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Bibliography on: Neanderthals

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 22 Jan 2022 at 01:35 Created: 


Wikipedia: Neanderthals or Neandertals — named for the Neandertal region in Germany — were a species or subspecies of archaic human, in the genus Homo. Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000 years ago. They were closely related to modern humans, sharing 99.7% of DNA. Remains left by Neanderthals include bone and stone tools, which are found in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central and Northern Asia. Neanderthals are generally classified by paleontologists as the species Homo neanderthalensis, having separated from the Homo sapiens lineage 600,000 years ago, but a minority consider them to be a subspecies of Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis). Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe. The earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorham's Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar. Compared to Homo sapiens, Neanderthals had a lower surface-to-volume ratio, with shorter legs and a bigger body, in conformance with Bergmann's rule, as an energy-loss reduction adaptation to life in a high-latitude (i.e. seasonally cold) climate. Their average cranial capacity was notably larger than typical for modern humans: 1600 cm3 vs. 1250-1400 cm3. The Neanderthal genome project published papers in 2010 and 2014 stating that Neanderthals contributed to the DNA of modern humans, including most humans outside sub-Saharan Africa, as well as a few populations in sub-Saharan Africa, through interbreeding, likely between 50,000 and 60,000 years ago.

Created with PubMed® Query: Neanderthal OR Neandertal NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Quan C, Li Y, Liu X, et al (2021)

Characterization of structural variation in Tibetans reveals new evidence of high-altitude adaptation and introgression.

Genome biology, 22(1):159.

BACKGROUND: Structural variation (SV) acts as an essential mutational force shaping the evolution and function of the human genome. However, few studies have examined the role of SVs in high-altitude adaptation and little is known of adaptive introgressed SVs in Tibetans so far.

RESULTS: Here, we generate a comprehensive catalog of SVs in a Chinese Tibetan (n = 15) and Han (n = 10) population using nanopore sequencing technology. Among a total of 38,216 unique SVs in the catalog, 27% are sequence-resolved for the first time. We systematically assess the distribution of these SVs across repeat sequences and functional genomic regions. Through genotyping in additional 276 genomes, we identify 69 Tibetan-Han stratified SVs and 80 candidate adaptive genes. We also discover a few adaptive introgressed SV candidates and provide evidence for a deletion of 335 base pairs at 1p36.32.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results highlight the important role of SVs in the evolutionary processes of Tibetans' adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and provide a valuable resource for future high-altitude adaptation studies.

RevDate: 2022-01-17

Busch J, Schmidt S, Albers P, et al (2022)

Can magnetic resonance imaging replace conventional computerized tomography for follow-up of patients with testicular cancer? A systematic review.

World journal of urology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Follow-up protocols for patients with testicular cancer (TC) have significantly reduced the number of cross-sectional imaging studies to reduce radiation exposure. At present, it is unclear whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could replace conventional computerized tomography (CT) imaging. The objective of this study is to summarize the scientific evidence on this topic and to review guideline recommendations with regard to the use of MRI.

METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed searching Medline and Cochrane databases for prospective studies on patients with TC in the follow-up care (last search in February 2021). Additionally, guideline recommendations for TC were screened. Data extraction and quality assessment of included studies were performed and used for a descriptive presentation of results.

RESULTS: A total of four studies including two ongoing trials were identified. Overall, the scientific evidence of prospective comparative studies is based on 102 patients. Data suggest that abdominal imaging with MRI can replace conventional CT for detection of lymph node metastasis of the retroperitoneum to spare radiation exposure and contrast media application. However, experienced radiologists are needed. Clinical guidelines are aware of the risk of diagnosis-induced secondary malignancy due to CT imaging and some have adapted their recommendations accordingly. Results of the two ongoing trials on 738 patients are expected soon to provide more reliable results on this topic.

CONCLUSIONS: There is growing evidence that abdominopelvic MRI imaging can replace CT imaging during follow-up of patients with TC in order to reduce radiation exposure and diagnosis-induced secondary malignancy.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Huffman JE, Butler-Laporte G, Khan A, et al (2022)

Multi-ancestry fine mapping implicates OAS1 splicing in risk of severe COVID-19.

Nature genetics [Epub ahead of print].

The OAS1/2/3 cluster has been identified as a risk locus for severe COVID-19 among individuals of European ancestry, with a protective haplotype of approximately 75 kilobases (kb) derived from Neanderthals in the chromosomal region 12q24.13. This haplotype contains a splice variant of OAS1, which occurs in people of African ancestry independently of gene flow from Neanderthals. Using trans-ancestry fine-mapping approaches in 20,779 hospitalized cases, we demonstrate that this splice variant is likely to be the SNP responsible for the association at this locus, thus strongly implicating OAS1 as an effector gene influencing COVID-19 severity.

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Wu XJ, Bae CJ, Friess M, et al (2022)

Evolution of cranial capacity revisited: A view from the late Middle Pleistocene cranium from Xujiayao, China.

Journal of human evolution, 163:103119 pii:S0047-2484(21)00171-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The Late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils from the Xujiayao site in northern China have been closely studied in light of their morphological variability. However, all previous studies have focused on separated cranial fragments. Here, we report the first reconstruction of a fairly complete posterior cranium, Xujiayao 6 (XJY 6), confidently dated to ∼200-160 ka, which facilitated an assessment of its overall cranial size. XJY 6 was reconstructed from three of the original fragments-the PA1486 (No.7/XJY 6a) occipital bone, PA1490 (No.10/XJY 6b) right parietal bone, and PA1498 (No.17/XJY 15) left temporal bone-which originated from the same young adult individual. The XJY 6 endocranial capacity, estimated by measuring endocranial volume, was estimated using multiple regression formulae derived from ectocranial and endocranial measurements on select samples of Pleistocene hominins and recent modern humans. The results indicate that the larger pooled sample of both Pleistocene and recent modern humans was more robust for the endocranial capacity estimate. Based on the pooled sample using the ectocranial and endocranial measurements, we conservatively estimate the XJY 6 endocranial volume to be ∼1700 cm3 with a 95% confidence interval of 1555-1781 cm3. This is close to Xuchang 1, which dates to 125-105 ka and whose endocranial volume is ∼1800 cm3. Thus, XJY 6 provides the earliest evidence of a brain size that falls in the upper range of Neanderthals and modern Homo sapiens. XJY 6, together with Xuchang 1, Homo floresiensis, Homo luzonensis, and Homo naledi, challenge the general pattern that brain size gradually increases over geological time. This study also finds that hominin brain size expansion occurred at different rates across time and space.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Koch TJ, P Schmidt (2022)

A new method for birch tar making with materials available in the Stone Age.

Scientific reports, 12(1):413.

The use of birch tar can be traced back to the European Middle Palaeolithic and is relevant for our understanding of the technical skills and cognitive abilities of Neanderthals. Due to the lack of archaeological evidence, it remains unknown what techniques were used for birch tar making. Efficiency was recently used as a proxy to determine the method most likely used in the Middle Palaeolithic. Todtenhaupt et al. have proposed a technique employing a groove-like structure that is comparable with the recently presented condensation method. The groove method resulted in higher tar yields compared to other experimental aceramic production processes. However, the implications for Palaeolithic tar making remain unclear because some of the materials used in the experiment were not available then (polished granite slabs). To approach this problem, we replicated the groove with river cobbles and, in a second experiment with flint fragments, to evaluate whether similar results can be obtained. We were successful in producing birch tar in multiple runs with the cobble- and flint-grooves, which, in addition, proved to be more efficient than the condensation method in terms of tar yield per bark input. Our experimental study provides an additional possibility to make prehistoric birch tar.

RevDate: 2022-01-08

Zanolli C, Kaifu Y, Pan L, et al (2022)

Further analyses of the structural organization of Homo luzonensis teeth: Evolutionary implications.

Journal of human evolution, 163:103124 pii:S0047-2484(21)00176-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The species Homo luzonensis has recently been described based on a set of dental and postcranial elements found at Callao Cave (Northern Luzon, Philippines) and dated to at least 50-67 ka. Seven postcanine maxillary teeth are attributed to this taxon, five of them belonging to the same individual (CCH6) and representing the holotype of H. luzonensis, whereas the isolated upper premolar CCH8 and the upper third molar CCH9 are paratypes of the species. The teeth are characterized by their small dimensions associated with primitive features, as also found in Homo floresiensis, another hominin having evolved in an insular environment of Southeast Asia. Postcranial bones of the hands and feet of H. luzonensis and H. floresiensis show Homo habilis-like or australopith-like features, whereas cranial and dental morphology are more consistent with the Asian Homo erectus morphology. Due to this mosaic morphology, the origin and phylogenetic relationships of both H. luzonensis and H. floresiensis are still debated. To test the hypotheses that H. luzonensis derives from H. erectus or from an earlier small-brained hominin, we analyzed the µCT scans of the teeth. We investigated both external and internal tooth structure using morphometric methods including: crown outline shape, tooth crown tissue proportions, enamel-dentine junction shape, and pulp morphology. Homo luzonensis external crown morphology aligns more with H. erectus than with H. habilis/H. rudolfensis. The internal structural organization of H. luzonensis teeth exhibits more affinities with that of H. erectus and H. floresiensis than with Neanderthals and modern humans. Our results suggest that both H. floresiensis and H. luzonensis likely evolved from some H. erectus groups that dispersed in the various islands of this region and became isolated until endemic speciation events occurred at least twice during the Pleistocene in insular environments.

RevDate: 2021-12-31

Massilani D, Morley MW, Mentzer SM, et al (2022)

Microstratigraphic preservation of ancient faunal and hominin DNA in Pleistocene cave sediments.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(1):.

Ancient DNA recovered from Pleistocene sediments represents a rich resource for the study of past hominin and environmental diversity. However, little is known about how DNA is preserved in sediments and the extent to which it may be translocated between archaeological strata. Here, we investigate DNA preservation in 47 blocks of resin-impregnated archaeological sediment collected over the last four decades for micromorphological analyses at 13 prehistoric sites in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America and show that such blocks can preserve DNA of hominins and other mammals. Extensive microsampling of sediment blocks from Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains reveals that the taxonomic composition of mammalian DNA differs drastically at the millimeter-scale and that DNA is concentrated in small particles, especially in fragments of bone and feces (coprolites), suggesting that these are substantial sources of DNA in sediments. Three microsamples taken in close proximity in one of the blocks yielded Neanderthal DNA from at least two male individuals closely related to Denisova 5, a Neanderthal toe bone previously recovered from the same layer. Our work indicates that DNA can remain stably localized in sediments over time and provides a means of linking genetic information to the archaeological and ecological records on a microstratigraphic scale.

RevDate: 2021-12-28

Durand S, Dufour J, Rosas A, et al (2021)

Three-Dimensional Comparative Study of Human Bipartite Scaphoids and the Os Centrale of the Wrist in Neandertals and Non-Human Anthropoid Primates.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 11(12):.

In humans, bipartite scaphoid still does not differentiate clearly from traumatic non-union of the scaphoid. To aid diagnosis, we sought to analyze the main geometrical similarities among bipartite scaphoids from primate species with fused and unfused scaphoid centrales. Four human embryos, four cases of adult humans with bipartite scaphoid, twelve adult specimens of other extant anthropoid primates, and two Neandertal scaphoid specimens were included in this study. Three-dimensional polygon models of the scaphoid and os centrale were generated from CT scan, micro-CT scan, or histological sections. A 3D comparative study of the morphological and morphometrical parameters was performed using the MSC Patran software. The os centrale was smaller than the scaphoid in all specimens and its shape was elongated in the anteroposterior scaphoid direction. The position of the os centrale centroid compared to the scaphoid using direction vectors had a strong orientation along the proximodistal axis in all species. The main morphological feature of bipartite scaphoid was the continuity of the scaphoid from its proximal pole to its tubercule along the anteroposterior axis. In all specimens, if the os centrale was removed, the scaphoid still appeared normal and whole. The bipartite scaphoid in adult humans shares geometrical analogies with monkeys and orangutans, human embryos, and Neandertals. Morphological and morphometrical features identified in this study are useful to differentiate bipartite scaphoid from scaphoid pseudarthrosis. All other criteria suggested in the past lead to misdiagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-12-23

Zhur KV, Trifonov VA, EB Prokhortchouk (2021)

Progress and Prospects in Epigenetic Studies of Ancient DNA.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 86(12):1563-1571.

Development of technologies for high-throughput whole-genome sequencing and improvement of sample preparation techniques made it possible to study ancient DNA (aDNA) from archaeological samples over a million year old. The studies of aDNA have shed light on the history of human migration, replacement of populations, interbreeding of Cro-Magnons with Neanderthals and Denisovans, evolution of human pathogens, etc. Equally important is the possibility to investigate epigenetic modifications of ancient genomes, which has allowed to obtain previously inaccessible information on gene expression, nucleosome positioning, and DNA methylation. Analysis of methylation status of certain genomic sites can predict an individual's age at death and reconstruct some phenotypic features, as it was done for the Denisovan genome, and even to elucidate unfavorable environmental factors that had affected this archaic individual. In this review, we discuss current progress in epigenetic studies of aDNA, including methodological approaches and promising research directions in this field.

RevDate: 2021-12-19

Hardy K, Bocherens H, Miller JB, et al (2021)

Reconstructing Neanderthal diet: The case for carbohydrates.

Journal of human evolution, 162:103105 pii:S0047-2484(21)00157-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence for plants rarely survives on Paleolithic sites, while animal bones and biomolecular analyses suggest animal produce was important to hominin populations, leading to the perspective that Neanderthals had a very-high-protein diet. But although individual and short-term survival is possible on a relatively low-carbohydrate diet, populations are unlikely to have thrived and reproduced without plants and the carbohydrates they provide. Today, nutritional guidelines recommend that around half the diet should be carbohydrate, while low intake is considered to compromise physical performance and successful reproduction. This is likely to have been the same for Paleolithic populations, highlighting an anomaly in that the basic physiological recommendations do not match the extensive archaeological evidence. Neanderthals had large, energy-expensive brains and led physically active lifestyles, suggesting that for optimal health they would have required high amounts of carbohydrates. To address this anomaly, we begin by outlining the essential role of carbohydrates in the human reproduction cycle and the brain and the effects on physical performance. We then evaluate the evidence for resource availability and the archaeological evidence for Neanderthal diet and investigate three ways that the anomaly between the archaeological evidence and the hypothetical dietary requirements might be explained. First, Neanderthals may have had an as yet unidentified genetic adaptation to an alternative physiological method to spare blood glucose and glycogen reserves for essential purposes. Second, they may have existed on a less-than-optimum diet and survived rather than thrived. Third, the methods used in dietary reconstruction could mask a complex combination of dietary plant and animal proportions. We end by proposing that analyses of Paleolithic diet and subsistence strategies need to be grounded in the minimum recommendations throughout the life course and that this provides a context for interpretation of the archaeological evidence from the behavioral and environmental perspectives.

RevDate: 2022-01-07

Natri HM, Hudjashov G, Jacobs G, et al (2022)

Genetic architecture of gene regulation in Indonesian populations identifies QTLs associated with global and local ancestries.

American journal of human genetics, 109(1):50-65.

Lack of diversity in human genomics limits our understanding of the genetic underpinnings of complex traits, hinders precision medicine, and contributes to health disparities. To map genetic effects on gene regulation in the underrepresented Indonesian population, we have integrated genotype, gene expression, and CpG methylation data from 115 participants across three island populations that capture the major sources of genomic diversity in the region. In a comparison with European datasets, we identify eQTLs shared between Indonesia and Europe as well as population-specific eQTLs that exhibit differences in allele frequencies and/or overall expression levels between populations. By combining local ancestry and archaic introgression inference with eQTLs and methylQTLs, we identify regulatory loci driven by modern Papuan ancestry as well as introgressed Denisovan and Neanderthal variation. GWAS colocalization connects QTLs detected here to hematological traits, and further comparison with European datasets reflects the poor overall transferability of GWAS statistics across diverse populations. Our findings illustrate how population-specific genetic architecture, local ancestry, and archaic introgression drive variation in gene regulation across genetically distinct and in admixed populations and highlight the need for performing association studies on non-European populations.

RevDate: 2021-12-23

Hayakawa T, Terahara M, Fujito NT, et al (2021)

Lower promoter activity of the ST8SIA2 gene has been favored in evolving human collective brains.

PloS one, 16(12):e0259897.

ST8SIA2 is an important molecule regulating expression of the phenotype involved in schizophrenia. Lowered promoter activity of the ST8SIA2 gene is considered to be protective against schizophrenia by conferring tolerance to psychosocial stress. Here, we examined the promoter-type composition of anatomically modern humans (AMHs) and archaic humans (AHs; Neanderthals and Denisovans), and compared the promoter activity at the population level (population promoter activity; PPA) between them. In AMHs, the TCT-type, showing the second lowest promoter activity, was most prevalent in the ancestral population of non-Africans. However, the detection of only the CGT-type from AH samples and recombination tracts in AH sequences showed that the CGT- and TGT-types, exhibiting the two highest promoter activities, were common in AH populations. Furthermore, interspecies gene flow occurred into AMHs from AHs and into Denisovans from Neanderthals, influencing promoter-type compositions independently in both AMHs and AHs. The difference of promoter-type composition makes PPA unique in each population. East and Southeast Asian populations show the lowest PPA. This results from the selective increase of the CGC-type, showing the lowest promoter activity, in these populations. Every non-African population shows significantly lower PPA than African populations, resulting from the TCT-type having the highest prevalence in the ancestral population of non-Africans. In addition, PPA reduction is also found among subpopulations within Africa via a slight increase of the TCT-type. These findings indicate a trend toward lower PPA in the spread of AMHs, interpreted as a continuous adaptation to psychosocial stress arising in migration. This trend is considered as genetic tuning for the evolution of collective brains. The inferred promoter-type composition of AHs differed markedly from that of AMHs, resulting in higher PPA in AHs than in AMHs. This suggests that the trend toward lower PPA is a unique feature in AMH spread.

RevDate: 2021-12-27
CmpDate: 2021-12-27

Hubacek JA (2021)

Effects of selected inherited factors on susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 progression.

Physiological research, 70(S2):S125-S134.

Genetic predispositions may influence geographical and interethnic differences in COVID-19 prevalence and mortality in affected populations. Of the many genes implicated in COVID-19 progression, a substantial number have no direct functional link on virus transfer/viability or on the host immune system. To address this knowledge deficit, a large number of in silico studies have recently been published. However, the results of these studies often contradict the findings of studies involving real patients. For example, the ACE2 has been shown to play an important role in regulating coronavirus entry into cells, but none of its variations have been directly associated with COVID-19 susceptibility or severity. Consistently was reported that increased risk of COVID-19 is associated with blood group A and with the APOE4 allele. Among other genes with potential impacts are the genes for CCR5, IL-10, CD14, TMPRSS2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme. Variants within the protein-coding genes OAS1 and LZTFL1 (transferred to the human genome from Neanderthals) are understood to be among the strongest predictors of disease severity. The intensive research efforts have helped to identify the genes and polymorphisms that contribute to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity.

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Roebroeks W, MacDonald K, Scherjon F, et al (2021)

Landscape modification by Last Interglacial Neanderthals.

Science advances, 7(51):eabj5567.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2021-12-13

Decaup PH, Couture C, Colin M, et al (2021)

Prevalence of taurodontism: meta-analysis in recent humans and evolutionary perspectives.

Homo : internationale Zeitschrift fur die vergleichende Forschung am Menschen [Epub ahead of print].

Taurodontism is a continuous anatomical variation of permanent and primary posterior teeth represented by an enlargement of the pulp cavity. A high prevalence of the trait is reported in Homo neanderthalensis remains. Exploring and refining epidemiology of taurodontism in actual populations could strengthen the hypothesis of a selective advantage for a high attrition diet (as heavy tooth wear in Homo sapiens evolution changed little until recently) or favour pleiotropic or genetic drift effects to explain the high frequency of the trait in Neandertal remains. Prevalence ranges between 0.1% and 48% in the literature. The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of taurodontism in recent populations by means of meta-analysis, that is, is the prevalence of taurodontism lower or higher in modern human living populations, where the selective advantages of high attrition diet are still expected? From 90 potentially eligible studies, 15 were included in the meta-analysis. Only cross-sectional studies were reported, and 14,771 participants were included. The meta-analyses were performed with a random model, calculating a weighted-mean prevalence of 11.8%. Gender was found to be unrelated to the prevalence of taurodontism (OR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.67-1.05), p > 0.05). Taurodontism occurs in approximately 11.8% of the living population. This result questions the status of taurodontism as a "typical trait" in Homo neanderthalensis and allows a possible common evolutionary mechanism in Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis for the trait. Further studies should include more accurate and standardized methods to assess the condition.

RevDate: 2021-12-06

Bermúdez de Castro JM, Martínez de Pinillos M, Martín-Francés L, et al (2021)

Dental remains of the Middle Pleistocene hominins from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain): Maxillary dentition.

Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) [Epub ahead of print].

The Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded a considerable number of human fossils during the period 1984-2020. Among them, up to 253 maxillary teeth have been recovered. In this article, we present the description of the eight dental classes of the maxilla following the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System classification. In addition, we present the mean mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters of these teeth compared to those of Neanderthals and a modern human sample. The morphology of both the anterior and posterior teeth suggests a close relationship of the Sima de los Huesos hominins with the populations of the second half of the Middle Pleistocene of Europe and the Near East, as well as with the so-called classic Neanderthals of Europe. Features with a recognizable taxonomic signal allow grouping the Sima de los Huesos hominins with different paleodemes into a Neanderthal clade. The dental evidence of the Sima de los Huesos hominins is key to suggest a complex model for the settlement of Europe during the Middle Pleistocene. During this period, different migrations of human groups probably coming from Southwest Asia, replacements, prolonged isolations, as well as hybridization and introgression processes would have contributed to the diversity of hominins in Europe.

RevDate: 2021-12-17
CmpDate: 2021-12-17

Marom A, Y Rak (2021)

Comment on "A Middle Pleistocene Homo from Nesher Ramla, Israel".

Science (New York, N.Y.), 374(6572):eabl4336.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2021-12-01

Bermúdez de Castro JM, Martínez de Pinillos M, Martín-Francés L, et al (2021)

Dental remains of the Middle Pleistocene hominins from the Sima de los Huesos site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain): Mandibular dentition.

Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) [Epub ahead of print].

The Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, northern Spain) has yielded a considerable number of human fossils during the period 1984-2020. Among them, up to 314 mandibular teeth have been identified. In this second paper dedicated to the dentition we present the description of the eight dental classes of the mandible following the Arizona State University Dental Anthropology System (ASUDAS) classification. In addition, we show the mean mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters obtained in these teeth compared to those of Neanderthals and a modern human sample. The morphology of both the anterior and posterior teeth suggests a close relationship of the Sima de los Huesos hominins with the populations of the second half of the Middle Pleistocene of Europe and the Near East, as well as with the so-called classic Neanderthals of Europe. The combination of dental traits in these populations is characteristic and diagnostic and suggests grouping the Sima de los Huesos hominins with the other paleodemes in a Neanderthal clade. The dental evidence of the Sima de los Huesos hominins is key to propose a complex model for the settlement of Europe during the Middle Pleistocene. In this period, different migrations of human groups probably coming from Southwest Asia, replacements, prolonged isolations, as well as hybridization and introgression processes would have contributed to the diversity of hominins in Europe.

RevDate: 2021-12-06

Bahain JJ, Mercier N, Valladas H, et al (2021)

Reappraisal of the chronology of Orgnac 3 Lower-to Lower to Middle Paleolithic site (Ardèche, France), a regional key sequence for the Middle Pleistocene of southern France.

Journal of human evolution, 162:103092 pii:S0047-2484(21)00144-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Previous studies have suggested that the Lower-to-Middle Paleolithic transition was associated with the earliest Neanderthals, but recent research has established that the oldest Neanderthal fossils and the first signs of their technologies and behavior appear from MIS 11 or possibly earlier. To understand these changes, re-evaluation of the evidence is necessary to determine if this transition corresponds to a progressive evolution rather than abrupt change. Orgnac 3 is a key and appropriate site to study this research context. Located in southern France, it yields a long stratigraphic sequence testifying the evolution of technical and subsistence behaviors of pre-Neanderthal human groups during a Middle Pleistocene interglacial-glacial cycle. In this article, a new chronological framework is provided for the sequence based on results of dating methods applied to various types of geological materials. Speleothems and volcanic minerals, dated in previous studies by U-series and 40Ar/39Ar, respectively, show periods of calcitic crystallization and regional volcanic activity. Other materials, such as heated flints and herbivore teeth, are directly related to evidence of anthropogenic activities and are analyzed in the present work by trapped-charge dating methods such as thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance combined with uranium series (ESR/U-series). The new thermoluminescence and ESR/U-series dates confirm the attribution of the Orgnac 3 stratigraphic sequence to the MIS 10-MIS 8 period and are discussed in relation to paleoenvironmental data derived from bioarchaeological studies. The paleoanthropological levels, including the emergence of Levallois technology, are dated to ca. 275 ka (early MIS 8) and appear coeval to a wet and temperate period recorded locally, the Amargiers interstadial, defined in the regional palynological records. The implications of this reassessed chronology for the archaeological assemblages are discussed in the wider context of behavioral innovations from MIS 11 onward and their establishment in subsequent periods.

RevDate: 2021-12-05

Brown S, Massilani D, Kozlikin MB, et al (2021)

The earliest Denisovans and their cultural adaptation.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Since the initial identification of the Denisovans a decade ago, only a handful of their physical remains have been discovered. Here we analysed ~3,800 non-diagnostic bone fragments using collagen peptide mass fingerprinting to locate new hominin remains from Denisova Cave (Siberia, Russia). We identified five new hominin bones, four of which contained sufficient DNA for mitochondrial analysis. Three carry mitochondrial DNA of the Denisovan type and one was found to carry mtDNA of the Neanderthal type. The former come from the same archaeological layer near the base of the cave's sequence and are the oldest securely dated evidence of Denisovans at 200 ka (thousand years ago) (205-192 ka at 68.2% or 217-187 ka at 95% probability). The stratigraphic context in which they were located contains a wealth of archaeological material in the form of lithics and faunal remains, allowing us to determine the material culture associated with these early hominins and explore their behavioural and environmental adaptations. The combination of bone collagen fingerprinting and genetic analyses has so far more-than-doubled the number of hominin bones at Denisova Cave and has expanded our understanding of Denisovan and Neanderthal interactions, as well as their archaeological signatures.

RevDate: 2021-11-26
CmpDate: 2021-11-26

Dhakal B, Makaju R, R Dhakal R (2021)

The Risk of COVID-19 in People Having a Particular Set of Gene.

Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ), 19(74):265-267.

These risk factors of advancing age, male gender and co-existing health conditions like cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity do not fully explain why some people have no or mild symptoms whereas others have severe symptoms. Genomewide association study (GWAS) identify a 3p21.31 gene cluster as a genetic susceptibility locus in patients with COVID-19 with respiratory failure. They also found a higher risk among persons with blood group A and protective effect for blood group O than among patients with other blood groups. The particular haplotype in a region of chromosome 3 is contributed to modern humans by neandertals. Another Neanderthal haplotype on chromosome 12 is associated with a 22% reduction in relative risk of becoming severely ill with COVID-19. The ApoE e4e4 homozygous genotype was found to increase the risk of severe COVID-19. Change in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) 2 gene was also found to be associated with increased risk of COVID-19, cardiovascular and pulmonary conditions.

RevDate: 2021-12-03

Mahoney P, McFarlane G, Smith BH, et al (2021)

Growth of Neanderthal infants from Krapina (120-130 ka), Croatia.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288(1963):20212079.

Modern humans have a slow and extended period of childhood growth, but to what extent this ontogenetic pathway was present in Neanderthals is debated. Dental development, linked to the duration of somatic growth across modern primates, is the main source for information about growth and development in a variety of fossil primates, including humans. Studies of Neanderthal permanent teeth report a pace of development either similar to recent humans or relatively accelerated. Neanderthal milk teeth, which form and emerge before permanent teeth, provide an opportunity to determine which pattern was present at birth. Here we present a comparative study of the prenatal and early postnatal growth of five milk teeth from three Neanderthals (120 000-130 000 years ago) using virtual histology. Results reveal regions of their milk teeth formed quickly before birth and over a relatively short period of time after birth. Tooth emergence commenced towards the earliest end of the eruption schedules displayed by extant human children. Advanced dental development is consistent with expectations for Neanderthal infant feeding.

RevDate: 2021-12-29
CmpDate: 2021-12-29

Liston A, Humblet-Baron S, Duffy D, et al (2021)

Human immune diversity: from evolution to modernity.

Nature immunology, 22(12):1479-1489.

The extreme diversity of the human immune system, forged and maintained throughout evolutionary history, provides a potent defense against opportunistic pathogens. At the same time, this immune variation is the substrate upon which a plethora of immune-associated diseases develop. Genetic analysis suggests that thousands of individually weak loci together drive up to half of the observed immune variation. Intense selection maintains this genetic diversity, even selecting for the introgressed Neanderthal or Denisovan alleles that have reintroduced variation lost during the out-of-Africa migration. Variations in age, sex, diet, environmental exposure, and microbiome each potentially explain the residual variation, with proof-of-concept studies demonstrating both plausible mechanisms and correlative associations. The confounding interaction of many of these variables currently makes it difficult to assign definitive contributions. Here, we review the current state of play in the field, identify the key unknowns in the causality of immune variation, and identify the multidisciplinary pathways toward an improved understanding.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Heinzelbecker J, Schmidt S, Lackner J, et al (2021)

Therapy of clinical stage IIA and IIB seminoma: a systematic review.

World journal of urology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for clinical stage (CS) IIA/IIB seminomas is still controversial. We evaluated current treatment options.

METHODS: A systematic review was performed. Only randomized clinical trials and comparative studies published from January 2010 until February 2021 were included. Search items included: seminoma, CS IIA, CS IIB and therapy. Outcome parameters were relapse rate (RR), relapse-free (RFS), overall and cancer-specific survival (OS, CSS). Additionally, acute and long-term side effects including secondary malignancies (SMs) were analyzed.

RESULTS: Seven comparative studies (one prospective and six retrospective) were identified with a total of 5049 patients (CS IIA: 2840, CS IIB: 2209). The applied treatment modalities were radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3049; CS IIA: 1888, CSIIB: 1006, unknown: 155) and chemotherapy (CT) or no RT (n = 2000; CS IIA: 797, CS IIB: 1074, unknown: 129). In CS IIA, RRs ranged from 0% to 4.8% for RT and 0% for CT. Concerning CS IIB RRs of 9.5%-21.1% for RT and of 0%-14.2% for CT have been reported. 5-year OS ranged from 90 to 100%. Only two studies reported on treatment-related toxicities.

CONCLUSIONS: RT and CT are the most commonly applied treatments in CS IIA/B seminoma. In CS IIA seminomas, RRs after RT and CT are similar. However, in CS IIB, CT seems to be more effective. Survival rates of CS IIA/B seminomas are excellent. Consequently, long-term toxicities and SMs are important survivorship issues. Alternative treatment approaches, e.g., retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) or dose-reduced sequential CT/RT are currently under prospective investigation.

RevDate: 2021-12-24
CmpDate: 2021-12-24

Sorrentino R, Stephens NB, Marchi D, et al (2021)

Unique foot posture in Neanderthals reflects their body mass and high mechanical stress.

Journal of human evolution, 161:103093.

Neanderthal foot bone proportions and morphology are mostly indistinguishable from those of Homo sapiens, with the exception of several distinct Neanderthal features in the talus. The biomechanical implications of these distinct talar features remain contentious, fueling debate around the adaptive meaning of this distinctiveness. With the aim of clarifying this controversy, we test phylogenetic and behavioral factors as possible contributors, comparing tali of 10 Neanderthals and 81 H. sapiens (Upper Paleolithic and Holocene hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists, and postindustrial group) along with the Clark Howell talus (Omo, Ethiopia). Variation in external talar structures was assessed through geometric morphometric methods, while bone volume fraction and degree of anisotropy were quantified in a subsample (n = 45). Finally, covariation between point clouds of site-specific trabecular variables and surface landmark coordinates was assessed. Our results show that although Neanderthal talar external and internal morphologies were distinct from those of H. sapiens groups, shape did not significantly covary with either bone volume fraction or degree of anisotropy, suggesting limited covariation between external and internal talar structures. Neanderthal external talar morphology reflects ancestral retentions, along with various adaptations to high levels of mobility correlated to their presumably unshod hunter-gatherer lifestyle. This pairs with their high site-specific trabecular bone volume fraction and anisotropy, suggesting intense and consistently oriented locomotor loading, respectively. Relative to H.sapiens, Neanderthals exhibit differences in the talocrural joint that are potentially attributable to cultural and locomotor behavior dissimilarity, a talonavicular joint that mixes ancestral and functional traits, and a derived subtalar joint that suggests a predisposition for a pronated foot during stance phase. Overall, Neanderthal talar variation is attributable to mobility strategy and phylogenesis, while H. sapiens talar variation results from the same factors plus footwear. Our results suggest that greater Neanderthal body mass and/or higher mechanical stress uniquely led to their habitually pronated foot posture.

RevDate: 2021-11-02

Di Pietro L, Barba M, Palacios D, et al (2021)

Shaping modern human skull through epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the RUNX2 master bone gene.

Scientific reports, 11(1):21316.

RUNX2 encodes the master bone transcription factor driving skeletal development in vertebrates, and playing a specific role in craniofacial and skull morphogenesis. The anatomically modern human (AMH) features sequence changes in the RUNX2 locus compared with archaic hominins' species. We aimed to understand how these changes may have contributed to human skull globularization occurred in recent evolution. We compared in silico AMH and archaic hominins' genomes, and used mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from skull sutures of craniosynostosis patients for in vitro functional assays. We detected 459 and 470 nucleotide changes in noncoding regions of the AMH RUNX2 locus, compared with the Neandertal and Denisovan genomes, respectively. Three nucleotide changes in the proximal promoter were predicted to alter the binding of the zinc finger protein Znf263 and long-distance interactions with other cis-regulatory regions. By surface plasmon resonance, we selected nucleotide substitutions in the 3'UTRs able to affect miRNA binding affinity. Specifically, miR-3150a-3p and miR-6785-5p expression inversely correlated with RUNX2 expression during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. The expression of two long non-coding RNAs, AL096865.1 and RUNX2-AS1, within the same locus, was modulated during in vitro osteogenic differentiation and correlated with the expression of specific RUNX2 isoforms. Our data suggest that RUNX2 may have undergone adaptive phenotypic evolution caused by epigenetic and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms, which may explain the delayed suture fusion leading to the present-day globular skull shape.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Yuan K, Ni X, Liu C, et al (2021)

Refining models of archaic admixture in Eurasia with ArchaicSeeker 2.0.

Nature communications, 12(1):6232.

We developed a method, ArchaicSeeker 2.0, to identify introgressed hominin sequences and model multiple-wave admixture. The new method enabled us to discern two waves of introgression from both Denisovan-like and Neanderthal-like hominins in present-day Eurasian populations and an ancient Siberian individual. We estimated that an early Denisovan-like introgression occurred in Eurasia around 118.8-94.0 thousand years ago (kya). In contrast, we detected only one single episode of Denisovan-like admixture in indigenous peoples eastern to the Wallace-Line. Modeling ancient admixtures suggested an early dispersal of modern humans throughout Asia before the Toba volcanic super-eruption 74 kya, predating the initial peopling of Asia as proposed by the traditional Out-of-Africa model. Survived archaic sequences are involved in various phenotypes including immune and body mass (e.g., ZNF169), cardiovascular and lung function (e.g., HHAT), UV response and carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., HYAL1/HYAL2/HYAL3), while "archaic deserts" are enriched with genes associated with skin development and keratinization.

RevDate: 2021-10-28

Roksandic M, Radović P, Wu XJ, et al (2021)

Resolving the "muddle in the middle": The case for Homo bodoensis sp. nov.

Evolutionary anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent developments in the field of palaeoanthropology necessitate the suppression of two hominin taxa and the introduction of a new species of hominins to help resolve the current nebulous state of Middle Pleistocene (Chibanian) hominin taxonomy. In particular, the poorly defined and variably understood hominin taxa Homo heidelbergensis (both sensu stricto and sensu lato) and Homo rhodesiensis need to be abandoned as they fail to reflect the full range of hominin variability in the Middle Pleistocene. Instead, we propose: (1) introduction of a new taxon, Homo bodoensis sp. nov., as an early Middle Pleistocene ancestor of the Homo sapiens lineage, with a pan-African distribution that extends into the eastern Mediterranean (Southeast Europe and the Levant); (2) that many of the fossils from Western Europe (e.g. Sima de los Huesos) currently assigned to H. heidelbergensis s.s. be reassigned to Homo neanderthalensis to reflect the early appearance of Neanderthal derived traits in the Middle Pleistocene in the region; and (3) that the Middle Pleistocene Asian fossils, particularly from China, likely represent a different lineage altogether.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Zilhão J, Angelucci DE, Arnold LJ, et al (2021)

Revisiting the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic archaeology of Gruta do Caldeirão (Tomar, Portugal).

PloS one, 16(10):e0259089.

Gruta do Caldeirão features a c. 6 m-thick archaeological stratification capped by Holocene layers ABC-D and Ea, which overlie layer Eb, a deposit of Magdalenian age that underwent significant disturbance, intrusion, and component mixing caused by funerary use of the cave during the Early Neolithic. Here, we provide an updated overview of the stratigraphy and archaeological content of the underlying Pleistocene succession, whose chronology we refine using radiocarbon and single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating. We find a high degree of stratigraphic integrity. Dating anomalies exist in association with the succession's two major discontinuities: between layer Eb and Upper Solutrean layer Fa, and between Early Upper Palaeolithic layer K and Middle Palaeolithic layer L. Mostly, the anomalies consist of older-than-expected radiocarbon ages and can be explained by bioturbation and palimpsest-forming sedimentation hiatuses. Combined with palaeoenvironmental inferences derived from magnetic susceptibility analyses, the dating shows that sedimentation rates varied in tandem with the oscillations in global climate revealed by the Greenland oxygen isotope record. A steep increase in sedimentation rate is observed through the Last Glacial Maximum, resulting in a c. 1.5 m-thick accumulation containing conspicuous remains of occupation by people of the Solutrean technocomplex, whose traditional subdivision is corroborated: the index fossils appear in the expected stratigraphic order; the diagnostics of the Protosolutrean and the Lower Solutrean predate 24,000 years ago; and the constraints on the Upper Solutrean place it after Greenland Interstadial 2.2. (23,220-23,340 years ago). Human usage of the site during the Early Upper and the Middle Palaeolithic is episodic and low-intensity: stone tools are few, and the faunal remains relate to carnivore activity. The Middle Palaeolithic is found to persist beyond 39,000 years ago, at least three millennia longer than in the Franco-Cantabrian region. This conclusion is upheld by Bayesian modelling and stands even if the radiocarbon ages for the Middle Palaeolithic levels are removed from consideration (on account of observed inversions and the method's potential for underestimation when used close to its limit of applicability). A number of localities in Spain and Portugal reveal a similar persistence pattern. The key evidence comes from high-resolution fluviatile contexts spared by the site formation issues that our study of Caldeirão brings to light-palimpsest formation, post-depositional disturbance, and erosion. These processes. are ubiquitous in the cave and rock-shelter sites of Iberia, reflecting the impact on karst archives of the variation in climate and environments that occurred through the Upper Pleistocene, and especially at two key points in time: between 37,000 and 42,000 years ago, and after the Last Glacial Maximum. Such empirical difficulties go a long way towards explaining the controversies surrounding the associated cultural transitions: from the Middle to the Upper Palaeolithic, and from the Solutrean to the Magdalenian. Alongside potential dating error caused by incomplete decontamination, proper consideration of sample association issues is required if we are ever to fully understand what happened with the human settlement of Iberia during these critical intervals, and especially so with regards to the fate of Iberia's last Neandertal populations.

RevDate: 2021-10-30

Mahadevan J, Pathak AK, Vemula A, et al (2021)

Analysis of whole exome sequencing in severe mental illness hints at selection of brain development and immune related genes.

Scientific reports, 11(1):21088.

Evolutionary trends may underlie some aspects of the risk for common, non-communicable disorders, including psychiatric disease. We analyzed whole exome sequencing data from 80 unique individuals from India coming from families with two or more individuals with severe mental illness. We used Population Branch Statistics (PBS) to identify variants and genes under positive selection and identified 74 genes as candidates for positive selection. Of these, 20 were previously associated with Schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease and cognitive abilities in genome wide association studies. We then checked whether any of these 74 genes were involved in common biological pathways or related to specific cellular or molecular functions. We found that immune related pathways and functions related to innate immunity such as antigen binding were over-represented. We also evaluated for the presence of Neanderthal introgressed segments in these genes and found Neanderthal introgression in a single gene out of the 74 candidate genes. However, the introgression pattern indicates the region is unlikely to be the source for selection. Our findings hint at how selection pressures in individuals from families with a history of severe mental illness may diverge from the general population. Further, it also provides insights into the genetic architecture of severe mental illness, such as schizophrenia and its link to immune factors.

RevDate: 2022-01-02

Jagoda E, Xue JR, Reilly SK, et al (2021)

Detection of Neanderthal Adaptively Introgressed Genetic Variants that Modulate Reporter Gene Expression in Human Immune Cells.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6400258 [Epub ahead of print].

While some variation introgressed from Neanderthals has undergone selective sweeps, little is known about its functional significance. We used a Massively Parallel Reporter Assay (MPRA) to assay 5,353 high-frequency introgressed variants for their ability to modulate the gene expression within 170bp of endogenous sequence. We identified 2,548 variants in active putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs) and 292 expression-modulating variants (emVars). These emVars are predicted to alter the binding motifs of important immune transcription factors, are enriched for associations with neutrophil and white blood cell count, and are associated with the expression of genes that function in innate immune pathways including inflammatory response and antiviral defense. We combined the MPRA data with other datasets to identify strong candidates to be driver variants of positive selection including an emVar that may contribute to protection against severe COVID-19 response. We endogenously deleted two CREs containing expression-modulation variants linked to immune function, rs11624425 and rs80317430, identifying their primary genic targets as ELMSAN1, and PAN2 and STAT2 respectively, three genes differentially expressed during influenza infection. Overall, we present the first database of experimentally identified expression-modulating Neanderthal-introgressed alleles contributing to potential immune response in modern humans.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Chen T, Lin YX, Zha Y, et al (2021)

A Low-Producing Haplotype of Interleukin-6 Disrupting CTCF Binding Is Protective against Severe COVID-19.

mBio, 12(5):e0137221.

Interleukin6 (IL-6) is a key driver of hyperinflammation in COVID-19, and its level strongly correlates with disease progression. To investigate whether variability in COVID-19 severity partially results from differential IL-6 expression, functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-6 were determined in Chinese COVID-19 patients with mild or severe illness. An Asian-common IL-6 haplotype defined by promoter SNP rs1800796 and intronic SNPs rs1524107 and rs2066992 correlated with COVID-19 severity. Homozygote carriers of C-T-T variant haplotype were at lower risk of developing severe symptoms (odds ratio, 0.256; 95% confidence interval, 0.088 to 0.739; P = 0.007). This protective haplotype was associated with lower levels of IL-6 and its antisense long noncoding RNA IL-6-AS1 by cis-expression quantitative trait loci analysis. The differences in expression resulted from the disturbance of stimulus-dependent bidirectional transcription of the IL-6/IL-6-AS1 locus by the polymorphisms. The protective rs2066992-T allele disrupted a conserved CTCF-binding locus at the enhancer elements of IL-6-AS1, which transcribed antisense to IL-6 and induces IL-6 expression in inflammatory responses. As a result, carriers of the protective allele had significantly reduced IL-6-AS1 expression and attenuated IL-6 induction in response to acute inflammatory stimuli and viral infection. Intriguingly, this low-producing variant that is endemic to present-day Asia was found in early humans who had inhabited mainland Asia since ∼40,000 years ago but not in other ancient humans, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans. The present study suggests that an individual's IL-6 genotype underlies COVID-19 outcome and may be used to guide IL-6 blockade therapy in Asian patients. IMPORTANCE Overproduction of cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a hallmark of severe COVID-19 and is believed to play a critical role in exacerbating the excessive inflammatory response. Polymorphisms in IL-6 account for the variability of IL-6 expression and disparities in infectious diseases, but its contribution to the clinical presentation of COVID-19 has not been reported. Here, we investigated IL-6 polymorphisms in severe and mild cases of COVID-19 in a Chinese population. The variant haplotype C-T-T, represented by rs1800796, rs1524107, and rs2066992 at the IL-6 locus, was reduced in patients with severe illness; in contrast, carriers of the wild-type haplotype G-C-G had higher risk of severe illness. Mechanistically, the protective variant haplotype lost CTCF binding at the IL-6 intron and responded poorly to inflammatory stimuli, which may protect the carriers from hyperinflammation in response to acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results point out the possibility that IL-6 genotypes underlie the differential viral virulence during the outbreak of COVID-19. The risk loci we identified may serve as a genetic marker to screen high-risk COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2021-12-14

Villanea FA, Huerta-Sanchez E, K Fox (2021)

Corrigendum to: ABO Genetic Variation in Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(12):5835.

RevDate: 2021-10-21
CmpDate: 2021-10-19

Shiba T, Komatsu K, Sudo T, et al (2021)

Comparison of Periodontal Bacteria of Edo and Modern Periods Using Novel Diagnostic Approach for Periodontitis With Micro-CT.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:723821.

Ancient dental calculus, formed from dental plaque, is a rich source of ancient DNA and can provide information regarding the food and oral microbiology at that time. Genomic analysis of dental calculus from Neanderthals has revealed the difference in bacterial composition of oral microbiome between Neanderthals and modern humans. There are few reports investigating whether the pathogenic bacteria of periodontitis, a polymicrobial disease induced in response to the accumulation of dental plaque, were different between ancient and modern humans. This study aimed to compare the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome in ancient and modern human samples and to investigate whether lifestyle differences depending on the era have altered the bacterial composition of the oral microbiome and the causative bacteria of periodontitis. Additionally, we introduce a novel diagnostic approach for periodontitis in ancient skeletons using micro-computed tomography. Ancient 16S rDNA sequences were obtained from 12 samples at the Unko-in site (18th-19th century) of the Edo era (1603-1867), a characteristic period in Japan when immigrants were not accepted. Furthermore, modern 16S rDNA data from 53 samples were obtained from a database to compare the modern and ancient microbiome. The microbial co-occurrence network was analyzed based on 16S rDNA read abundance. Eubacterium species, Mollicutes species, and Treponema socranskii were the core species in the Edo co-occurrence network. The co-occurrence relationship between Actinomyces oricola and Eggerthella lenta appeared to have played a key role in causing periodontitis in the Edo era. However, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincentii, and Prevotella pleuritidis were the core and highly abundant species in the co-occurrence network of modern samples. These results suggest the possibility of differences in the pathogens causing periodontitis during different eras in history.

RevDate: 2021-12-30
CmpDate: 2021-12-30

Rothschild B, M Haeusler (2021)

Possible vertebral brucellosis infection in a Neanderthal.

Scientific reports, 11(1):19846.

The La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton of an old (>60-year-old) male Neanderthal is renowned for the advanced osteoarthritis of its spinal column and hip joint, and their implications for posture and lifestyle in these Mid- to Late Pleistocene humans. Reassessment of the pathologic lesions reveals erosions at multiple non-contiguous vertebrae and reactive bone formation extending far beyond the left hip joint, which suggests the additional diagnosis of brucellosis. This implies the earliest secure evidence of this zoonotic disease in hominin evolution. Brucellosis might have been transmitted via butchering or eating raw meat and is well compatible with the range of prey animals documented for Neanderthals. The associated infertility could have represented an important aspect of health in these late archaic humans.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-10

Findley AS, Zhang X, Boye C, et al (2021)

A signature of Neanderthal introgression on molecular mechanisms of environmental responses.

PLoS genetics, 17(9):e1009493.

Ancient human migrations led to the settlement of population groups in varied environmental contexts worldwide. The extent to which adaptation to local environments has shaped human genetic diversity is a longstanding question in human evolution. Recent studies have suggested that introgression of archaic alleles in the genome of modern humans may have contributed to adaptation to environmental pressures such as pathogen exposure. Functional genomic studies have demonstrated that variation in gene expression across individuals and in response to environmental perturbations is a main mechanism underlying complex trait variation. We considered gene expression response to in vitro treatments as a molecular phenotype to identify genes and regulatory variants that may have played an important role in adaptations to local environments. We investigated if Neanderthal introgression in the human genome may contribute to the transcriptional response to environmental perturbations. To this end we used eQTLs for genes differentially expressed in a panel of 52 cellular environments, resulting from 5 cell types and 26 treatments, including hormones, vitamins, drugs, and environmental contaminants. We found that SNPs with introgressed Neanderthal alleles (N-SNPs) disrupt binding of transcription factors important for environmental responses, including ionizing radiation and hypoxia, and for glucose metabolism. We identified an enrichment for N-SNPs among eQTLs for genes differentially expressed in response to 8 treatments, including glucocorticoids, caffeine, and vitamin D. Using Massively Parallel Reporter Assays (MPRA) data, we validated the regulatory function of 21 introgressed Neanderthal variants in the human genome, corresponding to 8 eQTLs regulating 15 genes that respond to environmental perturbations. These findings expand the set of environments where archaic introgression may have contributed to adaptations to local environments in modern humans and provide experimental validation for the regulatory function of introgressed variants.

RevDate: 2021-10-01
CmpDate: 2021-10-01

Liu Y, Mao X, Krause J, et al (2021)

Insights into human history from the first decade of ancient human genomics.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 373(6562):1479-1484.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-10-15

Keller M, Hagag IT, Balzer J, et al (2021)

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.1.7 in a cat in Germany.

Research in veterinary science, 140:229-232.

Several non-variant of concern SARS-CoV-2 infections in pets have been reported as documented in the OIE and GISAID databases and there is only one fully documented case of an alpha variant of concern (VOC)(B.1.1.7) in the United States so far. Here, we describe the first case in a cat infected with the alpha SARS-CoV-2 variant in Germany. A cat suffering from pneumonia was presented to a veterinary practice. The pneumonia was treated symptomatically, but 16 days later the cat was presented again. Since the owner had been tested positive for a SARS-CoV-2 infection in the meantime, swab samples were taken from the cat and analyzed for SARS-CoV-2 specific nucleic acids. The various RT-qPCR analyses and whole-genome sequencing revealed the presence of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 variant in this cat. This study shows that pets living in close contact with SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 infected owners can contract this virus and also suffer from a respiratory disease. It is not clear yet whether onward transmissions to other cats and humans can occur. To minimize transmission risks, pet owners and veterinarians should comply to the hygienic rules published by OIE and others. It must be stated, that infections of cats with SARS-CoV-2 is still a rare event. Cats with clinical signs of a respiratory disease should be presented to a veterinarian, who will decide on further steps.

RevDate: 2021-11-02
CmpDate: 2021-11-02

Neto de Carvalho C, Belaústegui Z, Toscano A, et al (2021)

First tracks of newborn straight-tusked elephants (Palaeoloxodon antiquus).

Scientific reports, 11(1):17311.

Tracks and trackways of newborns, calves and juveniles attributed to straight-tusked elephants were found in the MIS 5 site (Upper Pleistocene) known as the Matalascañas Trampled Surface (MTS) at Huelva, SW Spain. Evidence of a snapshot of social behaviour, especially parental care, can be determined from the concentration of elephant tracks and trackways, and especially from apparently contemporaneous converging trackways, of small juvenile and larger, presumably young adult female tracks. The size frequency of the tracks enabled us to infer body mass and age distribution of the animals that crossed the MTS. Comparisons of the MTS demographic frequency with the morphology of the fore- and hind limbs of extant and fossil proboscideans shed light into the reproductive ecology of the straight-tusked elephant, Palaeloxodon antiquus. The interdune pond habitat appeared to have been an important water and food resource for matriarchal herds of straight-tusked elephants and likely functioned as a reproductive habitat, with only the rare presence of adult and older males in the MTS. The preservation of this track record in across a paleosol surface, although heavily trampled by different animals, including Neanderthals, over a short time frame, permitted an exceptional view into short-term intraspecific trophic interactions occurring in the Last Interglacial coastal habitat. Therefore, it is hypothesized that Neanderthals visited MTS for hunting or scavenging on weakened or dead elephants, and more likely calves.

RevDate: 2021-12-04
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Yan SM, Sherman RM, Taylor DJ, et al (2021)

Local adaptation and archaic introgression shape global diversity at human structural variant loci.

eLife, 10:.

Large genomic insertions and deletions are a potent source of functional variation, but are challenging to resolve with short-read sequencing, limiting knowledge of the role of such structural variants (SVs) in human evolution. Here, we used a graph-based method to genotype long-read-discovered SVs in short-read data from diverse human genomes. We then applied an admixture-aware method to identify 220 SVs exhibiting extreme patterns of frequency differentiation - a signature of local adaptation. The top two variants traced to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, tagging a haplotype that swept to near fixation in certain southeast Asian populations, but is rare in other global populations. Further investigation revealed evidence that the haplotype traces to gene flow from Neanderthals, corroborating the role of immune-related genes as prominent targets of adaptive introgression. Our study demonstrates how recent technical advances can help resolve signatures of key evolutionary events that remained obscured within technically challenging regions of the genome.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Árnason Ú (2021)

The unidirectional phylogeny of Homo sapiens anchors the origin of modern humans in Eurasia.

Hereditas, 158(1):36.

BACKGROUND: The Out of Africa hypothesis, OOAH, was challenged recently in an extended mtDNA analysis, PPA (Progressive Phylogenetic Analysis), that identified the African human populations as paraphyletic, a finding that contradicted the common OOAH understanding that Hss had originated in Africa and invaded Eurasia from there. The results were consistent with the molecular Out of Eurasia hypothesis, OOEH, and Eurasian palaeontology, a subject that has been largely disregarded in the discussion of OOAH.

RESULTS: In the present study the mtDNA tree, a phylogeny based on maternal inheritance, was compared to the nuclear DNA tree of the paternally transmitted Y-chromosome haplotypes, Y-DNAs. The comparison showed full phylogenetic coherence between these two separate sets of data. The results were consistent with potentially four translocations of modern humans from Eurasia into Africa, the earliest taking place ≈ 250,000 years before present, YBP. The results were in accordance with the postulates behind OOEH at the same time as they lent no support to the OOAH.

CONCLUSIONS: The conformity between the mtDNA and Y-DNA phylogenies of Hss is consistent with the understanding that Eurasia was the donor and not the receiver in human evolution. The evolutionary problems related to OOAH became similarly exposed by the mtDNA introgression that took place from Hss into Neanderthals ≈ 500,000 YBP, a circumstance that demonstrated the early coexistence of the two lineages in Eurasia.

RevDate: 2021-10-06
CmpDate: 2021-10-06

Coll Macià M, Skov L, Peter BM, et al (2021)

Different historical generation intervals in human populations inferred from Neanderthal fragment lengths and mutation signatures.

Nature communications, 12(1):5317.

After the main Out-of-Africa event, humans interbred with Neanderthals leaving 1-2% of Neanderthal DNA scattered in small fragments in all non-African genomes today. Here we investigate what can be learned about human demographic processes from the size distribution of these fragments. We observe differences in fragment length across Eurasia with 12% longer fragments in East Asians than West Eurasians. Comparisons between extant populations with ancient samples show that these differences are caused by different rates of decay in length by recombination since the Neanderthal admixture. In concordance, we observe a strong correlation between the average fragment length and the mutation accumulation, similar to what is expected by changing the ages at reproduction as estimated from trio studies. Altogether, our results suggest differences in the generation interval across Eurasia, by up 10-20%, over the past 40,000 years. We use sex-specific mutation signatures to infer whether these changes were driven by shifts in either male or female age at reproduction, or both. We also find that previously reported variation in the mutational spectrum may be largely explained by changes to the generation interval. We conclude that Neanderthal fragment lengths provide unique insight into differences among human populations over recent history.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Çep B, Schürch B, Münzel SC, et al (2021)

Adaptive capacity and flexibility of the Neanderthals at Heidenschmiede (Swabian Jura) with regard to core reduction strategies.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257041.

The branched reduction system at the Heidenschmiede described here is hitherto exceptional for the Middle Paleolithic of the Swabian Jura. By means of refits and supporting objects, we are able to describe a superordinate reduction system that combines several individual reduction concepts, such as Levallois and blade production, within one volume. In the Middle Paleolithic of the Swabian Jura, blade technology has thus far played a rather minor role. On the one hand, it is possible to split a selected volume (nodule) into three parts, which are reduced separately according to individual concepts. On the other hand, it is also possible to reduce parts of a volume with one concept first and then with another. The hypothetical reduction system can be branched or linear, thus emphasizing the technological flexibility in core reduction, which requires a high degree of cognitive skills of three-dimensional imagination.

RevDate: 2021-10-14

Gregory MD, Eisenberg DP, Hamborg M, et al (2021)

Neanderthal-derived genetic variation in living humans relates to schizophrenia diagnosis, to psychotic symptom severity, and to dopamine synthesis.

American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics : the official publication of the International Society of Psychiatric Genetics, 186(5):329-338.

Schizophrenia has been hypothesized to be a human-specific condition, but experimental approaches to testing this idea have been limited. Because Neanderthals, our closest evolutionary relatives, interbred with modern humans prior to their disappearance from the fossil record, leaving a residual echo that survives in our DNA today, we leveraged new discoveries about ancient hominid DNA to explore this hypothesis in living people in three converging ways. First, in four independent case-control datasets totaling 9,362 individuals, individuals with schizophrenia had less Neanderthal-derived genetic variation than controls (p = .044). Second, in 49 unmedicated inpatients with schizophrenia, having more Neanderthal admixture predicted less severe positive symptoms (p = .046). Finally, using 18 F-fluorodopa PET scanning in 172 healthy individuals, having greater Neanderthal introgression was significantly associated with lower dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum and pons (p's < 2 × 10-5), which is fundamentally important in the pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis. These results may help to elucidate the evolutionary history of a devastating neuropsychiatric disease by supporting the notion of schizophrenia as a human-specific condition. Additionally, the relationship between Neanderthal admixture and dopamine function suggests a potential mechanism whereby Neanderthal admixture may have affected our gene pool to alter schizophrenia risk and/or course.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Ferreira JC, Alshamali F, Montinaro F, et al (2021)

Projecting Ancient Ancestry in Modern-Day Arabians and Iranians: A Key Role of the Past Exposed Arabo-Persian Gulf on Human Migrations.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(9):.

The Arabian Peninsula is strategic for investigations centered on the early structuring of modern humans in the wake of the out-of-Africa migration. Despite its poor climatic conditions for the recovery of ancient human DNA evidence, the availability of both genomic data from neighboring ancient specimens and informative statistical tools allow modeling the ancestry of local modern populations. We applied this approach to a data set of 741,000 variants screened in 291 Arabians and 78 Iranians, and obtained insightful evidence. The west-east axis was a strong forcer of population structure in the Peninsula, and, more importantly, there were clear continuums throughout time linking western Arabia with the Levant, and eastern Arabia with Iran and the Caucasus. Eastern Arabians also displayed the highest levels of the basal Eurasian lineage of all tested modern-day populations, a signal that was maintained even after correcting for a possible bias due to a recent sub-Saharan African input in their genomes. Not surprisingly, eastern Arabians were also the ones with highest similarity with Iberomaurusians, who were, so far, the best proxy for the basal Eurasians amongst the known ancient specimens. The basal Eurasian lineage is the signature of ancient non-Africans who diverged from the common European-eastern Asian pool before 50,000 years ago, prior to the later interbred with Neanderthals. Our results appear to indicate that the exposed basin of the Arabo-Persian Gulf was the possible home of basal Eurasians, a scenario to be further investigated by searching ancient Arabian human specimens.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Warinner C, Velsko IM, JA Fellows Yates (2021)

Reply to Ben-Dor et al.: Oral bacteria of Neanderthals and modern humans exhibit evidence of starch adaptation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(37):.

RevDate: 2021-11-04
CmpDate: 2021-11-04

Groucutt HS, White TS, Scerri EML, et al (2021)

Multiple hominin dispersals into Southwest Asia over the past 400,000 years.

Nature, 597(7876):376-380.

Pleistocene hominin dispersals out of, and back into, Africa necessarily involved traversing the diverse and often challenging environments of Southwest Asia1-4. Archaeological and palaeontological records from the Levantine woodland zone document major biological and cultural shifts, such as alternating occupations by Homo sapiens and Neanderthals. However, Late Quaternary cultural, biological and environmental records from the vast arid zone that constitutes most of Southwest Asia remain scarce, limiting regional-scale insights into changes in hominin demography and behaviour1,2,5. Here we report a series of dated palaeolake sequences, associated with stone tool assemblages and vertebrate fossils, from the Khall Amayshan 4 and Jubbah basins in the Nefud Desert. These findings, including the oldest dated hominin occupations in Arabia, reveal at least five hominin expansions into the Arabian interior, coinciding with brief 'green' windows of reduced aridity approximately 400, 300, 200, 130-75 and 55 thousand years ago. Each occupation phase is characterized by a distinct form of material culture, indicating colonization by diverse hominin groups, and a lack of long-term Southwest Asian population continuity. Within a general pattern of African and Eurasian hominin groups being separated by Pleistocene Saharo-Arabian aridity, our findings reveal the tempo and character of climatically modulated windows for dispersal and admixture.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-03

Buck LT, Katz DC, Ackermann RR, et al (2021)

Effects of hybridization on pelvic morphology: A macaque model.

Journal of human evolution, 159:103049.

Ancient DNA analyses have shown that interbreeding between hominin taxa occurred multiple times. Although admixture is often reflected in skeletal phenotype, the relationship between the two remains poorly understood, hampering interpretation of the hominin fossil record. Direct study of this relationship is often impossible due to the paucity of hominin fossils and difficulties retrieving ancient genetic material. Here, we use a sample of known ancestry hybrids between two closely related nonhuman primate taxa (Indian and Chinese Macaca mulatta) to investigate the effect of admixture on skeletal morphology. We focus on pelvic shape, which has potential fitness implications in hybrids, as mismatches between maternal pelvic and fetal cranial morphology are often fatal to mother and offspring. As the pelvis is also one of the skeletal regions that differs most between Homo sapiens and Neanderthals, investigating the pelvic consequences of interbreeding could be informative regarding the viability of their hybrids. We find that the effect of admixture in M. mulatta is small and proportional to the relatively small morphological difference between the parent taxa. Sexual dimorphism appears to be the main determinant of pelvic shape in M. mulatta. The lack of difference in pelvic shape between Chinese and Indian M. mulatta is in contrast to that between Neanderthals and H. sapiens, despite a similar split time (in generations) between the hybridizing pairs. Greater phenotypic divergence between hominins may relate to adaptations to disparate environments but may also highlight how the unique degree of cultural buffering in hominins allowed for greater neutral divergence. In contrast to some previous work identifying extreme morphologies in first- and second-generation hybrids, here the relationship between pelvic shape and admixture is linear. This linearity may be because most sampled animals have a multigenerational admixture history or because of relatively high constraints on the pelvis compared with other skeletal regions.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Heydari-Guran S, Benazzi S, Talamo S, et al (2021)

The discovery of an in situ Neanderthal remain in the Bawa Yawan Rockshelter, West-Central Zagros Mountains, Kermanshah.

PloS one, 16(8):e0253708.

Neanderthal extinction has been a matter of debate for many years. New discoveries, better chronologies and genomic evidence have done much to clarify some of the issues. This evidence suggests that Neanderthals became extinct around 40,000-37,000 years before present (BP), after a period of coexistence with Homo sapiens of several millennia, involving biological and cultural interactions between the two groups. However, the bulk of this evidence relates to Western Eurasia, and recent work in Central Asia and Siberia has shown that there is considerable local variation. Southwestern Asia, despite having a number of significant Neanderthal remains, has not played a major part in the debate over extinction. Here we report a Neanderthal deciduous canine from the site of Bawa Yawan in the West-Central Zagros Mountains of Iran. The tooth is associated with Zagros Mousterian lithics, and its context is preliminary dated to between ~43,600 and ~41,500 years ago.

RevDate: 2021-09-24
CmpDate: 2021-09-24

Hsieh P, Dang V, Vollger MR, et al (2021)

Evidence for opposing selective forces operating on human-specific duplicated TCAF genes in Neanderthals and humans.

Nature communications, 12(1):5118.

TRP channel-associated factor 1/2 (TCAF1/TCAF2) proteins antagonistically regulate the cold-sensor protein TRPM8 in multiple human tissues. Understanding their significance has been complicated given the locus spans a gap-ridden region with complex segmental duplications in GRCh38. Using long-read sequencing, we sequence-resolve the locus, annotate full-length TCAF models in primate genomes, and show substantial human-specific TCAF copy number variation. We identify two human super haplogroups, H4 and H5, and establish that TCAF duplications originated ~1.7 million years ago but diversified only in Homo sapiens by recurrent structural mutations. Conversely, in all archaic-hominin samples the fixation for a specific H4 haplotype without duplication is likely due to positive selection. Here, our results of TCAF copy number expansion, selection signals in hominins, and differential TCAF2 expression between haplogroups and high TCAF2 and TRPM8 expression in liver and prostate in modern-day humans imply TCAF diversification among hominins potentially in response to cold or dietary adaptations.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Richards MP, Mannino MA, Jaouen K, et al (2021)

Strontium isotope evidence for Neanderthal and modern human mobility at the upper and middle palaeolithic site of Fumane Cave (Italy).

PloS one, 16(8):e0254848.

To investigate the mobility patterns of Neanderthals and modern humans in Europe during the Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition period, we applied strontium isotope analysis to Neanderthal (n = 3) and modern human (n = 2) teeth recovered from the site of Fumane Cave in the Monti Lessini region of Northern Italy. We also measured a large number of environmental samples from the region, to establish a strontium 'baseline', and also micromammals (vole teeth) from the levels associated with the hominin teeth. We found that the modern humans and Neanderthals had similar strontium isotope values, and these values match the local baseline values we obtained for the site and the surrounding region. We conclude that both groups were utilizing the local mountainous region where Fumane Cave is situated, and likely the nearby Lessini highlands and Adige plains, and therefore the strontium evidence does not show differening mobility patterns between Neanderthals and modern humans at the Fumane site.

RevDate: 2021-11-02
CmpDate: 2021-11-02

Bensusan K, Holmes TL, Perez C, et al (2021)

Crag Martin neontology complements taphonomy at the Gorham's Cave Complex.

Scientific reports, 11(1):16851.

Species present in the fossil record may continue to exist at an archaeological site, allowing study that fine-tunes our picture of the ecological past. A large wintering population of Eurasian Crag Martins Ptyonoprogne rupestris (ECM) roosts at the 'Gorham's Cave Complex' UNESCO World Heritage site in Gibraltar, which is best known for its occupation by Neanderthals at times when ECMs were also present. Its complex geomorphology allows the study of use of different micro-sites (caves) within the roost. We used mark-recapture to test whether birds showed fidelity to micro-sites for roosting, and for differences in condition of birds across micro-sites. ECM showed very high fidelity towards micro-sites, within and between years, with > 90% chance of recapture at caves where they were first caught. Condition of birds differed between micro-sites, suggesting differences in roost quality between caves; birds were more likely to be recaptured at the micro-site where birds were in best condition, indicating higher survivorship. Our results demonstrate extremely fine-scale fidelity at the largest roosting site documented for ECM globally. Implications for conservation are discussed. The study provides current knowledge of a bird that has been using these caves since the Pleistocene and more generally on these caves as refuges.

RevDate: 2021-10-08
CmpDate: 2021-10-08

Estalrrich A, AB Marín-Arroyo (2021)

Evidence of habitual behavior from non-alimentary dental wear on deciduous teeth from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic Cantabrian region, Northern Spain.

Journal of human evolution, 158:103047.

The use of 'teeth as tools' (non-masticatory or cultural-related dental wear) has largely been employed as a proxy for studying of past human behavior, mainly in permanent dentition from adult individuals. Here we present the analysis of the non-masticatory dental wear modifications on the deciduous dentition assigned to eight Neanderthal and anatomically modern human subadult individuals from Mousterian to Magdalenian technocultural contexts in the Cantabrian region (Northern Spain). Although preliminary, we tentatively suggest that these eight subadults present activity-related dental wear, including cultural striations, chipped enamel, toothpick grooves, and subvertical grooves. We also found evidence of habitual dental hygienic practices in the form of toothpicking on a deciduous premolar. Orientation of the cultural striations indicates similar handedness development as in modern children. Taken together, these dental wear patterns support the participation of young individuals in group activities, making them potential contributors to group welfare. This study potentially adds new evidence to the importance of the use of the mouth in paramasticatory activities or as a third hand throughout the Pleistocene, which can be confirmed with a more specific reference sample.

RevDate: 2021-09-17
CmpDate: 2021-09-17

Paar V, Vlahović I, Rosandić M, et al (2021)

Global Repeat Map (GRM): Advantageous Method for Discovery of Largest Higher-Order Repeats (HORs) in Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family (NBPF) Genes, in Hornerin Exon and in Chromosome 21 Centromere.

Progress in molecular and subcellular biology, 60:203-234.

Here we present three interesting novel human Higher-Order Repeats (HORs) discovered using the HOR-searching method with GRM algorithm: (a) The novel Neuroblastoma Breakpoint Family gene (NBPF) 3mer HOR, discovered applying GRM algorithm to human chromosome 1 (Paar et al., Mol Biol Evol 28:1877-1892, 2011). NBPF 3mer HOR is based on previously known ~1.6 kb NBPF primary repeat monomers (known as DUF1220 domain) in human chromosome 1, but the NBPF HOR was not known before its discovery by using GRM. It should be stressed that the NBPF HOR presents a unique human-specific pattern, distinguishing human from nonhuman primates. (b) The novel quartic HOR (2mer⊃2mer⊃9mer) discovered using the GRM algorithm for analysis of hornerin genes in human chromosome 1 (Paar et al., Mol Biol Evol 28:1877-1892, 2011). This quartic HOR is based on 39 bp hornerin primary repeat monomer in human chromosome 1. To our knowledge, this is the first known case of quartic HOR, with four levels of hierarchy of HOR organization. (c) The novel 33mer alpha satellite HOR in human chromosome 21, discovered using the GRM algorithm (Glunčić et al., Sci Rep 9:12629, 2019). This 33mer HOR in the smallest human chromosome is the largest alpha satellite HOR copy among all 22 somatic human chromosomes. Moreover, the same 33mer HOR is present in the hg38 human genome assembly of four human chromosomes: 21, 22, 13, and 14. We point out that the DUF1220 encoding genomic structures in NBPF genes in human chromosome 1, recently studied and related to the brain evolution and pathologies and cognitive aptitude, can be considered in the framework of the general concept of HORs, already extensively studied in genomics, especially in the centromeric region.

RevDate: 2022-01-04
CmpDate: 2022-01-04

Almarri MA, Haber M, Lootah RA, et al (2021)

The genomic history of the Middle East.

Cell, 184(18):4612-4625.e14.

The Middle East region is important to understand human evolution and migrations but is underrepresented in genomic studies. Here, we generated 137 high-coverage physically phased genome sequences from eight Middle Eastern populations using linked-read sequencing. We found no genetic traces of early expansions out-of-Africa in present-day populations but found Arabians have elevated Basal Eurasian ancestry that dilutes their Neanderthal ancestry. Population sizes within the region started diverging 15-20 kya, when Levantines expanded while Arabians maintained smaller populations that derived ancestry from local hunter-gatherers. Arabians suffered a population bottleneck around the aridification of Arabia 6 kya, while Levantines had a distinct bottleneck overlapping the 4.2 kya aridification event. We found an association between movement and admixture of populations in the region and the spread of Semitic languages. Finally, we identify variants that show evidence of selection, including polygenic selection. Our results provide detailed insights into the genomic and selective histories of the Middle East.

RevDate: 2021-12-20
CmpDate: 2021-12-20

Madison P (2021)

Brutish Neanderthals: History of a merciless characterization.

Evolutionary anthropology, 30(6):366-374.

The idea that Neanderthals were brutish and unintelligent is often traced back to Marcellin Boule, a French paleontologist who examined the specimen known as the Old Man in the first decades of the 20th century. This article examines the work of Boule's predecessors and aggregate a variety of literature to underline an argument that this idea has much earlier origins and is rooted in the first recognized specimen discovered in the Neander Valley in 1856. Reorienting our understanding of the brutish Neanderthal to account for its 19th-century origins, allows for a reexamination of the factors in 19th-century culture, science, and society which contributed to this caricature, especially the concepts of race and species' extinction. Such a reexamination dismantles the narrative of Boule's error while providing a new vantage point to think about Neanderthals in the present.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Pitarch Martí A, Zilhão J, d'Errico F, et al (2021)

The symbolic role of the underground world among Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(33):.

Cueva de Ardales in Málaga, Spain, is one of the richest and best-preserved Paleolithic painted caves of southwestern Europe, containing over a thousand graphic representations. Here, we study the red pigment in panel II.A.3 of "Sala de las Estrellas," dated by U-Th to the Middle Paleolithic, to determine its composition, verify its anthropogenic nature, infer the associated behaviors, and discuss their implications. Using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, we analyzed a set of samples from the panel and compared them to natural coloring materials collected from the floor and walls of the cave. The conspicuously different texture and composition of the geological samples indicates that the pigments used in the paintings do not come from the outcrops of colorant material known in the cave. We confirm that the paintings are not the result of natural processes and show that the composition of the paint is consistent with the artistic activity being recurrent. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that Neanderthals symbolically used these paintings and the large stalagmitic dome harboring them over an extended time span.

RevDate: 2021-10-08
CmpDate: 2021-10-08

Bowland LA, Scott JE, Kivell TL, et al (2021)

Homo naledi pollical metacarpal shaft morphology is distinctive and intermediate between that of australopiths and other members of the genus Homo.

Journal of human evolution, 158:103048.

Homo naledi fossils from the Rising Star cave system provide important insights into the diversity of hand morphology within the genus Homo. Notably, the pollical (thumb) metacarpal (Mc1) displays an unusual suite of characteristics including a median longitudinal crest, a narrow proximal base, and broad flaring intrinsic muscle flanges. The present study evaluates the affinities of H. naledi Mc1 morphology via 3D geometric morphometric analysis of shaft shape using a broader comparative sample (n = 337) of fossil hominins, recent humans, apes, and cercopithecoid monkeys than in prior work. Results confirm that the H. naledi Mc1 is distinctive from most other hominins in being narrow at the proximal end but surmounted by flaring muscle flanges distally. Only StW 418 (Australopithecus cf. africanus) is similar in these aspects of shape. The gracile proximal shaft is most similar to cercopithecoids, Pan, Pongo, Australopithecus afarensis, and Australopithecus sediba, suggesting that H. naledi retains the condition primitive for the genus Homo. In contrast, Neandertal Mc1s are characterized by wide proximal bases and shafts, pinched midshafts, and broad distal flanges, while those of recent humans generally have straight shafts, less robust muscle flanges, and wide proximal shafts/bases. Although uncertainties remain regarding character polarity, the morphology of the H. naledi thumb might be interpreted as a retained intermediate state in a transformation series between the overall gracility of the shaft and the robust shafts of later hominins. Such a model suggests that the addition of broad medial and lateral muscle flanges to a primitively slender shaft was the first modification in transforming the Mc1 into the overall more robust structure exhibited by other Homo taxa including Neandertals and recent Homo sapiens in whose shared lineage the bases and proximal shafts became expanded, possibly as an adaptation to the repeated recruitment of powerful intrinsic pollical muscles.

RevDate: 2021-10-08
CmpDate: 2021-08-06

Zhang Q, Wadgaonkar P, Xu L, et al (2021)

Environmentally-induced mdig contributes to the severity of COVID-19 through fostering expression of SARS-CoV-2 receptor NRPs and glycan metabolism.

Theranostics, 11(16):7970-7983.

The novel β-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has infected more than 177 million people and resulted in 3.84 million death worldwide. Recent epidemiological studies suggested that some environmental factors, such as air pollution, might be the important contributors to the mortality of COVID-19. However, how environmental exposure enhances the severity of COVID-19 remains to be fully understood. In the present report, we provided evidence showing that mdig, a previously reported environmentally-induced oncogene that antagonizes repressive trimethylation of histone proteins, is an important regulator for SARS-CoV-2 receptors neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and NRP2, cathepsins, glycan metabolism and inflammation, key determinants for viral infection and cytokine storm of the patients. Depletion of mdig in bronchial epithelial cells by CRISPR-Cas-9 gene editing resulted in a decreased expression of NRP1, NRP2, cathepsins, and genes involved in protein glycosylation and inflammation, largely due to a substantial enrichment of lysine 9 and/or lysine 27 trimethylation of histone H3 (H3K9me3/H3K27me3) on these genes as determined by ChIP-seq. Meanwhile, we also validated that environmental factor arsenic is able to induce mdig, NRP1 and NRP2, and genetic disruption of mdig lowered expression of NRP1 and NRP2. Furthermore, mdig may coordinate with the Neanderthal variants linked to an elevated mortality of COVID-19. These data, thus, suggest that mdig is a key mediator for the severity of COVID-19 in response to environmental exposure and targeting mdig may be the one of the effective strategies in ameliorating the symptom and reducing the mortality of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-11-04
CmpDate: 2021-11-04

Condemi S, Mazières S, Faux P, et al (2021)

Blood groups of Neandertals and Denisova decrypted.

PloS one, 16(7):e0254175.

Blood group systems were the first phenotypic markers used in anthropology to decipher the origin of populations, their migratory movements, and their admixture. The recent emergence of new technologies based on the decoding of nucleic acids from an individual's entire genome has relegated them to their primary application, blood transfusion. Thus, despite the finer mapping of the modern human genome in relation to Neanderthal and Denisova populations, little is known about red cell blood groups in these archaic populations. Here we analyze the available high-quality sequences of three Neanderthals and one Denisovan individuals for 7 blood group systems that are used today in transfusion (ABO including H/Se, Rh (Rhesus), Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Diego). We show that Neanderthal and Denisova were polymorphic for ABO and shared blood group alleles recurrent in modern Sub-Saharan populations. Furthermore, we found ABO-related alleles currently preventing from viral gut infection and Neanderthal RHD and RHCE alleles nowadays associated with a high risk of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Such a common blood group pattern across time and space is coherent with a Neanderthal population of low genetic diversity exposed to low reproductive success and with their inevitable demise. Lastly, we connect a Neanderthal RHD allele to two present-day Aboriginal Australian and Papuan, suggesting that a segment of archaic genome was introgressed in this gene in non-Eurasian populations. While contributing to both the origin and late evolutionary history of Neanderthal and Denisova, our results further illustrate that blood group systems are a relevant piece of the puzzle helping to decipher it.

RevDate: 2021-11-03
CmpDate: 2021-11-03

Alcaraz-Castaño M, Alcolea-González JJ, de Andrés-Herrero M, et al (2021)

First modern human settlement recorded in the Iberian hinterland occurred during Heinrich Stadial 2 within harsh environmental conditions.

Scientific reports, 11(1):15161.

As the south-westernmost region of Europe, the Iberian Peninsula stands as a key area for understanding the process of modern human dispersal into Eurasia. However, the precise timing, ecological setting and cultural context of this process remains controversial concerning its spatiotemporal distribution within the different regions of the peninsula. While traditional models assumed that the whole Iberian hinterland was avoided by modern humans due to ecological factors until the retreat of the Last Glacial Maximum, recent research has demonstrated that hunter-gatherers entered the Iberian interior at least during Solutrean times. We provide a multi-proxy geoarchaeological, chronometric and paleoecological study on human-environment interactions based on the key site of Peña Capón (Guadalajara, Spain). Results show (1) that this site hosts the oldest modern human presence recorded to date in central Iberia, associated to pre-Solutrean cultural traditions around 26,000 years ago, and (2) that this presence occurred during Heinrich Stadial 2 within harsh environmental conditions. These findings demonstrate that this area of the Iberian hinterland was recurrently occupied regardless of climate and environmental variability, thus challenging the widely accepted hypothesis that ecological risk hampered the human settlement of the Iberian interior highlands since the first arrival of modern humans to Southwest Europe.

RevDate: 2021-08-14
CmpDate: 2021-08-03

McArthur E, Rinker DC, JA Capra (2021)

Quantifying the contribution of Neanderthal introgression to the heritability of complex traits.

Nature communications, 12(1):4481.

Eurasians have ~2% Neanderthal ancestry, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of the genome-wide influence of Neanderthal introgression on modern human diseases and traits. Here, we quantify the contribution of introgressed alleles to the heritability of more than 400 diverse traits. We show that genomic regions in which detectable Neanderthal ancestry remains are depleted of heritability for all traits considered, except those related to skin and hair. Introgressed variants themselves are also depleted for contributions to the heritability of most traits. However, introgressed variants shared across multiple Neanderthal populations are enriched for heritability and have consistent directions of effect on several traits with potential relevance to human adaptation to non-African environments, including hair and skin traits, autoimmunity, chronotype, bone density, lung capacity, and menopause age. Integrating our results, we propose a model in which selection against introgressed functional variation was the dominant trend (especially for cognitive traits); however, for a few traits, introgressed variants provided beneficial variation via uni-directional (e.g., lightening skin color) or bi-directional (e.g., modulating immune response) effects.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Leder D, Hermann R, Hüls M, et al (2021)

Publisher Correction: A 51,000-year-old engraved bone reveals Neanderthals' capacity for symbolic behaviour.

Nature ecology & evolution, 5(9):1320.

RevDate: 2021-10-01

Schaefer NK, Shapiro B, RE Green (2021)

An ancestral recombination graph of human, Neanderthal, and Denisovan genomes.

Science advances, 7(29):.

Many humans carry genes from Neanderthals, a legacy of past admixture. Existing methods detect this archaic hominin ancestry within human genomes using patterns of linkage disequilibrium or direct comparison to Neanderthal genomes. Each of these methods is limited in sensitivity and scalability. We describe a new ancestral recombination graph inference algorithm that scales to large genome-wide datasets and demonstrate its accuracy on real and simulated data. We then generate a genome-wide ancestral recombination graph including human and archaic hominin genomes. From this, we generate a map within human genomes of archaic ancestry and of genomic regions not shared with archaic hominins either by admixture or incomplete lineage sorting. We find that only 1.5 to 7% of the modern human genome is uniquely human. We also find evidence of multiple bursts of adaptive changes specific to modern humans within the past 600,000 years involving genes related to brain development and function.

RevDate: 2021-11-05

Iasi LNM, Ringbauer H, BM Peter (2021)

An Extended Admixture Pulse Model Reveals the Limitations to Human-Neandertal Introgression Dating.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(11):5156-5174.

Neandertal DNA makes up 2-3% of the genomes of all non-African individuals. The patterns of Neandertal ancestry in modern humans have been used to estimate that this is the result of gene flow that occurred during the expansion of modern humans into Eurasia, but the precise dates of this event remain largely unknown. Here, we introduce an extended admixture pulse model that allows joint estimation of the timing and duration of gene flow. This model leads to simple expressions for both the admixture segment distribution and the decay curve of ancestry linkage disequilibrium, and we show that these two statistics are closely related. In simulations, we find that estimates of the mean time of admixture are largely robust to details in gene flow models, but that the duration of the gene flow can only be recovered if gene flow is very recent and the exact recombination map is known. These results imply that gene flow from Neandertals into modern humans could have happened over hundreds of generations. Ancient genomes from the time around the admixture event are thus likely required to resolve the question when, where, and for how long humans and Neandertals interacted.

RevDate: 2021-10-01
CmpDate: 2021-10-01

Leder D, Hermann R, Hüls M, et al (2021)

A 51,000-year-old engraved bone reveals Neanderthals' capacity for symbolic behaviour.

Nature ecology & evolution, 5(9):1273-1282.

While there is substantial evidence for art and symbolic behaviour in early Homo sapiens across Africa and Eurasia, similar evidence connected to Neanderthals is sparse and often contested in scientific debates. Each new discovery is thus crucial for our understanding of Neanderthals' cognitive capacity. Here we report on the discovery of an at least 51,000-year-old engraved giant deer phalanx found at the former cave entrance of Einhornhöhle, northern Germany. The find comes from an apparent Middle Palaeolithic context that is linked to Neanderthals. The engraved bone demonstrates that conceptual imagination, as a prerequisite to compose individual lines into a coherent design, was present in Neanderthals. Therefore, Neanderthal's awareness of symbolic meaning is very likely. Our findings show that Neanderthals were capable of creating symbolic expressions before H. sapiens arrived in Central Europe.

RevDate: 2021-10-01
CmpDate: 2021-10-01

Bello SM (2021)

Boning up on Neanderthal art.

Nature ecology & evolution, 5(9):1201-1202.

RevDate: 2021-10-20
CmpDate: 2021-10-20

Bergmann I, Hublin JJ, Gunz P, et al (2021)

How did modern morphology evolve in the human mandible? The relationship between static adult allometry and mandibular variability in Homo sapiens.

Journal of human evolution, 157:103026.

Key to understanding human origins are early Homo sapiens fossils from Jebel Irhoud, as well as from the early Late Pleistocene sites Tabun, Border Cave, Klasies River Mouth, Skhul, and Qafzeh. While their upper facial shape falls within the recent human range of variation, their mandibles display a mosaic morphology. Here we quantify how mandibular shape covaries with mandible size and how static allometry differs between Neanderthals, early H. sapiens, and modern humans from the Upper Paleolithic/Later Stone Age and Holocene (= later H. sapiens). We use 3D (semi)landmark geometric morphometric methods to visualize allometric trends and to explore how gracilization affects the expression of diagnostic shape features. Early H. sapiens were highly variable in mandible size, exhibiting a unique allometric trajectory that explains aspects of their 'archaic' appearance. At the same time, early H. sapiens share a suite of diagnostic features with later H. sapiens that are not related to mandibular sizes, such as an incipient chin and an anteroposteriorly decreasing corpus height. The mandibular morphology, often referred to as 'modern', can partly be explained by gracilization owing to size reduction. Despite distinct static allometric shape changes in each group studied, bicondylar and bigonial breadth represent important structural constraints for the expression of shape features in most Middle to Late Pleistocene hominin mandibles.

RevDate: 2021-06-24

Schwartz JH, Pantoja-Pérez A, JL Arsuaga (2021)

The nasal region of the ~417 ka Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain) Hominin: New terminology and implications for later human evolution.

Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) [Epub ahead of print].

Circum-nasal and nasal cavity morphology add to the picture of the Sima de los Huesos specimens as, at one level, representing a distinct morph and, at another, displaying individual variation. They developed a robust, midline-grooved, three-dimensional spinal ridge lying anteriorly in the nasal cavity floor that was distended posteriorly over the nasal cavity floor, and, typically, an expansive, three-dimensional patch of rugose bone on the nasal cavity wall where a conchal crest would otherwise lie. They vary, for example, in degree of topographic relief of the nasal cavity wall, expression of the spinal ridge, and development of nasal crests and fossae. Lacking an anterior nasal spine, Sima specimens differ from extant and most fossil Homo sapiens, some specimens attributed to H. heidelbergensis, and the Gran Dolina partial face, whose anterior nasal spine is a superoanterior distention of the nasoalveolar clivus, and also from Neanderthals, whose anterior nasal spine projects anteriorly away from the nasoalveolar clivus. Comparison of Neanderthals, the Sima hominin, and specimens regarded as H. heidelbergensis calls for re-evaluating the integrity of "heidelbergensis" and rethinking the phylogenetic relationships of them all. To precisely describe the numerous features and combinations thereof of the nasal region in Sima specimens, and compare them with Neandertals and "H. heidelbergensis", we developed terminology that is applicable not only to hominins, but to mammals in general.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Zavala EI, Jacobs Z, Vernot B, et al (2021)

Pleistocene sediment DNA reveals hominin and faunal turnovers at Denisova Cave.

Nature, 595(7867):399-403.

Denisova Cave in southern Siberia is the type locality of the Denisovans, an archaic hominin group who were related to Neanderthals1-4. The dozen hominin remains recovered from the deposits also include Neanderthals5,6 and the child of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan7, which suggests that Denisova Cave was a contact zone between these archaic hominins. However, uncertainties persist about the order in which these groups appeared at the site, the timing and environmental context of hominin occupation, and the association of particular hominin groups with archaeological assemblages5,8-11. Here we report the analysis of DNA from 728 sediment samples that were collected in a grid-like manner from layers dating to the Pleistocene epoch. We retrieved ancient faunal and hominin mitochondrial (mt)DNA from 685 and 175 samples, respectively. The earliest evidence for hominin mtDNA is of Denisovans, and is associated with early Middle Palaeolithic stone tools that were deposited approximately 250,000 to 170,000 years ago; Neanderthal mtDNA first appears towards the end of this period. We detect a turnover in the mtDNA of Denisovans that coincides with changes in the composition of faunal mtDNA, and evidence that Denisovans and Neanderthals occupied the site repeatedly-possibly until, or after, the onset of the Initial Upper Palaeolithic at least 45,000 years ago, when modern human mtDNA is first recorded in the sediments.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-09

Curry A (2021)

How ancient people fell in love with bread, beer and other carbs.

Nature, 594(7864):488-491.

RevDate: 2021-12-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Devièse T, Abrams G, Hajdinjak M, et al (2021)

Reply to Van Peer: Direct radiocarbon dating and ancient genomic analysis reveal the true age of the Neanderthals at Spy Cave.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(26):.

RevDate: 2021-12-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Van Peer P (2021)

The stratigraphic context of Spy Cave and the timing of Neanderthal disappearance in Northwest Europe.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(26):.

RevDate: 2021-06-22

Amos W (2021)

Correlated and geographically predictable Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies are difficult to reconcile with a simple model based on inter-breeding.

Royal Society open science, 8(6):201229.

Although the presence of archaic hominin legacies in humans is taken for granted, little attention has been given as to how the data fit with how humans colonized the world. Here, I show that Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies are strongly correlated and that inferred legacy size, like heterozygosity, exhibits a strong correlation with distance from Africa. Simulations confirm that, once created, legacy size is extremely stable: it may reduce through admixture with lower legacy populations but cannot increase significantly through neutral drift. Consequently, populations carrying the highest legacies are likely to be those whose ancestors inter-bred most with archaics. However, the populations with the highest legacies are globally scattered and are unified, not by having origins within the known Neanderthal range, but instead by living in locations that lie furthest from Africa. Furthermore, the Simons Genome Diversity Project data reveal two distinct correlations between Neanderthal and Denisovan legacies, one that starts in North Africa and increases west to east across Eurasia and into some parts of Oceania, and a second, much steeper trend that starts in Africa, peaking with the San and Ju/'hoansi and which, if extrapolated, predicts the large inferred legacies of both archaics found in Oceania/Australia. Similar 'double' trends are observed for the introgression statistic f 4 in a second large dataset published by Qin and Stoneking (Qin & Stoneking 2015 Mol. Biol. Evol. 32, 2665-2674 (doi:10.1093/molbev/msv141)). These trends appear at odds with simple models of how introgression occurred though more complicated patterns of introgression could potentially generate better fits. Moreover, substituting archaic genomes with those of great apes yields similar but biologically impossible signals of introgression, suggesting that the signals these metrics capture arise within humans and are largely independent of the test group. Interestingly, the data do appear to fit a speculative model in which the loss of diversity that occurred when humans moved further from Africa created a gradient in heterozygosity that in turn progressively reduced mutation rate such that populations furthest from Africa have diverged less from our common ancestor and hence from the archaics. In this light, the two distinct trends could be interpreted in terms of two 'out of Africa' events, an early one ending in Oceania and Australia and a later one that colonized Eurasia and the Americas.

RevDate: 2021-12-04
CmpDate: 2021-09-02

Jeworutzki E, Tüttelmann F, Rothenberg I, et al (2021)

Can Unlikely Neanderthal Chloride Channel CLC-2 Gene Variants Provide Insights in Modern Human Infertility?.

Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 55(3):301-310.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neanderthals, although well adapted to local environments, were rapidly replaced by anatomically modern humans (AMH) for unknown reasons. Genetic information on Neanderthals is limited restricting applicability of standard population genetics.

METHODS: Here, we apply a novel combination of restricted genetic analyses on preselected physiological key players (ion channels), electrophysiological analyses of gene variants of unclear significance expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes using two electrode voltage clamp and transfer of results to AMH genetics. Using genetic screening in infertile men identified a loss of CLC-2 associated with sperm deficiency.

RESULTS: Increased genetic variation caused functionally impaired Neanderthals CLC-2 channels.

CONCLUSION: Increased genetic variation could reflect an adaptation to different local salt supplies at the cost of reduced sperm density. Interestingly and consistent with this hypothesis, lack of CLC-2 protein in a patient associates with high blood K+ concentration and azoospermia.

RevDate: 2021-07-02
CmpDate: 2021-07-02

Gibbons A (2021)

Genomes offer rare glimpse of Neanderthal family groups.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 372(6548):1251-1252.

RevDate: 2021-11-02

Levi G, de Lombares C, Giuliani C, et al (2021)

DLX5/6 GABAergic Expression Affects Social Vocalization: Implications for Human Evolution.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(11):4748-4764.

DLX5 and DLX6 are two closely related transcription factors involved in brain development and in GABAergic differentiation. The DLX5/6 locus is regulated by FoxP2, a gene involved in language evolution and has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and mental retardation. Targeted inactivation of Dlx5/6 in mouse GABAergic neurons (Dlx5/6VgatCre mice) results in behavioral and metabolic phenotypes notably increasing lifespan by 33%. Here, we show that Dlx5/6VgatCre mice present a hyper-vocalization and hyper-socialization phenotype. While only 7% of control mice emitted more than 700 vocalizations/10 min, 30% and 56% of heterozygous or homozygous Dlx5/6VgatCre mice emitted more than 700 and up to 1,400 calls/10 min with a higher proportion of complex and modulated calls. Hyper-vocalizing animals were more sociable: the time spent in dynamic interactions with an unknown visitor was more than doubled compared to low-vocalizing individuals. The characters affected by Dlx5/6 in the mouse (sociability, vocalization, skull, and brain shape…) overlap those affected in the "domestication syndrome". We therefore explored the possibility that DLX5/6 played a role in human evolution and "self-domestication" comparing DLX5/6 genomic regions from Neanderthal and modern humans. We identified an introgressed Neanderthal haplotype (DLX5/6-N-Haplotype) present in 12.6% of European individuals that covers DLX5/6 coding and regulatory sequences. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype includes the binding site for GTF2I, a gene associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome, a hyper-sociability and hyper-vocalization neurodevelopmental disorder. The DLX5/6-N-Haplotype is significantly underrepresented in semi-supercentenarians (>105 years of age), a well-established human model of healthy aging and longevity, suggesting their involvement in the coevolution of longevity, sociability, and speech.

RevDate: 2021-10-11
CmpDate: 2021-10-11

Antonio P, Costantino B, Silvia C, et al (2021)

Arothron: An R package for geometric morphometric methods and virtual anthropology applications.

American journal of physical anthropology, 176(1):144-151.

OBJECTIVES: The statistical analysis of fossil remains is essential to understand the evolution of the genus Homo. Unfortunately, the human fossil record is straight away scarce and plagued with severe loss of information caused by taphonomic processes. The recently developed field of Virtual Anthropology helps to ameliorate this situation by using digital techniques to restore damaged and incomplete fossils.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present the package Arothron, an R software suite meant to process and analyze digital models of skeletal elements. Arothron includes tools to digitally extract virtual cavities such as cranial endocasts, to statistically align disarticulated or broken bony elements, and to visualize local variations between surface meshes and landmark configurations.

RESULTS: We describe the main functionalities of Arothron and illustrate their usage through reproducible case studies. We describe a tool for segmentation of skeletal cavities by showing its application on a malleus bone, a Neanderthal tooth, and a modern human cranium, reproducing their shape and calculating their volume. We illustrate how to digitally align a disarticulated model of a modern human cranium, and how to combine piecemeal shape information on individual specimens into one. In addition, we present useful visualization tools by comparing the morphological differences between the right hemisphere of the Neanderthal and the modern human brain.

CONCLUSIONS: The Arothron R package is designed to study digital models of fossil specimens. By using Arothron, scientists can handle digital models with ease, investigate the inner morphology of 3D skeletal models, gain a full representation of the original shapes of damaged specimens, and compare shapes across specimens.

RevDate: 2021-12-04
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Singh PP, Srivastava A, Sultana GNN, et al (2021)

The major genetic risk factor for severe COVID-19 does not show any association among South Asian populations.

Scientific reports, 11(1):12346.

With the growing evidence on the variable human susceptibility against COVID-19, it is evident that some genetic loci modulate the severity of the infection. Recent studies have identified several loci associated with greater severity. More recently, a study has identified a 50 kb genomic segment introgressed from Neanderthal adding a risk for COVID-19, and this genomic segment is present among 16% and 50% people of European and South Asian descent, respectively. Our studies on ACE2 identified a haplotype present among 20% and 60% of European and South Asian populations, respectively, which appears to be responsible for the low case fatality rate among South Asian populations. This result was also consistent with the real-time infection rate and case fatality rate among various states of India. We readdressed this issue using both of the contrasting datasets and compared them with the real-time infection rates and case fatality rate in India. We found that the polymorphism present in the 50 kb introgressed genomic segment (rs10490770) did not show any significant correlation with the infection and case fatality rate in India.

RevDate: 2021-10-29

Zhou Y, SR Browning (2021)

Protocol for detecting introgressed archaic variants with SPrime.

STAR protocols, 2(2):100550.

The SPrime program detects the variants in current-day populations that were introgressed from an archaic source in the past. It is optimized for detecting introgression from Neanderthals and Denisovans in modern humans. We provide a protocol for detecting Neanderthal and Denisovan introgression in 1000 Genomes Project data, specifically focusing on the CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing) population. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Browning et al. (2018).

RevDate: 2021-07-08
CmpDate: 2021-07-08

Barras C (2021)

How did Neanderthals and other ancient humans learn to count?.

Nature, 594(7861):22-25.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Folgerø PO, Johansson C, LH Stokkedal (2021)

The Superior Visual Perception Hypothesis: Neuroaesthetics of Cave Art.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6):.

Cave Art in the Upper Paleolithic presents a boost of creativity and visual thinking. What can explain these savant-like paintings? The normal brain function in modern man rarely supports the creation of highly detailed paintings, particularly the convincing representation of animal movement, without extensive training and access to modern technology. Differences in neuro-signaling and brain anatomy between modern and archaic Homo sapiens could also cause differences in perception. The brain of archaic Homo sapiens could perceive raw detailed information without using pre-established top-down concepts, as opposed to the common understanding of the normal modern non-savant brain driven by top-down control. Some ancient genes preserved in modern humans may be expressed in rare disorders. Researchers have compared Cave Art with art made by people with autism spectrum disorder. We propose that archaic primary consciousness, as opposed to modern secondary consciousness, included a savant-like perception with a superior richness of details compared to modern man. Modern people with high frequencies of Neanderthal genes, have notable anatomical features such as increased skull width in the occipital and parietal visual areas. We hypothesize that the anatomical differences are functional and may allow a different path to visual perception.

RevDate: 2021-12-17
CmpDate: 2021-06-14

Yamamoto N, Yamamoto R, Ariumi Y, et al (2021)

Does Genetic Predisposition Contribute to the Exacerbation of COVID-19 Symptoms in Individuals with Comorbidities and Explain the Huge Mortality Disparity between the East and the West?.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(9):.

The elderly and patients with several comorbidities experience more severe cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) than healthy patients without underlying medical conditions. However, it is unclear why these people are prone to developing alveolar pneumonia, rapid exacerbations, and death. Therefore, we hypothesized that people with comorbidities may have a genetic predisposition that makes them more vulnerable to various factors; for example, they are likely to become more severely ill when infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). To test this hypothesis, we searched the literature extensively. Polymorphisms of genes, such as those that encode angiotensin-converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), have been associated with numerous comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and obesity, and there are potential mechanisms to explain these associations (e.g., DD-type carriers have greater ACE1 activity, and patients with a genetic alpha-1 anti-trypsin (AAT) deficiency lack control over inflammatory mediators). Since comorbidities are associated with chronic inflammation and are closely related to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), these individuals may already have a mild ACE1/ACE2 imbalance before viral infection, which increases their risk for developing severe cases of COVID-19. However, there is still much debate about the association between ACE1 D/I polymorphism and comorbidities. The best explanation for this discrepancy could be that the D allele and DD subtypes are associated with comorbidities, but the DD genotype alone does not have an exceptionally large effect. This is also expected since the ACE1 D/I polymorphism is only an intron marker. We also discuss how polymorphisms of AAT and other genes are involved in comorbidities and the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Presumably, a combination of multiple genes and non-genetic factors is involved in the establishment of comorbidities and aggravation of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-10-19
CmpDate: 2021-10-19

Salazar-García DC, Power RC, Rudaya N, et al (2021)

Dietary evidence from Central Asian Neanderthals: A combined isotope and plant microremains approach at Chagyrskaya Cave (Altai, Russia).

Journal of human evolution, 156:102985.

Neanderthals are known primarily from their habitation of Western Eurasia, but they also populated large expanses of Northern Asia for thousands of years. Owing to a sparse archaeological record, relatively little is known about these eastern Neanderthal populations. Unlike in their western range, there are limited zooarchaeological and paleobotanical studies that inform us about the nature of their subsistence. Here, we perform a combined analysis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes on bone collagen and microbotanical remains in dental calculus to reconstruct the diet of eastern Neanderthals at Chagyrskaya Cave in the Altai Mountains of Southern Siberia, Russia. Stable isotopes identify one individual as possessing a high trophic level due to the hunting of large- and medium-sized ungulates, while the analysis of dental calculus also indicates the presence of plants in the diet of this individual and others from the site. These findings indicate eastern Neanderthals may have had broadly similar subsistence patterns to those elsewhere in their range.

RevDate: 2021-11-25
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Higham TFG, K Douka (2021)

The reliability of late radiocarbon dates from the Paleolithic of southern China.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(22):.

RevDate: 2021-11-09

Ahlquist KD, Bañuelos MM, Funk A, et al (2021)

Our Tangled Family Tree: New Genomic Methods Offer Insight into the Legacy of Archaic Admixture.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(7):.

The archaic ancestry present in the human genome has captured the imagination of both scientists and the wider public in recent years. This excitement is the result of new studies pushing the envelope of what we can learn from the archaic genetic information that has survived for over 50,000 years in the human genome. Here, we review the most recent ten years of literature on the topic of archaic introgression, including the current state of knowledge on Neanderthal and Denisovan introgression, as well as introgression from other as-yet unidentified archaic populations. We focus this review on four topics: 1) a reimagining of human demographic history, including evidence for multiple admixture events between modern humans, Neanderthals, Denisovans, and other archaic populations; 2) state-of-the-art methods for detecting archaic ancestry in population-level genomic data; 3) how these novel methods can detect archaic introgression in modern African populations; and 4) the functional consequences of archaic gene variants, including how those variants were co-opted into novel function in modern human populations. The goal of this review is to provide a simple-to-access reference for the relevant methods and novel data, which has changed our understanding of the relationship between our species and its siblings. This body of literature reveals the large degree to which the genetic legacy of these extinct hominins has been integrated into the human populations of today.

RevDate: 2021-10-19
CmpDate: 2021-10-19

Spindler L, Comeskey D, Chabai V, et al (2021)

Dating the last Middle Palaeolithic of the Crimean Peninsula: New hydroxyproline AMS dates from the site of Kabazi II.

Journal of human evolution, 156:102996.

Radiocarbon dating of bone and charcoal from sites dating to the Middle and Upper Paleolithic is challenging due to low residual levels of radiocarbon. This means that small amounts of contaminating carbon can wield a great influence over accuracy unless they are fully removed. The site of Kabazi II in the Crimea is important because radiocarbon dates previously obtained from bones in archaeological horizons that date to the Western Crimean Mousterian (WCM) are surprisingly young. We redated the same samples using a single compound dating method that focuses on extracting and dating the amino acid hydroxyproline. We show that single amino acid dates produce significantly older determinations than those that use bulk collagen pretreatment procedures. Our results suggest that instead of dating to 35,000-40,000 cal BP, the bones actually date to >50,000 cal BP. This implies that the WCM at this site is much older than previously thought. In light of these current findings, we considered the dates of other key Crimean sites and concluded that in the absence of reliable pretreatment methods, it would be wise to consider many of them minimum ages. We conclude that there is little robust evidence to suggest Neanderthals were present in the Crimea after 40,000 cal BP.

RevDate: 2021-12-15

Svensson E, Günther T, Hoischen A, et al (2021)

Genome of Peştera Muierii skull shows high diversity and low mutational load in pre-glacial Europe.

Current biology : CB, 31(14):2973-2983.e9.

Few complete human genomes from the European Early Upper Palaeolithic (EUP) have been sequenced. Using novel sampling and DNA extraction approaches, we sequenced the genome of a woman from "Peştera Muierii," Romania who lived ∼34,000 years ago to 13.5× coverage. The genome shows similarities to modern-day Europeans, but she is not a direct ancestor. Although her cranium exhibits both modern human and Neanderthal features, the genome shows similar levels of Neanderthal admixture (∼3.1%) to most EUP humans but only half compared to the ∼40,000-year-old Peştera Oase 1. All EUP European hunter-gatherers display high genetic diversity, demonstrating that the severe loss of diversity occurred during and after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) rather than just during the out-of-Africa migration. The prevalence of genetic diseases is expected to increase with low diversity; however, pathogenic variant load was relatively constant from EUP to modern times, despite post-LGM hunter-gatherers having the lowest diversity ever observed among Europeans.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Kerner G, Patin E, L Quintana-Murci (2021)

New insights into human immunity from ancient genomics.

Current opinion in immunology, 72:116-125.

Population genetic studies have clearly indicated that immunity and host defense are among the functions most frequently subject to natural selection, and increased our understanding of the biological relevance of the corresponding genes and their contribution to variable immune traits and diseases. Herein, we will focus on some recently studied forms of human adaptation to infectious agents, including hybridization with now-extinct hominins, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, and admixture between modern human populations. These studies, which are partly enabled by the technological advances in the sequencing of DNA from ancient remains, provide new insight into the sources of immune response variation in contemporary humans, such as the recently reported link between Neanderthal heritage and susceptibility to severe COVID-19 disease. Furthermore, ancient DNA analyses, in both humans and pathogens, allow to measure the action of natural selection on immune genes across time and to reconstruct the impact of past epidemics on the evolution of human immunity.

RevDate: 2021-11-04

Harvati K (2021)

Katerina Harvati.

Current biology : CB, 31(9):R418-R419.

Interview with paleoanthropologist Katerina Harvati, who studies Neanderthal evolution and modern human origins at the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Fellows Yates JA, Velsko IM, Aron F, et al (2021)

The evolution and changing ecology of the African hominid oral microbiome.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(20):.

The oral microbiome plays key roles in human biology, health, and disease, but little is known about the global diversity, variation, or evolution of this microbial community. To better understand the evolution and changing ecology of the human oral microbiome, we analyzed 124 dental biofilm metagenomes from humans, including Neanderthals and Late Pleistocene to present-day modern humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas, as well as New World howler monkeys for comparison. We find that a core microbiome of primarily biofilm structural taxa has been maintained throughout African hominid evolution, and these microbial groups are also shared with howler monkeys, suggesting that they have been important oral members since before the catarrhine-platyrrhine split ca. 40 Mya. However, community structure and individual microbial phylogenies do not closely reflect host relationships, and the dental biofilms of Homo and chimpanzees are distinguished by major taxonomic and functional differences. Reconstructing oral metagenomes from up to 100 thousand years ago, we show that the microbial profiles of both Neanderthals and modern humans are highly similar, sharing functional adaptations in nutrient metabolism. These include an apparent Homo-specific acquisition of salivary amylase-binding capability by oral streptococci, suggesting microbial coadaptation with host diet. We additionally find evidence of shared genetic diversity in the oral bacteria of Neanderthal and Upper Paleolithic modern humans that is not observed in later modern human populations. Differences in the oral microbiomes of African hominids provide insights into human evolution, the ancestral state of the human microbiome, and a temporal framework for understanding microbial health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-08-19
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Gopalan S, Atkinson EG, Buck LT, et al (2021)

Inferring archaic introgression from hominin genetic data.

Evolutionary anthropology, 30(3):199-220.

Questions surrounding the timing, extent, and evolutionary consequences of archaic admixture into human populations have a long history in evolutionary anthropology. More recently, advances in human genetics, particularly in the field of ancient DNA, have shed new light on the question of whether or not Homo sapiens interbred with other hominin groups. By the late 1990s, published genetic work had largely concluded that archaic groups made no lasting genetic contribution to modern humans; less than a decade later, this conclusion was reversed following the successful DNA sequencing of an ancient Neanderthal. This reversal of consensus is noteworthy, but the reasoning behind it is not widely understood across all academic communities. There remains a communication gap between population geneticists and paleoanthropologists. In this review, we endeavor to bridge this gap by outlining how technological advancements, new statistical methods, and notable controversies ultimately led to the current consensus.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-10-22

Stepanova V, Moczulska KE, Vacano GN, et al (2021)

Reduced purine biosynthesis in humans after their divergence from Neandertals.

eLife, 10:.

We analyze the metabolomes of humans, chimpanzees, and macaques in muscle, kidney and three different regions of the brain. Although several compounds in amino acid metabolism occur at either higher or lower concentrations in humans than in the other primates, metabolites downstream of adenylosuccinate lyase, which catalyzes two reactions in purine synthesis, occur at lower concentrations in humans. This enzyme carries an amino acid substitution that is present in all humans today but absent in Neandertals. By introducing the modern human substitution into the genomes of mice, as well as the ancestral, Neandertal-like substitution into the genomes of human cells, we show that this amino acid substitution contributes to much or all of the reduction of de novo synthesis of purines in humans.

RevDate: 2021-11-01
CmpDate: 2021-11-01

Mualim K, Theunert C, M Slatkin (2021)

Estimation of coalescence probabilities and population divergence times from SNP data.

Heredity, 127(1):1-9.

We present a method called the G(A|B) method for estimating coalescence probabilities within population lineages from genome sequences when one individual is sampled from each population. Population divergence times can be estimated from these coalescence probabilities if additional assumptions about the history of population sizes are made. Our method is based on a method presented by Rasmussen et al. (2014) to test whether an archaic genome is from a population directly ancestral to a present-day population. The G(A|B) method does not require distinguishing ancestral from derived alleles or assumptions about demographic history before population divergence. We discuss the relationship of our method to two similar methods, one introduced by Green et al. (2010) and called the F(A|B) method and the other introduced by Schlebusch et al. (2017) and called the TT method. When our method is applied to individuals from three or more populations, it provides a test of whether the population history is treelike because coalescence probabilities are additive on a tree. We illustrate the use of our method by applying it to three high-coverage archaic genomes, two Neanderthals (Vindija and Altai) and a Denisovan.

RevDate: 2021-10-08
CmpDate: 2021-09-20

Villanea FA, Huerta-Sanchez E, K Fox (2021)

ABO Genetic Variation in Neanderthals and Denisovans.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(8):3373-3382.

Variation at the ABO locus was one of the earliest sources of data in the study of human population identity and history, and to this day remains widely genotyped due to its importance in blood and tissue transfusions. Here, we look at ABO blood type variants in our archaic relatives: Neanderthals and Denisovans. Our goal is to understand the genetic landscape of the ABO gene in archaic humans, and how it relates to modern human ABO variation. We found two Neanderthal variants of the O allele in the Siberian Neanderthals (O1 and O2), one of these variants is shared with an European Neanderthal, who is a heterozygote for this O1 variant and a rare cis-AB variant. The Denisovan individual is heterozygous for two variants of the O1 allele, functionally similar to variants found widely in modern humans. Perhaps more surprisingly, the O2 allele variant found in Siberian Neanderthals can be found at low frequencies in modern Europeans and Southeast Asians, and the O1 allele variant found in Siberian and European Neanderthal is also found at very low frequency in modern East Asians. Our genetic distance analyses suggest both alleles survive in modern humans due to inbreeding with Neanderthals. We find that the sequence backgrounds of the surviving Neanderthal-like O alleles in modern humans retain a higher sequence divergence than other surviving Neanderthal genome fragments, supporting a view of balancing selection operating in the Neanderthal ABO alleles by retaining highly diverse haplotypes compared with portions of the genome evolving neutrally.

RevDate: 2021-10-22
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Weiss CV, Harshman L, Inoue F, et al (2021)

The cis-regulatory effects of modern human-specific variants.

eLife, 10:.

The Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes enabled the discovery of sequences that differ between modern and archaic humans, the majority of which are noncoding. However, our understanding of the regulatory consequences of these differences remains limited, in part due to the decay of regulatory marks in ancient samples. Here, we used a massively parallel reporter assay in embryonic stem cells, neural progenitor cells, and bone osteoblasts to investigate the regulatory effects of the 14,042 single-nucleotide modern human-specific variants. Overall, 1791 (13%) of sequences containing these variants showed active regulatory activity, and 407 (23%) of these drove differential expression between human groups. Differentially active sequences were associated with divergent transcription factor binding motifs, and with genes enriched for vocal tract and brain anatomy and function. This work provides insight into the regulatory function of variants that emerged along the modern human lineage and the recent evolution of human gene expression.

RevDate: 2021-04-21

Spiegelhalder P, M Bögemann (2021)

[Non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (M0CRPC) - Apalutamide in high-risk M0CRPC: case reports from the SPARTAN study and the apalutamide compassionate use program].

Aktuelle Urologie [Epub ahead of print].

The occurrence of distant metastases represents a prognostically unfavourable turning point in non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (M0CRPC). M0CRPC patients with a short PSA doubling time have a particularly high risk of progression. For a long time, there was no further treatment option for these patients apart from watchful waiting while maintaining classic androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Apalutamide, a next-generation anti-androgen available since January 2019, significantly increased metastasis-free survival compared with placebo in the pivotal SPARTAN trial in patients with high-risk M0CRPC. The presented patient cases from SPARTAN and the apalutamide compassionate use program are examples of the beneficial effects that apalutamide can achieve in the M0CRPC setting.

RevDate: 2021-04-21

Zwir I, Del-Val C, Hintsanen M, et al (2021)

Evolution of genetic networks for human creativity.

Molecular psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

The genetic basis for the emergence of creativity in modern humans remains a mystery despite sequencing the genomes of chimpanzees and Neanderthals, our closest hominid relatives. Data-driven methods allowed us to uncover networks of genes distinguishing the three major systems of modern human personality and adaptability: emotional reactivity, self-control, and self-awareness. Now we have identified which of these genes are present in chimpanzees and Neanderthals. We replicated our findings in separate analyses of three high-coverage genomes of Neanderthals. We found that Neanderthals had nearly the same genes for emotional reactivity as chimpanzees, and they were intermediate between modern humans and chimpanzees in their numbers of genes for both self-control and self-awareness. 95% of the 267 genes we found only in modern humans were not protein-coding, including many long-non-coding RNAs in the self-awareness network. These genes may have arisen by positive selection for the characteristics of human well-being and behavioral modernity, including creativity, prosocial behavior, and healthy longevity. The genes that cluster in association with those found only in modern humans are over-expressed in brain regions involved in human self-awareness and creativity, including late-myelinating and phylogenetically recent regions of neocortex for autobiographical memory in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions, as well as related components of cortico-thalamo-ponto-cerebellar-cortical and cortico-striato-cortical loops. We conclude that modern humans have more than 200 unique non-protein-coding genes regulating co-expression of many more protein-coding genes in coordinated networks that underlie their capacities for self-awareness, creativity, prosocial behavior, and healthy longevity, which are not found in chimpanzees or Neanderthals.

RevDate: 2021-10-25
CmpDate: 2021-10-25

Yi Z, Zanolli C, Liao W, et al (2021)

A deep-learning-based workflow to assess taxonomic affinity of hominid teeth with a test on discriminating Pongo and Homo upper molars.

American journal of physical anthropology, 175(4):931-942.

OBJECTIVES: Convolutional neural network (CNN) is a state-of-art deep learning (DL) method with superior performance in image classification. Here, a CNN-based workflow is proposed to discriminate hominid teeth. Our hope is that this method could help confirm otherwise questionable records of Homo from Pleistocene deposits where there is a standing risk of mis-attributing molars of Pongo to Homo.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: A two-step workflow was designed. The first step is converting the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) into EDJ card, that is, a two-dimensional image conversion of the three-dimensional EDJ surface. In this step, researchers must carefully orient the teeth according to the cervical plane. The second step is training the CNN learner with labeled EDJ cards. A sample consisting of 53 fossil Pongo and 53 Homo (modern human and Neanderthal) was adopted to generate EDJ cards, which were then separated into training set (n = 84) and validation set (n = 22). To assess the feasibility of this workflow, a Pongo-Homo classifier was trained from the aforementioned EDJ card set, and then the classifier was used to predict the taxonomic affinities of six samples (test set) from von Koenigswald's Chinese Apothecary collection.

RESULTS: Results show that EDJ cards in validation set are classified accurately by the CNN learner. More importantly, taxonomic predictions for six specimens in test set match well with the diagnosis results deduced from multiple lines of evidence, implying the great potential of CNN method.

DISCUSSION: This workflow paves a way for future studies using CNN to address taxonomic complexity (e.g., distinguishing Pongo and Homo teeth from the Pleistocene of Asia). Further improvements include visual interpretation and extending the applicability to moderately worn teeth.

RevDate: 2021-05-03
CmpDate: 2021-05-03

Gibbons A (2021)

DNA from cave dirt traces Neanderthal upheaval.

Science (New York, N.Y.), 372(6539):222-223.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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The first fossil recognized to be an ancestral human was found in the Neander Valley (thal in German) in 1856. William King suggested Homo neanderthalensis (human from the Neander Valley) as the scientific name for the specimen — hence Neanderthal became the common name by which this early human became known. Now Neanderthal genomes have been sequenced, more is known about their path to extinction, and the existence of Neanderthal culture, including music, has been established. To understand the evolutionary path of the hominid line, one must be familiar with Homo neanderthalensis. These books are highly recommended. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )