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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Sep 2023 at 01:43 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 41624 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-20

Martins JP, Siqueira BA, Sansone NMS, et al (2023)

COVID-19 in Brazil: a 3-year update.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 107(4):116074 pii:S0732-8893(23)00183-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Three years into the coronavirus disease (COVID)-19 pandemic and the world is still struggling with the aftermath of this global health crisis. In Brazil, we are witnessing serious economic, health, social, and political problems. The rapid spread of the virus in our country was the result of a shortage of vaccines and the lack of an effective national campaign to identify and report cases. This health crisis also intensified social inequalities, hitting Indigenous peoples hard due to the lack of access to health services. In addition, rising unemployment and overcrowding of the health system made contagion possible, especially among the most vulnerable, increasing the number of serious cases of the disease. It is important to highlight that emotional problems worsened, the educational system was severely affected, and domestic violence increased during the confinement period, in addition to the fact that the pandemic exposed the great disparities of regional inequalities that exist across the country, mainly concerning health management.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Wang J, Liu R, Ma H, et al (2023)

The Pathogenesis of COVID-19-Related Taste Disorder and Treatments.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19, mainly manifested as acute respiratory distress syndrome, has afflicted millions of people worldwide since 2019. Taste dysfunction is a common early-stage symptom of COVID-19 infection that burdens patients for weeks or even permanently in some cases. Owing to its subjectivity and complexity, the mechanism of taste disorder is poorly studied. Previous studies have reported that the COVID-19 entry receptors are highly expressed in taste buds, thereby intensifying the cytocidal effect. Taste receptor cells are vulnerable to inflammation, and the COVID-19-induced cytokine storm causes secondary damage to taste function. Interferon and various proinflammatory cytokines can trigger cell apoptosis and disrupt the renewal of taste bud stem cells. This immune response can be further enhanced by the accumulation of Angiotensin II (Ang II) caused by an unbalanced local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) system. In addition, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is neurotropic and can invade the brain through the olfactory bulb, affecting the nervous system. Other factors, such as host zinc deficiency, genetic susceptibility, sialic acid, and some neurotransmitters, also contribute to the pathogenesis process. Although several medical interventions have displayed effectiveness, only a few strategies exist for the treatment of postinfectious dysgeusia. Stem cell-based taste regeneration offers promise for long-term taste disorders. Clinical studies have demonstrated that stem cells can treat long COVID-19 through immune regulation. In dysgeusia, the differentiation of taste bud stem cells can be stimulated through exogenous epithelial-derived and neural-derived factors to regenerate taste buds. Tongue organoids are also emerging as functional taste buds, offering new insights into the study of taste regeneration. This review presents the current evidence of the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related dysgeusia, summarizes currently available treatments, and suggests future directions of taste regeneration therapy.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Maheshwari S, Gu CN, Caserta MP, et al (2023)

Imaging of Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease.

AJR. American journal of roentgenology [Epub ahead of print].

Alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD) continues to be a global health concern, responsible for a significant number of deaths worldwide. While most individuals who consume alcohol do not develop ALD, heavy drinkers and binge drinkers are at increased risk. Unfortunately, ALD is often undetected until it reaches advanced stages, frequently associated with portal hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). ALD is now the leading indication for liver transplantation. The incidence of alcohol-associated hepatitis (AH) surged during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early diagnosis of ALD is therefore important in patient management and determination of prognosis, as abstinence can halt disease progression. The spectrum of ALD includes steatosis, steatohepatitis, and cirrhosis, with steatosis being the most common manifestation. Diagnostic techniques including ultrasound, CT, and MRI provide useful information for identifying ALD and excluding other causes of liver dysfunction. Heterogeneous steatosis and transient perfusion changes on CT and MRI in the clinical setting of alcohol-use disorder is diagnostic of severe AH. Elastography techniques are useful for assessing fibrosis and for monitoring treatment response. These various imaging modalities are also useful in the HCC surveillance and diagnosis. This article reviews the imaging modalities currently used in the evaluation of ALD, highlighting their strengths, limitations, and clinical applications.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Chen Y, Li K, Lv W, et al (2023)

What Is the Impact of the Novel Coronavirus and the Vaccination on Guillain-Barre Syndrome?.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has resulted in devastating medical and economic consequences worldwide over the past 3 years. As the pandemic enters a new stage, it is essential to consider the potential impact on rare diseases such as Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), which has been intimately associated with COVID-19 since the first COVID-19-related GBS case was reported in January 2020. There are notable differences between COVID-19-related GBS and GBS without COVID-19 in terms of diagnostic types and clinical manifestations. Furthermore, with the widespread administration of COVID-19 vaccines, there have been reports of GBS occurring shortly after vaccination, which requires close attention despite its rarity. This review also explores the vaccines associated with heightened GBS risks, offering insights that may guide vaccination policies and clinical practice. To provide a visual summary of these findings, we have included a graphical abstract. This article will discuss the characteristic manifestations of GBS patients after being positive for the novel coronavirus and the safety of several COVID-19 vaccines. Firstly, this article comprehensively expounds and discusses the epidemiological aspects of novel coronavirus-related GBS. For example, from the perspective of the same population, the expected incidence of GBS in the COVID-19-positive population (persons/100,000 persons/ year) is about 43 times that of the COVID-19-negative population, and the incidence of GBS is significantly increased. Secondly, the clinical characteristics of COVID-19-negative GBS patients and SARS-CoV-2-GBS (SC2-GBS) patients were summarized and compared. Thirdly, this article reviews GBS cases in the current adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination and analyzes and discusses from multiple perspectives, such as the incidence of GBS events, the age proportion of patients, and the interval of onset.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Fabin-Czepiel K, Pieczyńska-Chapuła K, G Deja (2023)

"The obesity pandemic" in the COVID-19 pandemic - new treatment for an old problem.

Pediatric endocrinology, diabetes, and metabolism, 29(2):104-111.

Obesity is a worldwide problem, and the fact that it increasingly affects children and adolescents is worrying. The COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions introduced affected the physical activity of children and adolescents, and changed their lifestyle and the amount of time spent in front of screens, which are significant factors correlated with weight gain. Due to the scale of the problem of obesity and overweight, much attention is currently paid to seeking effective forms of therapy in these different, difficult circumstances. Interventions promoting a healthy lifestyle among obese children after the COVID-19 pandemic are particularly important and necessary. This article provides a review of the literature on the recent worsening of obesity in the paediatric population, with particular emphasis on the importance of the COVID-19 pandemic. New methods of fighting obesity with the use of telemedicine and current methods of pharmacotherapy, including new drugs, are presented.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Sparmann A, J Vogel (2023)

RNA-based medicine: from molecular mechanisms to therapy.

The EMBO journal [Epub ahead of print].

RNA-based therapeutics have the potential to revolutionize the treatment and prevention of human diseases. While early research faced setbacks, it established the basis for breakthroughs in RNA-based drug design that culminated in the extraordinarily fast development of mRNA vaccines to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. We have now reached a pivotal moment where RNA medicines are poised to make a broad impact in the clinic. In this review, we present an overview of different RNA-based strategies to generate novel therapeutics, including antisense and RNAi-based mechanisms, mRNA-based approaches, and CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing. Using three rare genetic diseases as examples, we highlight the opportunities, but also the challenges to wide-ranging applications of this class of drugs.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Dookeeram D, Hariharan S, Hambleton I, et al (2023)

Experiences with SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) in Trinidad and Tobago, a small island developing state: realities and opportunities.

Lancet regional health. Americas, 26:100589.

The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted significant global challenges that are expressed in a variety of socio-politico-economic scenarios, depending upon individual countries' preparedness and resilience. The impact COVID-19 in Small Island Developing States (SIDS), most of which are categorized as Lower and Middle-Income Countries, has been pronounced. Furthermore, many of these SIDS possess specific vulnerabilities to global threats. This paper contextualizes the experience of Trinidad and Tobago from some perspectives of geoeconomics, healthcare, and international relations. In many ways, the experience is similar to that of other SIDS with the inherent nuances of a post-colonial world. Trinidad and Tobago was ranked number one by the Oxford University COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT) "Lockdown rollback checklist: Do countries meet WHO recommendations for rolling back lockdown?". Despite the significant political support to combat the disease, by the end of 2022, the country had recorded over four thousand deaths and just over 50% of the population is vaccinated. This paper seeks to discuss the successes and challenges faced by this twin island state.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Poli A, Cappellini F, Sala J, et al (2023)

The integrative process promoted by EMDR in dissociative disorders: neurobiological mechanisms, psychometric tools, and intervention efficacy on the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Frontiers in psychology, 14:1164527.

Dissociative disorders (DDs) are characterized by a discontinuity in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, bodily representation, motor control, and action. The life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been identified as a potentially traumatic event and may produce a wide range of mental health problems, such as depression, anxiety disorders, sleep disorders, and DD, stemming from pandemic-related events, such as sickness, isolation, losing loved ones, and fear for one's life. In our conceptual analysis, we introduce the contribution of the structural dissociation of personality (SDP) theory and polyvagal theory to the conceptualization of the COVID-19 pandemic-triggered DD and the importance of assessing perceived safety in DD through neurophysiologically informed psychometric tools. In addition, we analyzed the contribution of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) to the treatment of the COVID-19 pandemic-triggered DD and suggest possible neurobiological mechanisms of action of the EMDR. In particular, we propose that, through slow eye movements, the EMDR may promote an initial non-rapid-eye-movement sleep stage 1-like activity, a subsequent access to a slow-wave sleep activity, and an oxytocinergic neurotransmission that, in turn, may foster the functional coupling between paraventricular nucleus and both sympathetic and parasympathetic cardioinhibitory nuclei. Neurophysiologically informed psychometric tools for safety evaluation in DDs are discussed. Furthermore, clinical and public health implications are considered, combining the EMDR, SDP theory, and polyvagal conceptualizations in light of the potential dissociative symptomatology triggered by the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Chou YH, Lin C, Lee SH, et al (2023)

Potential Mobile Health Applications for Improving the Mental Health of the Elderly: A Systematic Review.

Clinical interventions in aging, 18:1523-1534.

The rapid aging of the global population presents challenges in providing mental health care resources for older adults aged 65 and above. The COVID-19 pandemic has further exacerbated the global population's psychological distress due to social isolation and distancing. Thus, there is an urgent need to update scholarly knowledge on the effectiveness of mHealth applications to improve older people's mental health. This systematic review summarizes recent literature on chatbots aimed at enhancing mental health and well-being. Sixteen papers describing six apps or prototypes were reviewed, indicating the practicality, feasibility, and acceptance of chatbots for promoting mental health in older adults. Engaging with chatbots led to improvements in well-being and stress reduction, as well as a decrement in depressive symptoms. Mobile health applications addressing these studies are categorized for reference.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Askarian M, Movahedi M, Vardanjani HM, et al (2023)

Roadmap to recovery: Implemented and attitude toward school reopening strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic, a scoping review.

Journal of education and health promotion, 12:235.

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had various financial and life impacts on the world's population. Schools' regular activity and function during the pandemic require balancing the repercussions of suspending in-person education versus health threats. Furthermore, children are one of the prominent victims of the restricted quarantine strategies' effects, which may make them vulnerable to various mental health problems. In this study, we reviewed previously reported strategies and roadmaps regarding the reopening of schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. The following databases were searched from October to December 2021, via multi-step search strategies for "COVID-19," "coronavirus," "school reopening," "roadmaps," "reopening," and "reopening strategies": Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. A total of five papers with roadmaps focusing on reopening schools were included in this study. Fundamental issues and principles of these reviewed roadmaps were: 1) protecting the high-risk students and staff physically and mentally, 2) accelerating the vaccination of essential workers, staff, parents, and students, and 3) improving the COVID-19 testing capacity. Roadmaps for the reopening of the schools should describe some phases and steps for their strategies. Current roadmaps have not mentioned any phases and timelines for this process. Describing some health metrics in the roadmaps for progressing to the next step or returning to the previous ones is also necessary for all roadmaps and should be considered in further studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-23
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Gelband H, Carshon-Marsh R, Ansumana R, et al (2023)

Could vaccinating adults against malaria materially reduce adult mortality in high-transmission areas?.

Malaria journal, 22(1):278.

After a period of unprecedented progress against malaria in the 2000s, halving the global disease burden by 2015, gains overall in sub-Saharan Africa have slowed and even reversed in some places, beginning well before the COVID-19 pandemic. The highly effective drugs, treated nets, and diagnostics that fueled the initial progress all face some threats to their effectiveness, and global funding to maintain and increase their use over the long term is not guaranteed. Malaria vaccines are among the most promising new interventions that could accelerate the elimination of malaria. Vaccines are still in early stages of rollout in children, the age group (along with pregnant women) that has been the focus of malaria strategies for a century. At the same time, over the past decade, a case has been made, based largely on evidence from verbal autopsies in at least a few high-transmission areas, that the malaria death rate among adults has been greatly underestimated. Could vaccinating adults help to bring down the adult malaria mortality rate, contribute to reduced transmission, or both? A randomized trial of a malaria vaccine is proposed in Sierra Leone, a highly endemic setting, to shed light on this proposition.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Shmueli M, Lendner I, S Ben-Shimol (2023)

Effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pediatric infectious disease landscape.

European journal of pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

This narrative review aims to present an overview of the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on the landscape of pediatric infectious diseases. While COVID-19 generally results in mild symptoms and a favorable prognosis in children, the pandemic brought forth significant consequences. These included persistent symptoms among infected children ("long COVID"), a profound transformation in healthcare utilization (notably through the widespread adoption of telemedicine), and the implementation of optimization strategies within healthcare settings. Furthermore, the pandemic resulted in alterations in the circulation patterns of respiratory pathogens, including influenza, RSV, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The possible reasons for those changes are discussed in this review. COVID-19 effect was not limited to respiratory infectious diseases, as other diseases, including urinary tract and gastrointestinal infections, have displayed decreased transmission rates, likely attributable to heightened hygiene measures and shifts in care-seeking behaviors. Finally, the disruption of routine childhood vaccination programs has resulted in reduced immunization coverage and an upsurge in vaccine hesitancy. In addition, the pandemic was associated with issues of antibiotic misuse and over-prescription. Conclusion: In conclusion, the COVID-19 pandemic has left a profound and multifaceted impact on the landscape of pediatric infectious diseases, ranging from the emergence of "long COVID" in children to significant changes in healthcare delivery, altered circulation patterns of various pathogens, and concerning disruptions in vaccination programs and antibiotic usage. What is Known: • COVID-19 usually presents with mild symptoms in children, although severe and late manifestations are possible. • The pandemic resulted in a dramatically increased use of health care services, as well as alterations in the circulation patterns of respiratory pathogens, decreased rates of other, non-respiratory, infections, disruption of routine childhood vaccination programs, and antibiotic misuse. What is New: • Possible strategies to tackle future outbreaks are presented, including changes in health care services utilization, implementation of updated vaccine programs and antibiotic stewardship protocols. • The decline in RSV and influenza circulation during COVID-19 was probably not primarily related to NPI measures, and rather related to other, non-NPI measures implementation, including specific pathogen-host interactions on the level of the biological niche (the nasopharynx).

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Kassen M (2023)

Curbing the COVID-19 digital infodemic: strategies and tools.

Journal of public health policy [Epub ahead of print].

A problematic manifestation of the COVID-19 pandemic is a related digital 'infodemic' with widespread dissemination of rumors, conspiracy theories, and other misinformation about the impact of the crisis on aspects of political and socio-economic life. Those spreading the misleading information did so through social media. In response, public, private and non-government stakeholders around the world have proposed a wide range of e-government policy approaches to combat this new digital phenomenon. For this Viewpoint I identified, analyzed, and classified the most interesting strategies, platforms, and tools proposed or already used by public decision-makers to combat the spread of false information related to the pandemic in a digital society.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Zhang G, Tang T, Chen Y, et al (2023)

mRNA vaccines in disease prevention and treatment.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 8(1):365.

mRNA vaccines have emerged as highly effective strategies in the prophylaxis and treatment of diseases, thanks largely although not totally to their extraordinary performance in recent years against the worldwide plague COVID-19. The huge superiority of mRNA vaccines regarding their efficacy, safety, and large-scale manufacture encourages pharmaceutical industries and biotechnology companies to expand their application to a diverse array of diseases, despite the nonnegligible problems in design, fabrication, and mode of administration. This review delves into the technical underpinnings of mRNA vaccines, covering mRNA design, synthesis, delivery, and adjuvant technologies. Moreover, this review presents a systematic retrospective analysis in a logical and well-organized manner, shedding light on representative mRNA vaccines employed in various diseases. The scope extends across infectious diseases, cancers, immunological diseases, tissue damages, and rare diseases, showcasing the versatility and potential of mRNA vaccines in diverse therapeutic areas. Furthermore, this review engages in a prospective discussion regarding the current challenge and potential direction for the advancement and utilization of mRNA vaccines. Overall, this comprehensive review serves as a valuable resource for researchers, clinicians, and industry professionals, providing a comprehensive understanding of the technical aspects, historical context, and future prospects of mRNA vaccines in the fight against various diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Yuan C, Ma Z, Xie J, et al (2023)

The role of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 8(1):357.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), showing high infectiousness, resulted in an ongoing pandemic termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). COVID-19 cases often experience acute respiratory distress syndrome, which has caused millions of deaths. Apart from triggering inflammatory and immune responses, many viral infections can cause programmed cell death in infected cells. Cell death mechanisms have a vital role in maintaining a suitable environment to achieve normal cell functionality. Nonetheless, these processes are dysregulated, potentially contributing to disease pathogenesis. Over the past decades, multiple cell death pathways are becoming better understood. Growing evidence suggests that the induction of cell death by the coronavirus may significantly contributes to viral infection and pathogenicity. However, the interaction of SARS-CoV-2 with cell death, together with its associated mechanisms, is yet to be elucidated. In this review, we summarize the existing evidence concerning the molecular modulation of cell death in SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as viral-host interactions, which may shed new light on antiviral therapy against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Ligi D, Della Franca C, Notarte KI, et al (2023)

Platelet distribution width (PDW) as a significant correlate of COVID-19 infection severity and mortality.

Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

SARS-CoV-2 infection may cause a wide spectrum of symptoms, from asymptomatic, to mild respiratory symptoms and life-threatening sepsis. Among the clinical laboratory biomarkers analyzed during COVID-19 pandemic, platelet indices have raised great interest, due to the critical involvement of platelets in COVID-19-related thromboinflammation. Through an electronic literature search on MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and preprint servers we performed and updated a systematic review aimed at providing a detailed analysis of studies addressing the potential clinical utility of platelet distribution width, platelet distribution width (PDW), in laboratory medicine, exploring the possible association between increased PDW levels, disease severity, and mortality in COVID-19. Our systematic review revealed a wide heterogeneity of COVID-19 cohorts examined and a lack of homogenous expression of platelet indices. We found that 75 % of studies reported significantly elevated PDW values in COVID-19 infected cohorts compared to healthy/non-COVID-19 controls, and 40 % of studies reported that patients with severe COVID-19 showed increased PDW values than those with less-than-severe illness. Interestingly, 71.4 % of studies demonstrated significant increased PDW values in non survivors vs. survivors. Overall, these results suggest that platelets are critically involved as major players in the process of immunothrombosis in COVID-19, and platelet reactivity and morphofunctional alterations are mirrored by PDW, as indicator of platelet heterogeneity. Our results confirm that the use of PDW as prognostic biomarkers of COVID-19 sepsis still remains debated due to the limited number of studies to draw a conclusion, but new opportunities to investigate the crucial role of platelets in thrombo-inflammation are warranted.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Gremese E, Tolusso B, Bruno D, et al (2023)

COVID-19 illness: Different comorbidities may require different immunological therapeutic targets.

European journal of clinical investigation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to more than 6,870.000 deaths worldwide. Despite recent therapeutic advances, deaths in Intensive Care Units still range between 34 and 72%, comprising substantial unmet need as we move to an endemic phase. The general agreement is that in the first few days of infection, antiviral drugs and neutralizing monoclonal antibodies should be adopted. When the patient is hospitalized and develops severe pneumonia, progressing to a systemic disease, immune modifying therapy with corticosteroids is indicated. Such interventions, however, are less effective in the context of comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, obesity and central nervous system-CNS diseases) which are by themselves associated with poor outcomes. Such comorbidities comprise common and some distinct underlying inflammatory pathobiology regulated by differential cytokine taxonomy.

METHODS: Searching in the PubMed database, literature pertaining to the biology underlying the different comorbidities, and the data from the studies related to various immunological treatments for the Covid-19 disease were carefully analyzed.

RESULTS: Several experimental and clinical data have demonstrated that hypertension and atrial fibrillation present an IL-6 dependent signature, whereas diabetes, obesity, heart failure and CNS diseases may exhibit an IL-1a/b predominant signature. Distinct selective cytokine targeting may offer advantage in treating severe COVID-19 illness based on single or multiple associated comorbidities. When the patient does not immediately respond, a broader target range through JAKs pathway inhibitors may be indicated.

CONCLUSIONS: Herein, we discuss the biological background associated with distinct comorbidities which might impact the SARS-CoV-2 infection course and how these should to be addressed to improve the current therapeutic outcome.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Altin B, G Erden (2023)

A Review of Studies on the Covid-19 Pandemic and the Psychological Effects of Related Measures on Children, Youth and Parents.

Turk psikiyatri dergisi = Turkish journal of psychiatry, 34(3):202-214.

Pandemics are social events that affect individuals' lives in many ways and have a significant impact on the mental health of masses. Pandemics and measures taken to combat these epidemics affect children and young people as well as adults. The purpose of the current review is to compile studies that have been conducted on the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and related measures on children, youth, and parents, and use the findings to shed light on future studies. In this review, 35 studies that were determined as a result of a comprehensive search in relevant literature were examined. It was observed that the aforementioned studies noted that the COVID-19 global pandemic and the measures taken to combat the epidemic (e.g., quarantine, lockdown, and school closures) had negative psychological effects on children, young people, and parents. Problems observed in children and young people, such as the fear of catching or transmitting the virus, getting bored, not being able to communicate enough with friends and teachers, and problems observed in parents, such as the troubles of negative repercussions of working at home or unemployment and difficulties in communicating with children with the closure of schools, are only a few to name these negative effects. The reviewed studies were discussed taking their limitations into account. Recommendations were made for future studies and intervention programs to be planned for community mental health. Keywords: COVID-19, children and youth, parents, pandemic, quarantine.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Zhang N, Wang S, CCL Wong (2022)

Proteomics research of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 disease.

Medical review (Berlin, Germany), 2(4):427-445.

Currently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still spreading in a global scale, exerting a massive health and socioeconomic crisis. Deep insights into the molecular functions of the viral proteins and the pathogenesis of this infectious disease are urgently needed. In this review, we comprehensively describe the proteome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and summarize their protein interaction map with host cells. In the protein interaction network between the virus and the host, a total of 787 host prey proteins that appeared in at least two studies or were verified by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Together with 29 viral proteins, a network of 1762 proximal interactions were observed. We also review the proteomics results of COVID-19 patients and proved that SARS-CoV-2 hijacked the host's translation system, post-translation modification system, and energy supply system via viral proteins, resulting in various immune disorders, multiple cardiomyopathies, and cholesterol metabolism diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Ren K, Yong C, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Literature Review and Clinical Recommendations.

Infection and drug resistance, 16:6195-6208.

AIM: The objective was to elucidate the correlation between CMVP and immunosuppressive therapy in IBD patients, we hope this review could expand on the significance of CMV as an opportunistic pathogen and the potential impact on morbidity and mortality in IBD patients.

METHODS: Records and clinical trajectories linked to CMVP in IBD patients were extracted from the PubMed database, irrespective of language barriers. The reference lists incorporated in these studies were manually inspected. Conclusions were generated using straightforward descriptive analysis.

RESULTS: In total, 18 IBD patients, including Crohn's disease (CD, 67%) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC, 33%), affected by CMVP were identified from 17 published articles. A minority of these patients (17%) exhibited active disease, whereas the majority (83%) presented with quiescent disease. Fever (100%) and dyspnea (44%) emerged as the most prevalent clinical symptoms. All the patients had undergone immunosuppressive therapy. A significant proportion, up to 89%, had received thiopurine treatment prior to the CMVP diagnosis. Interestingly, none of the patients were subjected to biological therapy. Half of the patients manifested with Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Almost all patients (94%) were administered antiviral treatment and a substantial 83% experienced full recovery. Immunosuppressive agents were either tapered or discontinued altogether. A subset of patients, 17%, suffered fatal outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore the need for heightened suspicion of CMVP in IBD patients who exhibit symptoms such as fever and dyspnea. During the COVID-19 pandemic, CMVP should be considered a potential differential diagnosis. It was observed that CMVP primarily transpires during CD remission. Azathioprine emerged as the predominant immunosuppressant linked to CMV reactivation. The prompt application of effective antiviral therapy can substantially enhance patient outcomes. CMV vaccine might serve as a viable prevention strategy.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Huang Y, Liu C, Feng Q, et al (2023)

Microfluidic synthesis of nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

Nanoscale horizons [Epub ahead of print].

The field of nanomaterials has progressed dramatically over the past decades with important contributions to the biomedical area. The physicochemical properties of nanomaterials, such as the size and structure, can be controlled through manipulation of mass and heat transfer conditions during synthesis. In particular, microfluidic systems with rapid mixing and precise fluid control are ideal platforms for creating appropriate synthesis conditions. One notable example of microfluidics-based synthesis is the development of lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-based mRNA vaccines with accelerated clinical translation and robust efficacy during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition to LNPs, microfluidic systems have been adopted for the controlled synthesis of a broad range of nanomaterials. In this review, we introduce the fundamental principles of microfluidic technologies including flow field- and multiple field-based methods for fabricating nanoparticles, and discuss their applications in the biomedical field. We conclude this review by outlining several major challenges and future directions in the implementation of microfluidic synthesis of nanomaterials.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Pradhan NA, Samnani AABA, Abbas K, et al (2023)

Resilience of primary healthcare system across low- and middle-income countries during COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review.

Health research policy and systems, 21(1):98.

INTRODUCTION: Globally, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic tested the resilience of the health system and its shock-absorbing capacity to continue offering healthcare services. The available evidences does not provide comprehensive insight into primary health care (PHC) system functioning across low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) during the pandemic. Therefore, the objective of this scoping review was to generate evidence on the resilience of PHC systems in LMICs during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A scoping review was carried out utilizing an iterative search strategy using the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the WHO COVID-19 electronic databases. Data from the identified studies in LMICs were charted in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist in the first step. The analysis framework was adapted and modified using COVID-19 and health systems resilience framework developed by Sagan et al., Blanchet et al., and the WHO position paper on 'Building health systems resilience for universal health coverage and health security during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond'. A total of 26 documents were included on the basis of predefined eligibility criteria for our analysis.

RESULTS: Our review explored data from 44 LMICs that implemented strategies at the PHC level during the COVID-19 pandemic. Most of the LMICs developed national guidelines on sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health (SRMNCAH). Most of the countries also transformed and reoriented PHC service delivery by introducing digital healthcare services to continue essential services. Task shifting, task sharing, and redeployment of retired staff were some frequently adopted health workforce strategies adopted by most of the countries. Only a few of the countries demonstrated the availability of necessary monetary resources to respond to the pandemic.

CONCLUSIONS: The functionality of the PHC system during the COVID-19 pandemic was demonstrated by a variety of resilience strategies across the six building blocks of the health system. To strengthen PHC resilience, we recommend strengthening community-based PHC, cross-sectoral collaboration, establishing surveillance systems, capacity building in financial risk planning, and investing in strengthening the digital healthcare system.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Rosa CP, Belo TCA, Santos NCM, et al (2023)

Reactive oxygen species trigger inflammasome activation after intracellular microbial interaction.

Life sciences, 331:122076.

The intracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), composed of oxygen-reduced molecules, is important not only because of their lethal effects on microorganisms but also due to their potential inflammatory and metabolic regulation properties. The ROS pro-inflammatory properties are associated with the second signal to inflammasome activation, leading to cleaving pro-IL-1β and pro-IL18 before their secretion, as well as gasdermin-D, leading to pyroptosis. Some microorganisms can modulate NLRP3 and AIM-2 inflammasomes through ROS production: whilst Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium kansasii, Francisella novicida, Brucella abortus, Listeria monocytogenes, Influenza virus, Syncytial respiratory virus, Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, SARS-CoV, Mayaro virus, Leishmania amazonensis and Plasmodium sp. enhance inflammasome assembly, Hepatitis B virus, Mycobacterium marinum, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Francisella tularensis and Leishmania sp. disrupt it. This process represents a recent cornerstone in our knowledge of the immunology of intracellular pathogens, which is reviewed in this mini-review.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Fields NJ, Palmer KR, Nisi A, et al (2023)

Preeclampsia to COVID-19: A journey towards improved placental and vascular function using sulforaphane.

Placenta, 141:84-93.

Excess inflammation and oxidative stress are common themes in many pathologies of pregnancy including preeclampsia and more recently severe COVID-19. The risk of preeclampsia increases following maternal infection with COVID-19, potentially relating to significant overlap in pathophysiology with endothelial, vascular and immunological dysfunction common to both. Identifying a therapy which addresses these injurious processes and stabilises the endothelial and vascular maternal system would help address the significant global burden of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality they cause. Sulforaphane is a naturally occurring phytonutrient found most densely within cruciferous vegetables. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immune modulating properties via upregulation of phase-II detoxification enzymes. This review will cover the common pathways shared by COVID-19 and preeclampsia and offer a potential therapeutic target via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor upregulation in the form of sulforaphane.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Yadav Y, Singh K, Sharma S, et al (2023)

Recent Efforts in Identification of Privileged Scaffolds as Antiviral Agents.

Chemistry & biodiversity [Epub ahead of print].

Viral infections are the most important health concern nowadays to mankind, which is unexpectedly increasing the health complications and fatality rate worldwide. The recent viral infection outbreak developed a pressing need for small molecules that can be quickly deployed for the control/treatment of re-emerging or new emerging viral infections. Numerous viruses, including the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis, influenza, SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2, and others, are still challenging due to emerging resistance to known drugs. Therefore, there is always a need to search for new antiviral small molecules that can combat viral infection with new modes of action. This review highlighted recent progress in developing new antiviral molecules based on natural product-inspired scaffolds. Herein, the structure-activity relationship of the FDA-approved drugs along with the molecular docking studies of selected compounds have been discussed against several target proteins. The findings of new small molecules as neuraminidase inhibitors, other than known drug scaffolds, Anti-HIV and SARS-CoV are incorporated in this review paper.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zelada H, Perez-Guzman MC, Chernavvsky DR, et al (2023)

Continuous glucose monitoring for inpatient diabetes management: an update on current evidence and practice.

Endocrine connections, 12(10): pii:EC-23-0180.

Over the last few years, several exciting changes in continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology have expanded its use and made CGM the standard of care for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes using insulin therapy. Consequently, hospitals started to notice increased use of these devices in their hospitalized patients. Furthermore during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID) pandemic, there was a critical need for innovative approaches to glycemic monitoring, and several hospitals started to implement CGM protocols in their daily practice. Subsequently, a plethora of studies have demonstrated the efficacy and safety of CGM use in the hospital, leading to clinical practice guideline recommendations. Several studies have also suggested that CGM has the potential to become the standard of care for some hospitalized patients, overcoming the limitations of current capillary glucose testing. Albeit, there is a need for more studies and particularly regulatory approval. In this review, we provide a historical overview of the evolution of glycemic monitoring in the hospital and review the current evidence, implementation protocols, and guidance for the use of CGM in hospitalized patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Del Romero J, Moreno Guillén S, Rodríguez-Artalejo FJ, et al (2023)

Sexually transmitted infections in Spain: Current status.

Revista espanola de quimioterapia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia, 36(5):444-465.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) are a major public health problem. The problems inherent to their diagnosis, treatment and prevention have to do not only with their nature, but also with organizational issues and overlapping competencies of the different health authorities in Spain. The real situation of STI in Spain, at present, is poorly known. For this reason, the Scientific Committee on COVID and Emerging Pathogens of the Illustrious Official College of Physicians of Madrid (ICOMEM) has formulated a series of questions on this subject which were distributed, not only among the members of the Committee, but also among experts outside it. The central health authorities provide very high and increasing figures for gonococcal infection, syphilis, Chlamydia trachomatis infection and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Both HIV infection and Monkeypox are two important STI caused by viruses in our environment, to which it should be added, mainly, Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections. Emerging microorganisms such as Mycoplasma genitalium pose not only pathogenic challenges but also therapeutic problems, as in the case of N. gonohrroeae. The pathways that patients with suspected STI follow until they are adequately diagnosed and treated are not well known in Spain. Experts understand that this problem is fundamentally managed in public health institutions, and that Primary Care and Hospital Emergency Services, together with some institutions that deal monographically with this problem, are the recipients of most of these patients. One of the most serious difficulties of STI lies in the availability of the microbiological tests necessary for their diagnosis, particularly in this era of outsourcing of microbiology services. Added to this is the increased cost of implementing the latest generation of molecular techniques and the difficulties of transporting samples. It is clear that STI are not diseases to which the entire population is equally exposed and it is necessary to have a better knowledge of the risk groups where to focus the necessary interventions adapted to their characteristics. It should not be forgotten that STI are also a problem in the pediatric age group and that their presence can be a marker of sexual abuse with all that this implies in terms of health care and medicolegal activity. Finally, STI are infections that are associated with a high cost of care for which we have very little information. The possibility of expanding the automatic performance of laboratory tests for STI surveillance through laboratory routines is encountering ethical and legal problems that are not always easy to solve. Spain has created a ministerial area of specific attention to STI and there are plans to improve the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these problems, but we still lack the necessary evidence on their impact. We cannot forget that these are diseases that transcend the individual and constitute a Public Health problem.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Borralleras C, Castrodeza Sanz J, Arrazola P, et al (2023)

The PHH-1V HIPRA vaccine: a new tool in the vaccination strategy against COVID-19.

Revista espanola de quimioterapia : publicacion oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Quimioterapia, 36(5):507-515.

OBJECTIVE: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is essential to mitigate the personal, social and global impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) as we move from a pandemic to an endemic phase. Vaccines are now required that offer broad, long-lasting immunological protection from infection in addition to protection from severe illness and hospitalisation. Here we present a review of the evidence base for a new COVID-19 vaccine, PHH-1V (Bimervax®; HIPRA HUMAN HEALTH S.L.U), and the results of an expert consensus.

METHODS: The expert committee consisted of Spanish experts in medicine, family medicine, paediatrics, immunology, microbiology, nursing, and veterinary medicine. Consensus was achieved using a 4-phase process consisting of a face-to-face meeting during which the scientific evidence base was reviewed, an online questionnaire to elicit opinions on the value of PHH-1V, a second face-to-face update meeting to discuss the evolution of the epidemiological situation, vaccine programmes and the scientific evidence for PHH-1V and a final face-to-face meeting at which consensus was achieved.

RESULTS: The experts agreed that PHH-1V constitutes a valuable novel vaccine for the development of vaccination programmes aimed towards protecting the population from SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease. Consensus was based on evidence of broad-spectrum efficacy against established and emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, a potent immunological response, and a good safety profile. The physicochemical properties of the PHH-1V formulation facilitate handling and storage appropriate for global uptake.

CONCLUSIONS: The physicochemical properties, formulation, immunogenicity and low reactogenic profile of PHH-1V confirm the appropriateness of this new COVID-19 vaccine.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Beck D, Hall S, Costa DK, et al (2023)

Leveraging Population Health Datasets to Advance Maternal Health Research.

Maternal and child health journal, 27(10):1683-1688.

BACKGROUND: Maternal mortality is a public health crisis in the U.S., with no improvement in decades and worsening disparities during COVID-19. Social determinants of health (SDoH) shape risk for morbidity and mortality but maternal structural and SDoH are under-researched using population health data. To expand knowledge of those at risk for or who have experienced maternal morbidity and inform clinical, policy, and legislative action, creative use of and leveraging existing population health datasets is logical and needed.

METHODS: We review a sample of population health datasets and highlight recommended changes to the datasets or data collection to better inform existing gaps in maternal health research.

RESULTS: Across each of the datasets we found insufficient representation of pregnant and postpartum individuals and provide recommendations to enhance these datasets to inform maternal health research.

CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant and postpartum individuals should be oversampled in population health data to facilitate rapid policy and program evaluation. Postpartum individuals should no longer be hidden within population health datasets. Individuals with pregnancies resulting in outcomes other than livebirth (e.g., abortion, stillbirth, miscarriage) should be included, or asked about these experiences.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

de Jong CMM, Boon GJAM, Le YNJ, et al (2023)

The Post-Venous Thromboembolism Functional Status Scale: From Call to Action to Application in Research, Extension to COVID-19 Patients, and Its Use in Clinical Practice.

Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis, 49(7):764-773.

A broad spectrum of long-term sequelae may be present in venous thromboembolism (VTE) survivors, affecting their quality of life and functioning. To monitor recovery and improve the prognosis of patients with persistent functional limitations, the development of a new outcome measure that could better capture the consequences of VTE was an unmet need. Starting as a call to action, the Post-VTE Functional Status (PVFS) scale was developed to meet this need. The PVFS scale is an easy-to-use clinical tool to measure and quantify functional outcomes after VTE by focusing on key aspects of daily life. As the scale was considered useful in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients as well, the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status (PCFS) scale was introduced early in the pandemic after slight adaptation. The scale has been well incorporated into both the VTE and COVID-19 research communities, contributing to the shift of focus toward patient-relevant functional outcomes. Psychometric properties have been evaluated, mainly for the PCFS scale but recently also for the PVFS scale, including validation studies of translations, showing adequate validity and reliability. In addition to serving as outcome measure in studies, guidelines and position papers recommend using the PVFS and PCFS scale in clinical practice. As broad use of the PVFS and PCFS scale in clinical practice is valuable to capture what matters most to patients, widespread implementation is a crucial next step. In this review, we discuss the development of the PVFS scale and introduction in VTE and COVID-19 care, the incorporation of the scale in research, and its application in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Butterfield SD, RZ Silkiss (2023)

Idiopathic sclerosing dacryoadenitis.

Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection, 13(1):43.

Dacryoadenitis is an inflammation of the lacrimal gland. This condition has an extensive differential diagnosis, requiring a thorough workup to identify the underlying etiology. If no etiology is identified, the condition is termed idiopathic dacryoadenitis. The purpose of this report is to present a case of idiopathic sclerosing dacryoadenitis and review the diagnostic process.We present a case of sclerosing dacryoadenitis non responsive to systemic antibiotics and steroids, improving after surgical debulking/biopsy. Systemic inflammatory and infectious labs were negative. Tissue was negative for SARS-CoV-2 antigen. Histopathologic review of the surgical specimen revealed nonspecific, sclerosing dacryoadenitis, ultimately supporting the diagnosis of idiopathic nonspecific fibrosing dacryoadenitis.This case reviews the presentation, evaluation, and management of a common orbital pathologic condition, with updated recommendations based on the most current literature.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Ye J, He L, M Beestrum (2023)

Implications for implementation and adoption of telehealth in developing countries: a systematic review of China's practices and experiences.

NPJ digital medicine, 6(1):174.

The rapid advancement of telehealth technologies has the potential to revolutionize healthcare delivery, especially in developing countries and resource-limited settings. Telehealth played a vital role during the COVID-19 pandemic, supporting numerous healthcare services. We conducted a systematic review to gain insights into the characteristics, barriers, and successful experiences in implementing telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic in China, a representative of the developing countries. We also provide insights for other developing countries that face similar challenges to developing and using telehealth during or after the pandemic. This systematic review was conducted through searching five prominent databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. We included studies clearly defining any use of telehealth services in all aspects of health care during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. We mapped the barriers, successful experiences, and recommendations based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). A total of 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Successfully implementing and adopting telehealth in China during the pandemic necessitates strategic planning across aspects at society level (increasing public awareness and devising appropriate insurance policies), organizational level (training health care professionals, improving workflows, and decentralizing tasks), and technological level (strategic technological infrastructure development and designing inclusive telehealth systems). WeChat, a widely used social networking platform, was the most common platform used for telehealth services. China's practices in addressing the barriers may provide implications and evidence for other developing countries or low-and middle- income countries (LMICs) to implement and adopt telehealth systems.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Li J, Ibarra-Estrada M, C Guérin (2023)

Prone Positioning for Patients With COVID-19-Induced Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure: Flipping the Script.

Respiratory care, 68(10):1449-1464.

During the COVID-19 pandemic, prone positioning (PP) emerged as a widely used supportive therapy for patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure caused by COVID-19 infection. In particular, awake PP (APP)-the placement of non-intubated patients in the prone position-has gained popularity and hence is detailed first herein. This review discusses recent publications on the use of PP for non-intubated and intubated subjects with COVID-19, highlighting the physiological responses, clinical outcomes, influential factors affecting treatment success, and strategies to improve adherence with APP. The use of prolonged PP and the use of PP for patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation are also presented.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Andrews HS, Herman JD, RT Gandhi (2023)

Treatments for COVID-19.

Annual review of medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The treatment for COVID-19 has evolved rapidly since the start of the pandemic and now consists mainly of antiviral and immunomodulatory agents. Antivirals, such as remdesivir and nirmatrelvir-ritonavir, have proved to be most useful earlier in illness (e.g., as outpatient therapy) and for less severe disease. Immunomodulatory therapy, such as dexamethasone and interleukin-6 or Janus kinase inhibitors, are most useful in severe disease or critical illness. The role of anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies has diminished because of the emergence of viral variants that are not anticipated to be susceptible to these treatments, and there still is not a consensus on the use of convalescent plasma. COVID-19 has been associated with increased rates of venous thromboembolism, but the role of antithrombotic therapy is limited. Multiple investigational agents continue to be studied, which will alter current treatment paradigms as new data are released. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 75 is January 2024. Please see for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Bryson TD, P Harding (2023)

Prostaglandin E2 and myocarditis; friend or foe?.

Biochemical pharmacology, 217:115813 pii:S0006-2952(23)00404-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This review article summarizes the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and its receptors (EP1-EP4) as it relates to the inflammatory cardiomyopathy, myocarditis. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the onset of myocarditis in a subset of patients prompted a debate on the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like ibuprofen, which act to inhibit the actions of prostaglandins. This review aims to further understanding of the role of PGE2 in the pathogenesis or protection of the myocardium in myocarditis. Inflammatory cardiomyopathies encompass a broad spectrum of disorders, all characterized by cardiac inflammation. Therefore, for the purpose of this review, the authors have placed particular emphasis on etiologies of myocarditis where effects of PGE2 have been documented.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Cui N, Zhu X, Zhao C, et al (2023)

A Decade of Pathogenesis Advances in Non-Type 2 Inflammatory Endotypes in Chronic Rhinosinusitis: 2012-2022.

International archives of allergy and immunology pii:000532067 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by localized inflammation of the upper airways. CRS includes two main phenotypes, namely, CRS with nasal polyps and CRS without nasal polyps. The phenotype-based classification method cannot reflect the pathological mechanism. The endotype-based classification method has been paid more and more attention by researchers. It is mainly divided into type 2 and non-type 2 endotypes. The mechanism driving the pathogenesis of non-type 2 inflammation is currently unknown. In this review, the PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched to conduct a critical analysis of representative literature works on the pathogenesis of non-type 2 inflammation in CRS published in the past decade. This review summarizes the latest evidence that may lead to the pathogenesis of non-type 2 inflammation. It is the main method that analyzing the pathogenesis from the perspective of immunology. Genomics and proteomics technique provide new approaches to the study of the pathogenesis. Due to differences in race, environment, geography, and living habits, there are differences in the occurrence of non-type 2 inflammation, which increase the difficulty of understanding the pathogenesis of non-type 2 inflammation in CRS. Studies have confirmed that non-type 2 endotype is more common in Asian patients. The emergence of overlap and unclassified endotypes has promoted the study of heterogeneity in CRS. In addition, as the source of inflammatory cells and the initiation site of the inflammatory response, microvessels and microlymphatic vessels in the nasal mucosal subepithelial tissue participate in the inflammatory response and tissue remodeling. It is uncertain whether CRS patients affect the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the pathophysiological mechanism of non-type 2 CRS combined with COVID-19 remains to be further studied, and it is worth considering how to select the befitting biologics for CRS patients with non-type 2 inflammation.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Sommer I, Ledinger D, Thaler K, et al (2023)

Outpatient Treatment of Confirmed COVID-19: A Living, Rapid Evidence Review for the American College of Physicians (Version 2).

Annals of internal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Clinicians and patients want to know the benefits and harms of outpatient treatment options for the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2.

PURPOSE: To assess the benefits and harms of 22 different COVID-19 treatments.

DATA SOURCES: The Epistemonikos COVID-19 L·OVE platform, the iSearch COVID-19 portfolio, and the World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 Research Database from 26 November 2021 to 2 March 2023.

STUDY SELECTION: Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full texts against a priori-defined criteria.

DATA EXTRACTION: One reviewer extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias and certainty of evidence (COE). A second reviewer verified the data abstraction and assessments.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Two randomized controlled trials and 6 retrospective cohort studies were included. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir was associated with a reduction in hospitalization due to COVID-19 (for example, 0.7% vs. 1.2%; moderate COE) and all-cause mortality (for example, <0.1% vs. 0.2%; moderate COE). Molnupiravir led to a higher recovery rate (31.8% vs. 22.6%; moderate COE) and reduced time to recovery (9 vs. 15 median days; moderate COE) but had no effect on all-cause mortality (0.02% vs. 0.04%; moderate COE) and the incidence of serious adverse events (0.4% vs. 0.3%; moderate COE). Ivermectin had no effect on time to recovery (moderate COE) and resulted in no difference in adverse events compared with placebo (low COE). Sotrovimab resulted in no difference in all-cause mortality compared with no treatment (low COE). No eligible studies for all other treatments of interest were identified.

LIMITATION: Evidence for nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and sotrovimab is based on nonrandomized studies only.

CONCLUSION: Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir probably improve outcomes for outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19.

PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: American College of Physicians. (PROSPERO: CRD42023406456).

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Mojahed A, Mack JT, Specht L, et al (2023)

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic On Violence Against Children: A Narrative Review.

Current psychiatry reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goal of this paper was to explore the different ways the COVID-19 pandemic has affected violence against children (VAC).

RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research of peer-reviewed articles using operational or survey data revealed the pandemic's impact in terms of institutional responses, risk and mediating factors, changes in VAC dynamics, and a likely increase in child marriage. Findings include a decrease in institutional responses, activities, and prevention case openings; an increased incidence of interparental intimate partner violence (IPV) witnessing cases, hospital admissions for suspected Abusive Head Trauma (AHT), other pediatric injuries, and sexual violence; a change in family conflict dynamics; and an estimated increase in child marriages. It also revealed mediating factors between the relationship of the pandemic and VAC (such as parental stress and mental health symptoms), as well as risk factors observed by service providers, which include the risk of mental health symptoms of both parents and children. Post-pandemic VAC research can be improved by utilizing operational or survey data in a meaningful way to be able to derive sound intervention approaches to diminish the pandemic's impact on VAC and child marriage. We also propose for researchers to integrate child marriage into the definition of VAC.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Mang S, Karagiannidis C, PM Lepper (2023)

[When mechanical ventilation fails-Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation].

Innere Medizin (Heidelberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) is predominantly being used as a rescue strategy in patients with acute lung failure, suffering from severe oxygenation and/or decarboxylation impairment. Cannulas introduced into the central veins lead blood through a membrane oxygenator in which it is oxygenated via sweep gas (pO2 up to 600 mm Hg) flow, eliminating CO2. According to the largest randomized studies carried out so far, the two most important indications for VV-ECMO are hypoxic respiratory failure (paO2 < 80 mm Hg for more than 6 h) and refractory hypercapnia (pH < 7.25 und pCO2 > 60 mm Hg with a breathing frequency of >30/min) despite optimal protective mechanical ventilation settings (ARDS, Δp < 14 mbar, plateau pressure < 30 mbar, tidal volume VT < 6 ml/kg idealized body weight). Relative contraindications are life-limiting comorbidities and terminal pulmonary diseases that cannot be treated by lung transplantation. Advanced patient age is not regarded as an absolute contraindication, though it highly impacts ARDS survival rates, especially for pneumonia associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The most frequent complications of VV-ECMO include bleeding, thrombus formation and rare cases of cannula-associated infections. Its use in nonintubated patients (awake ECMO) is possible in specific cases and has proven valuable as a bridge to lung transplant approach. Some ECMO centers offer cannulation of a patient at primary care hospitals, facilitating subsequent transport to the center (ECMO transport). The COVID-19 pandemic not only caused the number of VV-ECMO runs to skyrocket but has also drawn public attention to this extracorporeal procedure. Strict quality control to improve vvECMO outcomes according to the German hospital reform is urgently needed, especially so since the technique has a high demand in resources and bears significant risks when performed by untrained personnel.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Li H, Xia J, Bennett D, et al (2023)

Long-COVID-19 clinical and health outcomes: an umbrella review.

Therapeutic advances in infectious disease, 10:20499361231198335.

BACKGROUND: A growing interest in long-term sequelae of COVID-19 has prompted several systematic literature reviews (SLRs) to evaluate long-COVID-19 effects. However, many of these reviews lack in-depth information on the timing, duration, and severity of these conditions.

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to synthesize both qualitative and quantitative evidence on prevalence and outcomes of long-term effect of COVID-19 through an umbrella review.

DESIGN: Umbrella review of relevant SLRs on long-COVID-19 in terms of prolonged symptoms and clinical conditions, and comprehensively synthesized the latest existing evidence.

DATA SOURCES AND METHODS: We systematically identified and appraised prior systematic reviews/meta-analyses using MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane database of systematic review from 2020 to 2021 following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidance. We summarized and categorized all relevant clinical symptoms and outcomes in adults with COVID-19 using the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities System Organ Class (MedDRA SOC).

RESULTS: We identified 967 systematic reviews/meta-analyses; 36 were retained for final data extraction. The most prevalent SOC were social circumstances (40%), blood and lymphatic system disorders (39%), and metabolism and nutrition disorder (38%). The most frequently reported SOC outcomes within each MedDRA category were poor quality of life (59%), wheezing and dyspnea (19-49%), fatigue (30-64%), chest pain (16%), decreased or loss of appetite (14-17%), abdominal discomfort or digestive disorder (12-18%), arthralgia with or without myalgia (16-24%), paresthesia (27%) and hair loss (14-25%), and hearing loss or tinnitus (15%).

CONCLUSION: This study confirmed a high prevalence of several long COVID-19 outcomes according to the MedDRA categories and indicated that the majority of evidence was rated as moderate to low.

REGISTRATION: The review was registered at PROSPERO ( (CRD42022303557).

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Malinverno L, Barros V, Ghisoni F, et al (2023)

A historical perspective of biomedical explainable AI research.

Patterns (New York, N.Y.), 4(9):100830.

The black-box nature of most artificial intelligence (AI) models encourages the development of explainability methods to engender trust into the AI decision-making process. Such methods can be broadly categorized into two main types: post hoc explanations and inherently interpretable algorithms. We aimed at analyzing the possible associations between COVID-19 and the push of explainable AI (XAI) to the forefront of biomedical research. We automatically extracted from the PubMed database biomedical XAI studies related to concepts of causality or explainability and manually labeled 1,603 papers with respect to XAI categories. To compare the trends pre- and post-COVID-19, we fit a change point detection model and evaluated significant changes in publication rates. We show that the advent of COVID-19 in the beginning of 2020 could be the driving factor behind an increased focus concerning XAI, playing a crucial role in accelerating an already evolving trend. Finally, we present a discussion with future societal use and impact of XAI technologies and potential future directions for those who pursue fostering clinical trust with interpretable machine learning models.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Imtiaz F, MK Pasha (2022)

A systematic review of RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 through artificial intelligence and machine learning utilizing structure-based drug design strategy.

Turkish journal of chemistry, 46(3):583-594.

Since the coronavirus disease has been declared a global pandemic, it had posed a challenge among researchers and raised common awareness and collaborative efforts towards finding the solution. Caused by severe acute respiratory coronavirus syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2), coronavirus drug design strategy needs to be optimized. It is understandable that cognizance of the pathobiology of COVID-19 can help scientists in the development and discovery of therapeutically effective antiviral drugs by elucidating the unknown viral pathways and structures. Considering the role of artificial intelligence and machine learning with its advancements in the field of science, it is rational to use these methods which can aid in the discovery of new potent candidates in silico. Our review utilizes similar methodologies and focuses on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), based on its importance as an essential element for virus replication and also a promising target for COVID-19 therapeutics. Artificial neural network technique was used to shortlist articles with the support of PRISMA, from different research platforms including Scopus, PubMed, PubChem, and Web of Science, through a combination of keywords. "English language", from the year "2000" and "published articles in journals" were selected to carry out this research. We summarized that structural details of the RdRp reviewed in this analysis will have the potential to be taken into consideration when developing therapeutic solutions and if further multidisciplinary efforts are taken in this domain then potential clinical candidates for RdRp of SARS-CoV-2 could be successfully delivered for experimental validations.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Ng CYJ, Bun HH, Zhao Y, et al (2023)

TCM "medicine and food homology" in the management of post-COVID disorders.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1234307.

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization declared that COVID-19 is no longer a public health emergency of global concern on May 5, 2023. Post-COVID disorders are, however, becoming more common. Hence, there lies a growing need to develop safe and effective treatment measures to manage post-COVID disorders. Investigating the use of TCM medicinal foods in the long-term therapy of post-COVID illnesses may be beneficial given contemporary research's emphasis on the development of medicinal foods.

SCOPE AND APPROACH: The use of medicinal foods for the long-term treatment of post-COVID disorders is highlighted in this review. Following a discussion of the history of the TCM "Medicine and Food Homology" theory, the pathophysiological effects of post-COVID disorders will be briefly reviewed. An analysis of TCM medicinal foods and their functions in treating post-COVID disorders will then be provided before offering some insight into potential directions for future research and application.

KEY FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION: TCM medicinal foods can manage different aspects of post-COVID disorders. The use of medicinal foods in the long-term management of post-COVID illnesses may be a safe and efficient therapy choice because they are typically milder in nature than chronic drug use. These findings may also be applied in the long-term post-disease treatment of similar respiratory disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Marques KC, Quaresma JAS, LFM Falcão (2023)

Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in "Long COVID": pathophysiology, heart rate variability, and inflammatory markers.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 10:1256512.

Long COVID is characterized by persistent signs and symptoms that continue or develop for more than 4 weeks after acute COVID-19 infection. Patients with Long COVID experience a cardiovascular autonomic imbalance known as dysautonomia. However, the underlying autonomic pathophysiological mechanisms behind this remain unclear. Current hypotheses include neurotropism, cytokine storms, and inflammatory persistence. Certain immunological factors indicate autoimmune dysfunction, which can be used to identify patients at a higher risk of Long COVID. Heart rate variability can indicate autonomic imbalances in individuals suffering from Long COVID, and measurement is a non-invasive and low-cost method for assessing cardiovascular autonomic modulation. Additionally, biochemical inflammatory markers are used for diagnosing and monitoring Long COVID. These inflammatory markers can be used to improve the understanding of the mechanisms driving the inflammatory response and its effects on the sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways of the autonomic nervous system. Autonomic imbalances in patients with Long COVID may result in lower heart rate variability, impaired vagal activity, and substantial sympathovagal imbalance. New research on this subject must be encouraged to enhance the understanding of the long-term risks that cardiovascular autonomic imbalances can cause in individuals with Long COVID.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Liu M, Zhou J, Lan Y, et al (2023)

A Neglected Narrative in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Epidemiological and Clinical Impacts of the COVID-19 Outbreak on Syphilis.

Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 16:2485-2496.

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly changed our lives. While healthcare resources were redistributed and mobilized to focus on dealing with the COVID-19 crisis, there have been unmet medical needs of patients with other diseases such as syphilis, weaving an integral but neglected component of the pandemic story. In different countries, the epidemiology of newly reported syphilis underwent diverse changes during the COVID-19 pandemic. Asymptomatic cases experienced the largest decline in number. From the perspective of transmission, on one hand, the implementation of lockdown measures led to a higher degree of abstinence and sex distancing in many countries, thereby reducing the transmission of syphilis. On the other hand, vertical transmission was reported to have increased significantly during COVID-19. Meanwhile, the volume of STI clinic capacity declined, and STI staff were redeployed to facilitate the contact tracing of COVID-19. As a result, many STI centers converted traditional in-person clinical services to telemedicine and self-testing. However, syphilis testing and clinical treatment cannot fully adapt to this conversion. In syphilis diagnosis, COVID-19 infection and vaccination were reported to cause false positivity in syphilis serological tests. Diverse cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19 could resemble the skin lesions in syphilis patients, requiring differential diagnosis from clinicians. As for the post-pandemic years, consequent to service interruptions and diagnosis delays, a surge in the number of confirmed cases of syphilis is expected. The COVID-19 pandemic has also been a meaningful lesson for the control and prevention of infectious diseases. The experience in combating COVID-19 has underscored the importance of maintaining a robust and well-supported medical system for the provision of sexual health services and better healthcare equality even during eras of crisis, not least for syphilis patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Garg N, Kunamneni AS, Garg P, et al (2023)

Antiviral Drugs and Vaccines for Omicron Variant: A Focused Review.

The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale, 2023:6695533.

The Omicron variant of concern (VOC) replaced the delta variant rapidly and became the predominant strain due to more mutations in spike protein and receptor-binding domain (RBD) enhancing its infectivity and binding affinity. The severity of the illness is less than that of the delta variant. Omicron is nonsusceptible to REGEN-COV™ and bamlanivimab with etesevimab. Drugs that are effective against the Omicron variant are oral antiviral drugs such as Paxlovid (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir), remdesivir, sotrovimab, and molnupiravir. The potency of sotrovimab is reduced to 3-fold against Omicron, and 8-fold reduction in potency with sotrovimab is found in a particular variant of Omicron with a R346K substitution in spike protein. There are neither clinical trials comparing the efficacy of these 4 therapies with each other nor any data on a combination of two or more therapies. The current recommendation for mild-moderate, nonhospitalized patients who are at a high risk of disease progression is to use Paxlovid as the first-line option. If Paxlovid is not available or cannot be administered due to drug interactions, then the next best choice is sotrovimab. The third choice is remdesivir if sotrovimab is also not available and molnupiravir is to be given if the other three options are not available or cannot be administered. For prevention, 2130 (cilgavimab) in combination with COV2-2196 (tixagevimab) has been effective against BA.2 only. LY-CoV1404 (bebtelovimab) is recently authorized as it is effective against all sublineages of the Omicron variant. Regarding vaccine efficacy (VE), the 3-dose VE with mRNA vaccines at 14-60 days was found to be 71.6%, and after 60 days, it is 47.4%. There is a 34-38-fold reduction of neutralizing activity with prebooster sera and a 19-fold reduction with booster sera for the Omicron variant. This probably explains the reason for worldwide breakthrough infections with the Omicron variant with waning immunity. The neutralizing antibody response against Omicron elicited by the bivalent vaccine is superior to that of the ancestral Wuhan strain, without any safety concerns. For future advances, the ribosome display technology can be applied for the generation of human single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibodies from B cells of recovered patients against Omicron and other Coronavirus variants as they are easier and faster to produce and have high affinity and high specificity.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Paulo MS, Peyroteo M, Maia MR, et al (2023)

Impacts of public health and social measures on COVID-19 in Europe: a review and modified Delphi technique.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1226922.

INTRODUCTION: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 led countries to implement a set of public health and social measures (PHSMs) attempting to contain the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study aims to review the existing literature regarding key results of the PHSMs that were implemented, and to identify the PHSMs considered to have most impacted the epidemiological curve of COVID-19 over the last years during different stages of the pandemic.

METHODS: The PHSM under study were selected from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker (OxCGRT), supplemented by topics presented during the Rapid Exchange Forum (REF) meetings in the scope of the Population Health Information Research Infrastructure (PHIRI) project (H2020). The evidence- based review was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines to identify which reviews have already been published about each PHSMs and their results. In addition, two modified Delphi panel surveys were conducted among subject matter experts from 30 European countries to uphold the results found.

RESULTS: There were 3,212 studies retrieved from PubMed, 162 full texts assessed for eligibility and 35 included in this PHSMs summary. The measures with clearest evidence on their positive impact from the evidence-based review include social distancing, hygiene measures, mask measures and testing policies. From the modified Delphi panel, the PHSMs considered most significant in the four periods analyzed were case isolation at home, face coverings, testing policy, and social distancing, respectively.

DISCUSSION: The evidence found has significant implications for both researchers and policymakers. The study of PHSMs' impact on COVID-19 illustrates lessons learned for future pan- and epidemics, serving as a contribution to the health systems resilience discussion. These lessons, drawn from both the available scientific evidence and the perspectives of relevant subject matter experts, should also be considered in educational and preparedness programs and activities in the public health space.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Morgan JD, Gazarian P, LL Hayman (2023)

An integrated review: connecting Covid-era hospital visiting policies to family engagement.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1249013.

INTRODUCTION: Family engagement and patient-family-centered care are vitally important to improve outcomes for patients, families, providers, hospitals, and communities. Both constructs prioritize providers forming partnerships with patients and their families. The domains of family-engaged care include presence, communication, shared-decision making, family needs, contribution to care, and collaboration at the institutional level. This integrative review describes the extent to which the domains of family engagement are present in the literature about Covid-era hospital visiting policies.

METHODS: A search of four databases resulted in 127 articles and one added through data mining. After review, 28 articles were synthesized and analyzed into an integrative review of family engagement in the hospital with Covid-era visiting policies as the backdrop.

RESULTS: The 28-article review resulted in an international, multidisciplinary perspective of diverse study designs. The review's sample population includes 6,984 patients, 1,126 family members, 1,174 providers, 96 hospitals, 50 health centers, 1 unit, and 257 documents. While all the domains are represented, presence is the prevailing domain, identified in 25 out of the 28 (89%).

DISCUSSION: Presence is recognized as facilitating the other domains. Because the concept of collaboration is largely absent in the literature, it may provide healthcare institutions with a growth opportunity to facilitate and promote family engagement. This review is the first step in operationalizing family engagement in the hospital setting, especially when presence is challenging.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Raudenská J, Gumančík J, Raudenský M, et al (2023)

Play as a Stress-Coping Method Among Children in Light of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review.

Cureus, 15(8):e43550.

The COVID-19 pandemic, which started in early 2020, has been a great source of stress for almost every person all around the world. However, this is particularly true for children. It is necessary to fully address the stress-related psychosocial issues connected with the pandemic, solely in children. Play is important for children's development, as it is a natural activity for every child. Through play and play-based interventions, children can communicate non-verbally, symbolically, and in an action-oriented manner. Therefore, play-based interventions may have the potential to be one of the coping strategies used by children who experience stress, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this narrative review was to show how play-based activities could help children deal with stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic in the non-clinical population. A systematic search of the literature in various databases was performed. The initial search provided 5,004 potentially eligible studies in various databases, and 42,201 records identified from Google Scholar. After excluding studies not meeting the inclusive criteria, nine papers were selected for this narrative review. This narrative review showed findings that play-based activities can have a positive effect during the COVID-19 pandemic on different stress levels in the children population. Additionally, the findings of this review highlight the importance of further research and implementation of play into many aspects of children's life.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Guzik K (2023)

"Vse (Everyone) Online?": an exploration of the evolution of the Russian Federation's digital government portal during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Frontiers in sociology, 8:1223957.

The penetration of digital technologies in government has been met with both optimism and caution. This study seeks to contribute to this field by examining how digital government evolved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using media reports on Russia's government services portal (Gosuslugi), it finds that authorities made the portal a centerpiece of their pandemic response by enhancing its communicative, transactional, and participatory functions. These efforts aimed to not only house public health services on Gosuslugi, but to channel financial, commercial, and communication services through it, expanding Russia's digital corporatist state. While pandemic governance infused Gosuslugi with the qualities of a surveillant assemblage, it also made the portal into a space for novel forms of civic participation. Gosuslugi's evolution in this direction was limited, however, by security concerns as well as apprehension about digital participation. These findings highlight the importance of attending to political and cultural contexts in understanding digital government. In Russia, ruling elites' unwillingness to hold competitive elections and the public's lack of confidence in the political system limit the potential of digital government, regardless of its potential to manage crises.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-19

Ruiz-Pablos M, Paiva B, A Zabaleta (2023)

Epstein-Barr virus-acquired immunodeficiency in myalgic encephalomyelitis-Is it present in long COVID?.

Journal of translational medicine, 21(1):633.

Both myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and long COVID (LC) are characterized by similar immunological alterations, persistence of chronic viral infection, autoimmunity, chronic inflammatory state, viral reactivation, hypocortisolism, and microclot formation. They also present with similar symptoms such as asthenia, exercise intolerance, sleep disorders, cognitive dysfunction, and neurological and gastrointestinal complaints. In addition, both pathologies present Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation, indicating the possibility of this virus being the link between both pathologies. Therefore, we propose that latency and recurrent EBV reactivation could generate an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in three steps: first, an acquired EBV immunodeficiency develops in individuals with "weak" EBV HLA-II haplotypes, which prevents the control of latency I cells. Second, ectopic lymphoid structures with EBV latency form in different tissues (including the CNS), promoting inflammatory responses and further impairment of cell-mediated immunity. Finally, immune exhaustion occurs due to chronic exposure to viral antigens, with consolidation of the disease. In the case of LC, prior to the first step, there is the possibility of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with "weak" HLA-II haplotypes against this virus and/or EBV.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Datta R, Adamska JZ, Bhate A, et al (2023)

A-to-I RNA editing by ADAR and its therapeutic applications: From viral infections to cancer immunotherapy.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA [Epub ahead of print].

ADAR deaminases catalyze adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing on double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) substrates that regulate an umbrella of biological processes. One of the two catalytically active ADAR enzymes, ADAR1, plays a major role in innate immune responses by suppression of RNA sensing pathways which are orchestrated through the ADAR1-dsRNA-MDA5 axis. Unedited immunogenic dsRNA substrates are potent ligands for the cellular sensor MDA5. Upon activation, MDA5 leads to the induction of interferons and expression of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes with potent antiviral activity. In this way, ADAR1 acts as a gatekeeper of the RNA sensing pathway by striking a fine balance between innate antiviral responses and prevention of autoimmunity. Reduced editing of immunogenic dsRNA by ADAR1 is strongly linked to the development of common autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In viral infections, ADAR1 exhibits both antiviral and proviral effects. This is modulated by both editing-dependent and editing-independent functions, such as PKR antagonism. Several A-to-I RNA editing events have been identified in viruses, including in the insidious viral pathogen, SARS-CoV-2 which regulates viral fitness and infectivity, and could play a role in shaping viral evolution. Furthermore, ADAR1 is an attractive target for immuno-oncology therapy. Overexpression of ADAR1 and increased dsRNA editing have been observed in several human cancers. Silencing ADAR1, especially in cancers that are refractory to immune checkpoint inhibitors, is a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer immunotherapy in conjunction with epigenetic therapy. The mechanistic understanding of dsRNA editing by ADAR1 and dsRNA sensing by MDA5 and PKR holds great potential for therapeutic applications. This article is categorized under: RNA Processing > RNA Editing and Modification RNA in Disease and Development > RNA in Disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Shaver N, Katz M, Darko Asamoah G, et al (2023)

Protocol for a living evidence synthesis on variants of concern and COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness.

Vaccine pii:S0264-410X(23)01065-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: It is evident that COVID-19 will remain a public health concern in the coming years, largely driven by variants of concern (VOC). It is critical to continuously monitor vaccine effectiveness as new variants emerge and new vaccines and/or boosters are developed. Systematic surveillance of the scientific evidence base is necessary to inform public health action and identify key uncertainties. Evidence syntheses may also be used to populate models to fill in research gaps and help to prepare for future public health crises. This protocol outlines the rationale and methods for a living evidence synthesis of the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with, and transmission of, VOC of SARS-CoV-2.

METHODS: Living evidence syntheses of vaccine effectiveness will be carried out over one year for (1) a range of potential outcomes in the index individual associated with VOC (pathogenesis); and (2) transmission of VOC. The literature search will be conducted up to May 2023. Observational and database-linkage primary studies will be included, as well as RCTs. Information sources include electronic databases (MEDLINE; Embase; Cochrane, L*OVE; the CNKI and Wangfang platforms), pre-print servers (medRxiv, BiorXiv), and online repositories of grey literature. Title and abstract and full-text screening will be performed by two reviewers using a liberal accelerated method. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment will be completed by one reviewer with verification of the assessment by a second reviewer. Results from included studies will be pooled via random effects meta-analysis when appropriate, or otherwise summarized narratively.

DISCUSSION: Evidence generated from our living evidence synthesis will be used to inform policy making, modelling, and prioritization of future research on the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against VOC.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Zheng Y, Yang H, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Regulation of SARS-CoV-2 infection and antiviral innate immunity by ubiquitination and ubiquitin-like conjugation.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms pii:S1874-9399(23)00079-2 [Epub ahead of print].

A global pandemic COVID-19 resulting from SARS-CoV-2 has affected a significant portion of the human population. Antiviral innate immunity is critical for controlling and eliminating the viral infection. Ubiquitination is extensively involved in antiviral signaling, and recent studies suggest that ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) modifications also participate in innate antiviral pathways such as RLR and cGAS-STING pathways. Notably, virus infection harnesses ubiquitination and Ubls modifications to facilitate viral replication and counteract innate antiviral immunity. These observations indicate that ubiquitination and Ubls modifications are critical checkpoints for the tug-of-war between virus and host. This review discusses the current progress regarding the modulation of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle and antiviral innate immune pathways by ubiquitination and Ubls modifications. This paper emphasizes the arising concept that ubiquitination and Ubls modifications are powerful modulators of virus and host interaction and potential drug targets for treating the infection of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Horne J, Dunne N, Singh N, et al (2023)

Building parameters linked with indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01960-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The rapid spread of Coronavirus Disease (2019)(COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has emphasized the importance of understanding and adapting to the indoor remediation of transmissible diseases to decrease the risk for future pandemic threats. While there were many precautions in place to hinder the spread of COVID-19, there has also been a substantial increase of new research on SARS-CoV-2 that can be utilized to further mitigate the transmission risk of this novel virus. This review paper aims to identify the building parameters of indoor spaces that could have considerable influence on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The following building parameters have been identified and analyzed, emphasizing their link with the indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2: temperature, relative humidity, ventilation, occupant density, surface finish, HVAC systems, filtration, space compartmentalization, airflow, and air quality. Based on these parameters, it is possible to develop the appropriate remediation tools needed to decrease the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 inside occupied buildings. Furthermore, the modifications of the key building parameters have been discussed for controlling the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in indoor spaces. Understanding the information provided in this paper is crucial to develop effective health and safety measures that will aid in infection prevention.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Franklin JB, Leewiwatanakul B, Taylor AD, et al (2023)

C-L Case Conference: Overcoming Bias in the Differential Diagnosis of Psychosis.

Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry pii:S2667-2960(23)00124-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We present the case of a 34-year-old Black patient with no significant psychiatric history who presented with catatonia and psychotic symptoms following a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection, whose diagnosis of COVID encephalitis was delayed by premature attribution of his symptoms to a primary psychiatric etiology. Top experts in the CL field provide guidance for this commonly encountered clinical case based on their experience and a review of the available literature. Key teaching topics include the diagnosis and management of COVID encephalitis, cognitive bias, and racial bias. Specifically, this case illustrates the role of the consultation-liaison psychiatrist in identifying medical conditions that may overlap with psychiatric presentations and in advocating for marginalized patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Nehar-Belaid D, Sokolowski M, Ravichandran S, et al (2023)

Baseline immune states (BIS) associated with vaccine responsiveness and factors that shape the BIS.

Seminars in immunology, 70:101842 pii:S1044-5323(23)00133-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Vaccines are among the greatest inventions in medicine, leading to the elimination or control of numerous diseases, including smallpox, polio, measles, rubella, and, most recently, COVID-19. Yet, the effectiveness of vaccines varies among individuals. In fact, while some recipients mount a robust response to vaccination that protects them from the disease, others fail to respond. Multiple clinical and epidemiological factors contribute to this heterogeneity in responsiveness. Systems immunology studies fueled by advances in single-cell biology have been instrumental in uncovering pre-vaccination immune cell types and genomic features (i.e., the baseline immune state, BIS) that have been associated with vaccine responsiveness. Here, we review clinical factors that shape the BIS, and the characteristics of the BIS associated with responsiveness to frequently studied vaccines (i.e., influenza, COVID-19, bacterial pneumonia, malaria). Finally, we discuss potential strategies to enhance vaccine responsiveness in high-risk groups, focusing specifically on older adults.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Reinacher-Schick A, Ebert MP, Piso P, et al (2023)

Effects of the Pandemic on the Care of Patients With Colorectal Cancer.

Deutsches Arzteblatt international, 120(33-34):545-552.

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a decrease in the rates of diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, only a few detailed analyses have been made to date regarding the effect of the pandemic on the care of cancer patients in Germany. Such studies are needed as the basis for well-founded recommendations on health-care delivery priorities during pandemics and other, comparable situations of crisis.

METHODS: This review is based on publications that were retrieved by a selective search of the literature for controlled studies from Germany on the effects of the pandemic on colonoscopies, first diagnoses of colorectal cancer (CRC), surgical procedures for CRC, and CRC-related mortality.

RESULTS: Compared to 2019, the rate of screening colonoscopies performed by physicians in private practice was 1.6% higher in 2020 and 4.3% higher in 2021. On the other hand, the rate of diagnostic colonoscopies in the inpatient setting was 15,7% lower in 2020, while that of therapeutic colonoscopies was 11.7% lower. According to the data evaluated here, first diagnoses of CRC were 2.1% less common in January to September in 2020 than they had been in 2019; according to routine data collected by the statutory health insurance provider GRK, surgery for CRC was 10% less common in 2020 than in 2019. With regard to mortality, sufficient data from Germany were lacking to draw definite conclusions. International modeling data suggest an increase in mortality due to decreased colorectal screening rates during the pandemic that may at least be partially compensated for by intensified screening strategies following the pandemic.

CONCLUSION: Three years after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is still only a limited evidence base for an evaluation of the effects of the pandemic on medical care and on the outcomes of patients with CRC in Germany. The implementation of central data and research infrastructures will be necessary for further study of the long-term effects of this pandemic, as well as to enable optimal preparedness for future crisis situations.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Grimm PY, Oliver S, Merten S, et al (2022)

Enhancing the Understanding of Resilience in Health Systems of Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Qualitative Evidence Synthesis.

International journal of health policy and management, 11(7):899-911.

BACKGROUND: A country's health system faces pressure when hit by an unexpected shock, such as what we observe in the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The concept of resilience is highly relevant in this context and is a prerequisite for a health system capable of withstanding future shocks. By exploring how the key dimensions of the resilient health system framework are applied, the present systematic review synthesizes the vital features of resilient health systems in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this review is to ascertain the relevance of health system resilience in the context of a major shock, through better understanding its dimensions, uses and implications.

METHODS: The review uses the best-fit framework synthesis approach. An a priori conceptual framework was selected and a coding framework created. A systematic search identified 4284 unique citations from electronic databases and reports by non-governmental organisations, 12 of which met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and coded against the pre-existing themes. Themes outside of the a priori framework were collated to form a refined list of themes. Then, all twelve studies were revisited using the new list of themes in the context of each study.

RESULTS: Ten themes were generated from the analysis. Five confirmed the a priori conceptual framework that capture the dynamic attributes of a resilient system. Five new themes were identified as foundational for achieving resilience: realigned relationships, foresight and motivation as drivers, and emergency preparedness and change management as organisational mechanisms.

CONCLUSION: The refined conceptual model shows how the themes inter-connect. The foundations of resilience appear to be critical especially in resource-constrained settings to unlock the dynamic attributes of resilience. This review prompts countries to consider building the foundations of resilience described here as a priority to better prepare for future shocks.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Suzuki Y, Katsurada Y, K Hyodo (2023)

Differences and Similarities of the Intravenously Administered Lipid Nanoparticles in Three Clinical Trials: Potential Linkage between Lipid Nanoparticles and Extracellular Vesicles.

Molecular pharmaceutics [Epub ahead of print].

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) are clinically validated drug-delivery carriers. However, clinical data on intravenously administered LNPs are limited compared with those on intramuscularly administered LNPs (mRNA vaccines against COVID-19). Here, we reviewed three clinically tested intravenously administered LNPs (patisiran, mRNA-1944, and NTLA-2001). We summarize the differences and similarities in their formulations, mechanisms of action, and pharmacokinetics profiles. In humans, patisiran and mRNA-1944 exhibited similar multiphasic pharmacokinetic profiles with a secondary peak in the RNA concentration. siRNA (patisiran) and mRNA (mRNA-1944) exhibited prolonged blood circulation and were detectable for more than 28 days after a single administration. We further summarize the basics of extracellular vesicles (EVs) and discuss the potential linkages between LNPs and EVs. This Review provides an understanding of the human clinical data of intravenous LNP formulations, which can be potentially explored to develop next-generation LNP-and EV-based drug delivery carriers.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Katzer M, Salloch S, Schindler C, et al (2023)

Ethical Requirements for Human Challenge Studies: A Systematic Review of Reasons.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

Human challenge studies (HCS) are controlled clinical trials in which participants are deliberately infected with a pathogen. Such trials are being developed for an increasing number of diseases. Partly as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a recent ethical debate about the reasons for and against HCS in general, or rather, about the requirements that individual HCS must fulfill to be ethically acceptable. A systematic review was conducted to categorize and summarize such requirements and the reasons given for them. Ethics literature was searched in PubMed, Google Scholar, BELIT and PhilPapers; eligibility criteria were articles published in a scientific/scholarly journal (original research, reviews, editorials, opinion pieces, conference/meeting reports). Of 1322 records identified, 161 publications were included, with 183 requirements (with associated reasons) in 10 thematic categories extracted via qualitative content analysis. In synthesizing and interpreting the requirements and their reasons, three issues emerge as particularly sensitive in the case of HCS: the meaning of the right to withdraw from research procedures, communication of researchers with the public and various stakeholders, and the conditions of informed consent. However, four other issues, not specific to HCS, stand out as the most controversial: the acceptable level of risk to participants, payment of participants, protection of vulnerable groups, and standards for international collaborations. Controversies in these areas indicate that further debate is warranted, possibly leading to more specific instructions in ethics guidance documents.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Heymans S, Lakdawala NK, Tschöpe C, et al (2023)

Dilated cardiomyopathy: causes, mechanisms, and current and future treatment approaches.

Lancet (London, England), 402(10406):998-1011.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is conventionally defined as the presence of left ventricular or biventricular dilatation or systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions (eg, primary valve disease) or significant coronary artery disease sufficient to cause ventricular remodelling. This definition has been recognised as overly restrictive, as left ventricular hypokinesis without dilation could be the initial presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy. The causes of dilated cardiomyopathy comprise genetic (primary dilated cardiomyopathy) or acquired factors (secondary dilated cardiomyopathy). Acquired factors include infections, toxins, cancer treatment, endocrinopathies, pregnancy, tachyarrhythmias, and immune-mediated diseases. 5-15% of patients with acquired dilated cardiomyopathy harbour a likely pathogenic or pathogenic gene variant (ie, gene mutation). Therefore, the diagnostic tests and therapeutic approach should always consider both genetic and acquired factors. This Seminar will focus on the current multidimensional diagnostic and therapeutic approach and discuss the underlying pathophysiology that could drive future treatments aiming to repair or replace the existing gene mutation, or target the specific inflammatory, metabolic, or pro-fibrotic drivers of genetic or acquired dilated cardiomyopathy.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Ali S, Khanal R, Najam M, et al (2023)

Short-Term Outcomes of Cardiac Arrhythmias among COVID-19 Patients- A Propensity Matched National Study.

Current problems in cardiology pii:S0146-2806(23)00504-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The risk of arrhythmia is high in patients with COVID-19. The current literature is limited in understanding the clinical impact of arrhythmias and the extent of healthcare utilization in COVID-19 patients. The Nationwide In-patient Sample Database (NIS) from 2019-2020 was queried to identify COVID-19 patients who developed arrhythmias versus those without. Multivariate regression for adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and propensity score matching (PSM) were done to compare outcomes among both cohorts. 1,664,240 patients (weighted) were hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, 380,915 (22.89%) of whom were diagnosed with an arrhythmia. After propensity matching COVID-19 with arrhythmias had higher rates of in-hospital mortality (22.4% vs. 13.5%, P <0.001), acute kidney injury (AKI) (PSM 39.4% vs. 35.7%, P<0.001), acute heart failure (AHF) (18.2% vs. 12.6%, P<0.001), acute stroke (0.76% vs. 0.57%, P<0.001), cardiogenic shock (1.38% vs. 0.5%, P<0.001), cardiac arrest (5.26% vs. 2.3%, P<0.001) acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (12.8% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001), intracerebral hemorrhage (0.63% vs. 0.45%, P<0.001), major bleeding (2.6% vs. 1.8%, P <0.001) and endotracheal intubation (17.04% vs. 10.17% <0.001) compared to arrhythmias without COVID-19. This cohort also had lower odds of receiving interventions such as cardiac pacing (aOR 0.15 95%Cl 0.13-0.189 P<0.001), cardioversion (aOR 0.43 95% CI 0.40-0.46, P<0.001), and defibrillator (aOR 0.087 95% Cl 0.061-0.124, P<0.001) compared to arrhythmia patients without COVID-19. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 resulted in longer length of hospital stay (LOS) and higher total costs of hospitalizations. Arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 had worse clinical outcomes with an increased rate of in-hospital mortality, longer LOS, and higher total cost. These patients also had lower odds of receiving interventions during the index hospitalization.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Young A, Giltora K, Jin MX, et al (2023)

A review of COVID-19's impact on radiology residents' academics and wellness in North America.

Journal of the American College of Radiology : JACR pii:S1546-1440(23)00610-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused major disruptions in radiology departments throughout North America. Radiology residency programs were forced to make dramatic changes to their training programs, which had major impacts on resident academics and wellness. The goal of this review is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on radiology residents' academics and wellness in North America, while also identifying effective measures taken by programs to mitigate the effects of the pandemic.

METHODS: The search strategy involved database search via PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science with specific keywords related to COVID-19, radiology residents, education, wellness, and virtual learning. Studies discussing the education and wellness of radiology residents in North America published after 2020 were included. The data were analyzed using a narrative synthesis approach.

RESULTS: The three main domains affected by the pandemic include the residency curriculum, research, and resident wellness. The decline in case volume and diversity of cases had negative overall impact on education of radiology residents, but simulated cases and virtual learning proved its value during the pandemic and may have lasting implications for the post-pandemic world. Research initiatives transitioned to a remote format with greater emphasis on quality improvement and COVID-19 related studies. Reduced face-to-face interaction opportunities made it difficult to establish strong and meaningful interpersonal connections and had a negative impact on resident wellness, mentorship and professional development. Implementing mentorship programs and virtual "town hall meetings" were effective measures to maintain connections during times of social distancing. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic introduced unprecedented stressors and challenges for radiology residents that negatively impacted their mental health and wellness. Incorporating wellness initiatives such as wellness hours, team building activities, and utilizing social media were helpful in promoting wellness and mental health for radiology residents.

CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on the academics and wellness of radiology residents across North America but has taught us many lessons that can help us navigate the ongoing challenges of the pandemic, the post-pandemic world, and future pandemics.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Xu Z, Wang H, Jiang S, et al (2023)

Brain Pathology in COVID-19: Clinical Manifestations and Potential Mechanisms.

Neuroscience bulletin [Epub ahead of print].

Neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are less noticeable than the respiratory symptoms, but they may be associated with disability and mortality in COVID-19. Even though Omicron caused less severe disease than Delta, the incidence of neurological manifestations is similar. More than 30% of patients experienced "brain fog", delirium, stroke, and cognitive impairment, and over half of these patients presented abnormal neuroimaging outcomes. In this review, we summarize current advances in the clinical findings of neurological manifestations in COVID-19 patients and compare them with those in patients with influenza infection. We also illustrate the structure and cellular invasion mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 and describe the pathway for central SARS-CoV-2 invasion. In addition, we discuss direct damage and other pathological conditions caused by SARS-CoV-2, such as an aberrant interferon response, cytokine storm, lymphopenia, and hypercoagulation, to provide treatment ideas. This review may offer new insights into preventing or treating brain damage in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Tayefeh A, Abdous M, Zahedi R, et al (2023)

Advanced bibliometric analysis on water, energy, food, and environmental nexus (WEFEN).

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The relationship between water, energy, food, and the environment has piqued the interest of the global community due to the critical interdependence of these resources for long-term development. This article investigates research within the field of the quadruple nexus. Data from Scopus documents, with the keywords "water, energy, food, and environment" from 2011 to 2022, were processed and analyzed. Further research revealed that scientific exploration of the water-energy-food-environment relationship is rapidly expanding. The Scopus database was used to extract information about countries, institutions, highly cited publications, keywords, hot topics, and future research trends for this study. Additionally, the VOSviewer bibliometric software was employed to evaluate the scientific citations in this article. The results indicated that the USA, compared to other nations, publishes a larger quantity of articles in this field. Recently, China, India, and Middle Eastern countries have garnered significant attention and have been extensively researched. The Philippines, Finland, and Iran have also emerged among the top nations publishing recent articles on the water-energy-food-environment nexus (WEFEN). This article attempts to study the bibliography on the WEFEN connection, identify popular topics, and discern the fields of future studies in this discussion. Furthermore, it investigates the effects of economic and social factors as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this quadruple nexus.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Lewthwaite H, Byrne A, Brew B, et al (2023)

Treatable traits for long COVID.

Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) [Epub ahead of print].

Long COVID, or post-acute COVID-19 sequelae, is experienced by an estimated one in eight adults following acute COVID-19. Long COVID is a new and complex chronic health condition that typically includes multiple symptoms that cross organ systems and fluctuate over time; a one-size-fits-all approach is, therefore, not likely to be appropriate nor relevant for long COVID treatment. 'Treatable Traits' is a personalized medicine approach, purpose-built to address the complexity and heterogeneity of complex chronic conditions. This comprehensive review aimed to understand how a treatable traits approach could be applied to long COVID, by first identifying the most prevalent long COVID treatable traits and then the available evidence for strategies to target these traits. An umbrella review of 22 systematic reviews identified 34 symptoms and complications common with long COVID, grouped into eight long COVID treatable trait clusters: neurological, chest, psychological, pain, fatigue, sleep impairment, functional impairment and other. A systematic review of randomized control trials identified 18 studies that explored different intervention approaches for long COVID prevention (k = 4) or management (k = 14). While a single study reported metformin as effective for long COVID prevention, the findings need to be replicated and consensus is required around how to define long COVID as a clinical trial endpoint. For long COVID management, current evidence supports exercise training or respiratory muscle training for long COVID treatable traits in the chest and functional limitation clusters. While there are studies exploring interventions targeting other long COVID treatable traits, further high-quality RCTs are needed, particularly targeting treatable traits in the clusters of fatigue, psychological, pain and sleep impairment.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Chen YH, CT Fang (2023)

Achieving COVID-19 zero without lockdown, January 2020 to March 2022: The Taiwan model explained.

Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi pii:S0929-6646(23)00345-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite never imposing a lockdown, Taiwan achieved COVID-19 zero, with reporting only 56 local coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases after testing 126,987 individuals in 2020, and further contained a large outbreak rapidly and successfully in 2021. At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, our infectious disease modeling results indicated that testing and contact tracing alone would fail to contain the pandemic. However, by supplementing this approach with general public surgical mask-wearing, the reproduction number (R0) could be suppressed to less than 1. This would effectively contain the virus's spread within Taiwan, particularly when combined with strict border control measures to prevent the overwhelming influx of imported COVID-19 cases and ensure the capacity of the medical and public health systems remains resilient. These modeling results became the theoretical basis behind the highly successful Taiwan model against COVID-19 during 2020-2021, supporting by negative excess mortality, seroepidemiological surveys, and molecular epidemiological analyses. This is a public health triumph demonstrating that a democratic and humane approach to the COVID-19 pandemic is not only feasible but highly effective. It also highlights the crucial role of infectious disease modeling in assisting the formulation of a successful national pandemic response.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Sturz JL, JC Boughey (2023)

Lasting Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment in the United States.

Surgical oncology clinics of North America, 32(4):811-819.

The COVID-19 pandemic was an unprecedented time that placed unique challenges on the screening and treatment of breast cancer in the United States. Collaboration among medical disciplines and societies provided guidelines and strategies to mitigate the exposure of patients and medical providers to the virus and provide optimal care. We discuss the changes that the pandemic had on the multidisciplinary management of breast cancer.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Lv T, Meng Y, Liu Y, et al (2023)

RNA nanotechnology: A new chapter in targeted therapy.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 230:113533.

Nanoparticles have been widely studied in the fields of biotechnology, pharmacy, optics and medicine and have broad application prospects. Numerous studies have shown significant interest in utilizing nanoparticles for chemically coating or coupling drugs, aiming to address the challenges of drug delivery, including degradability and uncertainty. Furthermore, the utilization of lipid nanoparticles loaded with novel coronavirus antigen mRNA to control the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a notable surge in research on nanoparticle vaccines. Hence, nanoparticles have emerged as a crucial delivery system for disease prevention and treatment, bearing immense significance. Current research highlights that nanoparticles offer superior efficacy and potential compared to conventional drug treatment and prevention methods. Notably, for drug delivery applications, it is imperative to utilize biodegradable nanoparticles. This paper reviews the structures and characteristics of various biodegradable nanoparticles and their applications in biomedicine in order to inspire more researchers to further explore the functions of nanoparticles. RNA plays a pivotal role in regulating the occurrence and progression of diseases, but its inherent susceptibility to degradation poses a challenge. In light of this, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research advancements concerning RNA-containing biodegradable nanoparticles in the realm of disease prevention and treatment, focusing on cancer, inflammatory diseases, and viral infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Blatch-Jones AJ, Recio Saucedo A, B Giddins (2023)

The use and acceptability of preprints in health and social care settings: A scoping review.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291627.

BACKGROUND: Preprints are open and accessible scientific manuscript or report that is shared publicly, through a preprint server, before being submitted to a journal. The value and importance of preprints has grown since its contribution during the public health emergency of the COVID-19 pandemic. Funders and publishers are establishing their position on the use of preprints, in grant applications and publishing models. However, the evidence supporting the use and acceptability of preprints varies across funders, publishers, and researchers. The scoping review explored the current evidence on the use and acceptability of preprints in health and social care settings by publishers, funders, and the research community throughout the research lifecycle.

METHODS: A scoping review was undertaken with no study or language limits. The search strategy was limited to the last five years (2017-2022) to capture changes influenced by COVID-19 (e.g., accelerated use and role of preprints in research). The review included international literature, including grey literature, and two databases were searched: Scopus and Web of Science (24 August 2022).

RESULTS: 379 titles and abstracts and 193 full text articles were assessed for eligibility. Ninety-eight articles met eligibility criteria and were included for full extraction. For barriers and challenges, 26 statements were grouped under four main themes (e.g., volume/growth of publications, quality assurance/trustworthiness, risks associated to credibility, and validation). For benefits and value, 34 statements were grouped under six themes (e.g., openness/transparency, increased visibility/credibility, open review process, open research, democratic process/systems, increased productivity/opportunities).

CONCLUSIONS: Preprints provide opportunities for rapid dissemination but there is a need for clear policies and guidance from journals, publishers, and funders. Cautionary measures are needed to maintain the quality and value of preprints, paying particular attention to how findings are translated to the public. More research is needed to address some of the uncertainties addressed in this review.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Alsayed AR, Ahmed SI, Al Shweiki AO, et al (2023)

The laboratory parameters in predicting the severity and death of COVID-19 patients: Future pandemic readiness strategies.

Biomolecules & biomedicine [Epub ahead of print].

The range of clinical manifestations associated with the infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) encompasses a broad spectrum, ranging from flu-like symptoms to the occurrence of multiple organ failure and death. The severity of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is categorized based on clinical presentation and is divided into three distinct levels of severity identified as non-severe, severe, and critical. Although individuals of all age groups are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, middle-aged and older adults are more frequently impacted, with the latter being more likely to develop severe illness. Various laboratory characteristics observed in hospitalized COVID-19 patients have been correlated with adverse outcomes. These include elevated levels of D-dimer, liver enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, ferritin, prothrombin time, and troponin, as well as decreased lymphocyte and platelets counts. This review investigated the relationship between baseline clinical characteristics, initial laboratory parameters upon hospital admission, and the severity of illness and mortality rates among COVID-19 patients. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has concluded, understanding the laboratory predictors of virus severity and mortality remains crucial, and examining these predictors can have long-term effects. Such insights can help healthcare systems manage resources more effectively and deliver timely and appropriate care by identifying and targeting high-risk individuals. This knowledge can also help us better prepare for future pandemics. By examining these predictors, we can take steps to protect public health and mitigate the impact of future pandemics.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Tian H, Qiao T, Teng J, et al (2023)

Factors associated with depression among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychological medicine pii:S0033291723002271 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health of healthcare workers (HCWs). We aimed to identify the factors associated with depression among HCWs during the pandemic. We conducted literature search using eight electronic databases up to July 27 2022. Observational studies with more than 200 participants investigating correlates of depression in HCWs after COVID-19 outbreak were included. We used fixed- and random-effects models to pool odds ratios (ORs) across studies, and Cochran's chi-squared test and I [2] statistics to assess study heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated by funnel plots. Thirty-five studies involving 44,362 HCWs met the inclusion criteria. Female (OR=1.50, 95% CI [1.23,1.84]), single (OR=1.36, 95% CI [1.21,1.54]), nurse (OR=1.69, 95% CI [1.28,2.25]), history of mental diseases (OR=2.53, 95% CI [1.78,3.58]), frontline (OR=1.79, 95% CI [1.38,2.32]), health anxiety due to COVID-19 (OR=1.88, 95% CI [1.29,2.76]), working in isolation wards (OR=1.98, 95% CI [1.38,2.84]), and insufficient personal protective equipment (OR=1.49, 95% CI [1.33,1.67]) were associated with increased risk of depression. Instead, HCWs with a positive professional prospect (OR=0.34, 95% CI [0.24,0.49]) were less likely to be depressed. This meta-analysis provides up-to-date evidence on the factors linked to depression among HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the persistent threats posed by COVID-19, early screening is crucial for the intervention and prevention of depression in HCWs.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Nigro O, Oltolini C, Barzaghi F, et al (2023)

Pediatric cancer care management during the COVID-19 pandemic: a review of the literature and a single-centre real-life experience of an Italian pediatric oncology unit.

Expert review of anticancer therapy, 23(9):927-942.

INTRODUCTION: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 pandemic significantly affected clinical practice, also in pediatric oncology units. Cancer patients needed to be treated with an adequate dose density despite the SARS-CoV-2 infection, balancing risks of developing severe COVID-19 disease.

AREAS COVERED: Although the pandemic spread worldwide, the prevalence of affected children was low. The percentage of children with severe illness was approximately 1-6%. Pediatric cancer patients represent a prototype of a previously healthy immune system that is hampered by the tumor itself and treatments, such as chemotherapy and steroids. Through a review of the literature, we reported the immunological basis of the response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the existing antiviral treatments used in pediatric cancer patients, and the importance of vaccination. In conclusion, we reported the real-life experience of our pediatric oncology unit during the pandemic period.

EXPERT OPINION: Starting from the data available in literature, and our experience, showing the rarity of severe COVID-19 disease in pediatric patients with solid tumors, we recommend carefully tailoring all the oncological treatments (chemotherapy/targeted therapy/stem cell transplantation/radiotherapy). The aim is the preservation of the treatment's timing, balanced with an evaluation of possible severe COVID-19 disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Bavuso M, Miller N, Sill JM, et al (2023)

Extracellular vesicles in acute respiratory distress syndrome: Understanding protective and harmful signaling for the development of new therapeutics.

Histology and histopathology pii:HH-18-659 [Epub ahead of print].

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a severe respiratory condition characterized by increased lung permeability, hyper-inflammatory state, and fluid leak into the alveolar spaces. ARDS is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple direct and indirect causes that result in a mortality of up to 40%. Due to the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, its incidence has increased up to ten-fold. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small liposome-like particles that mediate intercellular communication and play a major role in ARDS pathophysiology. Indeed, they participate in endothelial barrier dysfunction and permeability, neutrophil, and macrophage activation, and also in the development of a hypercoagulable state. A more thorough understanding of the variegated and cell-specific functions of EVs may lead to the development of safe and effective therapeutics. In this review, we have collected evidence of EVs role in ARDS, revise the main mechanisms of production and internalization and summarize the current therapeutical approaches that have shown the ability to modulate EV signaling.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Gomez F, Mehra A, Ensrud E, et al (2023)

COVID-19: a modern trigger for Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and small fiber neuropathy.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1198327.

COVID-19 infection has had a profound impact on society. During the initial phase of the pandemic, there were several suggestions that COVID-19 may lead to acute and protracted neurologic sequelae. For example, peripheral neuropathies exhibited distinctive features as compared to those observed in critical care illness. The peripheral nervous system, lacking the protection afforded by the blood-brain barrier, has been a particular site of sequelae and complications subsequent to COVID-19 infection, including Guillain-Barre syndrome, myasthenia gravis, and small fiber neuropathy. We will discuss these disorders in terms of their clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment as well as the pathophysiology in relation to COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Haldar S, Jadhav SR, Gulati V, et al (2023)

Unravelling the gut-lung axis: insights into microbiome interactions and Traditional Indian Medicine's perspective on optimal health.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 99(10):.

The microbiome of the human gut is a complex assemblage of microorganisms that are in a symbiotic relationship with one another and profoundly influence every aspect of human health. According to converging evidence, the human gut is a nodal point for the physiological performance matrixes of the vital organs on several axes (i.e. gut-brain, gut-lung, etc). As a result of COVID-19, the importance of gut-lung dysbiosis (balance or imbalance) has been realised. In view of this, it is of utmost importance to develop a comprehensive understanding of the microbiome, as well as its dysbiosis. In this review, we provide an overview of the gut-lung axial microbiome and its importance in maintaining optimal health. Human populations have successfully adapted to geophysical conditions through traditional dietary practices from around the world. In this context, a section has been devoted to the traditional Indian system of medicine and its theories and practices regarding the maintenance of optimally customized gut health.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Patel DK (2023)

Ethnopharmacological Uses, Pharmacological Activities, and Therapeutic Applications of Tectochrysin in Medicine: An Important Class of Dietary Flavonoid.

Cardiovascular & hematological disorders drug targets, 23(1):11-20.

BACKGROUND: Natural products and their derived pure phytochemicals have enormous potential to treat human disorders and associated secondary complications. Natural products are widely consumed by humans due to their rich phytochemical content, diverse therapeutic potential and cost-effectiveness compared to allopathic medicine. Flavonoids are a well-known class of polyphenolic compounds widely present in the plant kingdom. Tectochrysin is an important class of dietary flavonoids present in foods and fruits. Tectochrysin has anti-tumor, anti-Alzheimer's, and antimicrobial activities in medicine. Pharmacological studies have signified the biological application of tectochrysin in health sectors for the treatment of hepatic and gastrointestinal complications.

METHODS: This current review summarizes the updated scientific information on the medicinal importance and pharmacological activities of tectochrysin. Scientific information on tectochrysin was collected from PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Google with some additional resources, including books, dissertations, and scientific reports in the present work. Collected scientific information was further categorized into medicinal uses, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects in the present paper. Furthermore, detailed pharmacological activities of tectochrysin were discussed in the present work, with analytical aspects used for the separation, isolation and identification of tectochrysin in order to explore its therapeutic potential in medicine.

RESULTS: Phytochemical analysis of propolis, Alpinia oxyphylla and Lychnophora markgravii led to the isolation of tectochrysin. This present work signified the anticancer activity of tectochrysin on prostate cancer, human colon cancer, and breast cancer. Moreover, its anti-osteoporosis, antiinflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-diarrheal, and hepatoprotective activity were also discussed in the present work. Further effectiveness of tectochrysin in Alzheimer's disease, SARSCoV- 2, nitric oxide production, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and age-related diseases was further explored in the present work. It has been found that experimental animal data also supports its antimicrobial, anti-oxidant, and metabolic functions. Analytical data indicated its separation, isolation, and identification in different samples.

CONCLUSION: Scientific data presented in this review signifies the biological importance and therapeutic potential of tectochrysin in medicine.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Hall BJ, Duddy JC, Apostolopoulou K, et al (2023)

Intracranial Empyemas in the COVID-19 Era: A New Phenomenon? A Paediatric Case Series and Review of the Literature.

Pediatric neurosurgery, 58(4):215-222.

INTRODUCTION: We present the largest series of paediatric intracranial empyemas occurring after COVID-19 infection to date, and discuss the potential implications of the pandemic on this neurosurgical pathology.

METHODS: Patients admitted to our centre between January 2016 and December 2021 with a confirmed radiological diagnosis of intracranial empyema were retrospectively reviewed, excluding non-otorhinological source cases. Patients were grouped according to onset before or after onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 status. A literature review of all post-COVID-19 intracranial empyemas was performed. SPSS v27 was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Sixteen patients were diagnosed with intracranial empyema: n = 5 prior to 2020 and n = 11 after, resulting in an average annual incidence of 0.3% prior to onset of the pandemic and 1.2% thereafter. Of those diagnosed since the pandemic, 4 (25%) were confirmed to have COVID-19 on recent PCR test. Time from COVID-19 infection until empyema diagnosis ranged from 15 days to 8 weeks. Mean age for post-COVID-19 cases was 8.5 years (range: 7-10 years) compared to 11 years in non-COVID cases (range: 3-14 years). Streptococcus intermedius was grown in all cases of post-COVID-19 empyema, and 3 of 4 (75%) post-COVID-19 cases developed cerebral sinus thromboses, compared to 3 of 12 (25%) non-COVID-19 cases. All cases were discharged home with no residual deficit.

CONCLUSION: Our post-COVID-19 intracranial empyema series demonstrates a greater proportion of cerebral sinus thromboses than non-COVID-19 cases, potentially reflecting the thrombogenic effects of COVID-19. Incidence of intracranial empyema at our centre has increased since the start of the pandemic, causes of which require further investigation and multicentre collaboration.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Ruksakulpiwat S, Zhou W, Niyomyart A, et al (2023)

How does the COVID-19 pandemic impact medication adherence of patients with chronic disease?: A systematic review.

Chronic illness, 19(3):495-513.

OBJECTIVE: To determine how the COVID-19 pandemic impacts patients with chronic disease medication adherence.

METHODS: Four electronic databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and CINAHL Plus Full Text, were searched for literature between 2019 and 2021. Abstracts and later full texts were independently screened by the authors of this review using inclusion and exclusion criteria to determine relevance to our study. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal tools were used to assess the quality of included texts. Relevant information and data from the included texts were extracted into tables for data synthesis and analysis.

RESULTS: Ten studies met the study criteria, the most popular study design was cross-sectional design (n = 9, 90.0%), others were case series (n = 1, 10.0%). Barriers to medication adherence and facilitators of medication adherence were the major two themes that participants reported regarding the impact of COVID-19 on medication adherence. Moreover, these two main themes have been organized in sub-themes that are dealt with in-depth.

DISCUSSION: Our results could heighten healthcare providers, stakeholders, and policy leaders' awareness of providing appropriate support for chronic disease patients, especially regarding medication adherence. Future research incorporating programs that support patients' needs is recommended.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Durrance-Bagale A, Marzouk M, Agarwal S, et al (2022)

Operationalising Regional Cooperation for Infectious Disease Control: A Scoping Review of Regional Disease Control Bodies and Networks.

International journal of health policy and management, 11(11):2392-2403.

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic demonstrates the value of regional cooperation in infectious disease prevention and control. We explored the literature on regional infectious disease control bodies, to identify lessons, barriers and enablers to inform operationalisation of a regional infectious disease control body or network in southeast Asia.

METHODS: We conducted a scoping review to examine existing literature on regional infectious disease control bodies and networks, and to identify lessons that can be learned that will be useful for operationalisation of a regional infectious disease control body such as the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Center for Public Health Emergency and Emerging Diseases.

RESULTS: Of the 57 articles included, 53 (93%) were in English, with two (3%) in Spanish and one (2%) each in Dutch and French. Most were commentaries or review articles describing programme initiatives. Sixteen (28%) publications focused on organisations in the Asian continent, with 14 (25%) focused on Africa, and 14 (25%) primarily focused on the European region. Key lessons focused on organisational factors, diagnosis and detection, human resources, communication, accreditation, funding, and sustainability. Enablers and constraints were consistent across regions/ organisations. A clear understanding of the regional context, budgets, cultural or language issues, staffing capacity and governmental priorities, is pivotal. An initial workshop inclusive of the various bodies involved in the design, implementation, monitoring or evaluation of programmes is essential. Clear governance structure, with individual responsibilities clear from the beginning, will reduce friction. Secure, long-term funding is also a key aspect of the success of any programme.

CONCLUSION: Operationalisation of regional infectious disease bodies and networks is complicated, but with extensive groundwork, and focus on organisational factors, diagnosis and detection, human resources, communication, accreditation, funding, and sustainability, it is achievable. Ways to promote success are to include as many stakeholders as possible from the beginning, to ensure that context-specific factors are considered, and to encourage employees through capacity building and mentoring, to ensure they feel valued and reduce staff turnover.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Lavin A, LeBlanc F, A El Helou (2023)

The impact of COVID-19 on chronic pain.

Frontiers in pain research (Lausanne, Switzerland), 4:1234099.

A reduced quality of life is often a hefty burden that those with chronic pain are left to bear. This review of literature from PubMed, Google Scholar and other relevant studies focuses on the complex relationship between COVID-19 and chronic pain, which is challenging to study during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we will briefly discuss the epidemiologic facts and risk factors, followed by the proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Furthermore, we will cover the therapeutic avenues regarding various molecules and their possible interactions, with the most promising being those whose mechanism of action can be directly linked to the pathophysiologic aspects of the condition. Finally, we will describe how to deal with a chronic pain patient who consults during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Barnes T, M Wilkie (2023)

A learning process to deliver virtual staff training involving patients in shared haemodialysis care.

Clinical kidney journal, 16(Suppl 1):i48-i56.

Shared haemodialysis (HD) care (SHC) is a person-centred approach delivering a flexible choice of options for centre-based HD patients to become more involved in their treatment. To support this, a 4-day course was developed to provide healthcare professionals with the confidence and skills to engage, involve, support and train patients in their care and has been accessed by >700 UK staff over 9 years. The disruption caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in 2020 prompted a revision of what was deliverable within the restrictions. In response to this, we designed, developed and tested a virtual training program that was shorter and more accessible while remaining effective in meeting its core objectives. This provides a greater geographical reach and enables a collaborative team approach with patients and staff learning from and with each other, thus supporting a partnership approach advocated in shared decision making. In this review we explore the learning that informed the virtual training program 2022 and provide qualitative evaluation to demonstrate evidence of understanding, behavioural change and organisational benefit. Using a validated evaluation, we present key themes that support the initiation, development and sustainability of SHC in the form of a roadmap to guide strategic planning.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Ramosaço E, Bajrami N, G Vyshka (2023)

A Theoretical Framework on the Biology of Prion Diseases.

Acta informatica medica : AIM : journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia & Herzegovina : casopis Drustva za medicinsku informatiku BiH, 31(2):141-145.

BACKGROUND: Prion diseases or TSE diseases are a group of neurodegenerative disorders that manifest in several forms in humans, such as Kuru disease, Creutzfeldt‒Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) and fatal familial insomnia.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we propose a multimodular hypothesis of prion diseases. According to this hypothesis, a prion disease manifests because of the interaction of two genetic modules, such as the PRNP gene module and that of the gene or genes responsible for one or more chaperones, with one or some chemical module on whose structure the products of the genes or genetic modules interact.

METHODS: This study presents the perspective that modular thinking can allow us to overcome conceptual obstacles in the understanding and interpretation of prion diseases.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The structure of the chemical module or modules is directly responsible for the folding or misfolding of the PrP[C] protein. The etiology of acquired prion diseases is explained based on this hypothesis. Hence, it has been proposed that (g) CJD involves the PRNP gene mutant and one or more mutant genes for one or more chaperone genes. In contrast, sCJD has one or more mutant chaperone genes. When does iCJD occur? Healthy individuals manifest acquired prion disease through contamination when infected with one or more mutant chaperones. The mutant chaperones interact with the prion protein, and PrP[C] is converted to its isoform PrP[Sc]. In a recent study, there was a case of an individual with CJD after COVID-19 infection.

CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the link between neuroinflammation and protein misfolding and provides proof that chemical module formation is a necessary condition for the manifestation of prion diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Al Meslamani AZ, DH Abdel-Qader (2023)

The Abuse and Misuse of Over-the-Counter Medicines During COVID-19.

Hospital pharmacy, 58(5):437-440.

The abuse and misuse of OTC medicines is a common problem in community pharmacies and is expected to escalate during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is limited research on the patterns, causes, and consequences of these incidents during the pandemic. This article aims to provide evidence-based insights into the potential impact of COVID-19 on the abuse and misuse of OTC medicines, and suggest strategies for reducing these occurrences for pharmacy practitioners and healthcare managers.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Davis MG, Shurney D, Stone T, et al (2023)

HEALing Our Nation - Health Equity Achieved Through Lifestyle Medicine Capturing Highlights From the "HEALing Our Nation" Session at LM2023 and Outlining the Important Work of the HEAL Initiative.

American journal of lifestyle medicine, 17(5):694-703.

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, health equity has been placed front and center in the conversations surrounding healthcare as well other fields. This conversation has also been occurring in the field of lifestyle medicine with an intentional focus on developing solutions at the intersection of lifestyle medicine and health equity. Initiated by a call to action by ACLM Past President Dexter Shurney at the 2019 Lifestyle Medicine conference, the HEAL Initiative was created with that intention, to address health disparities and advance health equity through lifestyle medicine. Since 2019, the HEAL initiative has grown considerably in its work and impact, creating solutions aligned with the AMA strategic planning recommendations as well developing projects that are examples of community engaged-lifestyle medicine. The work of the HEAL initiative culminated in a full circle moment at the 2023 Lifestyle Medicine Conference which featured an interview (facilitated by Dr. Dexter Shurney) with former US Surgeon General Dr. Jerome Adams and review of HEAL's work over the past 3 years. This article will capture the key highlights of the HEALing our Nation opening session and the cumulative work of HEAL Initiative.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

König M, Gollasch M, Y Komleva (2023)

Frailty after COVID-19: The wave after?.

Aging medicine (Milton (N.S.W)), 6(3):307-316.

The COVID-19 pandemic poses an ongoing public health challenge, with a focus on older adults. Given the large number of older persons who have recovered from COVID-19 and reports of long-lasting sequelae, there is reasonable concern that the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a long-term deterioration in the health of older adults, i.e., a potential "wave of frailty." Therefore, it is critical to better understand the circumstances surrounding the development of frailty as a result of COVID-19, as well as the underlying mechanisms and factors contributing to this development. We conducted a narrative review of the most relevant articles published on the association between COVID-19 and frailty through January 2023. Although few studies to date have addressed the effects of COVID-19 on the onset and progression of frailty, the available data suggest that there is indeed an increase in frailty in the elderly as a result of COVID-19. Regarding the underlying mechanisms, a multicausal genesis can be assumed, involving both direct viral effects and indirect effects, particularly from the imposed lockdowns with devastating consequences for the elderly: decreased physical activity, altered diet, sarcopenia, fatigue, social isolation, neurological problems, inflammation, and cardiovascular morbidity are among the possible mediators. Since the COVID-19 pandemic is leading to an increase in frailty in the elderly, there is an urgent need to raise awareness of this still little-known problem of potentially great public health importance and to find appropriate prevention and treatment measures.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Xu T, L Zhang (2023)

Current understanding of nucleoside analogs inhibiting the SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:4385-4394.

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) has become a main target for antiviral therapeutics due to its essential role in viral replication and transcription. Thus, nucleoside analogs structurally resemble the natural RdRp substrate and hold great potential as inhibitors. Until now, extensive experimental investigations have been performed to explore nucleoside analogs to inhibit the RdRp, and concerted efforts have been made to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms further. This review begins by discussing the nucleoside analogs that have demonstrated inhibition in the experiments. Second, we examine the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the action of nucleoside analogs on the SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. Recent findings in structural biology and computational research are presented through the classification of inhibitory mechanisms. This review summarizes previous experimental findings and mechanistic investigations of nucleoside analogs inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 RdRp. It would guide the rational design of antiviral medications and research into viral transcriptional mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Lempesis IG, Georgakopoulou VE, Papalexis P, et al (2023)

Role of stress in the pathogenesis of cancer (Review).

International journal of oncology, 63(5):.

Stress is a state of disrupted homeostasis, triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, the stressors, which are counteracted by various physiological and behavioural adaptive responses. Stress has been linked to cancer development and incidence for decades; however, epidemiological studies and clinical trials have yielded contradictory results. The present review discusses the effects of stress on cancer development and the various underlying mechanisms. Animal studies have revealed a clear link between stress and cancer progression, revealing molecular, cellular and endocrine processes that are implicated in these effects. Thus, stress hormones, their receptor systems and their intracellular molecular pathways mediate the effects of stress on cancer initiation, progression and the development of metastases. The mechanisms linking stress and cancer progression can either be indirect, mediated by changes in the cancer microenvironment or immune system dysregulation, or direct, through the binding of neuroendocrine stress‑related signalling molecules to cancer cell receptors. Stress affects numerous anti‑ and pro‑cancer immune system components, including host resistance to metastasis, tumour retention and/or immune suppression. Chronic psychological stress through the elevation of catecholamine levels may increase cancer cell death resistance. On the whole, stress is linked to cancer development and incidence, with psychological stressors playing a crucial role. Animal studies have revealed a better link than human ones, with stress‑related hormones influencing tumour development, migration, invasion and cell proliferation. Randomized controlled trials are required to further evaluate the long‑term cancer outcomes of stress and its management.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Polykretis P, Donzelli A, Lindsay JC, et al (2023)

Autoimmune inflammatory reactions triggered by the COVID-19 genetic vaccines in terminally differentiated tissues.

Autoimmunity, 56(1):2259123.

As a result of the spread of SARS-CoV-2, a global pandemic was declared. Indiscriminate COVID-19 vaccination has been extended to include age groups and naturally immune people with minimal danger of suffering serious complications due to COVID-19. Solid immuno-histopathological evidence demonstrates that the COVID-19 genetic vaccines can display a wide distribution within the body, affecting tissues that are terminally differentiated and far away from the injection site. These include the heart and brain, which may incur in situ production of spike protein eliciting a strong autoimmunological inflammatory response. Due to the fact that every human cell which synthesises non-self antigens, inevitably becomes the target of the immune system, and since the human body is not a strictly compartmentalised system, accurate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies are needed in order to determine precisely which tissues can be harmed. Therefore, our article aims to draw the attention of the scientific and regulatory communities to the critical need for biodistribution studies for the genetic vaccines against COVID-19, as well as for rational harm-benefit assessments by age group.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Dave B, Shah KC, Chorawala MR, et al (2023)

Molnupiravir: an antiviral drug against COVID-19.

Archives of virology, 168(10):252.

SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, has caused numerous deaths worldwide and poses significant challenges. Researchers have recently studied a new antiviral drug called molnupiravir for treating COVID-19. This review examines the causes and immunopathogenesis of COVID-19, as well as the role of molnupiravir in its treatment. Molnupiravir is a prodrug of β-D-N4-hydroxyctytidine (NHC) and has demonstrated activity against various viruses, including MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, and influenza virus. The active form of molnupiravir, NHC triphosphate, acts as a nucleoside analog that disrupts viral replication by causing mutations in the viral RNA, thereby inhibiting viral growth. This review summarizes the results of multiple clinical trials that have evaluated the effectiveness of molnupiravir against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Animal studies have also shown that molnupiravir significantly reduces the viral load and prevents transmission to other animals. Overall, molnupiravir has demonstrated strong efficacy and reasonable safety, reducing hospitalization rates by nearly 50% among COVID-19-positive individuals at risk of complications. Patients in clinical settings have tolerated molnupiravir well and experienced positive outcomes, such as clearance of viral RNA, decreased viral load, and reduced hospitalization rates. Additionally, compared to a placebo, molnupiravir has been associated with lower mortality rates. Therefore, molnupiravir can be a beneficial drug to treat patients suffering from SARS-CoV-2, and further studies can provide more information about its safety and efficacy.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Osti T, Valz Gris A, Corona VF, et al (2023)

Public health leadership in the COVID-19 era: how does it fit? A scoping review.

BMJ leader pii:leader-2022-000653 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has put a lot of pressure on all the world's health systems and public health leaders who have often found themselves unprepared to handle an emergency of this magnitude. This study aims to bring together published evidence on the qualities required to leaders to deal with a public health issue like the COVID-19 pandemic. This scoping literature review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews checklist. A search of relevant articles was performed in the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases. A total of 2499 records were screened, and 45 articles were included, from which 93 characteristics of effective leadership were extrapolated and grouped into 6 clusters. The qualities most frequently reported in the articles were human traits and emotional intelligence (46.7%) and communication skills such as transparency and reliability (48.9%). Responsiveness and preparedness (40%), management skills (33.3%) and team working (35.6%) are considered by a significant percentage of the articles as necessary for the construction of rapid and effective measures in response to the emergency. A considerable proportion of articles also highlighted the need for leaders capable of making evidence-based decisions and driving innovation (31.1%). Although identifying leaders who possess all the skills described in this study appears complex, determining the key characteristics of effective public health leadership in a crisis, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, is useful not only in selecting future leaders but also in implementing training and education programmes for the public health workforce.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Widmer A, Wiegand K, E Huber (2023)

[If dependency makes vulnerable: Nursing home residents' claims for dignity-conserving nursing care - A narrative literature review].

Pflege, 36(5):277-285.

If dependency makes vulnerable: Nursing home residents' claims for dignity-conserving nursing care - A narrative literature review Abstract. Introduction: Due to an increase in the very old population, it is important to know what is needed in order to support older people's needs regarding dignity-conserving nursing care when living in a nursing home. Aim: The aim of this article is to gather information on how nursing home residents feel respected and protected in regards of their dignity. Methods: A narrative literature review was conducted in the databases CINAHL Complete and PubMed. Six qualitative studies met the inclusion criteria and were compared regarding similarities. Results: The protection of dignity is jeopardized not only by the residents' dependency, but also by nurses, social environment, and society. To protect their own dignity, residents wanted to be perceived as individuals and be treated with respect. Additionally, they wanted to be as independent as possible and take part in meaningful activities. Discussion: Facilitation of staff members as well as flat, peripheral leadership structures are important in order to protect the residents' dignity. The residents' needs regarding social and societal participation has been additionally challenged due to the Covid-19 pandemic. At the same time, the pandemic enforced innovations that may help protect nursing home residents' dignity. Conclusions: These findings can help nurses to protect the dignity of nursing home residents in their daily lives and in the implementation of care measures.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Teran N, Buckley V, Britt RS, et al (2023)

Significant Publications on Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy in 2022.

Journal of pharmacy practice [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose: To provide summarization of the most significant infectious diseases (ID) pharmacotherapy articles published in peer-reviewed literature in 2022. Summary: Members of the Houston Infectious Diseases Network (HIDN) nominated notable articles providing significant contributions to ID pharmacotherapy in 2022. Article nominations included those pertaining to general ID, as well as those including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pharmacotherapy. A total of 71 articles were nominated by HIDN. Members: 68 articles pertaining to general ID pharmacotherapy and 3 articles focusing on HIV/AIDS. To aid selection of the most these most notable articles of 2022, a survey was created and distributed to members of the Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (SIDP). Of the 153 SIDP members who participated in the survey, there were 128 recorded votes for the top 10 general ID pharmacotherapy articles and 30 votes recorded for the top HIV/AIDS article. The most notable publications are summarized. Conclusion: Post pandemic significant advances in antimicrobial stewardship and infectious disease states continues to occur in a world recently focused on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic. Continuous growth in publication of ID-related articles over the past year lends towards the aims of this review to aid clinicians in remaining current on key practice-changing ID pharmacotherapy publications from 2022.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Felkle D, Zięba K, Kaleta K, et al (2023)

Overreactive macrophages in SARS-CoV-2 infection: The effects of ACEI.

International immunopharmacology, 124(Pt A):110858 pii:S1567-5769(23)01183-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Among various factors influencing the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, macrophage overactivation is considered the main cause of the cytokine storm that leads to severe complications of COVID-19. Moreover, the increased expression of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), an obligatory entry receptor of the coronavirus, caused by treatment with ACE inhibitors (ACEI) lowered overall confidence in the safety of these drugs. However, analysis of the course of coronavirus infection in patients treated with ACEI does not support these concerns. Instead, the beneficial effect of ACEI on macrophages has increasingly been emphasized. This includes their anti-inflammatory activation and the consequent reduction in the risk of severe disease and life-threatening complications. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge and understanding of the dual role of macrophages in SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a special focus on the postulated mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of macrophage targeting by ACEI. These seem to involve the stimulation of macrophage angiotensin II type 2 and Mas receptors by angiotensin 1-7, intensively produced due to the up-regulation of ACE2 expression on macrophages, as well as the direct inhibition of macrophage hyper-responsiveness by ACEI. The impact of ACEI on macrophages may also lead to the activation of an effective antiviral response due to the increased expression of ACE2.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Lu J, Wei W, W He (2023)

Regulatory perspective for quality evaluation of lipid nanoparticle-based mRNA vaccines in China.

Biologicals : journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization, 84:101700 pii:S1045-1056(23)00038-6 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, urgent unmet medical needs due to the COVID-19 pandemic have accelerated the application of mRNA technology in vaccine development, leading to some of the first approvals of mRNA vaccines in human history by regulatory agencies around the world. For market authorization, comprehensive chemistry, manufacturing and control (CMC) information is required to assure the safety and quality consistency of mRNA vaccines. Evaluating mRNA vaccines for new virus variants poses a challenge for regulators, given the rapid optimization and development based on prior platform knowledge to accelerate the development process, which is traditionally limited for biological products. Here we summarize the current regulatory considerations of CMC evaluation on mRNA vaccines based on the scientific knowledge available, which will be updated with the advance of mRNA biology and pharmaceutical science.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Hamad A, Elgaali M, Ghonimi T, et al (2023)

From past to present: Exploring COVID-19 in Qatar's hemodialysis population across Omicron dominant and pre-Omicron periods.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291266.

COVID-19 carries a high risk of morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have been identified since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study aimed to compare the incidence and outcomes of the COVID-19 Omicron dominant period versus other pre-Omicron period in hemodialysis patients. In this observational, analytical, retrospective, nationwide study, we reviewed adult chronic hemodialysis patients between March 1, 2020, and January 31, 2022. Four hundred twenty-one patients had COVID-19 during the study period. The incidence of COVID-19 due to the Omicron dominant period was significantly higher than other pre-Omicron period (30.3% vs. 18.7%, P<0.001). In contrast, the admission rate to ICU was significantly lower in the Omicron dominant period than in the pre-Omicron period (2.8% vs. 25%, P<0001) but with no significant difference in ICU length of stay. The mortality rate was lower in the Omicron dominant period compared to the pre-Omicron period (2.4% vs. 15.5%, P<0.001). Using multivariate analysis, older age [OR 1.093 (95% CI 1.044-1.145); P<0.0001] and need for mechanical ventilation [OR 70.4 (95% CI 20.39-243.1); P<0.0001] were identified as two independent risk factors for death in hemodialysis patients with COVID-19. In Conclusion, the COVID-19 Omicron variant had a higher incidence and lower morbidity and mortality than pre-Omicron period in our hemodialysis population.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Tierney AA, Mosqueda M, Cesena G, et al (2023)

Telemedicine Implementation for Safety Net Populations: A Systematic Review.

Telemedicine journal and e-health : the official journal of the American Telemedicine Association [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Telemedicine systems were rapidly implemented in response to COVID-19. However, little is known about their effectiveness, acceptability, and sustainability for safety net populations. This study systematically reviewed primary care telemedicine implementation and effectiveness in safety net settings. Methods: We searched PubMed for peer-reviewed articles on telemedicine implementation from 2013 to 2021. The search was done between June and December 2021. Included articles focused on health care organizations that primarily serve low-income and/or rural populations in the United States. We screened 244 articles from an initial search of 343 articles and extracted and analyzed data from N = 45 articles. Results: Nine (20%) of 45 articles were randomized controlled trials. N = 22 reported findings for at least one marginalized group (i.e., racial/ethnic minority, 65 years+, limited English proficiency). Only n = 19 (42%) included African American/Black patients in demographics descriptions, n = 14 (31%) LatinX/Hispanic patients, n = 4 (9%) Asian patients, n = 4 (9%) patients aged 65+ years, and n = 4 (9%) patients with limited English proficiency. Results show telemedicine can provide high-quality primary care that is more accessible and affordable. Fifteen studies assessed barriers and facilitators to telemedicine implementation. Common barriers were billing/administrative workflow disruption (n = 9, 20%), broadband access/quality (n = 5, 11%), and patient preference for in-person care (n = 4, 9%). Facilitators included efficiency gains (n = 6, 13%), patient acceptance (n = 3, 7%), and enhanced access (n = 3, 7%). Conclusions: Telemedicine is an acceptable care modality to deliver primary care in safety net settings. Future studies should compare telemedicine and in-person care quality and test strategies to improve telemedicine implementation in safety net settings.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Harapan BN, Harapan T, Theodora L, et al (2023)

From Archipelago to Pandemic Battleground: Unveiling Indonesia's COVID-19 Crisis.

Journal of epidemiology and global health [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed unprecedented challenges to countries worldwide, including Indonesia. With its unique archipelagic geography consisting of more than 17,000 thousand islands, Indonesia faces unique complexities in managing the spread of the virus. Based on existing literature, this review article elaborates on key issues that have shaped Indonesia's COVID-19 response. The article begins by examining the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia, along with the implementation of various preventive measures and the impact of the virus on public health. This article examines how Indonesia's socio-economic factors have generally influenced its healthcare system and further delves into the COVID-19 response strategies implemented by the Indonesian government and public health authorities as well as overall crisis preparedness. It discusses the actions taken to control the spread of the virus, including testing strategies and vaccination efforts. The difficulties encountered in implementing these measures are presented. In conclusion, this review article provides a comprehensive understanding of the COVID-19 crisis in Indonesia, covering facts on multiple dimensions ranging from the timeline of the pandemic to vaccination efforts, epidemiology, socio-economic implications, testing strategies, mobility patterns, public holidays, the impact of working from home, and the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine in addition to the standard of care for COVID-19. The insights gained from this article can complement future strategies for pandemic management and response in Indonesia and other countries facing similar challenges.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Saha P, P Talwar (2023)

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF): disease pathophysiology, targets, and potential therapeutic interventions.

Molecular and cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive, degenerative pulmonary condition. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) are the major modulators of IPF that mediate myofibroblast differentiation and promote fibrotic remodeling of the lung. Cigarette smoke, asbestos fiber, drugs, and radiation are known to favor fibrotic remodeling of the lungs. Oxidative stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) also leads to protein misfolding and promotes ER stress, which is predominant in IPF. This phenomenon further results in excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) aggregation, increasing oxidative stress. During protein folding in the ER, thiol groups on the cysteine residue are oxidized and disulfide bonds are formed, which leads to the production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a by-product. With the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER, multiple signaling cascades are initiated by the cell, collectively termed as the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR also induces ROS production within the ER and mitochondria and promotes both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival pathways. The prevalence of post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis (PCPF) is 44.9%, along with an alarming increase in "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19) comorbidities. Fibrotic airway remodeling and declined lung function are the common endpoints of SARS-CoV-2 infection and IPF. Flavonoids are available in our dietary supplements and exhibit medicinal properties. Apigenin is a flavonoid found in plants, including chamomile, thyme, parsley, garlic, guava, and broccoli, and regulates several cellular functions, such as oxidative stress, ER stress, and fibrotic responses. In this study, we focus on the IPF and COVID-19 pathogenesis and the potential role of Apigenin in addressing disease progression.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )