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Bibliography on: Symbiosis

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 15 Jun 2024 at 01:56 Created: 


Symbiosis refers to an interaction between two or more different organisms living in close physical association, typically to the advantage of both. Symbiotic relationships were once thought to be exceptional situations. Recent studies, however, have shown that every multicellular eukaryote exists in a tight symbiotic relationship with billions of microbes. The associated microbial ecosystems are referred to as microbiome and the combination of a multicellular organism and its microbiota has been described as a holobiont. It seems "we are all lichens now."

Created with PubMed® Query: ( symbiosis[tiab] OR symbiotic[tiab] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-13

Guan X, Jia D, Liu X, et al (2024)

Combined influence of the nanoplastics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure on microbial community in seawater environment.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03919-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Nanoplastics (NPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as persistent organic pollutant (POPs) with demonstrated physiological toxicity. When present in aquatic environments, the two pollutants could combine with each other, resulting in cumulative toxicity to organisms. However, the combined impact of NPs and PAHs on microorganisms in seawater is not well understood. In this study, we conducted an exposure experiment to investigate the individual and synergistic effects of NPs and PAHs on the composition, biodiversity, co-occurrence networks of bacterial communities in seawater. Exposure of individuals to PAHs led to a reduction in microbial community richness, but an increase in the relative abundance of species linked to PAHs degradation. These PAHs-degradation bacteria acting as keystone species, maintained a microbial network complexity similar to that of the control treatment. Exposure to individual NPs resulted in a reduction in the complexity of microbial networks. Furthermore, when PAHs and NPs were simultaneously present, the toxic effect of NPs hindered the presence of keystone species involved in PAHs degradation, subsequently limiting the degradation of PAHs by marine microorganisms, resulting in a decrease in community diversity and symbiotic network complexity. This situation potentially poses a heightened threat to the ecological stability of marine ecosystems. Our work strengthened the understanding of the combined impact of NPs and PAHs on microorganisms in seawater.

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Yaish MW (2024)

Functional Characterization and Localization of Plant-Growth Promoting Bacteria Grown Under Stressful Conditions.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2832:257-279.

Various bacterial species are associated with plant roots. However, symbiotic and free-living plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) can only help plants to grow and develop under normal and stressful conditions. Several biochemical and in vitro assays were previously designed to differentiate between the PGPB and other plant-associated bacterial strains. This chapter describes and summarizes some of these assays and proposes a strategy to screen for PGPB. To determine the involvement of the PGPB in abiotic stress tolerance, assays for the ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, ammonium, gibberellic acid (GA), indole acetic acid (IAA), and microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs) are described in this chapter. Additionally, assays to show the capacity to solubilize micronutrients such as potassium, phosphorus, and zinc by bacteria were also summarized in this chapter. To determine the contribution of the PGPB in biotic stress tolerance in plants, Fe-siderophore, hydrogen cyanide, and antibiotic and antifungal metabolites production assays were described. Moreover, assays to investigate the growth-promotion activities of a bacterium strain on plants, using the gnotobiotic root elongation, in vitro, and pots assays, were explained. Finally, an assay for the localization of endophytic bacterium in plant tissues was also presented in this chapter. Although the assays described in this chapter can give evidence of the nature of the mechanism behind the PGPB actions, other unknown growth-promoting means are yet to decipher, and until then, new methodologies will be developed.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Wang HR, Du XR, Zhang ZY, et al (2023)

Rhizosphere interface microbiome reassembly by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi weakens cadmium migration dynamics.

iMeta, 2(4):e133.

The prevalence of cadmium (Cd)-polluted agricultural soils is increasing globally, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can reduce the absorption of heavy metals by plants and improve mineral nutrition. However, the immobilization of the rhizosphere on cadmium is often overlooked. In this study, Glomus mosseae and Medicago sativa were established as symbiotes, and Cd migration and environmental properties in the rhizosphere were analyzed. AMF reduced Cd migration, and Cd[2+] changed to an organic-bound state. AMF symbiosis treatment and Cd exposure resulted in microbial community variation, exhibiting a distinct deterministic process (|βNTI| > 2), which ultimately resulted in a core microbiome function of heavy metal resistance and nutrient cycling. AMF increased available N and P, extracellular enzyme activity (LaC, LiP, and CAT), organic matter content (TOC, EOC, and GRSP), and Eh of the rhizosphere soil, significantly correlating with decreased Cd migration (p < 0.05). Furthermore, AMF significantly affected root metabolism by upregulating 739 metabolites, with flavonoids being the main factor causing microbiome variation. The structural equation model and variance partial analysis revealed that the superposition of the root metabolites, microbial, and soil exhibited the maximum explanation rate for Cd migration reduction (42.4%), and the microbial model had the highest single explanation rate (15.5%). Thus, the AMF in the rhizosphere microenvironment can regulate metabolite-soil-microbial interactions, reducing Cd migration. In summary, the study provides a new scientific explanation for how AMF improves plant Cd tolerance and offers a sustainable solution that could benefit both the environment and human health.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Cao B, Gao JW, Zhang QP, et al (2023)

Melatonin supplementation protects against traumatic colon injury by regulating SERPINA3N protein expression.

iMeta, 2(4):e141.

Traumatic colon injury (TCI) is a typical injury with high mortality. Prolongation of the intervention time window is a potentially useful approach to improving the outcomes of TCI casualties. This study aimed to identify the pathological mechanisms of TCI and to develop effective strategies to extend the survival time. A semicircular incision was made to prepare a TCI model using C57BL/6 mice. An overview of microbiota dysregulation was achieved by metagenome sequencing. Protein expression reprogramming in the intestinal epithelium was investigated using proteomics profiling. The mice that were subjected to TCI died within a short period of time when not treated. Gut symbiosis showed abrupt turbulence, and specific pathogenic bacteria rapidly proliferated. The protein expression in the intestinal epithelium was also reprogrammed. Among the differentially expressed proteins, SERPINA3N was overexpressed after TCI modeling. Deletion of Serpina3n prolonged the posttraumatic survival time of mice with TCI by improving gut homeostasis in vivo. To promote the translational application of this research, the effects of melatonin (MLT), an oral inhibitor of the SERPINA3N protein, were further investigated. MLT effectively downregulated SERPINA3N expression and mitigated TCI-induced death by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our findings prove that preventive administration of MLT serves as an effective regimen to prolong the posttraumatic survival time by restoring gut homeostasis perturbed by TCI. It may become a novel strategy for improving the prognosis of patients suffering from TCI.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Li Y, Qiu J, Yang J, et al (2024)

Molecular Mechanism of GmSNE3 Ubiquitin Ligase-Mediated Inhibition of Soybean Nodulation by Halosulfuron Methyl.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, the role of E3 ubiquitin ligase GmSNE3 in halosulfuron methyl (HSM) inhibiting soybean nodulation was investigated. GmSNE3 was strongly induced by HSM stress, and the overexpression of GmSNE3 significantly reduced the number of soybean nodules. Further investigation found that GmSNE3 could interact with a nodulation signaling pathway 1 protein (GmNSP1a) and GmSNE3 could mediate the degradation of GmNSP1a. Importantly, GmSNE3-mediated degradation of GmNSP1a could be promoted by HSM stress. Moreover, HSM stress and the overexpression of GmSNE3 resulted in a substantial decrease in the expression of the downstream target genes of GmNSP1a. These results revealed that HSM promotes the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of GmNSP1a by inducing GmSNE3, thereby inhibiting the regulatory effect of GmNSP1a on its downstream target genes and ultimately leading to a reduction in nodulation. Our findings will promote a better understanding of the toxic mechanism of herbicides on the symbiotic nodulation between legumes and rhizobia.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Xiong X, Zeng J, Ning Q, et al (2024)

Ferroptosis induction in host rice by endophyte OsiSh-2 is necessary for mutualism and disease resistance in symbiosis.

Nature communications, 15(1):5012.

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death that was discovered recently. For beneficial microbes to establish mutualistic relationships with hosts, precisely controlled cell death in plant cells is necessary. However, whether ferroptosis is involved in the endophyte‒plant system is poorly understood. Here, we reported that endophytic Streptomyces hygroscopicus OsiSh-2, which established a sophisticated and beneficial interaction with host rice plants, caused ferroptotic cell death in rice characterized by ferroptosis- and immune-related markers. Treatments with ferroptosis inhibitors and inducers, different doses of OsiSh-2, and the siderophore synthesis-deficient mutant ΔcchH revealed that only moderate ferroptosis induced by endophytes is essential for the establishment of an optimal symbiont to enhance plant growth. Additionally, ferroptosis involved in a defence-primed state in rice, which contributed to improved resistance against rice blast disease. Overall, our study provides new insights into the mechanisms of endophyte‒plant interactions mediated by ferroptosis and suggests new directions for crop yield promotion.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Rosic N, Delamare-Deboutteville J, S Dove (2024)

Heat stress in symbiotic dinoflagellates: Implications on oxidative stress and cellular changes.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)04064-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Global warming has been shown to harmfully affect symbiosis between Symbiodiniaceae and other marine invertebrates. When symbiotic dinoflagellates (the genus Breviolum) were in vitro exposed to acute heat stress of +7 °C for a period of 5 days, the results revealed the negative impact on all physiological and other cellular parameters measured. Elevated temperatures resulted in a severe reduction in algal density of up to 9.5-fold, as well as pigment concentrations, indicating the status of the physiological stress and early signs of photo-bleaching. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were increased in all heated dinoflagellate cells, while the antioxidant-reduced glutathione levels initially dropped on day one but increased under prolonged temperature stress. The cell viability parameters were reduced by 97 % over the heating period, with an increased proportion of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Autofluorescence (AF) for Cy5-PE 660-20 was reduced from 1.7-fold at day 1 to up to 50-fold drop at the end of heating time, indicating that the AF changes were highly sensitive to heat stress and that it could be an extremely sensitive tool for assessing the functionality of algal photosynthetic machinery. The addition of the drug 5-AZA-2'-deoxycytidine (5-AZA), which inhibits DNA methylation processes, was assessed in parallel and contributed to some alterations in algal cellular stress response. The presence of drug 5-AZA combined with the temperature stress had an additional impact on Symbiodiniaceae density and cell complexity, including the AF levels. These variations in cellular stress response under heat stress and compromised DNA methylation conditions may indicate the importance of this epigenetic mechanism for symbiotic dinoflagellate thermal tolerance adaptability over a longer period, which needs further exploration. Consequently, the increased ROS levels and changes in AF signals reported during ongoing heat stress in dinoflagellate cells could be used as early stress biomarkers in these microalgae and potentially other photosynthetic species.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Zanetti ME, Blanco F, Ferrari M, et al (2024)

Epigenetic control during root development and symbiosis.

Plant physiology pii:7691838 [Epub ahead of print].

The roots of plants play multiples functions that are essential for growth and development, including anchoring to the soil and water and nutrient acquisition. These underground organs exhibit the plasticity to modify their root system architecture in response to environmental cues allowing adaptation to change in water and nutrient availability. In addition, roots enter in mutualistic interactions with soil microorganisms, e.g. the root nodule symbiosis established between a limited group of plants and nitrogen fixing soil bacteria and the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving most land plants and fungi of the Glomeromycetes phylum. In the past 20 years, genetic approaches allowed the identification and functional characterization of genes required for the specific programs of root development, root nodule and arbuscular mycorrhiza symbioses. These genetic studies provided evidence that the program of root nodule symbiosis recruited components of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis and the root developmental programs. The execution of these programs is strongly influenced by epigenetic changes -DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications- that alter chromatin conformation modifying the expression of key genes. In this review, we summarize recent advances that highlighted how DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, as well as chromatin remodeling factors and long non-coding RNAs, shape the root system architecture and allow the successful establishment of both root nodule and arbuscular mycorrhiza symbioses. We anticipate that the analysis of dynamic epigenetic changes and chromatin 3D structure in specific single-cells or tissue types of root organs will illuminate our understanding of how root developmental and symbiotic programs are orchestrated, opening exciting questions and new perspectives to modulate agronomical and ecological traits linked to nutrient acquisition.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Yang T, Tedersoo L, Liu X, et al (2022)

Fungi stabilize multi-kingdom community in a high elevation timberline ecosystem.

iMeta, 1(4):e49.

Microbes dominate terrestrial ecosystems via their great species diversity and vital ecosystem functions, such as biogeochemical cycling and mycorrhizal symbiosis. Fungi and other organisms form diverse association networks. However, the roles of species belonging to different kingdoms in multi-kingdom community networks have remained largely elusive. In light of the integrative microbiome initiative, we inferred multiple-kingdom biotic associations from high elevation timberline soils using the SPIEC-EASI method. Biotic interactions among plants, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, and archaea were surveyed at the community and network levels. Compared to single-kingdom networks, multi-kingdom networks and their associations increased the within-kingdom and cross-kingdom edge numbers by 1012 and 10,772, respectively, as well as mean connectivity and negative edge proportion by 15.2 and 0.8%, respectively. Fungal involvement increased network stability (i.e., resistance to node loss) and connectivity, but reduced modularity, when compared with those in the single-kingdom networks of plants, nematodes, bacteria, and archaea. In the entire multi-kingdom network, fungal nodes were characterized by significantly higher degree and betweenness than bacteria. Fungi more often played the role of connector, linking different modules. Consistently, structural equation modeling and multiple regression on matrices corroborated the "bridge" role of fungi at the community level, linking plants and other soil biota. Overall, our findings suggest that fungi can stabilize the self-organization process of multi-kingdom networks. The findings facilitate the initiation and carrying out of multi-kingdom community studies in natural ecosystems to reveal the complex above- and belowground linkages.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Gao C, Li X, Zhao X, et al (2022)

Standardized studies of the oral microbiome: From technology-driven to hypothesis-driven.

iMeta, 1(2):e19.

The microbiome is in a symbiotic relationship with the host. Among the microbial consortia in the human body, that in the oral cavity is complex. Instead of repeatedly confirming biomarkers of oral and systemic diseases, recent studies have focused on a unified clinical diagnostic standard in microbiology that reduces the heterogeneity caused by individual discrepancies. Research has also been conducted on other topics of greater clinical importance, including bacterial pathogenesis, and the effects of drugs and treatments. In this review, we divide existing research into technology-driven and hypothesis-driven, according to whether there is a clear research hypothesis. This classification allows the demonstration of shifts in the direction of oral microbiology research. Based on the shifts, we suggested that establishing clear hypotheses may be the solution to major research challenges.

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Lachat J, Lextrait G, Jouan R, et al (2024)

Hundreds of antimicrobial peptides create a selective barrier for insect gut symbionts.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(25):e2401802121.

The spatial organization of gut microbiota is crucial for the functioning of the gut ecosystem, although the mechanisms that organize gut bacterial communities in microhabitats are only partially understood. The gut of the insect Riptortus pedestris has a characteristic microbiota biogeography with a multispecies community in the anterior midgut and a monospecific bacterial population in the posterior midgut. We show that the posterior midgut region produces massively hundreds of specific antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), the Crypt-specific Cysteine-Rich peptides (CCRs) that have membrane-damaging antimicrobial activity against diverse bacteria but posterior midgut symbionts have elevated resistance. We determined by transposon-sequencing the genetic repertoire in the symbiont Caballeronia insecticola to manage CCR stress, identifying different independent pathways, including AMP-resistance pathways unrelated to known membrane homeostasis functions as well as cell envelope functions. Mutants in the corresponding genes have reduced capacity to colonize the posterior midgut, demonstrating that CCRs create a selective barrier and resistance is crucial in gut symbionts. Moreover, once established in the gut, the bacteria differentiate into a CCR-sensitive state, suggesting a second function of the CCR peptide arsenal in protecting the gut epithelia or mediating metabolic exchanges between the host and the gut symbionts. Our study highlights the evolution of an extreme diverse AMP family that likely contributes to establish and control the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Huang Z, Wang D, Zhou J, et al (2024)

Segregation of endosymbionts in complex symbiotic system of cicadas providing novel insights into microbial symbioses and evolutionary dynamics of symbiotic organs in sap-feeding insects.

Frontiers in zoology, 21(1):15.

The most extraordinary systems of symbiosis in insects are found in the suborder Auchenorrhyncha of Hemiptera, which provide unique perspectives for uncovering complicated insect-microbe symbiosis. We investigated symbionts associated with bacteriomes and fat bodies in six cicada species, and compared transmitted cell number ratio of related symbionts in ovaries among species. We reveal that Sulcia and Hodgkinia or a yeast-like fungal symbiont (YLS) are segregated from other host tissues by the bacteriomes in the nymphal stage, then some of them may migrate to other organs (i.e., fat bodies and ovaries) during host development. Particularly, YLS resides together with Sulcia in the "symbiont ball" of each egg and the bacteriomes of young-instar nymphs, but finally migrates to the fat bodies of adults in the majority of Hodgkinia-free cicadas, whereas it resides in both bacteriome sheath and fat bodies of adults in a few other species. The transmitted Sulcia/YLS or Sulcia/Hodgkinia cell number ratio in ovaries varies significantly among species, which could be related to the distribution and/or lineage splitting of symbiont(s). Rickettsia localizes to the nuclei of bacteriomes and fat bodies in some species, but it was not observed to be transmitted to the ovaries, indicating that this symbiont may be acquired from environments or from father to offspring. The considerable difference in the transovarial transmission process of symbionts suggests that cellular mechanisms underlying the symbiont transmission are complex. Our results may provide novel insights into insect-microbe symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Saki N, Hadi H, Keikhaei B, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome composition and dysbiosis in immune thrombocytopenia: A review of literature.

Blood reviews pii:S0268-960X(24)00052-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder characterized by excessive reticuloendothelial platelet destruction and inadequate compensatory platelet production. However, the pathogenesis of ITP is relatively complex, and its exact mechanisms and etiology have not been definitively established. The gut microbiome, namely a diverse community of symbiotic microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal system, affects health through involvement in human metabolism, immune modulation, and maintaining physiological balance. Emerging evidence reveals that the gut microbiome composition differs in patients with ITP compared to healthy individuals, which is related with platelet count, disease duration, and response to treatment. These findings suggest that the microbiome and metabolome profiles of individuals could unveil a new pathway for aiding diagnosis, predicting prognosis, assessing treatment response, and formulating personalized therapeutic approaches for ITP. However, due to controversial reports, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn, and further investigations are needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Zhou F, Wu X, Fan S, et al (2024)

Detoxification of phoxim by a gut bacterium of Delia antiqua.

The Science of the total environment, 943:173866 pii:S0048-9697(24)04013-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The presence of certain associated bacteria has been reported to increase pest resistance to pesticides, which poses a serious threat to food security and the environment. Researches on the above microbe-derived pesticide resistance would bring innovative approaches for pest management. Investigations into the phoxim resistance of Delia antiqua, one Liliaceae crop pests, revealed the contribution of a phoxim-degrading gut bacterium, D39, to this resistance. However, how the strain degraded phoxim was unknown. In this study, the role of D39 in phoxim degradation and resistance was first confirmed. DT, which had an identical taxonomy but lacked phoxim-degrading activity, was analyzed alongside D39 via comparative genomics to identify the potential phoxim degrading genes. In addition, degradation metabolites were identified, and a potential degradation pathway was proposed. Furthermore, the main gene responsible for degradation and the metabolites of phoxim were further validated via prokaryotic expression. The results showed that D39 contributed to resistance in D. antiqua larva by degrading phoxim. Phoxim was degraded by an enzyme encoded by the novel gene phoD in D39 to O,O-diethyl hydrogen phosphorothioate and 2-hydroxyimino-2-phenylacetonitrile. Finally, downstream products were metabolized in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Further analysis via prokaryotic expression of phoD confirmed its degradation activity. The mechanisms through which gut microbes promote pesticide resistance are elucidated in this study. These results could aid in the development of innovative pest control methods. In addition, this information could also be used to identify microbial agents that could be applied for the remediation of pesticide contamination.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Nakamura K, Asano S, Nambu M, et al (2024)

Metagenome-assembled genome sequences of two bacterial species from polyvinyl alcohol-degrading co-colonies.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

We present the metagenome-assembled genome sequences of two polyvinyl alcohol-degrading co-colony-derived bacterial species relative to Rhodanobacter sp. DHB23 and Priestia megaterium ATCC 14581. We estimated the genomes of these species to be 3,476,996- and 5,169,587-bp long (for Rhodanobacter sp. DHB23 and Priestia megaterium ATCC 14581, respectively).

RevDate: 2024-06-12
CmpDate: 2024-06-11

Chen Y, Chen Y, Li Y, et al (2024)

Comparative study of the gut microbial community structure of Spodoptera frugiperda and Spodoptera literal (Lepidoptera).

PeerJ, 12:e17450.

BACKGROUND: Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm is a destructive invasive pest, and S. litura the tobacco cutworm, is a native species closely related to S. frugiperda. The gut microbiota plays a vital role in insect growth, development, metabolism and immune system. Research on the competition between invasive species and closely related native species has focused on differences in the adaptability of insects to the environment. Little is known about gut symbiotic microbe composition and its role in influencing competitive differences between these two insects.

METHODS: We used a culture-independent approach targeting the 16S rRNA gene of gut bacteria of 5th instar larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura. Larvae were reared continuously on maize leaves for five generations. We analyzed the composition, abundance, diversity, and metabolic function of gut microbiomes of S. frugiperda and S. litura larvae.

RESULTS: Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla in both species. Enterococcus, ZOR0006, Escherichia, Bacteroides, and Lactobacillus were the genera with the highest abundance in S. frugiperda. Enterococcus, Erysipelatoclostridium, ZOR0006, Enterobacter, and Bacteroides had the highest abundance in S. litura. According to α-diversity analysis, the gut bacterial diversity of S. frugiperda was significantly higher than that of S. litura. KEGG analysis showed 15 significant differences in metabolic pathways between S. frugiperda and S. litura gut bacteria, including transcription, cell growth and death, excretory system and circulatory system pathways.

CONCLUSION: In the same habitat, the larvae of S. frugiperda and S. litura showed significant differences in gut bacterial diversity and community composition. Regarding the composition and function of gut bacteria, the invasive species S. frugiperda may have a competitive advantage over S. litura. This study provides a foundation for developing control strategies for S. frugiperda and S. litura.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Guo D, Li J, Liu P, et al (2024)

The jasmonate pathway promotes nodule symbiosis and suppresses host plant defense in Medicago truncatula.

Molecular plant pii:S1674-2052(24)00184-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Root nodule symbiosis (RNS) between legume and rhizobia is a major source of nitrogen in agricultural systems. Effective symbiosis requires precise regulation of plant defense responses. The role of the defense hormone jasmonic acid in the immune response has been extensively studied. The current research shows that JA can play either a positive or negative regulatory role in RNS depending on its concentration, while the molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we found that inoculation with rhizobia Sm1021 induced the JA pathway response in Medicago truncatula, and blocking JA pathway significantly reduced the number of infection threads. Mutations in the MtMYC2 gene, a JA signaling master transcription factor, significantly inhibited rhizobia infection, terminal differentiation, and symbiotic cell formation. Combining RNA-seq and ChIP-seq, we discovered that MtMYC2 regulates the expression of nodule-specific MtDNF2, MtNAD1, and MtSymCRK to suppress host defense. MtMYC2 activates MtDNF1 expression to regulate the maturation of MtNCRs, which in turn promotes bacteroid formation. More importantly, MtMYC2 promotes the expression of MtIPD3 to participate in symbiotic signaling transduction. Notably, the MtMYC2-MtIPD3 transcriptional regulation module is specifically present in legumes. Additionally, The Mtmyc2 mutants exhibits a susceptible phenotype to Rhizoctonia solani. Collectively, our findings reveal the molecular mechanisms of the JA pathway in RNS and further broaden the understanding of JA in the plant-microbe interaction network.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Vohsen SA, S Herrera (2024)

Coral microbiomes are structured by environmental gradients in deep waters.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):38.

BACKGROUND: Coral-associated microbiomes vary greatly between colonies and localities with functional consequences on the host. However, the full extent of variability across the ranges of most coral species remains unknown, especially for corals living in deep waters which span greater ranges. Here, we characterized the microbiomes of four octocoral species from mesophotic and bathyal deep-sea habitats in the northern Gulf of Mexico, Muricea pendula, Swiftia exserta, Callogorgia delta, and Paramuricea biscaya, using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding. We sampled extensively across their ranges to test for microbiome differentiation between and within species, examining the influence of environmental factors that vary with depth (53-2224 m) and geographic location (over 680 m) as well as the host coral's genotype using RAD-sequencing.

RESULTS: Coral microbiomes were often dominated by amplicon sequence variants whose abundances varied across their hosts' ranges, including symbiotic taxa: corallicolids, Endozoicomonas, members of the Mollicutes, and the BD1-7 clade. Coral species, depth, and geographic location significantly affected diversity, microbial community composition, and the relative abundance of individual microbes. Depth was the strongest environmental factor determining microbiome structure within species, which influenced the abundance of most dominant symbiotic taxa. Differences in host genotype, bottom temperature, and surface primary productivity could explain a significant part of the microbiome variation associated with depth and geographic location.

CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, this work demonstrates that the microbiomes of corals in deep waters vary substantially across their ranges in accordance with depth and other environmental conditions. It reveals that the influence of depth on the ecology of mesophotic and deep-sea corals extends to its effects on their microbiomes which may have functional consequences. This work also identifies the distributions of microbes including potential parasites which can be used to inform restoration plans in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Moraes JR, Barrinha A, Gonçalves de Lima LS, et al (2024)

Endosymbiosis in trypanosomatids: the bacterium division depends on microtubule dynamism.

Experimental cell research pii:S0014-4827(24)00217-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Microtubules are components of the cytoskeleton that perform essential functions in eukaryotes, such as those related to shape change, motility and cell division. In this context some characteristics of these filaments are essential, such as polarity and dynamic instability. In trypanosomatids, microtubules are integral to ultrastructure organization, intracellular transport and mitotic processes. Some species of trypanosomatids co-evolve with a symbiotic bacterium in a mutualistic association that is marked by extensive metabolic exchanges and a coordinated division of the symbiont with other cellular structures, such as the nucleus and the kinetoplast. It is already established that the bacterium division is microtubule-dependent, so in this work, it was investigated whether the dynamism and remodeling of these filaments is capable of affecting the prokaryote division. To this purpose, Angomonas deanei was treated with Trichostatin A (TSA), a deacetylase inhibitor, and mutant cells for histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) were obtained by CRISPR-Cas9. A decrease in proliferation, an enhancement in tubulin acetylation, as well as morphological and ultrastructural changes, were observed in TSA-treated protozoa and mutant cells. In both cases, symbiont filamentation occurred, indicating that prokaryote cell division is dependent on microtubule dynamism.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Irving C, I Culverhouse (2024)

Human factors integration with clinical investigations.

Journal of medical engineering & technology [Epub ahead of print].

The human factors engineering (HFE) process supports the design and development of medical devices, especially novel devices requiring clinical investigation. The typical culmination of the HFE process prior to market approval is a human factors (HF) validation study, with specific requirements of participant, environment and task representation that carry a financial and temporal burden for medical device manufacturers. Whilst strongly recommended ahead of clinical investigations by regulators (and the authors), the prescribed methodology for HF validation studies required for pre-market approval may be excessive ahead of a clinical investigation during the development process. However, the stringent nature of HF validation studies will support effective clinical investigation design and minimise risks of poor clinical outcome or compliance. This paper provides recommendations in what to consider when determining what type of HF study to conduct ahead of each clinical investigation phase as well as insights into the symbiotic benefits of HFE and clinical investigations.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Ke X, Xiao H, Peng Y, et al (2024)

Nitrogen deficiency modulates carbon allocation to promote nodule nitrogen fixation capacity in soybean.

Exploration (Beijing, China), 4(2):20230104.

Previously, the effect of soil mineral N deficiency on nodule nitrogen fixation capacity (NFC) is unclear. In this study, we found that N deficiency would enhance sucrose allocation to nodules and PEP allocation to bacteroid to promote nodule NFC. Our findings provide new insights into the design of leguminous crops with improved adaptation to fluctuating N levels in the soil.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Li Y, Chen H, Gu L, et al (2024)

Domestication of rice may have changed its arbuscular mycorrhizal properties by modifying phosphorus nutrition-related traits and decreasing symbiotic compatibility.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Modern cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) typically experiences limited growth benefits from arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis. This could be due to the long-term domestication of rice under favorable phosphorus conditions. However, there is limited understanding of whether and how the rice domestication has modified AM properties. This study compared AM properties between a collection of wild (Oryza rufipogon) and domesticated rice genotypes and investigated the mechanisms underlying their differences by analyzing physiological, genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic traits critical for AM symbiosis. The results revealed significantly lower mycorrhizal growth responses and colonization intensity in domesticated rice compared to wild rice, and this change of AM properties may be associated with the domestication modifications of plant phosphorus utilization efficiency at physiological and genomic levels. Domestication also resulted in a decrease in the activity of the mycorrhizal phosphorus acquisition pathway, which may be attributed to reduced mycorrhizal compatibility of rice roots by enhancing defense responses like root lignification and reducing carbon supply to AM fungi. In conclusion, rice domestication may have changed its AM properties by modifying P nutrition-related traits and reducing symbiotic compatibility. This study offers new insights for improving AM properties in future rice breeding programs to enhance sustainable agricultural production.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Pilipenets O, Kin Peng Hui F, Gunawardena T, et al (2024)

New circularity indicator for decision making in the stockpile management of construction and demolition waste: Perspectives of Australian practitioners.

Journal of environmental management, 363:121345 pii:S0301-4797(24)01331-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the increasing popularity of the circular economy, there remains a lack of consensus on how to quantify circularity, a critical aspect of the practical implementation of this model. To address this gap, this article examines the industry's perspective and efforts toward implementing the circular economy in real-world scenarios. We conducted 40 interviews with engineers, project leaders, and top-level managers in the Australian construction sector. Using Saldaña's coding approach, we analysed their views on circular economy practices and efforts within their organisations. Our findings reveal while waste minimisation, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and cost considerations are widely regarded as essential indicators of a successful circular economy model, the significance of waste storage and long-term stockpiling while awaiting treatment has been overlooked or under-emphasised in industry practices and academic literature. Stockpiling of waste has often been seen as a staging process in waste treatment. However, based on industry insights, it accumulates to the point of mismanagement when it becomes a safety and environmental concern. Addressing this oversight, we propose a storage circularity indicator that allows incorporating waste storage and stockpiling in circular economy models. Our research contributes to various environmental and waste management aspects, supporting policies and strategies for solid waste management and excessive stockpile prevention. By emphasising the significance of storage circularity, we clarify waste prevention techniques and address socio-economic issues such as the urgent need to reduce long-term stockpiling of solid waste. This work highlights the importance of decision-support tools in waste management to facilitate the implementation of circular economy principles. Our proposed storage circularity indicator promotes industrial collaboration, aligning with the concept of industrial symbiosis to optimise resource use and minimise waste generation. By discussing these topics, we aim to contribute to the advancement of more robust waste management strategies and policies that promote sustainable production and consumption practices.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Luo F, Liang X, Chen W, et al (2024)

Symbiotic defect-reinforced bimetallic MOF-derived fiber components for solar-assisted atmospheric water collection.

Water research, 259:121872 pii:S0043-1354(24)00773-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Conversion of atmospheric water to sustainable and clean freshwater resources through MOF-based adsorbent has great potential for the renewable environmental industry. However, its daily water production is hampered by susceptibility to agglomeration, slow water evaporation efficiency, and limited water-harvesting capacity. Herein, a solar-assisted bimetallic MOF (BMOF)-derived fiber component that surmounts these limitations and exhibits both optimized water-collect capacity and short adsorption-desorption period is proposed. The proposed strategy involves utilizing bottom-up interface-induced assembly between carboxylated multi-walled carbon nanotube and hygroscopic BMOF on a multi-ply glass fiber support. The designed BMOF (MIL-100(Fe,Al)-3) skeleton constructed using bimetallic-node defect engineering exhibits a high specific surface area (1,535.28 m[2]/g) and pore volume (0.76 cm[3]/g), thereby surpassing the parent MOFs and other reported MOFs in capturing moisture. Benefiting from the hierarchical structure of fiber rods and the solar-driven self-heating interface of photothermal layer, the customized BMOF crystals realize efficient loading and optimized water adsorption-desorption kinetics. As a result, the resultant fiber components achieve six adsorption-desorption cycles per day and an impressive water collection of 1.45 g/g/day under medium-high humidity outdoor conditions. Therefore, this work will provide new ideas for optimizing the daily yield of atmospheric water harvesting techniques.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Yang J, Li Z, Zhang D, et al (2024)

An empirical analysis of the coupling and coordinated development of new urbanization and ecological welfare performance in China's Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13197.

New urbanization (NU) and ecological welfare performance (EWP) play pivotal roles in achieving sustainable urban development, with both emphasizing social equity and environmental management. Exploring the coordinated relationship between EWP and NU is invaluable for understanding the symbiotic interplay between humans and nature. We constructed a framework to elucidate the coupling mechanism of EWP and NU from the perspective of systems theory. We quantified the levels of NU and EWP utilizing the entropy weighting method and the super-efficient SBM method, respectively. Furthermore, we assessed the degree of coupling coordination between the two using the coupling coordination degree model (CCDM). Spatial and temporal evolution analysis was conducted, and factors influencing the degree of coupling coordination between EWP and NU were explored through a spatial-temporal geographically-weighted regression model (GTWR). The results indicate: (1) During the study period, the average annual increase in EWP in the study area was 2.59%, with a narrowing relative gap between cities. Conversely, the average annual increase in the level of NU was 7.6%, with demographic and economic dimensions carrying the highest weights. (2) The type of coupling coordination between EWP and NU transitions from basic coordination to moderate coordination, with the development of EWP lagging behind that of NU. (3) City size demonstrates a positive yet diminishing trend on the coupling coordination level, with economic development exerting the greatest influence and exhibiting a "V" trend, while the impact of green technology innovation diminishes negatively. Additionally, regional disparities are significant, with city size exhibiting a negative impact in areas of high population density and low economic levels, and green technology innovation showing notable polarization characteristics in core cities. These findings serve as a foundation for fostering coordinated ecological development amid the rapid urbanization process of the Chengdu-Chongqing Economic Circle.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Paix B, van der Valk E, NJ de Voogd (2024)

Dynamics, diversity, and roles of bacterial transmission modes during the first asexual life stages of the freshwater sponge Spongilla lacustris.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):37.

BACKGROUND: Sponge-associated bacteria play important roles in the physiology of their host, whose recruitment processes are crucial to maintain symbiotic associations. However, the acquisition of bacterial communities within freshwater sponges is still under explored. Spongilla lacustris is a model sponge widely distributed in European rivers and lakes, producing dormant cysts (named gemmules) for their asexual reproduction, before winter. Through an in vitro experiment, this study aims to describe the dynamics of bacterial communities and their transmission modes following the hatching of these gemmules.

RESULTS: An overall change of bacterial β-diversity was observed through the ontology of the juvenile sponges. These temporal differences were potentially linked, first to the osculum acquisition and the development of a canal system, and then, the increasing colonization of the Chlorella-like photosymbionts. Gemmules hatching with a sterilized surface were found to have a more dispersed and less diverse microbiome, revealing the importance of gemmule epibacteria for the whole holobiont stability. These epibacteria were suggested to be vertically transmitted from the maternal tissues to the gemmule surface. Vertical transmission through the incorporation of bacterial communities inside of the gemmule, was also found as a dominant transmission mode, especially with the nitrogen fixers Terasakiellaceae. Finally, we showed that almost no ASVs were shared between the free-living community and the juveniles, suggesting that horizontal recruitment is unlikely to happen during the first stages of development. However, the free-living bacteria filtered are probably used as a source of nutrients, allowing an enrichment of copiotrophic bacteria already present within its microbiome.

CONCLUSIONS: This study brings new insight for a better understanding of the microbiome acquisition during the first stages of freshwater sponge development. We showed the importance of epibacterial communities on gemmules for the whole holobiont stability, and demonstrated the near absence of recruitment of free-living bacteria during the first stages.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Escandon-Barbosa D, Salas-Paramo J, VC Paque (2024)

The role of trophic, mutualistic, and competitive interactions in an industrial symbiosis process implementation: an ecological network perspective.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

For both government and private institutions, the development of collaboration networks becomes an element of great importance for the implementation of related policies such as the circular economy and sustainable practices in manufacturing. Despite the above, such initiatives have not received as much attention in literature but have been decisive as both public and private initiatives. Initiatives in Latin America do not escape this scenario, especially in the creation of conditions that allow the promotion of approaches such as industrial symbiosis. In this way, the present research is aimed at identifying the role of trophic, mutualistic, and competitive interactions in an industrial symbiosis process implementation. A network analysis model is used to achieve this purpose. This technique allows us to know the degree of importance of the different actors that are part of a network, as well as the factors that determine the implementation of initiatives such as industrial symbiosis. Among the results are that empirical findings confirm the presence of trophic interactions that enhance resource efficiency, mutualistic interactions fostering collaboration and synergy, and competitive interactions promoting efficiency and dynamism. Additionally, a green culture, business size, and innovation activities are revealed as influential factors amplifying network dynamics.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Liu Y, Wu S, Qin X, et al (2024)

Combined dynamic transcriptome and flavonoid metabolome reveal the role of Mo nanoparticles in the nodulation process in soybean.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03880-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation can reduce the impact of agriculture on the environment by reducing fertilizer input. The rapid development of nanomaterials in agriculture provides a new prospect for us to improve the biological nitrogen fixation ability of leguminous crops. Molybdenum is an important component of nitrogenase, and the potential application of MoO3NPs in agriculture is largely unexplored. In this study, on the basis of verifying that MoO3NPs can improve the nitrogen fixation ability of soybean, the effects of MoO3NPs on the symbiotic nitrogen fixation process of soybean were investigated by using dynamic transcriptome and targeted metabolome techniques. Here we showed that compared with conventional molybdenum fertilizer, minute concentrations of MoO3NPs (0.01-0.1 mg kg[-1]) could promote soybean growth and nitrogen fixation efficiency. The nodules number, fresh nodule weight and nitrogenase activity of 0.1 mg kg[-1] were increased by 17 %, 14 % and 27 %, and plant nitrogen accumulation increased by 17 %. Compared with conventional molybdenum fertilizer, MoO3NPs had a greater effect on apigenin, kaempferol and other flavonoid, and the expression of nodulation related genes such as ENOD93, F3'H. Based on WGCNA analysis, we identified a core gene GmCHS9 that was positively responsive to molybdenum and was highly expressed during MoO3NPs induced nodulation. MoO3NPs could improve the nitrogen fixation ability of soybean by promoting the secretion of flavonoids and the expression of key genes. This study provided a new perspective for the nano-strengthening strategy of nodules development and flavonoid biosynthesis by molybdenum.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Li X, Cheng X, Xu J, et al (2024)

Dynamic patterns of carbohydrate metabolism genes in bacterioplankton during marine algal blooms.

Microbiological research, 286:127785 pii:S0944-5013(24)00186-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Carbohydrates play a pivotal role in nutrient recycling and regulation of algal-bacterial interactions. Despite their ecological significance, the intricate molecular mechanisms governing regulation of phycosphere carbohydrates by bacterial taxa linked with natural algal bloom have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, a comprehensive temporal metagenomic analysis was conducted to explore the carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) genes in two discrete algal bloom microorganisms (Gymnodinium catenatum and Phaeocystis globosa) across three distinct bloom stages: pre-bloom, peak bloom, and post-bloom. Elevated levels of extracellular carbohydrates, primarily rhamnose, galactose, glucose, and arabinose, were observed during the initial and post-peak stages. The prominent CAZyme families identified-glycoside hydrolases (GH) and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs)-were present in both algal bloom occurrences. In the G. catenatum bloom, GH23/24 and CBM13/14 were prevalent during the pre-bloom and peak bloom stages, whereas GH2/3/30 and CBM12/24 exhibited increased prevalence during the post-bloom phase. In contrast, the P. globosa bloom had a dominance of GH13/23 and CBM19 in the initial phase, and this was succeeded by GH3/19/24/30 and CBM54 in the later stages. This gene pool variation-observed distinctly in specific genera-highlighted the dynamic structural shifts in functional resources driven by temporal alterations in available substrates. Additionally, ecological linkage analysis underscored a correlation between carbohydrates (or their related genes) and phycospheric bacteria, hinting at a pattern of bottom-up control. These findings contribute to understanding of the dynamic nature of CAZymes, emphasizing the substantial influence of substrate availability on the metabolic capabilities of algal symbiotic bacteria, especially in terms of carbohydrates.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Olanipon D, Boeraeve M, H Jacquemyn (2024)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity and potential association networks among African tropical forest trees.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Tropical forests represent one of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on Earth. High productivity is sustained by efficient and rapid cycling of nutrients, which is in large part made possible by symbiotic associations between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. In these associations, an individual plant typically associates simultaneously with multiple fungi and the fungi associate with multiple plants, creating complex networks among fungi and plants. However, there are few studies that have investigated mycorrhizal fungal composition and diversity in tropical forest trees, particularly in Africa, or that assessed the structure of the network of associations among fungi and trees. In this study, we collected root and soil samples from Ise Forest Reserve (Southwest Nigeria) and used a metabarcoding approach to identify the dominant arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal taxa in the soil and associating with ten co-occurring tree species to assess variation in AM communities. Network analysis was used to elucidate the architecture of the network of associations between fungi and tree species. A total of 194 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) belonging to six AM fungal families were identified, with 68% of all OTUs belonging to Glomeraceae. While AM fungal diversity did not differ among tree species, AM fungal community composition did. Network analyses showed that the network of associations was not significantly nested and showed a relatively low level of specialization (H2 = 0.43) and modularity (M = 0.44). We conclude that, although there were some differences in AM fungal community composition, the studied tree species associate with a large number of AM fungi. Similarly, most AM fungi had great host breadth and were detected in most tree species, thereby potentially working as interaction network hubs.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Xiao Z, Meng H, Li S, et al (2024)

Insights into the removal of antibiotics from livestock and aquaculture wastewater by algae-bacteria symbiosis systems.

Environmental research, 257:119326 pii:S0013-9351(24)01231-3 [Epub ahead of print].

With the burgeoning growth of the livestock and aquaculture industries, antibiotic residues in treated wastewater have become a serious ecological threat. Traditional biological wastewater treatment technologies-while effective for removing conventional pollutants, such as organic carbon, ammonia and phosphate-struggle to eliminate emerging contaminants, notably antibiotics. Recently, the use of microalgae has emerged as a sustainable and promising approach for the removal of antibiotics due to their non-target status, rapid growth and carbon recovery capabilities. This review aims to analyse the current state of antibiotic removal from wastewater using algae-bacteria symbiosis systems and provide valuable recommendations for the development of livestock/aquaculture wastewater treatment technologies. It (1) summarises the biological removal mechanisms of typical antibiotics, including bioadsorption, bioaccumulation, biodegradation and co-metabolism; (2) discusses the roles of intracellular regulation, involving extracellular polymeric substances, pigments, antioxidant enzyme systems, signalling molecules and metabolic pathways; (3) analyses the role of treatment facilities in facilitating algae-bacteria symbiosis, such as sequencing batch reactors, stabilisation ponds, membrane bioreactors and bioelectrochemical systems; and (4) provides insights into bottlenecks and potential solutions. This review offers valuable information on the mechanisms and strategies involved in the removal of antibiotics from livestock/aquaculture wastewater through the symbiosis of microalgae and bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Kewessa G, Dejene T, P Martín-Pinto (2024)

Untangling the effect that replacing Ethiopia's natural forests with exotic tree plantations has on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

The Science of the total environment, 942:173718 pii:S0048-9697(24)03865-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have a broad distribution and establish symbiotic relationships with vascular plants in tropical regions. They play a crucial role in enhancing plant nutrient absorption, mitigating pathogenic infections, and boosting the resilience of host plants to abiotic stresses, including drought under specific conditions. Many natural forests in Ethiopia are being replaced by monospecific plantations. However, the impact of these actions on AMF is unknown and, despite their ecological functions, AMF communities in various forest systems have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we assessed soil AMF communities in natural and plantation forests by DNA metabarcoding of the ITS2 rDNA region and assessed the influence of climate and environmental variables on the AMF community. In total, 193 AMF operational taxonomic units (OTUs), comprising nine families and 15 genera, were recorded. Glomerales was the dominant order (67.9 % of AMF OTUs) and Septoglomus fuscum, Diversispora insculpta, and Funneliformis mosseae were the dominant species. AMF were more abundant in natural forests than in plantation forests and the composition of AMF communities differed significantly from those of plantation forest. In plantation forests, soil pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus significantly influenced the composition of AMF communities, whereas in natural forest, electrical conductivity, annual rainfall, and cumulative rainfall before sample collection were significantly correlated with AMF. SIMPER analysis identified the AMF responsible for composition variances among different forest types, with the Glomeraceae family being the most significant contributor, accounting for nearly 60 % of the dissimilarity. Our findings further our understanding of the ecological niche function and the role of AMF in Ethiopia's natural forest systems and highlight the importance of prioritizing the sustainable development of degraded natural forests rather than plantations to ensure the preservation of habitats conducive to maintaining various AMF communities when devising conservation and management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Shi Y, Ma L, Zhou M, et al (2024)

Copper stress shapes the dynamic behavior of amoebae and their associated bacteria.

The ISME journal pii:7689628 [Epub ahead of print].

Amoeba-bacteria interactions are prevalent in both natural ecosystems and engineered environments. Amoebae, as essential consumers, hold significant ecological importance within ecosystems. Besides, they can establish stable symbiotic associations with bacteria. Copper plays a critical role in amoeba predation by either killing or restricting the growth of ingested bacteria in phagosomes. However, certain symbiotic bacteria have evolved mechanisms to persist within the phagosomal vacuole, evading antimicrobial defenses. Despite these insights, the impact of copper on the symbiotic relationships between amoebae and bacteria remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of copper stress on amoebae and their symbiotic relationships with bacteria. Our findings revealed that elevated copper concentration adversely affected amoeba growth and altered cellular fate. Symbiont type significantly influenced the responses of the symbiotic relationships to copper stress. Beneficial symbionts maintained stability under copper stress, but parasitic symbionts exhibited enhanced colonization of amoebae. Furthermore, copper stress favored the transition of symbiotic relationships between amoebae and beneficial symbionts toward the host's benefit. Conversely, the pathogenic effects of parasitic symbionts on hosts were exacerbated under copper stress. This study sheds light on the intricate response mechanisms of soil amoebae and amoebae-bacteria symbiotic systems to copper stress, providing new insights into symbiotic dynamics under abiotic factors. Additionally, the results underscore the potential risks of copper accumulation in the environment for pathogen transmission and biosafety.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Cheng T, Zhang T, Zhang P, et al (2024)

The complex world of kefir: Structural insights and symbiotic relationships.

Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety, 23(4):e13364.

Kefir milk, known for its high nutritional value and health benefits, is traditionally produced by fermenting milk with kefir grains. These grains are a complex symbiotic community of lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, yeasts, and other microorganisms. However, the intricate coexistence mechanisms within these microbial colonies remain a mystery, posing challenges in predicting their biological and functional traits. This uncertainty often leads to variability in kefir milk's quality and safety. This review delves into the unique structural characteristics of kefir grains, particularly their distinctive hollow structure. We propose hypotheses on their formation, which appears to be influenced by the aggregation behaviors of the community members and their alliances. In kefir milk, a systematic colonization process is driven by metabolite release, orchestrating the spatiotemporal rearrangement of ecological niches. We place special emphasis on the dynamic spatiotemporal changes within the kefir microbial community. Spatially, we observe variations in species morphology and distribution across different locations within the grain structure. Temporally, the review highlights the succession patterns of the microbial community, shedding light on their evolving interactions.Furthermore, we explore the ecological mechanisms underpinning the formation of a stable community composition. The interplay of cooperative and competitive species within these microorganisms ensures a dynamic balance, contributing to the community's richness and stability. In kefir community, competitive species foster diversity and stability, whereas cooperative species bolster mutualistic symbiosis. By deepening our understanding of the behaviors of these complex microbial communities, we can pave the way for future advancements in the development and diversification of starter cultures for food fermentation processes.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

González Ortega-Villaizán A, King E, Patel MK, et al (2024)

The endophytic fungus Serendipita indica affects auxin distribution in Arabidopsis thaliana roots through alteration of auxin transport and conjugation to promote plant growth.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Plants share their habitats with a multitude of different microbes. This close vicinity promoted the evolution of interorganismic interactions between plants and many different microorganisms that provide mutual growth benefits both to the plant and the microbial partner. The symbiosis of Arabidopsis thaliana with the beneficial root colonizing endophyte Serendipita indica represents a well-studied system. Colonization of Arabidopsis roots with S. indica promotes plant growth and stress tolerance of the host plant. However, until now, the molecular mechanism by which S. indica reprograms plant growth remains largely unknown. This study used comprehensive transcriptomics, metabolomics, reverse genetics, and life cell imaging to reveal the intricacies of auxin-related processes that affect root growth in the symbiosis between A. thaliana and S. indica. Our experiments revealed the sustained stimulation of auxin signalling in fungus infected Arabidopsis roots and disclosed the essential role of tightly controlled auxin conjugation in the plant-fungus interaction. It particularly highlighted the importance of two GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes, GH3.5 and GH3.17, for the fungus infection-triggered stimulation of biomass production, thus broadening our knowledge about the function of GH3s in plants. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the transcriptional alteration of the PIN2 auxin transporter gene in roots of Arabidopsis seedlings infected with S. indica and demonstrate that this transcriptional adjustment affects auxin signalling in roots, which results in increased plant growth.

RevDate: 2024-06-09
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Dove R, Wolfe ER, Stewart NU, et al (2024)

Root nodules of red alder (Alnus rubra) and sitka alder (Alnus viridis ssp. sinuata) are inhabited by taxonomically diverse cultivable microbial endophytes.

MicrobiologyOpen, 13(3):e1422.

The root nodules of actinorhizal plants are home to nitrogen-fixing bacterial symbionts, known as Frankia, along with a small percentage of other microorganisms. These include fungal endophytes and non-Frankia bacteria. The taxonomic and functional diversity of the microbial consortia within these root nodules is not well understood. In this study, we surveyed and analyzed the cultivable, non-Frankia fungal and bacterial endophytes of root nodules from red and Sitka alder trees that grow together. We examined their taxonomic diversity, co-occurrence, differences between hosts, and potential functional roles. For the first time, we are reporting numerous fungal endophytes of alder root nodules. These include Sporothrix guttuliformis, Fontanospora sp., Cadophora melinii, an unclassified Cadophora, Ilyonectria destructans, an unclassified Gibberella, Nectria ramulariae, an unclassified Trichoderma, Mycosphaerella tassiana, an unclassified Talaromyces, Coniochaeta sp., and Sistotrema brinkmanii. We are also reporting several bacterial genera for the first time: Collimonas, Psychrobacillus, and Phyllobacterium. Additionally, we are reporting the genus Serratia for the second time, with the first report having been recently published in 2023. Pseudomonas was the most frequently isolated bacterial genus and was found to co-inhabit individual nodules with both fungi and bacteria. We found that the communities of fungal endophytes differed by host species, while the communities of bacterial endophytes did not.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Dar MA, Xie R, Jing L, et al (2024)

Elucidating the structure, and composition of bacterial symbionts in the gut regions of wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus and their functional profile towards lignocellulolytic systems.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1395568.

The wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus, presents an efficient lignocellulolytic system, offering a distinctive model for the exploration of host-microbial symbiosis towards lignocellulose degradation. Despite decades of investigation, understanding the diversity, community structure, and functional profiles of bacterial symbionts within specific gut regions, particularly the foregut and midgut of C. formosanus, remains largely elusive. In light of this knowledge gap, our efforts focused on elucidating the diversity, community composition and functions of symbiotic bacteria inhabiting the foregut, midgut, and hindgut of C. formosanus via metagenomics. The termite harbored a diverse community of bacterial symbionts encompassing 352 genera and 26 known phyla, exhibiting an uneven distribution across gut regions. Notably, the hindgut displayed a higher relative abundance of phyla such as Bacteroidetes (56.9%) and Spirochetes (23.3%). In contrast, the foregut and midgut were predominantly occupied by Proteobacteria (28.9%) and Firmicutes (21.2%) after Bacteroidetes. The foregut harbored unique phyla like Candidate phylum_TM6 and Armatimonadetes. At the family level, Porphyromonadaceae (28.1, 40.6, and 53.5% abundance in foregut, midgut, and hindgut, respectively) and Spirochaetaceae (foregut = 9%, midgut = 16%, hindgut = 21.6%) emerged as dominant families in the termite's gut regions. Enriched operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were most abundant in the foregut (28), followed by the hindgut (14), while the midgut exhibited enrichment of only two OTUs. Furthermore, the functional analyses revealed distinct influences of bacterial symbionts on various metabolic pathways, particularly carbohydrate and energy metabolisms of the host. Overall, these results underscore significant variations in the structure of the bacterial community among different gut regions of C. formosanus, suggesting unique functional roles of specific bacteria, thereby inspiring further investigations to resolve the crosstalk between host and microbiomes in individual gut-regions of the termite.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Chen T, Wang T, Du M, et al (2024)

Discovery of Epichloë as novel endophytes of Psathyrostachys lanuginosa in China and their alkaloid profiling.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1383923.

The Epichloë genus represents a significant group of above-ground endophytes extensively researched for their potential applications in agriculture and ecology. Additionally, Epichloë species synthesize bioactive alkaloids, which generally cause health problems in livestock and have detrimental effects on the performance of insect herbivores. Psathyrostachys lanuginosa serves as a valuable forage grass for livestock owing to its high nutritional value and resilience in adverse environmental conditions. Nevertheless, to date, no reports have documented Epichloë as endophytes of P. lanuginosa. In this study, four strains (PF5, PF9, QG2, and QG4) were isolated and identified through morphological, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses as endophytes of P. lanuginosa. Morphological analysis indicated colony characteristics and conidia features consistent with symbiotic Epichloë, with no significant differences observed in growth rates or conidia dimensions among the four strains. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed all strains as E. bromicola. Additionally, alkaloid biosynthetic genes were detected, revealing differences in the potential synthesis of peramine and indole diterpenoid alkaloids among strains from different geographic origins. However, all four E. bromicola strains exhibited similar potential for synthesizing ergot alkaloids, but not loline alkaloids. Overall, this study identified P. lanuginosa as a novel host for E. bromicola and provided insights into the alkaloid profiles of these strains, laying a solid foundation for the scientific and rational utilization of Epichloë resources.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Pfail J, Drobner J, Doppalapudi K, et al (2024)

The Role of Tumor and Host Microbiome on Immunotherapy Response in Urologic Cancers.

Journal of cancer immunology, 6(1):1-13.

INTRODUCTION & OBJECTIVE: The role of the microbiome in the development and treatment of genitourinary malignancies is just starting to be appreciated. Accumulating evidence suggests that the microbiome can modulate immunotherapy through signaling in the highly dynamic tumor microenvironment. Nevertheless, much is still unknown about the immuno-oncology-microbiome axis, especially in urologic oncology. The objective of this review is to synthesize our current understanding of the microbiome's role in modulating and predicting immunotherapy response to genitourinary malignancies.

METHODS: A literature search for peer-reviewed publications about the microbiome and immunotherapy response in bladder, kidney, and prostate cancer was conducted. All research available in PubMed, Google Scholar,, and bioRxiv up to September 2023 was analyzed.

RESULTS: Significant differences in urinary microbiota composition have been found in patients with genitourinary cancers compared to healthy controls. Lactic acid-producing bacteria, such as Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera, may have value in augmenting BCG responsiveness to bladder cancer. BCG may also be a dynamic regulator of PD-L1. Thus, the combination of BCG and immune checkpoint inhibitors may be an effective strategy for bladder cancer management. In advanced renal cell carcinoma, studies show that recent antibiotic administration negatively impacts survival outcomes in patients undergoing immunotherapy, while administration of CBM588, a live bacterial product, is associated with improved progression-free survival. Specific bacterial taxa, such as Streptococcus salivarius, have been linked with response to pembrolizumab in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Fecal microbiota transplant has been shown to overcome resistance and reduce toxicity to immunotherapy; it is currently being investigated for both kidney and prostate cancers.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the exact mechanism is unclear, several studies identify a symbiotic relationship between microbiota-centered interventions and immunotherapy efficacy. It is possible to improve immunotherapy responsiveness in genitourinary malignancies using the microbiome, but further research with more standardized methodology is warranted.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Liu H, Zhang M, Xu L, et al (2024)

Unlocking fungal quorum sensing: Oxylipins and yeast interactions enhance secondary metabolism in monascus.

Heliyon, 10(11):e31619.

Exploring the symbiotic potential between fungal and yeast species, this study investigates the co-cultivation dynamics of Monascus, a prolific producer of pharmacologically relevant secondary metabolites, and Wickerhamomyce anomalous. The collaborative interaction between these microorganisms catalyzed a substantial elevation in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, prominently Monacolin K and natural pigments. Central to our discoveries was the identification and enhanced production of oxylipins (13S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid,13S-HODE), putative quorum-sensing molecules, within the co-culture environment. Augmentation with exogenous oxylipins not only boosted Monacolin K production by over half but also mirrored morphological adaptations in Monascus, affecting both spores and mycelial structures. This augmentation was paralleled by a significant upregulation in the transcriptional activity of genes integral to the Monacolin K biosynthetic pathway, as well as genes implicated in pigment and spore formation. Through elucidating the interconnected roles of quorum sensing, G-protein-coupled receptors, and the G-protein-mediate signaling pathway, this study provides a comprehensive view of the molecular underpinnings facilitating these metabolic enhancements. Collectively, our findings illuminate the profound influence of Wickerhamomyces anomalous co-culture on Monascus purpureus, advocating for oxylipins as a pivotal quorum-sensing mechanism driving the observed symbiotic benefits.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Cervantes-Pérez SA, Zogli P, Amini S, et al (2024)

Single-cell transcriptome atlases of soybean root and mature nodule reveal new regulatory programs controlling the nodulation process.

Plant communications pii:S2590-3462(24)00292-X [Epub ahead of print].

The soybean root system is complex. In addition to being composed of various cell types, the soybean root system includes the primary root, the lateral roots, and the nodule, an organ in which mutualistic symbiosis with the N-fixing rhizobia occurs. A mature soybean root nodule is characterized by a central infection zone where the atmospheric nitrogen is fixed and assimilated by the symbiont, resulting from the close cooperation between the plant cell and the bacteria. To date, the transcriptome of individual cells isolated from developing soybean nodules has been established, but the transcriptomic signatures of the cells of the mature soybean nodule have not yet been characterized. Applying single nucleus RNA-seq and Molecular Cartography[TM] technologies, we precisely characterized the transcriptomic signature of the soybean root and mature nodule cell types and revealed the co-existence of different sub-populations of B. diazoefficiens-infected cells in the mature soybean nodule including those actively involved in nitrogen fixation, and those engaged in senescence. The mining of the single cell-resolution nodule transcriptome atlas and associated gene co-expression network confirmed the role of known nodulation-related genes and identified new genes controlling the nodulation process. For instance, we functionally characterized the role of GmFWL3, a plasma membrane microdomain-associated protein controlling rhizobia infection. Our study reveals the unique cellular complexity of the mature soybean nodule and helps redefine the concept of cell types when considering the infection zone of the soybean nodule.

RevDate: 2024-06-08
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Zhang K, He C, Wang L, et al (2024)

Compendium of 5810 genomes of sheep and goat gut microbiomes provides new insights into the glycan and mucin utilization.

Microbiome, 12(1):104.

BACKGROUND: Ruminant gut microbiota are critical in ecological adaptation, evolution, and nutrition utilization because it regulates energy metabolism, promotes nutrient absorption, and improves immune function. To study the functional roles of key gut microbiota in sheep and goats, it is essential to construct reference microbial gene catalogs and high-quality microbial genomes database.

RESULTS: A total of 320 fecal samples were collected from 21 different sheep and goat breeds, originating from 32 distinct farms. Metagenomic deep sequencing and binning assembly were utilized to construct a comprehensive microbial genome information database for the gut microbiota. We successfully generated the largest reference gene catalogs for gut microbiota in sheep and goats, containing over 162 million and 82 million nonredundant predicted genes, respectively, with 49 million shared nonredundant predicted genes and 1138 shared species. We found that the rearing environment has a greater impact on microbial composition and function than the host's species effect. Through subsequent assembly, we obtained 5810 medium- and high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), out of which 2661 were yet unidentified species. Among these MAGs, we identified 91 bacterial taxa that specifically colonize the sheep gut, which encode polysaccharide utilization loci for glycan and mucin degradation.

CONCLUSIONS: By shedding light on the co-symbiotic microbial communities in the gut of small ruminants, our study significantly enhances the understanding of their nutrient degradation and disease susceptibility. Our findings emphasize the vast potential of untapped resources in functional bacterial species within ruminants, further expanding our knowledge of how the ruminant gut microbiota recognizes and processes glycan and mucins. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Patra D, Pal KK, S Mandal (2024)

Inter-species interaction of bradyrhizobia affects their colonization and plant growth promotion in Arachis hypogaea.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(8):234.

Bradyrhizobia are the principal symbiotic partner of the leguminous plant and take active part in biological nitrogen-fixation. The present investigation explores the underlying competition among different strains during colonization in host roots. Six distinct GFP and RFP-tagged Bradyrhizobium strains were engineered to track them inside the peanut roots either independently or in combination. The Bradyrhizobium strains require different time-spans ranging from 4 to 21 days post-infection (dpi) for successful colonization which further varies in presence of another strain. While most of the individual strains enhanced the shoot and root dry weight, number of nodules, and nitrogen fixation capabilities of the host plants, no significant enhancement of plant growth and nodulation efficiency was observed when they were allowed to colonize in combinations. However, if among the combinations one strains is SEMIA 6144, the co-infection results in higher growth and nodulation efficiency of the hosts. From the competition experiments it has been found that Bradyrhizobium japonicum SEMIA 6144 was found to be the most dominant strain for effective nodulation in peanut. The extent of biofilm and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by these isolates, individually or in combinations, were envisaged to correlate whether these parameters have any impact on the symbiotic association. But the extent of colonization, growth-promotion and nitrogen-fixation ability drastically lowered when a strain present together with other Bradyrhizobium strain. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the interaction between two co-inoculating Bradyrhizobium species for nodulation followed by plant growth promotion to develop suitable consortia for enhancing BNF in peanut and possibly for other legumes.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Wang Y, Liao R, Pan H, et al (2024)

Comparative metabolic profiling of the mycelium and fermentation broth of Penicillium restrictum from Peucedanum praeruptorum rhizosphere.

Environmental microbiology reports, 16(3):e13286.

Microorganisms in the rhizosphere, particularly arbuscular mycorrhiza, have a broad symbiotic relationship with their host plants. One of the major fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of Peucedanum praeruptorum is Penicillium restrictum. The relationship between the metabolites of P. restrictum and the root exudates of P. praeruptorum is being investigated. The accumulation of metabolites in the mycelium and fermentation broth of P. restrictum was analysed over different fermentation periods. Non-targeted metabolomics was used to compare the differences in intracellular and extracellular metabolites over six periods. There were significant differences in the content and types of mycelial metabolites during the incubation. Marmesin, an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of coumarins, was found in the highest amount on the fourth day of incubation. The differential metabolites were screened to obtain 799 intracellular and 468 extracellular differential metabolites. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis showed that the highly enriched extracellular metabolic pathways were alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis. In addition, the enrichment analysis associated with intracellular and extracellular ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins revealed that some ATP-binding cassette transporters may be involved in the transportation of certain amino acids and carbohydrates. Our results provide some theoretical basis for the regulatory mechanisms between the rhizosphere and the host plant and pave the way for the heterologous production of furanocoumarin.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Wang Z, Lajoie G, Jiang Y, et al (2024)

Host specificity of plant-associated bacteria is negatively associated with genome size and host abundance along a latitudinal gradient.

Ecology letters, 27(6):e14447.

Host specialization plays a critical role in the ecology and evolution of plant-microbe symbiosis. Theory predicts that host specialization is associated with microbial genome streamlining and is influenced by the abundance of host species, both of which can vary across latitudes, leading to a latitudinal gradient in host specificity. Here, we quantified the host specificity and composition of plant-bacteria symbioses on leaves across 329 tree species spanning a latitudinal gradient. Our analysis revealed a predominance of host-specialized leaf bacteria. The degree of host specificity was negatively correlated with bacterial genome size and the local abundance of host plants. Additionally, we found an increased host specificity at lower latitudes, aligning with the high prevalence of small bacterial genomes and rare host species in the tropics. These findings underscore the importance of genome streamlining and host abundance in the evolution of host specificity in plant-associated bacteria along the latitudinal gradient.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Sosa-Jiménez VM, Kvist S, Manzano-Marín A, et al (2024)

Discovery of a novel symbiotic lineage associated with a hematophagous leech from the genus Haementeria.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Similarly to other strict blood feeders, leeches from the Haementeria genus (Hirudinida: Glossiphoniidae) have established a symbiotic association with bacteria harbored intracellularly in esophageal bacteriomes. Previous genome sequence analyses of these endosymbionts revealed co-divergence with their hosts, a strong genome reduction, and a simplified metabolism largely dedicated to the production of B vitamins, which are nutrients lacking from a blood diet. 'Candidatus Providencia siddallii' has been identified as the obligate nutritional endosymbiont of a monophyletic clade of Mexican and South American Haementeria spp. However, the Haementeria genus includes a sister clade of congeners from Central and South America, where the presence or absence of the aforementioned symbiont taxon remains unknown. In this work, we report on a novel bacterial endosymbiont found in a representative from this Haementeria clade. We found that this symbiont lineage has evolved from within the Pluralibacter genus, known mainly from clinical but also environmental strains. Similarly to Ca. Providencia siddallii, the Haementeria-associated Pluralibacter symbiont displays clear signs of genome reduction, accompanied by an A+T-biased sequence composition. Genomic analysis of its metabolic potential revealed a retention of pathways related to B vitamin biosynthesis, supporting its role as a nutritional endosymbiont. Finally, comparative genomics of both Haementeria symbiont lineages suggests that an ancient Providencia symbiont was likely replaced by the novel Pluralibacter one, thus constituting the first reported case of nutritional symbiont replacement in a leech without morphological changes in the bacteriome.

IMPORTANCE: Obligate symbiotic associations with a nutritional base have likely evolved more than once in strict blood-feeding leeches. Unlike those symbioses found in hematophagous arthropods, the nature, identity, and evolutionary history of these remains poorly studied. In this work, we further explored obligate nutritional associations between Haementeria leeches and their microbial symbionts, which led to the unexpected discovery of a novel symbiosis with a member of the Pluralibacter genus. When compared to Providencia siddallii, an obligate nutritional symbiont of other Haementeria leeches, this novel bacterial symbiont shows convergent retention of the metabolic pathways involved in B vitamin biosynthesis. Moreover, the genomic characteristics of this Pluralibacter symbiont suggest a more recent association than that of Pr. siddallii and Haementeria. We conclude that the once-thought stable associations between blood-feeding Glossiphoniidae and their symbionts (i.e., one bacteriome structure, one symbiont lineage) can break down, mirroring symbiont turnover observed in various arthropod lineages.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Klepa MS, diCenzo GC, M Hungria (2024)

Comparative genomic analysis of Bradyrhizobium strains with natural variability in the efficiency of nitrogen fixation, competitiveness, and adaptation to stressful edaphoclimatic conditions.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Bradyrhizobium is known for fixing atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with agronomically important crops. This study focused on two groups of strains, each containing eight natural variants of the parental strains, Bradyrhizobium japonicum SEMIA 586 (=CNPSo 17) or Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens SEMIA 566 (=CNPSo 10). CNPSo 17 and CNPSo 10 were used as commercial inoculants for soybean crops in Brazil at the beginning of the crop expansion in the southern region in the 1960s-1970s. Variants derived from these parental strains were obtained in the late 1980s through a strain selection program aimed at identifying elite strains adapted to a new cropping frontier in the central-western Cerrado region, with a higher capacity of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and competitiveness. Here, we aimed to detect genetic variations possibly related to BNF, competitiveness for nodule occupancy, and adaptation to the stressful conditions of the Brazilian Cerrado soils. High-quality genome assemblies were produced for all strains. The core genome phylogeny revealed that strains of each group are closely related, as confirmed by high average nucleotide identity values. However, variants accumulated divergences resulting from horizontal gene transfer, genomic rearrangements, and nucleotide polymorphisms. The B. japonicum group presented a larger pangenome and a higher number of nucleotide polymorphisms than the B. diazoefficiens group, possibly due to its longer adaptation time to the Cerrado soil. Interestingly, five strains of the B. japonicum group carry two plasmids. The genetic variability found in both groups is discussed considering the observed differences in their BNF capacity, competitiveness for nodule occupancy, and environmental adaptation.IMPORTANCEToday, Brazil is a global leader in the study and use of biological nitrogen fixation with soybean crops. As Brazilian soils are naturally void of soybean-compatible bradyrhizobia, strain selection programs were established, starting with foreign isolates. Selection searched for adaptation to the local edaphoclimatic conditions, higher efficiency of nitrogen fixation, and strong competitiveness for nodule occupancy. We analyzed the genomes of two parental strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens and eight variant strains derived from each parental strain. We detected two plasmids in five strains and several genetic differences that might be related to adaptation to the stressful conditions of the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome. We also detected genetic variations in specific regions that may impact symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Our analysis contributes to new insights into the evolution of Bradyrhizobium, and some of the identified differences may be applied as genetic markers to assist strain selection programs.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Ali MA, Ahmed T, Ibrahim E, et al (2024)

A review on mechanisms and prospects of endophytic bacteria in biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi and their plant growth-promoting activities.

Heliyon, 10(11):e31573.

Endophytic bacteria, living inside plants, are competent plant colonizers, capable of enhancing immune responses in plants and establishing a symbiotic relationship with them. Endophytic bacteria are able to control phytopathogenic fungi while exhibiting plant growth-promoting activity. Here, we discussed the mechanisms of phytopathogenic fungi control and plant growth-promoting actions discovered in some major groups of beneficial endophytic bacteria such as Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Pseudomonas. Most of the studied strains in these genera were isolated from the rhizosphere and soils, and a more extensive study of these endophytic bacteria is needed. It is essential to understand the underlying biocontrol and plant growth-promoting mechanisms and to develop an effective screening approach for selecting potential endophytic bacteria for various applications. We have suggested a screening strategy to identify potentially useful endophytic bacteria based on mechanistic phenomena. The discovery of endophytic bacteria with useful biocontrol and plant growth-promoting characteristics is essential for developing sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Deng S, Pan L, Ke T, et al (2024)

Rhizophagus Irregularis regulates flavonoids metabolism in paper mulberry roots under cadmium stress.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Broussonetia papyrifera is widely found in cadmium (Cd) contaminated areas, with an inherent enhanced flavonoids metabolism and inhibited lignin biosynthesis, colonized by lots of symbiotic fungi, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). However, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Rhizophagus irregularis, an AM fungus, regulates flavonoids and lignin in B. papyrifera under Cd stress remain unclear. Here, a pot experiment of B. papyrifera inoculated and non-inoculated with R. irregularis under Cd stress was carried out. We determined flavonoids and lignin concentrations in B. papyrifera roots by LC-MS and GC-MS, respectively, and measured the transcriptional levels of flavonoids- or lignin-related genes in B. papyrifera roots, aiming to ascertain the key components of flavonoids or lignin, and key genes regulated by R. irregularis in response to Cd stress. Without R. irregularis, the concentrations of eriodictyol, quercetin and myricetin were significantly increased under Cd stress. The concentrations of eriodictyol and genistein were significantly increased by R. irregularis, while the concentration of rutin was significantly decreased. Total lignin and lignin monomer had no alteration under Cd stress or with R. irregularis inoculation. As for flavonoids- or lignin-related genes, 26 genes were co-regulated by Cd stress and R. irregularis. Among these genes, BpC4H2, BpCHS8 and BpCHI5 were strongly positively associated with eriodictyol, indicating that these three genes participate in eriodictyol biosynthesis and were involved in R. irregularis assisting B. papyrifera to cope with Cd stress. This lays a foundation for further research revealing molecular mechanisms by which R. irregularis regulates flavonoids synthesis to enhance tolerance of B. papyrifera to Cd stress.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Lockwood MB, Sung C, Alvernaz SA, et al (2024)

The Gut Microbiome and Symptom Burden After Kidney Transplantation: An Overview and Research Opportunities.

Biological research for nursing [Epub ahead of print].

Many kidney transplant recipients continue to experience high symptom burden despite restoration of kidney function. High symptom burden is a significant driver of quality of life. In the post-transplant setting, high symptom burden has been linked to negative outcomes including medication non-adherence, allograft rejection, graft loss, and even mortality. Symbiotic bacteria (microbiota) in the human gastrointestinal tract critically interact with the immune, endocrine, and neurological systems to maintain homeostasis of the host. The gut microbiome has been proposed as an underlying mechanism mediating symptoms in several chronic medical conditions including irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and psychoneurological disorders via the gut-brain-microbiota axis, a bidirectional signaling pathway between the enteric and central nervous system. Post-transplant exposure to antibiotics, antivirals, and immunosuppressant medications results in significant alterations in gut microbiota community composition and function, which in turn alter these commensal microorganisms' protective effects. This overview will discuss the current state of the science on the effects of the gut microbiome on symptom burden in kidney transplantation and future directions to guide this field of study.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Nakayama T, Nomura M, Yabuki A, et al (2024)

Convergent reductive evolution of cyanobacteria in symbiosis with Dinophysiales dinoflagellates.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12774.

The diversity of marine cyanobacteria has been extensively studied due to their vital roles in ocean primary production. However, little is understood about the diversity of cyanobacterial species involved in symbiotic relationships. In this study, we successfully sequenced the complete genome of a cyanobacterium in symbiosis with Citharistes regius, a dinoflagellate species thriving in the open ocean. A phylogenomic analysis revealed that the cyanobacterium (CregCyn) belongs to the marine picocyanobacterial lineage, akin to another cyanobacterial symbiont (OmCyn) of a different dinoflagellate closely related to Citharistes. Nevertheless, these two symbionts are representing distinct lineages, suggesting independent origins of their symbiotic lifestyles. Despite the distinct origins, the genome analyses of CregCyn revealed shared characteristics with OmCyn, including an obligate symbiotic relationship with the host dinoflagellates and a degree of genome reduction. In contrast, a detailed analysis of genome subregions unveiled that the CregCyn genome carries genomic islands that are not found in the OmCyn genome. The presence of the genomic islands implies that exogenous genes have been integrated into the CregCyn genome at some point in its evolution. This study contributes to our understanding of the complex history of the symbiosis between dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, as well as the genomic diversity of marine picocyanobacteria.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-04

Yashima R, Terata Y, Sakamoto K, et al (2024)

Paraburkholderia largidicola sp. nov., a gut symbiont of the bordered plant bug Physopelta gutta.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 74(6):.

Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, motile bacteria, designated strains F2[T] and PGU16, were isolated from the midgut crypts of the bordered plant bug Physopelta gutta, collected in Okinawa prefecture, Japan. Although these strains were derived from different host individuals collected at different times, their 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical and showed the highest similarity to Paraburkholderia caribensis MWAP64[T] (99.3 %). The genome of strain F2[T] consisted of two chromosomes and two plasmids, and its size and G+C content were 9.28 Mb and 62.4 mol% respectively; on the other hand, that of strain PGU16 consisted of two chromosomes and three plasmids, and its size and G+C content were 9.47 Mb and 62.4 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these two strains are members of the genus Paraburkholderia. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization value between these two strains was 92.4 %; on the other hand, the values between strain F2[T] and P. caribensis MWAP64[T] or phylogenetically closely related Paraburkholderia species were 44.3 % or below 49.1 %. The predominant fatty acids of both strains were C16 : 0, C17 : 0 cyclo, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω7c/C18 : 1 ω6c), and C19 : 0 cyclo ω8c, and their respiratory quinone was ubiquinone 8. Based on the above genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, strains F2[T] and PGU16 represent a novel species of the genus Paraburkholderia for which the name Paraburkholderia largidicola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is F2[T] (=NBRC 115765[T]=LMG 32765[T]).

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Du Z, Nakagawa A, Fang J, et al (2024)

Cleaner anaerobic fermentation and greenhouse gas reduction of crop straw.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Rice anaerobic fermentation is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and in order to efficiently utilize crop residue resources to reduce GHG emissions, rice straw anaerobic fermentation was regulated using lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants (FG1 and TH14), grass medium (GM) to culture LAB, and Acremonim cellulolyticus (AC). Microbial community, GHG emission, dry matter (DM) loss, and anaerobic fermentation were analyzed using PacBio single-molecule real-time and anaerobic fermentation system. The epiphytic microbial diversity of fresh rice straw was extremely rich and contained certain nutrients and minerals. During ensiling, large amounts of GHG such as carbon dioxide are produced due to plant respiration, enzymatic hydrolysis reactions, and proliferation of aerobic bacteria, resulting in energy and DM loss. Addition of FG1, TH14, and AC alone improved anaerobic fermentation by decreasing pH and ammonia nitrogen content (P < 0.05) and increased lactic acid content (P < 0.05) when compared to the control, and GM showed the same additive effect as LAB inoculants. Microbial additives formed a co-occurrence microbial network system dominated by LAB, enhanced the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, diversified the microbial metabolic environment and carbohydrate metabolic pathways, weakened the amino acid metabolic pathways, and made the anaerobic fermentation cleaner. This study is of great significance for the effective utilization of crop straw resources, the promotion of sustainable livestock production, and the reduction of GHG emissions.IMPORTANCETo effectively utilize crop by-product resources, we applied microbial additives to silage fermentation of fresh rice straw. Fresh rice straw is extremely rich in microbial diversity, which was significantly reduced after silage fermentation, and its nutrients were well preserved. Silage fermentation was improved by microbial additives, where the combination of cellulase and lactic acid bacteria acted as enzyme-bacteria synergists to promote lactic acid fermentation and inhibit the proliferation of harmful bacteria, such as protein degradation and gas production, thereby reducing GHG emissions and DM losses. The microbial additives accelerated the formation of a symbiotic microbial network system dominated by lactic acid bacteria, which regulated silage fermentation and improved microbial metabolic pathways for carbohydrates and amino acids, as well as biosynthesis of secondary metabolites.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Cantin LJ, Gregory V, Blum LN, et al (2024)

Dual RNA-seq in filarial nematodes and Wolbachia endosymbionts using RNase H based ribosomal RNA depletion.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1418032.

Lymphatic filariasis is caused by parasitic nematodes and is a leading cause of disability worldwide. Many filarial worms contain the bacterium Wolbachia as an obligate endosymbiont. RNA sequencing is a common technique used to study their molecular relationships and to identify potential drug targets against the nematode and bacteria. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the most abundant RNA species, accounting for 80-90% of the RNA in a sample. To reduce sequencing costs, it is necessary to remove ribosomal reads through poly-A enrichment or ribosomal depletion. Bacterial RNA does not contain a poly-A tail, making it difficult to sequence both the nematode and Wolbachia from the same library preparation using standard poly-A selection. Ribosomal depletion can utilize species-specific oligonucleotide probes to remove rRNA through pull-down or degradation methods. While species-specific probes are commercially available for many commonly studied model organisms, there are currently limited depletion options for filarial parasites. Here, we performed total RNA sequencing from Brugia malayi containing the Wolbachia symbiont (wBm) and designed ssDNA depletion probes against their rRNA sequences. We compared the total RNA library to poly-A enriched, Terminator 5'-Phosphate-Dependent Exonuclease treated, NEBNext Human/Bacteria rRNA depleted and our custom nematode probe depleted libraries. The custom nematode depletion library had the lowest percentage of ribosomal reads across all methods, with a 300-fold decrease in rRNA when compared to the total RNA library. The nematode depletion libraries also contained the highest percentage of Wolbachia mRNA reads, resulting in a 16-1,000-fold increase in bacterial reads compared to the other enrichment and depletion methods. Finally, we found that the Brugia malayi depletion probes can remove rRNA from the filarial worm Dirofilaria immitis and the majority of rRNA from the more distantly related free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. These custom filarial probes will allow for future dual RNA-seq experiments between nematodes and their bacterial symbionts from a single sequencing library.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Satiro J, Gomes A, Florencio L, et al (2024)

Effect of microalgae and bacteria inoculation on the startup of bioreactors for paper pulp wastewater and biofuel production.

Journal of environmental management, 362:121305 pii:S0301-4797(24)01291-X [Epub ahead of print].

The use of microalgae and bacteria as a strategy for the startup of bioreactors for the treatment of industrial wastewater can be a sustainable and economically viable alternative. This technology model provides satisfactory results in the nitrification and denitrification process for nitrogen removal, organic matter removal, biomass growth, sedimentation, and byproducts recovery for added-value product production. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of microalgae and bacteria in their symbiotic process when used in the treatment of paper pulp industry wastewater. The experiment, lasting fourteen days, utilized four bioreactors with varying concentrations in mgVSS/L of microalgae to bacteria ratio (R1-100:100, R2-100:300, R3-100:500, R4-300:100) in the startup process. Regarding the sludge volumetric index (SVI), the results show that the R1 and R2 reactors developed SVI30/SVI10 biomass in the range of 85.57 ± 7.33% and 84.72 ± 8.19%, respectively. The lipid content in the biomass of reactors R1, R2, R3 e R4 was 13%, 7%, 19%, and 22%, respectively. This high oil content at the end of the batch, may be related to the nutritional stress that the species underwent during this feeding regime. In terms of chlorophyll, the bioreactor with an initial inoculation of 100:100 showed better symbiotic growth of microalgae and bacteria, allowing exponential growth of microalgae. The total chlorophyll value for this bioreactor was 801.46 ± 196.96 μg/L. Biological removal of nitrogen from wastewater from the paper pulp industry is a challenge due to the characteristics of the effluent, but the four reactors operated in a single batch obtained good nitrogen removal. Ammonia nitrogen removal performances were 91.55 ± 9.99%, 72.13 ± 19.18%, 64.04 ± 21.34%, and 86.15 ± 30.10% in R1, R2, R3, and R4, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Chang X, Yang Y, Cheng X, et al (2024)

Multiphase Symbiotic Engineered Elastic Ceramic-Carbon Aerogels with Advanced Thermal Protection in Extreme Oxidative Environments.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Elastic aerogels could dissipate aerodynamic forces and thermal stresses by reversible slipping or deforming to avoid sudden failure caused by stress concentration, making them the most promising candidates for thermal protection in high-end aerospace applications. However, existing elastic aerogels face difficulties achieving reliable protection above 1500 °C in aerobic environments due to their poor thermomechanical stability and significantly increased thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. Here, we propose a multiphase sequence and multiscale structural engineering strategy to synthesize mullite-carbon hybrid nanofibrous aerogels. The heterogeneous symbiotic effect between components simultaneously inhibits ceramic crystalline coarsening and carbon thermal etching, thus ensuring the thermal stability of the nanofiber building blocks. Efficient load transfer and high interfacial thermal resistance at crystalline-amorphous phase boundaries on the microscopic scale, coupled with mesoscale lamellar cellular and locally closed-pore structures, achieve rapid stress dissipation and thermal energy attenuation in aerogels. This robust thermal protection material system is compatible with ultralight density (30 mg cm[-3]), reversible compression strain of 60%, extraordinary thermomechanical stability (up to 1600 °C in oxidative environments), and ultralow thermal conductivity (50.58 mW m[-1] K[-1] at 300 °C), offering new options and possibilities to cope with the harsh operating environments faced by future space exploration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-06-04
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Cunning R, Lenz EA, PJ Edmunds (2024)

Measuring multi-year changes in the Symbiodiniaceae algae in Caribbean corals on coral-depleted reefs.

PeerJ, 12:e17358.

Monitoring coral cover can describe the ecology of reef degradation, but rarely can it reveal the proximal mechanisms of change, or achieve its full potential in informing conservation actions. Describing temporal variation in Symbiodiniaceae within corals can help address these limitations, but this is rarely a research priority. Here, we augmented an ecological time series of the coral reefs of St. John, US Virgin Islands, by describing the genetic complement of symbiotic algae in common corals. Seventy-five corals from nine species were marked and sampled in 2017. Of these colonies, 41% were sampled in 2018, and 72% in 2019; 28% could not be found and were assumed to have died. Symbiodiniaceae ITS2 sequencing identified 525 distinct sequences (comprising 42 ITS2 type profiles), and symbiont diversity differed among host species and individuals, but was in most cases preserved within hosts over 3 yrs that were marked by physical disturbances from major hurricanes (2017) and the regional onset of stony coral tissue loss disease (2019). While changes in symbiont communities were slight and stochastic over time within colonies, variation in the dominant symbionts among colonies was observed for all host species. Together, these results indicate that declining host abundances could lead to the loss of rare algal lineages that are found in a low proportion of few coral colonies left on many reefs, especially if coral declines are symbiont-specific. These findings highlight the importance of identifying Symbiodiniaceae as part of a time series of coral communities to support holistic conservation planning. Repeated sampling of tagged corals is unlikely to be viable for this purpose, because many Caribbean corals are dying before they can be sampled multiple times. Instead, random sampling of large numbers of corals may be more effective in capturing the diversity and temporal dynamics of Symbiodiniaceae metacommunities in reef corals.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Kim KH, Kim JM, Baek JH, et al (2024)

Metabolic relationships between marine red algae and algae-associated bacteria.

Marine life science & technology, 6(2):298-314.

UNLABELLED: Mutualistic interactions between marine phototrophs and associated bacteria are an important strategy for their successful survival in the ocean, but little is known about their metabolic relationships. Here, bacterial communities in the algal sphere (AS) and bulk solution (BS) of nine marine red algal cultures were analyzed, and Roseibium and Phycisphaera were identified significantly more abundantly in AS than in BS. The metabolic features of Roseibium RMAR6-6 (isolated and genome-sequenced), Phycisphaera MAG 12 (obtained by metagenomic sequencing), and a marine red alga, Porphyridium purpureum CCMP1328 (from GenBank), were analyzed bioinformatically. RMAR6-6 has the genetic capability to fix nitrogen and produce B vitamins (B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, and B12), bacterioferritin, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and phenylacetate that may enhance algal growth, whereas MAG 12 may have a limited metabolic capability, not producing vitamins B9 and B12, DMSP, phenylacetate, and siderophores, but with the ability to produce bacitracin, possibly modulating algal microbiome. P. purpureum CCMP1328 lacks the genetic capability to fix nitrogen and produce vitamin B12, DMSP, phenylacetate, and siderophore. It was shown that the nitrogen-fixing ability of RMAR6-6 promoted the growth of P. purpureum, and DMSP reduced the oxidative stress of P. purpureum. The metabolic interactions between strain RMAR6-6 and P. purpureum CCMP1328 were also investigated by the transcriptomic analyses of their monoculture and co-culture. Taken together, potential metabolic relationships between Roseibium and P. purpureum were proposed. This study provides a better understanding of the metabolic relationships between marine algae and algae-associated bacteria for successful growth.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s42995-024-00227-z.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Wang R, Dijkstra FA, Han X, et al (2024)

Root nitrogen reallocation: what makes it matter?.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(24)00114-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Root nitrogen (N) reallocation involves remobilization of root N-storage pools to support shoot growth. Representing a critical yet underexplored facet of plant function, we developed innovative frameworks to elucidate its connections with key ecosystem components. First, root N reallocation increases with plant species richness and N-acquisition strategies, driven by competitive stimulation of plant N demand and synergies in N uptake. Second, competitive root traits and mycorrhizal symbioses, which enhance N foraging and uptake, exhibit trade-offs with root N reallocation. Furthermore, root N reallocation is attenuated by N-supply attributes such as increasing litter quality, soil fungi-to-bacteria ratios, and microbial recruitment in the hyphosphere/rhizosphere. These frameworks provide new insights and research avenues for understanding the ecological roles of root N reallocation.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Shekarabi A, Qureishy I, Puglisi CH, et al (2024)

Host-microbe interactions: communication in the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Current opinion in microbiology, 80:102494 pii:S1369-5274(24)00070-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Animals harbor a diverse array of symbiotic micro-organisms that coexist in communities across different body sites. These microbes maintain host homeostasis and respond to environmental insults to impact host physiological processes. Trillions of indigenous microbes reside in the gastrointestinal tract and engage with the host central nervous system (microbiota-gut-brain axis) by modulating immune responses, interacting with gut intrinsic and extrinsic nervous system, and regulating neuromodulators and biochemicals. These gut microbiota to brain signaling pathways are constantly informed by each other and are hypothesized to mediate brain health across the lifespan. In this review, we will examine the crosstalk of gut microbiota to brain communications in neurological pathologies, with an emphasis on microbial metabolites and neuromodulators, and provide a discussion of recent advances that help elucidate the microbiota as a therapeutic target for treating brain and behavioral disorders.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Zeng Y, DH Hembry (2024)

Coevolution-induced selection for and against phenotypic novelty shapes species richness in clade co-diversification.

Journal of evolutionary biology pii:7686463 [Epub ahead of print].

Coevolution can occur because of species interactions. However, it remains unclear how coevolutionary processes translate into the accumulation of species richness over macroevolutionary timescales. Assuming speciation occurs as a result of genetic differentiation across space due to dispersal limitation, we examine the effects of coevolution-induced phenotypic selection on species diversification. Based on the idea that dispersers often carry novel phenotypes, we propose and test two hypotheses. (1) Stability hypothesis: selection against phenotypic novelty enhances species diversification by strengthening dispersal limitation. (2) Novelty hypothesis: selection for phenotypic novelty impedes species diversification by weakening dispersal limitation. We simulate clade co-diversification using an individual-based model, considering scenarios where phenotypic selection is shaped by neutral dynamics, mutualistic coevolution, or antagonistic coevolution, where coevolution operates through trait matching or trait difference, and where the strength of coevolutionary selection is symmetrical or asymmetrical. Our key assumption that interactions occur between an independent party (whose individuals can establish or persist independently, e.g. hosts) and a dependent party (whose individuals cannot establish or persist independently, e.g. parasites or obligate mutualists) yields two contrasting results. The stability hypothesis is supported in the dependent clade but not in the independent clade. Conversely, the novelty hypothesis is supported in the independent clade but not in the dependent clade. These results are partially corroborated by empirical dispersal data, suggesting that these mechanisms might potentially explain the diversification of some of the most species-rich clades in the Tree of Life.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Wang Y, Gao M, Zhu S, et al (2024)

Glycerol-driven adaptive evolution for the production of low-molecular-weight Welan gum: Characterization and activity evaluation.

Carbohydrate polymers, 339:122292.

Through adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) of Sphingomonas sp. ATCC 31555, fermentation for production of low-molecular-weight welan gum (LMW-WG) was performed using glycerol as sole carbon source. During ALE, GPC-MALS analysis revealed a gradual decrease in WG molecular weight with the increase of adaptation cycles, accompanied by changes in solution conformation. LMW-WG was purified and structurally analyzed using GPC-MALS, monosaccharide composition analysis, infrared spectroscopy, NMR analysis, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, LMW-WG obtains hydration, transparency, antioxidant activity, and rheological properties. Finally, an in vitro simulation colon reactor was used to evaluate potential prebiotic properties of LMW-WG as dietary fiber. Compared with WG produced using sucrose as substrate, LMW-WG exhibited a fourfold reduction in molecular weight while maintaining moderate viscosity. Structurally, L-Rha nearly completely replaced L-Man. Furthermore, LMW-WG demonstrated excellent hydration, antioxidant activity, and high transparency. It also exhibited resistance to saliva and gastrointestinal digestion, showcasing a favorable colonization effect on Bifidobacterium, making it a promising symbiotic agent.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Xu Y, Teng Y, Wang X, et al (2024)

Biohydrogen utilization in legume-rhizobium symbiosis reveals a novel mechanism of accelerated tetrachlorobiphenyl transformation.

Bioresource technology, 404:130918 pii:S0960-8524(24)00621-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Symbiosis between Glycine max and Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens were used as a model system to investigate whether biohydrogen utilization promotes the transformation of the tetrachlorobiphenyl PCB77. Both a H2 uptake-positive (Hup[+]) strain (wild type) and a Hup[-] strain (a hupL deletion mutant) were inoculated into soybean nodules. Compared with Hup[-] nodules, Hup[+] nodules increased dechlorination significantly by 61.1 % and reduced the accumulation of PCB77 in nodules by 37.7 % (p < 0.05). After exposure to nickel, an enhancer of uptake hydrogenase, dechlorination increased significantly by 2.2-fold, and the accumulation of PCB77 in nodules decreased by 54.4 % (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the tetrachlorobiphenyl transformation in the soybean root nodules was mainly testified to be mediated by nitrate reductase (encoded by the gene NR) for tetrachlorobiphenyl dechlorination and biphenyl-2,3-diol 1,2-dioxygenase (bphC) for biphenyl degradation. This study demonstrates for the first time that biohydrogen utilization has a beneficial effect on tetrachlorobiphenyl biotransformation in a legume-rhizobium symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Li H, Ou Y, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Dynamic modulation of nodulation factor receptor levels by phosphorylation-mediated functional switch of a RING-type E3 ligase during legume nodulation.

Molecular plant pii:S1674-2052(24)00177-1 [Epub ahead of print].

A precise control of receptor levels is crucial for initiating cellular signaling transduction in response to specific ligands, however, such mechanisms regulating nodulation factor (NF) receptors (NFR1/NFR5) in perceiving NF to establish symbiosis remain unclear. This study unveils the pivotal role of the NFR-Interacting RING-type E3 ligase 1 (NIRE1) in regulating NFR1/NFR5 homeostasis to optimize rhizobial infection and nodule development in Lotus japonicus. NIRE1 demonstrates a dual function in this regulatory process. NIRE1 associates with both NFR1/NFR5, facilitating their degradations through K48-linked polyubiquitination before rhizobial inoculation. Following rhizobial inoculation, NFR1 phosphorylates NIRE1 at a conserved residue, Tyr-109, inducing a functional switch in NIRE1. This switch enables NIRE1 to mediate K63-linked polyubiquitination, thereby stabilizing NFR1/NFR5 in infected root cells. The introduction of phospho-dead NIRE1[Y109F] leads to delayed nodule development, underscoring the significance of phosphorylation at Tyr-109 in orchestrating symbiotic processes. Conversely, the expression of phospho-mimic NIRE1[Y109E] results in the formation of spontaneous nodules in L. japonicus, further emphasizing the critical role of the phosphorylation-dependent functional switch in NIRE1. In summary, these findings provide the inaugural evidence of a single E3 ligase undergoing a phosphorylation-dependent functional switch, dynamically and precisely regulating NF receptor protein levels.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Corrêa PS, Fernandes MA, Jimenez CR, et al (2024)

Interaction between methanotrophy and gastrointestinal nematodes infection on the rumen microbiome of lambs.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7686115 [Epub ahead of print].

Complex crosstalk occurs between gastrointestinal nematodes and gut symbiotic microbiota, with consequences for animal metabolism. To investigate the connection between methane production and endoparasites, this study evaluated the effect of mixed infection with Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis on methanogenic and methanotrophic community in rumen microbiota of lambs using shotgun metagenomic and Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The rumen content was collected from 6 Santa Inês lambs, (7 months old) before and after 42 days infection by esophageal tube. The metagenomic analysis showed that the infection affected the microbial community structure leading to decreased abundance of methanotrophs bacteria, i.e. α-proteobacteria and β-proteobacteria, anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME), protozoa, sulfate-reducing bacteria, syntrophic bacteria with methanogens, geobacter, and genes related to pyruvate, fatty acid, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolisms, ribulose monophosphate cycle and Entner-Doudoroff Pathway. Additionally, the abundance of methanogenic archaea and the mcrA gene did not change. The co-occurrence networks enabled us to identify the interactions between each taxon in microbial communities and to determine the reshaping of rumen microbiome associations by gastrointestinal nematode infection. Besides, the correlation between ANMEs was lower in the animal's post-infection. Our findings suggest that gastrointestinal parasites potentially lead to decreased methanotrophic metabolism-related microorganisms and genes.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Swisa A, Kieckhaefer J, Daniel SG, et al (2024)

The evolutionarily ancient FOXA transcription factors shape the murine gut microbiome via control of epithelial glycosylation.

Developmental cell pii:S1534-5807(24)00323-X [Epub ahead of print].

Evolutionary adaptation of multicellular organisms to a closed gut created an internal microbiome differing from that of the environment. Although the composition of the gut microbiome is impacted by diet and disease state, we hypothesized that vertebrates promote colonization by commensal bacteria through shaping of the apical surface of the intestinal epithelium. Here, we determine that the evolutionarily ancient FOXA transcription factors control the composition of the gut microbiome by establishing favorable glycosylation on the colonic epithelial surface. FOXA proteins bind to regulatory elements of a network of glycosylation enzymes, which become deregulated when Foxa1 and Foxa2 are deleted from the intestinal epithelium. As a direct consequence, microbial composition shifts dramatically, and spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease ensues. Microbiome dysbiosis was quickly reversed upon fecal transplant into wild-type mice, establishing a dominant role for the host epithelium, in part mediated by FOXA factors, in controlling symbiosis in the vertebrate holobiont.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Rankin L, Grisham LM, C Ingbar (2024)

Hush, little baby: The role of C-tactile afferents in babywearing infants with neonatal opioid withdrawal.

Infant behavior & development, 76:101960 pii:S0163-6383(24)00039-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Social touch through infant holding, skin-to-skin contact, and infant carrying (babywearing) decreases infant distress and promotes secure attachment. Unknown is the extent to which these effects are the result of the activation of C-Tactile afferents (CTs), the constellation of nerve fibers associated with affective touch, primarily located in the head and trunk of the body. The purpose of the present study was to compare dynamic touch (CTs activated) to static touch (CTs less activated) during a babywearing procedure among infants experiencing Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS). NOWS is a spectrum of clinical symptoms, including elevated heart rate (HR), associated with withdrawal from intrauterine opioid exposure. We hypothesized that stroking an infant's head during babywearing would amplify the pleasurable effect of babywearing as measured by changes in infant HR. Twenty-nine infants in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in the Southwestern USA were worn in an infant carrier starting at five days old (M = 5.4, SD = 2.6; 46.2 % White, 26.9 % Latinx, 11.5 % Native American) and physiological readings were conducted daily; heart rates of infants and caregivers were taken every 15-seconds for 5-minutes, before, during, and after babywearing (30 min per phase). Each day infants alternated (randomly) in a static touch (hands-free babywearing) or dynamic touch condition (stroking the top of the infants' head at a velocity of 3 cm/s while babywearing). On average, infants completed 3 dynamic and 3 static babywearing sessions. Hospital and research staff participated in babywearing when a parent was not available (31.0 % of infants were exclusively worn by volunteers, 27.6 % were exclusively worn by parents). We analyzed the data using Hierarchical Linear Models due to the 3-level nested design (N = 29 infants, N = 191 readings, N = 11,974 heart rates). Compared to baseline (infant calm/asleep and without contact), infant's HRs significantly declined during and after babywearing, controlling for pharmacological treatment. These effects were significantly stronger during the dynamic touch condition (reduction in HR of 11.17 bpm) compared to the static touch condition (reduction in HR of 3.74 bpm). These effects did not significantly vary by wearer (mother, father, volunteer). However, differences between the dynamic and static conditions were significantly stronger in earlier babywearing sessions, potentially indicating a learning effect. There was evidence for a calming effect among caregivers as well, particularly in the dynamic touch condition, when caregivers were engaged in active touch. Activation of CTs appears to be an important mechanism in the physiological benefits of babywearing and in the symbiotic role of caregiver-infant attachment.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Vaccaro F, Passeri I, Ajijah N, et al (2024)

Genotype-by-genotype interkingdom cross-talk between symbiotic nitrogen fixing Sinorhizobium meliloti strains and Trichoderma species.

Microbiological research, 285:127768 pii:S0944-5013(24)00169-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In the understanding of the molecular interaction between plants and their microbiome, a key point is to identify simplified models of the microbiome including relevant bacterial and fungal partners which could also be effective in plant growth promotion. Here, as proof-of-concept, we aim to identify the possible molecular interactions between symbiotic nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and soil fungi (Trichoderma spp.), hence shed light on synergistic roles rhizospheric fungi could have in the biology of symbiotic nitrogen fixation bacteria. We selected 4 strains of the model rhizobium Sinorhizobium meliloti and 4 Trichoderma species (T. velutinum, T. tomentosum, T. gamsii and T. harzianum). In an experimental scheme of 4 ×4 strains x species combinations, we investigated the rhizobia physiological and transcriptomic responses elicited by fungal spent media, as well as spent media effects on rhizobia-host legume plant (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) symbiosis. Fungal spent media had large effects on rhizobia, specific for each fungal species and rhizobial strains combination, indicating a generalized rhizobia genotype x fungal genotype interaction, including synergistic, neutral and antagonistic effects on alfalfa symbiotic phenotypes. Differential expression of a high number of genes was shown in rhizobia strains with up to 25% of total genes differentially expressed upon treatment of cultures with fungal spent media. Percentages over total genes and type of genes differentially expressed changed according to both fungal species and rhizobial strain. To support the hypothesis of a relevant rhizobia genotype x fungal genotype interaction, a nested Likelihood Ratio Test indicated that the model considering the fungus-rhizobium interaction explained 23.4% of differentially expressed genes. Our results provide insights into molecular interactions involving nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and rhizospheric fungi, highlighting the panoply of genes and genotypic interactions (fungus, rhizobium, host plant) which may concur to plant symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Almeida Medeiros J, Eduardo de Farias Silva C, Santos GKS, et al (2024)

Tertiary treatment of dairy wastewater applying a microalga-fungus consortium.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

This paper aimed to apply filamentous fungi (Penicillium oxalicum and Cunninghamella echinulata), the microalga Tetradesmus obliquus and their co-culture in advanced treatment (tertiary treatment) of cheese whey. The bioremediation process was carried out in agitated flasks and bubble column bioreactors with different concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (223-1663 mg L[-][1]), total nitrogen (TN) (13-61 mg L[-][1]), and total phosphorus (TP) (3-26 mg L[-][1]). The results obtained in shaken flasks showed a superiority of the consortium compared to the systems with separated species. In this sense, the treatment was carried out in a bubble column reactor, and the consortium formed by the microalga and the fungus C. echinulata showed a greater efficiency (at a light intensity of 100 µmol m[-][2] s[-][1]), promoting by the symbiosis to reach removal efficiencies of up to 93.7, 78.8 and 93.4% for COD, TN and TP, respectively; meeting Brazilian and European standards for discharge into water bodies. In addition, no pH adjustment was required during the co-culture treatment, demonstrating the buffering effect of using these two types of microorganisms. Therefore, the use of the consortium formed by T. obliquus and C. echinulata as a remediator was highly promising to promote the advanced treatment of cheese whey.

RevDate: 2024-05-31
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Jouault T (2024)

[Symbiosis: The complexity of living together!].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 40(5):460.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Servanté EK, Halitschke R, Rocha C, et al (2024)

Independent regulation of strigolactones and blumenols during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in rice.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

The apocarotenoid strigolactones (SLs) facilitate pre-symbiotic communication between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plants. Related blumenol-C-glucosides (blumenols), have also been associated with symbiosis, but the cues that are involved in the regulation of blumenol accumulation during AM symbiosis remain unclear. In rice, our analyses demonstrated a strict correlation between foliar blumenol abundance and intraradical fungal colonisation. More specifically, rice mutants affected at distinct stages of the interaction revealed that fungal cortex invasion was required for foliar blumenol accumulation. Plant phosphate status and D14L hormone signalling had no effect, contrasting their known role in induction of SLs. This a proportion of the SL biosynthetic enzymes, D27 and D17, are equally required for blumenol production. These results importantly clarify that, while there is a partially shared biosynthetic pathway between SL and blumenols, the dedicated induction of the related apocarotenoids occurs in response to cues acting at distinct stages during the root colonisation process. However, we reveal that neither SLs nor blumenols are essential for fungal invasion of rice roots.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Kondo K, Suzuki M, Amadaira M, et al (2024)

Association of maternal genetics with the gut microbiome and eucalypt diet selection in captive koalas.

PeerJ, 12:e17385.

BACKGROUND: Koalas, an Australian arboreal marsupial, depend on eucalypt tree leaves for their diet. They selectively consume only a few of the hundreds of available eucalypt species. Since the koala gut microbiome is essential for the digestion and detoxification of eucalypts, their individual differences in the gut microbiome may lead to variations in their eucalypt selection and eucalypt metabolic capacity. However, research focusing on the relationship between the gut microbiome and differences in food preferences is very limited. We aimed to determine whether individual and regional differences exist in the gut microbiome of koalas as well as the mechanism by which these differences influence eucalypt selection.

METHODS: Foraging data were collected from six koalas and a total of 62 feces were collected from 15 koalas of two zoos in Japan. The mitochondrial phylogenetic analysis was conducted to estimate the mitochondrial maternal origin of each koala. In addition, the 16S-based gut microbiome of 15 koalas was analyzed to determine the composition and diversity of each koala's gut microbiome. We used these data to investigate the relationship among mitochondrial maternal origin, gut microbiome and eucalypt diet selection.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: This research revealed that diversity and composition of the gut microbiome and that eucalypt diet selection of koalas differs among regions. We also revealed that the gut microbiome alpha diversity was correlated with foraging diversity in koalas. These individual and regional differences would result from vertical (maternal) transmission of the gut microbiome and represent an intraspecific variation in koala foraging strategies. Further, we demonstrated that certain gut bacteria were strongly correlated with both mitochondrial maternal origin and eucalypt foraging patterns. Bacteria found to be associated with mitochondrial maternal origin included bacteria involved in fiber digestion and degradation of secondary metabolites, such as the families Rikenellaceae and Synergistaceae. These bacteria may cause differences in metabolic capacity between individual and regional koalas and influence their eucalypt selection.

CONCLUSION: We showed that the characteristics (composition and diversity) of the gut microbiome and eucalypt diet selection of koalas differ by individuals and regional origins as we expected. In addition, some gut bacteria that could influence eucalypt foraging of koalas showed the relationships with both mitochondrial maternal origin and eucalypt foraging pattern. These differences in the gut microbiome between regional origins may make a difference in eucalypt selection. Given the importance of the gut microbiome to koalas foraging on eucalypts and their strong symbiotic relationship, future studies should focus on the symbiotic relationship and coevolution between koalas and the gut microbiome to understand individual and regional differences in eucalypt diet selection by koalas.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Noh S, Peck RF, Larson ER, et al (2024)

Facultative symbiont virulence determines horizontal transmission rate without host specificity in Dictyostelium discoideum social amoebas.

Evolution letters, 8(3):437-447.

In facultative symbioses, only a fraction of hosts are associated with symbionts. Specific host and symbiont pairings may be the result of host-symbiont coevolution driven by reciprocal selection or priority effects pertaining to which potential symbiont is associated with a host first. Distinguishing between these possibilities is important for understanding the evolutionary forces that affect facultative symbioses. We used the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, and its symbiont, Paraburkholderia bonniea, to determine whether ongoing coevolution affects which host-symbiont strain pairs naturally cooccur within a facultative symbiosis. Relative to other Paraburkholderia, including another symbiont of D. discoideum, P. bonniea features a reduced genome size that indicates a significant history of coevolution with its host. We hypothesized that ongoing host-symbiont coevolution would lead to higher fitness for naturally cooccurring (native) host and symbiont pairings compared to novel pairings. We show for the first time that P. bonniea symbionts can horizontally transmit to new amoeba hosts when hosts aggregate together during the social stage of their life cycle. Here we find evidence for a virulence-transmission trade-off without host specificity. Although symbiont strains were significantly variable in virulence and horizontal transmission rate, hosts and symbionts responded similarly to associations in native and novel pairings. We go on to identify candidate virulence factors in the genomes of P. bonniea strains that may contribute to variation in virulence. We conclude that ongoing coevolution is unlikely for D. discoideum and P. bonniea. The system instead appears to represent a stable facultative symbiosis in which naturally cooccurring P. bonniea host and symbiont pairings are the result of priority effects.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Gong F, He C, Li X, et al (2024)

Impacts of fertilization methods on Salvia miltiorrhiza quality and characteristics of the epiphytic microbial community.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1395628.

Plant epiphytic microorganisms have established a unique symbiotic relationship with plants, which has a significant impact on their growth, immune defense, and environmental adaptation. However, the impact of fertilization methods on the epiphytic microbial community and their correlation with the yield and quality of medicinal plant was still unclear. In current study, we conducted a field fertilization experiment and analyzed the composition of epiphytic bacterial and fungal communities employing high throughput sequencing data in different organs (roots, stems, and leaves) of Salvia miltiorrhiza, as well as their correlation with plant growth. The results showed that fertilization significantly affected the active ingredients and hormone content, soil physicochemical properties, and the composition of epiphytic microbial communities. After fertilization, the plant surface was enriched with a core microbial community mainly composed of bacteria from Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria, as well as fungi from Zygomycota and Ascomycota. Additionally, plant growth hormones were the principal factors leading to alterations in the epiphytic microbial community of S. miltiorrhiza. Thus, the most effective method of fertilization involved the application of base fertilizer in combination with foliar fertilizer. This study provides a new perspective for studying the correlation between microbial community function and the quality of S. miltiorrhiza, and also provides a theoretical basis for the cultivation and sustainable development of high-quality medicinal plants.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Alaux PL, Courty PE, Fréville H, et al (2024)

Wheat dwarfing reshapes plant and fungal development in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

The introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes into elite wheat varieties has contributed to enhanced yield gain in high input agrosystems by preventing lodging. Yet, how modern selection for dwarfing has affected symbiosis remains poorly documented. In this study, we evaluated the response of both the plant and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus to plant genetic variation at a major Quantitative Trait Locus called QTL 4B2, known to harbor a Rht dwarfing gene, when forming the symbiosis. We used twelve inbred genotypes derived from a diversity base broadened durum wheat Evolutionary Pre-breeding Population and genotyped with a high-throughput Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array. In a microcosm setup segregating roots and the extra-radical mycelium, each wheat genotype was grown with or without the presence of Rhizophagus irregularis. To characterize arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, we assessed hyphal density, root colonization, spore production, and plant biomass. Additionally, we split the variation of these variables due either to genotypes or to the Rht dwarfing genes alone. The fungus exhibited greater development in the roots of Dwarf plants compared to non-Dwarf plants, showing increases of 27%, 37% and 51% in root colonization, arbuscules, and vesicles, respectively. In addition, the biomass of the extra-radical fungal structures increased by around 31% in Dwarf plants. The biomass of plant roots decreased by about 43% in mycorrhizal Dwarf plants. Interestingly, extraradical hyphal production was found to be partly genetically determined with no significant effect of Rht, as for plant biomasses. In contrast, variations in root colonization, arbuscules and extraradical spore production were explained by Rht dwarfing genes. Finally, when mycorrhizal, Dwarf plants had significantly lower total P content, pointing towards a less beneficial symbiosis for the plant and increased profit for the fungus. These results highlight the effect of Rht dwarfing genes on both root and fungal development. This calls for further research into the molecular mechanisms governing these effects, as well as changes in plant physiology, and their implications for fostering arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in sustainable agrosystems.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Zientek A, Schagerl M, Nagy M, et al (2024)

Effect of micro-plastic particles on coral reef foraminifera.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12423.

Foraminifera are single-celled protists which are important mediators of the marine carbon cycle. In our study, we explored the potential impact of polystyrene (PS) microplastic particles on two symbiont-bearing large benthic foraminifera species-Heterostegina depressa and Amphistegina lobifera-over a period of three weeks, employing three different approaches: investigating (1) stable isotope (SI) incorporation-via [13]C- and [15]N-labelled substrates-of the foraminifera to assess their metabolic activity, (2) photosynthetic efficiency of the symbiotic diatoms using imaging PAM fluorometry, and (3) microscopic enumeration of accumulation of PS microplastic particles inside the foraminiferal test. The active feeder A. lobifera incorporated significantly more PS particles inside the cytoplasm than the non-feeding H. depressa, the latter accumulating the beads on the test surface. Photosynthetic area of the symbionts tended to decrease in the presence of microplastic particles in both species, suggesting that the foraminiferal host cells started to digest their diatom symbionts. Compared to the control, the presence of microplastic particles lead to reduced SI uptake in A. lobifera, which indicates inhibition of inorganic carbon and nitrogen assimilation. Competition for particulate food uptake was demonstrated between algae and microplastic particles of similar size. Based on our results, both species seem to be sensitive to microplastic pollution, with non-feeding H. depressa being more strongly affected.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Salvador RW, RA Doong (2024)

Simultaneous achievement of energy recovery and carbon sequestration through municipal solid waste management: A review.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01371-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Effective municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a crucial component for sustainable cities, as inefficient waste disposal contributes to the release of about a billion tons of CO2-eq in greenhouse gases (GHG) annually. With escalating global waste generation, there is an untapped opportunity to integrate carbon dioxide removal (CDR) technologies into existing MSW management processes. This review explores current research on utilizing MSW for CDR, emphasizing its potential for both energy generation and carbon sequestration. The investigation covers three waste management practices: landfilling, waste-to-energy (WtE), and biochar production, revealing two paths for carbon sequestration. First, MSW serves as a feedstock in bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), acting as a carbon-neutral resource that avoids fossil fuel and energy crop use, reducing GHG emissions and generating value through energy production. Second, direct storage of organic MSW and its derivatives, like biochar, in various carbon sinks allows for extended sequestration, offering a comprehensive approach to address the challenges of waste management and climate change mitigation. Moreover, this review advocates for an extended exploration into several subjects including in-depth analysis of waste, research on MSW-derived biochar recalcitrance across different carbon sinks, and understanding the symbiotic connections with GHG-emitting sectors like agriculture and energy. Finally, this review emphasizes the necessity of conducting life-cycle assessment studies to fully discern the benefits and assess the impacts of any future endeavors exploring the role of MSW in carbon sequestration.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Da Cunha V, Gaïa M, P Forterre (2022)

The expanding Asgard archaea and their elusive relationships with Eukarya.

mLife, 1(1):3-12.

The discovery of Asgard archaea and the exploration of their diversity over the last 6 years have deeply impacted the scientific community working on eukaryogenesis, rejuvenating an intense debate on the topology of the universal tree of life (uTol). Here, we discuss how this debate is impacted by two recent publications that expand the number of Asgard lineages and eukaryotic signature proteins (ESPs). We discuss some of the main difficulties that can impair the phylogenetic reconstructions of the uTol and suggest that the debate about its topology is not settled. We notably hypothesize the existence of horizontal gene transfers between ancestral Asgards and proto-eukaryotes that could result in the observed abnormal behaviors of some Asgard ESPs and universal marker proteins. This hypothesis is relevant regardless of the scenario considered regarding eukaryogenesis. It implies that the Asgards were already diversified before the last eukaryotic common ancestor and shared the same biotopes with proto-eukaryotes. We suggest that some Asgards might be still living in symbiosis today with modern Eukarya.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Hnini M, J Aurag (2024)

Prevalence, diversity and applications potential of nodules endophytic bacteria: a systematic review.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1386742.

Legumes are renowned for their distinctive biological characteristic of forming symbiotic associations with soil bacteria, mostly belonging to the Rhizobiaceae familiy, leading to the establishment of symbiotic root nodules. Within these nodules, rhizobia play a pivotal role in converting atmospheric nitrogen into a plant-assimilable form. However, it has been discerned that root nodules of legumes are not exclusively inhabited by rhizobia; non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria also reside within them, yet their functions remain incompletely elucidated. This comprehensive review synthesizes available data, revealing that Bacillus and Pseudomonas are the most prevalent genera of nodule endophytic bacteria, succeeded by Paenibacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Agrobacterium, and Microbacterium. To date, the bibliographic data available show that Glycine max followed by Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris and Lens culinaris are the main hosts for nodule endophytic bacteria. Clustering analysis consistently supports the prevalence of Bacillus and Pseudomonas as the most abundant nodule endophytic bacteria, alongside Paenibacillus, Agrobacterium, and Enterobacter. Although non-rhizobial populations within nodules do not induce nodule formation, their presence is associated with various plant growth-promoting properties (PGPs). These properties are known to mediate important mechanisms such as phytostimulation, biofertilization, biocontrol, and stress tolerance, emphasizing the multifaceted roles of nodule endophytes. Importantly, interactions between non-rhizobia and rhizobia within nodules may exert influence on their leguminous host plants. This is particularly shown by co-inoculation of legumes with both types of bacteria, in which synergistic effects on plant growth, yield, and nodulation are often measured. Moreover these effects are pronounced under both stress and non-stress conditions, surpassing the impact of single inoculations with rhizobia alone.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Liu HL, Chen HF, Wu YD, et al (2024)

Xiaoqinglong decoction mitigates nasal inflammation and modulates gut microbiota in allergic rhinitis mice.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1290985.

INTRODUCTION: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a respiratory immune system disorder characterized by dysregulation of immune responses. Within the context of AR, gut microbiota and its metabolites have been identified as contributors to immune modulation. These microorganisms intricately connect the respiratory and gut immune systems, forming what is commonly referred to as the gut-lung axis. Xiaoqinglong Decoction (XQLD), a traditional Chinese herbal remedy, is widely utilized in traditional Chinese medicine for the clinical treatment of AR. In this study, it is hypothesized that the restoration of symbiotic microbiota balance within the gut-lung axis plays a pivotal role in supporting the superior long-term efficacy of XQLD in AR therapy. Therefore, the primary objective of this research is to investigate the impact of XQLD on the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota in a murine model of AR.

METHODS: An ovalbumin-sensitized mouse model to simulate AR was utilized, the improvement of AR symptoms after medication was investigated, and high-throughput sequencing was employed to analyze the gut microbiota composition.

RESULTS: XQLD exhibited substantial therapeutic effects in AR mice, notably characterized by a significant reduction in allergic inflammatory responses, considerable alleviation of nasal symptoms, and the restoration of normal nasal function. Additionally, following XQLD treatment, the disrupted gut microbiota in AR mice displayed a tendency toward restoration, showing significant differences compared to the Western medicine (loratadine) group.

DISCUSSION: This results revealed that XQLD may enhance AR allergic inflammatory responses through the regulation of intestinal microbiota dysbiosis in mice, thus influencing the dynamics of the gut-lung axis. The proposal of this mechanism provides a foundation for future research in this area.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Tian L, Hao YM, Guo R, et al (2024)

Two lysin motif extracellular (LysMe) proteins are deployed in rice to facilitate arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

During arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, plant innate immunity is modulated to a prime state to allow for fungal colonization. The underlying mechanisms remain to be further explored. In this study, two rice genes encoding LysM extracellular (LysMe) proteins were investigated. By obtaining OsLysMepro:GUS transgenic plants and generating oslysme1, oslysme2 and oslysme1oslysme2 mutants via CRISPR/Cas9 technique, OsLysMe genes were revealed to be specifically induced in the arbusculated cells and mutations in either gene caused significantly reduced root colonization rate by AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. Overexpression of OsLysMe1 or OsLysMe2 dramatically increased the colonization rates in rice and Medicago truncatula. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay and dual-luciferase reporter assay supported that OsLysMe genes are regulated by OsWRI5a. Either OsLysMe1 or OsLysMe2 can efficiently rescue the impaired AM phenotype of the mtlysme2 mutant, supporting a conserved function of LysMe across monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. The co-localization of OsLysMe proteins with the apoplast marker SP-OsRAmy3A implies their probable localization to the periarbuscular space (PAS) during symbiosis. Relative to the fungal biomass marker RiTEF, some defense-related genes showed disproportionately high expression levels in the oslysme mutants. These data support that rice plants deploy two OsLysMe proteins to facilitate AM symbiosis, likely by diminishing plant defense responses.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Przybylska MS, Violle C, Vile D, et al (2024)

Can plants build their niche through modulation of soil microbial activities linked with nitrogen cycling? A test with Arabidopsis thaliana.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

In natural systems, different plant species have been shown to modulate specific nitrogen (N) cycling processes so as to meet their N demand, thereby potentially influencing their own niche. This phenomenon might go beyond plant interactions with symbiotic microorganisms and affect the much less explored plant interactions with free-living microorganisms involved in soil N cycling, such as nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Here, we investigated variability in the modulation of soil nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities (NEA and DEA, respectively), and their ratio (NEA : DEA), across 193 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions. We studied the genetic and environmental determinants of such plant-soil interactions, and effects on plant biomass production in the next generation. We found that NEA, DEA, and NEA : DEA varied c. 30-, 15- and 60-fold, respectively, among A. thaliana genotypes and were related to genes linked with stress response, flowering, and nitrate nutrition, as well as to soil parameters at the geographic origin of the analysed genotypes. Moreover, plant-mediated N cycling activities correlated with the aboveground biomass of next-generation plants in home vs away nonautoclaved soil, suggesting a transgenerational impact of soil biotic conditioning on plant performance. Altogether, these findings suggest that nutrient-based plant niche construction may be much more widespread than previously thought.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Rosling A, Eshghi Sahraei S, Kalsoom Khan F, et al (2024)

Evolutionary history of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and genomic signatures of obligate symbiosis.

BMC genomics, 25(1):529.

BACKGROUND: The colonization of land and the diversification of terrestrial plants is intimately linked to the evolutionary history of their symbiotic fungal partners. Extant representatives of these fungal lineages include mutualistic plant symbionts, the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in Glomeromycota and fine root endophytes in Endogonales (Mucoromycota), as well as fungi with saprotrophic, pathogenic and endophytic lifestyles. These fungal groups separate into three monophyletic lineages but their evolutionary relationships remain enigmatic confounding ancestral reconstructions. Their taxonomic ranks are currently fluid.

RESULTS: In this study, we recognize these three monophyletic linages as phyla, and use a balanced taxon sampling and broad taxonomic representation for phylogenomic analysis that rejects a hard polytomy and resolves Glomeromycota as sister to a clade composed of Mucoromycota and Mortierellomycota. Low copy numbers of genes associated with plant cell wall degradation could not be assigned to the transition to a plant symbiotic lifestyle but appears to be an ancestral phylogenetic signal. Both plant symbiotic lineages, Glomeromycota and Endogonales, lack numerous thiamine metabolism genes but the lack of fatty acid synthesis genes is specific to AM fungi. Many genes previously thought to be missing specifically in Glomeromycota are either missing in all analyzed phyla, or in some cases, are actually present in some of the analyzed AM fungal lineages, e.g. the high affinity phosphorus transporter Pho89.

CONCLUSION: Based on a broad taxon sampling of fungal genomes we present a well-supported phylogeny for AM fungi and their sister lineages. We show that among these lineages, two independent evolutionary transitions to mutualistic plant symbiosis happened in a genomic background profoundly different from that known from the emergence of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Dikarya. These results call for further reevaluation of genomic signatures associated with plant symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Méndez-Camarillo MA, Flores-Cortez I, Montejano-Ramírez V, et al (2024)

Arthrobacter sp. UMCV2, and its compound N,N-dimethylhexadecilamine promote nodulation in Medicago truncatula by Sinorhizobium medicae.

Revista Argentina de microbiologia pii:S0325-7541(24)00044-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The actinobacterium Arthrobacter sp. UMCV2 promotes plant growth through the emission of N,N-dimethylhexadecilamine (DMHDA). The Medicago-Sinorhizobium nodulation has been employed to study symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in nodulating Fabaceae. Herein, we isolated three Sinorhizobium medicae strains that were used to induce nodules in Medicago truncatula. The co-inoculation of M. truncatula with Arthrobacter sp. strain UMCV2 produced a higher number of effective nodules than inoculation with only Sinorhizobium strains. Similarly, the exposure of inoculated M. truncatula to DMHDA produced a greater number of effective nodules compared to non-exposed plants. Thus, we conclude that Arthrobacter sp. UMCV2 promotes nodulation, and propose that this effect is produced, at least partly, via DMHDA emission.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

David P, Jana R, Radka S, et al (2024)

Soil compaction reversed the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on soil hydraulic properties.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) typically provide a wide range of nutritional benefits to their host plants, and their role in plant water uptake, although still controversial, is often cited as one of the hallmarks of this symbiosis. Less attention has been dedicated to other effects relating to water dynamics that the presence of AMF in soils may have. Evidence that AMF can affect soil hydraulic properties is only beginning to emerge. In one of our recent experiments with dwarf tomato plants, we serendipitously found that the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis 'PH5') can slightly but significantly reduce water holding capacity (WHC) of the substrate (a sand-zeolite-soil mixture). This was further investigated in a subsequent experiment, but there we found exactly the opposite effect as mycorrhizal substrate retained more water than did the non-mycorrhizal substrate. Because the same substrate was used and other conditions were mostly comparable in the two experiments, we explain the contrasting results by different substrate compaction, most likely caused by different pot shapes. It seems that in compacted substrates, AMF may have no effect upon or even decrease the substrates' WHC. On the other hand, the AMF hyphae interweaving the pores of less compacted substrates may increase the capillary movement of water throughout such substrates and cause slightly more water to remain in the pores after the free water has drained. We believe that this phenomenon is worthy of mycorrhizologists' attention and merits further investigation as to the role of AMF in soil hydraulic properties.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Meng X, Liu M, Meng Z, et al (2024)

Effects of different restoration stages on soil microbial community composition and diversity in Naolihe Wetland, China.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1403849.

Soil microorganisms can be used as one of the important indicators of wetland ecosystem restoration. To study the effects of different restoration stages on soil microbial community composition and diversity in Naolihe Wetland, we employed a "time and space parallel" method. Four restoration stages, namely corn field (Corn), short-term restoration wetland (2 years, ST), long-term restoration wetland (8 years, LT) and natural wetland (>25 years, NW), were selected to represent the restoration time and geographical location in Naolihe Nature Wetland. We investigated the composition and diversity of soil microbial communities in different restoration wetland (from corn fields to natural wetlands) by using 16S rRNA and ITS rRNA gene sequencing. We also performed chemical experiments to measure soil enzyme activity and physicochemical properties at each sampling site. The results showed that soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities significantly differed with the extension of wetland restoration years (p < 0.05). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria are the most dominant phyla in bacterial. The alpha diversity of soil bacteria was the highest in the corn field (Corn), and ST-LT-NW first decreased and then increased with the extension of wetland restoration years. There are two most dominant phyla (Ascomycota and Mucoromycota) in fungal. However, the alpha diversity of soil fungi was the lowest in the Corn and LT stage, and ST-LT-NW first decreased and then increased with the extension of wetland restoration years. The research findings indicated that the changes in soil physicochemical properties with the extension of wetland restoration years play a significant role in shaping the structure and diversity changes of soil microbial communities. Through the analyses of bacterial and fungal functions using the FUNGuild and FAPROTAX databases, the results showed that the abundance of aerobic bacteria in the soil increased more than that of anaerobic bacteria as the wetland restoration years prolonged, while the abundance of saprotrophic, symbiotic, and pathogenic fungi in the soil significantly decreased with the prolonged wetland restoration years. This study will help us better understand the process of restoration after farmland abandonment, providing valuable reference information for the implementation of a series of wetland ecological restoration projects in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Zhang J, Hong B, Abdollahi M, et al (2024)

Role of lingonberry press cake in producing stable herring protein isolates via pH-shift processing: A dose response study.

Food chemistry: X, 22:101456.

The effects of cross-processing lingonberry press cake (LPC) (2.5-30 %, dw/dw) with herring co-products on protein yield, oxidative stability and color of pH-shift-produced protein isolates were investigated. Even at 2.5 % LPC, the formation of volatile oxidation-derived aldehydes, including hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, heptanal, octanal, and 2,4-heptadienal, were prevented during the actual protein isolate production. Adding 10 % LPC successfully prevented formation of all these aldehydes also during eight days ice storage which was explained by the partitioning of phenolics, especially ideain (1.09 mg/g dw) and procyanidin A1 (65.5 mg/g dw), into isolates. Although higher amounts of LPC (20-30 %) further prolonged the oxidation lag phase, it reduced total protein yield, increased the consumption of acid and base, and darkened protein isolates. Therefore, it is recommended to use 10 % LPC when pH-shift-processing sensitive fish raw materials as a route to mitigate lipid oxidation and at the same time promote industrial symbiosis and more circular food production.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Kilmanoglu H, Yigit Cinar A, MZ Durak (2024)

Evaluation of microbiota-induced changes in biochemical, sensory properties and volatile profile of kombucha produced by reformed microbial community.

Food chemistry: X, 22:101469.

Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by a living culture known as SCOBY or "symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast". Culture-dependent production is essential for stable kombucha fermentation. The aim of this study was to design a microbial community and to determine the effect of that community on the flavor and chemical properties of kombucha. The fermentations were carried out using combinations of selected species including Pichia kudriavzevii, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Dekkera bruxellensis, Komagataeibacter saccharivorans, Komagataeibacter xylinus, and Acetobacter papayae, which were previously isolated from kombucha. The effects of monocultures and cocultures on fermentation were investigated. The highest acetic acid producer was A. papayae, which has strong antioxidant properties. In the monoculture and coculture fermentations, aldehydes, acids, and esters were generally observed at the end of fermentation. This study confirms that microbiota reconstruction is a viable approach for achieving the production of kombucha with increased bioactive constituents and consumer acceptance.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Li R, Zarate D, Avila-Magaña V, et al (2024)

Comparative transcriptomics revealed parallel evolution and innovation of photosymbiosis molecular mechanisms in a marine bivalve.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2023):20232408.

Photosymbioses between heterotrophic hosts and autotrophic symbionts are evolutionarily prevalent and ecologically significant. However, the molecular mechanisms behind such symbioses remain less elucidated, which hinders our understanding of their origin and adaptive evolution. This study compared gene expression patterns in a photosymbiotic bivalve (Fragum sueziense) and a closely related non-symbiotic species (Trigoniocardia granifera) under different light conditions to detect potential molecular pathways involved in mollusc photosymbiosis. We discovered that the presence of algal symbionts greatly impacted host gene expression in symbiont-containing tissues. We found that the host immune functions were suppressed under normal light compared with those in the dark. In addition, we found that cilia in the symbiont-containing tissues play important roles in symbiont regulation or photoreception. Interestingly, many potential photosymbiosis genes could not be annotated or do not exhibit orthologues in T. granifera transcriptomes, indicating unique molecular functions in photosymbiotic bivalves. Overall, we found both novel and known molecular mechanisms involved in animal-algal photosymbiosis within bivalves. Given that many of the molecular pathways are shared among distantly related host lineages, such as molluscs and cnidarians, it indicates that parallel and/or convergent evolution is instrumental in shaping host-symbiont interactions and responses in these organisms.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Parmentier T, Molero-Baltanás R, Valdivia C, et al (2024)

Co-habiting ants and silverfish display a converging feeding ecology.

BMC biology, 22(1):123.

BACKGROUND: Various animal taxa have specialized to living with social hosts. Depending on their level of specialization, these symbiotic animals are characterized by distinct behavioural, chemical, and morphological traits that enable close heterospecific interactions. Despite its functional importance, our understanding of the feeding ecology of animals living with social hosts remains limited. We examined how host specialization of silverfish co-habiting with ants affects several components of their feeding ecology. We combined stable isotope profiling, feeding assays, phylogenetic reconstruction, and microbial community characterization of the Neoasterolepisma silverfish genus and a wider nicoletiid and lepismatid silverfish panel where divergent myrmecophilous lifestyles are observed.

RESULTS: Stable isotope profiling (δ[13]C and δ[15]N) showed that the isotopic niches of granivorous Messor ants and Messor-specialized Neoasterolepisma exhibit a remarkable overlap within an ant nest. Trophic experiments and gut dissections further supported that these specialized Neoasterolepisma silverfish transitioned to a diet that includes plant seeds. In contrast, the isotopic niches of generalist Neoasterolepisma silverfish and generalist nicoletiid silverfish were clearly different from their ant hosts within the shared nest environment. The impact of the myrmecophilous lifestyle on feeding ecology was also evident in the internal silverfish microbiome. Compared to generalists, Messor-specialists exhibited a higher bacterial density and a higher proportion of heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the nest environment explained the infection profile (or the 16S rRNA genotypes) of Weissella bacteria in Messor-specialized silverfish and the ant hosts.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, we show that social hosts are important determinants for the feeding ecology of symbiotic animals and can induce diet convergence.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Shahbaz M, Palaniveloo K, Tan YS, et al (2024)

Entomopathogenic fungi in crops protection with an emphasis on bioactive metabolites and biological activities.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(7):217.

Plant pathogens with their abundance are harmful and cause huge damage to different agricultural crops and economy of a country as well as lead towards the shortage of food for humans. For their management, the utilization of entomopathogenic fungi is an eco-friendly technique, sustainable to the environment, safe for humans and has promising effect over chemical-based pesticides. This process requires a biochemical mechanism, including the production of enzymes, toxins, and other metabolites that facilitate host infection and invasion. Essential enzymes such as chitinase, proteinase, and lipase play a direct role in breaking down the host cuticle, the primary barrier to EPF (Entomopathogenic Fungi) infection. Additionally, secondary metabolites such as destruxins in Metarhizium, beauvericin in Beauveria, hirsutellides in Hirsutella, isarolides in Isaria, cordyols in Cordyceps, and vertihemipterins in Verticillium, among others, act both directly and indirectly to disable the defense mechanisms of insect hosts, thereby accelerating the EPF infection process. The chemical composition of these secondary metabolites varies, ranging from simple non-peptide pigments such as oosporine to highly complex piperazine derivatives such as vertihemiptellides. The biocontrol efficacy of EPF is extensively studied, with numerous fungal strains commercially available on a large scale for managing arthropod pests. This review emphasizes the role of proteins and enzymes against crop pathogens, detailing their mode of action, and describing the metabolites from entomopathogenic fungi and their biological activities. In doing so, these findings contribute to establishing a symbiotic equilibrium between agricultural productivity and environmental conservation.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Yang X, Gao Y, Li Z, et al (2024)

Discovery of seed germinating fungi (Mycetinis scorodonius) from Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow in Changbai Mountain and examination of their germination ability.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12215.

Multi-generational asexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata Bl. will cause seedling species degeneration. Sexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata Bl. seed is an effective method to solve the problem of degeneration. The development of Gastrodia elata Bl. seeds cannot be separated from the germination fungus. However, there are few strains of germination fungus in production, and there is also the problem of species degradation in application for many years. It is very important for the sexual reproduction of Gastrodia elata Bl. to isolate more new strains of excellent germination fungus from the origin. This study used the Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds germination vegetative propagation corms capture method to isolate its symbiotic germination fungus, and comprehensively identified the species of germination fungus by colony morphology, ITS, sporocarps regeneration and germination function, and compared the growth characteristics and germination ability with other germination fungus (Mycena purpureofusca, Mycena dendrobii and Mycena osmundicola). The germination fungus was isolated from the vegetative propagation corms of Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds and named GYGL-1. After comprehensive identification, GYGL-1 was Mycetinis scorodonius. Compared with other germination fungus, GYGL-1 has fast germination speed, vigorous growth, and high germination ability for Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds. Innovated the isolation method of Gastrodia elata Bl. seeds germination fungus, obtained the regenerated sporocarps of the germination fungus, and discovered that Mycetinis scorodonius has a new function of germinating Gastrodia elata Bl. f. glauca S. chow seeds, enriching the resource library of Gastrodia elata Bl. germination fungus.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Kwon KM, Kim EH, Sim KH, et al (2024)

Phenylacetic acid, an anti-vaginitis metabolite produced by the vaginal symbiotic bacterium Chryseobacterium gleum.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12226.

The human microbiome contains genetic information that regulates metabolic processes in response to host health and disease. While acidic vaginal pH is maintained in normal conditions, the pH level increases in infectious vaginitis. We propose that this change in the vaginal environment triggers the biosynthesis of anti-vaginitis metabolites. Gene expression levels of Chryseobacterium gleum, a vaginal symbiotic bacterium, were found to be affected by pH changes. The distinctive difference in the metabolic profiles between two C. gleum cultures incubated under acidic and neutral pH conditions was suggested to be an anti-vaginitis molecule, which was identified as phenylacetic acid (PAA) by spectroscopic data analysis. The antimicrobial activity of PAA was evaluated in vitro, showing greater toxicity toward Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans, two major vaginal pathogens, relative to commensal Lactobacillus spp. The activation of myeloperoxidase, prostaglandin E2, and nuclear factor-κB, and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 were reduced by an intravaginal administration of PAA in the vaginitis mouse model. In addition, PAA displayed the downregulation of mast cell activation. Therefore, PAA was suggested to be a messenger molecule that mediates interactions between the human microbiome and vaginal health.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Khan AL (2024)

Silicon: A valuable soil element for improving plant growth and CO2 sequestration.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(24)00217-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Silicon (Si), the second most abundant and quasi-essential soil element, is locked as a recalcitrant silicate mineral in the Earth's crust. The physical abundance of silicates can play an essential role in increasing plant productivity. Plants store Si as biogenic silica (phytoliths), which is mobilized through a chemical weathering process in the soil.

AIM OF REVIEW: Although Si is a critical element for plant growth, there is still a considerable need to understand its dissolution, uptake, and translocation in agroecosystems. Here, we show recent progress in understanding the interactome of Si, CO2, the microbiome, and soil chemistry, which can sustainably govern silicate dissolution and cycling in agriculture.

Si cycling is directly related to carbon cycling, and the resulting climate stability can be enhanced by negative feedback between atmospheric CO2 and the silicate uptake process. Improved Si mobilization in the rhizosphere by the presence of reactive elements (for example, Ca, Na, Al, Zn, and Fe) and Si uptake through genetic transporters in plants are crucial to achieving the dual objectives of (i) enhancing crop productivity and (ii) abiotic stress tolerance. Furthermore, the microbiome is a symbiotic partner of plants. Bacterial and fungal microbiomes can solubilize silicate minerals through intriguingly complex bioweathering mechanisms by producing beneficial metabolites and enzymes. However, the interaction of Si with CO2 and the microbiome's function in mobilization have been understudied. This review shows that enhancing our understanding of Si, CO2, the microbiome, and soil chemistry can help in sustainable crop production during climatic stress events.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Lindsey AR, Tennessen JM, Gelaw MA, et al (2024)

The intracellular symbiont Wolbachia alters Drosophila development and metabolism to buffer against nutritional stress.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.01.20.524972.

UNLABELLED: The intracellular bacterium Wolbachia is a common symbiont of many arthropods and nematodes, well studied for its impacts on host reproductive biology. However, its broad success as a vertically transmitted infection cannot be attributed to manipulations of host reproduction alone. Using the Drosophila melanogaster model and their natively associated Wolbachia strain " w Mel", we show that Wolbachia infection supports fly development and buffers against nutritional stress. Wolbachia infection across several fly genotypes and a range of nutrient conditions resulted in reduced pupal mortality, increased adult emergence, and larger size. We determined that the exogenous supplementation of pyrimidines partially rescued developmental phenotypes in the Wolbachia -free flies, and that Wolbachia titers were responsive to reduced gene expression of the fly's de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway. In parallel, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that Wolbachia impacts larval biology far beyond pyrimidine metabolism. Wolbachia -infected larvae had strong signatures of shifts in glutathione and mitochondrial metabolism, plus significant changes in the expression of key developmental regulators including Notch , the insulin receptor (lnR), and the juvenile hormone receptor Methoprene-tolerant (Met). We propose that Wolbachia acts as a beneficial symbiont to support fly development and enhance host fitness, especially during periods of nutrient stress.

SIGNIFICANCE: Wolbachia is a bacterial symbiont of arthropods and nematodes, well described for its manipulations of arthropod reproduction. However, many have theorized there must be more to this symbiosis, even in well-studied Wolbachia- host relationships such as with Drosophila . Reproductive impacts alone cannot explain the success and ubiquity of this bacterium. Here, we use Drosophila melanogaster and their native Wolbachia infections to show that Wolbachia supports fly development and significantly buffers flies against nutritional stress. These developmental advantages might help explain the ubiquity of Wolbachia infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Silva DF, Mazza Rodrigues JL, Erikson C, et al (2024)

Grazing exclusion-induced changes in soil fungal communities in a highly desertified Brazilian dryland.

Microbiological research, 285:127763 pii:S0944-5013(24)00164-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil desertification poses a critical ecological challenge in arid and semiarid climates worldwide, leading to decreased soil productivity due to the disruption of essential microbial community processes. Fungi, as one of the most important soil microbial communities, play a crucial role in enhancing nutrient and water uptake by plants through mycorrhizal associations. However, the impact of overgrazing-induced desertification on fungal community structure, particularly in the Caatinga biome of semiarid regions, remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the changes in both the total fungal community and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community (AMF) across 1. Natural vegetation (native), 2. Grazing exclusion (20 years) (restored), and 3. affected by overgrazing-induced degradation (degraded) scenarios. Our assessment, conducted during both the dry and rainy seasons in Irauçuba, Ceará, utilized Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene sequencing via Illumina® platform. Our findings highlighted the significant roles of the AMF families Glomeraceae (∼71% of the total sequences) and Acaulosporaceae (∼14% of the total sequences) as potential key taxa in mitigating climate change within dryland areas. Moreover, we identified the orders Pleosporales (∼35% of the total sequences) and Capnodiales (∼21% of the total sequences) as the most abundant soil fungal communities in the Caatinga biome. The structure of the total fungal community differed when comparing native and restored areas to degraded areas. Total fungal communities from native and restored areas clustered together, suggesting that grazing exclusion has the potential to improve soil properties and recover fungal community structure amid global climate change challenges.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Van Nuland ME, Qin C, Pellitier PT, et al (2024)

Climate mismatches with ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute to migration lag in North American tree range shifts.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(23):e2308811121.

Climate change will likely shift plant and microbial distributions, creating geographic mismatches between plant hosts and essential microbial symbionts (e.g., ectomycorrhizal fungi, EMF). The loss of historical interactions, or the gain of novel associations, can have important consequences for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and plant migration potential, yet few analyses exist that measure where mycorrhizal symbioses could be lost or gained across landscapes. Here, we examine climate change impacts on tree-EMF codistributions at the continent scale. We built species distribution models for 400 EMF species and 50 tree species, integrating fungal sequencing data from North American forest ecosystems with tree species occurrence records and long-term forest inventory data. Our results show the following: 1) tree and EMF climate suitability to shift toward higher latitudes; 2) climate shifts increase the size of shared tree-EMF habitat overall, but 35% of tree-EMF pairs are at risk of declining habitat overlap; 3) climate mismatches between trees and EMF are projected to be greater at northern vs. southern boundaries; and 4) tree migration lag is correlated with lower richness of climatically suitable EMF partners. This work represents a concentrated effort to quantify the spatial extent and location of tree-EMF climate envelope mismatches. Our findings also support a biotic mechanism partially explaining the failure of northward tree species migrations with climate change: reduced diversity of co-occurring and climate-compatible EMF symbionts at higher latitudes. We highlight the conservation implications for identifying areas where tree and EMF responses to climate change may be highly divergent.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Viteri-Echeverría J, Andrés A, Calvo-Lerma J, et al (2024)

In vitro screening of the impact of dietary prebiotic components, probiotic strains, and their symbiotic combinations on colonic microbiota in children with cystic fibrosis.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF) are more likely to have intestinal dysbiosis due to recurrent antibiotic therapy and the conventional hypercaloric diet administered to them. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of isolated prebiotic components and probiotic strains, and their combinations as potential synbiotics, on the intestinal microbiota of CF children. A static in vitro colonic fermentation model was used by colonizing vials with faecal inoculum, a culture medium, and the substrates to be tested. Post treatment, aliquots were taken to determine ammonium, lactate, and short-chain fatty acids production and to profile the microbiota composition by 16s rRNA sequencing. At genus level, Escherichia-Shigella decreased (15.8%) with the treatment pectin + L. rhamnosus, followed by the beta-glucan + L. salivarius (15.5%). Inversely, the most increase in Bacteroides (44%) was obtained by the treatment with Pectin + L. reuteri. Lactate and acetic acid production was significantly increased with prebiotics and their combinations with L. rhamnosus and L. salivarius. In conclusion, the use of beta-glucan and pectin in combination with probiotic strains from the Lactobacillaceae family suggest potential to modulate dysbiosis and metabolic activity on CF colonic microbiota, encouraging further studies in animal studies or clinical settings to confirm the findings in vivo.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Strawsine M, van Galen LG, Lord JM, et al (2024)

Trophic facilitation in forest restoration: Can Nothofagus trees use ectomycorrhizal fungi of the pioneer shrub Leptospermum?.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11442.

The benefits of plant-to-plant facilitation in ecological restoration are well recognized, yet the potential for indirect trophic facilitation remains understudied. Nothofagus (southern beech; Nothofagaceae) is an iconic southern hemisphere tree genus that is frequently the focus of ecological restoration efforts. One aspect of Nothofagus ecology that may limit restoration success is the availability of appropriate ectomycorrhizal fungi. It has been suggested that pioneer dual-mycorrhizal hosts such as Leptospermum species (Myrtaceae) could facilitate Nothofagus establishment by providing fungal inoculum, but the capacity for Nothofagus to use Leptospermum ectomycorrhizal fungi is unknown. To investigate potential indirect facilitation, we conducted a common garden pot trial to determine if Nothofagus cliffortioides (mountain beech) can use symbionts from Leptospermum scoparium (mānuka) ectomycorrhizal communities. Nothofagus and Leptospermum seedlings were grown in monoculture and mixed pairs with reciprocal "home" and "away" soil fungal inoculum. ITS2 metabarcoding of eDNA from hyphal ingrowth bags revealed that Nothofagus and Leptospermum inoculum contained different ectomycorrhizal fungal communities, but that half of the common ectomycorrhizal taxa identified were found in both soil types, suggesting generalist fungi exist. Nothofagus was able to form associations with some fungal species originating from Leptospermum inoculum, however, probable spore contamination meant that the proportion of root colonization associated with those species was ambiguous. Root ectomycorrhizal colonization rates were positively associated with seedling biomass, and there was some evidence of a home soil inoculum advantage in Nothofagus, but these effects were minor. Additionally, we found evidence that home inoculum provides a protective advantage against drought stress for Leptospermum seedlings. Our results indicate the potential for using Leptospermum to promote Nothofagus establishment in restoration plantings and highlight the possible benefits of considering fungal mutualists in ecological restoration projects.

RevDate: 2024-05-28

Wang P, Zhong Y, Li Y, et al (2024)

The phosphate starvation response regulator PHR2 antagonizes arbuscule maintenance in Medicago.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Phosphate starvation response (PHR) transcription factors play essential roles in regulating phosphate uptake in plants through binding to the P1BS cis-element in the promoter of phosphate starvation response genes. Recently, PHRs were also shown to positively regulate arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in rice and lotus by controlling the expression of many symbiotic genes. However, their role in arbuscule development has remained unclear. In Medicago, we previously showed that arbuscule degradation is controlled by two SPX proteins that are highly expressed in arbuscule-containing cells. Since SPX proteins bind to PHRs and repress their activity in a phosphate-dependent manner, we investigated whether arbuscule maintenance is also regulated by PHR. Here, we show that PHR2 is a major regulator of the phosphate starvation response in Medicago. Knockout of phr2 showed reduced phosphate starvation response, symbiotic gene expression, and fungal colonization levels. However, the arbuscules that formed showed less degradation, suggesting a negative role for PHR2 in arbuscule maintenance. This was supported by the observation that overexpression of PHR2 led to enhanced degradation of arbuscules. Although many arbuscule-induced genes contain P1BS elements in their promoters, we found that the P1BS cis-elements in the promoter of the symbiotic phosphate transporter PT4 are not required for arbuscule-containing cell expression. Since both PHR2 and SPX1/3 negatively affect arbuscule maintenance, our results indicate that they control arbuscule maintenance partly via different mechanisms. While PHR2 potentiates symbiotic gene expression and colonization, its activity in arbuscule-containing cells needs to be tightly controlled to maintain a successful symbiosis in Medicago.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )