing long-term adaptive capacity.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Shimada G (2022)

The Impact of Climate-Change-Related Disasters on Africa's Economic Growth, Agriculture, and Conflicts: Can Humanitarian Aid and Food Assistance Offset the Damage?.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1): pii:ijerph19010467.

This study analyzed the impact of climate-related natural disasters (droughts, floods, storms/rainstorms) on economic and social variables. As the Africa-specific empirical literature is limited, this study used panel data from 1961-2011 on Africa. The study used a panel data regression model analysis. The results showed that climate change-related natural disasters affected Africa's economic growth, agriculture, and poverty and caused armed conflicts. Among the disasters, droughts are the main cause of negative impact, severely affecting crops such as maize and coffee and resulting in increased urban poverty and armed conflicts. In contrast, international aid has a positive effect but the impact is insignificant compared to the negative consequences of climate-related natural disasters. Cereal food assistance has a negative crowding-out effect on cereal production. International donors should review their interventions to support Africa's adaptative capacity to disasters. Government efficiency has reduced the number of deaths, and this is an area that supports Africa's adaptative efforts.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Adepoju OE, Han D, Chae M, et al (2021)

Health Disparities and Climate Change: The Intersection of Three Disaster Events on Vulnerable Communities in Houston, Texas.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1): pii:ijerph19010035.

Although evidence suggests that successive climate disasters are on the rise, few studies have documented the disproportionate impacts on communities of color. Through the unique lens of successive disaster events (Hurricane Harvey and Winter Storm Uri) coupled with the COVID-19 pandemic, we assessed disaster exposure in minority communities in Harris County, Texas. A mixed methods approach employing qualitative and quantitative designs was used to examine the relationships between successive disasters (and the role of climate change), population geography, race, and health disparities-related outcomes. This study identified four communities in the greater Houston area with predominantly non-Hispanic African American residents. We used data chronicling the local community and environment to build base maps and conducted spatial analyses using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping. We complemented these data with focus groups to assess participants' experiences in disaster planning and recovery, as well as community resilience. Thematic analysis was used to identify key patterns. Across all four communities, we observed significant Hurricane Harvey flooding and significantly greater exposure to 10 of the 11 COVID-19 risk factors examined, compared to the rest of the county. Spatial analyses reveal higher disease burden, greater social vulnerability, and significantly higher community-level risk factors for both pandemics and disaster events in the four communities, compared to all other communities in Harris County. Two themes emerged from thematic data analysis: (1) Prior disaster exposure prepared minority populations in Harris County to better handle subsequent disaster suggesting enhanced disaster resilience, and (2) social connectedness was key to disaster resiliency. Long-standing disparities make people of color at greater risk for social vulnerability. Addressing climate change offers the potential to alleviate these health disparities.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Kim W, Che C, C Jeong (2021)

Hotel Guests' Psychological Distance of Climate Change and Environment-Friendly Behavior Intention.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(1): pii:ijerph19010016.

Climate change is certainly a global problem that negatively affects all nations, and thus all humans, on the globe. Nevertheless, little is known about people's perceptions of climate change and its effects on people's attitudinal and behavioral responses to climate change. The present study successfully addressed how hotel guests' environment-friendly behavior intention is formed through their self-perception as a member of the global community and their psychological distance of climate change. An online survey was used to collect quantitative data from hotel guests to verify the hypotheses. Our test results supported all the hypotheses in our conceptual model. Consequently, the findings of this study satisfactorily explained how hotel guests form their intention to engage in environment-friendly behaviors while they are staying at hotels.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Verma KK, Song XP, Joshi A, et al (2022)

Recent Trends in Nano-Fertilizers for Sustainable Agriculture under Climate Change for Global Food Security.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(1): pii:nano12010173.

Nano-fertilizers (NFs) significantly improve soil quality and plant growth performance and enhance crop production with quality fruits/grains. The management of macro-micronutrients is a big task globally, as it relies predominantly on synthetic chemical fertilizers which may not be environmentally friendly for human beings and may be expensive for farmers. NFs may enhance nutrient uptake and plant production by regulating the availability of fertilizers in the rhizosphere; extend stress resistance by improving nutritional capacity; and increase plant defense mechanisms. They may also substitute for synthetic fertilizers for sustainable agriculture, being found more suitable for stimulation of plant development. They are associated with mitigating environmental stresses and enhancing tolerance abilities under adverse atmospheric eco-variables. Recent trends in NFs explored relevant agri-technology to fill the gaps and assure long-term beneficial agriculture strategies to safeguard food security globally. Accordingly, nanoparticles are emerging as a cutting-edge agri-technology for agri-improvement in the near future. Interestingly, they do confer stress resistance capabilities to crop plants. The effective and appropriate mechanisms are revealed in this article to update researchers widely.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Yao L, Wang D, Wang D, et al (2021)

Phenotypic Plasticity and Local Adaptation of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Favor Perennial Alpine Herbs under Climate Change.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(1): pii:plants11010120.

Six perennial herbs (Plantago asiatica, Polygonum viviparum, Anaphalis lactea, Kobresia humilis, Leontopodium nanum and Potentilla chinensis) widely distributed in alpine meadows were reciprocally transplanted at two sites in eastern edge of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, Hongyuan (3434 m, 2.97 °C, 911 mm) and Qilian (3701 m, 2.52 °C, 472 mm), aiming to evaluate the responses of alpine plants to changing environments. When plants were transplanted from Hongyuan to Qilian, most plant species showed a decrease of total wax coverage in first year and reverse trend was observed for some plant species in second year. However, when plants were transplanted from Qilian to Hongyuan, the response of total wax coverage differed greatly between plant species. When compared with those in first year, plasticity index of average chain length of alkane decreased whereas carbon preference index of alkane increased at both Hongyuan and Qilian in second year. The total wax coverage differed between local and transplanted plants, suggesting both environmental and genetic factors controlled the wax depositions. Structural equation modeling indicated that co-variations existed between leaf cuticular waxes and leaf functional traits. These results suggest that alpine herbs adjust both wax depositions and chain length distributions to adapt to changing environment, showing climate adaptations.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Nunes LJR, Meireles CIR, Gomes CJP, et al (2021)

The Impact of Climate Change on Forest Development: A Sustainable Approach to Management Models Applied to Mediterranean-Type Climate Regions.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(1): pii:plants11010069.

Forest ecosystems are divided into three major groups: boreal, temperate, and tropical. These can be subdivided according to the particularities of each type due to its relative location (littoral, mountain, etc.), climatic conditions, or even geological substrate. Climate change affects each type of forest ecosystem differently. However, it seems to affect temperate forests in Mediterranean-type climate regions more intensely. These regions are located over several continents, with major impacts of increased temperature during summer and decreased precipitation during winter. This situation affects Mediterranean forest ecosystems by increasing the risk of fires, which arise more frequently and are more severe. In addition, the emergence of pests and the spread of invasive species are well-known problems affecting these ecosystems. All of these conditions contribute to losses of productivity and biodiversity. To avoid the destruction of forest resources, and since Mediterranean-type climate regions are considered climate change hot spots with increased vulnerability to disturbances, the implementation of adaptive forest management models could contribute to increasing the resilience of such forests, which could also contribute to mitigating climate change.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Galway LP, Esquega E, K Jones-Casey (2022)

"Land is everything, land is us": Exploring the connections between climate change, land, and health in Fort William First Nation.

Social science & medicine (1982), 294:114700 pii:S0277-9536(22)00003-X [Epub ahead of print].

The myriad and cumulative impacts of climate change on land, communities, and health are increasingly evident worldwide. Throughout 2019 and 2020, Fort William First Nation and researchers at Lakehead University conducted a project to document and understand connections among climate change, land, and health from the perspective of Elders, knowledge keepers, and community members with close ties to the land. Fort William First Nation is an Anishinaabe community located on the shores of Lake Superior/Kitchigami in Northern Ontario and within Robinson-Superior Treaty territory. This paper describes the analysis of interviews with 22 community members. Two-Eyed Seeing, an approach that centers the working together of Indigenous and non-Indigenous knowledges and peoples and demands respectful relationship building, guided our project and analysis. Our analysis identified five themes: 1) observations and experiences of changes on the land, 2) lack of care and respect for Mother Earth as the root cause of climate change, 3) healthy land, healthy people, 4) youth and future generations, and 5) (re-)connecting with land and culture. 'All our Relations' is a thread woven across these themes emphasizing that climate change is understood and experienced through relationships and relationality. As concluding thoughts and reflections, we share three specific offerings of particular relevance to those engaging in climate change and health research and action with Indigenous peoples and communities. First, this research has highlighted the importance of explicitly centering land when exploring the links between climate change and health. Second, we reflect on the value of both the Two-Eyed Seeing approach and the Medicine Wheel in guiding climate change and health research. Third, we argue for an explicit focus on relationships and relationality in efforts aimed at understanding and addressing climate change.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Li Y, Hou R, Liu X, et al (2022)

Changes in wheat traits under future climate change and their contributions to yield changes in conventional vs. conservational tillage systems.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)00036-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Exploring the changes in wheat traits under future climate change and their contributions to yield changes is essential to improve the understanding of climate impact mechanisms and develop climate-resilient cultivars, which however has been seldom conducted. In this study, using a process-based crop model (APSIM-Wheat), meta-regression analyses, and machine learning approaches, we assessed the impacts of different warming levels on soil environments and wheat traits; investigated the impacts of future climate change on wheat traits, growth and development; and identified the favorable wheat traits for breeding under future climate change conditions. Meta-analyses showed that climate warming could significantly advance anthesis date by 3.50% and shorten the entire growth duration by 1.18%, although the duration from anthesis to maturity could be elongated by 7.72%. It could also increase grain yield slightly by 2.72% in the North China Plain, mainly due to the increase in biomass by 6.66%, grain weight by 3.86% and the elongating grain-filling period. However, high temperatures could significantly reduce aboveground biomass. The APSIM-Wheat model was validated based on three years' high-quality environment-controlled experimental data in the long-term warming and conservation tillage fields at Yucheng comprehensive experiment station in the North China Plain. The results showed that the mean yield would decrease under RCP4.5 for both tillage managements (CT: 0.55%, NT: 6.88%), but increase CT yield (7.7%) under RCP8.5, relative to 1980-2010, owing to the interactive impacts of climate, CO2 and tillage on wheat traits. Soil moisture would play a more important role in biomass, yield, height, LAI, and grain number for conventional tillage than for no-tillage system, and in the future than in the historical period. Our findings gained insights into the impacts of climate change on wheat traits and yield under different tillage managements, which are essential to understand climate change impact mechanisms and develop climate-resilient cultivars.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Ogunleye A, Kehinde A, Mishra A, et al (2021)

Impacts of farmers' participation in social capital networks on climate change adaptation strategies adoption in Nigeria.

Heliyon, 7(12):e08624 pii:S2405-8440(21)02727-4.

Most studies on climate change adaptation strategies adoption have focused on economic factors with little or no attention to the impact of collective actions and social capital networks. This paper investigates how farmers' participation in social capital networks influenced climate change adaptation strategies adoption in Nigeria. This study was carried out in the South-western Nigeria. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, binary probit regression, multinomial logit regression, endogenous switching regression and multinomial endogenous switching regression models. The results suggest that significant differences exist in the years of membership in the social capital networks, access to weather information and market between farm managers who adopted climate change adaptation strategies and those who did not. Plot managers who adopted climate change adaptation strategies are found to have obtained much mean yield and farm revenue than their counterparts. The results further show that participation in the social capital networks does not only significantly influence plot manager's decision to adopt but also influences the choice of climate change adaptation strategies adopted by farmers. The study concludes that a farmer who chooses to participate in social capital networks has a higher level of adopting climate change adaptation strategies than what a random farmer would have had in Nigeria. We recommend that policies aimed at increasing the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies among farmers should be channelled through locally organised farmers-based social capital networks.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Lemoine NP (2021)

Phenology dictates the impact of climate change on geographic distributions of six co-occurring North American grasshoppers.

Ecology and evolution, 11(24):18575-18590 pii:ECE38463.

Throughout the last century, climate change has altered the geographic distributions of many species. Insects, in particular, vary in their ability to track changing climates, and it is likely that phenology is an important determinant of how well insects can either expand or shift their geographic distributions in response to climate change. Grasshoppers are an ideal group to test the hypothesis that phenology correlates with range expansion, given that co-occurring confamilial, and even congeneric, species can differ in phenology. Here, I tested the hypothesis that early- and late-season species should possess different range expansion potentials, as estimated by habitat suitability from ecological niche models. I used nine different modeling techniques to estimate habitat suitability of six grasshopper species of varying phenology under two climate scenarios for the year 2050. My results suggest that, of the six species examined here, early-season species were more sensitive to climate change than late-season species. The three early-season species examined here might shift northward during the spring, while the modeled geographic distributions of the three late-season species were generally constant under climate change, likely because they were pre-adapted to hot and dry conditions. Phenology might therefore be a good predictor of how insect distributions might change in the future, but this hypothesis remains to be tested at a broader scale.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Huang J (2021)

Effects of climate change on different geographical populations of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae).

Ecology and evolution, 11(24):18357-18368 pii:ECE38426.

The effects of climate change on pest phenology and population size are highly variable. Understanding the impacts of localized climate change on pest distribution and phenology is helpful for improving integrated pest management strategies. Here, the population dynamics of cotton bollworms (Helicoverpa armigera) from Maigaiti County, south Xinjiang, and Shawan County, north Xinjiang, China, were analyzed using a 29-year dataset at lower latitudes and a 23-year dataset at higher latitudes to determine the effects of climate change on the population dynamics of H. armigera. The results showed that all generations of H. armigera at both sites showed increasing trends in population size with climate warming. Abrupt changes in phenology and population number occurred after abrupt temperature changes. Climate change had a greater effect on the phenology of H. armigera at higher latitudes than at lower latitudes and led to a greater increase in population size at lower latitudes than at higher latitudes; the temperature increase at higher latitudes will cause a greater increase in the adult moth population size in the future compared to that at lower latitudes; and abrupt changes in the phenology, temperature increase, and population size at lower latitudes occurred earlier than those at higher latitudes. Thus, it is necessary to develop sustainable management strategies for Helicoverpa armigera at an early stage.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Amarasinghe P, Barve N, Kathriarachchi H, et al (2021)

Niche dynamics of Memecylon in Sri Lanka: Distribution patterns, climate change effects, and conservation priorities.

Ecology and evolution, 11(24):18196-18215 pii:ECE38415.

Recent climate projections have shown that the distribution of organisms in island biotas is highly affected by climate change. Here, we present the result of the analysis of niche dynamics of a plant group, Memecylon, in Sri Lanka, an island, using species occurrences and climate data. We aim to determine which climate variables explain current distribution, model how climate change impacts the availability of suitable habitat for Memecylon, and determine conservation priority areas for Sri Lankan Memecylon. We used georeferenced occurrence data of Sri Lankan Memecylon to develop ecological niche models and assess both current and future potential distributions under six climate change scenarios in 2041-2060 and 2061-2080. We also overlaid land cover and protected area maps and performed a gap analysis to understand the impacts of land-cover changes on Memecylon distributions and propose new areas for conservation. Differences among suitable habitats of Memecylon were found to be related to patterns of endemism. Under varying future climate scenarios, endemic groups were predicted to experience habitat shifts, gains, or losses. The narrow endemic Memecylon restricted to the montane zone were predicted to be the most impacted by climate change. Projections also indicated that changes in species' habitats can be expected as early as 2041-2060. Gap analysis showed that while narrow endemic categories are considerably protected as demonstrated by their overlap with protected areas, more conservation efforts in Sri Lankan forests containing wide endemic and nonendemic Memecylon are needed. This research helped clarify general patterns of responses of Sri Lankan Memecylon to global climate change. Data from this study are useful for designing measures aimed at filling the gaps in forest conservation on this island.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Hauser N, Conlon KC, Desai A, et al (2021)

Climate Change and Infections on the Move in North America.

Infection and drug resistance, 14:5711-5723 pii:305077.

Climate change is increasingly recognized for its impacts on human health, including how biotic and abiotic factors are driving shifts in infectious disease. Changes in ecological conditions and processes due to temperature and precipitation fluctuations and intensified disturbance regimes are affecting infectious pathogen transmission, habitat, hosts, and the characteristics of pathogens themselves. Understanding the relationships between climate change and infectious diseases can help clinicians broaden the scope of differential diagnoses when interviewing, diagnosing, and treating patients presenting with infections lacking obvious agents or transmission pathways. Here, we highlight key examples of how the mechanisms of climate change affect infectious diseases associated with water, fire, land, insects, and human transmission pathways in the hope of expanding the analytical framework for infectious disease diagnoses. Increased awareness of these relationships can help prepare both clinical physicians and epidemiologists for continued impacts of climate change on infectious disease in the future.

RevDate: 2022-01-09

Roos EJ (2022)

Call for Leadership: climate change and the future health of girls.

RevDate: 2022-01-09

Adyel TM, PI Macreadie (2022)

Plastics in blue carbon ecosystems: a call for global cooperation on climate change goals.

The Lancet. Planetary health, 6(1):e2-e3.

RevDate: 2022-01-08

Shabani Y, NM Pauline (2022)

Perceived Effective Adaptation Strategies against Climate Change Impacts: Perspectives of Maize Growers in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania.

Environmental management [Epub ahead of print].

The world has been experiencing a tremendous increase in the average of warmth and shifts in rainfall quantity, seasonality, and occurrence of prolonged droughts, increased temperatures and intense precipitation. This study assessed effective adaptation strategies used by maize growers in cushioning climate change impacts in Iringa district. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews and participant observations, while quantitative data were collected using household questionnaire. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected covering a wide range of climate change impacts and response strategies. We found that maize production has decreased during the past two decades, since the year 2000 (i.e., from the average of 10-15 to 2-5 maize sacks per acre). It was affirmed that increased yield outputs and incomes are among the key determinants for the effectiveness of a response strategy. Findings indicate that some response strategies indicated a significant increase in maize crop yield. Such responses include using improved maize variety (P = 0.000 (P < 0.05), drought-tolerant crop (P = 0.014 (P < 0.05), changing planting dates (P = 0.001 (P < 0.05) and crop rotation (P = 0.000 (P < 0.05). Barriers such as access to capital, poor farming technologies, absence of improved maize agencies or shops, poor access to weather information and high prices for farm inputs to adopting effective adaptation strategies were uncovered. Moreover, most adaptation strategies were found to significantly increase crop production to most of the household farmers, thus leading to high mazie production. Thus, maize growers need support to enhance their locally-led adaptation options to climatic impacts.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Faverdin P, Guyomard H, Puillet L, et al (2022)

Animal board invited review: Specialising and intensifying cattle production for better efficiency and less global warming: contrasting results for milk and meat co-production at different scales.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 16(1):100431 pii:S1751-7311(21)00277-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Cattle are the world's largest consumers of plant biomass. Digestion of this biomass by ruminants generates high methane emissions that affect global warming. In the last decades, the specialisation of cattle breeds and livestock systems towards either milk or meat has increased the milk production of dairy cows and the carcass weight of slaughtered cattle. At the animal level and farm level, improved animal performance decreases feed use and greenhouse gas emissions per kg of milk or carcass weight, mainly through a dilution of maintenance requirements per unit of product. However, increasing milk production per dairy cow reduces meat production from the dairy sector, as there are fewer dairy cows. More beef cows are then required if one wants to maintain the same meat production level at country scale. Meat produced from the dairy herd has a better feed efficiency (less feed required per kg of carcass weight) and emits less methane than the meat produced by the cow-calf systems, because the intake of lactating cows is largely for milk production and marginally for meat, whereas the intake of beef cows is entirely for meat. Consequently, the benefits of breed specialisation assessed at the animal level and farm level may not hold when milk and meat productions are considered together. Any change in the milk-to-meat production ratio at the country level affects the numbers of beef cows required to produce meat. At the world scale, a broad diversity in feed efficiencies of cattle products is observed. Where both productions of milk per dairy cow and meat per head of cattle are low, the relationship between milk and meat efficiencies is positive. Improved management practices (feed, reproduction, health) increase the feed efficiency of both products. Where milk and meat productivities are high, a trade-off between feed efficiencies of milk and meat can be observed in relation to the share of meat produced in either the dairy sector or the beef sector. As a result, in developing countries, increasing productivities of both dairy and beef cattle herds will increase milk and meat efficiencies, reduce land use and decrease methane emissions. In other regions of the world, increasing meat production from young animals produced by dairy cows is probably a better option to reduce feed use for an unchanged milk-to-meat production ratio.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Yang P, Zhang S, Xia J, et al (2022)

Risk assessment of water resource shortages in the Aksu River basin of northwest China under climate change.

Journal of environmental management, 305:114394 pii:S0301-4797(21)02456-7 [Epub ahead of print].

As most of the runoff resulting from snow-ice melt is related to climate change factors in the arid region of northwest China, the risk to water resource systems threatens the socio-economic and ecological environment and is becoming increasingly prevalent. Therefore, we explored the risks of water resource shortages for different periods (2010, 2020, and 2030) in the Aksu River basin (ARB) in the northwest arid region of China by reconstructing a risk model based on the framework proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) with an improved vulnerability (V) module and a more suitable hazard probability in the cost module. The major conclusions are as follows: (1) the simulation of the Community Land Model-Distributed Time Variant Gain Model (CLM-DTVGM) and the Vegetation Interface Processes model (VIP) was suitable for the eco-hydrological processes in the ARB under climate change (i.e., R2 ≥ 0.583; Nash coefficient ≥0.371; and relative mean standard ≤155.727 for CLM-DTVGM; R2 = 0.798 for VIP); (2) the vulnerability of the water resource system in the ARB was medium in 2010, and dropped to a medium-low to non-vulnerable level in 2020 before increasing in 2030 under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5); and (3) there was a medium-low risk of water resource shortages in the ARB in 2010 (i.e., 0.246), and although the risk of water resource shortages decreased in 2020 due to the increasing water supply from mountainous areas, the risk predicted to increase significantly in 2030, to a medium-high risk level. This study is critical for accurately predicting and understanding the impact of climate change on water resource systems as well as on the drought risk in arid regions.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Hussain Z (2022)

Environmental and Economic-oriented Transport Efficiency: The Role of Climate Change Mitigation Technology.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Transport sector is a vital aspect of economic and environment. However, it drastically contributes desirable and undesirable outputs to the economy and the environment due to its rapid development. Thus, transport efficiency related to the economy and the environment needs to be measured. Unlike existing studies that investigate environmental and economic impacts separately, this study analyzes the joint effect of economic and environmental factors. Furthermore, the role of transport-related climate change mitigation technology is also investigated using five inputs and three outputs for the period 2000 to 2020 for 35 OECD countries. This study employs two approaches: first, data envelopment analysis based on slack-based measure (DEA-SBM), and second, an advanced econometric method, i.e., cross-sectional dependence autoregressive distributed lag (CS-ARDL). DEA-SBM shows that all countries are efficient-related economic and environmental effects through the transport sector. CS-ARDL shows that transport-related climate change mitigation technology has a remarkable impact on efficiency levels. Moreover, the joint effect of environmental research and development and climate change mitigation technologies adversely impacts transport efficiency. Climate change mitigation technology related to air has a higher impact than railway and road on economic and environmental transport efficiency. Findings suggest that countries should focus on policy implications regarding transport inputs and desirable and undesirable outputs.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Sarfraz M, Mohsin M, S Naseem (2022)

A blessing in disguise: new insights on the effect of COVID-19 on the carbon emission, climate change, and sustainable environment.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19, declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) to be a pandemic, has affected greenhouse gas emissions and contributed to the uncertainty of environmental activities. This study demonstrates the effect of lockdowns, the number of new confirmed cases, and the number of newly confirmed deaths due to COVID-19 on CO2 emissions. The data series used are for the UK from 23 March 2020 to 31 December 2020 and for Spain from 14 March 2020 to 31 December 2020. This research adopted the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test for a stationarity check of the data series, the Johansen cointegration test for determining cointegration among variables, and the vector error correction model (VEC) Granger causality test for directional cause and effect between exogenous and endogenous variables. The VEC model shows a bidirectional relationship between CO2 emissions and lockdown and a unidirectional relationship with newly confirmed cases and deaths for the UK. The results of Spain confirmed the unidirectional relationship of CO2 emissions, lockdown, new confirmed cases, and deaths. The Granger causality test reconfirms the relationship of variables except for newly confirmed deaths for the UK and newly confirmed cases for Spain. Conclusively, the pandemic breakout reduced the emission of CO2. The directional relation of variables supported the short-run relationship of CO2 emissions with newly confirmed cases and deaths, while a long- and short-run relationship was shown with lockdown. The directional and relational behavior of lockdown potentially linked the CO2 emissions with daily life activities.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Jakučionytė-Skodienė M, G Liobikienė (2022)

The Changes in Climate Change Concern, Responsibility Assumption and Impact on Climate-friendly Behaviour in EU from the Paris Agreement Until 2019.

Environmental management pii:10.1007/s00267-021-01574-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is one of the primary environmental problems broadly discussed in the Paris Agreement. In the literature, authors mainly focused on the changes in climate change concern. However, it is more important to answer whether the changes in concerns and responsibilities affect climate-friendly behaviour. Therefore, this study's objective was to analyse the changes in climate change concern, personal responsibility, and climate-friendly behaviour in EU-28 from 2015 (the launch of the Paris Agreement) to 2019 and evaluate how these changes contributed to separate actions. The changes in climate change concern and personal responsibility were statistically significant (F value). During the analysed period, the purchase of energy-efficient appliances increased the most. Meanwhile, the usage of environmentally friendly transport alternatives decreased. The determinants of changes in climate-friendly behaviour were identified using the multiple linear regression model. Results showed that changes in climate change concern significantly and positively affected waste management and choice of energy supplier which offers a greater share of energy from renewable sources and purchased of low-energy homes. Meanwhile, personal responsibility significantly and positively influenced switching energy suppliers but had a negative effect on home insulation. Furthermore, residents who performed high-cost behaviours (purchase of low-energy homes) also switched energy suppliers and insulated their homes. Therefore, the results indicated that the benefit and cost of behaviour (time, money) are very important aspects to promote climate-friendly behaviour. This study suggested that policymakers should raise public awareness about climate change and take all efforts to reduce the cost of high-cost behaviours and enable the possibilities to perform climate-friendly behaviour.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Donner SD, Skirving WJ, Little CM, et al (2005)

Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change.

Global change biology, 11(12):2251-2265.

Elevated ocean temperatures can cause coral bleaching, the loss of colour from reef-building corals because of a breakdown of the symbiosis with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium. Recent studies have warned that global climate change could increase the frequency of coral bleaching and threaten the long-term viability of coral reefs. These assertions are based on projecting the coarse output from atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs) to the local conditions around representative coral reefs. Here, we conduct the first comprehensive global assessment of coral bleaching under climate change by adapting the NOAA Coral Reef Watch bleaching prediction method to the output of a low- and high-climate sensitivity GCM. First, we develop and test algorithms for predicting mass coral bleaching with GCM-resolution sea surface temperatures for thousands of coral reefs, using a global coral reef map and 1985-2002 bleaching prediction data. We then use the algorithms to determine the frequency of coral bleaching and required thermal adaptation by corals and their endosymbionts under two different emissions scenarios. The results indicate that bleaching could become an annual or biannual event for the vast majority of the world's coral reefs in the next 30-50 years without an increase in thermal tolerance of 0.2-1.0°C per decade. The geographic variability in required thermal adaptation found in each model and emissions scenario suggests that coral reefs in some regions, like Micronesia and western Polynesia, may be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Advances in modelling and monitoring will refine the forecast for individual reefs, but this assessment concludes that the global prognosis is unlikely to change without an accelerated effort to stabilize atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Wahaj Z, Alam MM, AQ Al-Amin (2022)

Climate change and COVID-19: shared challenges, divergent perspectives, and proposed collaborative solutions.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Pandemics leave their mark quickly. This is true for all pandemics, including COVID-19. Its multifarious presence has wreaked havoc on people's physical, economic, and social life since late 2019. Despite the need for social science to save lives, it is also critical to ensure future generations are protected. COVID-19 appeared as the world grappled with the epidemic of climate change. This study suggests policymakers and practitioners address climate change and COVID-19 together. This article offers a narrative review of both pandemics' impacts. Scopus and Web of Science were sought databases. The findings are reported analytically using important works of contemporary social theorists. The analysis focuses on three interconnected themes: technology advancements have harmed vulnerable people; pandemics have macro- and micro-dimensions; and structural disparities. To conclude, we believe that collaborative effort is the key to combating COVID-19 and climate change, while understanding the lessons learnt from the industrialised world. Finally, policymakers can decrease the impact of global catastrophes by addressing many socioeconomic concerns concurrently.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Couet J, Marjakangas EL, Santangeli A, et al (2022)

Short-lived species move uphill faster under climate change.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is pushing species ranges and abundances towards the poles and mountain tops. Although many studies have documented local altitudinal shifts, knowledge of general patterns at a large spatial scale, such as a whole mountain range, is scarce. From a conservation perspective, studying altitudinal shifts in wildlife is relevant because mountain regions often represent biodiversity hotspots and are among the most vulnerable ecosystems. Here, we examine whether altitudinal shifts in birds' abundances have occurred in the Scandinavian mountains over 13 years, and assess whether such shifts are related to species' traits. Using abundance data, we show a clear pattern of uphill shift in the mean altitude of bird abundance across the Scandinavian mountains, with an average speed of 0.9 m per year. Out of 76 species, 7 shifted significantly their abundance uphill. Altitudinal shift was strongly related to species' longevity: short-lived species showed more pronounced uphill shifts in abundance than long-lived species. The observed abundance shifts suggest that uphill shifts are not only driven by a small number of individuals at the range boundaries, but the overall bird abundances are on the move. Overall, the results underscore the wide-ranging impact of climate change and the potential vulnerability of species with slow life histories, as they appear less able to timely respond to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Wan XN, Zhao KY, Wu XW, et al (2022)

[Effects of Stalk Incorporation on Soil Carbon Sequestration, Nitrous Oxide Emissions, and Global Warming Potential of a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Field in Guanzhong Plain].

Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue, 43(1):569-576.

The net greenhouse gas emissions from upland soils, as indicated by global warming potential (GWP), mainly depend on the soil carbon sequestration and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The annual changes in surface (0-20 cm) soil organic carbon (SOC) content from 2010 to 2017 and the N2O emissions from 2014 to 2017 were measured within a long-term fertilization experiment. The objective was to quantify the effect of stalk incorporation on the soil carbon sequestration, annual N2O emissions, and GWP of a winter wheat-summer maize field in the Guanzhong Plain. The field experiment included three treatments:conventional fertilization (CF), conventional fertilization plus maize stalks (CFS), and an unfertilized control (CK). The CF and CFS treatments received the same amount of urea per year, with nitrogen (N) input at 165 kg·hm-2 and 188 kg·hm-2 in the winter wheat season and summer maize season, respectively. The CF treatment retained the stubbles (about 10 cm above ground) when harvesting the winter wheat and summer maize crops. The CFS treatment retained the same wheat stubbles and all maize stalks (containing approximately 40 kg·hm-2 of N). The CK treatment was unfertilized throughout the year, with the stubble management the same as that in the CF treatment. The results showed that the CK treatment displayed few changes in SOC content and low N2O emissions, with GWP varying from 0.04 to 0.11 t·(hm2·a)-1. The SOC contents in the CF and CFS treatments increased linearly with the fertilization years (P<0.001), and their SOC sequestration rates were 0.69 t·(hm2·a)-1 and 0.97 t·(hm2·a)-1, respectively. The N2O emissions from the CF and CFS treatments varied from 1.65 to 5.36 kg·(hm2·a)-1 and from 3.08 to 7.73 kg·(hm2·a)-1, respectively. The annual N2O emissions from the CFS treatment were 43%-94% higher than those from the CF treatment, whereas the difference was only significant between 2015 and 2016 (P<0.05). The GWP of the CF and CFS treatments varied from -1.95 to -0.28 t·(hm2·a)-1 and from -2.59 to -0.35 t·(hm2·a)-1, respectively. The cumulative GWP of the CFS treatment was 42% lower than that of the CF treatment between 2014 and 2017. In summary, the studied winter wheat-summer maize field acted as a sink of greenhouse gases under the conventional fertilization regime. The stalk incorporation further favored greenhouse gas mitigation despite the trade-offs between SOC sequestration and N2O emissions.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Lebel L, Paquin V, Kenny TA, et al (2022)

Climate change and Indigenous mental health in the Circumpolar North: A systematic review to inform clinical practice.

Transcultural psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is disproportionally impacting the Circumpolar North, with particular impacts among Indigenous populations. Environmental changes are felt in many aspects of daily life of Northern communities, including both physical and mental health. Thus, health institutions from around the Arctic must meet emerging needs, while the phenomenon remains marginal to their southern counterparts. In this systematic review, we aimed to review current scientific knowledge on the mental health impacts of climate change in Indigenous Peoples across the Circumpolar North. Seven databases were searched. Original peer-reviewed research articles were included if they addressed links between climate change and mental health in Arctic or Subarctic Indigenous Populations. After extraction, data were synthesized using thematic analysis. Of the 26 articles that met inclusion criteria, 16 focused on Canadian Inuit communities and 21 were exclusively qualitative. Being on the land was identified as a central determinant of wellbeing. Immediate impacts of climate change on mental health were felt through restricted mobility and disrupted livelihoods. Effects on mental health were further felt through changes in culture and identity, food insecurity, interpersonal stress and conflicts, and housing problems. Various ways in how communities and individuals are coping with these effects were reported. Understanding climate-related pathways of mental health risks in the Arctic is crucial to better identify vulnerable groups and to foster resilience. Clinicians can play a role in recognizing and providing support for patients affected by these disruptions. Policies sensitive to the climate-mental health relationship must be advocated for.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Anonymous (2022)

How researchers can help fight climate change in 2022 and beyond.

Nature, 601(7891):7.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Brown MJ, BB Forster (2022)

Climate Change: How Radiologists can Help.

RevDate: 2022-01-05

Monsour M, Clarke-Rubright E, Lieberman-Cribbin W, et al (2022)

The Impact of Climate Change on the Prevalence of Mental Illness Symptoms.

Journal of affective disorders pii:S0165-0327(21)01442-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The repercussions of climate change threaten the population with an increased prevalence of extreme climate events. We explored the impact of climate change induced sea level rise (SLR) and tropical cyclone (TC) exposure on mental illness symptom prevalence.

METHODS: Using three datasets, TC exposure scores were calculated for each subject to determine how exposure affects posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and major depressive disorder (MDD) symptom prevalence. Inundation mapping of various SLR and storm surge (SS) scenarios were performed for the susceptible region of Miami-Dade and Broward counties to determine the population impact of flooding.

RESULTS: We found an elevated risk of mental illness symptoms from exposure to more high- intensity TCs and identified demographic variables that may contribute to this risk. Furthermore, inundation mapping demonstrated severe and widespread impact of SLR and SS on the mental health of communities.

LIMITATIONS: This study did not include data directly measuring comorbidity, resilience, preparedness, or ability to adapt to climate change. Also, multiple imputation using chained equations may have been imperfect. Furthermore, there is uncertainty in predicting and mapping SLR and TC intensity, which limits complete confidence in our SS predictions.

CONCLUSION: The impacts of climate change have been frequently studied in terms of physical health, natural disaster prevalence, and economic impacts, but rarely on mental health burden. However, it is vital that national, state, and local governments develop and deploy plans to address mental health needs along with expenditures for protecting infrastructure, the economy, and physical health from the combined effects of SLR and climate change-induced natural disasters.

RevDate: 2022-01-05

Anonymous (2022)

Rivers buffer a vast sea against climate-change impacts.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Ghosh AK, Shapiro MF, DM Abramson (2022)

Trends in National Institutes of Health Funding on the Health-Related Effects of Climate Change and Natural Disasters.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Paz S, Majeed A, GK Christophides (2021)

Climate change impacts on infectious diseases in the Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (EMME)-risks and recommendations.

Climatic change, 169(3-4):40.

The Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East (EMME) region has rapid population growth, large differences in socio-economic levels between developed and developing countries, migration, increased water demand, and ecosystems degradation. The region is experiencing a significant warming trend with longer and warmer summers, increased frequency and severity of heat waves, and a drier climate. While climate change plays an important role in contributing to political instability in the region through displacement of people, food insecurity, and increased violence, it also increases the risks of vector-, water-, and food-borne diseases. Poorer and less educated people, young children and the elderly, migrants, and those with long-term health problems are at highest risk. A result of the inequalities among EMME countries is an inconsistency in the availability of reliable evidence about the impacts on infectious diseases. To help address this gap, a search of the literature was conducted as a basis for related recommended responses and suggested actions for preparedness and prevention. Since climate change already impacts the health of vulnerable populations in the EMME and will have a greater impact in future years, risk assessment and timely design and implementation of health preparedness and adaptation strategies are essential. Joint national and cross-border infectious diseases management systems for more effective preparedness and prevention are needed, supported by interventions that improve the environment. Without such cooperation and effective interventions, climate change will lead to an increasing morbidity and mortality in the EMME from infectious diseases, with a higher risk for the most vulnerable populations.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Kulkarni MA, Duguay C, K Ost (2022)

Charting the evidence for climate change impacts on the global spread of malaria and dengue and adaptive responses: a scoping review of reviews.

Globalization and health, 18(1):1.

BACKGROUND: Climate change is expected to alter the global footprint of many infectious diseases, particularly vector-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue. Knowledge of the range and geographical context of expected climate change impacts on disease transmission and spread, combined with knowledge of effective adaptation strategies and responses, can help to identify gaps and best practices to mitigate future health impacts. To investigate the types of evidence for impacts of climate change on two major mosquito-borne diseases of global health importance, malaria and dengue, and to identify the range of relevant policy responses and adaptation strategies that have been devised, we performed a scoping review of published review literature. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus and Epistemonikos) were systematically searched for relevant published reviews. Inclusion criteria were: reviews with a systematic search, from 2007 to 2020, in English or French, that addressed climate change impacts and/or adaptation strategies related to malaria and/or dengue. Data extracted included: characteristics of the article, type of review, disease(s) of focus, geographic focus, and nature of the evidence. The evidence was summarized to identify and compare regional evidence for climate change impacts and adaptation measures.

RESULTS: A total of 32 reviews met the inclusion criteria. Evidence for the impacts of climate change (including climate variability) on dengue was greatest in the Southeast Asian region, while evidence for the impacts of climate change on malaria was greatest in the African region, particularly in highland areas. Few reviews explicitly addressed the implementation of adaptation strategies to address climate change-driven disease transmission, however suggested strategies included enhanced surveillance, early warning systems, predictive models and enhanced vector control.

CONCLUSIONS: There is strong evidence for the impacts of climate change, including climate variability, on the transmission and future spread of malaria and dengue, two of the most globally important vector-borne diseases. Further efforts are needed to develop multi-sectoral climate change adaptation strategies to enhance the capacity and resilience of health systems and communities, especially in regions with predicted climatic suitability for future emergence and re-emergence of malaria and dengue. This scoping review may serve as a useful precursor to inform future systematic reviews of the primary literature.

RevDate: 2022-01-03

Neogi S, Sharma V, Khan N, et al (2021)

Sustainable biochar: A facile strategy for soil and environmental restoration, energygeneration, mitigation of global climate change and circular bioeconomy.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(21)03948-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing agro-demands with the burgeoning population lead to the accumulation of lignocellulosic residues. The practice of burning agri-residues has consequences viz. Release of soot and smoke, nutrient depletion, loss of soil microbial diversity, air pollution and hazardous effects on human health. The utilization of agricultural waste as biomass to synthesize biochar and biofuels, is the pertinent approach for attaining sustainable development goals. Biochar contributes in the improvement of soil properties, carbon sequestration, reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, removal of organic and heavy metal pollutants, production of biofuels, synthesis of useful chemicals and building cementitious materials. The biochar characteristics including surface area, porosity and functional groups vary with the type of biomass consumed in pyrolysis and the control of parameters during the process. The major adsorption mechanisms of biochar involve physical-adsorption, ion-exchange interactions, electrostatic attraction, surface complexation and precipitation. The recent trend of engineered biochar can enhance its surface properties, pH buffering capacity and presence of desired functional groups. This review focuses on the contribution of biochar in attaining sustainable development goals. Hence, it provides a thorough understanding of biochar's importance in enhancing soil productivity, bioremediation of environmental pollutants, carbon negative concretes, mitigation of climate change and generation of bioenergy that amplifies circular bioeconomy, and concomitantly facilitates the fulfilment of the United Nation Sustainable Development Goals. The application of biochar as seen is primarily targeting four important SDGs including clean water and sanitation (SGD6), affordable and clean energy (SDG7), responsible consumption and production (SDG12) and climate action (SDG13).

RevDate: 2022-01-03

Flanagan C (2022)

Commentary: Proactive practices to support youth coping with climate change - a commentary on Martin et al. (2021).

Child and adolescent mental health [Epub ahead of print].

Based on the scoping review of literature on youths' anxieties and worries associated with their understanding of climate change, I suggest three practices for supporting youth coping: emphasizing what they can do through proactive environmental action; emphasizing group rather than individual efforts - working in peer teams and networking with adults and organizations dedicated to environmental action and to combatting climate change; and focusing on human impact (negative and positive) in the local place where they reside and ways they can observe and monitor that impact.

RevDate: 2022-01-01

Grobusch LC, MP Grobusch (2021)

A hot topic at the environment-health nexus: Investigating the impact of climate change on infectious diseases.

International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases pii:S1201-9712(21)01250-9 [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 pandemic aside, climate change is the ultimate challenge of our time. However, to date, there has been insufficient political thrust to make that much-needed climate action a reality.

Infectious diseases represent only one facet of the threats arising from climate change. Direct impacts from climate change include the more frequent occurrence and increased magnitude of extreme weather events, as well as changing temperatures and precipitation patterns. For climate-sensitive infectious diseases, these changes implicate a shift in geographic and temporal distribution, seasonality, and transmission intensity.

SIZING-UP THE PROBLEM: Susceptibility to deleterious effects of climate change is a net result not only of the interplay of environmental factors but also governed by human, societal, and economic factors, with social inequalities being a major determinant of vulnerability. The global South is already disproportionately affected by the climate crisis. The financial capacity to pursue adaptation options is also limited and unevenly distributed.

CONCLUSIONS: Climate change-induced mortality and morbidity from both infectious and non-infectious diseases, amongst other adverse scenarios, is expected to rise globally in the future. The coming decade will be crucial for using all opportunities left to develop and implement adequate mitigation- and adaptation strategies.

RevDate: 2022-01-03

Blunden C (2022)

Pandemics, climate change, and antibiotic resistance.

The British journal of general practice : the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 72(714):26-27 pii:72/714/26.

RevDate: 2021-12-31

Mathias JM, AT Trugman (2021)

Climate change impacts plant carbon balance, increasing mean future carbon use efficiency but decreasing total forest extent at dry range edges.

Ecology letters [Epub ahead of print].

Carbon use efficiency (CUE) represents how efficient a plant is at translating carbon gains through gross primary productivity (GPP) into net primary productivity (NPP) after respiratory costs (Ra). CUE varies across space with climate and species composition, but how CUE will respond to climate change is largely unknown due to uncertainty in Ra at novel high temperatures. We use a plant physiological model validated against global CUE observations and LIDAR vegetation canopy height data and find that model-predicted decreases in CUE are diagnostic of transitions from forests to shrubland at dry range edges. Under future climate scenarios, we show mean growing season CUE increases in core forested areas, but forest extent decreases at dry range edges, with substantial uncertainty in absolute CUE due to uncertainty in Ra . Our results highlight that future forest resilience is nuanced and controlled by multiple competing mechanisms.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Ali H, Din JU, Bosso L, et al (2021)

Expanding or shrinking? range shifts in wild ungulates under climate change in Pamir-Karakoram mountains, Pakistan.

PloS one, 16(12):e0260031.

Climate change is expected to impact a large number of organisms in many ecosystems, including several threatened mammals. A better understanding of climate impacts on species can make conservation efforts more effective. The Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica) and blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur) are economically important wild ungulates in northern Pakistan because they are sought-after hunting trophies. However, both species are threatened due to several human-induced factors, and these factors are expected to aggravate under changing climate in the High Himalayas. In this study, we investigated populations of ibex and blue sheep in the Pamir-Karakoram mountains in order to (i) update and validate their geographical distributions through empirical data; (ii) understand range shifts under climate change scenarios; and (iii) predict future habitats to aid long-term conservation planning. Presence records of target species were collected through camera trapping and sightings in the field. We constructed Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) model on presence record and six key climatic variables to predict the current and future distributions of ibex and blue sheep. Two representative concentration pathways (4.5 and 8.5) and two-time projections (2050 and 2070) were used for future range predictions. Our results indicated that ca. 37% and 9% of the total study area (Gilgit-Baltistan) was suitable under current climatic conditions for Himalayan ibex and blue sheep, respectively. Annual mean precipitation was a key determinant of suitable habitat for both ungulate species. Under changing climate scenarios, both species will lose a significant part of their habitats, particularly in the Himalayan and Hindu Kush ranges. The Pamir-Karakoram ranges will serve as climate refugia for both species. This area shall remain focus of future conservation efforts to protect Pakistan's mountain ungulates.

RevDate: 2022-01-03

Chinthrajah S, Garcia E, Hasan Z, et al (2022)

Climate Change Health Effects and What You Can Do.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 205(1):P1-P2.

RevDate: 2021-12-31

Barkin JL, Curry CL, L Goss (2021)

That is one important wrapper: Mental health considerations related to climate change in the perinatal period.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Alfonso B, Sansón M, Sangil C, et al (2021)

Herbarium macroalgae specimens reveal a rapid reduction of thallus size and reproductive effort related with climate change.

Marine environmental research, 174:105546 pii:S0141-1136(21)00302-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding and forecasting the effects of climate changes on vulnerable species are leading concerns for ecologists and conservation biologists. Herbaria are invaluable for use in long-term data series, and one of the few available methods for quantifying biodiversity changes over large periods of time. Gelidium canariense is an endemic and habitat-forming macroalga of the Canary Islands that coexists with two other habitat-forming Gelidiales: G. arbuscula and Pterocladiella capillacea. This study assesses long-term changes in thallus size and reproductive effort of all specimens deposited in the Herbarium of Universidad de La Laguna of these three Gelidiales species. Also assessed were the effects of seawater temperature and increased incident light on net primary production (NPP), and the effects of extreme desiccation conditions on the relative water content and NPP of the three Gelidiales species. The length of the thallus of the endemic species G. canariense was halved during the past 40 years. The shortening of the thallus coincided with a significant decrease in the number of reproductive structures in both Gelidium species. These morphological changes coincide with a significant increase of the sea surface temperature, air temperature above sea surface and ultraviolet radiation in the studied area. The experiments have revealed the deleterious effects of extreme desiccation and extreme irradiance on all three species. Hence, these results suggest that air temperature and irradiance are related with these morphological changes over time in the habitat-forming Gelidium species and that are most likely compromising the survival of their populations which are already declining.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Guo B, Wei C, Yu Y, et al (2021)

The dominant influencing factors of desertification changes in the source region of Yellow River: Climate change or human activity?.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)07590-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the combined effects of global warming and human activities, the ecological environment of the Yellow River source area has undergone profound changes and desertification has become increasingly prominent. In this study, an optimal desertification monitoring index based on feature space was proposed for the Yellow River source area, and constructed using Landsat images. Then, the spatial and temporal variation of desertification in the Yellow River source area and its driving mechanism were studied using Geodetector. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) The newly proposed feature space-based desertification monitoring index has good applicability in the study area. The best inversion accuracy of the point-to-point Albedo-NDVI feature space model was 88.4%. (2) Desertification in the eastern and southern regions of the Yellow River source area has a tendency to increase, while the desertification situation in the central region is relatively stable. (3) From 1995 to 2015, there was a significant improvement in desertification in the study area, as evidenced by a decrease in desertification intensity. (4) As the intensity of human disturbance increases, the influence of natural factors on desertification gradually diminishes. The interaction of natural and anthropogenic factors has greater explanatory power for desertification than that of individual natural or anthropogenic factors. The research results can be used as a reference for decision-making on desertification control in the Three-River Source Region.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Taylor-Cornejo E (2021)

Empowering Undergraduates to Fight Climate Change with Soil Microbes.

DNA and cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

The burning of fossil fuels to meet a growing demand for energy has created a climate crisis that threatens Earth's fragile ecosystems. While most undergraduate students are familiar with solar and wind energy as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels, many are not aware of a climate solution right beneath their feet-soil-dwelling microbes! Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness energy from the metabolic activity of microbes in the soil to generate electricity. Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic transformed the traditional microbiology teaching laboratory into take-home laboratory kits and online modes of delivery, which could accommodate distance learning. This laboratory exercise combined both virtual laboratory simulations and a commercially available MFC kit to challenge undergraduate students to apply fundamental principles in microbiology to real-world climate solutions.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Viveros-Uehara T (2021)

Health Care in a Changing Climate: A Review of Climate Change Laws and National Adaptation Plans in Latin America.

Health and human rights, 23(2):139-151.

Given that the health-related impacts of climate change in Latin America disproportionately affect the most marginalized sections of the population, there is a need to enhance countries' adaptive capacity through improved health systems. Though public health institutions have delineated guidelines to enhance health care systems' preparedness for climate change, embedding a human rights perspective in their translation into laws and policies further adds important value. Crucially, a rights-based approach strengthens health responses to climate change by calling attention to how climate law and policy fail to account for persistent and interlocking socioeconomic inequalities. This is an area that has not been fully present in the provision of health services in Latin America, which rely almost exclusively on a conventional epidemiological perspective and do not consider the historical and sociocultural nature of health challenges. Hence, this paper draws on two case studies-Brazil and Colombia-to identify the extent to which their national climate change laws and adaptation plans incorporate a human rights-based approach in their tasks to enhance their adaptive capacity through the expansion of affordable and quality health care. With respect to the countries' laws, the absence of explicit references to the right to health exemplifies the fragmentation between the international human rights framework and international climate change law. Further, both countries' adaptation plans hold considerable room for improving their engagement with the human rights framework, particularly by establishing mechanisms to promote transparency, monitoring, and the participation of marginalized groups.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Wu CF (2021)

Challenges to Protecting the Right to Health under the Climate Change Regime.

Health and human rights, 23(2):121-138.

Researchers and global policy makers are increasingly documenting negative health impacts from climate change, raising concerns for realizing the right to health. Importantly, courts have held that anthropogenic activities affecting climate may threaten a population's standard of health and compromise its inviolable right to health. However, legal hurdles-such as the fragmentation of climate change and human rights laws and the difficulties in proving causal links-hamper efforts to litigate right to health claims in the context of climate change. To address these challenges, this article assesses the detrimental effects of climate change from an international human rights perspective and analyzes climate change litigation to explore potential avenues to press for the right to health in the face of climate change.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

Gasparri G, Omrani OE, Hinton R, et al (2021)

Children, Adolescents, and Youth Pioneering a Human Rights-Based Approach to Climate Change.

Health and human rights, 23(2):95-108.

Climate change is the greatest challenge of our century. Children, adolescents, and youth will bear the most severe impacts, physically, socially, economically, and psychologically. In response to this immense threat and to the failure of international climate negotiations to date, young people are taking to the streets and using global fora to call for climate justice. While these protests have received much attention, there has been limited examination of these and other youth-led efforts through the lens of a human rights-based approach and its operational principles: participation, equality and nondiscrimination, accountability, and transparency. This paper draws from academic and gray literature, as well as the authors' experience as practitioners and young activists, to argue that young people, by promoting human rights-based operational principles at the international, national, and local levels, are pioneering a human rights-based approach to climate change. The paper concludes by suggesting how policy makers can support and empower young people to advance an explicit human rights-based agenda, while concurrently translating human rights-based operational principles into climate change policies and practice.

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Ni B, Zhao W, Zuo X, et al (2021)

Deyeuxia angustifolia Kom. encroachment changes soil physicochemical properties and microbial community in the alpine tundra under climate change.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)07693-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Plant encroachment in alpine regions, caused by global changes and human activities, has been well documented. However, our knowledge of the effects of plant encroachment on belowground microbial communities is limited. Here, we investigated soil physicochemical properties and microbial community structures under the impact of plant encroachment along an elevation gradient in the alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountain, China. We found that plant encroachment had insignificant (P > 0.05) and inconsistent effects on the α-diversity (number of observed OTUs, Shannon, Chao1, Faith's PD) of soil microbial communities. Plant encroachment indirectly influenced soil microbial community structures by altering soil physicochemical properties, which differed between elevations and plant types (P < 0.05). In all, 40 bacterial indicator taxa and 57 fungal indicator taxa significantly shifted in response to plant encroachment, some of which were involved in soil biogeochemical cycle. Overall, our results documented the impacts of plant encroachment on soil microbial diversity and community composition, and provided a scientific basis for predicting future changes in alpine ecosystem structure and function and its subsequent feedbacks to global change.

RevDate: 2021-12-28

Agüera E, P de la Haba (2021)

Climate Change Impacts on Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) Plants.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(12): pii:plants10122646.

The biochemical, biological, and morphogenetic processes of plants are affected by ongoing climate change, causing alterations in crop development, growth, and productivity. Climate change is currently producing ecosystem modifications, making it essential to study plants with an improved adaptive capacity in the face of environmental modifications. This work examines the physiological and metabolic changes taking place during the development of sunflower plants due to environmental modifications resulting from climate change: elevated concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and increased temperatures. Variations in growth, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism, as well as their effect on the plant's oxidative state in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) plants, are studied. An understanding of the effect of these interacting factors (elevated CO2 and elevated temperatures) on plant development and stress response is imperative to understand the impact of climate change on plant productivity.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Gupta S, Rouse BT, PP Sarangi (2021)

Did Climate Change Influence the Emergence, Transmission, and Expression of the COVID-19 Pandemic?.

Frontiers in medicine, 8:769208.

The human race has survived many epidemics and pandemics that have emerged and reemerged throughout history. The novel coronavirus Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 is the latest pandemic and this has caused major health and socioeconomic problems in almost all communities of the world. The origin of the virus is still in dispute but most likely, the virus emerged from the bats and also may involve an intermediate host before affecting humans. Several other factors also may have affected the emergence and outcome of the infection but in this review, we make a case for a possible role of climate change. The rise in industrialization-related human activities has created a marked imbalance in the homeostasis of environmental factors such as temperature and other weather and these might even have imposed conditions for the emergence of future coronavirus cycles. An attempt is made in this review to explore the effect of ongoing climate changes and discuss if these changes had a role in facilitating the emergence, transmission, and even the expression of the COVID-19 pandemic. We surmise that pandemics will be more frequent in the future and more severely impactful unless climate changes are mitigated.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Albà CG, Alkhatib III, Llovell F, et al (2021)

Assessment of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants for Drop-In Replacement by Connecting their Molecular Features to Their Performance.

ACS sustainable chemistry & engineering, 9(50):17034-17048.

The use of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as an alternative for refrigeration units has grown over the past decades as a replacement to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), banned by the Montreal's Protocol because of their effect on the depletion of the ozone layer. However, HFCs are known to be greenhouse gases with considerable global warming potential (GWP), thousands of times higher than carbon dioxide. The Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol has promoted an active area of research toward the development of low GWP refrigerants to replace the ones in current use, and it is expected to significantly contribute to the Paris Agreement by avoiding nearly half a degree Celsius of temperature increase by the end of this century. We present here a molecular-based evaluation tool aiming at finding optimal refrigerants with the requirements imposed by current environmental legislations in order to mitigate their impact on climate change. The proposed approach relies on the robust polar soft-SAFT equation of state to predict thermodynamic properties required for their technical evaluation at conditions relevant for cooling applications. Additionally, the thermodynamic model integrated with technical criteria enable the search for compatibility of currently used third generation compounds with more eco-friendly refrigerants as drop-in replacements. The criteria include volumetric cooling capacity, coefficient of performance, and other physicochemical properties with direct impact on the technical performance of the cooling cycle. As such, R1123, R1224yd(Z), R1234ze(E), and R1225ye(Z) demonstrate high aptitude toward replacing R134a, R32, R152a, and R245fa with minimal retrofitting to the existing system. The current modeling platform for the rapid screening of emerging refrigerants offers a guide for future efforts on the design of alternative working fluids.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Ngxongo NA (2021)

The impact of climate change on visitor destination selection: A case study of the Central Drakensberg Region in KwaZulu-Natal.

Jamba (Potchefstroom, South Africa), 13(1):1161 pii:JAMBA-13-1161.

Many variables influence visitors' destination choices, for example, affordability, attractions, health and safety, and expectancies. Amongst the indirect influences in destination choice by tourists, climate change is perhaps the greatest factor because of its negative impact on the ecological landscape of tourist destinations. Using the Central Drakensberg Region (CDR) as a case study, this article seeks to investigate the influence of climate change on visitors' destination choices. A quantitative descriptive survey was conducted on a sample of n347 participants who were selected using purposive and convenience sampling procedures under the auspices of non-probability. The statistical analyses were performed using the latest edition of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (Version 25.0). Based on the study's results, climate change was found to be a key influence on tourists' decision-making, behaviour and spending habits at tourist destination like the Central Drakensberg Area. The most significant climatic parameter for tourists was determined to be pleasant and warm temperatures, as well as the summer season. Furthermore, owing to the current climate change circumstances, visitors were found to be less likely to return or recommend future visits to the region. To that end, tourism officials in the CDR should swiftly implement adaptation measures to counter the effects, and explore alternatives such as soft tourism and non-climate-dependent activities to accommodate visitors year-around. Further research is recommended to establish the extent to which socio-demographic characteristics influence destination choice in the area, as well as to ascertain the current state of climate change impacts.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Rienth M, Vigneron N, Walker RP, et al (2021)

Modifications of Grapevine Berry Composition Induced by Main Viral and Fungal Pathogens in a Climate Change Scenario.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:717223.

The grapevine is subject to high number of fungal and viral diseases, which are responsible for important economic losses in the global wine sector every year. These pathogens deteriorate grapevine berry quality either directly via the modulation of fruit metabolic pathways and the production of endogenous compounds associated with bad taste and/or flavor, or indirectly via their impact on vine physiology. The most common and devastating fungal diseases in viticulture are gray mold, downy mildew (DM), and powdery mildew (PM), caused, respectively by Botrytis cinerea, Plasmopara viticola, and Erysiphe necator. Whereas B. cinerea mainly infects and deteriorates the ripening fruit directly, deteriorations by DM and PM are mostly indirect via a reduction of photosynthetic leaf area. Nevertheless, mildews can also infect berries at certain developmental stages and directly alter fruit quality via the biosynthesis of unpleasant flavor compounds that impair ultimate wine quality. The grapevine is furthermore host of a wide range of viruses that reduce vine longevity, productivity and berry quality in different ways. The most widespread virus-related diseases, that are known nowadays, are Grapevine Leafroll Disease (GLRD), Grapevine Fanleaf Disease (GFLD), and the more recently characterized grapevine red blotch disease (GRBD). Future climatic conditions are creating a more favorable environment for the proliferation of most virus-insect vectors, so the spread of virus-related diseases is expected to increase in most wine-growing regions. However, the impact of climate change on the evolution of fungal disease pressure will be variable and depending on region and pathogen, with mildews remaining certainly the major phytosanitary threat in most regions because their development rate is to a large extent temperature-driven. This paper aims to provide a review of published literature on most important grapevine fungal and viral pathogens and their impact on grape berry physiology and quality. Our overview of the published literature highlights gaps in our understanding of plant-pathogen interactions, which are valuable for conceiving future research programs dealing with the different pathogens and their impacts on grapevine berry quality and metabolism.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Pal SC, Chowdhuri I, Das B, et al (2021)

Threats of climate change and land use patterns enhance the susceptibility of future floods in India.

Journal of environmental management, 305:114317 pii:S0301-4797(21)02379-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The main objective of this work is the future prediction of the floods in India due to climate and land change. Human activity and related carbon emissions are the primary cause of land use and climate change, which has a substantial impact on extreme weather conditions, such as floods. This study presents high-resolution flood susceptibility maps of different future periods (up to 2100) using a combination of remote sensing data and GIS modelling. To quantify the future flood susceptibility various flood causative factors, Global circulation model (GCM) rainfall and land use and land cover (LULC) data are envisaged. The present flood susceptibility model has been evaluated through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, where area under curve (AUC) value shows the 91.57% accuracy of this flood susceptibility model and it can be used for future flood susceptibility modelling. Based on the projected LULC, rainfall and flood susceptibility, the results of the study indicating maximum monthly rainfall will increase by approximately 40-50 mm in 2100, while the conversion of natural vegetation to agricultural and built-up land is about 0.071 million sq. km. and the severe flood event area will increase by up to 122% (0.15 million sq. km) from now on.

RevDate: 2021-12-27
CmpDate: 2021-12-27

Xia X, Li Y, Yang DD, et al (2021)

[Potential geographical distribution of Rana hanluica in China under climate change].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 32(12):4307-4314.

Global warming in the last few decades had strong impacts on biodiversity and geographi-cal distribution of different animal species worldwide, especially amphibians. Rana hanluica, a frog species endemic in China, is still classified as Least Concerned in the Red List of Threatened Species because few studies have been conducted on this species. To understand the survival of Rana hanluica population, we used maximum entropy models (MaxEnt) to analyze its distribution across regions under current climatic conditions based on 47 distribution records and 20 environmental factors. We investigated the changes in distribution of this species under different climate scenarios in China (2050s and 2070s). Finally, current and future suitable habitats for R. hanluica were mode-led, and the impacts of environmental factors in shaping its distribution were evaluated. The results showed that the prediction accuracy of the MaxEnt model was high, and AUC value of the receiver operating curve was 0.993. The total suitable habitat area for R. hanluica was 36.36×104 km2, mainly located in Hunan and Guizhou provinces in China. The major environmental factors influencing the geographic distribution of R. hanluica were precipitation of dryest month and altitude. Under the future climate scenario (2050 and 2070) with two representative concentration pathways (RCPs, SSP1-2.5, SSP5-8.5), the suitable habitat of R. hanluica was reduced in different degrees, resulting in a decreasing trend of the total suitable habitat area. The center of gravity in highly suitable habitat of R. hanluica shifted to high-latitude regions, with the core distribution area in Hunan Province.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

Wesselink AK, GA Wellenius (2022)

Impacts of climate change on reproductive, perinatal and paediatric health.

Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology, 36(1):1-3.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

Alruiz JM, Peralta-Maraver I, Bozinovic F, et al (2021)

Thermal tolerance in Drosophila: repercussions for distribution, community coexistence and responses to climate change.

The Journal of animal ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Here we combined controlled experiments and field surveys to determine if estimates of heat tolerance predict distributional ranges and phenology of different Drosophila species in southern South America. We contrasted thermal death time curves, which consider both magnitude and duration of the challenge to estimate heat tolerance, against the thermal range where populations are viable based on field surveys in an 8-yr longitudinal study. We observed a strong correspondence of the physiological limits, the thermal niche for population growth, and the geographic ranges across studied species, which suggests that the thermal biology of different species provides a common currency to understand how species will respond to warming temperatures both at a local level and throughout their distribution range. Our approach represents a novel analytical toolbox to anticipate how natural communities of ectothermic organisms will respond to global warming.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

Man Z, Che S, Xie C, et al (2021)

Effect of Climate Change on CO2 Flux in Temperate Grassland, Subtropical Artificial Coniferous Forest and Tropical Rain Forest Ecosystems.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(24): pii:ijerph182413056.

The interactions between CO2 flux, an important component of ecosystem carbon flux, and climate change vary significantly among different ecosystems. In this research, the inter-annual variation characteristics of ecosystem respiration (RE), gross ecosystem exchange (GEE), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) were explored in the temperate grassland (TG) of Xilinhot (2004-2010), the subtropical artificial coniferous forest (SACF) of Qianyanzhou (2003-2010), and the tropical rain forest (TRF) of Xishuangbanna (2003-2010). The main factors of climate change affecting ecosystem CO2 flux were identified by redundancy analysis, and exponential models and temperature indicators were constructed to consider the relationship between climate change and CO2 flux. Every year from 2003 to 2010, RE and GEE first increased and then decreased, and NEE showed no significant change pattern. TG was a carbon source, whereas SACF and TRF were carbon sinks. The influence of air temperature on RE and GEE was greater than that of soil temperature, but the influence of soil moisture on RE and GEE was greater than that of air moisture. Compared with moisture and photosynthetically active radiation, temperature had the greatest impact on CO2 flux and the exponential model had the best fitting effect. In TG and SACF, the average temperature was the most influential factor, and in TRF, the accumulated temperature was the most influential factor. These results provide theoretical support for mitigating and managing climate change and provide references for achieving carbon neutrality.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @ gmail.com

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )