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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 30 Sep 2022 at 01:45 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 31540 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-09-29

Presti EL, Nuzzo D, Al Mahmeed W, et al (2022)

Molecular and pro-inflammatory aspects of COVID-19: The impact on cardiometabolic health.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(22)00230-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), hypertension (HTN), and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) often cluster together as "Cardiometabolic Disease" (CMD). Just under 50 % of patients with CMD increased the risk of morbidity and mortality right from the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic as it has been reported in most countries affected by the Sars-CoV2 virus. One of the pathophysiological hallmarks of COVID-19 is the overactivation of the immune system with a prominent IL-6 response, resulting in severe and systemic damage involving also cytokines such as IL2, IL4, IL8, IL10, and interferon-gamma were considered strong predictors of COVID-19 severity. Thus, in this mini-review, we try to describe the inflammatory state, the alteration of the adipokine profile, and cytokine production in the obese state of infected and not infected by SARS-CoV2 patients with the final aim to find possible influences of COVID-19 on CMD and CVD. The immunological-based discussion of the molecular processes could inspire the study of promising targets for managing CMD patients and its complications during COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Caballero-Alvarado J, Corvera CZ, Bacilio BM, et al (2022)

POST COVID CHOLANGIOPATHY: A NARRATIVE REVIEW.

Gastroenterologia y hepatologia pii:S0210-5705(22)00221-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the spread of the first cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection much progress has been made in understanding the disease process. However, we are still facing the complications of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Multiple sequelae may appear as a consequence of acute infection. This set of entities called postCOVID-19 syndrome involves a wide variety of new, recurrent or persistent symptoms grouped together as a consequence of the acute disease process. One of those that has attracted the most attention is the liver and bile duct involvement called post-COVID-19 cholangiopathy. This is characterized by elevation of liver markers such as alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin and transaminases as well as alterations in the bile ducts in imaging studies. Thus, a narrative review of the cases reported until the end of 2021 was carried out. From the findings found, we concluded that patients who have had COVID-19 or during the process have required hospitalization should remain under follow-up for at least 6 months by a multidisciplinary team.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Bajoulvand R, Hashemi S, Askari E, et al (2022)

Post-pandemic stress of COVID-19 among high-risk groups: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of affective disorders pii:S0165-0327(22)01059-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is considered as a prevalent outcome of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to present a global picture of the prevalence of PTSD in high-risk groups for COVID-19 (HRGs-COVID19) and determine its risk factors.

METHODS: Cross-sectional studies published between March 11, 2020, and October 11, 2021, in English, were searched in seven databases on the prevalence of PTSD in HRGs-COVID19. After screening the retrieved records, their quality was assessed, and the required data were extracted. R-4.1.3 software and random effect model with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to synthesize and analyze the data.

RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of PTSD in HRGs-COVID19 was 30 % (95 % CI: 21-29 %). The pooled prevalence of PTSD was significantly different in terms of the variables of data collection during the lockdown, gender, and data collection season (P < 0.05). Subgroup analyses could not identify sources of heterogeneity.

LIMITATIONS: The included studies did not cover all HRGs-COVID19 such as smokers and the elderly.

CONCLUSION: Considering the higher pooled prevalence of PTSD in HRGs-COVID19 than the general population, COVID-19 patients, and health care workers, prioritizing this subgroup for prevention and treatment of psychological outcomes is highly recommended. Predicting and implementing psychological interventions early in the pandemic is more critical when applying restrictive measures and among HRGs-COVID19 women.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Veljkovikj I, Ilbawi AM, Roitberg F, et al (2022)

Evolution of the joint International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and WHO cancer control assessments (imPACT Reviews).

The Lancet. Oncology, 23(10):e459-e468.

Before 2005, cancer and other non-communicable diseases were not yet health and development agenda priorities. Since the 2005 World Health Assembly Resolution, which encouraged WHO, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly work on cancer control, progress was achieved in low-income and middle-income countries on a small scale. Recently, rapid acceleration in UN collaboration and global cancer activities has focused attention in global cancer control. This Policy Review presents the evolution of the IAEA, IARC, and WHO joint advisory service to help countries assess needs and capacities throughout the comprehensive cancer control continuum. We also highlight examples per country, showcasing a snapshot of global good practices to foster an exchange of experiences for continuous improvement in the integrated mission of Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (imPACT) reviews and follow-up support. The future success of progress in cancer control lies in the high-level political and financial commitments. Linking the improvement of cancer services to the strengthening of health systems after the COVID-19 pandemic will also ensure ongoing advances in the delivery of care across the cancer control continuum.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Lorentzen CL, Haanen JB, Met Ö, et al (2022)

Clinical advances and ongoing trials on mRNA vaccines for cancer treatment.

The Lancet. Oncology, 23(10):e450-e458.

Years of research exploring mRNA vaccines for cancer treatment in preclinical and clinical trials have set the stage for the rapid development of mRNA vaccines during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therapeutic cancer vaccines based on mRNA are well tolerated, and the inherent advantage in ease of production, which rivals the best available conventional vaccine manufacture methods, renders mRNA vaccines a promising option for cancer immunotherapy. Technological advances have optimised mRNA-based vaccine stability, structure, and delivery methods, and multiple clinical trials investigating mRNA vaccine therapy are now enrolling patients with various cancer diagnoses. Although therapeutic mRNA-based cancer vaccines have not yet been approved for standard treatment, encouraging results from early clinical trials with mRNA vaccines as monotherapy and in combination with checkpoint inhibitors have been obtained. This Review summarises the latest clinical advances in mRNA-based vaccines for cancer treatment and reflects on future perspectives and challenges for this new and promising treatment approach.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Hage DG, Wahab CH, WJ Kheir (2022)

Choroidal sarcoid granuloma: a case report and review of the literature.

Journal of ophthalmic inflammation and infection, 12(1):31.

BACKGROUND: Choroidal sarcoid granulomas are often diagnosed in patients without a prior history of sarcoidosis. They are often mistaken for choroidal metastasis, choroidal nevi, amelanotic choroidal melanomas, and uveal lymphomas; however, are easily treatable when accurately identified.

OBSERVATIONS: We searched PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for English-Language case reports published before September 2021. Additionally, we presented a case of a 45-year-old woman with a right-sided amelanotic choroidal mass whose diagnosis was delayed by a COVID-19 infection. Of the 26 cases reported in the literature, 46% were female, 38% were African American, and 19% had bilateral involvement. There was a mean age of 42.15 years and a mean follow-up period of 27 months. The most common complaint was of a progressive, painless blurring of vision, and only five patients had been previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis. The choroidal granulomas were typically described as yellow lesions, single or multiple, found temporal to or at the macula. Most patients were administered steroids, with 69% receiving them systemically, 5% topically, and 8% locally with a triamcinolone injection. All patients reported symptomatic improvement at their final follow-up with resolution of the mass in 65% of patients and improved visual acuity in 76%.

CONCLUSION: Primary testing including fundoscopy, fluorescein angiography, fundus autofluorescence, A/B-scan, and OCT are useful for diagnosis, differentiation from other choroidal lesions, and monitoring treatment response. Steroids are a mainstay of treatment for sarcoidosis and are effective at treating choroidal granulomas. Therefore, early recognition and diagnosis of choroidal granulomas is imperative as treatment can be curative and sight-sparing.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Mitra SS, Ghorai M, Nandy S, et al (2022)

Barbaloin: an amazing chemical from the 'wonder plant' with multidimensional pharmacological attributes.

Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's archives of pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. is nicknamed the 'Miracle plant' or sometimes as the 'Wonder plant'. It is a plant that has been used since ancient times for the innumerable health benefits associated with it. It is one of the important plants that has its use in conventional medicinal treatments. It is a perennial succulent, drought-tolerant member of the family Asphodelaceae. There are scores of properties associated with the plant that help in curing various forms of human ailments. Extracts and gels obtained from plants have been shown to be wonderful healers of different conditions, mainly various skin problems. Also, this plant is popular in the cosmetics industry. The underlying properties of the plant are now mainly associated with the natural phytochemicals present in the plant. Diverse groups of phytoingredients are found in the plant, including various phenolics, amino acids, sugars, vitamins, and different other organic compounds, too. One of the primary ingredients found in the plant is the aloin molecule. It is an anthraquinone derivative and exists as an isomer of Aloin A and Aloin B. Barbaloin belonging to the first group is a glucoside of the aloe-emodin anthrone molecule. Various types of pharmacological properties exhibited by the plant can be attributed to this chemical. Few significant ones are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-viral, along with their different immunity-boosting actions. Recently, molecular coupling studies have also found the role of these molecules as a potential cure against the ongoing COVID-19 disease. This study comprehensively focuses on the numerous pharmacological actions of the primary compound barbaloin obtained from the Aloe vera plant along with the mechanism of action and the potent application of these natural molecules under various conditions.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Asvapoositkul V, Samuthpongtorn J, Aeumjaturapat S, et al (2022)

Therapeutic options of post-COVID-19 related olfactory dysfunction: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rhinology pii:3028 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is a typical post-COVID-19 presentation, affecting patients' quality of life. There are currently multiple treatment options in this group of patients such as oral and intranasal corticosteroids, olfactory training, oral vitamin-mineral supplementation, amongst others. This meta-analysis aims to consolidate existing evidence for current therapies in patients with persistent olfactory dysfunction related to COVID-19 infection and evaluate the possible role of corticosteroid add-on therapy in olfactory training.

METHODOLOGY: A systematic review and meta-analysis to study current treatments/interventions for olfactory dysfunction in post-COVID-19 infection were conducted. Data were pooled for the meta-analysis. The outcomes include subjective or objective olfactory assessment major and minor adverse reactions.

RESULTS: Eleven studies (1414 participants) were included in this review, with six studies (916 participants) then assessed for the meta-analysis. Combined treatment of intranasal corticosteroid (INCS) with olfactory training (OT) has no benefit over OT monotherapy from both a VAS score improvement and identification component of Sniffin' Sticks test standpoint. In addition, there were no differences in improvement of TDI score between combined oral corticosteroid (OCS) with OT therapy compared to OT alone. Olfactory function was, however, significantly improved after OT.

CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in the improvement of olfactory scores in combination INCS+OT or OCS+OT therapies compared to OT monotherapy. However, there is improvement in olfactory function after OT.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

She J, Hou D, Chen C, et al (2022)

Challenges of vaccination and herd immunity in COVID-19 and management strategies.

The clinical respiratory journal [Epub ahead of print].

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the highly contagious viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread worldwide with millions of cases and more than 5 million deaths to date. SARS-CoV-2 has caused serious damage all over the world with many countries experiencing the third or the fourth wave of the viral disease outbreaks, mainly due to the emergence of mutant variants. Those who unvaccinated remain most vulnerable to COVID-19 and its variants. COVID-19 vaccination, along with prevention strategies, is a critical measure to defense against the disease. COVID-19 vaccination can reduce the spread of virus and help protect susceptible population. Although herd immunity might not be realized solely by vaccination, COVID-19 vaccines have been proved to be effective in reducing the risk of severe disease, hospitalization, and even death. It is recommended that people get vaccinated as soon as they are eligible. This review summarizes the recent SARS-CoV-2 variants that brought challenges for vaccination and herd immunity and discusses promising management strategies.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Manz XD, Bogaard HJ, J Aman (2022)

Regulation of VWF (Von Willebrand Factor) in Inflammatory Thrombosis.

Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology [Epub ahead of print].

Increasing evidence indicates that inflammation promotes thrombosis via a VWF (von Willebrand factor)-mediated mechanism. VWF plays an essential role in maintaining the balance between blood coagulation and bleeding, and inflammation can lead to aberrant regulation. VWF is regulated on a transcriptional and (post-)translational level, and its secretion into the circulation captures platelets upon endothelial activation. The significant progress that has been made in understanding transcriptional and translational regulation of VWF is described in this review. First, we describe how VWF is regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational level with a specific focus on the influence of inflammatory and immune responses. Next, we describe how changes in regulation are linked with various cardiovascular diseases. Recent insights from clinical diseases provide evidence for direct molecular links between inflammation and thrombosis, including atherosclerosis, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and COVID-19. Finally, we will briefly describe clinical implications for the management of antithrombotic treatment.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Bepouka B, Odio O, Mayasi N, et al (2022)

Prevalence and Outcomes of COVID -19 Patients with Happy Hypoxia: A Systematic Review.

Infection and drug resistance, 15:5619-5628 pii:378060.

Background: In Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), some patients have low oxygen saturation without any dyspnea. This has been termed "happy hypoxia." No worldwide prevalence survey of this phenomenon has been conducted. This review aimed to summarize information on the prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes of patients with happy hypoxia to improve their management.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases for all studies published up to April 30, 2022. We included high-quality studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) tool for qualitative assessment of searches. The prevalence of happy hypoxia, as well as the mortality rate of patients with happy hypoxia, were estimated by pooled analysis and heterogeneity by I2.

Results: Of the 25,086 COVID-19 patients from the 7 studies, the prevalence of happy hypoxia ranged from 4.8 to 65%. The pooled prevalence was 6%. Happy hypoxia was associated with age > 65 years, male sex, body mass index (BMI)> 25 kg/m2, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, high respiratory rate, and high d-dimer. Mortality ranged from 01 to 45.4%. The pooled mortality was 2%. In 2 studies, patients with dyspnea were admitted to intensive care more often than those with happy hypoxia. One study reported that the length of stay in intensive care did not differ between patients with dyspnea and those with happy hypoxia at admission. One study reported the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with happy hypoxia.

Conclusion: The pooled prevalence and mortality of patients with happy hypoxia were not very high. Happy hypoxia was associated with advanced age and comorbidities. Some patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, although fewer than dyspneic patients. Its early detection and management should improve the prognosis.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Duan Q, Hu T, Zhu Q, et al (2022)

How far are the new wave of mRNA drugs from us? mRNA product current perspective and future development.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:974433.

mRNA products are therapies that are regulated from the post-transcriptional, pre-translational stage of a gene and act upstream of protein synthesis. Compared with traditional small molecule drugs and antibody drugs, mRNA drugs had the advantages of simple design, short development cycle, strong target specificity, wide therapeutic field, and long-lasting effect. mRNA drugs were now widely used in the treatment of genetic diseases, tumors, and viral infections, and are expected to become the third major class of drugs after small molecule drugs and antibody drugs. The delivery system technology was the key to ensuring the efficacy and safety of mRNA drugs, which plays an important role in protecting RNA structure, enhancing targeting ability, reducing the dose of drug delivery, and reducing toxic side effects. Lipid nanoparticles (LNP) were the most common delivery system for mRNA drugs. In recent years, mRNA drugs have seen rapid development, with the number of drugs on the market increasing each year. The success of commercializing mRNA vaccines has driven a wave of nucleic acid drug development. mRNA drugs were clinically used in genetic diseases, oncology, and infectious diseases worldwide, while domestic mRNA clinical development was focused on COVID-19 vaccines, with more scope for future indication expansion.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Stefanile A, Cellerino M, T Koudriavtseva (2022)

Elevated risk of thrombotic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients: A literature review.

EXCLI journal, 21:906-920 pii:2022-5073.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) results in higher risks of hospitalization or death in older patients and those with multiple comorbidities, including malignancies. Patients with cancer have greater risks of COVID-19 onset and worse prognosis. This excess is mainly explained by thrombotic complications. Indeed, an imbalance in the equilibrium between clot formation and bleeding, increased activation of coagulation, and endothelial dysfunction characterize both COVID-19 patients and those with cancer. With this review, we provide a summary of the pathological mechanisms of coagulation and thrombotic manifestations in these patients and discuss the possible therapeutic implications of these phenomena.

RevDate: 2022-09-29
CmpDate: 2022-09-29

Baidoo L (2022)

Functional neurologic disorder (FND) in pediatrics: A clinical review with discussion of FND in the era of COVID-19.

The Nurse practitioner, 47(10):42-47.

ABSTRACT: Functional neurologic disorder is a complex disorder of truly experienced neurologic symptoms without evidence of underlying neurologic disease. This clinical review focuses on the pediatric population and includes the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinician knowledge and early identification can substantially improve patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-09-29
CmpDate: 2022-09-26

Tran VV (2022)

Conjugated Polymers-Based Biosensors for Virus Detection: Lessons from COVID-19.

Biosensors, 12(9):.

Human beings continue to endure the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which has spread throughout the world and significantly affected all countries and territories, causing a socioeconomic crunch. Human pathogenic viruses are considered a global burden for public health, both in the present and the future. Therefore, the early and accurate diagnosis of viruses has been and still is critical and should be accorded a degree of priority that is equivalent to vaccinations and drugs. We have opened a Special Issue titled "Conjugated polymers-based biosensors for virus detection". This editorial seeks to emphasize the importance and potential of conjugated polymers in the design and development of biosensors. Furthermore, we briefly provide an overview, scientific evidence, and opinions on promising strategies for the development of CP-based electrochemical biosensors for virus detection.

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Hollenberg SM, Janz DR, Hua M, et al (2022)

COVID-19: Lessons Learned, Lessons Unlearned, Lessons for the Future.

Chest pii:S0012-3692(22)01361-7 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-29

Schlief M, Saunders KRK, Appleton R, et al (2022)

Synthesis of the Evidence on What Works for Whom in Telemental Health: Rapid Realist Review.

Interactive journal of medical research, 11(2):e38239 pii:v11i2e38239.

BACKGROUND: Telemental health (delivering mental health care via video calls, telephone calls, or SMS text messages) is becoming increasingly widespread. Telemental health appears to be useful and effective in providing care to some service users in some settings, especially during an emergency restricting face-to-face contact, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. However, important limitations have been reported, and telemental health implementation risks the reinforcement of pre-existing inequalities in service provision. If it is to be widely incorporated into routine care, a clear understanding is needed of when and for whom it is an acceptable and effective approach and when face-to-face care is needed.

OBJECTIVE: This rapid realist review aims to develop a theory about which telemental health approaches work (or do not work), for whom, in which contexts, and through what mechanisms.

METHODS: Rapid realist reviewing involves synthesizing relevant evidence and stakeholder expertise to allow timely development of context-mechanism-outcome (CMO) configurations in areas where evidence is urgently needed to inform policy and practice. The CMO configurations encapsulate theories about what works for whom and by what mechanisms. Sources included eligible papers from 2 previous systematic reviews conducted by our team on telemental health; an updated search using the strategy from these reviews; a call for relevant evidence, including "gray literature," to the public and key experts; and website searches of relevant voluntary and statutory organizations. CMO configurations formulated from these sources were iteratively refined, including through discussions with an expert reference group, including researchers with relevant lived experience and frontline clinicians, and consultation with experts focused on three priority groups: children and young people, users of inpatient and crisis care services, and digitally excluded groups.

RESULTS: A total of 108 scientific and gray literature sources were included. From our initial CMO configurations, we derived 30 overarching CMO configurations within four domains: connecting effectively; flexibility and personalization; safety, privacy, and confidentiality; and therapeutic quality and relationship. Reports and stakeholder input emphasized the importance of personal choice, privacy and safety, and therapeutic relationships in telemental health care. The review also identified particular service users likely to be disadvantaged by telemental health implementation and a need to ensure that face-to-face care of equivalent timeliness remains available. Mechanisms underlying the successful and unsuccessful application of telemental health are discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: Service user choice, privacy and safety, the ability to connect effectively, and fostering strong therapeutic relationships need to be prioritized in delivering telemental health care. Guidelines and strategies coproduced with service users and frontline staff are needed to optimize telemental health implementation in real-world settings.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO); CRD42021260910; https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php?ID=CRD42021260910.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Rohner R, Gallistl V, Hartmann V, et al (2022)

[Influence of social contacts on corona concerns in the nursing home population : Quantitative cross-sectional survey].

Zeitschrift fur Gerontologie und Geriatrie [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: During the pandemic caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in spring and summer 2020, the anxiety and concerns of residents living in long-term care facilities about contracting and falling ill from the virus (corona concerns) increased. Contact to close persons represents an important asset in coping with concerns or anxiety; however, this was strictly regulated particularly in nursing facilities. Therefore, an elevated psychological burden was assumed; however, there is a lack of representative data.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to answer the question: how do social contacts influence the corona concerns of long-term nursing home residents?

MATERIAL AND METHODS: In summer 2020 a representative sample of 259 long-term nursing home residents in the whole of Austria participated in a standardized face-to-face interview.

RESULTS: Firstly, the data show a high emotional burden in nursing home residents; however, many residents also demonstrated a certain degree of mental resilience. Secondly, there was an association between emotional loneliness and higher corona concerns (odds ratio, OR = 2.30; p < 0.01). Thirdly, a frequent contact with relatives via telephone or in person also related to higher corona concerns (OR = 1.32; p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: In the current times, when one crisis is replaced by the next, more knowledge is needed about the mental resilience of long-term nursing home residents and how it can be promoted. Furthermore, more knowledge is needed about the role of relatives and whether they are more the origin of concerns or they represent a strategy for coping with concerns.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Schmidt D (2022)

[Ocular symptoms in cerebellitis caused by COVID-19 : Cerebellitis, a less noticed disease with neuro-ophthalmological findings].

Die Ophthalmologie [Epub ahead of print].

The disease pattern of acute cerebellitis has been increasingly noticed in recent years. Two different courses had been observed. A mild form with slight ataxic disorders (as a postinfectious self-limiting disease) and a fulminant course of cerebellitis with cerebellar swelling, which compresses Sylvius' aqueduct, leading to an increased intracranial pressure with an obstructive hydrocephalus, and downward herniation of the cerebellar tonsils in the foramen magnum. In this case the course can be fatal if neurosurgical emergency treatment comes too late. Cerebellitis has been observed as a sequela to a virus infection and by autoimmune-mediated inflammation. Numerous publications were concerned with childhood cerebellitis but less commonly in adults. Neuro-ophthalmological findings were frequently described as nystagmus (horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, vertical nystagmus, downbeat nystagmus, periodic alternating nystagmus), papilledema, more rarely paresis of the abducens or facial nerve, photophobia and very rarely an opsoclonous-myoclonous syndrome. Cerebellitis with neuro-ophthalmological findings has repeatedly been described in adults during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Yetişkin E, V Özdemir (2022)

Narrative Metadata: Leaving the War Metaphor Behind and Unpacking the Control Tactics of Biopower in COVID-19.

Omics : a journal of integrative biology [Epub ahead of print].

Narratives are a veritable type of metadata. Narratives are power-laden storylines that conjure up emotions and enact value systems that markedly affect scientific practices, and to what ends, and for whom science and health innovations are made available. Narratives, if they are left unchecked, can undermine critical thinking and the agency of publics, threatening the possibilities for robust, responsible, relevant, and democratic science. One such narrative, a sociotechnical metadata in its own right, and of immense relevance in the current historical moment of the pandemic, is the uncritical use of the war and other military metaphors in COVID-19 science and planetary health interventions. In October 2022 issue of OMICS, Ebru Yetişkin adopts a biophilosophical transdisciplinary approach and feminist versions of science and technology studies to examine the ways in which the war discourse and other military metaphors have been deployed for the sake of biopower during COVID-19. In this article, we discuss the need to critically unpack the narrative metadata to leave the war metaphor behind, and hold to account the control tactics of biopower embedded in the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

La Monica G, Bono A, Lauria A, et al (2022)

Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease for Treatment of COVID-19: Covalent Inhibitors Structure-Activity Relationship Insights and Evolution Perspectives.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The viral main protease is one of the most attractive targets among all key enzymes involved in the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle. Covalent inhibition of the cysteine145 of SARS-CoV-2 MPRO with selective antiviral drugs will arrest the replication process of the virus without affecting human catalytic pathways. In this Perspective, we analyzed the in silico, in vitro, and in vivo data of the most representative examples of covalent SARS-CoV-2 MPRO inhibitors reported in the literature to date. In particular, the studied molecules were classified into eight different categories according to their reactive electrophilic warheads, highlighting the differences between their reversible/irreversible mechanism of inhibition. Furthermore, the analyses of the most recurrent pharmacophoric moieties and stereochemistry of chiral carbons were reported. The analyses of noncovalent and covalent in silico protocols, provided in this Perspective, would be useful for the scientific community to discover new and more efficient covalent SARS-CoV-2 MPRO inhibitors.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Nagley P, Svasti J, A Kikuchi (2022)

Reflections on the Fifty-Year History of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB).

IUBMB life [Epub ahead of print].

The Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists, Inc. (FAOBMB) celebrates its Golden Jubilee in 2022. Established in August 1972 as a regional grouping of three national societies of biochemists in Australia, India and Japan, it took the name Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists (FAOB). The Federation rapidly grew to encompass another twelve national societies (or groups) of biochemists within six years, eventually increasing the number of Constituent Members to 21 by 2014. FAOB soon established regular scientific meetings, including triennial Congresses and annual Symposia; from 1980 FAOB Travel Fellowships enabled regional young scientists to participate in them. In 1992, FAOB was constituted as an Incorporated Association in Victoria, Australia, changing its name one year later (yielding the acronym FAOBMB). A printed Newsletter/Bulletin was distributed through each Constituent Society or Group from 1972-1999. With the advent of the internet and email in the late 1990s, communication rapidly improved, such that the first webpage of FAOBMB was set up in 1995. From the inception of the Federation, an international journal sponsored by FAOB was foreshadowed but only commenced in 1997, sadly lasting only six years. Education in biochemistry and molecular biology became prominent in FAOBMB from the 1990s. In the 21st century, awards to high-achieving scientists and educationists were introduced, the first being the Young Scientist Awards in 2006. The Fellowships program was extended to young educationists in 2018. FAOB(MB) has been supported by the International Union of Biochemistry (and Molecular Biology) almost its entire history, mostly for support of Congresses, Conferences and Symposia, but also for Young Scientist Programs. The most recent challenge to FAOBMB came with the Covid-19 pandemic. Executive Committee and the Constituent Members rapidly adapted to virtual communications for their administrative meetings and Education Symposia, and a memorable Congress was held totally on-line in 2021. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Nash D, Hughes MG, Butcher L, et al (2022)

IL-6 signalling in acute exercise and chronic training: potential consequences for health and athletic performance.

Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports [Epub ahead of print].

The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is involved in a diverse set of physiological processes. Traditionally, IL-6 has been thought of in terms of its inflammatory actions during the acute phase response and in chronic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and obesity. However, IL-6 is also an important signalling molecule during exercise, being acutely released from working muscle fibres with increased exercise duration, intensity, and muscle glycogen depletion. In this context, IL-6 enables muscle-organ crosstalk, facilitating a coordinated response to help maintain muscle energy homeostasis, while also having anti-inflammatory actions. The range of actions of IL-6 can be explained by its dichotomous signalling pathways. Classical signalling involves IL-6 binding to a cell-surface receptor (mbIL-6R; present on only a small number of cell types) and is the predominant signalling mechanism during exercise. Trans-signalling involves IL-6 binding to a soluble version of its receptor (sIL-6R), with the resulting complex having a much greater half-life and the ability to signal in all cell types. Trans-signalling drives the inflammatory actions of IL-6 and is the predominant pathway in disease. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2228145) on the IL-6R gene can modify the classical/trans-signalling balance through increasing the levels of sIL-6R. This SNP has clinical significance, having been linked to inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and type-1 diabetes, as well as to the severity of symptoms experienced with COVID-19. This review will describe how acute exercise, chronic training and the rs2228145 SNP can modify the IL-6 signalling pathway and the consequent implications for health and athletic performance.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Barello S, Acampora M, Paleologo M, et al (2022)

Public views on the Covid-19 immunity certificate: A scoping review.

Health expectations : an international journal of public participation in health care and health policy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Already in its first implementation, the introduction of the Covid-19 immunity certificate has generated some debate among the public. This debate might be a hindrance to the effective realization of this policy. This study aimed to systematically review published research evaluating public feeling of the Covid-19 immunity certificate policy measure and to find which factors might influence its acceptance.

METHODS: We followed the scoping review methods manual by the Joanna Briggs Institute. We included studies with no time limits that presented novel data, and no exclusions have been made based on study design. We excluded articles that presented just expert opinions.

RESULTS: We found and reviewed 17 articles. The included studies were conducted in two main countries (the United Kingdom and Switzerland), with the rest from Israel, Italy, Spain, Germany, Australia, Taiwan and China. Both qualitative and quantitative studies were included, and nonrepresentative samples were mostly used to explore the public feeling about the Covid-19 immunity certification. The included studies showed that public views on immunity certification are quite contradictory and influenced by age, gender, ethnicity, political orientation and attitudes towards Covid-19 vaccination. The topic more often addressed by the included studies was the public's views on the positive and negative implications of the Covid-19 immunity certificate in terms of ethical, legal and behavioural consequences of this measure.

CONCLUSION: The varying acceptance rates are notable and may partly be linked to differences in demographics, Covid-19 concerns and ideological beliefs, as seen in other health-related tracking policies. Moreover, dominant factors behind the (un)success of this policy are complex and entangled with the cultural and political dimensions rather than being just technical. For this reason, it is important to expand psychosocial research to better understand the concerns behind health certifications and allow planning of culturally based and ethically sound suitable strategies. This would be very relevant to increasing public approval and compliance with this public health measure.

This does not apply to our work as it was a review paper.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Lapierre N, Olatona O, Labrie D, et al (2022)

Providing community services for persons with disabilities during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review.

Health & social care in the community [Epub ahead of print].

Community organisations and municipalities support people with disabilities by providing resources and services that are essential for their engagement in the community. Their services were particularly impacted by restrictions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of the study is to identify scientific literature that examines how community organisations and municipalities adapted services and resources provided to people with disabilities as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. A scoping review was conducted by searching the databases Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Web of Science Core Collection in January 2021. Fifteen studies were included from the initial search strategy of 7651 individual studies. Most of the studies were quantitative studies (73.3%; n = 11) and aimed at describing the adaptations put in place during the COVID-19 pandemic (66.7%; n = 10). Most services and resources involved some form of preventive healthcare (66.7%; n = 10). The adaptation of modalities for delivering resources and services varied widely across organisations (e.g. online or a combination of online and in-person) but mostly led to an improvement of the studied outcome (e.g. social skills, quality of life). Barriers (e.g. need for a reliable internet connection, lack of technology literacy from the member) and facilitators (e.g. flexibility and planning from the organisations) for these adaptations have been identified, but there is little information surrounding their cost. The results highlight that the delivery of online services has increased since the inception of the COVID-19 pandemic with valuable outcomes. However, further research is needed to better identify the barriers, facilitators and outcomes of remote services to better face future large-scale disasters like the COVID-19 pandemic and to better support individuals who cannot reach in-person services.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Mutiso F, Pearce JL, Benjamin-Neelon SE, et al (2022)

Bayesian negative binomial regression with spatially varying dispersion: Modeling COVID-19 incidence in Georgia.

Spatial statistics pii:S2211-6753(22)00064-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Overdispersed count data arise commonly in disease mapping and infectious disease studies. Typically, the level of overdispersion is assumed to be constant over time and space. In some applications, however, this assumption is violated, and in such cases, it is necessary to model the dispersion as a function of time and space in order to obtain valid inferences. Motivated by a study examining spatiotemporal patterns in COVID-19 incidence, we develop a Bayesian negative binomial model that accounts for heterogeneity in both the incidence rate and degree of overdispersion. To fully capture the heterogeneity in the data, we introduce region-level covariates, smooth temporal effects, and spatially correlated random effects in both the mean and dispersion components of the model. The random effects are assigned bivariate intrinsic conditionally autoregressive priors that promote spatial smoothing and permit the model components to borrow information, which is appealing when the mean and dispersion are spatially correlated. Through simulation studies, we show that ignoring heterogeneity in the dispersion can lead to biased and imprecise estimates. For estimation, we adopt a Bayesian approach that combines full-conditional Gibbs sampling and Metropolis-Hastings steps. We apply the model to a study of COVID-19 incidence in the state of Georgia, USA from March 15 to December 31, 2020.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Jacob Machado D, White RA, Kofsky J, et al (2021)

Fundamentals of genomic epidemiology, lessons learned from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, and new directions.

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 1(1):e60 pii:S2732494X21002229.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was one of the significant causes of death worldwide in 2020. The disease is caused by severe acute coronavirus syndrome (SARS) coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), an RNA virus of the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae related to 2 other clinically relevant coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. Like other coronaviruses and several other viruses, SARS-CoV-2 originated in bats. However, unlike other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 resulted in a devastating pandemic. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic rages on due to viral evolution that leads to more transmissible and immune evasive variants. Technology such as genomic sequencing has driven the shift from syndromic to molecular epidemiology and promises better understanding of variants. The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed critical impediments that must be addressed to develop the science of pandemics. Much of the progress is being applied in the developed world. However, barriers to the use of molecular epidemiology in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) remain, including lack of logistics for equipment and reagents and lack of training in analysis. We review the molecular epidemiology literature to understand its origins from the SARS epidemic (2002-2003) through influenza events and the current COVID-19 pandemic. We advocate for improved genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV and understanding the pathogen diversity in potential zoonotic hosts. This work will require training in phylogenetic and high-performance computing to improve analyses of the origin and spread of pathogens. The overarching goals are to understand and abate zoonosis risk through interdisciplinary collaboration and lowering logistical barriers.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Hamilton AJ, Strauss AT, Martinez DA, et al (2021)

Machine learning and artificial intelligence: applications in healthcare epidemiology.

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 1(1):e28 pii:S2732494X21001923.

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the performance of tasks by machines ordinarily associated with human intelligence. Machine learning (ML) is a subtype of AI; it refers to the ability of computers to draw conclusions (ie, learn) from data without being directly programmed. ML builds from traditional statistical methods and has drawn significant interest in healthcare epidemiology due to its potential for improving disease prediction and patient care. This review provides an overview of ML in healthcare epidemiology and practical examples of ML tools used to support healthcare decision making at 4 stages of hospital-based care: triage, diagnosis, treatment, and discharge. Examples include model-building efforts to assist emergency department triage, predicting time before septic shock onset, detecting community-acquired pneumonia, and classifying COVID-19 disposition risk level. Increasing availability and quality of electronic health record (EHR) data as well as computing power provides opportunities for ML to increase patient safety, improve the efficiency of clinical management, and reduce healthcare costs.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Barlam TF (2021)

The state of antibiotic stewardship programs in 2021: The perspective of an experienced steward.

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 1(1):e20 pii:S2732494X21001807.

Recognition of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) as essential components of quality health care has dramatically increased in the past decade. The value of ASPs has been further reinforced during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic because these programs were instrumental in monitoring antibiotic use, assessing emerging COVID-19 therapies, and coordinating implementation of monoclonal antibody infusions and vaccinations. ASPs are now required across hospital settings as a condition of participation for the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services and for accreditation by The Joint Commission. In the 2019 National Healthcare Safety Network annual survey, almost 89% of hospitals met the Seven Core Elements for ASPs defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 61% of programs were co-led by physicians and pharmacists, evidence of the leadership role of both groups. ASPs employ many strategies to improve prescribing. Core interventions of preauthorization for targeted antibiotics, prospective audit and feedback, and development of local treatment guidelines have been supplemented with numerous emerging strategies. Diagnostic stewardship, optimizing duration of therapy, promoting appropriate conversion from intravenous to oral therapy, monitoring at transitions of care and hospital discharge, implementing stewardship initiatives in the outpatient setting, and increasing use of telemedicine are approaches being adopted across hospital settings. As a core function for medical facilities, ASP leaders must ensure that antibiotic use and ASP interventions promote optimal and equitable care. The urgency of success becomes progressively greater as complex patterns of antibiotic resistance continue to emerge, exacerbated by unpredictable factors such as a worldwide pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Herstein JJ, Schwedhelm MM, Vasa A, et al (2021)

Emergency preparedness: What is the future?.

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 1(1):e29 pii:S2732494X2100190X.

Emergency preparedness programs have evolved over the last several decades as communities have responded to natural, intentional, and accidental disasters. This evolution has resulted in a comprehensive all-hazards approach centered around 4 fundamental phases spanning the entire disaster life cycle: mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery. Increasing frequency of outbreaks and epidemics of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the last decade has emphasized the significance of healthcare emergency preparedness programs, but the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has tested healthcare facilities' emergency plans and exposed vulnerabilities in healthcare emergency preparedness on a scale unexperienced in recent history. We review the 4 phases of emergency management and explore the lessons to be learned from recent events in enhancing health systems capabilities and capacities to mitigate, prepare for, respond to, and recover from biological threats or events, whether it be a pandemic or a single case of an unknown infectious disease. A recurring cycle of assessing, planning, training, exercising, and revising is vital to maintaining healthcare system preparedness, even in absence of an immediate, high probability threat. Healthcare epidemiologists and infection preventionists must play a pivotal role in incorporating lessons learned from the pandemic into emergency preparedness programs and building more robust preparedness plans.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Wilson AE, Lehmann CU, Saleh SN, et al (2021)

Social media: A new tool for outbreak surveillance.

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 1(1):e50 pii:S2732494X21002254.

Social media platforms allow users to share news, ideas, thoughts, and opinions on a global scale. Data processing methods allow researchers to automate the collection and interpretation of social media posts for efficient and valuable disease surveillance. Data derived from social media and internet search trends have been used successfully for monitoring and forecasting disease outbreaks such as Zika, Dengue, MERS, and Ebola viruses. More recently, data derived from social media have been used to monitor and model disease incidence during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We discuss the use of social media for disease surveillance.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Shao Z, Chen H, Wang Q, et al (2022)

High-performance multifunctional electrospun fibrous air filter for personal protection: A review.

Separation and purification technology, 302:122175.

With the increasingly serious air pollution and the rampant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), preparing high-performance air filter to achieve the effective personal protection has become a research hotspot. Electrospun nanofibrous membrane has become the first choice of air filter because of its small diameter, high specific surface area and porosity. However, improving the filtration performance of the filter only cannot meet the personal needs: it should be given more functions based on high filtration performance to maximize the personal benefits, called, multifunctional, which can also be easily realized by electrospinning technology, and has attracted much attention. In this review, the filtration mechanism of high-performance electrospun air filter is innovatively summarized from the perspective of membrane. On this basis, the specific preparation process, advantages and disadvantages are analyzed in detail. Furthermore, other functions required for achieving maximum personal protection benefits are introduced specifically, and the existing high-performance electrospun air filter with multiple functions are summarized. Finally, the challenges, limitations, and development trends of manufacturing high-performance air filter with multiple functions for personal protection are presented.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Thapa Magar S, Lokhandwala HI, Batool S, et al (2022)

A Systematic Review of Neurological Manifestations of COVID-19.

Cureus, 14(8):e28309.

The coronavirus can infect the upper respiratory tract, sinuses, and nose, and its severity manifests in its respiratory symptoms and neurological and psychological consequences. The majority of people who have COVID-19 present with moderate flu-like illness, and patients who are elderly with comorbid conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, are more prone to experience severe illness and death. However, in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, neurological consequences have become a substantial source of morbidity and mortality. COVID-19 poses a global hazard to the nervous system because of its widespread dispersion and multiple pathogenic pathways. This review offers a critical assessment of the acute and long-term neurological effects of the COVID-19 virus. Some neurological problems include headache, dizziness, myalgia/fatigue, meningitis, ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke, and myelitis. Other people who have contracted COVID-19 also exhibit neurological features such as loss of taste and smell, reduced consciousness, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. This study seeks to help neurologists comprehend the wide range of neurologic aspects of COVID-19, as understanding neurological symptoms may help with the management and enhance the patient's outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Aziz AA, Aziz MA, Saleem M, et al (2022)

Acute Pancreatitis Related to COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review and Analysis of Data.

Cureus, 14(8):e28380.

There is increasing literature mentioning severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19 infection) causing acute pancreatitis (AP). It is hypothesized that SARS-Cov-2 causes pancreatic injury either by direct cytotoxic effect of the virus on pancreatic cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors - the main receptors for the virus located on pancreatic cells - or by the cytokine storm that results from COVID-19 infection or a component of both. Many viruses are related to AP including mumps, coxsackievirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and as data evolves SARS-CoV-2 virus may be one of them as well. We conducted a systematic literature review to explore the current literature and provide an overview of the evidence of AP in COVID-19 infection. We studied the presence of AP in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and calculated the time of diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection with respect to the time of diagnosis of AP. We also studied the age, gender, clinical manifestations, time of onset of symptoms, laboratory values, imaging findings, mortality, length of stay, comorbidities, need for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) care, and excluded any other common causes of AP. We included 40 articles comprising 46 patients. All patients had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and all patients had AP as per Atlanta's criteria. The most common clinical presentation was abdominal pain in 29 (63.0%). Edematous pancreas was the most common Computed Tomography Abdomen Pelvis (CTAP) scan finding in these patients (35 patients). Seventeen (37%) patients required ICU admission and six (13%) patients died. Our study provides an important overview of the available data on AP in COVID-19 patients and concludes that AP is an important complication in COVID-19 infection and should be considered as an important differential in patients with COVID-19 infection who complain of abdominal pain.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Tu B, Gao Y, An X, et al (2022)

Localized delivery of nanomedicine and antibodies for combating COVID-19.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B pii:S2211-3835(22)00400-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has been a major health burden in the world. So far, many strategies have been investigated to control the spread of COVID-19, including social distancing, disinfection protocols, vaccines, and antiviral treatments. Despite the significant achievement, due to the constantly emerging new variants, COVID-19 is still a great challenge to the global healthcare system. It is an urgent demand for the development of new therapeutics and technology for containing the wild spread of SARS-CoV-2. Inhaled administration is useful for the treatment of lung and respiratory diseases, and enables the drugs to reach the site of action directly with benefits of decreased dose, improved safety, and enhanced patient compliance. Nanotechnology has been extensively applied in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. In this review, the inhaled nanomedicines and antibodies, as well as intranasal nanodrugs, for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 are summarized.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Yeoh M, Lai JB, CH Ng (2022)

Learning from Covid 19 in a Level 1 oral and maxillofacial trauma centre - Insights for the future.

Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery, medicine, and pathology pii:S2212-5558(22)00185-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 has resulted in many confirmed cases around the world. Sars-CoV-2 remains viable and infectious in aerosols dispersed in air and is viable on surfaces up to several days. Symptomatic patients are the main reservoir for transmission. Evidence suggests that asymptomatic patients and patients during their incubation period can shed and transmit Sars-CoV-2. The infective potential can be reduced through the use of personal protective equipment. Healthcare professionals especially the oral maxillofacial surgeons are at increased risk of being infected by the virus. Oral maxillofacial injuries typically involve vital structures in the upper aerodigestive tract and are emergent. Facial trauma surgery cannot be delayed or deferred in a pandemic. This review focuses on precautions surgeons should adopt while managing facial trauma patients in the emergency department and whilst performing emergency surgeries on these patients during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Strict and effective infection control protocols for facial trauma management are needed to minimize this risk of transmission. This review was part of the lecture given by Professor Melvyn Yeoh at the 14th Asian congress on Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery recently held virtually in Singapore due to the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Chen Y, Zhao X, Zhou H, et al (2022)

Broadly neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and other human coronaviruses.

Nature reviews. Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a recently emerged pathogenic human coronavirus that belongs to the sarbecovirus lineage of the genus Betacoronavirus. The ancestor strain has evolved into a number of variants of concern, with the Omicron variant of concern now having many distinct sublineages. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has caused serious damage to public health and the global economy, and one strategy to combat COVID-19 has been the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies for prophylactic and therapeutic use. Many are in preclinical and clinical development, and a few have been approved for emergency use. Here we summarize neutralizing antibodies that target four key regions within the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein, namely the N-terminal domain and the receptor-binding domain in the S1 subunit, and the stem helix region and the fusion peptide region in the S2 subunit. Understanding the characteristics of these broadly neutralizing antibodies will accelerate the development of new antibody therapeutics and provide guidance for the rational design of next-generation vaccines.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Popkin ME, Goese M, Wilkinson D, et al (2022)

Chemistry Manufacturing and Controls Development, Industry Reflections on Manufacture, and Supply of Pandemic Therapies and Vaccines.

The AAPS journal, 24(6):101.

This publication provides some industry reflections on experiences from the Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) development and manufacture and supply of vaccines and therapies in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. It integrates these experiences with the outcomes from the collaborative work between industry and regulators in recent years on innovative science- and risk-based CMC strategies to the development of new, high-quality products for unmet medical needs. The challenges for rapid development are discussed and various approaches to facilitate accelerated development and global supply are collated for consideration. Relevant regulatory aspects are reviewed, including the role of Emergency Use/Conditional Marketing Authorizations, the dialogue between sponsors and agencies to facilitate early decision-making and alignment, and the value of improving reliance/collaborative assessment and increased collaboration between regulatory authorities to reduce differences in global regulatory requirements. Five areas are highlighted for particular consideration in the implementation of strategies for the quality-related aspects of accelerated development and supply: (1) the substantial need to advance reliance or collaborative assessment; (2) the need for early decision making and streamlined engagement between industry and regulatory authorities on CMC matters; (3) the need to further facilitate 'post-approval' changes; (4) fully exploiting prior and platform knowledge; and (5) review and potential revision of legal frameworks. The recommendations in this publication are intended to contribute to the discussion on approaches that can result in earlier and greater access to high-quality pandemic vaccines and therapies for patients worldwide but could also be useful in general for innovative medicines addressing unmet medical needs.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Gagnon LR, Sadasivan C, Yogasundaram H, et al (2022)

Review of Hydroxychloroquine Cardiotoxicity: Lessons From the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Current heart failure reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has popularized the usage of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine (HCQ/CQ) as treatments for COVID-19. Previously used as anti-malarial and now commonly used in rheumatologic conditions, preliminary in vitro studies have demonstrated these medications also have anti-viral properties. Retinopathy and neuromyopathy are well recognized complications of using these treatments; however, cardiotoxicity is under-recognized. This review will discuss the implications and cardiotoxicity of HCQ/CQ, their mechanisms of action, and their utility in COVID-19.

RECENT FINDINGS: Early clinical trials demonstrated a modest benefit of HCQ in COVID-19, causing a push for the usage of it. However, further large multi-center randomized control centers, demonstrated no benefit, and even a trend towards worse outcomes. The predominant cardiac complication observed with HCQ in COVID-19 was cardiac arrhythmias and prolonging of the QT interval. However, with chronic usage of HCQ/CQ, the development of heart failure (HF) and cardiomyopathy (CM) can occur. Although, most adverse cardiac events related to HCQ/CQ usage in COVID-19 were secondary to conduction disorders given the short duration of treatment, HCQ/CQ can cause CM and HF, with chronic usage. Given the insufficient evidence, HCQ/CQ usage in COVID-19 is not routinely recommended, especially with novel therapies now being developed and used. Additionally, usage of HCQ/CQ should prompt initial cardiac evaluation with ECG, and yearly monitoring, with consideration for advanced imaging if clinically warranted. The diagnosis of HCQ/CQ cardiomyopathy is important, as prompt cessation can allow for recovery when these changes are still reversible.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Wang Q, Guo F, Jin Y, et al (2022)

Applications of human organoids in the personalized treatment for digestive diseases.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 7(1):336.

Digestive system diseases arise primarily through the interplay of genetic and environmental influences; there is an urgent need in elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of these diseases and deploy personalized treatments. Traditional and long-established model systems rarely reproduce either tissue complexity or human physiology faithfully; these shortcomings underscore the need for better models. Organoids represent a promising research model, helping us gain a more profound understanding of the digestive organs; this model can also be used to provide patients with precise and individualized treatment and to build rapid in vitro test models for drug screening or gene/cell therapy, linking basic research with clinical treatment. Over the past few decades, the use of organoids has led to an advanced understanding of the composition of each digestive organ and has facilitated disease modeling, chemotherapy dose prediction, CRISPR-Cas9 genetic intervention, high-throughput drug screening, and identification of SARS-CoV-2 targets, pathogenic infection. However, the existing organoids of the digestive system mainly include the epithelial system. In order to reveal the pathogenic mechanism of digestive diseases, it is necessary to establish a completer and more physiological organoid model. Combining organoids and advanced techniques to test individualized treatments of different formulations is a promising approach that requires further exploration. This review highlights the advancements in the field of organoid technology from the perspectives of disease modeling and personalized therapy.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Berber E, Sumbria D, S Kokkaya (2022)

A metabolic blueprint of COVID-19 and long-term vaccine efficacy.

Drug metabolism and personalized therapy pii:dmdi-2022-0148 [Epub ahead of print].

Viruses are obligatory protein-coated units and often utilize the metabolic functions of the cells they infect. Viruses hijack cellular metabolic functions and cause consequences that can range from minor to devastating, as we have all witnessed during the COVID-19 pandemic. For understanding the virus-driven pathogenesis and its implications on the host, the cellular metabolism needs to be elucidated. How SARS-CoV-2 triggers metabolic functions and rewires the metabolism remains unidentified but the implications of the metabolic patterns are under investigation by several researchers. In this review, we have described the SARS-CoV-2-mediated metabolic alterations from in vitro studies to metabolic changes reported in victims of COVID-19. We have also discussed potential therapeutic targets to diminish the viral infection and suppress the inflammatory response, with respect to evidenced studies based on COVID-19 research. Finally, we aimed to explain how we could extend vaccine-induced immunity in people by targeting the immunometabolism.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Włodarczyk J, Czerwiński B, J Fichna (2022)

Short-chain fatty acids-microbiota crosstalk in the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

Pharmacological reports : PR [Epub ahead of print].

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) still remains a major challenge to the health-care systems worldwide, inciting ongoing search for pharmaceutical and non-pharmaceutical interventions which could benefit patients already infected with SARS-CoV-2 or at increased risk thereof. Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily affects the respiratory system, it may also infect other organs and systems, including gastrointestinal tract, where it results in microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging understanding of the role the gut microbiota plays in maintaining immune homeostasis, both inside the gastrointestinal tract and beyond (i.e. through gut-lung and gut-brain axes). One family of compounds with recognized immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). SCFAs are believed that they have a protective effect in case of gastrointestinal diseases. Moreover, they are responsible for maintaining proper intestinal barrier and they take part in relevant immune functions. This review presents mechanisms of action and potential benefits of SCFA-based probiotics and direct SCFA supplementation as a strategy to support immune function amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Ibrahim M, Ramadan E, Elsadek NE, et al (2022)

Polyethylene glycol (PEG): The nature, immunogenicity, and role in the hypersensitivity of PEGylated products.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 351:215-230 pii:S0168-3659(22)00626-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a versatile polymer that is widely used as an additive in foods and cosmetics, and as a carrier in PEGylated therapeutics. Even though PEG is thought to be less immunogenic, or perhaps even non-immunogenic, with a variety of physicochemical properties, there is mounting evidence that PEG causes immunogenic responses when conjugated with other materials such as proteins and nanocarriers. Under these conditions, PEG with other materials can result in the production of anti-PEG antibodies after administration. The antibodies that are induced seem to have a deleterious impact on the therapeutic efficacy of subsequently administered PEGylated formulations. In addition, hypersensitivity to PEGylated formulations could be a significant barrier to the utility of PEGylated products. Several reports have linked the presence of anti-PEG antibodies to incidences of complement activation-related pseudoallergy (CARPA) following the administration of PEGylated formulations. The use of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, which are composed mainly of PEGylated lipid nanoparticles (LNPs), has recently gained wide acceptance, although many cases of post-vaccination hypersensitivity have been documented. Therefore, our review focuses not only on the importance of PEGs and its great role in improving the therapeutic efficacy of various medications, but also on the hypersensitivity reactions attributed to the use of PEGylated products that include PEG-based mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Luo Y, T Balle (2022)

GABAA receptors as targets for anaesthetics and analgesics and promising candidates to help treat coronavirus infections: a mini-review.

Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter that regulates the balance between excitatory and inhibitory circuits in the human nervous system. The GABA receptors are divided into three main subtypes, GABAA , GABAB , and GABAC (also termed GABAA rho) receptors. GABAA receptors are pentameric ligand-gated ion channels widely expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. The activation of GABAA receptors results in opening of an anion-selective channel that mainly gates chloride ions and allows them to flow into the neuron, causing hyperpolarization of the cell membrane that dampens neural excitability. This makes GABAA receptors critical anaesthetic and analgesic targets for existing as well as for the development of novel drugs. In this review, we first summarize the biochemical properties of GABAA receptors and the clinical anaesthetics and analgesics targeting the receptors. In a forward-looking section, we summarize the emerging role of GABAergic signaling in treatment of COVID-19 related infections. Finally, we discuss the opportunities arising from targeting specific and unique subunit interfaces for the development of novel anaesthetics and analgesics leading to more efficient therapies.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Tyminski R (2022)

Back to the future: when children and adolescents return to office sessions following episodes of teletherapy.

The Journal of analytical psychology, 67(4):1070-1090.

Analysts and psychotherapists are beginning to have more thorough and probing discussions about how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their work. Shifting to online teletherapy has been necessary due to the public health measures put in place to curtail the spread of the virus. Much of the existing literature addresses how using online platforms for teletherapy works for adults. This paper instead looks at its effects on working with children and adolescents. A contrast between Winnicott's notion of holding and Bion's concept of container-contained is reviewed through a summary of a paper by Ogden. This author finds that holding might be more applicable to online work during a pandemic when the collective relationship to time and its usual parameters is severely upended. Containing could be more arduous and challenging online due to the lack of embodied presence to communicate and detect tiny nonverbal cues. A short questionnaire affirms that child analysts and psychotherapists have struggled with dimensions of online work that are particular to the developmental levels of their patients. Further, teletherapy may often not be a good fit for someone with learning differences.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Smith SG, JC Sinkford (2022)

Gender equality in the 21st century: Overcoming barriers to women's leadership in global health.

Journal of dental education, 86(9):1144-1173.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the significant role that women play in providing global health care, barriers encountered to achieving gender equality in global health leadership, and to propose key recommendations for advancing gender equality in global health decision-making through the integration of gender mainstreaming, gender-based analysis, and gender transformative leadership (GTL) approaches.

METHOD: Data were evaluated to determine the participation rate of women in global health care and social sector roles in comparison to men. Gender equality data from the United Nations, World Health Organization, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, International Labour Organization, and other resources were analyzed to assess the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on gender equality with an emphasis on women in global health leadership positions, the health care and social sector, and gender equality measures for girls and women throughout the world. The literature was examined to identify persistent barriers to gender equality in global health leadership positions. Additionally, a review of the literature was conducted to identify key strategies and recommendations for achieving gender equality in global health decision-making; integrating gender mainstreaming; conducting gender-based analysis; and adopting GTL programs, incentives, and policies to advance gender equality in global health organizations.

FINDINGS: Women represent 70% of the health and social care sector global workforce but only 25% of senior global health leadership roles. Since 2018, there has been a lack of meaningful change in the gender equality policy arenas at global health organizations that has led to significant increases in women serving in global leadership decision-making senior positions. During the pandemic in 2020, there were nearly 100 open vacancies-one-quarter of CEO and board chair positions-at global health organizations, but none were filled by women. Women disproportionately provide caregiving and unpaid care work, and the pandemic has increased this burden with women spending 15 hours a week more on domestic labor than men. A lack of uniform, state-sponsored paid parental leave and support for childcare, eldercare, and caregiving, which is overwhelmingly assumed by women, serve as major barriers to gender parity in global health leadership and the career advancement of women.

CONCLUSION: The pandemic has adversely impacted women in global health care and social sector roles. During the pandemic, there has been a widening of the gender pay gap, a lack of gains for women in global health leadership positions, an increase in caregiving responsibilities for women, and more women and girls have been pushed back into extreme poverty than men and boys. Globally, there is still resistance to women serving in senior leadership roles, and social and cultural norms, gender stereotypes, and restrictions on women's rights are deeply intertwined with barriers that reinforce gender inequality in global health leadership. To ensure comprehensive human rights and that equitable workforce opportunities are available, the concept of gender equality must be expanded within the global health community to consistently include not only women and girls and men and boys, but also persons who identify as nonbinary and gender nonconforming. Efforts to eliminate remnants of systemic and structural gender discrimination must also incorporate gender mainstreaming, gender-based analysis, and gender transformative approaches to achieve gender equality throughout global health systems and organizations.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Tursunbayeva A, S Di Lauro (2022)

Strengthening the ICUs' human resource-related responses to Covid-19: A rapid review of the experience during the first year of public health emergency.

The International journal of health planning and management [Epub ahead of print].

By drawing on macro-categories of key human resource (HR) management interventions recommended by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) during the Covid-19 pandemic, this study aimed to explore whether and how Intensive Care Units (ICU) have strengthened their HRs during the first year of Covid-19 emergency. A rapid review was conducted to provide a quick synthesis of the literature in English identified in the Web of Science Core Collection (WoS), PubMed, and Scopus databases. A total of 68 articles qualified for the final analysis. The findings illustrated that health organisations were often guided by staffing ratios to estimate capacity to care, aimed to modify the scope of practice of providers, redeployed both internal and external staff to ICUs, created and adapted the Covid-19-specific staffing models, and implemented technological innovations to provide services to the unprecedented number of patients while protecting the physical and mental health of their staff. The insights of this research should be helpful for health leaders, HR Managers, and policymakers who have faced unprecedented challenges and tough decisions during this emergency. The findings could also inform beyond-Covid-19 ICU policies and guide future research.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Mirmosayyeb O, Moases Ghaffary E, Mazdak M, et al (2022)

Is Myasthenia Gravis a Real Complication of the COVID-19 Vaccine? A Case Report-Based Systematic Review.

The Canadian journal of infectious diseases & medical microbiology = Journal canadien des maladies infectieuses et de la microbiologie medicale, 2022:5009450.

Background: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a neuromuscular, autoimmune disease that causes weakness by impairing neuromuscular transmission. According to reports, vaccines can lead to autoimmunity in different ways, and COVID-19 vaccines are suggested to trigger MG. We conducted this systematic review to assess MG patients after the COVID-19 vaccination.

Methods: We collected 231 studies from four databases from inception to 26 March 2022.

Results: 4 case studies were selected from 231 research studies, and data were extracted based on inclusion criteria. In all cases, MG was reported following COVID-19 vaccination. Symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, and ptosis were common. The MG was confirmed through RNST, MRC, NCS, and AchR-binding antibody titer tests.

Conclusion: Although all cases of MG were diagnosed following appropriate tests, the sample size was small; therefore, further investigation is required to demonstrate the possible association between MG and COVID-19 vaccination.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Davey F, McGowan V, Birch J, et al (2022)

Levelling up health: A practical, evidence-based framework for reducing health inequalities.

Public health in practice (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

There are substantial inequalities in health across society which have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The UK government have committed to a programme of levelling-up to address geographical inequalities. Here we undertake rapid review of the evidence base on interventions to reduce such health inequalities and developed a practical, evidence-based framework to 'level up' health across the country. This paper overviews a rapid review undertaken to develop a framework of guiding principles to guide policy. To that end and based on an initial theory, we searched one electrotonic database (MEDLINE) from 2007 to July 2021 to identify published umbrella reviews and undertook an internet search to identify relevant systematic reviews, primary studies, and grey literature. Titles and abstracts were screened according to the eligibility criteria. Key themes were extracted from the included studies and synthesised into an overarching framework of guiding principles in consultation with an expert panel. Included studies were cross checked with the initial theoretical domains and further searching undertaken to fill any gaps. We identified 16 published umbrella reviews (covering 667 individual studies), 19 grey literature publications, and 15 key systematic reviews or primary studies. Based on these studies, we develop a framework applicable at national, regional and local level which consisted of five principles - 1) healthy-by-default and easy to use initiatives; 2) long-term, multi-sector action; 3) locally designed focus; 4) targeting disadvantaged communities; and 5) matching of resources to need. Decision-makers working on policies to level up health should be guided by these five principles.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Jusic A, Stellos K, Ferreira L, et al (2022)

(Epi)transcriptomics in cardiovascular and neurological complications of COVID-19.

Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology plus, 1:100013.

Although systemic inflammation and pulmonary complications increase the mortality rate in COVID-19, a broad spectrum of cardiovascular and neurological complications can also contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. The molecular mechanisms underlying cardiovascular and neurological complications during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection are incompletely understood. Recently reported perturbations of the epitranscriptome of COVID-19 patients indicate that mechanisms including those derived from RNA modifications and non-coding RNAs may play a contributing role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. In this review paper, we gathered recently published studies investigating (epi)transcriptomic fluctuations upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, focusing on the brain-heart axis since neurological and cardiovascular events and their sequelae are of utmost prevalence and importance in this disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Malik JA, Ahmed S, Yaseen Z, et al (2022)

Association of SARS-CoV-2 and Polypharmacy with Gut-Lung Axis: From Pathogenesis to Treatment.

ACS omega, 7(38):33651-33665.

SARS-CoV-2 is a novel infectious contagion leading to COVID-19 disease. The virus has affected the lives of millions of people across the globe with a high mortality rate. It predominantly affects the lung (respiratory system), but it also affects other organs, including the cardiovascular, psychological, and gastrointestinal (GIT) systems. Moreover, elderly and comorbid patients with compromised organ functioning and pre-existing polypharmacy have worsened COVID-19-associated complications. Microbiota (MB) of the lung plays an important role in developing COVID-19. The extent of damage mainly depends on the predominance of opportunistic pathogens and, inversely, with the predominance of advantageous commensals. Changes in the gut MB are associated with a bidirectional shift in the interaction among the gut with a number of vital human organs, which leads to severe disease symptoms. This review focuses on dysbiosis in the gut-lung axis, COVID-19-induced worsening of comorbidities, and the influence of polypharmacy on MB.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Barthwal MS, Dole S, T Sahasrabudhe (2022)

Management of COVID-19: A comprehensive and practical approach.

Medical journal, Armed Forces India [Epub ahead of print].

Since the beginning of Corona Virus Disease (COVID) pandemic, there has been lack of clarity about the management protocols in spite of frequently updated national and international guidelines. Irrational use of unproven therapies has not been helpful in improving treatment outcomes. Early use of high-dose steroids or late use of antiviral medicines might have caused more harm than the benefit. There is also lot of fear about post-COVID fibrosis leading to extended use of steroids and antifibrotics. We reviewed the available COVID guidelines and treatment protocols in the light of scientific evidence generated over last 2 years by a systematic literature search using various databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, UpToDate, Embase, and Web of Science). This article presents a comprehensive approach to the diagnosis, appropriate investigations, their interpretations, and use of specific therapies according to the stage of disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-27

Hillary VE, SA Ceasar (2022)

A Review on the Mechanism and Applications of CRISPR/Cas9/Cas12/Cas13/Cas14 Proteins Utilized for Genome Engineering.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas) system has altered life science research offering enormous options in manipulating, detecting, imaging, and annotating specific DNA or RNA sequences of diverse organisms. This system incorporates fragments of foreign DNA (spacers) into CRISPR cassettes, which are further transcribed into the CRISPR arrays and then processed to make guide RNA (gRNA). The CRISPR arrays are genes that encode Cas proteins. Cas proteins provide the enzymatic machinery required for acquiring new spacers targeting invading elements. Due to programmable sequence specificity, numerous Cas proteins such as Cas9, Cas12, Cas13, and Cas14 have been exploited to develop new tools for genome engineering. Cas variants stimulated genetic research and propelled the CRISPR/Cas tool for manipulating and editing nucleic acid sequences of living cells of diverse organisms. This review aims to provide detail on two classes (class 1 and 2) of the CRISPR/Cas system, and the mechanisms of all Cas proteins, including Cas12, Cas13, and Cas14 discovered so far. In addition, we also discuss the pros and cons and recent applications of various Cas proteins in diverse fields, including those used to detect viruses like severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This review enables the researcher to gain knowledge on various Cas proteins and their applications, which have the potential to be used in next-generation precise genome engineering.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Eldeeb AE, Salah S, NA Elkasabgy (2022)

Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering Applications and Current Updates in the Field: A Comprehensive Review.

AAPS PharmSciTech, 23(7):267.

Tissue engineering has emerged as an interesting field nowadays; it focuses on accelerating the auto-healing mechanism of tissues rather than organ transplantation. It involves implanting an In Vitro cultured initiative tissue or a scaffold loaded with tissue regenerating ingredients at the damaged area. Both techniques are based on the use of biodegradable, biocompatible polymers as scaffolding materials which are either derived from natural (e.g. alginates, celluloses, and zein) or synthetic sources (e.g. PLGA, PCL, and PLA). This review discusses in detail the recent applications of different biomaterials in tissue engineering highlighting the targeted tissues besides the in vitro and in vivo key findings. As well, smart biomaterials (e.g. chitosan) are fascinating candidates in the field as they are capable of elucidating a chemical or physical transformation as response to external stimuli (e.g. temperature, pH, magnetic or electric fields). Recent trends in tissue engineering are summarized in this review highlighting the use of stem cells, 3D printing techniques, and the most recent 4D printing approach which relies on the use of smart biomaterials to produce a dynamic scaffold resembling the natural tissue. Furthermore, the application of advanced tissue engineering techniques provides hope for the researchers to recognize COVID-19/host interaction, also, it presents a promising solution to rejuvenate the destroyed lung tissues.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Li Y, L Niu (2022)

Identification of the effects of COVID-19 on patients with pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer: a bioinformatics analysis and literature review.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16040.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a serious threat to human health and life. The effective prevention and treatment of COVID-19 complications have become crucial to saving patients' lives. During the phase of mass spread of the epidemic, a large number of patients with pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancers were inevitably infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Lung cancers have the highest tumor morbidity and mortality rates worldwide, and pulmonary fibrosis itself is one of the complications of COVID-19. Idiopathic lung fibrosis (IPF) and various lung cancers (primary and metastatic) become risk factors for complications of COVID-19 and significantly increase mortality in patients. Therefore, we applied bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify molecular biomarkers and common pathways in COVID-19, IPF, colorectal cancer (CRC) lung metastasis, SCLC and NSCLC. We identified 79 DEGs between COVID-19, IPF, CRC lung metastasis, SCLC and NSCLC. Meanwhile, based on the transcriptome features of DSigDB and common DEGs, we identified 10 drug candidates. In this study, 79 DEGs are the common core genes of the 5 diseases. The 10 drugs were found to have positive effects in treating COVID-19 and lung cancer, potentially reducing the risk of pulmonary fibrosis.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Oktaviono YH, Mulia EPB, Luke K, et al (2022)

Right ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in COVID-19: a meta-analysis of prevalence and its association with clinical outcome.

Archives of medical science : AMS, 18(5):1169-1180.

Introduction: Rapid spread of COVID-19 has caused detrimental effects globally. Involvement of the ACE2 receptor has identified COVID-19 as a multi-organ disease. Preliminary studies have provided evidence that cardiac involvement, including right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) and pulmonary hypertension (PH), were found in COVID-19 cases, even in the non-advanced stage. This meta-analysis aims to analyze the prevalence of RVD and PH, and their association with COVID-19 clinical outcome.

Material and methods: A systematic data search was conducted through PubMed, medRxiv, ProQuest, Science Direct, and Scopus databases using constructed keywords based on MeSH terms. Any outcomes regarding mortality, severity, ICU admission, and mechanical ventilation usage were analyzed using RevMan v.5.4 and Stata v.16.

Results: A total of 16 eligible studies (1,728 patients) were included. Pooled prevalence of RVD in COVID-19 was 19% (95% CI: 13-25%), and PH was 22% (95% CI: 14-31%). RVD was associated with increased mortality (OR = 2.98 (95% CI: 1.50-5.89), p = 0.002), severity (OR = 3.61 (95% CI: 2.05-6.35), p < 0.001), ICU admission (OR = 1.70 (95% CI: 1.12-2.56), p = 0.01), and mechanical ventilation (MV) usage (OR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.14-2.25), p = 0.007). PH was also associated with increased mortality (OR = 5.42 (95% CI: 2.66-11.060, p < 0.001), severity (OR = 5.74 (95% CI: 2.28-14.49), p < 0.001), and ICU admission (OR = 12.83 (95% CI: 3.55-46.41), p < 0.001).

Conclusions: RVD and PH were prevalent in COVID-19 and associated with mortality, severity, ICU admission, and MV usage in COVID-19 patients. Bedside echocardiography examination could be considered as a novel risk stratification tool in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Poon YR, Lin YP, Griffiths P, et al (2022)

A global overview of healthcare workers' turnover intention amid COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review with future directions.

Human resources for health, 20(1):70.

BACKGROUND: Globally, the health workforce has long suffered from labour shortages. This has been exacerbated by the workload increase caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Major collapses in healthcare systems across the world during the peak of the pandemic led to calls for strategies to alleviate the increasing job attrition problem within the healthcare sector. This turnover may worsen given the overwhelming pressures experienced by the health workforce during the pandemic, and proactive measures should be taken to retain healthcare workers. This review aims to examine the factors affecting turnover intention among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

METHODS: A mixed studies systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 2020 to March 2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Tools and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version 2018 were applied by two independent researchers to critically appraise the methodological quality. Findings were synthesised using a convergent integrated approach and categorised thematically.

RESULTS: Forty-three studies, including 39 quantitative, two qualitative and two mixed methods studies were included in this review. Eighteen were conducted in the Middle East, ten in the Americas, nine in the Asia-Pacific region and six in Europe. Nurses (n = 35) were included in the majority of the studies, while physicians (n = 13), allied health workers (n = 11) and healthcare administrative or management staff (n = 7) were included in a smaller proportion. Five themes emerged from the data synthesis: (1) fear of COVID-19 exposure, (2) psychological responses to stress, (3) socio-demographic characteristics, (4) adverse working conditions, and (5) organisational support.

CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of factors influence healthcare workers' turnover intention in times of pandemic. Future research should be more focused on specific factors, such as working conditions or burnout, and specific vulnerable groups, including migrant healthcare workers and healthcare profession minorities, to aid policymakers in adopting strategies to support and incentivise them to retain them in their healthcare jobs.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Ganapathy K, Haranath SP, Baez AA, et al (2022)

Telemedicine to Expand Access to Critical Care Around the World.

Critical care clinics, 38(4):809-826.

This multiauthored communication gives a state-of-the-art global perspective on the increasing adoption of tele-critical care. Exponentially increasing sophistication in the deployment of Computers, Information, and Communication Technology has ensured extending the reach of limited intensivists virtually and reaching the unreached. Natural disasters, COVID-19 pandemic, and wars have made tele-intensive care a reality. Concerns and regulatory issues are being sorted out, cross-border cost-effective tele-critical care is steadily increasing Components to set up a tele-intensive care unit, and overcoming barriers is discussed. Importance of developing best practice guidelines and retraining is emphasized.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Mart MF, Sendagire C, Ely EW, et al (2022)

Oxygen as an Essential Medicine.

Critical care clinics, 38(4):795-808.

Supplemental oxygen is an essential medication in critical care. The optimal oxygen dose delivery system remains unclear, however. The "dose" and "delivery" of oxygen carry significant importance for resource-limited settings, such as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Regrettably, LMICS often experience significant inequities in oxygen supply and demand, with major impacts on preventable mortality. These inequities have become particularly prominent during the global COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting the need for additional investment and research into the best methods to utilize supplemental oxygen and ensure stable access to medical oxygen.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Mer M, Aryal D, Nielsen ND, et al (2022)

Critical Care Pandemic Preparation: Considerations and Lessons Learned from COVID-19.

Critical care clinics, 38(4):761-774.

Pandemics, increases in disease incidence that affect multiple regions of the world, present huge challenges to health care systems and in particular to policymakers, public health authorities, clinicians, and all health care workers (HCWs). The recent COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in millions of severely ill patients, many of whom who have required hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. The discipline of critical care is a vital and integral component of pandemic preparedness. Safe and effective critical care has the potential to improve outcomes, motivate individuals to seek timely medical attention, and attenuate the devastating sequelae of a severe pandemic. To achieve this, suitable critical care planning and preparation are essential.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Kwizera A, Sendagire C, Kamuntu Y, et al (2022)

Building Critical Care Capacity in a Low-Income Country.

Critical care clinics, 38(4):747-759.

Critical illness is common throughout the world and is associated with high costs of care and resource intensity. The Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created a sudden surge of critically ill patients, which in turn led to devastating effects on health care systems worldwide and more so in Africa. This narrative report describes how an attempt was made at bridging the existing gaps in quality of care for critically ill patients at national and regional levels for COVID and the postpandemic era in a low income country.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Rampon GL, Simpson SQ, R Agrawal (2022)

"Prone Positioning for Acute Hypoxemic Respiratory Failure and ARDS, a Review".

Chest pii:S0012-3692(22)03888-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Prone positioning is an immediately accessible, readily implementable intervention that was initially proposed as a method for improvement in gas exchange over 50 years ago. Initially implemented clinically as an empiric therapy for refractory hypoxemia, multiple clinical trials were performed on the use of prone positioning in various respiratory conditions, cumulating in the landmark PROSEVA trial which demonstrated mortality benefit in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Following this trial and the corresponding meta-analysis, expert consensus and societal guidelines recommended the use of prone positioning for the management of severe ARDS. The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has brought prone positioning to the forefront of medicine, including widespread implementation of prone positioning in awake, spontaneously breathing, non-intubated patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Multiple clinical trials have now been performed to investigate the safety and effectiveness of prone positioning in these patients and have enhanced our understanding of the effects of the prone position in respiratory failure. In this review, we discuss the physiology, clinical outcome data, practical considerations, and lingering questions of prone positioning.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Bandyopadhyay AS, S Zipursky (2022)

A novel tool to eradicate an ancient scourge: the novel oral polio vaccine type 2 story.

The Lancet. Infectious diseases pii:S1473-3099(22)00582-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The recent detection of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV) in London (UK) and a case of paralytic polio in New York (USA) have highlighted how the scourge of poliomyelitis has not been totally overcome and remains an international problem, not confined to Afghanistan and Pakistan (where wild-type 1 poliovirus remains endemic) or as outbreaks of circulating VDPV in countries in Africa. To address the risk of circulating VDPVs, a global collaborative effort over the past decade has enabled the development of novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) that is as immunogenic as the current Sabin strain and so equally effective, while being less likely to revert to neurovirulence than Sabin oral polio vaccines. The successful development of nOPV2-the first such vaccine against type 2 poliovirus and the first vaccine ever authorised by the WHO Prequalification team through its Emergency Use Listing procedure-has led to the deployment of approximately 450 million doses of nOPV2 for outbreak control in 21 countries. It also paved the way for the subsequent Emergency Use Listing approval of COVID-19 vaccines in the global pandemic. Monitoring the use of nOPV2 has confirmed it is more genetically stable and less likely to result in VDPV than the Sabin strain, suggesting that the target of the global eradication of poliomyelitis might be a little more attainable than previously believed.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Tan LJ, Koh CP, Lai SK, et al (2022)

A systemic review and recommendation for an autopsy approach to death followed the COVID 19 vaccination.

Forensic science international, 340:111469 pii:S0379-0738(22)00299-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) started in December 2019. An immediate prevention approach for the outbreak is the development of a vaccination program. Despite a growing number of publications showing the effectiveness of vaccination in preventing SARS-CoV-2 outbreak and reducing the mortality rate, substantial fatal adverse effects were reported after vaccination. Confirmation of the causal relationship of death is required to reimburse under the national vaccination program and could provide a reference for the selection of vaccination. However, a lack of guidelines in the laboratory study and autopsy approach hampered the investigation of post-vaccination death. In this paper, we performed a systematic electronic search on scientific articles related to severe Covid-19 vaccination adverse effects and approaches in identifying the severe side effects using PubMed and Cochrane libraries. A summary on the onset, biochemistry changes and histopathological analyzes of major lethally side effects post-vaccination were discussed. Ultimately, a checklist is suggested to improve the quality of investigation.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Thorn CR, Sharma D, Combs R, et al (2022)

The journey of a lifetime - development of Pfizer's COVID-19 vaccine.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 78:102803 pii:S0958-1669(22)00137-9 [Epub ahead of print].

It would be apt to say that one of the greatest accomplishments in modern medicine has been the development of vaccines against COVID-19, which had paralyzed the entire world for more than a year. Pfizer and BioNTech codeveloped the first COVID-19 vaccine that was granted emergency-use authorization or conditional approval in several regions globally. This article is an attempt to go 'behind-the-scenes' of this development process and highlight key factors that allowed us to move with this unprecedented speed, while adhering to normal vaccine-development requirements to generate the information the regulatory authorities needed to assess the safety and effectiveness of a vaccine to prevent an infectious disease, including quality and manufacturing standards. This is also a story of how Pfizer and BioNTech leveraged our combined skill sets and experience to respond to the global health crisis to progress this program swiftly while ensuring the compliance with our high-quality standards and keeping patient safety at the forefront. We will also highlight multiple other factors that were instrumental in our success.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Saini J, Kaur P, Malik N, et al (2022)

Antimicrobial peptides: A promising tool to combat multidrug resistance in SARS CoV2 era.

Microbiological research, 265:127206 pii:S0944-5013(22)00246-4 [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019), a life-threatening viral infection, is caused by a highly pathogenic virus named SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Currently, no treatment is available for COVID-19; hence there is an urgent need to find effective therapeutic drugs to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Considering the fact that the world is facing a major issue of antimicrobial drug resistance, naturally occurring compounds have the potential to achieve this goal. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are naturally occurring antimicrobial agents which are effective against a wide variety of microbial infections. Therefore, the use of AMPs is an attractive therapeutic strategy for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review sheds light on the potential of antimicrobial peptides as antiviral agents followed by a comprehensive description of effective antiviral peptides derived from various natural sources found to be effective against SARS-CoV and other respiratory viruses. It also highlights the mechanisms of action of antiviral peptides with special emphasis on their effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Durand H, Whiteley A, Mailley P, et al (2022)

Combining Topography and Chemistry to Produce Antibiofouling Surfaces: A Review.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Despite decades of research on the reduction of surface fouling from biomolecules or micro-organisms, the ultimate antibiofouling surface remains undiscovered. The recent covid-19 pandemic strengthened the crucial need for such treatments. Among the numerous approaches that are able to provide surfaces with antibiofouling properties, chemical, biological, and topographical strategies have been implemented for instance in the marine, medical, or food industries. However, many of these methods have a biocidal effect and, with antibioresistance and biocide resistance a growing threat on humanity, strategies based on reducing adsorption of biomolecules and micro-organism are necessary for long-term solutions. Bioinspired strategies, combining both surface chemistry and topography, are currently at the heart of the best innovative and sustainable solutions. The synergistic effect of micro/nanostructuration, together with engineered chemical or biological functionalization is believed to contribute to the development of antibiofouling surfaces. This review aims to present approaches combining hydrophobic or hydrophilic chemistries with a specific topography to avoid biofouling in various industrial environments and healthcare facilities.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Zakrzewska A, Haghighat Bayan MA, Nakielski P, et al (2022)

Nanotechnology Transition Roadmap toward Multifunctional Stimuli-Responsive Face Masks.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

In recent times, the use of personal protective equipment, such as face masks or respirators, is becoming more and more critically important because of common pollution; furthermore, face masks have become a necessary element in the global fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. For this reason, the main mission of scientists has become the development of face masks with exceptional properties that will enhance their performance. The versatility of electrospun polymer nanofibers has determined their suitability as a material for constructing "smart" filter media. This paper provides an overview of the research carried out on nanofibrous filters obtained by electrospinning. The progressive development of the next generation of face masks whose unique properties can be activated in response to a specific external stimulus is highlighted. Thanks to additional components incorporated into the fiber structure, filters can, for example, acquire antibacterial or antiviral properties, self-sterilize the structure, and store the energy generated by users. Despite the discovery of several fascinating possibilities, some of them remain unexplored. Stimuli-responsive filters have the potential to become products of large-scale availability and great importance to society as a whole.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Shah AS, Zeitler PS, Wong J, et al (2022)

ISPAD Clinical Practice Consensus Guidelines 2022: Type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents.

Pediatric diabetes [Epub ahead of print].

Since the 2018 ISPAD guidelines on this topic, follow-up of large cohorts from around the globe have continued informing the current incidence and prevalence of co-morbidities and complications in young adults with youth-onset type 2 diabetes (T2D). This chapter focuses on the risk factors, diagnosis and presentation of youth-onset T2D, the initial and subsequent management of youth-onset T2D, and management of co-morbidities and complications. We include key updates from the observational phase of the multi-center Treatment Options for Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents and Youth (TODAY) clinical trial, the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) study and new data from the Restoring Insulin Secretion (RISE) study, a head-to-head comparison of youth onset vs adult-onset T2D. We also include an expanded section on risk factors associated with T2D, algorithms and tables for treatment, management, and assessment of co-morbidities and complications, and sections on recently approved pharmacologic therapies for the treatment of youth-onset T2D, social determinants of health, and settings of care given COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Aksoy A, Göktürk S, E Etem Önalan (2021)

Treatment approaches for managing patients with hematological malignancies in the time of COVID-19 pandemic.

Turkish journal of medical sciences, 51(6):2799-2809.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique challenge to the care of patients with hematological malignancies. We aim to provide supportive guidance to clinicians making individual patients decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic, in particular during periods that access to healthcare resources may be limited.

DISCUSSION: This review also provides recommendations, which are convenient in evaluating indications for therapy, reducing therapy-associated immunosuppression, and reducing healthcare utilization in patients with specific hematological malignancies in the COVID-19 era. Specific decisions regarding treatment of hematological malignancies will need to be individualized, based on disease risk, risk of immunosuppression, rates of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and available local healthcare resources.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Srivastava R, Prajapati R, Kanda T, et al (2022)

Phycochemistry and bioactivity of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes are a huge contributor to people's health around the world since they produce a lot of beneficial secondary metabolites. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotic bacteria cosmopolitan in nature. Adaptability of cyanobacteria to wide spectrum of environment can be contributed to the production of various secondary metabolites which are also therapeutic in nature. As a result, they are a good option for the development of medicinal molecules. These metabolites could be interesting COVID-19 therapeutic options because the majority of these compounds have demonstrated substantial pharmacological actions, such as neurotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and antiviral activity against HCMV, HSV-1, HHV-6, and HIV-1. They have been reported to produce a single metabolite active against wide spectrum of microbes like Fischerella ambigua produces ambigols active against bacteria, fungi and protozoa. Similarly, Moorea producens produces malygomides O and P, majusculamide C and somocystinamide which are active against bacteria, fungi and tumour cells, respectively. In addition to the above, Moorea sp. produce apratoxin A and dolastatin 15 possessing anti cancerous activity but unfortunately till date only brentuximab vedotin (trade name Adcetris), a medication derived from marine peptides, for the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic large cell lymphoma has been approved by FDA. However, several publications have effectively described and categorised cyanobacterial medicines based on their biological action. In present review, an effort is made to categorize cyanobacterial metabolites on the basis of their phycochemistry. The goal of this review is to categorise cyanobacterial metabolites based on their chemical functional group, which has yet to be described.

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Zhou J, Liu Z, Zhang G, et al (2022)

Development of variant-proof SARS-CoV-2, pan-sarbecovirus and pan-β-coronavirus vaccines.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

The newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants with high transmission rates and striking immune evasion have posed a serious challenge to the application of current first-generation SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Other sarbecoviruses, such as SARS-CoV and SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), have the potential to cause outbreaks in the future. These facts call for the development of variant-proof SARS-CoV-2, pan-sarbecovirus or pan-β-CoV vaccines. Several novel vaccine platforms have been used to develop vaccines with broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody responses and protective immunity to combat the current SARS-CoV-2 and its variants, other sarbecoviruses, as well as other β-CoVs, in the future. In this review, we discussed the major target antigens and protective efficacy of current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and summarized recent advances in broad-spectrum vaccines against sarbecoviruses and β-CoVs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Sharma M, Jagirdhar GSK, Guntupalli KK, et al (2022)

Heart failure in general and cardiac transplant patients with COVID-19.

World journal of cardiology, 14(7):392-402.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily an infection of the respiratory tract, but it can have multisystem manifestations. Cardiac complications of COVID-19 can range from acute myocardial injury, cardiac arrhythmias, or heart failure, amongst others. Heart failure (HF) in COVID-19 can be a de novo process or due to worsening of pre-existing cardiovascular ailment. HF in a patient with COVID-19 not only poses challenges in clinical presentation and management of COVID-19 but also affect prognosis of the patient. This article aims to succinctly revisit the implications of this pandemic regarding pre-existing HF or new-onset HF based on prevailing data. It also focuses on the management and special recommendations from prior studies and guidelines.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Morgan MC, Atri L, Harrell S, et al (2022)

COVID-19 vaccine-associated myocarditis.

World journal of cardiology, 14(7):382-391.

Myocarditis is now recognized as a rare complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA vaccination, particularly in adolescent and young adult males. Since the authorization of the Pfizer-BioNTech™ and Moderna™ mRNA vaccines targeting the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported 1175 confirmed cases of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination in individuals ages 30 years and younger as of January 2022. According to CDC data in June 2021, the incidence of vaccine-mediated myocarditis in males ages 12-29 years old was estimated to be 40.6 cases per million second doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccination administered. Individuals with cases of COVID-19 vaccine-mediated myocarditis typically present with acute chest pain and elevated serum troponin levels, often within one week of receiving the second dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Most cases follow a benign clinical course with prompt resolution of symptoms. Proposed mechanisms of COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis include molecular mimicry between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and self-antigens and the triggering of preexisting dysregulated immune pathways in predisposed individuals. The higher incidence of COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis in young males may be explained by testosterone and its role in modulating the immune response in myocarditis. There is limited data on long-term outcomes in these cases given the recency of their occurrence. The CDC continues to recommend COVID-19 vaccination for everyone 5 years of age and older given the greater risk of serious complications related to natural COVID-19 infection including hospitalization, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Further study is needed to better understand the immunopathology and long-term outcomes behind COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-mediated myocarditis.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Filippatos F, Tatsi EB, A Michos (2022)

Post‑COVID‑19 syndrome in children (Review).

Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 24(4):609.

The persistence of symptoms for a long time after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is now familiar as post-COVID syndrome (PCS). To the best of our knowledge, the risk of long-term clinical outcomes in children after SARS-CoV-2 infection is still unclear. Unlike in adults, current evidence suggests a lower prevalence of persistent symptoms in children. However, since several studies are characterized by great heterogeneity, it is difficult to accurately estimate the exact incidence of PCS in children. The presence and course of recovery depend on risk factors that are more common in adults than children. Proposed pathophysiological mechanisms in PCS in children include age-dependent immune responses, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 expression, blood-brain barrier development or social issues affecting children behavior, such as school closure and social isolation. However, further longitudinal studies are required for unanswered issues to be clarified. The aim of the present review is to describe the long-term symptoms per biological system in children, potential risk factors and the role of the immune system in the presence of PCS.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Zhang CY, Liu S, M Yang (2022)

Crosstalk between gut microbiota and COVID-19 impacts pancreatic cancer progression.

World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 14(8):1456-1468.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-associated death worldwide, with a low rate of 5-year survival. Currently, the pathogenesis of PC is complicated, with no efficient therapy. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 further exacerbates the challenge of patients with PC. The alteration of gut microbiota caused by COVID-19 infection may impact PC progression in patients via immune regulation. The expression of inflammatory immune mediators such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-10 has been found to increase in both PC and COVID-19 patients, which is associated with the disease severity and prognostic outcome. Gut microbiome serves as a critical connector between viral infection and PC. It can regulate host systemic immune response and impact the efficacy of immunotherapy. Here, we first demonstrated the features of inflammatory cytokines in both diseases and their impact on disease outcomes. Then, we demonstrated the importance of immunotherapeutic strategies. This includes the immune modulation that targets a single or dual receptors using a single agent or their combinations for the treatment of PC in patients who get infected with COVID-19. Additionally, we explored the possibility of managing the disease by regulating gut microbiome. Overall, modulation of the lung-gut-pancreases axis can boost anti-cancer immunotherapy and reduce adverse prognostic outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Fancellu A, Veneroni S, Santoru A, et al (2022)

How the COVID-19 pandemic has affected the colorectal cancer screening in Italy: A minireview.

World journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 14(8):1490-1498.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused detrimental effects on many aspects of healthcare practice. Screening programs for the commonest malignancies, namely colorectal cancer (CRC), breast cancer and cervical cancer have been discontinued or interrupted since the beginning of restriction measures aimed to limit transmission of the new coronavirus infection. Robust evidence exists in favour of the role of screening campaigns in reducing mortality from CRC. In fact, the majority of pre-malignant lesions of the colon and rectum can be diagnosed with colonoscopy and treated by endoscopic or surgical resection. Besides, colonoscopy screening allows the diagnosis of CRCs in their pre-clinical stage. Italy was one of the first European countries where a high level of COVID-19 infections and deaths was observed, and one of the first where lockdowns and strict measures were adopted to reduce the risk of COVID-19 diffusion among the population. A systematic review of the literature was performed, including the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Reference Citation Analysis databases, with the aim of critically evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CRC screening in Italy. We found that reduction of CRC screening activity surpassed 50% in most endoscopic units, with almost 600000 fewer CRC screening exams conducted in the first 5 mo of 2020 vs the same period of 2019. While the consequences of the discontinuation of endoscopy screening for the prognosis and mortality of CRC will be evident in the next few years, recent data confirm that CRC is currently treated at a more advanced stage than in the pre-COVID-19 era. Since delays in CRC prevention and early diagnosis may translate to increased CRC-specific mortality, world healthcare systems should adopt strategies to maintain the regularity of CRC screening during subsequent peaks of the COVID-19 pandemic, or future events that might hamper screening programs.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Pretorius D, Richter RP, Anand T, et al (2022)

Alterations in heparan sulfate proteoglycan synthesis and sulfation and the impact on vascular endothelial function.

Matrix biology plus, 16:100121.

The glycocalyx attached to the apical surface of vascular endothelial cells is a rich network of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and glycoproteins with instrumental roles in vascular homeostasis. Given their molecular complexity and ability to interact with the intra- and extracellular environment, heparan sulfate proteoglycans uniquely contribute to the glycocalyx's role in regulating endothelial permeability, mechanosignaling, and ligand recognition by cognate cell surface receptors. Much attention has recently been devoted to the enzymatic shedding of heparan sulfate proteoglycans from the endothelial glycocalyx and its impact on vascular function. However, other molecular modifications to heparan sulfate proteoglycans are possible and may have equal or complementary clinical significance. In this narrative review, we focus on putative mechanisms driving non-proteolytic changes in heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression and alterations in the sulfation of heparan sulfate side chains within the endothelial glycocalyx. We then discuss how these specific changes to the endothelial glycocalyx impact endothelial cell function and highlight therapeutic strategies to target or potentially reverse these pathologic changes.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Kafadar AH, Tekeli GG, Jones KA, et al (2022)

Determinants for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the general population: a systematic review of reviews.

Zeitschrift fur Gesundheitswissenschaften = Journal of public health [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: Although multiple COVID-19 vaccines are approved for global use, vaccine hesitancy poses a substantial risk for global health. Therefore, the aim of this umbrella review is to identify those factors that influence COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy in the general population. This is necessary to improve the effectiveness of future vaccination programmes.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Epistemonikos, and PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews) were searched on December 21, 2021. This review included reviews which investigated factors of intention, willingness, or hesitancy with regard to the COVID-19 vaccination in adult populations, with no restrictions on setting. Content-based structure was used to synthesise the extracted data. The findings were presented based on the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) Working Group Model for vaccine hesitancy.

Results: A total of 3,392 studies were identified, of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently documented factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy included contextual factors, such as sex, age, and social inequalities; individual and group factors, such as trust in the healthcare system, public health authorities, and governments, and history of vaccination; vaccine-specific factors, such as concern for vaccine safety, perceived vaccine barriers, perceived effectiveness of vaccines, and concern about the rapid development of the vaccine; and disease-specific factors, such as fear of being infected with COVID-19, perceived severity of COVID-19, and knowledge of COVID-19.

Conclusion: There are multiple factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Our findings lay the foundation to further understand COVID-19 vaccination uptake and provide possible targets for intervention programmes. However, there are gaps in research concerning certain populations, including vaccination in people with mental disorders.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10389-022-01753-9.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Chandekar KR, Satapathy S, Singh H, et al (2022)

Molecular imaging as a tool for evaluation of COVID-19 sequelae - A review of literature.

World journal of radiology, 14(7):194-208.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the novel viral pathogen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 primarily involves the lungs. Nucleic acid testing based on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of respiratory samples is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Imaging modalities have an established role in triaging, diagnosis, evaluation of disease severity, monitoring disease progression, extra-pulmonary involvement, and complications. As our understanding of the disease improves, there has been substantial evidence to highlight its potential for multi-systemic involvement and development of long-term sequelae. Molecular imaging techniques are highly sensitive, allowing non-invasive visualization of physiological or pathological processes at a cellular or molecular level with potential for detection of functional changes earlier than conventional radiological imaging. The purpose of this review article is to highlight the evolving role of molecular imaging in evaluation of COVID-19 sequelae. Though not ideal for diagnosis, the various modalities of molecular imaging play an important role in assessing pulmonary and extra-pulmonary sequelae of COVID-19. Perfusion imaging using single photon emission computed tomography fused with computed tomography (CT) can be utilized as a first-line imaging modality for COVID-19 related pulmonary embolism. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET)/CT is a sensitive tool to detect multi-systemic inflammation, including myocardial and vascular inflammation. PET in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging helps in better characterization of neurological sequelae of COVID-19. Despite the fact that the majority of published literature is retrospective in nature with limited sample sizes, it is clear that molecular imaging provides additional valuable information (complimentary to anatomical imaging) with semi-quantitative or quantitative parameters to define inflammatory burden and can be used to guide therapeutic strategies and assess response. However, widespread clinical applicability remains a challenge owing to longer image acquisition times and the need for adoption of infection control protocols.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Aishwarya T A, Mohan DK, Nandhini K, et al (2022)

Impact of X-radiation in the management of COVID-19 disease.

World journal of radiology, 14(7):219-228.

Coronaviruses are a diverse group of viruses that infect both animals and humans. Even though the existence of coronavirus and its infection to humans is not new, the 2019-novel coronavirus (nCoV) caused a major burden to individuals and society i.e., anxiety, fear of infection, extreme competition for hospitalization, and more importantly financial liability. The nCoV infection/disease diagnosis was based on non-specific signs and symptoms, biochemical parameters, detection of the virus using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and X-ray-based imaging. This review focuses on the consolidation of potentials of X-ray-based imaging modality [chest-X radiography (CXR) and chest computed tomography (CT)] and low-dose radiation therapy (LDRT) for screening, severity, and management of COVID-19 disease. Reported studies suggest that CXR contributed significantly toward initial rapid screening/diagnosis and CT- imaging to monitor the disease severity. The chest CT has high sensitivity up to 98% and low specificity for diagnosis and severity of COVID-19 disease compared to RT-PCR. Similarly, LDRT compliments drug therapy in the early recovery/Less hospital stays by maintaining the physiological parameters better than the drug therapy alone. All the results undoubtedly demonstrated the evidence that X-ray-based technology continues to evolve and play a significant role in human health care even during the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Saneesh PS, Morampudi SC, R Yelamanchi (2022)

Radiological review of rhinocerebral mucormycosis cases during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A single-center experience.

World journal of radiology, 14(7):209-218.

Mucormycosis is caused by the fungi belonging to the order Mucorales and class Zygomycetes. The incidence of mucormycosis has increased with the onset of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections leading to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This rise is attributed to the use of immunosuppressive medication to treat COVID-19 infections. Authors have retrospectively collected data of our cases of mucormycosis diagnosed from April 2020 to April 2021 at our institute. A total of 20 patients with rhinocerebral mucormycosis were studied. Most of the study subjects were male patients (90%) and were of the age group 41-50 years. Most patients in the review had comorbidities (85%) with diabetes being the most common comorbidity. Para nasal sinuses were involved in all the cases. Involvement of the neck spaces was present in 60% of the cases. Involvement of the central nervous system was present in 80% of the cases. Orbital involvement was present in 90% of the cases. The authors reviewed the various imaging findings of mucormycosis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in this article.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Wu Z, Han Z, Liu B, et al (2022)

Remdesivir in treating hospitalized patients with COVID-19: A renewed review of clinical trials.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 13:971890.

Since December 2019, COVID-19 has spread across the world almost through 2.5 years. As of 16 June 2022, the cumulative number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide has reached 542.62 million, and the death toll has risen to 6.33 million. With the increasing number of deaths, it is urgent to find effective treatment drugs. Remdesivir, an investigational broad-spectrum antiviral drug produced by Gilead has been shown to inhibit SARS-CoV-2, in vitro and in vivo. This review is aimed to analyze the feasibility of remdesivir in COVID-19 and put forward the shortcomings of present clinical studies. We systematically searched PubMed and Web of Science up until 24 May 2022, using several specific terms such as "remdesivir" or "GS-5734" and "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" and retrieved basic researches and clinical studies of remdesivir in COVID-19. In this review, we summarized and reviewed the mechanism of remdesivir in SARS-COV-2, clinical trials of using remdesivir in COVID-19, analyzed the efficacy and safety of remdesivir, and judged whether the drug was effective for the treatment of COVID-19. In different clinical trials, remdesivir showed a mixed result in the treatment of COVID-19. It seemed that remdesivir shortened the time to recovery and had an acceptable safety profile. However, more clinical trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety of remdesivir.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Aboul Naga SH, Hassan LM, El Zanaty RT, et al (2022)

Behçet uveitis: Current practice and future perspectives.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:968345.

Described as early as Hippocrates in his "Third Book of Endemic Diseases," Behçet's Disease (BD), also known as "The Silk Road Disease" following its initial demographics, consists of a triad of recurrent oro-genital ulcers and associated uveitis. Current demographics and rising percentages of patients seen far beyond the Silk Road in Ocular Inflammatory Disease and Uveitis Clinics list BD uveitis as one of the frontliners of non-infectious autoinflammatory eye diseases. Clinical features of BD and juvenile-onset BD are detailed alongside various approaches in classification and suggested algorithms for diagnosis that are outlined in this review. With the ongoing Human Microbiome Project and studies such as the MAMBA study, the role of the human microbiome in BD is highlighted in the pathophysiology of BD to include the current research and literature perspective. Furthermore, with the advancement of recent diagnostic and investigative techniques, especially in the field of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), disease-related characteristics are updated to encompass SD, EDI and OCT-angiography characteristics of BD. Having entered the era of biologic therapy, the role of various specific cytokine-blocking biologic drugs, such as TNF-α inhibitors (e.g., adalimumab, infliximab), interferon α-2a inhibitors, IL-6 and IL-1 inhibitors are presented and contrasted alongside the conventional immunosuppressant drugs and the classic old gold standard: corticosteroids (systemic or local). Finally, with the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it was not possible to conclude the review without reviewing the latest evidence-based literature reporting BD morbidity in this era, the observed pattern and treatment recommendations as well as those related to reported post-vaccine complications and emergence of BD.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Wei Z, He J, Wang C, et al (2022)

The importance of booster vaccination in the context of Omicron wave.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:977972.

Omicron (B.1.1.529) was first detected in a sample collected in Botswana on November 11, 2021, and has rapidly replaced Delta as the dominant global variant given the robust transmissibility. Moreover, it displays a lower virulence than other variants. However, the pathogenicity of Omicron appears to be underestimated in view of the increasing levels of herd immunity through natural infection or vaccination. Additionally, the volume of hospitalizations and deaths increase in proportion to the number of cases due to the high transmissibility of Omicron. Therefore, vaccination remains an important public health priority. Notably, a series of important mutations in the Omicron spike protein, especially in the receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain, appears to be associated with immune escape capacity, reducing the willingness of people to receive vaccines. Herein, we provide an in-depth discussion to assess the effectiveness of the second and third vaccination against Omicron variant. On the one hand, the two-dose vaccination program adopted by many countries is insufficient to prevent Omicron infection given the mutations correlated with immune escape and the decline in vaccine efficacy over time. On the other hand, booster dose significantly increases the protective efficacy against Omicron infection. Most importantly, heterologous third dose vaccination induces a more robust immune response than homologous booster dose. Therefore, under the special background of this pandemic, there is an urgent need to accelerate the third dose of vaccination, especially providing better booster vaccination strategies, to combat emerging Omicron variant.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Beasley EA, Mahachi KG, CA Petersen (2022)

Possibility of Leishmania Transmission via Lutzomyia spp. Sand Flies Within the USA and Implications for Human and Canine Autochthonous Infection.

Current tropical medicine reports [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose of Review: Leishmaniasis is a leading cause of parasitic death, with incidence rising from decreased resources to administer insecticide and anti-leishmanial treatments due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Leishmaniasis is nonendemic in the United States (U.S.), but enzootic canine populations and potentially competent vectors warrant monitoring of autochthonous disease as a fluctuating climate facilitates vector expansion. Recent studies concerning sand fly distribution and vector capacity were assessed for implications of autochthonous transmission within the U.S.

Recent Findings: Climate change and insecticide resistance provide challenges in sand fly control. While most Leishmania-infected dogs in the U.S. were infected via vertical transmission or were imported, autochthonous vector-borne cases were reported. Autochthonous vector-borne human cases have been reported in four states. Further vaccine research could contribute to infection control.

Summary: Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis cases in the U.S. are increasingly reported. Prevention measures including vector control and responsible animal breeding are critical to halt this zoonotic disease.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Afzal S, Yadav AK, Poonia AK, et al (2022)

Antimicrobial therapeutics isolated from algal source: retrospect and prospect.

Biologia [Epub ahead of print].

In the last few decades, attention on new natural antimicrobial compounds has arisen due to a change in consumer preferences and the increase in the number of resistant microorganisms. Algae are defined as photosynthetic organisms that demonstrate a wide range of adaptability to adverse environmental conditions like temperature extremes, photo-oxidation, high or low salinity, and osmotic stress. Algae are primarily known to produce large amounts of secondary metabolite against various kinds of pathogenic microbes. Among these algae, micro and microalgae of river, lake, and algae of oceanic origin have been reported to have antimicrobial activity against the bacteria and fungi of pathogenic nature. Various polar and non- polar extracts of micro- and macro algae have been used for the suppression of these pathogenic fungi. Apart from these, certain algal derivatives have also been isolated from these having antibacterial and antifungal potential. Among the bioactive molecules of algae, polysaccharides, sulphated polysaccharides, phyco-cyanobilins polyphenols, lectins, proteins lutein, vitamin E, B12 and K1, peptides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and pigments can be highlighted. In the present review, we will discuss the biological activity of these derived compounds as antifungal/ antibacterial agents and their most promising applications. A brief outline is also given for the prospects of these isolated phytochemicals and using algae as therapeutic in the dietary form. We have also tried to answer whether alga-derived metabolites can serve as potential therapeutics for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 like viral infections too.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Juneja D, Kataria S, O Singh (2022)

Air leaks in COVID-19.

World journal of virology, 11(4):176-185.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to create havoc and may present with myriad complications involving many organ systems. However, the respiratory system bears the maximum brunt of the disease and continues to be most commonly affected. There is a high incidence of air leaks in patients with COVID-19, leading to acute worsening of clinical condition. The air leaks may develop independently of the severity of disease or positive pressure ventilation and even in the absence of any traditional risk factors like smoking and un-derlying lung disease. The exact pathophysiology of air leaks with COVID-19 remains unclear, but multiple factors may play a role in their development. A significant proportion of air leaks may be asymptomatic; hence, a high index of suspicion should be exercised for enabling early diagnosis to prevent further deterioration as it is associated with high morbidity and mortality. These air leaks may even develop weeks to months after the disease onset, leading to acute deterioration in the post-COVID period. Conservative management with close monitoring may suffice for many patients but most of the patients with pneumothorax may require intercostal drainage with only a few requiring surgical interventions for persistent air leaks.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Dhaduk K, Khosla J, Hussain M, et al (2022)

COVID-19 vaccination and myocarditis: A review of current literature.

World journal of virology, 11(4):170-175.

Vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a critical strategy in controlling the current pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). After widespread COVID-19 vaccine imple-mentation, isolated case reports about myocarditis as a potential adverse reaction started coming. As of November 12, 2021, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported 1793 cases of myocarditis or pericarditis among young people with age 12-29 years, most cases have been reported in the male adolescent age group after the second dose of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. It is very important to monitor the safety standards and adverse reactions of vaccines to effectively implement the vaccination policies. The CDC and the United States Food and Drug Administration actively monitor vaccine-associated adverse reactions a well-known platform such as Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. CDC continues to recommend COVID-19 vaccines and booster doses for eligible individuals (age limit according to the type of vaccine) after careful consideration from risk-benefit assessment and favorable outcomes from vaccination. Mechanisms behind COVID-19 vaccine-induced myocarditis are not clear yet but several possibilities such as molecular mimicry between the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and self-antigens, immune response to mRNA, and activation of host immunological system, trigger of the pre-existing dysregulated immunological system have been documented in the literature. Overall, data suggests a good prognosis, especially in young patients. In this review article, we cover currently available data on COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis incidence, concerns, possible mechanisms of myocarditis, current treatment, and outcome trends, risk vs benefit assessment of COVID-19 vaccination in this current pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Valentino MS, Esposito C, Colosimo S, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota and COVID-19: An intriguing pediatric perspective.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(23):8076-8087.

Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement has been reported in approximately 50% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is due to the pathogenic role of inflammation and the intestinal function of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and its receptor. Accumulating adult data has pointed out that gut dysbiosis might occur in these patients with a potential impact on the severity of the disease, however the role of gut microbiota in susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 disease in children is still poorly known. During the last decades, the crosstalk between gut and lung has been largely recognized resulting in the concept of "gut-lung axis" as a central player in modulating the development of several diseases. Both organs are involved in the common mucosal immune system (including bronchus-associated and gut-associated lymphoid tissues) and their homeostasis is crucial for human health. In this framework, it has been found that the role of GI dysbiosis is affecting the homeostasis of the gut-liver axis. Of note, a gut microbiome imbalance has been linked to COVID-19 severity in adult subjects, but it remains to be clarified. Based on the increased risk of inflammatory diseases in children with COVID-19, the potential correlation between gut microbiota dysfunction and COVID-19 needs to be studied in this population. We aimed to summarize the most recent evidence on this striking aspect of COVID-19 in childhood.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Santillo E, M Migale (2022)

Beta receptor blocker therapy for the elderly in the COVID-19 era.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(23):8088-8096.

When the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic spread globally from the Hubei region of China in December 2019, the impact on elderly people was particularly unfavorable. The mortality associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was highest in older individuals, in whom frailty and comorbidities increased susceptibility to severe forms of COVID-19. Unfortunately, in older patients, the course of COVID-19 was often characterized by significant cardiovascular complications, such as heart failure decompensation, arrhythmias, pericarditis, and myopericarditis. Ensuring that the elderly have adequate therapeutic coverage against known cardiovascular diseases and risk factors is particularly important in the COVID-19 era. Beta blockers are widely used for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease. The clinical benefits of beta blockers have been confirmed in elderly patients, and in addition to their negative chronotropic effect, sympathetic inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity are theoretically of great benefit for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. Beta blockers have not been clearly shown to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there is evidence from published studies including elderly patients that beta blockers are associated with a more favorable clinical course of COVID-19 and reduced mortality. In this minireview, we summarize the most important evidence available in the literature on the usefulness of beta blocker therapy for older patients in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Eseadi C, Ossai OV, Onyishi CN, et al (2022)

Assisting individuals with diabetes in the COVID-19 pandemic period: Examining the role of religious factors and faith communities.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(26):9180-9191.

With the onset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, diabetes management has become more challenging than it has ever been. Studies on the management of diabetes during this time are required. Unfortunately, the lack of information on the potential role of religious factors and faith communities in diabetes management during the COVID-19 era prevents us from fully understanding the issue of diabetes management during the COVID-19 pandemic period. People with chronic conditions such as diabetes may benefit from some form of religious support from faith communities and their ability to cope could be fostered by some religious factors. It is unclear how religious factors and faith communities contribute to diabetes management. In this article, the authors examine how people with diabetes can be aided in the COVID-19 pandemic period from the perspective of religious factors and faith communities. Based on the studies identified, it appears that religious factors and faith communities play an important role in managing diabetes among patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Akbulut S, Hargura AS, Garzali IU, et al (2022)

Clinical presentation, management, screening and surveillance for colorectal cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(26):9228-9240.

Management of colorectal cancer (CRC) was severely affected by the changes implemented during the pandemic, and this resulted in delayed elective presentation, increased emergency presentation, reduced screening and delayed definitive therapy. This review was conducted to analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on management of CRC and to identify the changes made in order to adapt to the pandemic. We performed a literature search in PubMed, Medline, Index Medicus, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Reference Citation Analysis (https://www.referencecitationanalysis.com/) and Google Scholar using the following keywords in various combinations: Colorectal cancer, elective surgery, emergency surgery, stage upgrading, screening, surveillance and the COVID-19 pandemic. Only studies published in English were included. To curtail the spread of COVID-19 infection, there were modifications made in the management of CRC. Screening was limited to high risk individuals, and the screening tests of choice during the pandemic were fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test and stool DNA testing. The use of capsule colonoscopy and open access colonoscopy was also encouraged. Blood-based tests like serum methylated septin 9 were also encouraged for screening of CRC during the pandemic. The presentation of CRC was also affected by the pandemic with more patients presenting with emergencies like obstruction and perforation. Stage migration was also observed during the pandemic with more patients presenting with more advanced tumors. The operative therapy of CRC was altered by the pandemic as more emergencies surgeries were done, which may require exteriorization by stoma. This was to reduce the morbidity associated with anastomosis and encourage early discharge from the hospital. There was also an initial reduction in laparoscopic surgical procedures due to the fear of aerosols and COVID-19 infection. As we gradually come out of the pandemic, we should remember the lessons learned and continue to apply them even after the pandemic passes.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Dami S (2022)

Internet of things-based health monitoring system for early detection of cardiovascular events during COVID-19 pandemic.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(26):9207-9218.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has currently caused the mortality of millions of people around the world. Aside from the direct mortality from the COVID-19, the indirect effects of the pandemic have also led to an increase in the mortality rate of other non-COVID patients. Evidence indicates that novel COVID-19 pandemic has caused an inflation in acute cardiovascular mortality, which did not relate to COVID-19 infection. It has in fact increased the risk of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. For this purpose, it is dramatically inevitable to monitor CVD patients' vital signs and to detect abnormal events before the occurrence of any critical conditions resulted in death. Internet of things (IoT) and health monitoring sensors have improved the medical care systems by enabling latency-sensitive surveillance and computing of large amounts of patients' data. The major challenge being faced currently in this problem is its limited scalability and late detection of cardiovascular events in IoT-based computing environments. To this end, this paper proposes a novel framework to early detection of cardiovascular events based on a deep learning architecture in IoT environments. Experimental results showed that the proposed method was able to detect cardiovascular events with better performance (95.30% average sensitivity and 95.94% mean prediction values).

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Schippers MC, Ioannidis JPA, AR Joffe (2022)

Aggressive measures, rising inequalities, and mass formation during the COVID-19 crisis: An overview and proposed way forward.

Frontiers in public health, 10:950965.

A series of aggressive restrictive measures were adopted around the world in 2020-2022 to attempt to prevent SARS-CoV-2 from spreading. However, it has become increasingly clear the most aggressive (lockdown) response strategies may involve negative side-effects such as a steep increase in poverty, hunger, and inequalities. Several economic, educational, and health repercussions have fallen disproportionately on children, students, young workers, and especially on groups with pre-existing inequalities such as low-income families, ethnic minorities, and women. This has led to a vicious cycle of rising inequalities and health issues. For example, educational and financial security decreased along with rising unemployment and loss of life purpose. Domestic violence surged due to dysfunctional families being forced to spend more time with each other. In the current narrative and scoping review, we describe macro-dynamics that are taking place because of aggressive public health policies and psychological tactics to influence public behavior, such as mass formation and crowd behavior. Coupled with the effect of inequalities, we describe how these factors can interact toward aggravating ripple effects. In light of evidence regarding the health, economic and social costs, that likely far outweigh potential benefits, the authors suggest that, first, where applicable, aggressive lockdown policies should be reversed and their re-adoption in the future should be avoided. If measures are needed, these should be non-disruptive. Second, it is important to assess dispassionately the damage done by aggressive measures and offer ways to alleviate the burden and long-term effects. Third, the structures in place that have led to counterproductive policies should be assessed and ways should be sought to optimize decision-making, such as counteracting groupthink and increasing the level of reflexivity. Finally, a package of scalable positive psychology interventions is suggested to counteract the damage done and improve humanity's prospects.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-28

Liu A, Li Z, Su G, et al (2022)

Mycotic infection as a risk factor for COVID-19: A meta-analysis.

Frontiers in public health, 10:943234.

More than 405 million people have contracted coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, and mycotic infection may be related to COVID-19 development. There are a large number of reports showing that COVID-19 patients with mycotic infection have an increased risk of mortality. However, whether mycotic infection can be considered a risk factor for COVID-19 remains unknown. We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies published from inception to December 27, 2021. Pooled effect sizes were calculated according to a random-effects model or fixed-effect model, depending on heterogeneity. We also performed subgroup analyses to identify differences in mortality rates between continents and fungal species. A total of 20 articles were included in this study. Compared with the controls, patients with mycotic infection had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.69 [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.22-3.26] for mortality and an OR of 2.28 (95% CI: 1.65-3.16) for renal replacement therapy (RRT). We also conducted two subgroup analyses based on continent and fungal species, and we found that Europe and Asia had the highest ORs, while Candida was the most dangerous strain of fungi. We performed Egger's test and Begg's test to evaluate the publication bias of the included articles, and the p-value was 0.423, which indicated no significant bias. Mycotic infection can be regarded as a risk factor for COVID-19, and decision makers should be made aware of this risk.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Chen J, Li Y, Guo L, et al (2022)

Machine learning techniques for CT imaging diagnosis of novel coronavirus pneumonia: a review.

Neural computing & applications [Epub ahead of print].

Since 2020, novel coronavirus pneumonia has been spreading rapidly around the world, bringing tremendous pressure on medical diagnosis and treatment for hospitals. Medical imaging methods, such as computed tomography (CT), play a crucial role in diagnosing and treating COVID-19. A large number of CT images (with large volume) are produced during the CT-based medical diagnosis. In such a situation, the diagnostic judgement by human eyes on the thousands of CT images is inefficient and time-consuming. Recently, in order to improve diagnostic efficiency, the machine learning technology is being widely used in computer-aided diagnosis and treatment systems (i.e., CT Imaging) to help doctors perform accurate analysis and provide them with effective diagnostic decision support. In this paper, we comprehensively review these frequently used machine learning methods applied in the CT Imaging Diagnosis for the COVID-19, discuss the machine learning-based applications from the various kinds of aspects including the image acquisition and pre-processing, image segmentation, quantitative analysis and diagnosis, and disease follow-up and prognosis. Moreover, we also discuss the limitations of the up-to-date machine learning technology in the context of CT imaging computer-aided diagnosis.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Özdemir Ö, Z Arslan (2022)

Issues related to post-COVID-19 syndrome.

World journal of methodology, 12(4):224-234.

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019-2022 leads to a multisystem illness that results in damage to numerous organ systems. In this review, our goal was to assess current research on long-term respiratory, cardiac, neurological, digestive, rheumatological, urogenital, and dermatological system complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Bibliographic searches were conducted in December 2021 using PubMed and Google Scholar, retrospectively, covering all COVID-19 literature to determine the consequences of the disease. This review may help to determine the prospects for new studies and predict the upcoming aspects requiring assessment in post-COVID-19 syndrome.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Kullmann T, A Drozgyik (2022)

Reinfection, recontamination and revaccination for SARS-CoV-2.

World journal of methodology, 12(4):258-263.

The reports on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) describe the pandemic in waves. Similar to the ocean's waves, the frequency and amplitude of the number of new cases and the number of deaths were globally quite regular; nevertheless, they showed important regional irregularities and the direction of spread has been generally rather unpredictable for COVID-19. One of the major reasons for the repeated outbreaks is the mutating capacity of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that allows the virus to infect persons who have natural immunity or have been vaccinated. Vaccination began in vast campaigns from the second year of the pandemic that was supposed to decrease the magnitude of the waves. Although it reduced the complications, the expected attenuation of the disease expansion has not yet been met. This paper provides a short overview of the most recent data on the rate of reinfection in vaccinated and non-vaccinated individuals. It points out that testing positive for a second time for SARS-CoV-2 does not necessarily mean a reinfection; it can also be interpreted as recontamination. The symptom free outcome as well as the rapid reconversion of the polymerase chain reaction test may help to determine the difference between reinfection and recontamination. Awareness of this phenomenon may be valuable in times of human resource difficulties. The available evidence may suggest that the protective value of a prior infection could be better considered for vaccine distribution in the future.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Al-Beltagi M, Saeed NK, AS Bediwy (2022)

COVID-19 disease and autoimmune disorders: A mutual pathway.

World journal of methodology, 12(4):200-223.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a real challenge for humanity with high morbidity and mortality. Despite being primarily a respiratory illness, COVID-19 can affect nearly every human body tissue, causing many diseases. After viral infection, the immune system can recognize the viral antigens presented by the immune cells. This immune response is usually controlled and terminated once the infection is aborted. Nevertheless, in some patients, the immune reaction becomes out of control with the development of autoimmune diseases. Several human tissue antigens showed a strong response with antibodies directed against many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) proteins, such as SARS-CoV-2 S, N, and autoimmune target proteins. The immunogenic effects of SARS-CoV-2 are due to the sizeable viral RNA molecules with interrupted transcription increasing the pool of epitopes with increased chances of molecular mimicry and interaction with the host immune system, the overlap between some viral and human peptides, the viral induced-tissue damage, and the robust and complex binding between sACE-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Consequently, COVID-19 and its vaccine may trigger the development of many autoimmune diseases in a predisposed patient. This review discusses the mutual relation between COVID-19 and autoimmune diseases, their interactive effects on each other, the role of the COVID-19 vaccine in triggering autoimmune diseases, the factors affecting the severity of COVID-19 in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, and the different ways to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in patients with autoimmune diseases.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )