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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 01 Dec 2021 at 01:37 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 21736 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-11-30

Mukherjee T, Behl T, Sharma S, et al (2021)

Anticipated pharmacological role of Aviptadil on COVID-19.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a neuropeptide that is produced by the lymphoid cells and plays a major role in immunological functions for controlling the homeostasis of the immune system. VIP has been identified as a potent anti-inflammatory factor, in boosting both innate and adaptive immunity. Since December 2019, SARS-Cov-2 was found responsible for the disease COVID-19 which has spread worldwide. No specific therapies or 100% effective vaccines are yet available for the treatment of COVID-19. Drug repositioning may offer a strategy and several drugs have been repurposed, including lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, favipiravir, and tocilizumab. This paper describes the main pharmacological properties of synthetic VIP drug (Aviptadil) which is now under clinical trials. A patented formulation of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), named RLF-100 (Aviptadil), was developed and finally got approved for human trials by FDA in 2001 and in European medicines agency in 2005. It was awarded Orphan Drug Designation in 2001 by the US FDA for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome and for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension in 2005. Investigational new drug (IND) licenses for human trials of Aviptadil was guaranteed by both the US FDA and EMEA. Preliminary clinical trials seem to support Aviptadil's benefit. However, such drugs like Aviptadil in COVID-19 patients have peculiar safety profiles. Thus, adequate clinical trials are necessary for these compounds.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Safari I, E Elahi (2021)

Evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 genome and emergence of variants of concern.

Archives of virology [Epub ahead of print].

The high transmission and mortality rates associated with SARS-CoV-2 have led to tragic consequences worldwide. Large-scale whole-genome sequencing of the SARS-CoV-2 genome since its identification in late 2019 has identified many sequence changes and the emergence of novel strains, each described by co-segregation of a particular set of sequence variations. Variants designated G, alpha (B.1.1.7), beta (B.1.351), gamma (P.1), and delta (B.1.617.2) are important lineages that emerged sequentially and are considered variants of concern. A notable feature of the last four, each of which ultimately evolved from clade G, is the large number (≥ 20) of co-segregating sequence variations associated with them. Several variations are in the spike gene, and some variations are shared among or between strains. Meanwhile, observation of recurrent infections with the same or different SARS-CoV-2 lineages has raised concerns about the duration of the immune responses induced by the initial infection or the vaccine that was administered. While the alpha strain is sensitive to immune responses induced by earlier strains, the beta, gamma, and delta strains can escape antibody neutralization. Apart from random replication errors, intra-host RNA editing, chronic infections, and recombination are processes that may promote the accumulation of sequence changes in the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The known contribution of recombination to coronavirus evolution and recent data pertaining to SARS-CoV-2 suggest that recombination may be particularly important. Continued surveillance of the SARS-CoV-2 genome is imperative.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Mohamed K, Rzymski P, Islam MS, et al (2021)

COVID-19 vaccinations: The unknowns, challenges, and hopes.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

The entire world has been suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic since 11 March, 2020. More than a year later, the COVID-19 vaccination brought hope to control this viral pandemic. Here, we review the unknowns of the COVID-19 vaccination, such as its longevity, asymptomatic spread, long-term side effects, and its efficacy on immunocompromised patients. In addition, we discuss challenges associated with the COVID-19 vaccination, such as the global access and distribution of vaccine doses, adherence to hygiene guidelines after vaccination, the emergence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants, and vaccine resistance. Despite all these challenges and the fact that the end of the COVID-19 pandemic is still unclear, vaccines have brought great hope for the world, with several reports indicating a significant decline in the risk of COVID19-related infection and hospitalizations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Falahi S, A Kenarkoohi (2021)

Host Factors and Vaccine Efficacy: Implications for COVID- 19 Vaccines.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

The efficacy of the vaccines varies between individuals and populations. The immunogenicity of the vaccine is influenced by various factors, including host factors. Previous studies have shown that host factors affect the effectiveness of vaccines, which may be true about COVID-19 vaccines. In this review, we evaluate the possible association of host factors with vaccine efficacy with a special focus on COVID-19 vaccines. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Shiravi AA, Ardekani A, Sheikhbahaei E, et al (2021)

Cardiovascular Complications of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines: An Overview.

Cardiology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the deadly disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that has reached pandemic proportions. Currently, there is no definitive treatment for COVID-19, although many vaccines have been developed. The World Health Organization has approved the safety and efficacy of the AstraZeneca/Oxford, Johnson and Johnson/Janssen (JnJ), Moderna, Pfizer/BioNTech, Sinopharm, and Sinovac vaccines so far. The approved formulations of AstraZeneca, JnJ, and Gam-COVID-vac (Sputnik V) contain DNA delivered within non-replicating recombinant adenovirus vector-based systems, while the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines utilize mRNA technology and lipid nanoparticle delivery systems. All of these vaccines encode production of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, ultimately triggering immunity in the human body. COVID-19 causes several cardiovascular complications, such as arrhythmias, myocarditis, pericarditis, and venous thromboembolism. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have been associated with rare, but sometimes fatal, cardiovascular side effects, which are the topics of this review. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in general may cause thromboembolic events, such as cerebral vein thrombosis, and mRNA-based vaccines in particular may cause myocarditis/pericarditis, with the latter more likely to occur in younger adults after the second vaccination dose. Nevertheless, the advantages of these vaccines for ending the pandemic and/or decreasing the mortality rate outweigh any risk for the rare cardiovascular complications.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Sapkota HR, A Nune (2021)

Long COVID from rheumatology perspective - a narrative review.

Clinical rheumatology [Epub ahead of print].

Long-term sequel of acute COVID-19, commonly referred to as long COVID, has affected millions of patients worldwide. Long COVID patients display persistent or relapsing and remitting symptoms that include fatigue, breathlessness, cough, myalgia, arthralgia, sleep disturbance, cognitive impairment and skin rashes. Due to the shared clinical features, laboratory and imaging findings, long COVID could mimic rheumatic disease posing a diagnostic challenge. Our comprehensive literature review will help rheumatologist to be aware of long COVID manifestations and differentiating features from rheumatic diseases to ensure a timely and correct diagnosis is reached.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Albornoz LL, Soroka VD, MCA Silva (2021)

Photo-mediated and advanced oxidative processes applied for the treatment of effluents with drugs used for the treatment of early COVID-19: Review.

Environmental advances, 6:100140.

The COVID-19 pandemic is proving to be one of the most challenging health and social crises ever faced by humanity. Several drugs have been proposed as potential antiviral agents for the treatment of COVID-19 since the beginning of the health crisis. Among them are chloroquine (CQ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), ivermectin (IVM), and the combination of QC or HCQ and azithromycin (AZI). The use of these and several other drugs has grown sharply, even if there is proof of ineffectiveness in the early treatment or mild cases of COVID-19. Thus, there is great concern about the potential environmental impacts of the effluents released with the presence of these drugs. Therefore, this work aimed to carry out a literature review on wastewater treatment processes, focusing on removing these substances through advanced oxidation process. As the conventional effluent treatment processes do not have high efficiency for removal, it was concentrated in the literature that had as scope advanced and photo-mediated techniques to remove CQ, HCQ, IVM, and AZI. It is expected, with this work, to highlight the importance of conducting research that contributes to the control of pollution and contamination.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Leik NKO, Ahmedy F, Guad RM, et al (2021)

Covid-19 vaccine and its consequences in pregnancy: Brief review.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 72:103103.

Pregnancy is linked to a higher incidence of severe Covid-19. It's critical to find safe vaccinations that elicit protective pregnant and fetal immune responses. This review summarises the rate of COVID-19 infection, maternal antibodies responsiveness, placenta antibody transmission, and adverse events after COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy studied in epidemiological studies evaluating mRNA vaccines. Potential COVID-19 infection in pregnant women can be prevented using mRNA-based vaccinations. Gestation, childbirth, and perinatal mortality were proven unaffected by COVID-19 vaccination. Injection-site discomfort, tiredness, and migraine are the most prevalent side effects, but these are temporary. After the first dosage of vaccinations, fast antibody responses were demonstrated. The adaptive immunity is found to be more significant after booster vaccination, and is linked to improved placental antigen transmission. Two vaccination doses are associated with more robust maternal and fetal antibody levels. Longer delays between the first immunization dosage and birth are linked to greater fetal IgG antibody levels with reduction in antigen transmission proportion. The mRNA vacciness are effective in reducing the severity of COVID-19 infection and these vaccinations are regarded to be safe options for pregnant women and their unborn fetus.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Chmielewska AM, Czarnota A, Bieńkowska-Szewczyk K, et al (2021)

Immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants: the role of neutralization assays.

NPJ vaccines, 6(1):142.

Since the emergence of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has hindered social life and global economic activity. As of July 2021, SARS-CoV-2 has caused over four million deaths. The rapid spread and high mortality of the disease demanded the international scientific community to develop effective vaccines in a matter of months. However, unease about vaccine efficacy has arisen with the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Time- and cost-efficient in vitro neutralization assays are widely used to measure neutralizing antibody responses against VOCs. However, the extent to which in vitro neutralization reflects protection from infection remains unclear. Here, we describe common neutralization assays based on infectious and pseudotyped viruses and evaluate their role in testing neutralizing responses against new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Additionally, we briefly review the recent findings on the immune response elicited by available vaccines against major SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Brierley J, Cave E, D Archard (2021)

Ethical advice in paediatric care.

Archives of disease in childhood pii:archdischild-2021-322671 [Epub ahead of print].

The need for local ethics advice during the COVID-19 pandemic has put a spotlight on clinical ethics committees (CECs) and services. In this review, we focus on paediatric CECs that raise both generic questions and specific issues. In doing this, we acknowledge the broader roles of education, research and staff support some bioethics teams have developed but focus on the main areas of clinical ethics support to clinical teams. We raise 12 questions about the role, remit and responsibilities of CECs, provide preliminary answers to these and set out the next steps for the development of ethics support both in paediatric practice and more generally.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Han X, Xu J, Hou H, et al (2021)

Impact of asthma on COVID-19 mortality in the United States: Evidence based on a meta-analysis.

International immunopharmacology pii:S1567-5769(21)01026-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of asthma on the risk for mortality among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in the United States by a quantitative meta-analysis.

METHODS: A random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). I2 statistic, sensitivity analysis, Begg's test, meta-regression and subgroup analyses were also performed.

RESULTS: The data based on 56 studies with 426,261 COVID-19 patients showed that there was a statistically significant association between pre-existing asthma and the reduced risk for COVID-19 mortality in the United States (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74-0.91). Subgroup analyses by age, male proportion, sample size, study design and setting demonstrated that pre-existing asthma was associated with a significantly reduced risk for COVID-19 mortality among studies with age ≥ 60 years old (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87), male proportion ≥ 55% (OR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.72-0.87), male proportion < 55% (OR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.69-0.95), sample sizes ≥ 700 cases (OR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.71-0.91), retrospective study/case series (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.75-0.89), prospective study (OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.98) and hospitalized patients (OR: 0.82, 95% CI: 0.74-0.91). Meta-regression did reveal none of factors mentioned above were possible reasons of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis indicated the robustness of our findings. No publication bias was detected in Begg's test (P = 0.4538).

CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated pre-existing asthma was significantly associated with a reduced risk for COVID-19 mortality in the United States.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Robertson JS, Loizides U, Adisa A, et al (2021)

International Nonproprietary Names (INN) for novel vaccine substances: A matter of safety.

Vaccine pii:S0264-410X(21)01528-0 [Epub ahead of print].

International Nonproprietary Names (INN) are assigned by the World Health Organization (WHO) to pharmaceutical substances to ensure global recognition by a unique name. INN facilitate safe prescribing through naming consistency, efficient communication and exchange of information, transnational access and pharmacovigilance of medicinal products. Traditional vaccines such as inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines have not been assigned INN and provision of a general name falls within the scope of the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS). However, novel vaccines that contain well-defined active ingredients such as nucleic acids or recombinant proteins fulfil the criteria to be assigned INN. In the current environment where multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are being developed to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and with virus variants emerging, assigning INN to well-defined vaccine substances will strengthen pharmacovigilance and ultimately enhance the safety of vaccine recipients. This article examines the background to INN for vaccines and explains the applicability and value of assigning INN to novel well-defined vaccines.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Lutz M, Arancibia M, Papuzinski C, et al (2021)

[Immunosenescence, viral infections and nutrition: A narrative review of scientific available evidence].

Revista espanola de geriatria y gerontologia pii:S0211-139X(21)00148-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Aging of the immune system, or immunosenescence, alters the viral immune response in the elderly, especially when frailty exists. Research findings have demonstrated an imbalance in pro- and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reduced production and diversification of T lymphocytes, and an alteration in immunovigilance and antibody synthesis. In this context, nutrition has a role in combating sarcopenia and frailty. Some food components that contribute to immune-competence are protein, vitamin D, n-3 fatty acids, antioxidant vitamins (vitamins C and E), zinc, selenium and iron. In times of a pandemic, nutritional recommendations for immune-competence in the elderly should be based on clinical studies. In this article, immunosenescence and its relationship to nutrition are addressed, including interventions studied in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Imtiaz S, Nafeh F, Russell C, et al (2021)

The impact of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on drug overdose-related deaths in the United States and Canada: a systematic review of observational studies and analysis of public health surveillance data.

Substance abuse treatment, prevention, and policy, 16(1):87.

BACKGROUND: There are preliminary indications that the trajectory of drug overdose-related deaths in North America has been exacerbated due to the novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19). As such, the impact of COVID-19 on drug overdose-related deaths was examined through a systematic review of the literature and percentage change analyses of surveillance data.

METHODS: Systematic searches in electronic databases were conducted, a topical issue brief and bibliography were reviewed, reference lists of included studies were searched and expert consultations were held to identify studies (Registration # CRD42021230223). Observational studies from the United States and Canada were eligible for inclusion if drug overdose-related deaths were assessed in quantitative or qualitative analyses onwards from at least March 2020. In addition, percentage changes comparing drug overdose-related deaths in the second annual quarter (Q2 2020 [April to June]) with the first annual quarter (Q1 2020 [January to March]) were generated using national and subnational data from public health surveillance systems and reports from jurisdictions in the United States and Canada.

RESULTS: Nine studies were included in the systematic review, eight from the United States and one from Canada. The maximum outcome assessment period in the included studies extended until September 2020. Drug overdose-related deaths after the onset of COVID-19 were higher compared with the months leading up to the pandemic in 2020 and the comparative months in 2019. In additional percentage change analyses, drug overdose-related deaths increased by 2 to 60% in jurisdictions in the United States and by 58% in Canada when comparing Q2 2020 with Q1 2020.

CONCLUSIONS: Drug overdose-related deaths increased after the onset of COVID-19. The current situation necessitates a multi-pronged approach, encompassing expanded access to substance use disorder treatment, undisrupted access to harm reduction services, emphasis on risk reduction strategies, provision of a safe drug supply and decriminalization of drug use.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Socolov R, Akad M, Păvăleanu M, et al (2021)

The Rare Case of a COVID-19 Pregnant Patient with Quadruplets and Postpartum Severe Pneumonia. Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 57(11):.

Background and Objectives: The multiple pregnancies associated with COVID-19 is a new and difficult condition to manage. The prognosis for rapid deterioration after the cesarean delivery is difficult to assess and needs close interdisciplinary follow-up due to pregnancy and postpartum-related changes. Materials and Methods: We report the case of a 37-year-old primigesta primipara patient who was admitted to "Elena Doamna" Clinical Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 33 weeks and 3 days of gestation with high-grade multiple pregnancies (triplets) for threatened premature birth associated with COVID-19. The patient had a history of surgically corrected atrial septal defect during childhood and currently is known to have paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Tocolysis was ineffective and the decision to perform a cesarean operation was made. The diagnosis was established: primigesta, primipara, at 34 weeks of gestation, high-grade multiple pregnancy with triplets, intact membranes, threatened premature birth, surgically corrected atrial septal defect, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, infection with COVID-19. The patient underwent a cesarean intervention and treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia. The intervention took place at 33 weeks and 4 days of gestation resulting in four newborns with weights between 1400 g and 1820 g and Apgar scores between 6-8. All newborns were transferred to a third-degree Neonatology ICU service due to their prematurity. The fourth newborn was not identified in any of the ultrasounds performed during pregnancy. During the postpartum period, the patient had a fulminant evolution of COVID-19 pneumonia, with rapid deterioration, needing respiratory support and antiviral treatment. Discussions: Managing high-risk obstetrical pregnancies associated with COVID-19 requires a multidisciplinary team consisting of obstetricians, anesthesiologists, neonatologists, and infectious disease doctors. Conclusion: Our case is the first to our knowledge in Romania to present an association of high-grade multiple pregancy with COVID19 moderate form, rapidly evolving postpartum, needing rapid intensive care admission, and specific treatment with Remdesivir, with good post-treatment evolution.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Yukich J, Worges M, Gage AJ, et al (2021)

Projecting the Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Child Marriage.

The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 69(6S):S23-S30.

PURPOSE: The study projects the potential impact of COVID-19 on child marriage in the five countries in which the burden of child marriage is the largest: Bangladesh, Brazil, Ethiopia, India, and Nigeria.

METHODS: The projected impact of the pandemic on child marriage is based on a Markov model. A review of empirical and theoretical literature informed construction and parameter estimates of five pathways through which we expect an elevated marriage hazard: death of a parent, interruption of education, pregnancy risk, household income shocks, and reduced access to programs and services. Models are produced for an unmitigated scenario and a mitigated scenario in which effective interventions are applied to reduce the impact.

RESULTS: The total number of excess child marriages in these five countries could range from 3.5 million to 4.9 million in the unmitigated scenario and from 1.8 million to 2.7 million in the mitigated scenario. The elevated risk compared with the baseline projection would continue until 2035.

CONCLUSIONS: These projections represent the impact in five countries that account for 50% of child marriages globally, implying that if similar patterns hold, we might expect the number of excess child marriages due to the pandemic to reach 7 million to 10 million globally. These estimates are necessarily subject to high levels of uncertainty because of limited evidence on the impacts in relation to child marriage and for parameter estimates. It will likely take years to understand the full impact of the pandemic. Despite these limitations, the potential for harm is unquestionably large.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Fawcett L (2021)

The Middle East and COVID-19: time for collective action.

Globalization and health, 17(1):133.

Revised: Nov 6 2021The shortfalls of multilateral and regional organizations in respect of handling the COVID-19 pandemic have been well rehearsed by scholars and policy makers in multiple publications and statements. While the World Health Organization (WHO) and its regional offices have coordinated global responses, regional organizations, like the European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, or African Union, have played complementary roles. However, the response of different regions has varied, revealing multiple deficits in the structures of regional governance. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is a region affected by chronic ongoing conflicts and serious inequalities in health and welfare provision, reflected in the absence of concerted responses to the pandemic. Its young population has meant lower comparative mortality rates, but the socio-economic spill-over effects are grave in terms of interrupted education, high unemployment, particularly in respect to vulnerable communities like refugees and migrant workers. With the current situation remaining critical, this paper reviews the impact of COVID-19 on MENA and considers the variable performance of states and institutions to the pandemic, highlighting the shortfalls, but also opportunities for collective action. Drawing on data from the WHO, United Nations (UN), regional organizations, media and secondary sources, it first discusses the wider global-regional context; second, reviews the actions of regional bodies, like the League of Arab States, Gulf Cooperation Council and the cross-regional Organization of Islamic Cooperation; and third, looks at some country-specific situations where both evidence of good practice and the absence of appropriate regional level provision have exposed deep regional divides. It concludes with a call for more collaboration between states and international organizations: better regional coordination is urgently needed to supplement existing multilateral efforts. A collective local response to the COVID-19 pandemic could help transcend regional divides and spur much-needed security cooperation in other areas.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Mullin DJ, Pearson S, Eisdorfer E, et al (2021)

Prevention of psychological trauma among health care providers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Families, systems & health : the journal of collaborative family healthcare, 39(3):518-525.

The COVID-19 pandemic presented unique biological, psychological, and social threats to health care providers. The failure of local macrosystems placed providers at elevated risk of psychological and physical harm. To reduce the immediate risk of trauma to our local physician workforce, our team initiated a program of proactive psychological first aid in which physicians were regularly contacted by behavioral health colleagues to assess safety conditions and physician's well-being. When threats to the physician's safety were identified, these concerns were escalated to leadership and addressed when possible. When threats to well-being were identified, behavioral health team members provided supportive listening, and, if indicated, provided referral information for appropriate treatment resources. This paper reviews the rationale for this program, addresses ethical concerns, and proposes future directions for responding to threats to safety during events such as the COVID-19 pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Anis S, Masood Khan M, Ali Z, et al (2021)

REVIEW-Novel corona virus disease (COVID-19): An updated review on epidemiology, pathogenicity, clinical course, treatments, migrant health concerns and risk factors predictions.

Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 34(5):1821-1836.

The COVID-19 epidemic is considered the most important health disaster of the century and the largest humanitarian crisis since World War II. In December 2019, a new respiratory disease/disorder was discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province, China and World Health Organization named it COVID-19 (coronavirus 2019). It has been diagnosed with a new class of corona virus, called SARS-CoV-2 (a serious respiratory disease). According to the history of human civilization it is affected by the incidence of disease outbreaks caused by the number of viruses. Covid-19 is rapidly spreading across the globe, due to which mankind faces major health, economic, environmental and social challenges. The outbreak of coronavirus is seriously affecting the global economy. Almost all nations have problems limiting the spread of the disease by screening and treating patients, setting up suspects by keeping in touch, blocking large gatherings, maintaining full or partial closure etc. This paper describes the impact of COVID-19 on society and the global environment, and the ways in which the disease is likely to be controlled have been discussed.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Munir MU, Salman S, Ahmed A, et al (2021)

REVIEW- Covid-19: Diagnosis, summary of essays and evolving approaches.

Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 34(5):1813-1820.

COVID-19 spread worldwide after its outbreak in December 2019. This review paper aims to educate the readers regarding SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic and detection tools and the issues experienced by researchers. We identify on-the-horizon point-of-care diagnostic tests and inspire scholars to develop their innovations past conception. It will also effectively avoid potential pandemics to establish plug-and-play diagnostic information to handle the SARS infection. The authors agree that arbitrary-access, interconnected systems with flexible functionality accessible at the point-of-care, would enable fast and precise diagnosis and tracking.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Arshad B, Iqbal T, Bhatti KP, et al (2021)

Review-Insights into Off-Label therapeutic strategies against mild and severe COVID-19 infection.

Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 34(4):1469-1484.

Currently, prevention and control of the coronavirus disease pneumonia epidemic situation are grim globally. To cope with total sheer carriers and patients of COVID-19 requires intensive medical support and adjunctive therapies to overcome the disease. The epidemic can be controlled with the help of both, disease suppression via community health measures and adjunctive therapies for patients suffering from infection. Till date, we do not have any proper anti-COVID-19 therapy. In order to achieve the overall realization of this pandemic, there is a need to identify treatments depending upon their direct or indirect targets; like inhibition of polyprotein synthesis, transmembrane serine protease, inhibition of viral entry and endocytosis. This could be possible by turning the focus in the direction towards the development of numerous tentative drugs, particularly in the severe to badly ill. Though, majority of these off-label adjunctive medicines are being inspected in a lot of clinical trials at different stages, scientific organizations have endeavored to elucidate the situation where these adjunctive drugs might be practiced as off-label, open- label or compassionate. Our review compiles the adjunctive therapies adopted in COVID-19 infected patients according to clinical severity in conjugation with practicing recommendations from existing guidance rules issued by global professional bodies in healthcare.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Crawshaw H, Wells M, Austin K, et al (2022)

Patient reported outcomes in systemic vasculitis.

Current opinion in rheumatology, 34(1):33-38.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review paper evaluates the use of patient reported outcome (PROs) in systemic vasculitis and the increasing incorporation of these measures in the evaluation of clinical outcomes and healthcare provision.

RECENT FINDINGS: Generic PROs such as the SF-12, SF-36, EQ-5D have been used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) across the spectrum of vasculitis; including giant cell arteritis, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-related vasculitis and immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgA) vasculitis. More recently disease-specific PROs have been developed including the associated vasculitis (AAV)-PRO and GCA-PRO, whilst further work is ongoing including a Steroid-PRO.

SUMMARY: Generic and disease-specific PROs are complimentary in nature, but the advent of disease-specific PROs allows evaluation of the impact of specific symptoms and intervention on patient HRQOL. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the advent of increasing virtual work has brought the potential for electronic-PRO measures to the forefront and is a current area of interest.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Mohammad M, Emin M, Bhutta A, et al (2021)

Cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19 infection: state of the art review.

Expert review of cardiovascular therapy, 19(10):881-889.

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 infection is associated with many different systemic complications. Among these, cardiovascular system complications are particularly important as these are associated with significant mortality. There are many different subgroups of cardiovascular complications, with Arrhythmias being one of them. Arrhythmias are especially important as there are a substantial percentage of patients who have arrhythmia after a COVID-19 infection, and these patients are seen with an increased mortality rate. The main interest of this review is understanding some of the specific post-COVID-19 arrhythmic complications and their predisposing factors.

AREAS COVERED: This paper will highlight the findings of studies on cardiovascular system disease after COVID-19 infection, different specific arrhythmic complications of COVID-19, and changes in electrophysiologic interventions post-COVID-19 outbreak in different centers around the world. An extensive literature search was made to find pertinent articles.

EXPERT OPINION: Studies show us that a significant percentage of COVID-19 patients have arrhythmia. Many distinct types of arrhythmias are associated with COVID-19 infection, and specific risk factors of these arrhythmias are important as this information can be used to detect and prioritize certain at-risk patients for early treatment, which can mean life or death in some cases.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Alhassan E, Siaton BC, MC Hochberg (2022)

Did COVID-19 impact osteoarthritis - clinical perspective?.

Current opinion in rheumatology, 34(1):68-72.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on patients with osteoarthritis (OA).

RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively affected patients with OA irrespective of them contracting the infection. Patients with OA had a disruption in access to the healthcare system, which resulted in delays in joint replacement surgeries from cancellations of elective surgical procedures. On the other hand, the pandemic accelerated the drive towards telemedicine and telerehabilitation, with many nonurgent services being delivered remotely whenever possible. Cross-sectional studies showed that the majority of patients with OA were willing to accept the increased risks of contracting the COVID-19 infection and proceed with elective joint replacement surgeries.

SUMMARY: The American College of Rheumatology and the European League Against Rheumatism issued guidelines for managing immune-mediated rheumatic diseases during the pandemic. However, these guidelines did not include recommendations for patients with OA.Healthcare providers, including physical therapists, should aim to schedule more frequent telemedicine follow-up appointments to maximize medical management while patients await elective joint procedures.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Elbendary A, Abdel-Halim MRE, G Ragab (2022)

Updates in cutaneous manifestations of systemic vasculitis.

Current opinion in rheumatology, 34(1):25-32.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The main purpose of this review is to present newly reported cutaneous manifestations of systemic vasculitis, updates in investigations to verify systemic involvement in cases with cutaneous vasculitis and new therapeutic guidelines. The spectrum of COVID-19-related vasculitis is also covered.

RECENT FINDINGS: Only a few reports highlighted new cutaneous presentations or associations with some systemic vasculitic entities. For example, the association of inflammatory disorders with Takayasu arteritis, the importance of considering Kawasaki disease in febrile children with erythema nodosum, the development of necrotic ulcers on fingers and toes in Behçet's disease and the possible presence of polyarteritis nodosa-like pathological features in vulvar ulcers of Behçet's disease. New attempts to classify cutaneous manifestations of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) and the diagnostic investigations for cutaneous vasculitis cases to verify systemic involvement are discussed. Treatment of systemic vasculitis with cutaneous vasculitis should be tailored according to disease status. A plethora of reports in the past 2 years focused on the broad spectrum of COVID-19 vasculitic manifestations.

SUMMARY: Although newly reported cutaneous manifestations of systemic vasculitis are relatively uncommon, the plethora of reports in the past 2 years on COVID-19 vasculitis necessitates the expansion of the classification of vasculitis associated with probable cause to include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2) vasculitis.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Marquès M, JL Domingo (2022)

Positive association between outdoor air pollution and the incidence and severity of COVID-19. A review of the recent scientific evidences.

Environmental research, 203:111930.

In June 2020, we published a review focused on assessing the influence of various air pollutants on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and the severity of COVID-19 in patients infected by the coronavirus. The results of most of those reviewed studies suggested that chronic exposure to certain air pollutants might lead to more severe and lethal forms of COVID-19, as well as delays/complications in the recovery of the patients. Since then, a notable number of studies on this topic have been published, including also various reviews. Given the importance of this issue, we have updated the information published since our previous review. Taking together the previous results and those of most investigations now reviewed, we have concluded that there is a significant association between chronic exposure to various outdoor air pollutants: PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2, SO2 and CO, and the incidence/risk of COVID-19 cases, as well as the severity/mortality of the disease. Unfortunately, studies on the potential influence of other important air pollutants such as VOCs, dioxins and furans, or metals, are not available in the scientific literature. In relation to the influence of outdoor air pollutants on the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, although the scientific evidence is much more limited, some studies point to PM2.5 and PM10 as potential airborne transmitters of the virus. Anyhow, it is clear that environmental air pollution plays an important negative role in COVID-19, increasing its incidence and mortality.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Taylor L, Dyer T, Al-Azzawi M, et al (2022)

Extended reality anatomy undergraduate teaching: A literature review on an alternative method of learning.

Annals of anatomy = Anatomischer Anzeiger : official organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft, 239:151817.

BACKGROUND: The majority of undergraduate anatomy learning has shifted online, or to a mixture of virtual and face-to-face teaching, due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Cadaveric shortages have also influenced the need for alternative methods of anatomical education. This study examines the current literature on the use of extended reality technologies (XR) such as Virtual reality (VR), Augmented reality (AR), and Mixed reality (MR) for anatomy teaching and explores its potential for implementation in medical education.

METHODS: A literature review was performed of PubMed, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Springer databases. Included studies were assessed for user satisfaction, perceived effectiveness, cost, acceptability and side effects.

RESULTS: The database search identified 1687 papers, of which 45 papers were included in this review. Both AR and VR had high rates of satisfaction and acceptability as a supplementary teaching aid amongst undergraduate participants. AR was found to have higher effectiveness than VR. VR is more expensive than AR. Results and comparisons were limited due to short length of study.

CONCLUSIONS: VR is a popular choice with undergraduates as an aid to supplement teaching, in spite of the associated cost and side effects such as nausea. AR has shown the most potential for independent study. Larger and long-term studies are required to determine true effectiveness, and consideration of the clinical relevance of these technologies.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Sharma A, Kontodimas K, M Bosmann (2021)

The MAVS Immune Recognition Pathway in Viral Infection and Sepsis.

Antioxidants & redox signaling, 35(16):1376-1392.

Significance: It is estimated that close to 50 million cases of sepsis result in over 11 million annual fatalities worldwide. The pathognomonic feature of sepsis is a dysregulated inflammatory response arising from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections. Immune recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns is a hallmark of the host immune defense to combat microbes and to prevent the progression to sepsis. Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a ubiquitous adaptor protein located at the outer mitochondrial membrane, which is activated by the cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation associated gene 5 (MDA5), following binding of viral RNA agonists. Recent Advances: Substantial progress has been made in deciphering the activation of the MAVS pathway with its interacting proteins, downstream signaling events (interferon [IFN] regulatory factors, nuclear factor kappa B), and context-dependent type I/III IFN response. Critical Issues: In the evolutionary race between pathogens and the host, viruses have developed immune evasion strategies for cleavage, degradation, or blockade of proteins in the MAVS pathway. For example, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) M protein and ORF9b protein antagonize MAVS signaling and a protective type I IFN response. Future Directions: The role of MAVS as a sensor for nonviral pathogens, host cell injury, and metabolic perturbations awaits better characterization in the future. New technical advances in multidimensional single-cell analysis and single-molecule methods will accelerate the rate of new discoveries. The ultimate goal is to manipulate MAVS activities in the form of immune-modulatory therapies to combat infections and sepsis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 35, 1376-1392.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Hartig M, Stephens C, Foster A, et al (2021)

Stopping the COVID-19 pandemic in dental offices: A review of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and cross-infection prevention.

Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 246(22):2381-2390.

Due to the essential role of dentists in stopping the COVID-19 pandemic, the purpose of this review is to help dentists to detect any weaknesses in their disinfection and cross-contamination prevention protocols, and to triage dental treatments to meet the needs of patients during the pandemic. We used PRISMA to identify peer-reviewed publications which supplemented guidance from the center for disease control about infection control and guidelines for dentists. Dentists must triage dental treatments to meet the needs of patients during the pandemic. The ongoing pandemic has changed the practice of dentistry forever, the changes make it more cumbersome, time-consuming, and costly due to the possible pathways of transmission and mitigation steps needed to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Dental chairside rapid tests for SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. Until then, dentists need to screen patients for COVID-19 even though 75% of people with COVID-19 have no symptoms. Despite the widespread anxiety and fear of the devastating health effects of COVID-19, only 61% of dentists have implemented a change to their treatment protocols. As an urgent matter of public health, all dentists must identify the additional steps they can take to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The most effective steps to stop the pandemic in dental offices are to; vaccinate all dentists, staff, and patients; triage dental treatments for patients, separate vulnerable patients, separate COVID-19 patients, prevent cross-contamination, disinfect areas touched by patients, maintain social distancing, and change personal protective equipment between patients.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Berry G, Parsons A, Morgan M, et al (2022)

A review of methods to reduce the probability of the airborne spread of COVID-19 in ventilation systems and enclosed spaces.

Environmental research, 203:111765.

COVID-19 forced the human population to rethink its way of living. The threat posed by the potential spread of the virus via an airborne transmission mode through ventilation systems in buildings and enclosed spaces has been recognized as a major concern. To mitigate this threat, researchers have explored different technologies and methods that can remove or decrease the concentration of the virus in ventilation systems and enclosed spaces. Although many technologies and methods have already been researched, some are currently available on the market, but their effectiveness and safety concerns have not been fully investigated. To acquire a broader view and collective perspective of the current research and development status, this paper discusses a comprehensive review of various workable technologies and methods to combat airborne viruses, e.g., COVID-19, in ventilation systems and enclosed spaces. These technologies and methods include an increase in ventilation, high-efficiency air filtration, ionization of the air, environmental condition control, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation, non-thermal plasma and reactive oxygen species, filter coatings, chemical disinfectants, and heat inactivation. Research gaps have been identified and discussed, and recommendations for applying such technologies and methods have also been provided in this article.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Trehan I, Kivlehan SM, Balhara KS, et al (2021)

Global emergency medicine: A scoping review of the literature from 2020.

Academic emergency medicine : official journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine, 28(11):1328-1340.

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to identify, screen, highlight, review, and summarize some of the most rigorously conducted and impactful original research (OR) and review articles (RE) in global emergency medicine (EM) published in 2020 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature.

METHODS: A broad systematic search of peer-reviewed publications related to global EM indexed on PubMed and in the gray literature was conducted. The titles and abstracts of the articles on this list were screened by members of the Global Emergency Medicine Literature Review (GEMLR) Group to identify those that met our criteria of OR or RE in the domains of disaster and humanitarian response (DHR), emergency care in resource-limited settings (ECRLS), and EM development. Those articles that met these screening criteria were then scored using one of three scoring templates appropriate to the article type. Those articles that scored in the top 5% then underwent in-depth narrative summarization.

RESULTS: The 2020 GEMLR search initially identified 35,970 articles, more than 50% more than last year's search. From these, 364 were scored based on their full text. Nearly three-fourths of the scored articles constituted OR, of which nearly three-fourths employed quantitative research methods. Nearly 10% of the articles identified this year were directly related to COVID-19. Research involving ECRLS again constituted most of the articles in this year's review, accounting for more than 60% of the literature scored. A total of 20 articles underwent in-depth narrative critiques.

CONCLUSIONS: The number of studies relevant to global EM identified by our search was very similar to that of last year. Revisions to our methodology to identify a broader range of research were successful in identifying more qualitative research and studies related to DHR. The number of COVID-19-related articles is likely to continue to increase in subsequent years.

RevDate: 2021-11-30
CmpDate: 2021-11-30

Noone C, Warner NZ, Byrne M, et al (2021)

A scoping review of research on the determinants of adherence to social distancing measures during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Health psychology review, 15(3):350-370.

This scoping review focused on answering key questions about the focus, quality and generalisability of the quantitative evidence on the determinants of adherence to social distancing measures in research during the first wave of COVID-19. The review included 84 studies. The majority of included studies were conducted in Western Europe and the USA. Many lacked theoretical input, were at risk for bias, and few were experimental in design. The most commonly coded domains of the TDF in the included studies were 'Environmental Context and Resources' (388 codes across 76 studies), 'Beliefs about Consequences' (34 codes across 21 studies), 'Emotion' (28 codes across 12 studies), and 'Social Influences' (26 codes across 16 studies). The least frequently coded TDF domains included 'Optimism' (not coded), 'Intentions' (coded once), 'Goals' (2 codes across 2 studies), 'Reinforcement' (3 codes across 2 studies), and 'Behavioural Regulation' (3 codes across 3 studies). Examining the focus of the included studies identified a lack of studies on potentially important determinants of adherence such as reinforcement, goal setting and self-monitoring. The quality of the included studies was variable and their generalisablity was threatened by their reliance on convenience samples.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Langford BJ, So M, Leung V, et al (2021)

Predictors and microbiology of respiratory and bloodstream bacterial infection in patients with COVID-19: living rapid review update and meta-regression.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(21)00636-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors and microbiology associated with respiratory and bloodstream bacterial infection in patients with COVID-19.

METHODS: Data Sources: We searched MEDLINE, OVID Epub and EMBASE for published literature up to February 5, 2021.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies including at least 50 patients with COVID-19 in any healthcare setting. Assessment of risk of Bias: We used a validated 10-item risk of bias tool for disease prevalence Methods of data synthesis: The main outcome of interest was the proportion of COVID-19 patients with bloodstream and/or respiratory bacterial co-infection and secondary infection. We performed meta-regression to identify study population factors associated with bacterial infection including healthcare setting, age, comorbidities and COVID-19 medication.

RESULTS: Out of 33,345 studies screened, 171 were included in the final analysis. Bacterial infection data were available from 171,262 patients. The prevalence of co-infection was 5.1% (95% CI: 3.6% to 7.1%) and secondary infection was 13.1% (95% CI: 9.8% to 17.2%). There was a higher odds of bacterial infection in studies with a higher proportion of patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) (adjusted OR 18.8, 95% CI: 6.5 to 54.8). Female sex was associated with a lower odds of secondary infection (adjusted OR 0.73, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.97) but not co-infection (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.37). The most common organisms isolated included Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococci, and Klebsiella species.

CONCLUSIONS: While the odds of respiratory and bloodstream bacterial infection are low in patients with COVID-19, meta-regression revealed potential risk factors for infection, including ICU setting and mechanical ventilation. The risk for secondary infection is substantially greater than the risk for co-infection in patients with COVID-19. Understanding predictors of co-infection and secondary infection may help to support improved antibiotic stewardship in patients with COVID-19.

REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (ID CRD42021241098).

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Fathi Karkan S, Baladi RM, Shahgolzari M, et al (2021)

The Evolving Direct and Indirect platforms for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2.

Journal of virological methods pii:S0166-0934(21)00320-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 by standard screening measures can reduce the chance of COVID-19 spread before the symptoms become severe. Detecting viral RNA and antigens, anti-viral antibodies, and CT-scan are the most routine diagnostic methods. Accordingly, several diagnostic platforms including thermal and isothermal amplifications, CRISPR/Cas‑based approaches, digital PCR, ELISA, NGS, and point-of-care testing methods with variable sensitivities, have been developed that may facilitate managing and preventing the further spread of the infection. Here, we summarized the currently available direct and indirect testing platforms in research and clinical settings, including recent progress in the methods to detect viral RNA, antigens, and specific antibodies. This summary may help in selecting the effective method for a special application sucha as routine laboratory diagnosis, point-of-care tests or tracing the the virus spread and mutations.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Peluso MJ, Hellmuth J, FC Chow (2021)

Central Nervous System Effects of COVID-19 in People with HIV Infection.

Current HIV/AIDS reports [Epub ahead of print].

The convergence of the HIV and SARS-CoV-2 pandemics is an emerging field of interest. In this review, we outline the central nervous system (CNS) effects of COVID-19 in the general population and how these effects may manifest in people with HIV (PWH). We discuss the hypothetical mechanisms through which SARS-CoV-2 could impact the CNS during both the acute and recovery phases of infection and the potential selective vulnerability of PWH to these effects as a result of epidemiologic, clinical, and biologic factors. Finally, we define key research questions and considerations for the investigation of CNS sequelae of COVID-19 in PWH.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Yang Y, A Iwasaki (2021)

Impact of Chronic HIV Infection on SARS-CoV-2 Infection, COVID-19 Disease and Vaccines.

Current HIV/AIDS reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has developed into a global pandemic that affect the health of hundreds of millions worldwide. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with chronic human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection is of concern, due to their already immunocompromised status. Yet, whether and how the immunological changes brought about by HIV will affect the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 acute infection and impact the effectiveness of vaccines remain unclear. We discuss the intersection of COVID-19 in HIV-infected individuals.

RECENT FINDINGS: People living with HIV (PLWH) may be at increased risk of severe SARS-CoV-2 mediated disease complication due to functional impairment of the immune system and persistent inflammation, which can be ameliorated by antiretroviral therapy. Importantly, limited data suggest that current approved vaccines may be safe and efficacious in PLWH. To address remaining questions and supplement limited experimental evidence, more studies examining the interplay between HIV and SARS-CoV-2 through their impact on the host immune system are required.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Mazidimoradi A, Hadavandsiri F, Momenimovahed Z, et al (2021)

Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: a Systematic Review.

Journal of gastrointestinal cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Following the official announcement of the COVID-19 pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in March 2020 and decreased activity of healthcare systems, relocation of resources, and the possible reluctance of patients to seek medical help, colorectal cancer patients were exposed to significant risks. Given that colon cancer is the third most common cancer and the second deadliest cancer in the world, its timely diagnosis and treatment are necessary to reduce costs and improve quality of life and patient survival. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: A comprehensive search performed on June 2021 in various databases, including Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus. Keywords such as "diagnosis," "treatment," "coronavirus disease-19," "COVID-19," "coronavirus disease," "SARS-CoV-2 infection," "SARS-CoV-2," "2019-nCoV," "coronavirus, 2019 novel," "SARS-CoV-2 virus," severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2," "COVID-19," "COVID-19, coronavirus disease 19," "SARS coronavirus 2," "colorectal neoplasm," and "colorectal cancer " was used individually or a combination of these words. All retrieved articles were entered into a database on EndNote X7. Then, studies were first selected by title and then by abstract, and at the end, full texts were investigated.

RESULTS: Of the 850 studies, 43 were identified as eligible. According to studies, the diagnosis of colorectal cancer and the number of diagnostic procedures have decreased. Emergency visits due to obstruction or perforation of the large intestine or in advanced stages of cancer have increased, and a delay in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer has reported from 5.4 to 26%. Treatment of colorectal cancer has also decreased significantly or has been delayed, interrupted, or stopped. This reduction and delay have been observed in all treatments, including surgery, chemotherapy, and long-term radiation therapy; only cases of emergency surgery and short-term radiotherapy has increased. The waiting time for hospitalization and the length of hospital stay after surgery has been reported to be higher. Changes in patients' treatment plans and complete to partial cessation of hospitals activities-that provided treatment services-were reported.

CONCLUSION: According to the reduction in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer due to the COVID-19 pandemic, compensating for the reduction and preventing the continuation of this declining trend, requires serious and effective interventions to prevent its subsequent consequences, including referrals of people with advanced stages and emergency conditions, increasing treatment costs and reducing the quality of life and patients survival.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Mucic D, Shore JH, Hilty DM, et al (2021)

Lessons Learned or Forgotten? Impacts of COVID-19 on the Future Direction of Global (e-)Mental Health Care.

Current psychiatry reports, 23(12):86.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted lives globally, posing unique challenges to mental health services exposing vulnerability and limitations within these systems. During the course of the pandemic, telecommunications technologies (e-mental health care) have served a critical role in psychiatric care. It is important to understand current lessons learned in e-mental health care and implications for global mental health systems for both emerging from the pandemic and after the pandemic has ended.

RECENT FINDINGS: There are significant regulatory, policy, and evaluation challenges for global e-mental health impacting patients, clinicians, health systems, and decision-makers. These include complex regulatory issues, difficulties of providing care across boundaries, and keeping pace with the implementation of new technologies in behavioral health. The collaborative development of global standards along with policies, appropriate regulations, and developing new models of research and development opens the possibility of improved access to care across national boundaries.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Khedmat L, Mohaghegh P, Veysizadeh M, et al (2021)

Pregnant women and infants against the infection risk of COVID-19: a review of prenatal and postnatal symptoms, clinical diagnosis, adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, and available treatments.

Archives of gynecology and obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The establishment of a risk-appropriate care approach for pregnant women and newborn infants under the COVID-19 pneumonia is vital to prevent the main pregnancy complications.

OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN: This study reviewed the vertical transmission (VT) potential of COVID-19 pneumonia in pregnant women. Key-related symptoms and adverse clinical outcomes for mothers and infants before and after childbirth were summarized. Some practical therapies and preventive health solutions were also proposed.

RESULTS: There was a high susceptibility in pregnant women to COVID-19 infection, especially in the third trimester of pregnancy. The most common symptoms in 22-40-year-old patients infected with COVID-19 were fever (87.6%), cough (52.3%), dyspnea (27.6%), fatigue (22.4%), sore throat (13.5%), malaise (9.4%), and diarrhea (3.4%), respectively. The viral infection led to an increase in preterm labor and cesarean delivery without any intrauterine infection and severe neonatal asphyxia. No infection in the newborn infants was reported despite a high risk of the VT phenomenon. The most important therapies were the reception of antiviral and antibiotic drugs, oxygenation therapy, psychological interventions, and food supplements with health-promoting effects. The best proposed medical strategies to control the COVID-19 infection were bi-monthly screening and following-up the mothers' and fetuses' health, not using the potent broad-spectrum antibiotics and corticosteroids, providing the delivery room with negative pressure for emergency cesarean section, and the immediate isolation of newborns after childbirth without direct breastfeeding.

CONCLUSION: Babies with respiratory problems may be born to some mothers with COVID-19, who have weak immune systems. Thus, the virus transmission cycle should be disrupted to prevent adverse maternal and fetal outcomes by integrating individual health guidelines, efficient medical care therapies, and hospital preventive practices.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Ageel HK, Harrad S, MA Abdallah (2021)

Occurrence, human exposure, and risk of microplastics in the indoor environment.

Environmental science. Processes & impacts [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics (MPs) are a group of emerging contaminants that have attracted increasing scientific and societal attention over the past decade due to their ubiquitous detection in all environmental compartments. So far, most studies on MPs focus on characterizing their occurrence, fate, and impact in the aquatic environment. Therefore, very little is known about the magnitude, patterns, and associated risks of human exposure to MPs, particularly indoors. This is a significant research gap given that people spend most of their time (up to 90%) indoors, which is exacerbated over the past year by COVID-19 lockdown measures. Critical evaluation of the existing literature revealed the presence of MPs at higher concentrations in indoor air and dust (from homes and offices) compared to outdoors. This was attributed to several factors including: indoor MPs sources (e.g. furniture, textiles), increased deposition of atmospheric MPs indoors, and less atmospheric mixing and dilution compared to outdoor air. Current understanding is that indoor human exposure to MPs occurs via a combination of inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact. Dietary intake was considered the major pathway of human exposure to MPs until recent studies revealed potential high exposure via inhalation. Moreover, exposure via inadvertent dust ingestion and dermal contact cannot be neglected, particularly for young children. This is alarming due to the potential toxic implications of MPs exposure. Early toxicological evidence indicates that small MPs (<20 µm) can cause oxidative stress and inflammation, while particles <5 µm can be engulfed by cells and translocated to accumulate in different organs. Also, there is increasing concern over potential leaching of toxic chemicals used as plastic additives (e.g. plasticizers and flame retardants) upon exposure to MPs due to their large surface area. However, MPs exposure and risk assessment in humans is still in its infancy and more research is necessary to provide the knowledge base required for regulations to protect human health and environment against MPs.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Unni EJ, Patel K, Beazer IR, et al (2021)

Telepharmacy during COVID-19: A Scoping Review.

Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland), 9(4): pii:pharmacy9040183.

The objective of this scoping review is to summarize the implementation of telepharmacy during the surge of COVID-19. This review will focus on answering four questions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, (1) what were the various telepharmacy initiatives implemented? (2) what were the challenges faced when implementing telehealth initiatives? (3) what were the strategies used by pharmacies to overcome the challenges, and (4) what were some of the innovative methods used by pharmacies to implement telepharmacy? A literature search was conducted to include publications post-March 2020 about telepharmacy implementation via PubMed Central database and Google searches. All articles were examined for inclusion or exclusion based on pre-determined criteria. A total of 33 articles were reviewed. The most commonly observed telepharmacy initiatives were virtual consultations, home delivery of medicines and patient education. Limited access to technology and lack of digital access and literacy were major barriers in the implementation of telepharmacy. New protocols were developed by healthcare systems and regulations were relaxed by countries to accommodate telepharmacy. Pharmacies that successfully implemented telepharmacy overcame these challenges through patient and pharmacist education. The review also revealed the steps that can be taken by pharmacy organizations, payers and entrepreneurs in leveraging the convenience of telepharmacy.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Sriwastava S, Shrestha AK, Khalid SH, et al (2021)

Spectrum of Neuroimaging Findings in Post-COVID-19 Vaccination: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

Neurology international, 13(4):622-639 pii:neurolint13040061.

Background and Purpose: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first detected in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Symptoms range from mild flu-like symptoms to more severe presentations, including pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) approved the use of several vaccines. Because vaccines have been fast-tracked for emergency use, the short and long-term safety profile has been an area of concern. The aim of this paper is to extensively review published literature regarding post-COVID-19 vaccination neurological complications and characterize neuroimaging findings from three case presentations for early diagnosis and treatment. Methods: The analysis includes data from PubMed and Google Scholar. Articles included were retrieved from database inception beginning December 2020 with no language restrictions. Terms used include "SARS-CoV-2", "post Covid vaccination", "neurological complications", "Guillain-barre Syndrome", "Transverse-myelitis", "Cerebral Venous Sinus thrombosis", and "Cerebral hemorrhage". Results: The literature review yielded several neurological complications post vaccination, including cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, transverse myelitis, Guillain-Barré Syndrome and optic neuritis, to name a few. Patient case presentation findings were consistent with documented results in published literature. Conclusions: We present a case series with a thorough literature review documenting adverse neurological affects following COVID-19 vaccination. Our case presentations and literature review highlight the importance of neuroimaging when diagnosing post-COVID-19 vaccination adverse effects. MRI imaging study is an important tool to be considered in patients presenting with post-COVID-19 vaccination-related unexplained neurological symptoms for accurate diagnosis.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Shekhar R, Garg I, Pal S, et al (2021)

COVID-19 Vaccine Booster: To Boost or Not to Boost.

Infectious disease reports, 13(4):924-929 pii:idr13040084.

Developing safe and effective vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a breakneck speed has been an exceptional human achievement. It remains our best hope of containing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, newer, more aggressive SARS-CoV-2 viral strains, as well as the possibility of fading immunity following vaccination, have prompted health officials to investigate the necessity for additional immunization. This has put further pressure on disregarded human life in lower-income countries that already have minimal access to COVID-19 vaccines. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have recommended a third COVID-19 vaccine dose in immunocompromised individuals in a recent announcement. Governments and health care officials need to develop usage guidelines for COVID-19 vaccine booster doses while considering the dangers of potential waning immunity and new viral strains and prioritizing vulnerable populations everywhere, including those living in lower-income countries.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Bauer S, Zhang F, RJ Linhardt (2021)

Implications of Glycosaminoglycans on Viral Zoonotic Diseases.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 9(4): pii:diseases9040085.

Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that pass from animals to humans. These include diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and can be transmitted through close contact or through an intermediate insect vector. Many of the world's most problematic zoonotic diseases are viral diseases originating from animal spillovers. The Spanish influenza pandemic, Ebola outbreaks in Africa, and the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are thought to have started with humans interacting closely with infected animals. As the human population grows and encroaches on more and more natural habitats, these incidents will only increase in frequency. Because of this trend, new treatments and prevention strategies are being explored. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are complex linear polysaccharides that are ubiquitously present on the surfaces of most human and animal cells. In many infectious diseases, the interactions between GAGs and zoonotic pathogens correspond to the first contact that results in the infection of host cells. In recent years, researchers have made progress in understanding the extraordinary roles of GAGs in the pathogenesis of zoonotic diseases, suggesting potential therapeutic avenues for using GAGs in the treatment of these diseases. This review examines the role of GAGs in the progression, prevention, and treatment of different zoonotic diseases caused by viruses.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Ling V, I Zabetakis (2021)

The Role of an Anti-Inflammatory Diet in Conjunction to COVID-19.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 9(4): pii:diseases9040076.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), otherwise known as COVID-19, has challenged healthcare systems at an international level. COVID-19 suppresses the immune system by causing a systemic inflammatory response, also known as cytokine release syndrome, leaving COVID-19 patients with high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Nutrition's function in the respiratory and immune systems has been investigated in much research, and its significance cannot be overstated, as the nutritional status of patients has been shown to be directly connected with the severity of the disease. Key dietary components such as vitamin C, D, omega-3 fatty acids, and zinc have shown potential in their anti-inflammatory effects, as well as the famous Mediterranean diet. This review aims to discuss the use of anti-inflammatory dietary approaches to prevent Sars-CoV-2 or lessen COVID-19 effects.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Alamri W, Alhofaian A, N Mersal (2021)

Quality of Life (QoL) among Health Care Workers with Diabetes Mellitus: A Literature Review.

Clinics and practice, 11(4):801-826 pii:clinpract11040096.

OBJECTIVE: This scoping literature review explores the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of health care workers (HCWs). HCWs play a vital role in the global health care system, with the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrating their effectiveness and worth beyond any doubt. However, HCWs are among the most vulnerable members of the health care system because they are most susceptible to stress, exhaustion, and occupational health risks.

METHOD: The review was conducted in 2021 and included articles published in English in the past five years that explore diabetic HCWs' QoL and studies intended to assess the relationship between work stress and DM. In total, 27 relevant articles were found that satisfied the inclusion criteria and were critically and thematically analyzed.

RESULTS: Most DM studies have focused on the clinical management of patients, but researchers have paid little attention to the high-risk group of HCWs with diabetes. In addition to fulfilling their job mandate, HCWs are burdened with various sociological stressors that affect their QoL.

CONCLUSION: This literature review suggests DM has a significant impact on QoL in the work-life context. However, there is limited evidence to demonstrate the impact of DM on the QoL of HCWs. Thus, further research is needed in this area to improve the provision of integrated care.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Prowse R, S Carsley (2021)

Digital Interventions to Promote Healthy Eating in Children: Umbrella Review.

JMIR pediatrics and parenting, 4(4):e30160 pii:v4i4e30160.

BACKGROUND: eHealth and web-based service delivery have become increasingly common during the COVID-19 pandemic. Digital interventions may be highly appealing to young people; however, their effectiveness compared with that of the usual face-to-face interventions is unknown. As nutrition interventions merge with the digital world, there is a need to determine the best practices for digital interventions for children.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of digital nutrition interventions for children on dietary outcomes compared with status quo interventions (eg, conventional face-to-face programming or nondigital support).

METHODS: We conducted an umbrella review of systematic reviews of studies assessing primary research on digital interventions aimed at improving food and nutrition outcomes for children aged <18 years compared with conventional nutrition education were eligible for inclusion.

RESULTS: In total, 11 systematic reviews published since 2015 were included (7/11, 64%, were of moderate quality). Digital interventions ranged from internet, computer, or mobile interventions to websites, programs, apps, email, videos, CD-ROMs, games, telehealth, SMS text messages, and social media, or a combination thereof. The dose and duration of the interventions varied widely (single to multiple exposures; 1-60 minutes). Many studies have been informed by theory or used behavior change techniques (eg, feedback, goal-setting, and tailoring). The effect of digital nutrition interventions for children on dietary outcomes is small and inconsistent. Digital interventions seemed to be the most promising for improving fruit and vegetable intake compared with other nutrition outcomes; however, reviews have found mixed results.

CONCLUSIONS: Owing to the heterogeneity and duration of digital interventions, follow-up evaluations, comparison groups, and outcomes measured, the effectiveness of these interventions remains unclear. High-quality evidence with common definitions for digital intervention types evaluated with validated measures is needed to improve the state of evidence, to inform policy and program decisions for health promotion in children. Now is the time for critical, robust evaluation of the adopted digital interventions during and after the COVID-19 pandemic to establish best practices for nutrition interventions for children.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Quemener AM, MD Galibert (2021)

Antisense oligonucleotide: A promising therapeutic option to beat COVID-19.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. RNA [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 crisis and the development of the first approved mRNA vaccine have highlighted the power of RNA-based therapeutic strategies for the development of new medicines. Aside from RNA-vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) represent a new and very promising class of RNA-targeted therapy. Few drugs have already received approval from the Food and Drug Administration. Here, we underscored why and how ASOs hold the potential to change the therapeutic landscape to beat SARS-CoV-2 viral infections. This article is categorized under: RNA Interactions with Proteins and Other Molecules > Small Molecule-RNA Interactions.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Lu Q (2021)

[Reflections on the Global Pandemic of COVID-19 and the Response Strategies].

Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition, 52(6):936-938.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to ravage the world, posing great challenges to the public health system and threatening the health and survival of humans. The outbreak of COVID-19 leaves us with much to reflect on and calls on our attention to respiratory infectious diseases, especially new outbreaks of respiratory infectious diseases that are zoonotic. The importance of identifying viral pathogens should be highlighted because it is related to the prevention and treatment strategy of childhood pneumonia. Due to the highly infectious nature of COVID-19, the rapid mutation of the virus, and the lack of specific drugs, vaccines are currently the most effective means of prevention, and a global immune barrier must be established as soon as possible.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Lyu F (2021)

[Educational Environment: The Most Powerful Factor for the Onset and Development of Myopia among Students].

Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition, 52(6):895-900.

Based on the literature on myopia epidemiology, experiments of basic science, and clinical research, we have identified a number of major characteristics of the myopia problem. It was concluded that the student population of grades 1-12 showed high incidence of myopia and the problem was becoming increasingly more serious. Etiological investigations revealed the aggressive role played by environmental factors. Mature clinical correction methods were available, but there were still a multitude of uncertainties hampering the effort to slow the progression of myopia. Student myopia has become an issue of top concern in China's effort to prevent and control myopia. In order to approach the issue by dealing with problems in the educational environment and to explore for specific measures to prevent and control the onset and development of student myopia, it is important that we gain better understanding of the multiple effects on the onset and development of student myopia caused by the growing demand for education induced by high social development and the rapid changes in the educational environment caused by technological advancement. Approaching the problem from the perspective of the features of the eye and vision in the developmental stages of students of grades 1-12, and the study workload at each stage, this paper retrospectively reviewed the historical literature from the last 90 years and the data from cohort studies done before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. Identifying the education environment as the primary factor causing the onset and progression of student myopia, the paper fully recognizes the scientific rationality of and the specific role served by education-medicine synergy in student myopia prevention and control.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Vuilleumier N, Pagano S, Ludewig B, et al (2021)

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines as inducers of humoral response against apolipoprotein A-1?.

European journal of clinical investigation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and some anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines trigger a humoral autoimmune response against a broad range of endogenous components, which may affect recipients' prognosis in predisposed individuals. Autoantibodies directed against apolipoprotein A-1 (AAA1 IgG) the major protein fraction of High Density Lipoprotein have been shown to be raised in COVID-19 and in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and other populations where they have been associated with poorer outcomes. We wanted to assess the impact of anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-based vaccination on AAA1 autoimmune biomarkers in RA patients.

METHODS: 20 healthy controls and 77 RA mRNA-based vaccinated patients were collected at baseline, 3 weeks after the first vaccination, 2 and 8 weeks after the second vaccination. AAA1 and SARS-CoV-2 serologies were measured by immunoassays. Systemic and local symptoms occurring during the vaccination protocol were recorded.

RESULTS: mRNA-based vaccination induced a significant increase in median AAA1 IgG levels in both healthy controls and RA patients overtime. However, in both populations, these medians trend did not translate into significant increase in AAA1 IgG seropositivity rates despite evolving from 5 to 10% in healthy controls, and from 9 to 12.9% in RA patients. No associations were retrieved between AAA1 IgG and symptoms of any kind during the vaccination protocol.

CONCLUSIONS: mRNA-based vaccination seems to induce a light AAA1 IgG response in immunocompetent individuals within 2 months after the last injection. Although we did not observe any warning signs, the formal demonstration of the harmlessness of such biological warrants further studies.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Lin C, da Silva E, Sahukhan A, et al (2021)

Towards Equitable Access to Public Health Pathogen Genomics in the Western Pacific.

The Lancet regional health. Western Pacific pii:S2666-6065(21)00230-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased interest and understanding of the utility of pathogen genomics across the Western Pacific region. Access to genomic data enhances surveillance and response to COVID-19, and will also support surveillance of other infectious diseases and antimicrobial resistant pathogens. Models of access can be determined based on intended purpose, use and sustainability. Achieving equitable access to genomics across the Western Pacific will contribute to the development of a regional public health genomics network to respond to major disease threats in the future.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Abirami RS, GS Kumar (2022)

Comparative Study Based on Analysis of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Detection and Prediction Using Machine Learning Models.

SN computer science, 3(1):79.

As the number of COVID-19 cases increases day by day, the situation and livelihood of people throughout the world deteriorates. The goal of this study is to use machine learning models to identify disease and forecast whether or not a person is infected with the virus or another common illness. More articles about COVID-19 will be released starting in 2020, but we still do not have a reliable prediction mechanism to diagnose the disease with 100% accuracy. This comparison is done to see which model is the most effective in detecting and predicting disease. Despite the fact that we have immunizations, we require a best-prediction strategy to assist all humans in surviving. Researchers claimed that the supervised learning method predicts more accurately than the unsupervised learning method in the majority of studies. Supervised learning is the process of mapping inputs to derived outputs using a set of variables and created functions. This will also help us to optimize performance criteria using experience. It is further divided into two categories: classification and regression. According to recent studies, classification models are more accurate than other models.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Srinivasan K, Pandey AK, Livingston A, et al (2021)

Roles of host mitochondria in the development of COVID-19 pathology: Could mitochondria be a potential therapeutic target?.

Molecular Biomedicine (Online), 2:38 pii:60.

The recent emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome-Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in late 2019 and its spread worldwide caused an acute pandemic of Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Since then, COVID-19 has been under intense scrutiny as its outbreak led to significant changes in healthcare, social activities, and economic settings worldwide. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor is shown to be the primary port of SARS-CoV-2 entry in cells, the mechanisms behind the establishment and pathologies of COVID-19 are poorly understood. As recent studies have shown that host mitochondria play an essential role in virus-mediated innate immune response, pathologies, and infection, in this review, we will discuss in detail the entry and progression of SARS-CoV-2 and how mitochondria could play roles in COVID-19 disease. We will also review the potential interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondria and discuss possible treatments, including whether mitochondria as a potential therapeutic target in COVID-19. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 and mitochondrial interactions mediated virus establishment, inflammation, and other consequences may provide a unique mechanism and conceptual advancement in finding a novel treatment for COVID-19.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Hussain T, Jeena G, Pitakbut T, et al (2021)

Cannabis sativa research trends, challenges, and new-age perspectives.

iScience, 24(12):103391 pii:S2589-0042(21)01362-6.

Cannabis sativa L. has been one of the oldest medicinal plants cultivated for 10,000 years for several agricultural and industrial applications. However, the plant became controversial owing to some psychoactive components that have adverse effects on human health. In this review, we analyzed the trends in cannabis research for the past two centuries. We discussed the historical transitions of cannabis from the category of herbal medicine to an illicit drug and back to a medicinal product post-legalization. In addition, we address the new-age application of immuno-suppressive and anti-inflammatory extracts for the treatment of COVID-19 inflammation. We further address the influence of the legal aspects of cannabis cultivation for medicinal, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological research. We reviewed the up-to-date cannabis genomic resources and advanced technologies for their potential application in genomic-based cannabis improvement. Overall, this review discusses the diverse aspects of cannabis research developments ranging from traditional use as herbal medicine to the latest potential in COVID-19, legal practices with updated patent status, and current state of art genetic and genomic tools reshaping cannabis biotechnology in modern age agriculture and pharmaceutical industry.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Picó Y, D Barceló (2021)

Mass Spectrometry in Wastewater-Based Epidemiology for the Determination of Small and Large Molecules as Biomarkers of Exposure: Toward a Global View of Environment and Human Health under the COVID-19 Outbreak.

ACS omega, 6(46):30865-30872.

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) estimates collective consumption or exposure to chemicals or pathogens by monitoring the substances excreted in the population's wastewater. Advances in mass spectrometry (MS) and the application of some clinical diagnostic tools and proteomics to wastewater fingerprinting have been linked to the discovery of new biomarkers and indicators of population health and are broadening the scope of WBE that nowadays cover not only small molecule biomarkers but also genetic biomarkers, large molecules, viruses, infection diseases, resistance, etc. This mini-review highlights recent WBE advances using MS and how this progress can create a fingerprint of a city's health hazards, habits, and lifestyle, which is gaining in public health emphasis.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Li X, Yan M, Chen J, et al (2021)

The Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Cytokine Storm due to COVID-19.

BioMed research international, 2021:3178796.

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has seriously affected public health and social stability. The main route of the transmission is droplet transmission, where the oral cavity is the most important entry point to the body. Due to both the direct harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2 and disordered immune responses, some COVID-19 patients may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome or even multiple organ failure. Genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 have been emerging and circulating around the world. Currently, there is no internationally approved precise treatment for COVID-19. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can traffic and migrate towards the affected tissue, regulate both the innate and acquired immune systems, and participate in the process of healing. Here, we will discuss and investigate the mechanisms of immune disorder in COVID-19 and the therapeutic activity of MSCs, in particular human gingiva mesenchymal stem cells.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Nair S, X Chen (2021)

Biology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the humoral immunoresponse: A systematic review of evidence to support global policy-level actions and research.

Global health journal (Amsterdam, Netherlands) pii:S2414-6447(21)00091-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Both population-level epidemiological data and individual-level biological data are needed to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Population-level data are widely available and efforts to combat COVID-19 have generated proliferate data on the biology and immunoresponse to the causative pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, there remains a paucity of systemized data on this subject.

Objective: In this review, we attempt to extract systemized data on the biology and immuno-response to SARS-CoV-2 from the most up-to-date peer-reviewed studies. We will focus on the biology of the virus and immunological variations that are key for determining long-term immunity, transmission potential, and prognosis.

Data Sources and Methods: Peer-reviewed articles were sourced from the PubMed database and by snowballing search of selected publications. Search terms included: "Novel Coronavirus" OR "COVID-19" OR "SARS-CoV-2" OR "2019-nCoV" AND "Immunity" OR "Immune Response" OR "Antibody Response" OR "Immunologic Response". Studies published from December 31, 2019 to December 31, 2020 were included. To ensure validity, papers in pre-print were excluded.

Results: Of 2,889 identified papers, 36 were included. Evidence from these studies suggests early seroconversion in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Antibody titers appear to markedly increase two weeks after infection, followed by a plateau. A more robust immune response is seen in patients with severe COVID-19 as opposed to mild or asymptomatic presentations. This trend persists with regard to the length of antibody maintenance. However, overall immunity appears to wane within two to three months post-infection.

Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 follow the general pattern of viral infection. Immunity generated through natural infection appears to be short, suggesting a need for long-term efforts to control the pandemic. Antibody testing will be essential to gauge the epidemic and inform decision-making on effective strategies for treatment and prevention. Further research is needed to illustrate immunoglobulin-specific roles and neutralizing antibody activity.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Iftikhar S, Rehman AU, Ameer MZ, et al (2021)

The association of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome with COVID-19: A systematic review.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 72:103080.

The rise in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases is revealing its unique neurological manifestations. In light of the emerging evidence, a possible association with Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is being consistently reported. We conducted a systematic literature search on four databases namely Pubmed/MEDLINE, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Science Direct. After rigorous screening as per Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a total of 34 articles describing 56 cases were selected as a part of this review. The mean age of the patients was 56.6 ± 15.3 years. The most common clinical presentation of PRES was altered mental status (58.9%) followed by seizures (46.4%) and visual disturbances (23.2%) while hypertension and diabetes mellitus were the most commonly reported comorbidities. 91.1% of the cases reported Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computed Tomography (CT) findings suggestive of PRES in the brain. Symptomatic management was employed in most of the cases to control seizures and blood pressure, and 44 patients (78.5%) fully or partially recovered. The most likely underlying mechanism involves COVID-19 mediated cytokine storm syndrome that leads to endothelial damage and increased permeability of the cerebral vessels, thus causing the characteristic edema of PRES. High neuronal and glial cell expression of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptors also suggests the possibility of direct viral damage. Since timely diagnosis and treatment reports a good prognosis, it is vital for physicians and neurologists to be well-versed with this association.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Whitsett M, Ortiz V, EM Weinberg (2021)

CON: Liver Transplantation in the Times of COVID-19: Patients with COVID-19 Infection Should not Undergo Liver Transplantation.

Clinical liver disease, 18(5):233-236 pii:CLD1136.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Valizadeh A, M Shariatee (2021)

The Progress of Medical Image Semantic Segmentation Methods for Application in COVID-19 Detection.

Computational intelligence and neuroscience, 2021:7265644.

Image medical semantic segmentation has been employed in various areas, including medical imaging, computer vision, and intelligent transportation. In this study, the method of semantic segmenting images is split into two sections: the method of the deep neural network and previous traditional method. The traditional method and the published dataset for segmentation are reviewed in the first step. The presented aspects, including all-convolution network, sampling methods, FCN connector with CRF methods, extended convolutional neural network methods, improvements in network structure, pyramid methods, multistage and multifeature methods, supervised methods, semiregulatory methods, and nonregulatory methods, are then thoroughly explored in current methods based on the deep neural network. Finally, a general conclusion on the use of developed advances based on deep neural network concepts in semantic segmentation is presented.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Miyoshi M, Ueki M, Ohno K, et al (2021)

Creating an LMS ePortfolio Building System That Enhances the Quality of College Life from One That Supports Self-Regulated Learning.

Yonago acta medica, 64(4):324-329 pii:2021.11.001.

During the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the ability to be a self-regulated learner has become more important with the introduction of online classes. These changes mean that students are now required to review their learning strategies and self-manage their learning time. We have developed a new "ePortfolio system" with the aim of building a system that fosters self-regulated learners and can visualize students' learning outcomes. This paper introduces the concepts of our ePortfolio system as a Learning Management System ePortfolio building system that will provide enhanced functions and become a university-wide initiative.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Haque MH, Islam MA, Karim MR, et al (2021)

Coronavirus disease 2019 and future pandemics: Impacts on livestock health and production and possible mitigation measures.

Veterinary world, 14(9):2434-2443.

The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic on March 11, 2020. COVID-19, the current global health emergency, is wreaking havoc on human health systems and, to a lesser degree, on animals globally. The outbreak has continued since the first report of COVID-19 in China in December 2019, and the second and third waves of the outbreak have already begun in several countries. COVID-19 is expected to have adverse effects on crop production, food security, integrated pest control, tourism, the car industry, and other sectors of the global economy. COVID-19 induces a range of effects in livestock that is reflected economically since human health and livelihood are intertwined with animal health. We summarize the potentially harmful effects of COVID-19 on livestock and possible mitigation steps in response to this global outbreak. Mitigation of the negative effects of COVID-19 and future pandemics on livestock requires the implementation of current guidelines.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Yarahmadi P, Alirezaei M, Forouzannia SM, et al (2021)

The Outcome of COVID-19 in Patients with a History of Taking Rituximab: A Narrative Review.

Iranian journal of medical sciences, 46(6):411-419.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerging disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Notably, the safety of immunosuppressive medications is a major concern during an infectious disease pandemic. Rituximab (RTX), as a monoclonal antibody against CD20 molecule, is widely used for the treatment of various diseases, mostly autoimmune diseases and some malignancies. Previous studies indicated that RTX, as an immunosuppressive medication, may be associated with the increased risk of infections. Moreover, given the wide use of RTX, a necessity of determining the different aspects of RTX use in the COVID-19 era is strongly felt. We reviewed current studies on the clinical courses of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. It appears that the use of RTX does not increase morbidity and mortality in most patients. However, underlying diseases and other concomitant medications may play a role in the disease course, while the concerns of vaccine efficacy in patients receiving RTX still need to be addressed. Therefore, more controlled studies are needed for a better conclusion.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Islam A (2021)

Work-from/at/for-home: CoVID-19 and the future of work - A critical review.

Geoforum; journal of physical, human, and regional geosciences pii:S0016-7185(21)00306-7 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Tolonen A, Pakarinen T, Sassi A, et al (2021)

Methodology, clinical applications, and future directions of body composition analysis using computed tomography (CT) images: A review.

European journal of radiology, 145:109943 pii:S0720-048X(21)00424-1 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: We aim to review the methods, current research evidence, and future directions in body composition analysis (BCA) with CT imaging.

RECENT FINDINGS: CT images can be used to evaluate muscle tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments. Manual and semiautomatic segmentation methods are still the gold standards. The segmentation of skeletal muscle tissue and VAT and SAT compartments is most often performed at the level of the 3rd lumbar vertebra. A decreased amount of CT-determined skeletal muscle mass is a marker of impaired survival in many patient populations, including patients with most types of cancer, some surgical patients, and those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with increased VAT are more susceptible to impaired survival / worse outcomes; however, those patients who are critically ill or admitted to the ICU or who will undergo surgery appear to be exceptions. The independent significance of SAT is less well established. Recently, the roles of the CT-determined decrease of muscle mass and increased VAT area and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) volume have been shown to predict a more debilitating course of illness in patients suffering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) infection.

SUMMARY: The field of CT-based body composition analysis is rapidly evolving and shows great potential for clinical implementation.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Ismail II, S Salama (2021)

A systematic review of cases of CNS demyelination following COVID-19 vaccination.

Journal of neuroimmunology, 362:577765 pii:S0165-5728(21)00292-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Since the emergency use approval of different types of COVID-19 vaccines, several safety concerns have been raised regarding its early and delayed impact on the nervous system.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to systematically review the reported cases of CNS demyelination in association with COVID-19 vaccination, which has not been performed, to our knowledge.

METHODS: A systematic review was performed by screening published articles and preprints of cases of CNS demyelination in association with COVID-19 vaccines in PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Ovid and medRxiv databases, until September 30, 2021. This study followed PRISMA guidelines. Descriptive findings of reported cases were reviewed and stratified by demographic and clinical findings, diagnostic work-up, management, and overall outcome.

RESULTS: A total of 32 cases were identified, with female predominance (68.8%) and median age of 44 years. Eleven cases were reported after Pfizer vaccine, 8 following AstraZeneca vaccine, 6 following Moderna, 5 following Sinovac/ Sinopharm vaccines, and one following each of Sputnik and Johnson&Johnson vaccines. The majority of cases (71.8%) occurred after the first dose of the vaccine, with neurological symptoms manifesting after a median of 9 days. The most common reported presentations were transverse myelitis (12/32) and MS-like pictures (first diagnosis or a relapse) in another 12/32 cases, followed by ADEM- like (5/32), and NMOSD- like (3/32) presentations. History of a previous immune-mediated disease was reported in 17/32 (53.1%) cases. The mRNA-based vaccines resulted in the greatest number of demyelinating syndromes (17/32), followed by viral vector vaccines (10/32), and inactivated vaccines (5/32). Most MS-like episodes (9/12) were triggered by mRNA-based vaccines, while TM occurred following both viral vector and mRNA-based vaccines. Management included high dose methylprednisolone, PLEX, IVIg, or a combination of those, with a favorable outcome in the majority of case; marked/complete improvement (25/32) or stabilized/ partial recovery in the remaining cases.

CONCLUSION: This systematic review identified few cases of CNS demyelination following all types of approved COVID-19 vaccines so far. Clinical presentation was heterogenous, mainly following the first dose, however, half of the reported cases had a history of immune-mediated disease. Favorable outcome was observed in most cases. We suggest long-term post-marketing surveillance for these cases, to assess for causality, and ensure the safety of COVID-19 vaccines.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Pratelli A, Tempesta M, Elia G, et al (2021)

The knotty biology of canine coronavirus: A worrying model of coronaviruses' danger.

Research in veterinary science pii:S0034-5288(21)00334-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Severe clinical diseases associated to αCoronavirus (αCoV) infections were recently demonstrated for the first time in humans and a closely related but distinct canine CoV (CCoV) variant was identified in the nasopharyngeal swabs of children with pneumonia hospitalized in Malaysia, in 2017-2018. The complete genome sequence analysis demonstrated that the isolated strain, CCoV-HuPn-2018, was a novel canine-feline-like recombinant virus with a unique nucleoprotein. The occurrence of three human epidemics/pandemic caused by CoVs in the recent years and the detection of CCoV-HuPn-2018, raises questions about the ability of these viruses to overcome species barriers from their reservoirs jumping to humans. Interestingly, in this perspective, it is interesting to consider the report concerning new CCoV strains with a potential dual recombinant origin through partial S-gene exchange with porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) identified in pups died with acute gastroenteritis in 2009. The significance of the ability of CCoVs to evolve is still unclear, but several questions arisen on the biology of these viruses, focusing important epidemiological outcomes in the field, in terms of both virus evolution and prophylaxis. The new CCoV-Hupn-2018 should lead researchers to pay more attention to the mechanisms of recombination among CoVs, rather than to the onset of variants as a result of mutations, suggesting a continuous monitoring of these viruses and in particular of SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Blofield M, Knaul FM, Calderón-Anyosa R, et al (2021)

A diagonal and social protection plus approach to meet the challenges of the COVID-19 syndemic: cash transfers and intimate partner violence interventions in Latin America.

The Lancet. Global health pii:S2214-109X(21)00444-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Latin America has been particularly hard hit by the COVID-19 syndemic, including the associated economic fallout that has threatened the livelihoods of most families. Social protection platforms and policies should have a crucial role in safeguarding individual and family wellbeing; however, the response has been insufficient to address the scale of the crisis. In this Viewpoint, we focus on two policy challenges of the COVID-19 syndemic: rapidly and effectively providing financial support to the many families that lost livelihoods, and responding to and mitigating the increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We argue that building programmatic linkages between social protection platforms, particularly cash transfers, and IPV prevention, mitigation, and response services, creates synergies that can promote freedom from both poverty and violence.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Vincent JL, Levi M, BJ Hunt (2021)

Prevention and management of thrombosis in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

The Lancet. Respiratory medicine pii:S2213-2600(21)00455-0 [Epub ahead of print].

A proportion of people infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop moderate or severe COVID-19, with an increased risk of thromboembolic complications. The inflammatory response to SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause an acute-phase response and endothelial dysfunction, which contribute to COVID-19-associated coagulopathy, the clinical and laboratory features of which differ in some respects from those of classic disseminated intravascular coagulation. Understanding of the pathophysiology of thrombosis in COVID-19 is needed to develop approaches to management and prevention, with implications for short-term and long-term health outcomes. Evidence is emerging to support treatment decisions in patients with COVID-19, but many questions remain about the optimum approach to management. In this Viewpoint, we provide a summary of the pathophysiology of thrombosis and associated laboratory and clinical findings, and highlight key considerations in the management of coagulopathy in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19, including coagulation assessment, identification of thromboembolic complications, and use of antithrombotic prophylaxis and therapeutic anticoagulation. We await the results of trials that are underway to establish the safety and benefits of prolonged thromboprophylaxis after hospital discharge.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Siahaan YMT, Ketaren RJ, Hartoyo V, et al (2021)

Epilepsy and the risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression.

Epilepsy & behavior : E&B, 125:108437 pii:S1525-5050(21)00698-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy experience seizures, which have been reported to increase and worsen during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, the association between epilepsy and COVID-19 outcomes remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze whether patients with epilepsy have an increased risk of having poor COVID-19 outcomes.

METHODS: We comprehensively evaluated potential articles extracted from the medRxiv, Europe PMC, and PubMed databases until June 30, 2021, using selected keywords. All published studies on epilepsy and COVID-19 were selected. We used the Review Manager 5.4 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3 software for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Thirteen studies with 67,131 patients with COVID-19 were included in the analysis. Evaluation of the collated data revealed an association between epilepsy and increased severity of COVID-19 (OR, 1.69; 95%CI: 1.11-2.59; p = 0.010; I2 = 29%; random-effect modeling) and mortality from COVID-19 (OR, 1.71; 95%CI: 1.14-2.56; p = 0.010; I2 = 53%; random-effect modeling). The results also showed that the association between epilepsy and increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 is influenced by sex and neurodegenerative disease.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that patients with epilepsy are at risk of having poor COVID-19 outcomes. Patients with epilepsy need special attention and should be prioritized for administration of the COVID-19 vaccine. Registration details: PROSPERO (CRD42021264979).

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Kriza C, Amenta V, Zenié A, et al (2021)

Artificial intelligence for imaging-based COVID-19 detection: Systematic review comparing added value of AI versus human readers.

European journal of radiology, 145:110028 pii:S0720-048X(21)00509-X [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: A growing number of studies have examined whether Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems can support imaging-based diagnosis of COVID-19-caused pneumonia, including both gains in diagnostic performance and speed. However, what is currently missing is a combined appreciation of studies comparing human readers and AI.

METHODS: We followed PRISMA-DTA guidelines for our systematic review, searching EMBASE, PUBMED and Scopus databases. To gain insights into the potential value of AI methods, we focused on studies comparing the performance of human readers versus AI models or versus AI-supported human readings.

RESULTS: Our search identified 1270 studies, of which 12 fulfilled specific selection criteria. Concerning diagnostic performance, in testing datasets reported sensitivity was 42-100% (human readers, n = 9 studies), 60-95% (AI systems, n = 10) and 81-98% (AI-supported readers, n = 3), whilst reported specificity was 26-100% (human readers, n = 8), 61-96% (AI systems, n = 10) and 78-99% (AI-supported readings, n = 2). One study highlighted the potential of AI-supported readings for the assessment of lung lesion burden changes, whilst two studies indicated potential time savings for detection with AI.

CONCLUSIONS: Our review indicates that AI systems or AI-supported human readings show less performance variability (interquartile range) in general, and may support the differentiation of COVID-19 pneumonia from other forms of pneumonia when used in high-prevalence and symptomatic populations. However, inconsistencies related to study design, reporting of data, areas of risk of bias, as well as limitations of statistical analyses complicate clear conclusions. We therefore support efforts for developing critical elements of study design when assessing the value of AI for diagnostic imaging.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Ijaz SH, Shah SP, A Majithia (2021)

Implantable devices for heart failure monitoring.

Progress in cardiovascular diseases pii:S0033-0620(21)00130-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Heart failure (HF) is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The increasing prevalence of HF and inpatient HF hospitalization has a considerable burden on healthcare cost and utilization. The recognition that hemodynamic changes in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and left atrial pressure precede the signs and symptoms of HF has led to interest in hemodynamic guided HF therapy as an approach to allow earlier intervention during a heart failure decompensation. Remote patient monitoring (RPM) utilizing telecommunication, cardiac implantable electronic device parameters and implantable hemodynamic monitors (IHM) have largely failed to demonstrate favorable outcomes in multicenter trials. However, one positive randomized clinical trial testing the CardioMEMS device (followed by Food and Drug Administration approval) has generated renewed interest in PAP monitoring in the HF population to decrease hospitalization and improve quality of life. The COVID-19 pandemic has also stirred a resurgence in the utilization of telehealth to which RPM using IHM may be complementary. The cost effectiveness of these monitors continues to be a matter of debate. Future iterations of devices aim to be smaller, less burdensome for the patient, less dependent on patient compliance, and less cumbersome for health care providers with the integration of artificial intelligence coupled with sophisticated data management and interpretation tools. Currently, use of IHM may be considered in advanced heart failure patients with the support of structured programs.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Wanhella KJ, C Fernandez-Patron (2021)

Biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity.

Ageing research reviews, 73:101513 pii:S1568-1637(21)00260-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) - the culprit of an ongoing pandemic responsible for the loss of over 3 million lives worldwide within a year and a half. While the majority of SARS-CoV-2 infected people develop no or mild symptoms, some become severely ill and may die from COVID-19-related complications. In this review, we compile and comment on a number of biomarkers that have been identified and are expected to enhance the detection, protection and treatment of individuals at high risk of developing severe illnesses, as well as enable the monitoring of COVID-19 prognosis and responsiveness to therapeutic interventions. Consistent with the emerging notion that the majority of COVID-19 deaths occur in older and frail individuals, we researched the scientific literature and report the identification of a subset of COVID-19 biomarkers indicative of increased vulnerability to developing severe COVID-19 in older and frail patients. Mechanistically, increased frailty results from reduced disease tolerance, a phenomenon aggravated by ageing and comorbidities. While biomarkers of ageing and frailty may predict COVID-19 severity, biomarkers of disease tolerance may predict resistance to COVID-19 with socio-economic factors such as access to adequate health care remaining as major non-biomolecular influencers of COVID-19 outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Alderson MR, Arkwright PD, Bai X, et al (2021)

Surveillance and control of meningococcal disease in the COVID-19 era: A Global Meningococcal Initiative review.

The Journal of infection pii:S0163-4453(21)00578-8 [Epub ahead of print].

This review article incorporates information from the 4th Global Meningococcal Initiative summit meeting. Since the introduction of stringent COVID-19 infection control and lockdown measures globally in 2020, there has been an impact on IMD prevalence, surveillance, and vaccination compliance. Incidence rates and associated mortality fell across various regions during 2020. A reduction in vaccine uptake during 2020 remains a concern globally. In addition, several Neisseria meningitidis clonal complexes, particularly CC4821 and CC11, continue to exhibit resistance to antibiotics, with resistance to ciprofloxacin or beta-lactams mainly linked to modifications of gyrA or penA alleles, respectively. Beta-lactamase acquisition was also reported through horizontal gene transfer (blaROB-1) involving other bacterial species. Despite the challenges over the past year, progress has also been made on meningococcal vaccine development, with several pentavalent (serogroups ABCWY and ACWYX) vaccines currently being studied in late-stage clinical trial programmes.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Akram F, Haq IU, Aqeel A, et al (2021)

Insights into the evolutionary and prophylactic analysis of SARS-CoV-2: A review.

Journal of virological methods, 300:114375 pii:S0166-0934(21)00314-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In late 2019, following the emergence of a β-originated SARS-CoV-2, phylogenetic and evolutionary approaches have been demonstrated to strengthen the diagnostic and prophylactic stratagem of COVID-19 at an unprecedented level. Despite its clinical prominence, the SARS-CoV-2 gene set remains largely irrefutable by impeding the dissection of COVID-19 biology. However, many pieces of molecular and serological evidence have predicted that SARS-CoV-2 related viruses carry their roots from bats and pangolins of South East Asia. Analysis of viral genome predicts that point mutations at a rate of 10-4 nucleotides per base in the receptor-binding domain allow the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 genomic variants at regular intervals. Research in the evolution of molecular pathways involved in emergence of pandemic is critical for the development of therapeutics and vaccines as well as the prevention of future zoonosis. By determining the phyletic lineages of the SARS-CoV-2 genomic variants and those of the conserved regions in the accessory and spike proteins of all the SARS-related coronaviruses, a universal vaccine against all human coronaviruses could be formulated which would revolutionize the field of medicine. This review highlighted the current development and future prospects of antiviral drugs, inhibitors, mesenchymal stem cells, passive immunization, targeted immune therapy and CRISPR-Cas-based prophylactic and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. However, further investigations on Covid-19 pathogenesis is required for the successful fabrication of successful antivirals.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Hoogenboom WS, Alamuri TT, McMahon DM, et al (2021)

Clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait: A critical appraisal of the literature.

Blood reviews pii:S0268-960X(21)00117-X [Epub ahead of print].

Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) and sickle cell trait (SCT) have many risk factors that could make them more susceptible to COVID-19 critical illness and death compared to the general population. With a growing body of literature in this field, a comprehensive review is needed. We reviewed 71 COVID-19-related studies conducted in 15 countries and published between January 1, 2020, and October 15, 2021, including a combined total of over 2000 patients with SCD and nearly 2000 patients with SCT. Adults with SCD typically have a mild to moderate COVID-19 disease course, but also a 2- to 7-fold increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and a 1.2-fold increased risk of COVID-19-related death as compared to adults without SCD, but not compared to controls with similar comorbidities and end-organ damage. There is some evidence that persons with SCT have increased risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death although more studies with risk-stratification and properly matched controls are needed to confirm these findings. While the literature suggests that most children with SCD and COVID-19 have mild disease and low risk of death, some children with SCD, especially those with SCD-related comorbidities, are more likely to be hospitalized and require escalated care than children without SCD. However, children with SCD are less likely to experience COVID-19-related severe illness and death compared to adults with or without SCD. SCD-directed therapies such as transfusion and hydroxyurea may be associated with better COVID-19 outcomes, but prospective studies are needed for confirmation. While some studies have reported favorable short-term outcomes for COVID-19 patients with SCD and SCT, the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection are unknown and may affect individuals with SCD and SCT differently from the general population. Important focus areas for future research should include multi-center studies with larger sample sizes, assessment of hemoglobin genotype and SCD-modifying therapies on COVID-19 outcomes, inclusion of case-matched controls that account for the unique sample characteristics of SCD and SCT populations, and longitudinal assessment of post-COVID-19 symptoms.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Kröker A, M Tirzīte (2021)

Repurposed pharmacological agents for the potential treatment of COVID-19: a literature review.

Respiratory research, 22(1):304.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world extraordinarily. This disease has a potential to cause a significantly severe course of disease leading to respiratory complications, multiple organ failure and possibly death. In the fight against this pandemic-causing disease, medical professionals around the world are searching for pharmacological agents that could treat and prevent disease progression and mortality. To speed the search of promising treatment options, already existing pharmacological agents are repurposed for the potential treatment of COVID-19 and tested in clinical trials. The aim of this literature review is to investigate the efficacy and safety of repurposed pharmacological agents for the treatment of COVID-19 at different pathophysiologic stages of the disease. For this literature review, online-databases PubMed and Google Scholar were utilised. Keywords "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pathogenesis", "drug targets", "pharmacological treatment", "cytokine storm", "coagulopathy" and individual drug names were used. Scientific articles, including reviews, clinical trials, and observational cohorts, were collected and analysed. Furthermore, these articles were examined for references to find more clinical trials testing for the potential treatment of COVID-19. In total, 97 references were used to conduct this research paper.

RESULTS: The most beneficial pharmacological agent for the treatment of COVID-19 are corticosteroids, especially dexamethasone, for the treatment of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. Other promising agents are remdesivir for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia requiring minimal supplemental oxygen therapy, and IL-6 receptor antagonist monoclonal antibodies in severe COVID-19. Lopinavir/ritonavir, as well as chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin demonstrate the least efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. The clinical benefits of the treatment of a COVID-19-specific coagulopathy with increased dosing of anticoagulation need further research and confirmation of randomised controlled trials.

CONCLUSION: The search for pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 has elicited great controversy. Whereas drugs like chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and lopinavir/ritonavir have not shown proven benefit, the agents remdesivir and dexamethasone are recommended for clinical use for the treatment of COVID-19. Further randomised trials for other pharmacological treatment strategies are awaited.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Negreiros FDDS, Araújo AL, Mattos SM, et al (2021)

Digital technologies in the care of people with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review.

Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P, 55:e20210295 pii:S0080-62342021000100823.

OBJECTIVE: To map evidence on the use of digital technologies in the care of people with diabetes during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHOD: This is a scoping review, based on the JBI manual, which included scientific articles and gray literature from nine primary and seven secondary databases. Articles were independently assessed by two reviewers. Rayyan® was used to select the studies. The description of study characterization is presented in a table and tables, ending in a narrative synthesis.

RESULTS: A total of 1,964 studies were identified and, after selection, 23 publications remained for analysis. It turned out that telemedicine was used in all studies and remote consultation support technologies included continuous glucose monitoring devices, glucose data analysis software, insulin delivery systems, applications, audio and/or voice communication devices, which facilitated remote diabetes mellitus monitoring and management.

CONCLUSION: Telehealth, monitoring technologies, insulin delivery systems and communication devices were tools used to monitor patients with diabetes during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Park JW, Yu SN, Chang SH, et al (2021)

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in an Adult after COVID-19 Vaccination: a Case Report and Literature Review.

Journal of Korean medical science, 36(45):e312 pii:36.e312.

As the number of people vaccinated increases, people who complain of adverse reactions continue to occur. We experienced a case characterized by low blood pressure, persistent fever, edema due to increased systemic vascular permeability, and systemic inflammation confirmed by image and laboratory examinations after ChAdOx1 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination. The diagnostic criteria for multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS) in adults are known as fever of 3 days or more in adults, 2 or more mucocutaneous/gastrointestinal/neurologic symptoms, elevation of inflammatory markers, and clinical/imaging diagnosis of heart failure. A 67-year-old man who was medicated for hypertension and diabetes was admitted complaining of fever, maculopapular rash, diarrhea, headache, chills, and dizziness 6 days after the first vaccination of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 in Korea. The COVID-19 test was negative but with low blood pressure, leukocytosis, skin rash, pulmonary edema, and increased inflammation markers. His lab findings and clinical course were consistent with those of MIS after COVID-19 vaccination. He was medicated with methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg and diuretics and recovered rapidly. He was discharged after 2 weeks and confirmed cure at outpatient clinic. We report an MIS case after COVID-19 vaccination in Korea.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Ragos V, Adamopoulou M, Manoli A, et al (2021)

Impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oral carcinoma patients.

Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology, 26(5):1719-1722.

Coronavirus-related Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV) in 2002/2003, Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-Cov) in 2012/2013, and especially the current 2019/2020 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-2 (SARS-CoV-2) tested the national health systems' endurance worldwide. In order to fight this emergency situation, a variety of pharmaceutical companies focused on the design and development of efficient vaccines that are considered necessary for providing a level of normalization in totally affected human social-economical activity worldwide. COVID-19 led to an increased uncertainty in the field of oncological patients' management disrupting the normal conditions of therapeutic and monitoring procedures. In the current article, we explored the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on oral carcinoma patients. We observed COVD-19 pandemic negatively affects the normality regarding early diagnosis and optimal management (surgical operation, post-operational follow up/monitoring) in HNSCC/OSCC patients. Understanding the involvement of SARS-CoV-2 in the progression of malignancies is the first critical step for targeting the virus by efficient monoclonal antibodies and vaccines.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Piontkivska H, Wales-McGrath B, Miyamoto M, et al (2021)

ADAR Editing in Viruses: An Evolutionary Force to Reckon with.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(11):.

Adenosine Deaminases that Act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that play a dynamic and nuanced role in regulating transcriptome and proteome diversity. This editing can be highly selective, affecting a specific site within a transcript, or nonselective, resulting in hyperediting. ADAR editing is important for regulating neural functions and autoimmunity, and has a key role in the innate immune response to viral infections, where editing can have a range of pro- or antiviral effects and can contribute to viral evolution. Here we examine the role of ADAR editing across a broad range of viral groups. We propose that the effect of ADAR editing on viral replication, whether pro- or antiviral, is better viewed as an axis rather than a binary, and that the specific position of a given virus on this axis is highly dependent on virus- and host-specific factors, and can change over the course of infection. However, more research needs to be devoted to understanding these dynamic factors and how they affect virus-ADAR interactions and viral evolution. Another area that warrants significant attention is the effect of virus-ADAR interactions on host-ADAR interactions, particularly in light of the crucial role of ADAR in regulating neural functions. Answering these questions will be essential to developing our understanding of the relationship between ADAR editing and viral infection. In turn, this will further our understanding of the effects of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2, as well as many others, and thereby influence our approach to treating these deadly diseases.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Moos WH, Faller DV, Glavas IP, et al (2021)

Pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities.

Biochemical pharmacology, 193:114809.

Herein we trace links between biochemical pathways, pathogenesis, and metabolic diseases to set the stage for new therapeutic advances. Cellular and acellular microorganisms including bacteria and viruses are primary pathogenic drivers that cause disease. Missing from this statement are subcellular compartments, importantly mitochondria, which can be pathogenic by themselves, also serving as key metabolic disease intermediaries. The breakdown of food molecules provides chemical energy to power cellular processes, with mitochondria as powerhouses and ATP as the principal energy carrying molecule. Most animal cell ATP is produced by mitochondrial synthase; its central role in metabolism has been known for >80 years. Metabolic disorders involving many organ systems are prevalent in all age groups. Progressive pathogenic mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of genetic mitochondrial diseases, the most common phenotypic expression of inherited metabolic disorders. Confluent genetic, metabolic, and mitochondrial axes surface in diabetes, heart failure, neurodegenerative disease, and even in the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Ahmad A, Raish M, KM Alkharfy (2021)

The potential role of thymoquinone in preventing the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19.

Vascular pharmacology, 141:106899.

A new virus strain detected in late 2019 and not previously described in humans is the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes corona virus disease (COVID-19). While potential therapeutic approaches for COVID-19 are being investigated, significant initiatives are being made to create protective drugs and study various antiviral agents to cure the infection. However, an effective treatment strategy against COVID-19 is worrisome inadequate. The objective of the present manuscript is to discuss the potential role of thymoquinone (TQ) in preventing the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19, focusing on viral inhibition, antioxidant potential, vascular effect, and cardiac protection. The multifunctional properties of TQ could potentially synergize with the activity of current therapeutic interventions and offer a basis for managing COVID-19 disease more effectively. Even though the experimental evidence is positive, a translational application of TQ in COVID-19 is timely warranted.

RevDate: 2021-11-29

Nonyel NP, Wisseh C, Riley AC, et al (2021)

Conceptualizing Social Ecological Model in Pharmacy to Address Racism as a Social Determinant of Health.

American journal of pharmaceutical education, 85(9):8584.

Racism has been declared a public health crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted inequities in the US health care system and presents unique opportunities for the pharmacy Academy to evaluate the training of student pharmacists to address social determinants of health among racial and ethnic minorities. The social ecological model, consisting of five levels of intervention (individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and public policy) has been effectively utilized in public health practice to influence behavior change that positively impacts health outcomes. This paper adapted the social ecological model and proposed a framework with five intervention levels for integrating racism as a social determinant of health into pharmacy curricula. The proposed corresponding levels of intervention for pharmacy education are the curricular, interprofessional, institutional, community, and accreditation levels. Other health professions such as dentistry, medicine, and nursing can easily adopt this framework for teaching racism and social determinants of health within their respective curricula.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Moore JE, BC Millar (2021)

Improving COVID-19 vaccine-related health literacy and vaccine uptake in patients: Comparison on the readability of patient information leaflets of approved COVID-19 vaccines.

Journal of clinical pharmacy and therapeutics, 46(6):1498-1500.

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Preparation of patient-facing materials of a complex topic, such as describing new vaccines for COVID-19, is difficult to accomplish. This study examined the readability of patient information leaflets accompanying approved COVID-19 vaccines.

COMMENT: Readability of patient-facing literature by the medicines regulator in the United States and the United Kingdom describing the recently US (FDA) and UK (MHRA) COVID-19 approved vaccines (Pfizer/BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Moderna) was assessed employing 10 metrics. Analyses showed that showed that this material had a Flesch Ease of Reading score of 53.5 and 54, respectively and a Flesch-Kincaid reading age of between 7th and 8th Grade (12-13 year olds) and between 8th and 9th Grade (13-14 year olds), respectively. When compared to a recent study on COVID-19 information on healthcare websites, the vaccine literature readability was favourable.

WHAT IS NEW & CONCLUSION: Adoption of readability calculators and scrutiny of materials of their readability will help authors develop materials with improved understanding for COVID-19 vaccine recipients, carers and family, potentially leading to improved health literacy and vaccine uptake.

RevDate: 2021-11-29
CmpDate: 2021-11-29

Sun XL (2021)

The role of cell surface sialic acids for SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Glycobiology, 31(10):1245-1253.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new virus that has higher contagious capacity than any other previous human coronaviruses (HCoVs) and causes the current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Sialic acids are a group of nine-carbon acidic α-keto sugars, usually located at the end of glycans of cell surface glycoconjugates and serve as attachment sites for previous HCoVs. It is therefore speculated that sialic acids on the host cell surface could serve as co-receptors or attachment factors for SARS-CoV-2 cell entry as well. Recent in silico modeling, molecular modeling predictions and microscopy studies indicate potential sialic acid binding by SARS-CoV-2 upon cell entry. In particular, a flat sialic acid-binding domain was proposed at the N-terminal domain of the spike protein, which may lead to the initial contact and interaction of the virus on the epithelium followed by higher affinity binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, likely a two-step attachment fashion. However, recent in vitro and ex vivo studies of sialic acids on ACE2 receptor confirmed an opposite role for SARS-CoV-2 binding. In particular, neuraminidase treatment of epithelial cells and ACE2-expressing 293T cells increased SARS-CoV-2 binding. Furthermore, the ACE2 glycosylation inhibition studies indicate that sialic acids on ACE2 receptor prevent ACE2-spike protein interaction. On the other hand, a most recent study indicates that gangliosides could serve as ligands for receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This mini-review discusses what has been predicted and known so far about the role of sialic acid for SARS-CoV-2 infection and future research perspective.

RevDate: 2021-11-24
CmpDate: 2021-11-24

Savla SR, Prabhavalkar KS, LK Bhatt (2021)

Cytokine storm associated coagulation complications in COVID-19 patients: Pathogenesis and Management.

Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 19(11):1397-1413.

INTRODUCTION: SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, attacks the immune system causing an exaggerated and uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory mediators (cytokine storm). Recent studies propose an active role of coagulation disorders in disease progression. This hypercoagulability has been displayed by marked increase in D-dimer in hospitalized patients.

AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, generation of cytokine storm, the interdependence between inflammation and coagulation, its consequences and the possible management options for coagulation complications like venous thromboembolism (VTE), microthrombosis, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and systemic and local coagulopathy. We searched PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for relevant reports using COVID-19, cytokine storm, and coagulation as keywords.

EXPERT OPINION: A prophylactic dose of 5000-7500 units of low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been recommended for hospitalized COVID-19 patients in order to prevent VTE. Treatment dose of LMWH, based on disease severity, is being contemplated for patients showing a marked rise in levels of D-dimer due to possible pulmonary thrombi. Additionally, targeting PAR-1, thrombin, coagulation factor Xa and the complement system may be potentially useful in reducing SARS-CoV-2 infection induced lung injury, microvascular thrombosis, VTE and related outcomes like DIC and multi-organ failure.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Gryksa K, ID Neumann (2021)

Consequences of pandemic-associated social restrictions: Role of social support and the oxytocin system.

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 135:105601 pii:S0306-4530(21)00475-3 [Epub ahead of print].

During pandemics, governments take drastic actions to prevent the spreading of the disease, as seen during the present COVID-19 crisis. Sanctions of lockdown, social distancing and quarantine urge people to exclusively work and teach at home and to restrict social contacts to a minimum; lonely people get into further isolation, while families` nerves are strained to the extreme. Overall, this results in a dramatic and chronic increase in the level of psychosocial stress over several months mainly caused by i) social isolation and ii) psychosocial stress associated with overcrowding, social tension in families, and domestic violence. Moreover, pandemic-associated social restrictions are accompanied by loss of an essential stress buffer and important parameter for general mental and physical health: social support. Chronic psychosocial stress and, in particular, social isolation and lack of social support affect not only mental health, but also the brain oxytocin system and the immune system. Hence, pandemic-associated social restrictions are expected to increase the risk of developing psychopathologies, such as depression, anxiety-related and posttraumatic stress disorders, on the one hand, but also to induce a general inflammatory state and to impair the course of infectious disorders on the other. Due to its pro-social and stress-buffering effects, resulting in an anti-inflammatory state in case of disease, the role of the neuropeptide oxytocin will be discussed and critically considered as an emerging treatment option in cases of pandemic-induced psychosocial stress, viral infection and during recovery. In this review, we aim to critically focus on possible short- and long-term consequences of social restrictions on mental health and the immune system, while discussion oxytocin as a possible treatment option.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Antwi J, Appiah B, Oluwakuse B, et al (2021)

The Nutrition-COVID-19 Interplay: a Review.

Current nutrition reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nutritional status is affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, directly or indirectly. Even with the recent rollout of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines and availability of medicines such as remdesivir, and monoclonal antibodies, host nutritional status is pivotal in the fight against the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and outcomes. The purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of COVID-19-related lockdown on lifestyle behaviors, and the nutritional consequences, and the direct sequelae of the infection on nutrition including potential nutritional interventions.

RECENT FINDINGS: The COVID-19-related lockdown imposed radical changes in lifestyle behaviors with considerable short-term and long-term health and nutritional consequences including weight gain and obesity and increased cardiometabolic risk, consistently linked to worsened prognosis. The extent of the impact was dependent on food insecurity, overall stress and disordered eating, physical inactivity, and exposure to COVID-19-related nutrition information sources. COVID-19 could directly induce inflammatory responses and poor nutrient intake and absorption leading to undernutrition with micronutrient deficiencies, which impairs immune system function with subsequent amplified risk of infection and disease severity. Nutrition interventions through nutrition support, dietary supplementation, and home remedies such as use of zinc, selenium, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids showed the most significant promise to mitigate the course of COVID-19 infection and improve survival rates. The nutrition-COVID-19 relationship and related dietary changes mimic a vicious cycle of the double burden of malnutrition, both obesity and undernutrition with micronutrient deficiencies, which promote infection, disease progression, and potential death.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Aparicio M, Guillén-Astete CA, López-Medina C, et al (2021)

Evidence for the Use of Secukinumab in Patients with Radiographic and Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis in the Last 5 Years.

Rheumatology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) is an inflammatory rheumatic disorder that causes chronic pain, primarily in the spine and sacroiliac joints. It is characterized by the presence of type 1 major histocompatibility complex HLA-B27 genetic marker, arthritis in peripheral joints, enthesitis and/or dactylitis and extra-articular manifestations. Current guidelines recommend biological therapy when first-line therapy is not sufficiently effective. The finding that the interleukin (IL)-17 axis is vital for the pathogenesis of axSpA propelled the development of secukinumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against IL-17A. The present review provides evidence on the efficacy and safety of secukinumab in the treatment of radiographic and non-radiographic axSpA from nine randomized controlled phase III trials, as well as evidence from real-world observational analyses. The primary endpoint in six clinical trials was the proportion of patients meeting the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society criteria for either 20% or 40% improvement (ASAS20, ASAS40) at week 16. Significantly more patients achieved the primary endpoint with secukinumab compared with placebo in all the studies except MEASURE 4. Both clinical trials and real-world studies showed significant improvements in the secondary endpoints of disease activity, quality of life, and pain and fatigue relative to placebo. The benefits of secukinumab were generally sustained during longer-term (up to 5 years) treatment. Overall, secukinumab was well tolerated with a low frequency of adverse events and treatment persistence was high in the real-world setting. Although indirect comparisons suggest that secukinumab and adalimumab have comparable efficacy and safety, they are being directly compared in the ongoing SURPASS study. During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, it is advisable to continue biological therapy in patients who do not have severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection, but interrupt treatment during an infection, reinitiating once the patient has recovered from the infection. In conclusion, secukinumab is a largely safe and effective treatment for radiographic and non-radiographic axSpA.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Ahvanooei MRR, Norouzian MA, P Vahmani (2021)

Beneficial Effects of Vitamins, Minerals, and Bioactive Peptides on Strengthening the Immune System Against COVID-19 and the Role of Cow's Milk in the Supply of These Nutrients.

Biological trace element research [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic, which causes severe respiratory tract infections in humans, has become a global health concern and is spreading rapidly. At present, the most important issue associated with COVID-19 is the immune system and the factors that affect it. It is well known that cow's milk is highly rich in micronutrients that increase and strengthen the immune system. Research shows that the administration of these nutrients is very effective in fighting COVID-19, and a deficiency in any of them can be a weakness in the fight against the virus. On the other hand, cow's milk is accessible to the whole population, and drinking colostrum, raw, and micro-filtered milk from cows vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 could provide individuals with short-term protection against the SARS-CoV-2 infection until vaccines become commercially available. This review aimed to discuss the effects of milk vitamins, minerals, and bioactive peptides on general health in humans to combat viral diseases, especially COVID-19, and to what extent cow's milk consumption plays a role in providing these metabolites. Cow's milk contains many bioactive compounds that include vitamins, minerals, biogenic amines, nucleotides, oligosaccharides, organic acids, and immunoglobulins. Humans can meet a significant portion of their requirements for vitamins and minerals through the consumption of cow's milk. Recent studies have shown that micronutrients such as vitamins D, E, B, C, and A as well as minerals Zn, Cu, Mg, I, and Se and bioactive peptides, each can have positive and significant effects on strengthening the immune system and general health in humans.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Hemmati F, Hemmati-Dinarvand M, Karimzade M, et al (2021)

Plant-derived VLP: a worthy platform to produce vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

Biotechnology letters [Epub ahead of print].

After its emergence in late 2019 SARS-CoV-2 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11 March 2020 and has claimed more than 2.8 million lives. There has been a massive global effort to develop vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 and the rapid and low cost production of large quantities of vaccine is urgently needed to ensure adequate supply to both developed and developing countries. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are composed of viral antigens that self-assemble into structures that mimic the structure of native viruses but lack the viral genome. Thus they are not only a safer alternative to attenuated or inactivated vaccines but are also able to induce potent cellular and humoral immune responses and can be manufactured recombinantly in expression systems that do not require viral replication. VLPs have successfully been produced in bacteria, yeast, insect and mammalian cell cultures, each production platform with its own advantages and limitations. Plants offer a number of advantages in one production platform, including proper eukaryotic protein modification and assembly, increased safety, low cost, high scalability as well as rapid production speed, a critical factor needed to control outbreaks of potential pandemics. Plant-based VLP-based viral vaccines currently in clinical trials include, amongst others, Hepatitis B virus, Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Here we discuss the importance of plants as a next generation expression system for the fast, scalable and low cost production of VLP-based vaccines.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Edenfield RC, CA Easley (4th) (2021)

Implications of testicular ACE2 and the renin-angiotensin system for SARS-CoV-2 on testis function.

Nature reviews. Urology [Epub ahead of print].

Although many studies have focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lungs, comparatively little is known about the potential effects of the virus on male fertility. SARS-CoV-2 infection of target cells requires the presence of furin, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors, and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Thus, cells in the body that express these proteins might be highly susceptible to viral entry and downstream effects. Currently, reports regarding the expression of the viral entry proteins in the testes are conflicting; however, other members of the SARS-CoV family of viruses - such as SARS-CoV - have been suspected to cause testicular dysfunction and/or orchitis. SARS-CoV-2, which displays many similarities to SARS-CoV, could potentially cause similar adverse effects. Commonalities between SARS family members, taken in combination with sparse reports of testicular discomfort and altered hormone levels in patients with SARS-CoV-2, might indicate possible testicular dysfunction. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 infection has the potential for effects on testis somatic and germline cells and experimental approaches might be required to help identify potential short-term and long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on male fertility.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Wong LR, S Perlman (2021)

Immune dysregulation and immunopathology induced by SARS-CoV-2 and related coronaviruses - are we our own worst enemy?.

Nature reviews. Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Human coronaviruses cause a wide spectrum of disease, ranging from mild common colds to acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Three highly pathogenic human coronaviruses - severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 - have illustrated the epidemic and pandemic potential of human coronaviruses, and a better understanding of their disease-causing mechanisms is urgently needed for the rational design of therapeutics. Analyses of patients have revealed marked dysregulation of the immune system in severe cases of human coronavirus infection, and there is ample evidence that aberrant immune responses to human coronaviruses are typified by impaired induction of interferons, exuberant inflammatory responses and delayed adaptive immune responses. In addition, various viral proteins have been shown to impair interferon induction and signalling and to induce inflammasome activation. This suggests that severe disease associated with human coronaviruses is mediated by both dysregulated host immune responses and active viral interference. Here we discuss our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in each of these scenarios.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Abumalloh RA, Nilashi M, Yousoof Ismail M, et al (2021)

Medical image processing and COVID-19: A literature review and bibliometric analysis.

Journal of infection and public health pii:S1876-0341(21)00377-4 [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 crisis has placed medical systems over the world under unprecedented and growing pressure. Medical imaging processing can help in the diagnosis, treatment, and early detection of diseases. It has been considered as one of the modern technologies applied to fight against the COVID-19 crisis. Although several artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning techniques have been deployed in medical image processing in the context of COVID-19 disease, there is a lack of research considering systematic literature review and categorization of published studies in this field. A systematic review locates, assesses, and interprets research outcomes to address a predetermined research goal to present evidence-based practical and theoretical insights. The main goal of this study is to present a literature review of the deployed methods of medical image processing in the context of the COVID-19 crisis. With this in mind, the studies available in reliable databases were retrieved, studied, evaluated, and synthesized. Based on the in-depth review of literature, this study structured a conceptual map that outlined three multi-layered folds: data gathering and description, main steps of image processing, and evaluation metrics. The main research themes were elaborated in each fold, allowing the authors to recommend upcoming research paths for scholars. The outcomes of this review highlighted that several methods have been adopted to classify the images related to the diagnosis and detection of COVID-19. The adopted methods have presented promising outcomes in terms of accuracy, cost, and detection speed.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Mengist HM, Kombe Kombe AJ, Mekonnen D, et al (2021)

Mutations of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: Implications on immune evasion and vaccine-induced immunity.

Seminars in immunology pii:S1044-5323(21)00064-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Responsible for more than 4.9 million deaths so far, COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, is instigating devastating effects on the global health care system whose impacts could be longer for the years to come. Acquiring a comprehensive knowledge of host-virus interaction is critical for designing effective vaccines and/or drugs. Understanding the evolution of the virus and the impact of genetic variability on host immune evasion and vaccine efficacy is helpful to design novel strategies to minimize the effects of the emerging variants of concern (VOC). Most vaccines under development and/or in current use target the spike protein owning to its unique function of host receptor binding, relatively conserved nature, potent immunogenicity in inducing neutralizing antibodies, and being a good target of T cell responses. However, emerging SARS-CoV-2 strains are exhibiting variability on the spike protein which could affect the efficacy of vaccines and antibody-based therapies in addition to enhancing viral immune evasion mechanisms. Currently, the degree to which mutations on the spike protein affect immunity and vaccination, and the ability of the current vaccines to confer protection against the emerging variants attracts much attention. This review discusses the implications of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein mutations on immune evasion and vaccine-induced immunity and forward directions which could contribute to future studies focusing on designing effective vaccines and/or immunotherapies to consider viral evolution. Combining vaccines derived from different regions of the spike protein that boost both the humoral and cellular wings of adaptive immunity could be the best options to cope with the emerging VOC.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Kan WL, Cheung Tung Shing KS, Nero TL, et al (2021)

Messing with βc: A unique receptor with many goals.

Seminars in immunology pii:S1044-5323(21)00044-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Our understanding of the biological role of the βc family of cytokines has evolved enormously since their initial identification as bone marrow colony stimulating factors in the 1960's. It has become abundantly clear over the intervening decades that this family of cytokines has truly astonishing pleiotropic capacity, capable of regulating not only hematopoiesis but also many other normal and pathological processes such as development, inflammation, allergy and cancer. As noted in the current pandemic, βc cytokines contribute to the cytokine storm seen in acutely ill COVID-19 patients. Ongoing studies to discover how these cytokines activate their receptor are revealing insights into the fundamental mechanisms that give rise to cytokine pleiotropy and are providing tantalizing glimpses of how discrete signaling pathways may be dissected for activation with novel ligands for therapeutic benefit.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Alam MS, DM Czajkowsky (2021)

SARS-CoV-2 infection and oxidative stress: Pathophysiological insight into thrombosis and therapeutic opportunities.

Cytokine & growth factor reviews pii:S1359-6101(21)00080-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unprecedented challenges to global health. Although the majority of COVID-19 patients exhibit mild-to-no symptoms, many patients develop severe disease and need immediate hospitalization, with most severe infections associated with a dysregulated immune response attributed to a cytokine storm. Epidemiological studies suggest that overall COVID-19 severity and morbidity correlate with underlying comorbidities, including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and immunosuppressive conditions. Patients with such comorbidities exhibit elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress caused by an increased accumulation of angiotensin II and by activation of the NADPH oxidase pathway. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that oxidative stress coupled with the cytokine storm contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis and immunopathogenesis by causing endotheliitis and endothelial cell dysfunction and by activating the blood clotting cascade that results in blood coagulation and microvascular thrombosis. In this review, we survey the mechanisms of how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces oxidative stress and the consequences of this stress on patient health. We further shed light on aspects of the host immunity that are crucial to prevent the disease during the early phase of infection. A better understanding of the disease pathophysiology as well as preventive measures aimed at lowering ROS levels may pave the way to mitigate SARS-CoV-2-induced complications and decrease mortality.

RevDate: 2021-11-27

Lim J, Lee SA, Khil EK, et al (2021)

COVID-19 vaccine-related axillary lymphadenopathy in breast cancer patients: Case series with a review of literature.

Seminars in oncology pii:S0093-7754(21)00069-5 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Lymphadenopathy (LAP) after COVID-19 vaccination in patients with a diagnosis of cancer has been challenging. We analyzed imaging and clinical features from early cases of axillary LAP in six COVID-19 vaccine recipients with a history of breast cancer.

METHOD: Among the patients with a history of breast cancer and recent COVID-19 vaccine administration, six patients who showed isolated axillary LAP were gathered. Radiologic features were reviewed from breast ultrasound, chest computed tomography, and breast magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical and pathological information were obtained for analysis.

RESULTS: The interval between ultrasound detection of LAP and last COVID-19 vaccine administration ranged from 14 to 28 days (mean 21.67 days). Round shape of the lymph node and irregular cortex were noted in 2 and 0 cases, respectively. Mean maximum cortical thickness, length to width ratio and interval aggravation in maximum cortical thickening were 4.2 mm, 1.34, and 2.81-fold with cut-off value of 3 mm, 1.5, 2.0-fold, respectively.

CONCLUSION: We observed axillary LAP ipsilateral to a recent vaccine administration persisting longer than what the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced. In our patients, COVID-19 vaccine-related LAP tended to show increased cortical thickness without cortical irregularity. Oncologist as well as radiologist should be familiar with the fact that COVID-19 vaccines, regardless of vaccine type or dosage, can frequently cause ipsilateral axillary LAP, showing some suspicious features more often than others, and can persist longer than anticipated so that both over- and underdiagnosis can be avoided. We report our observations in six patients and provide an exhaustive review of the published literature.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )