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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 28 May 2022 at 01:38 Created: 

covid-19

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 27628 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: "SARS-CoV-2" OR "COVID-19" OR (wuhan AND "coronavirus") AND review[SB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-05-27

Lemes IR, Smaira FI, Ribeiro WJD, et al (2022)

Acute and post-acute COVID-19 presentations in athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

British journal of sports medicine pii:bjsports-2022-105583 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To describe acute/postacute COVID-19 presentations in athletes.

DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

DATA SOURCES: The search was conducted in four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus) and restricted to studies published from 2019 to 6 January 2022.

Studies were required to (1) include professional, amateur or collegiate/university athletes with COVID-19; (2) present data on acute/postacute COVID-19 symptoms and (3) have an observational design. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools.

RESULTS: 43 studies with 11 518 athletes were included. For acute presentation, the pooled event rates for asymptomatic and severe COVID-19 were 25.5% (95% CI: 21.1% to 30.5%) and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.7% to 2.3%), respectively. For postacute presentations, the pooled estimate of persistent symptoms was 8.3% (95% CI: 3.8% to 17.0%). Pooled estimate for myocardial involvement was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.5% to 9.8%) in athletes undergoing any cardiac testing, and 2.5% (95% CI: 1.0% to 5.8%) in athletes undergoing MRI, although clinical symptoms were not characterised. None of the studies with a control group (eg, non-infected athletes) could confirm a causal relationship between COVID-19 and myocardial involvement.

CONCLUSION: This broad characterisation of COVID-19 presentations in athletes indicates that ~94% exhibited mild or no acute symptoms. The available evidence did not confirm a causal relationship between COVID-19 and myocardial involvement. A small proportion of athletes experienced persistent symptoms while recovering from infection, which were mostly mild in nature, but could affect return-to-play decisions and timing.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Calcuttawala F (2022)

Nutrition as a key to boost immunity against COVID-19.

Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 49:17-23.

The Coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared as a global pandemic on March 11, 2020 by the World Health Organization. Since then, the scientific community has been actively engaged in developing a vaccine against the dreaded disease. Considerable research has also been performed for drugs that can directly interfere with the viral replication pathway. However, the production of these vaccines and drugs demands a lot of time and effort which is undesirable considering the pace at which the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading across the continents. For this reason, the possible role of dietary nutrients in reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as mitigating the symptoms, may be explored. These natural substances are readily available, have negligible side effects and confer several benefits to the immune system. Macronutrients like proteins are vital for antibody production. Dietary constituents such as omega-3-fatty acids, vitamin C, vitamin E, phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This review highlights the significance of relevant nutrients in boosting the immune system.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Gruell H, Vanshylla K, Weber T, et al (2022)

Antibody-mediated neutralization of SARS-CoV-2.

Immunity pii:S1074-7613(22)00225-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Neutralizing antibodies can block infection, clear pathogens, and are essential to provide long-term immunity. Since the onset of the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies have been comprehensively investigated and critical information on their development, function, and potential use to prevent and treat COVID-19 have been revealed. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 immune escape variants, humoral immunity is being challenged, and a detailed understanding of neutralizing antibodies is essential to guide vaccine design strategies as well as antibody-mediated therapies. In this review, we summarize some of the key findings on SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, with a focus on their clinical application.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Gopinath S, Ishak A, Dhawan N, et al (2022)

Characteristics of COVID-19 Breakthrough Infections among Vaccinated Individuals and Associated Risk Factors: A Systematic Review.

Tropical medicine and infectious disease, 7(5): pii:tropicalmed7050081.

We sought to assess breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections in vaccinated individuals by variant distribution and to identify the common risk associations. The PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest, and Embase databases were searched from 2019 to 30 January 2022. The outcome of interest was breakthrough infections (BTIs) in individuals who had completed a primary COVID-19 vaccination series. Thirty-three papers were included in the review. BTIs were more common among variants of concern (VOC) of which Delta accounted for the largest number of BTIs (96%), followed by Alpha (0.94%). In addition, 90% of patients with BTIs recovered, 11.6% were hospitalized with mechanical ventilation, and 0.6% resulted in mortality. BTIs were more common in healthcare workers (HCWs) and immunodeficient individuals with a small percentage found in fully vaccinated healthy individuals. VOC mutations were the primary cause of BTIs. Continued mitigation approaches (e.g., wearing masks and social distancing) are warranted even in fully vaccinated individuals to prevent transmission. Further studies utilizing genomic surveillance and heterologous vaccine regimens to boost the immune response are needed to better understand and control BTIs.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Yi KH, Lee JH, Hu HW, et al (2022)

Novel Anatomical Guidelines on Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection for Wrinkles in the Nose Region.

Toxins, 14(5): pii:toxins14050342.

Botulinum neurotoxin injection surrounding the nose area is frequently used in aesthetic settings. However, there is a shortage of thorough anatomical understanding that makes it difficult to treat wrinkles in the nose area. In this study, the anatomical aspects concerning the injection of botulinum neurotoxin into the nasalis, procerus, and levator labii superioris alaeque muscles are assessed. In addition, the present knowledge on localizing the botulinum neurotoxin injection point from a newer anatomy study is assessed. It was observed that, for the line-associated muscles in the nose region, the injection point may be more precisely defined. The optimal injection sites are the nasalis, procerus, and levator labii superioris alaeque muscles, and the injection technique is advised. We advise the best possible injection sites in association with anatomical standards for commonly injected muscles to increase efficiency in the nose region by removing the wrinkles. Similarly, these suggestions support a more precise procedure.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Boniface D, G Tapia-Rico (2022)

Oncology During the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Lockdown Perspective.

Current oncology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE FOR REVIEW: This perspective piece aims to understand the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of oncology, exploring the factors provoking a fall in cancer diagnostic rates, interruption of cancer screening programmes, disruption of oncological treatment and adjuvant care, and the necessary adaption oncological practice has undergone (and will be required to undergo) post-pandemic, including the shift to digital consultations.

RECENT FINDINGS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the field of oncological research has faced significant challenges. Yet, innovation has prevailed with new developments being made across the globe. Looking to the future of oncology, this piece will also suggest potential solutions to overcome the late-stage ramifications of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a global health crisis, the ramifications of which have reached every corner of the world and overwhelmed already overburdened healthcare systems. However, we are still yet to see the full domino effect of the pandemic as it continues to reveal and exacerbate pre-existing weaknesses in healthcare systems across the world.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Angeli F, Reboldi G, Trapasso M, et al (2022)

Blood Pressure Increase following COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Overview and Meta-Analysis.

Journal of cardiovascular development and disease, 9(5): pii:jcdd9050150.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines proved a strong clinical efficacy against symptomatic or moderate/severe COVID-19 and are considered the most promising approach for curbing the pandemic. However, some questions regarding the safety of COVID-19 vaccines have been recently raised. Among adverse events to vaccines and despite a lack of signal during phase III clinical trials, an increase in blood pressure (BP) after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported as a potential adverse reaction. We systematically analyze this topic and undertook a meta-analysis of available data to estimate the proportion of patients with abnormal BP or raise in BP after vaccination. Six studies entered the final analysis. Overall, studies accrued 357,387 subjects with 13,444 events of abnormal or increased BP. After exclusion of outlier studies, the pooled estimated proportion of abnormal/increased BP after vaccination was 3.20% (95% CI: 1.62-6.21). Proportions of cases of stage III hypertension or hypertensive urgencies and emergencies was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.1% to 5.1%). In conclusion, abnormal BP is not rare after COVID-19 vaccination, but the basic mechanisms of this phenomenon are still unclear and require further research.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Laranjeira C, Moura D, Salci MA, et al (2022)

A Scoping Review of Interventions for Family Bereavement Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 12(5): pii:bs12050155.

The death of a loved one is a major stressor, and bereaved people are at a higher risk of negative health effects. This risk is higher during the COVID-19 pandemic, which raises the need for understanding existing bereavement support interventions. This scoping review aimed to map and summarize findings from the existing literature regarding bereavement support interventions (i.e., psychosocial and psychotherapeutic interventions) for family carers of people who died of COVID-19. The Arksey and O'Malley methodological framework was used. Five databases-Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science-were searched for articles available from the inception of COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020) to January 2022, following the PRISMA guidelines. Among the 990 studies identified, only seven met this study's inclusion criteria. The analysis comprised three key topics: types of support programmes and bereavement interventions; tools used to measure the outcomes; and evidence of the impacts of the interventions. All studies analysed included interdisciplinary interventions, commonly developed in clinical settings. Support for recently bereaved individuals can entail cognitive behavioural therapy strategies and other tools to educate, guide, support, and promote healthy integration of loss. To mitigate the effects of non-normative family bereavement, we recommend a systematic approach and coordination between organizational settings, including access to informal and professional support, in order to find hope while navigating the aftermath of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Mohseni Afshar Z, Barary M, Babazadeh A, et al (2022)

The role of cytokines and their antagonists in the treatment of COVID-19 patients.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has various presentations, of which immune dysregulation or the so-called cytokine storm syndrome (COVID-CSS) is prominent. Even though cytokines are vital regulators of body immunoinflammatory responses, their exaggerated release can be harmful. This hyperinflammatory response is more commonly observed during severe COVID-19 infections, caused by the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, IL-8, tumour necrosis factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and interferon-gamma, making their blockers and antagonists of great interest as therapeutic options in this condition. Thus, the pathophysiology of excessive cytokine secretion is outlined, and their most important blockers and antagonists are discussed, mainly focussing on tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor blocker approved to treat severe COVID-19 infections.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Tan H, Hu Y, Jadhav P, et al (2022)

Progress and Challenges in Targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Papain-like Protease.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. The approval of vaccines and small-molecule antivirals is vital in combating the pandemic. The viral polymerase inhibitors remdesivir and molnupiravir and the viral main protease inhibitor nirmatrelvir/ritonavir have been approved by the U.S. FDA. However, the emergence of variants of concern/interest calls for additional antivirals with novel mechanisms of action. The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) mediates the cleavage of viral polyprotein and modulates the host's innate immune response upon viral infection, rendering it a promising antiviral drug target. This Perspective highlights major achievements in structure-based design and high-throughput screening of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro inhibitors since the beginning of the pandemic. Encouraging progress includes the design of non-covalent PLpro inhibitors with favorable pharmacokinetic properties and the first-in-class covalent PLpro inhibitors. In addition, we offer our opinion on the knowledge gaps that need to be filled to advance PLpro inhibitors to the clinic.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Dadras O, SeyedAlinaghi S, Karimi A, et al (2022)

COVID-19 mortality and its predictors in the elderly: A systematic review.

Health science reports, 5(3):e657 pii:HSR2657.

Background and Aims: Older people have higher rates of comorbidities and may experience more severe inflammatory responses; therefore, are at higher risk of death. Herein, we aimed to systematically review the mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and its predictors in this age group.

Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct using relevant keywords. Retrieved records underwent a two-step screening process consisting of title/abstract and full-text screenings to identify the eligible studies.

Results: Summarizing findings of 35 studies demonstrated that older patients have higher mortality rates compared to the younger population. A review of articles revealed that increasing age, body mass index, a male gender, dementia, impairment or dependency in daily activities, presence of consolidations on chest X-ray, hypoxemic respiratory failure, and lower oxygen saturation at admission were risk factors for death. High d-dimer levels, 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum deficiencies, high C-reactive protein (≥5 mg/L) levels plus any other abnormalities of lymphocyte, higher blood urea nitrogen or lactate dehydrogenase, and higher platelet count were predictors of poor prognosis and mortality in the elderly. Studies have also shown that previous treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors, pharmacological treatments of respiratory disorders, antibiotics, corticosteroids, vitamin K antagonist, antihistamines, azithromycin, Itolizumab (an anti-CD6 monoclonal antibody) in combination with other antivirals reduces COVID-19 worsening and mortality. Vaccination against seasonal influenza might also reduce COVID-19 mortality.

Conclusion: Overall, a critical consideration is necessary for the care and management of COVID-19 in the aged population considering the drastic contrasts in manifestation and prognosis compared to other age groups. Mortality from COVID-19 is independently associated with the patient's age. Elderly patients with COVID-19 are more vulnerable to poor outcomes. Thus, strict preventive measures, timely diagnosis, and aggressive therapeutic/nontherapeutic care are of great importance to reduce acute respiratory distress syndrome and severe complications in older people.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Sciacchitano S, Capalbo C, Napoli C, et al (2022)

Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome: To Treat or Not to Treat? Have We Answered the Question? A Review of Metanalyses.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:850328.

Background and Objective: Nonthyroidal Illness Syndrome (NTIS) occurs in approximately 70% of patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU)s and has been associated with increased risk of death. Whether patients with NTIS should receive treatment with thyroid hormones (TH)s is still debated. Since many interventional randomized clinical trials (IRCT)s were not conclusive, current guidelines do not recommend treatment for these patients. In this review, we analyze the reasons why TH treatment did not furnish convincing results regarding possible beneficial effects in reported IRCTs.

Methods: We performed a review of the metanalyses focused on NTIS in critically ill patients. After a careful selection, we extracted data from four metanalyses, performed in different clinical conditions and diseases. In particular, we analyzed the type of TH supplementation, the route of administration, the dosages and duration of treatment and the outcomes chosen to evaluate the results.

Results: We observed a marked heterogeneity among the IRCTs, in terms of type of TH supplementation, route of administration, dosages and duration of treatment. We also found great variability in the primary outcomes, such as prevention of neurological alterations, reduction of oxygen requirements, restoration of endocrinological and clinical parameters and reduction of mortality.

Conclusions: NTIS is a frequent finding in critical ill patients. Despite several available IRCTs, it is still unclear whether NTIS should be treated or not. New primary endpoints should be identified to adequately validate the efficacy of TH treatment and to obtain a clear answer to the question raised some years ago.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Abbas HS, M Kotakonda (2022)

Lectins Are the Sparkle of Hope for Combating Coronaviruses and the Global COVID-19.

Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin, 12(2):319-328.

Today the crisis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic represents a threatworldwide because it is a leading cause of human morbidity and mortality. Besides, it possessesa destroying impact on countries' economies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for hardresearch work and global collaboration to find a potential therapy. In this review, structuralgenomic variations in COVID-19 and further therapeutic options of Coronaviridae family orCOVID-19 are expressed. Lectins are natural proteins, which can exist in algae, higher plants,banana, actinomycetes, fungi, and archaea, and they have antiviral properties. Griffithsin lectin,isolated from red algae, has noteworthy efficacy against lethal SARS-CoV infection, humancoronaviruses, and other animal coronaviruses. Furthermore, all mannose-specific plant lectinshave anti-coronaviruses properties except for garlic lectins. However, lectins from mushroomscan act as immunomodulators by activating T-lymphocyte or stimulating dendrites or cytokines.The lectin may hinder glucans on viral spike protein and prevent entry and the virus's release.Lectin's anti-coronavirus activities include a glimmer of hope to tackle the global COVID-19crisis and inspire more scientific work on carbohydrate-binding agents against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Jadaan SA, AW Khan (2022)

Recent Update of COVID-19 Vaccines.

Advanced pharmaceutical bulletin, 12(2):219-236.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been recently identified as a novel member of beta coronaviruses (CoVs) and the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been first discovered in China and soon has spread across continents with an escalating number of mortalities. There is an urgent need for developing a COVID-19 vaccine to control the rapid transmission and the deleterious impact of the virus. The potent vaccine should have a good tolerable and efficacious profile to induce target-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. It should also exhibit no or minimal detrimental effects in children, young adults, and elderly people with or without co-morbidities from different racial backgrounds. Previously published findings of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) played vital role in the characterization of surface spike proteins as the tool of entry of the SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. It has become evident that SARS-CoVs have high genetic similarity and this implies antecedent vaccination strategies could be implicated in the production of COVID-19 vaccines. Although several vaccines have been approved and rolled out, only a handful of them have passed the three phases of clinical studies. This review highlights the completed, and ongoing clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines and efforts are being made globally to avert the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Shinojima A, Negishi K, Tsubota K, et al (2022)

Multiple Factors Causing Myopia and the Possible Treatments: A Mini Review.

Frontiers in public health, 10:897600.

The myopia epidemic has become a global public health problem. Although myopia is progressing worldwide, the recent coronavirus infections 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has spurred myopia progression. The current evidence-based treatments for humans are atropine eye drops, optical treatment with defocus, use of orthokeratology, extending proximity working distance, pausing from near work every half hour and increased time outside the home. Studies on myopia using animal models have been conducted for more than 40 years. In recent years, new mechanisms of myopia suppression have been revealed from animal experiments such as inflammation control, intraocular pressure control, light control, and the activity of early growth response protein 1 control. This mini-review provides a summary of the scientific evidence currently available on the control of myopia, and the possible treatments mitigating myopia.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Bruijns B, Folkertsma L, R Tiggelaar (2022)

FDA authorized molecular point-of-care SARS-CoV-2 tests: A critical review on principles, systems and clinical performances.

Biosensors & bioelectronics: X, 11:100158.

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, 10 manufacturers of molecular tests for SARS-CoV-2 have received Emergency Use Authorizations from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for point-of-care or over the counter use. In this review, the working principle of these tests is described as well as the relevant characteristics (e.g. time-to-result and specimen type). The analytical (e.g. analytical sensitivity) and clinical performance (positive and negative percent agreement) and useability characteristics (e.g. cost, reusability and throughput) of these tests are compared and critically reviewed. Also details for relevant respiratory multiplex assays of these 10 manufacturers are discussed. Critical review of scientific literature on these authorized tests revealed that for many of these tests publications are almost or completely absent, with the exception of two systems. The Xpert Xpress has been thoroughly investigated and good performance has been reported, whereas ID NOW is also well-represented in literature, but has relatively low sensitivity.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Montazersaheb S, Hosseiniyan Khatibi SM, Hejazi MS, et al (2022)

COVID-19 infection: an overview on cytokine storm and related interventions.

Virology journal, 19(1):92.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed a significant threat to global health. This virus affects the respiratory tract and usually leads to pneumonia in most patients and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 15% of cases. ARDS is one of the leading causes of death in patients with COVID-19 and is mainly triggered by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, referred to as cytokine storm. Interleukins, such as interleukin-6 (1L-6), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) play a very significant role in lung damage in ARDS patients through the impairments of the respiratory epithelium. Cytokine storm is defined as acute overproduction and uncontrolled release of pro-inflammatory markers, both locally and systemically. The eradication of COVID-19 is currently practically impossible, and there is no specific treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19; however, suppressing the inflammatory response may be a possible strategy. In light of this, we review the efficacy of specific inhibitors of IL6, IL1, IL-17, and TNF-α for treating COVID-19-related infections to manage COVID-19 and improve the survival rate for patients suffering from severe conditions.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Maniruzzaman M, Islam MM, Ali MH, et al (2022)

COVID-19 diagnostic methods in developing countries.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 has become one of the few leading causes of death and has evolved into a pandemic that disrupts everyone's routine, and balanced way of life worldwide, and will continue to do so. To bring an end to this pandemic, scientists had put their all effort into discovering the vaccine for SARS-CoV-2 infection. For their dedication, now, we have a handful of COVID-19 vaccines. Worldwide, millions of people are at risk due to the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2). Despite the lack of clinically authorized antiviral medications and vaccines for COVID-19, clinical trials of many recognized antiviral agents, their combination, and vaccine development in patients with confirmed COVID-19 are still ongoing. This discovery gave us a chance to get immune to this disease worldwide and end the pandemic. However, the unexpected capacity of mutation of the SARS-CoV-2 virus makes it difficult, like the recent SAS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Therefore, there is a great necessity to spread the vaccination programs and prevent the spread of this dreadful epidemic by identifying and isolating afflicted patients. Furthermore, several COVID-19 tests are thought to be expensive, time-consuming, and require the use of adequately qualified persons to be carried out efficiently. In addition, we also conversed about how the various COVID-19 testing methods can be implemented for the first time in a developing country and their cost-effectiveness, accuracy, human resources requirements, and laboratory facilities.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Zguro K, Fallerini C, Fava F, et al (2022)

Host genetic basis of COVID-19: from methodologies to genes.

European journal of human genetics : EJHG [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is having a massive impact on public health, societies, and economies worldwide. Despite the ongoing vaccination program, treating COVID-19 remains a high priority; thus, a better understanding of the disease is urgently needed. Initially, susceptibility was associated with age, sex, and other prior existing comorbidities. However, as these conditions alone could not explain the highly variable clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the attention was shifted toward the identification of the genetic basis of COVID-19. Thanks to international collaborations like The COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, it became possible the elucidation of numerous genetic markers that are not only likely to help in explaining the varied clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients but can also guide the development of novel diagnostics and therapeutics. Within this framework, this review delineates GWAS and Burden test as traditional methodologies employed so far for the discovery of the human genetic basis of COVID-19, with particular attention to recently emerged predictive models such as the post-Mendelian model. A summary table with the main genome-wide significant genomic loci is provided. Besides, various common and rare variants identified in genes like TLR7, CFTR, ACE2, TMPRSS2, TLR3, and SELP are further described in detail to illustrate their association with disease severity.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Bardosh K, de Figueiredo A, Gur-Arie R, et al (2022)

The unintended consequences of COVID-19 vaccine policy: why mandates, passports and restrictions may cause more harm than good.

BMJ global health, 7(5):.

Vaccination policies have shifted dramatically during COVID-19 with the rapid emergence of population-wide vaccine mandates, domestic vaccine passports and differential restrictions based on vaccination status. While these policies have prompted ethical, scientific, practical, legal and political debate, there has been limited evaluation of their potential unintended consequences. Here, we outline a comprehensive set of hypotheses for why these policies may ultimately be counterproductive and harmful. Our framework considers four domains: (1) behavioural psychology, (2) politics and law, (3) socioeconomics, and (4) the integrity of science and public health. While current vaccines appear to have had a significant impact on decreasing COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality burdens, we argue that current mandatory vaccine policies are scientifically questionable and are likely to cause more societal harm than good. Restricting people's access to work, education, public transport and social life based on COVID-19 vaccination status impinges on human rights, promotes stigma and social polarisation, and adversely affects health and well-being. Current policies may lead to a widening of health and economic inequalities, detrimental long-term impacts on trust in government and scientific institutions, and reduce the uptake of future public health measures, including COVID-19 vaccines as well as routine immunisations. Mandating vaccination is one of the most powerful interventions in public health and should be used sparingly and carefully to uphold ethical norms and trust in institutions. We argue that current COVID-19 vaccine policies should be re-evaluated in light of the negative consequences that we outline. Leveraging empowering strategies based on trust and public consultation, and improving healthcare services and infrastructure, represent a more sustainable approach to optimising COVID-19 vaccination programmes and, more broadly, the health and well-being of the public.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Khorramdelazad H, Kazemi MH, Azimi M, et al (2022)

Type-I interferons in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(22)00312-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is currently the major global health problem. Still, it continues to infect people globally and up to the end of February 2022, over 436 million confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 5.95 million deaths, were reported to the world health organization (WHO). No specific treatment is currently available for COVID-19, and the discovery of effective therapeutics requires understanding the effective immunologic and immunopathologic mechanisms behind this infection. Type-I interferons (IFN-Is), as the critical elements of the immediate immune response against viral infections, can inhibit the replication and spread of the viruses. However, the available evidence shows that the antiviral IFN-I response is impaired in patients with the severe form of COVID-19. Moreover, the administration of exogenous IFN-I in different phases of the disease can lead to various outcomes. Therefore, understanding the role of IFN-I molecules in COVID-19 development and its severity can provide valuable information for better management of this disease. This review summarizes the role of IFN-Is in the pathogenesis of COIVD-19 and discusses the importance of autoantibodies against this cytokine in the spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and control of the subsequent excessive inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Dzinamarira T, Murewanhema G, Chitungo I, et al (2022)

Risk of mortality in HIV-infected COVID-19 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of infection and public health, 15(6):654-661 pii:S1876-0341(22)00126-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The relationship between HIV infection and COVID-19 clinical outcomes remains a significant public health research problem. We aimed to determine the association of HIV comorbidity with COVID-19 mortality.

METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and World Health Organization library databases for relevant studies. All searches were conducted from 1st to 7th December 2021. Title, abstract and full text screening was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The relative risk of mortality in HIV-infected COVID-19 patients was computed using a random-effects model. All analyses were performed using Meta and Metasens statistical packages available in R version 4.2.1 software package. The quality of included studies was assessed using the GRADE approach, Egger's test was employed to determine the risk of bias.

RESULTS: A total of 16 studies were included in this review. Among the COVID-19 patients with HIV infection, the mortality rate due to COVID-19 was 7.97% (4 287/53,801), and among the COVID-19 patients without HIV infection, the mortality rate due to COVID-19 was 0.69% (127, 961/18, 513, 747). In the random effects model, we found no statistically significant relative risk of mortality in HIV-infected COVID-19 patients (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.86-1.32). The between-studies heterogeneity was substantial (I2 = 91%, P < 0.01), while the risk of publication bias was not significant.

CONCLUSION: Findings did not link HIV infection with an increased risk of COVID-19 mortality. Our results add to the conflicting data on the relationship between COVID-19 and HIV infection.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Kurian J, Blumfield E, Levin TL, et al (2022)

Imaging findings in acute pediatric coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

Pediatric radiology [Epub ahead of print].

The two primary manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in children are acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). While most pediatric cases of acute COVID-19 disease are mild or asymptomatic, some children are at risk for developing severe pneumonia. In MIS-C, children present a few weeks after SARS-CoV-2 exposure with a febrile illness that can rapidly progress to shock and multiorgan dysfunction. In both diseases, the clinical and laboratory findings can be nonspecific and present a diagnostic challenge. Thoracic imaging is commonly obtained to assist with initial workup, assessment of disease progression, and guidance of therapy. This paper reviews the radiologic findings of acute COVID-19 pneumonia and MIS-C, highlights the key distinctions between the entities, and summarizes our understanding of the role of imaging in managing SARS-CoV-2-related illness in children.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Zhang J, Han Y, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

Considerations for the Surgical Management of Thoracic Cancers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Rational Strategies for Thoracic Surgeons.

Frontiers in surgery, 9:742007.

Objective: The novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global health crisis since first case was identified in December 2019. As the pandemic continues to strain global public health systems, elective surgeries for thoracic cancer, such as early-stage lung cancer and esophageal cancer (EC), have been postponed due to a shortage of medical resources and the risk of nosocomial transmission. This review is aimed to discuss the influence of COVID-19 on thoracic surgical practice, prevention of nosocomial transmission during the pandemic, and propose modifications to the standard practices in the surgical management of different thoracic cancer.

Methods: A literature search of PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar was performed for articles focusing on COVID-19, early-stage lung cancer, and EC prior to 1 July 2021. The evidence from articles was combined with our data and experience.

Results: We review the challenges in the management of different thoracic cancer from the perspectives of thoracic surgeons and propose rational strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of early-stage lung cancer and EC during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the optimization of hospital systems and medical resources is to fight against COVID-19. Indolent early lung cancers, such as pure ground-glass nodules/opacities (GGOs), can be postponed with a lower risk of progression, while selective surgeries of more biologically aggressive tumors should be prioritized. As for EC, we recommend immediate or prioritized surgeries for patients with stage Ib or more advanced stage and patients after neoadjuvant therapy. Routine COVID-19 screening should be performed preoperatively before thoracic surgeries. Prevention of nosocomial transmission by providing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), such as N-95 respirator masks with eye protection to healthcare workers, is necessary.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Solís-Cordero K, Duarte LS, E Fujimori (2022)

Effectiveness of Remotely Delivered Parenting Programs on Caregiver-child Interaction and Child Development: a Systematic Review.

Journal of child and family studies pii:2328 [Epub ahead of print].

Remotely delivered parenting interventions are suitable to promote child well-being and development, in a context of social isolation, as our society faced due to COVID-19. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of remotely delivered parenting interventions for typically developing children on caregiver-child interaction and child development. We carried out a systematic search to find studies from the inception of the database to September 2021 on six electronic databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection and Regional Portal Information and Knowledge for Health (BVS), and gray literature. Eligible study designs were experimental and quasi-experimental studies. We included parenting interventions as long as they were remotely delivered and focused on typically developing children. Two outcomes were considered: caregiver-child interaction and child development. Three randomized controlled trials (RCT) and one quasi-experimental study met the inclusion criteria. Results from two RCT revealed positive, small-to-medium effects on child development. One study showed that the new intervention had a not inferior effect compared to the results achieved by the traditional support. Children who participated in the quasi-experimental study showed significant elevations in language ability. One study reported positive caregiver-child interaction results. There is insufficient evidence to draw definitive conclusions regarding the effectiveness of remotely delivered parenting interventions on child development due to the heterogeneity of participant profiles, mode of delivery, and assessment tools. The results suggest the need to develop future methodologically rigorous studies assessing the effectiveness of remotely delivered parenting interventions for typically developing children on caregiver-child interaction and child development.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Meldrum OW, Belchamber KBR, Chichirelo-Konstantynovych KD, et al (2022)

ERS International Congress 2021: highlights from the Respiratory Infections Assembly.

ERJ open research, 8(2): pii:00642-2021.

The European Respiratory Society International Congress 2021 took place virtually for the second year running due to the coronavirus pandemic. The Congress programme featured more than 400 sessions and 3000 abstract presentations, covering the entire field of respiratory science and medicine. In this article, early career members of the Respiratory Infections Assembly summarise a selection of sessions across a broad range of topics, including presentations on bronchiectasis, non-tuberculosis mycobacteria, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis and COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Ardura-Garcia C, Abellan A, Cuevas-Ocaña S, et al (2022)

ERS International Congress 2021: highlights from the Paediatric Assembly.

ERJ open research, 8(2): pii:00643-2021.

In this review, Early Career Members of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the Chairs of the ERS Assembly 7: Paediatrics present the highlights in paediatric respiratory medicine from the ERS International Congress 2021. The eight scientific Groups of this Assembly cover respiratory physiology and sleep, asthma and allergy, cystic fibrosis (CF), respiratory infection and immunology, neonatology and intensive care, respiratory epidemiology, bronchology, and lung and airway development. We here describe new developments in lung function testing and sleep-disordered breathing diagnosis, early life exposures affecting pulmonary function in children and effect of COVID-19 on sleep and lung function. In paediatric asthma, we present the important role of the exposome in asthma development, and how biologics can provide better outcomes. We discuss new methods to assess distal airways in children with CF, as some details remain blind when using the lung clearance index. Moreover, we summarise the new ERS guidelines for bronchiectasis management in children and adolescents. We present interventions to reduce morbidity and monitor pulmonary function in newborns at risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and long-term chronic respiratory morbidity of this disease. In respiratory epidemiology, we characterise primary ciliary dyskinesia, identify early life determinants of respiratory health and describe the effect of COVID-19 preventive measures on respiratory symptoms. Also, we describe the epidemiology of interstitial lung diseases, possible consequences of tracheomalacia and a classification of diffuse alveolar haemorrhage in children. Finally, we highlight that the characterisation of genes and pathways involved in the development of a disease is essential to identify new biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Robertson L, Machado F, Rutkowski S, et al (2022)

ERS International Congress 2021: highlights from the Allied Respiratory Professionals assembly.

ERJ open research, 8(2): pii:00674-2021.

This paper provides an overview of some of the most memorable sessions that were (co)organised by the Allied Respiratory Professionals Assembly during the 2021 European Respiratory Society International Congress, which was held online for the second consecutive year due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Early Career Members from Assembly 9 summarised the content of the sessions (three oral communication sessions, two symposia and one Expert View) with the support of the chairs from the four Assembly groups: Respiratory Function Technologists and Scientists (Group 9.01); Physiotherapists (Group 9.02); Nurses (Group 9.03); and Psychologists and Behavioural Scientists (Group 9.04). The sessions covered the following topics: impact of COVID-19 on lung function and healthcare services, and the importance of quality assurance and technology in lung function assessment; diagnosis and management of sarcopenia in patients with chronic respiratory disease; maintenance of the effects of pulmonary rehabilitation; solutions outside the hospital for the management of patients with COVID-19 in need of health care; the nursing perspective during the COVID-19 pandemic; and psychological and behavioural issues in respiratory care. This highlights article provides valuable insight into the latest scientific data and emerging areas affecting clinical practice of allied respiratory professionals.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Lichtblau M, Piccari L, Ramjug S, et al (2022)

ERS International Congress 2021: highlights from the Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Assembly.

ERJ open research, 8(2): pii:00665-2021.

This article aims to summarise the latest research presented at the virtual 2021 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in the field of pulmonary vascular disease. In light of the current guidelines and proceedings, knowledge gaps are addressed and the newest findings of the various forms of pulmonary hypertension as well as key points on pulmonary embolism are discussed. Despite the comprehensive coverage of the guidelines for pulmonary embolism at previous conferences, discussions about controversies in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in specific cases were debated and are addressed in the first section of this article. We then report on an interesting pro-con debate about the current classification of pulmonary hypertension. We further report on presentations on Group 3 pulmonary hypertension, with research exploring pathogenesis, phenotyping, diagnosis and treatment; important contributions on the diagnosis of post-capillary pulmonary hypertension are also included. Finally, we summarise the latest evidence presented on pulmonary vascular disease and COVID-19 and a statement on the new imaging guidelines for pulmonary vascular disease from the Fleischner Society.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Firouzkouhi M, Abdollahimohammad A, Rezaie-Kheikhaie K, et al (2022)

Nurses' Caring Experiences in COVID-19 Pandemic: A Systematic Review of Qualitative Research.

Health sciences review (Oxford, England) pii:S2772-6320(22)00019-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Nurses, as front-line care providers, strive to offer adequate care to their clients. They have acquired valuable experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic that enhance the nursing profession. This study aimed to explore nurses' caring experiences in the COVID-19 pandemic. This is a qualitative meta-aggregative systematic review. Electronic databases (Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, CINHAL) in English were searched to find out the meaningful subjective data on the COVID-19 pandemic. The inclusion criteria were studies published in English related to nurses' caring experiences in the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventeen qualitative studies with several approaches were included. Three key themes were identified from the studies: Weaknesses and strengths of nursing at the beginning of the pandemic, Nursing beyond challenges related to the pandemic, and Family and career challenges. Nurses face different challenges in caring for patients with COVID-19 that benefit the health and nursing professions. Governments, policymakers, and managers have to support nurses during and after the pandemic. Without enough support, nurses are likely to experience significant psychological issues that can lead to burnout and frustration.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Zhao M, Tian C, Cong S, et al (2022)

From COVID-19 to Sarcoidosis: How Similar Are These Two Diseases?.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:877303.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), leads to the dysregulation of the immune system, exacerbates inflammatory responses, and even causes multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in patients with severe disease. Sarcoidosis is an idiopathic granulomatous multisystem disease characterized by dense epithelioid non-necrotizing lesions with varying degrees of lymphocytic inflammation. These two diseases have similar clinical manifestations and may also influence each other and affect their clinical courses. In this study, we analyzed some possible connections between sarcoidosis and COVID-19, including the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the respiratory system, immune response, and cell death pathways, to understand the underlying mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, predisposing patients to severe forms of COVID-19. This review will provide a new prospect for the treatment of COVID-19 and an opportunity to explore the pathogenesis and development of sarcoidosis.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Silberberg E, Filep JG, A Ariel (2022)

Weathering the Storm: Harnessing the Resolution of Inflammation to Limit COVID-19 Pathogenesis.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:863449.

The resolution of inflammation is a temporally and spatially coordinated process that in its innate manifestations, primarily involves neutrophils and macrophages. The shutdown of infection or injury-induced acute inflammation requires termination of neutrophil accumulation within the affected sites, neutrophil demise, and clearance by phagocytes (efferocytosis), such as tissue-resident and monocyte-derived macrophages. This must be followed by macrophage reprogramming from the inflammatory to reparative and consequently resolution-promoting phenotypes and the production of resolution-promoting lipid and protein mediators that limit responses in various cell types and promote tissue repair and return to homeostatic architecture and function. Recent studies suggest that these events, and macrophage reprogramming to pro-resolving phenotypes in particular, are not only important in the acute setting, but might be paramount in limiting chronic inflammation, autoimmunity, and various uncontrolled cytokine-driven pathologies. The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a worldwide health and economic crisis. Severe COVID-19 cases that lead to high morbidity are tightly associated with an exuberant cytokine storm that seems to trigger shock-like pathologies, leading to vascular and multiorgan failures. In other cases, the cytokine storm can lead to diffuse alveolar damage that results in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and lung failure. Here, we address recent advances on effectors in the resolution of inflammation and discuss how pro-resolution mechanisms with particular emphasis on macrophage reprogramming, might be harnessed to limit the universal COVID-19 health threat.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Löscher W, CL Howe (2022)

Molecular Mechanisms in the Genesis of Seizures and Epilepsy Associated With Viral Infection.

Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 15:870868.

Seizures are a common presenting symptom during viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and can occur during the initial phase of infection ("early" or acute symptomatic seizures), after recovery ("late" or spontaneous seizures, indicating the development of acquired epilepsy), or both. The development of acute and delayed seizures may have shared as well as unique pathogenic mechanisms and prognostic implications. Based on an extensive review of the literature, we present an overview of viruses that are associated with early and late seizures in humans. We then describe potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying ictogenesis and epileptogenesis, including routes of neuroinvasion, viral control and clearance, systemic inflammation, alterations of the blood-brain barrier, neuroinflammation, and inflammation-induced molecular reorganization of synapses and neural circuits. We provide clinical and animal model findings to highlight commonalities and differences in these processes across various neurotropic or neuropathogenic viruses, including herpesviruses, SARS-CoV-2, flaviviruses, and picornaviruses. In addition, we extensively review the literature regarding Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV). This picornavirus, although not pathogenic for humans, is possibly the best-characterized model for understanding the molecular mechanisms that drive seizures, epilepsy, and hippocampal damage during viral infection. An enhanced understanding of these mechanisms derived from the TMEV model may lead to novel therapeutic interventions that interfere with ictogenesis and epileptogenesis, even within non-infectious contexts.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Napuri NI, Curcio D, Swerdlow DL, et al (2022)

Immune Response to COVID-19 and mRNA Vaccination in Immunocompromised Individuals: A Narrative Review.

Infectious diseases and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

Immunocompromised individuals are at high risk of poor coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes and demonstrate a lower immune response to COVID-19 vaccines, including to the novel mRNA vaccines that have been shown to elicit high neutralizing antibody levels. This review synthesized available data on the immune response to COVID-19 and critically assessed mRNA COVID-19 vaccine immunogenicity in this vulnerable subpopulation. Patients with various immunocompromising conditions exhibit diverse responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and COVID-19 severity and mortality, and available vaccines elicit lower immune responses, particularly in solid organ transplant recipients. Strategies to improve vaccine responses in immunocompromised individuals are being implemented in vaccine recommendations, including the use of a third and fourth vaccine dose beyond the two-dose series. Additional doses may enhance vaccine effectiveness and help provide broad coverage against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Continued investigation of vaccines and dosing regimens will help refine approaches to help protect this vulnerable subpopulation from COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Lam SM, Huang X, G Shui (2022)

Neurological aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection: lipoproteins and exosomes as Trojan horses.

Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM pii:S1043-2760(22)00084-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily targets lipid-producing cells for viral tropism. In this review, we connect systemic lipid couriers, particularly high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and exosomes, with the neurological facets of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We discuss how SARS-CoV-2 preferentially targets lipid-secreting cells and usurps host cell lipid metabolism for efficient replication and systemic spreading. Besides providing natural veils for viral materials against host immunity, the inherent properties of some of these endogenous lipid particles to traverse the blood-brain barrier (BBB) also offer alternative routes for SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism. Importantly, virus-driven neurological aberrations mediated by HDLs and exosomes are fueled by lipid rafts, which are implicated in the production and transmigration of these lipid particles across the BBB. Finally, we discuss how repurposing existing drugs targeting lipid rafts and cholesterol homeostasis may be beneficial toward alleviating the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease burden.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Shishkova VN, Imamgayazova KE, LA Kapustina (2022)

[Correction of psychoemotional disorders and short-term prognosis in patients with COVID-19].

Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova, 122(5):63-68.

This review discusses the importance of the main psychosocial risk factors in the development of chronic non-communicable diseases. The current data on the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are presented. The article summarizes information about the relationship between the development of psychoemotional disorders and CVD, discusses the prospects for the management of such patients in the framework of interdisciplinary cooperation. The main pathogenetic mechanisms of the development of complications, including damage to the central nervous system during infection with a new coronavirus infection, are considered. The significance of the choice of pathogenetic therapy for patients with comorbid somatic and mental diseases in the conditions of a pandemic of a new coronavirus infection is assessed. The results of multicenter placebo-controlled studies on the use of fluvoxamine in patients with a new coronavirus infection of varying severity are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Siddiqi AR, Khan T, Tahir MJ, et al (2022)

Miller Fisher syndrome after COVID-19 vaccination: Case report and review of literature.

Medicine, 101(20):e29333.

RATIONALE: Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) is a rare variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, classically diagnosed based on the clinical triad of ataxia, areflexia, and ophthalmoplegia. MFS is usually preceded by viral infections and febrile illness; however, only a few cases have been reported after vaccinations.

PATIENT CONCERNS: A 53-year-old hypertensive male presented with a 2-day history of progressive ascending paralysis of the lower limbs along with diplopia and ataxia, 8 days after the first dose of the Sinovac-Coronavac coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, with no prior history of any predisposing infections or triggers.

DIAGNOSES: Physical examination showed moderate motor and sensory loss with areflexia in the lower limbs bilaterally. Routine blood investigations and radiological investigations were unremarkable. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed albuminocytologic dissociation and nerve conduction studies revealed prolonged latencies with reduced conduction velocities. The diagnosis of MFS was established based on the findings of physical examination, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and nerve conduction studies.

INTERVENTIONS: A management plan was devised based on intravenous immunoglobulins, pregabalin, and physiotherapy. However, due to certain socioeconomic factors, the patient was managed conservatively with regular physiotherapy sessions.

OUTCOMES: Follow-up after 6 weeks showed remarkable improvement, with complete resolution of symptoms 10 weeks after the discharge.

LESSONS: This case suggests that MFS is a rare adverse effect after COVID-19 vaccination and additional research is required to substantiate a temporal association. Further studies are needed to understand the pathophysiology behind such complications to enhance the safety of COVID-19 vaccinations in the future.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Marques LLM, Beneti SC, Pinzon C, et al (2022)

Ivermectin as a possible treatment for COVID-19: a review of the 2022 protocols.

Brazilian journal of biology = Revista brasleira de biologia, 84:e258325 pii:S1519-69842024000100303.

Ivermectin is a safe and effective drug in humans and has been approved for use in numerous parasitic infections for over 50 years. In addition, many studies have already shown its antiviral activity. Ivermectin is generally well tolerated, with no indication of central nervous system-associated toxicity at doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose of 200 µg/kg. The in vitro results of ivermectin for reducing SARS-CoV-2 viral load are promising and show that Ivermectin kills SARS-CoV-2 within 48 hours. A hypothesized mechanism of action for this drug is a likely inhibition of IMPα/β1-mediated nuclear import of viral proteins as demonstrated for other RNA viruses. However, controlled and randomized studies are needed to prove its effectiveness in COVID-19 in humans. In a single in vivo study with published results, patients confirmed to be infected with SARS-CoV-2 received at least one dose of ivermectin at any time during hospitalization. The use of ivermectin was associated with lower mortality during treatment with COVID-19, especially in patients who required increased inspired oxygen or ventilatory support. Additionally, 81 studies with the clinical use of ivermectin in humans are being carried out worldwide according to ClinicalTrials.gov. However, none of these data has been published so far. However, private and public entities in Brazil have been adopting this drug in their protocols as prophylaxis and in the initial phase of the disease. In addition, ivermectin has been used in mass treatment to prevent onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in sub-Saharan Africa for many years. Surprisingly, this region has the lowest proportional mortality rate among the continents, despite the increasing numbers of infected people released by the World Health Organization.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Beeraka NM, Tulimilli SV, Greeshma MV, et al (2022)

COVID-19 Effects on Geriatric Population and Failures of Aminoquinoline Therapy: Compilation of Studies from EU, USA, and China; Safety and Efficacy of Vaccines in the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19.

Current medicinal chemistry, 29(20):3601-3621.

BACKGROUND: Mortality of the older adult population suffering from COVID-19 has been increasing at an alarming rate, and people older than 76 years of age reported 18% mortality. Mainly, the EU and USA exhibited a greater fatality rate due to lack of selective immunization and anti-SARS Co-V-2 therapeutics. Very limited reports are available to delineate the impact of COVID-19 on the geriatric population and the failures of aminoquinoline therapy.

METHODS: We performed a substantial literature review in the PubMed/Medline databases to extract the information pertaining to the COVID-19 impact on the geriatric population and recent failures of aminoquinoline therapy in COVID-19 patients of EU, China, USA and the requirement of vaccination.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS: Both parental strains and mutant variants of SARS Co-V-2 can induce severe respiratory complications, multiorgan failure, and clotting abnormalities in older adults due to low immunocompetence. Aminoquinoline derivatives, such as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), are preferred primarily for COVID-19 treatment, but several controversies are being reported for its usage worldwide. In this review, we have provided the effects of COVID-19 on the geriatric population of EU and an overview of the mechanism of action of aminoquinolines. Furthermore, CQ and HCQ are not the preferred choice of drugs if the COVID-19 patients already have existing co-morbid conditions viz., diabetes mellitus and hypertension.

CONCLUSION: A new advent of COVID-19 vaccines, such as nucleic acid-based (DNA/mRNA) vaccines, protein subunit vaccines, viral vector vaccines, and inactivated vaccines, have been developed for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection after the failure of aminoquinoline therapy in EU, China, and USA patients. However, some of the vaccines are yet to be examined against mutant strains of SARS CoV-2 that originated in the UK, Nigeria, South Africa, Brazil, and India.

RevDate: 2022-05-26
CmpDate: 2022-05-26

Sguanci M, F Mandolfino (2022)

Standardized perioperative practice in surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic: a narrative review of the evidence.

Minerva surgery, 77(3):263-271.

INTRODUCTION: The Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic activated a global health crisis. The best practice in operating room (OR) is a discussed argument. This review was performed to clarify the importance and effectiveness of standardized clinical practice (procedure, organization, guidance), identifying contemporary evidence deduced from some international experience. We decided to make a narrative review that analyses the most current shared guidelines and procedures in management of COVID-19 patients in perioperative theatre.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Medline was searched using PubMed (from 1 April 2020 to 22 December 2020) for relevant study according with Prisma Guidelines. The studies were assessed and classified for levels of evidence and recommendation. Three factors were extracted: OR organization, personnel safety and procedures.

EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: 44 articles were identified: eleven met eligibility criteria: of these, four articles are expert opinion/experience/descriptive study, one is a multicenter/descriptive study and six are review/systematic review. 33 articles were excluded because did not meet inclusion criteria. The studies selection is focused on clinical processes in the operating theatre, guidelines for the OR safety, correct procedures for personal protective equipment use, experience and recommendations related to COVID-19 context.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the modest number of studies and high evidence, all the publications show agreement about many aspects of OR practice. Global experiences selection confirms the role and the importance of a standardized practice in operating theatre instead personal interpretation; this study aims to provide a guidelines qualitative synthesis for all surgical staff, enclosing basic behaviors for the staff and patient safety in a complex assistant approach on a pandemic time.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Patel P, Yadav BK, G Patel (2022)

State-of-the-Art and Projected Developments of Nanofiber Filter Material for Face Mask Against COVID-19.

Recent patents on nanotechnology, 16(4):262-270.

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 epidemic was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020. It is difficult to foresee the future length and severity; it may extend to weeks, months, or even years to deplete the energy and resources of the health care facilities and the providers as there is marginal to no pharmacological medication available to treat the Covid-19. Unless an effective pharmacological treatment such as medicines and vaccines is developed and released publicly, wearing protective face masks and protecting personal health and hygiene is merely a choice to avoid the Covid-19 spread. This review summarizes the background knowledge on the Covid-19 disease and currently available face masks for highly infectious disease primary prevention. According to recent studies of Covid-19 prevention, diagnosis, and treatment, nanotechnologists have provided a revolutionary approach that involves both pharmacological and non-pharmacological steps, one of which is the use of nanofibers in facemasks and respirators.

METHODS: Various researches carried out in the field of nanomask and patented reports based on the application of nanomask were reviewed.

CONCLUSION: The most recent developments of nanofibers, including research publications, patents and commercial products in Covid-19 prevention, are extensively reviewed from scientific literature and appropriately represented in this study.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Li T, Wang Z, Wang C, et al (2022)

Chlorination in the pandemic times: The current state of the art for monitoring chlorine residual in water and chlorine exposure in air.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03290-9 [Epub ahead of print].

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the use of chlorine-based disinfectants has surged due to their excellent performance and cost-effectiveness in intercepting the spread of the virus and bacteria in water and air. Many authorities have demanded strict chlorine dosage for disinfection to ensure sufficient chlorine residual for inactivating viruses and bacteria while not posing harmful effects to humans as well as the environment. Reliable chlorine sensing techniques have therefore become the keys to ensure a balance between chlorine disinfection efficiency and disinfection safety. Up to now, there is still a lack of comprehensive review that collates and appraises the recently available techniques from a practical point of view. In this work, we intend to present a detailed overview of the recent advances in monitoring chlorine in both dissolved and gaseous forms aiming to present valuable information in terms of method accuracy, sensitivity, stability, reliability, and applicability, which in turn guides future sensor development. Data on the analytical performance of different techniques and environmental impacts associated with the dominated chemical-based techniques are thus discussed. Finally, this study concluded with highlights of gaps in knowledge and trends for future chlorine sensing development. Due to the increasing use of chlorine in disinfection and chemical synthesis, we believe the information present in this review is a relevant and timely resource for the water treatment industry, healthcare sector, and environmental organizations.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Samimisedeh P, Jafari Afshar E, Shafiabadi Hassani N, et al (2022)

Cardiac MRI Findings in COVID-19 Vaccine-Related Myocarditis: A Pooled Analysis of 468 Patients.

Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the pattern and severity of myocarditis caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is imperative for improving the care of the patients, and cardiac evaluation by MRI plays a key role in this regard. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize cardiac MRI findings in COVID-19 vaccine-related myocarditis. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of literature in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases using key terms covering COVID-19 vaccine, myocarditis, and cardiac MRI. Individual-level patient data (IPD) and aggregated-level data (AD) studies were pooled through a two-stage analysis method. For this purpose, all IPD were first gathered into a single data set and reduced to AD, and then this AD (from IPD studies) was pooled with existing AD (from the AD studies) using fixed/random effect models. I2 was used to assess the degree of heterogeneity, and the prespecified level of statistical significance (P value for heterogeneity) was <0.1. Based on meta-analysis of 102 studies (n = 468 patients), 79% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 54%-97%) of patients fulfilled Lake Louise criteria (LLC) for diagnosis of myocarditis. Cardiac MRI abnormalities included elevated T2 in 72% (95% CI: 50%-90%), myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in 93% (95% CI: 83%-99%; nearly all with a subepicardial and/or midwall pattern), impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (<50%) in 4% (95% CI: 1.0%-9.0%). Moreover, elevated T1 and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (>30), reported only by some IPD studies, were detected in 74.5% (76/102) and 32% (16/50) of patients, respectively. In conclusion, our findings may suggest that over two-thirds of patients with clinically suspected myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination meet the LLC. COVID-19 vaccine-associated myocarditis may show a similar pattern compared to other acute myocarditis entities. Notably, preserved LVEF is probably a common finding in these patients. EVIDENCE LEVEL: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Fernandes GFS, Thompson AM, Castagnolo D, et al (2022)

Tuberculosis Drug Discovery: Challenges and New Horizons.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past 2000 years, tuberculosis (TB) has claimed more lives than any other infectious disease. In 2020 alone, TB was responsible for 1.5 million deaths worldwide, comparable to the 1.8 million deaths caused by COVID-19. The World Health Organization has stated that new TB drugs must be developed to end this pandemic. After decades of neglect in this field, a renaissance era of TB drug discovery has arrived, in which many novel candidates have entered clinical trials. However, while hundreds of molecules are reported annually as promising anti-TB agents, very few successfully progress to clinical development. In this Perspective, we critically review those anti-TB compounds published in the last 6 years that demonstrate good in vivo efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additionally, we highlight the main challenges and strategies for developing new TB drugs and the current global pipeline of drug candidates in clinical studies to foment fresh research perspectives.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Möhnle P, Humpe A, Boeck M, et al (2022)

Emergency Use of Convalescent Plasma: Perception of the Regulatory Framework from a Clinical Perspective.

Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie, 49(2):119-124 pii:tmh-0049-0119.

The pandemic spread of an infectious disease poses a plethora of challenges to society, clinicians, health care providers and regulating authorities. In order to mount a rapid response and to provide hope in a potentially catastrophic situation as the current COVID-19 pandemic, emergency plans, regulations and funding strategies have to be developed on regional, national and international levels. The speed needed to establish rapid response programs is challenged by the dynamics of the spread of the disease, the concurrent and competing development of different and potentially more effective treatment options, and not the least by regulatory uncertainty. Convalescent plasma, that is plasma collected from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 infections, has emerged as one of the first potential treatment options in the absence of drugs or vaccines with proven efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. The societal aspects of convalescent plasma and the public awareness gave an additional boost to the rapid employment of convalescent plasma donation platforms immediately after the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. At the same time, uncertainty remains as to the efficacy of convalescent plasma. With evidence mostly limited to empirical reports, convalescent plasma has been used for decades for the prophylaxis and treatment of various infectious diseases. Clinical trials have addressed different infectious agents, stages of disease, target groups of patients and yielded sometimes inconclusive results. The aim of this short review is to delineate the regulatory background for the emergency use of convalescent plasma in the USA, in the European Union and in Germany, and the transition to the setting of clinical trials. In addition, we describe observations made in the process of collecting COVID-19 convalescent plasma (herein referred to as CCP), and formulate proposals to further improve the framework for rapid responses in future emergency situations.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Alibeik N, Pishgar E, Bozorgmehr R, et al (2022)

Potential role of gut microbiota in patients with COVID-19, its relationship with lung axis, central nervous system (CNS) axis, and improvement with probiotic therapy.

Iranian journal of microbiology, 14(1):1-9.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic disease caused by a new corona virus. COVID-19 affects different people in different ways. COVID-19 could affect the gastrointestinal system via gut microbiota impairment. Gut microbiota could affect lung health through a relationship between gut and lung microbiota, which is named gut-lung axis. Gut microbiota impairment plays a role in pathogenesis of various pulmonary disease states, so GI diseases were found to be associated with respiratory diseases. Moreover, most infected people will develop mild to moderate gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomachache, which is caused by impairment in gut microbiota. Therefore, the current study aimed to review potential role of gut microbiota in patients with COVID-19, its relation with lung axis, Central Nervous System (CNS) axis and improvement with probiotic therapy. Also, this review can be a guide for potential role of gut microbiota in patients with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Higdon MM, Wahl B, Jones CB, et al (2022)

A Systematic Review of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Vaccine Efficacy and Effectiveness Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection and Disease.

Open forum infectious diseases, 9(6):ofac138 pii:ofac138.

Billions of doses of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines have been administered globally, dramatically reducing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) incidence and severity in some settings. Many studies suggest vaccines provide a high degree of protection against infection and disease, but precise estimates vary and studies differ in design, outcomes measured, dosing regime, location, and circulating virus strains. In this study, we conduct a systematic review of COVID-19 vaccines through February 2022. We included efficacy data from Phase 3 clinical trials for 15 vaccines undergoing World Health Organization Emergency Use Listing evaluation and real-world effectiveness for 8 vaccines with observational studies meeting inclusion criteria. Vaccine metrics collected include protection against asymptomatic infection, any infection, symptomatic COVID-19, and severe outcomes including hospitalization and death, for partial or complete vaccination, and against variants of concern Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron. We additionally review the epidemiological principles behind the design and interpretation of vaccine efficacy and effectiveness studies, including important sources of heterogeneity.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Sena CM, Gonçalves L, R Seiça (2022)

Methods to evaluate vascular function: a crucial approach towards predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine.

The EPMA journal pii:280 [Epub ahead of print].

Endothelium, the gatekeeper of our blood vessels, is highly heterogeneous and a crucial physical barrier with the ability to produce vasoactive and protective mediators under physiological conditions. It regulates vascular tone, haemostasis, vascular inflammation, remodelling, and angiogenesis. Several cardio-, reno-, and cerebrovascular diseases begin with the dysfunction of endothelial cells, and more recently, COVID-19 was also associated with endothelial disease highlighting the need to monitor its function towards prevention and reduction of vascular dysfunction. Endothelial cells are an important therapeutic target in predictive, preventive, and personalised (3P) medicine with upmost importance in vascular diseases. The development of novel non-invasive techniques to access endothelial dysfunction for use in combination with existing clinical imaging modalities provides a feasible opportunity to reduce the burden of vascular disease. This review summarises recent advances in the principles of endothelial function measurements. This article presents an overview of invasive and non-invasive techniques to determine vascular function and their major advantages and disadvantages. In addition, the article describes mechanisms underlying the regulation of vascular function and dysfunction and potential new biomarkers of endothelial damage. Recognising these biomarkers is fundamental towards a shift from reactive to 3P medicine in the vascular field. Identifying vascular dysfunction earlier with non-invasive or minimally invasive techniques adds value to predictive diagnostics and targeted prevention (primary, secondary, tertiary care). In addition, vascular dysfunction is a potential target for treatments tailored to the person.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Robson B (2022)

Towards faster response against emerging epidemics and prediction of variants of concern.

Informatics in medicine unlocked pii:S2352-9148(22)00112-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The author, the journal, Computers in Biology and Medicine (CBM), and Elsevier Press more generally, played a helpful very early role in responding to COVID-19. Within a few days of the appearance of the "Wuhan Seafood isolate" genome on GenBank, a bioinformatics study was posted by the present author in ResearchGate in January 2020, "Preliminary Bioinformatics Studies on the Design of Synthetic Vaccines and Preventative Peptidomimetic Antagonists against the Wuhan Seafood Market Coronavirus. Possible Importance of the KRSFIEDLLFNKV Motif" DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18275.09761. On February 2nd, 2020, a more thorough analysis was submitted to CBM, e-published on February 26, and formally published in April 2020, at about the same time as the virus named as 2019n-CoV was identified as essentially SARS and renames SARS-COV-2. This was followed by four further papers describing in more detail some previously unreported aspects of the early investigation. The speed of research and writing of the papers was made possible by knowledge gathering tools. Based on this and earlier experiences with fast responses to emerging epidemics such as HIV and Mad Cow Disease, it is possible to envisage the nature of a speedier response to emerging epidemics and new variants of concern in established epidemics.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Babaei A, Pouremamali A, Rafiee N, et al (2022)

Genosensors as an alternative diagnostic sensing approaches for specific detection of various certain viruses: a review of common techniques and outcomes.

Trends in analytical chemistry : TRAC pii:S0165-9936(22)00169-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Viral infections are responsible for the deaths of millions of people throughout the world. Since outbreak of highly contagious and mutant viruses such as contemporary sars-cov-2 pandemic, has challenged the conventional diagnostic methods, the entity of a thoroughly sensitive, specific, rapid and inexpensive detecting technique with minimum level of false-positivity or -negativity, is desperately needed more than any time in the past decades. Biosensors as minimized devices could detect viruses in simple formats. So far, various nucleic acid, immune- and protein-based biosensors were designed and tested for recognizing the genome, antigen, or protein level of viruses, respectively; however, nucleic acid-based sensing techniques, which is the foundation of constructing genosensors, are preferred not only because of their ultra-sensitivity and applicability in the early stages of infections but also for their ability to differentiate various strains of the same virus. To date, the review articles related to genosensors are just confined to particular pathogenic diseases; In this regard, the present review covers comprehensive information of the research progress of the electrochemical, optical, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) genosensors that applied for human viruses' diseases detection and also provides a well description of viruses' clinical importance, the conventional diagnosis approaches of viruses and their disadvantages. This review would address the limitations in the current developments as well as the future challenges involved in the successful construction of sensing approaches with the functionalized nanomaterials and also allow exploring into core-research works regarding this area.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Hariyanto TI, Jodhinata C, Halim DA, et al (2022)

Association between viral hepatitis and increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Gastroenterology and hepatology from bed to bench, 15(1):9-14.

Aim: The purpose of the current study is to analyze the potential association between viral hepatitis and the severity of COVID-19.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a worldwide concern that has created major issues with many aspects. It is important to identify the risk factors for severe outcomes of this disease. To date, no association between viral hepatitis and severe COVID-19 has not been established.

Methods: Through November 5th, 2020, the databases of PubMed, Google Scholar, and medRxiv were systematically searched using specific keywords related to the focus of the study. All articles published on COVID-19 and viral hepatitis were retrieved. The Mantel-Haenszel formula with random-effects models was used to obtain the risk ratio (RR) along with its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for dichotomous variables. The two-tailed p-value was set with a value ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. Restricted-maximum likelihood meta-regression was done for several variables, such as age, gender, hypertension, diabetes, and other liver disease.

Results: Analysis results included a total of 16 studies with a total of 14,682 patients. Meta-analysis showed that viral hepatitis increases the risk of developing severe COVID-19 (RR 1.68 (95% CI 1.26 - 2.22), p = 0.0003, I 2 = 21%, random-effect modeling). According to the meta-regression analysis, the association between viral hepatitis and severe COVID-19 was not influenced by age (p = 0.067), diabetes (p = 0.057), or other liver disease (p = 0.646).

Conclusion: An increase of severe COVID-19 risk is associated with viral hepatitis. To reduce the risk of COVID-19, patients with viral hepatitis should be monitored carefully.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Wang LG, L Wang (2022)

Current Strategies in Treating Cytokine Release Syndrome Triggered by Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

ImmunoTargets and therapy, 11:23-35 pii:360151.

Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the treatments and management of the deadly COVID-19 disease have made great progress. The strategies for developing novel treatments against COVID-19 include antiviral small molecule drugs, cell and gene therapies, immunomodulators, neutralizing antibodies, and combination therapies. Among them, immunomodulators are the most studied treatments. The small molecule antiviral drugs and immunoregulators are expected to be effective against viral variants of SARS-CoV-2 as these drugs target either conservative parts of the virus or common pathways of inflammation. Although the immunoregulators have shown benefits in reducing mortality of cytokine release syndrome (CRS) triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infections, extensive investigations on this class of treatment to launch novel therapies that substantially improve efficacy and reduce side effects are still warranted. Moreover, great challenges have emerged as the SARS-CoV-2 virus quickly, frequently, and continuously evolved. This review provides an update and summarizes the recent advances in the treatment of COVID-19 and in particular emphasized the strategies in managing CRS triggered by SARS-CoV-2. A brief perspective in the battle against the deadly disease was also provided.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Rudrapati R (2022)

Using industrial 4.0 technologies to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) pii:S2049-0801(22)00571-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID 19 (Coronavirus) pandemic has led to a surge in the demand for healthcare devices, pre-cautions, or medicines along with advanced information technology. It has become a global mission to control the Coronavirus to prevent the death of innocent people. The fourth industrial revolution (I4.0) is a new approach to thinking that is proposed across a wide range of industries and services to achieve greater success and quality of life. Several initiatives associated with industry 4.0 are expected to make a difference in the fight against COVID-19. Implementing I4.0 components effectively could lead to a reduction in barriers between patients and healthcare workers and could result in improved communication between them. The present study aims to review the components of I4.0 and related tools used to combat the Coronavirus. This article highlights the benefits of each component of the I4.0, which is useful in controlling the spread of COVID-19. From the present study, it is stated that I4.0 technologies could provide an effective solution to deal with local as well as global medical crises in an innovative way.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Badalov E, Blackler L, Scharf AE, et al (2022)

COVID-19 double jeopardy: the overwhelming impact of the social determinants of health.

International journal for equity in health, 21(1):76.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has strained healthcare systems by creating a tragic imbalance between needs and resources. Governments and healthcare organizations have adapted to this pronounced scarcity by applying allocation guidelines to facilitate life-or-death decision-making, reduce bias, and save as many lives as possible. However, we argue that in societies beset by longstanding inequities, these approaches fall short as mortality patterns for historically discriminated against communities have been disturbingly higher than in the general population.

METHODS: We review attack and fatality rates; survey allocation protocols designed to deal with the extreme scarcity characteristic of the earliest phases of the pandemic; and highlight the larger ethical perspectives (Utilitarianism, non-Utilitarian Rawlsian justice) that might justify such allocation practices.

RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically amplified the dire effects of disparities with respect to the social determinants of health. Patients in historically marginalized groups not only have significantly poorer health prospects but also lower prospects of accessing high quality medical care and benefitting from it even when available. Thus, mortality among minority groups has ranged from 1.9 to 2.4 times greater than the rest of the population. Standard allocation schemas, that prioritize those most likely to benefit, perpetuate and may even exacerbate preexisting systemic injustices.

CONCLUSIONS: To be better prepared for the inevitable next pandemic, we must urgently begin the monumental project of addressing and reforming the structural inequities in US society that account for the strikingly disparate mortality rates we have witnessed over the course of the current pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Hernández-Vásquez A, Barrenechea-Pulache A, Comandé D, et al (2022)

Mouthrinses and SARS-CoV-2 viral load in saliva: a living systematic review.

Evidence-based dentistry pii:10.1038/s41432-022-0253-z [Epub ahead of print].

Objective To conduct a living systematic review of the clinical evidence about the effect of different mouthrinses on the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of infected patients.Methods This study was reported using the PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search was conducted in seven databases and preprint repositories. We included human clinical trials that evaluated the effect of mouthrinses with antiseptic substances on the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of children or adults, who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The risk of bias was assessed using the ROBINS-I tool. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42021240561.Results Five studies were included (n = 66 participants). Study participants underwent oral rinses with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 1%, povidone-iodine (PI) at 0.5% or 1%, chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) at 0.2% or 0.12%, cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) at 0.075%, and Linolasept. Only one study included a control group with sterile water. Three of the studies identified a reduction in viral load in saliva after the use of mouthrinses with PI (up to three hours), CHX (up to four hours), or Linolasept mouthwash (up to six hours). One study reported a statistically significant reduction after the use of mouthrinses with CPC or PI vs water (up to six hours) and one study reported a non-significant reduction in viral load after the use of H2O2 rinses.Conclusions According to the present systematic review, the effect of mouthrinses on SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the saliva of COVID-19 patients remains uncertain. Evidence from well-designed randomised clinical trials is required for further and more objective evaluation of this effect.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Drosos AA, Pelechas E, PV Voulgari (2022)

Treatment strategies of COVID-19: A rheumatology perspective.

European journal of internal medicine pii:S0953-6205(22)00192-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical progression of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) to critical illness is associated with a systemic and uncontrolled inflammatory response of the innate and adaptive immunity with the release of a plethora of proinflammatory cytokines termed "cytokine storm". In the absence of an effective treatment, many off-label agents from the armamentarium of rheumatology are used. Here, from the perspective of a rheumatologist, we will discuss the current therapeutic strategies in critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Thus, we will discuss the agents that aim to target viral entry and its replication into the host cell and those focusing and targeting the inflammatory response. In this setting, many agents have been used with promising results but, not all have been approved by the International Authorities and Institutions. In the first step (viral entry), SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and remdesivir have been approved to be used and, in the second step, corticosteroids along with interleukin-6 inhibitors, or Janus Kinase inhibitors are currently used.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Nunes MC, SA Madhi (2022)

COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(22)00108-3 [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has been associated with severe illness in pregnant women. Furthermore, COVID-19 during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes including preterm labor. Pregnant women were largely excluded from initial clinical trials investigating the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines; however, they have since been included as part of the routine roll-out of these vaccines. This narrative review synthesizes the evidence on the safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness predominantly of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines which have been most widely used in pregnant women.

RevDate: 2022-05-25
CmpDate: 2022-05-25

Ong SQ, Pauzi MBM, KH Gan (2022)

Text mining in mosquito-borne disease: A systematic review.

Acta tropica, 231:106447.

Mosquito-borne diseases are emerging and re-emerging across the globe, especially after the COVID19 pandemic. The recent advances in text mining in infectious diseases hold the potential of providing timely access to explicit and implicit associations among information in the text. In the past few years, the availability of online text data in the form of unstructured or semi-structured text with rich content of information from this domain enables many studies to provide solutions in this area, e.g., disease-related knowledge discovery, disease surveillance, early detection system, etc. However, a recent review of text mining in the domain of mosquito-borne disease was not available to the best of our knowledge. In this review, we survey the recent works in the text mining techniques used in combating mosquito-borne diseases. We highlight the corpus sources, technologies, applications, and the challenges faced by the studies, followed by the possible future directions that can be taken further in this domain. We present a bibliometric analysis of the 294 scientific articles that have been published in Scopus and PubMed in the domain of text mining in mosquito-borne diseases, from the year 2016 to 2021. The papers were further filtered and reviewed based on the techniques used to analyze the text related to mosquito-borne diseases. Based on the corpus of 158 selected articles, we found 27 of the articles were relevant and used text mining in mosquito-borne diseases. These articles covered the majority of Zika (38.70%), Dengue (32.26%), and Malaria (29.03%), with extremely low numbers or none of the other crucial mosquito-borne diseases like chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile fever. Twitter was the dominant corpus resource to perform text mining in mosquito-borne diseases, followed by PubMed and LexisNexis databases. Sentiment analysis was the most popular technique of text mining to understand the discourse of the disease and followed by information extraction, which dependency relation and co-occurrence-based approach to extract relations and events. Surveillance was the main usage of most of the reviewed studies and followed by treatment, which focused on the drug-disease or symptom-disease association. The advance in text mining could improve the management of mosquito-borne diseases. However, the technique and application posed many limitations and challenges, including biases like user authentication and language, real-world implementation, etc. We discussed the future direction which can be useful to expand this area and domain. This review paper contributes mainly as a library for text mining in mosquito-borne diseases and could further explore the system for other neglected diseases.

RevDate: 2022-05-25
CmpDate: 2022-05-25

Sahoo BM, Bhattamisra SK, Das S, et al (2022)

Computational Approach to Combat COVID-19 Infection: Emerging Tools for Accelerating Drug Research.

Current drug discovery technologies, 19(3):40-53.

BACKGROUND: The process of drug discovery and development is expensive, complex, timeconsuming, and risky. There are different techniques involved in the process of drug development, including random screening, computational approaches, molecular manipulation, and serendipitous research. Among these methods, the computational approach is considered an efficient strategy to accelerate and economize the drug discovery process.

OBJECTIVE: This approach is mainly applied in various phases of the drug discovery process, including target identification, target validation, lead identification, and lead optimization. Due to the increase in the availability of information regarding various biological targets of different disease states, computational approaches such as molecular docking, de novo design, molecular similarity calculation, virtual screening, pharmacophore-based modeling, and pharmacophore mapping have been applied extensively.

METHODS: Various drug molecules can be designed by applying computational tools to explore the drug candidates for the treatment of Coronavirus infection. The World Health Organization announced the coronavirus disease as COVID-19 and declared it a global pandemic on 11 February 2020. Therefore, it is thought of interest to the scientific community to apply computational methods to design and optimize the pharmacological properties of various clinically available and FDA-approved drugs such as remdesivir, ribavirin, favipiravir, oseltamivir, ritonavir, arbidol, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, carfilzomib, baraticinib, prulifloxacin, etc., for effective treatment of COVID-19 infection.

RESULTS: Further, various survey reports suggest that extensive studies are carried out by various research communities to find out the safety and efficacy profile of these drug candidates.

CONCLUSION: This review is focused on the study of various aspects of these drugs related to their target sites on the virus, binding interactions, physicochemical properties, etc.

RevDate: 2022-05-25
CmpDate: 2022-05-25

Bakkari MA, Moni SS, Sultan MH, et al (2022)

Monoclonal Antibodies and their Target Specificity Against SARS-CoV-2 Infections: Perspectives and Challenges.

Recent patents on biotechnology, 16(1):64-78.

The world continues to be in the midst of a distressing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel virus with multiple antigenic systems. The virus enters via nasopharynx, oral and infects cells by the expression of the spike protein, and enters the lungs using the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptor. The spectrum of specific immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is increasingly challenging as frequent mutations have been reported and their antigen specificity varies accordingly. The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) will have a more significant advantage in suppressing SARS-CoV-2 virus infectivity. Recently, mAbs have been developed to target included specific neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The use of the therapeutic index of mAbs that can elicit neutralization by binding to the viral spike protein and suppress the cytokine network is a classic therapeutic approach for a potential cure. The development of mAbs against B-cell function as well as inhibition of the cytokine network has also been a focus in recent research. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of mAbs as antibody cocktail preparations against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Target specific therapeutic accomplishment with mAbs, a milestone in the modern therapeutic age, can be used to achieve a specific therapeutic strategy to suppress SARS-CoV-2 virus infection. This review focuses on the molecular aspects of the cytokine network and antibody formation to better understand the development of mAbs against SARS- CoV-2 infection along with recent patents.

RevDate: 2022-05-25
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Selvaraj C, Dinesh DC, Krafcikova P, et al (2022)

Structural Understanding of SARS-CoV-2 Drug Targets, Active Site Contour Map Analysis and COVID-19 Therapeutics.

Current molecular pharmacology, 15(2):418-433.

The pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2), is responsible for multiple worldwide lockdowns, an economic crisis, and a substantial increase in hospitalizations for viral pneumonia along with respiratory failure and multiorgan dysfunctions. Recently, the first few vaccines were approved by World Health Organization (WHO) and can eventually save millions of lives. Even though, few drugs are used in emergency like Remdesivir and several other repurposed drugs, still there is no approved drug for COVID-19. The coronaviral encoded proteins involved in host-cell entry, replication, and host-cell invading mechanism are potential therapeutic targets. This perspective review provides the molecular overview of SARS-CoV-2 life cycle for summarizing potential drug targets, structural insights, active site contour map analyses of those selected SARS-CoV-2 protein targets for drug discovery, immunology, and pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2022-05-25
CmpDate: 2022-05-25

Sushma DS, Jaiswal V, Kumar A, et al (2022)

Insights into Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Current Understanding, Research, and Therapeutic Updates.

Recent patents on biotechnology, 16(1):35-63.

BACKGROUND: Humans can be infected with various coronaviruses that can cause serious illness and death. One such pandemic strain of coronavirus was recently identified in December 2019, and it led to a devastating outbreak in Wuhan city of China. It is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2). It is highly contagious and causes symptoms such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to highlight the current understanding, research, and therapeutic updates of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

METHODS: A thorough literature search was conducted for research papers and patents in the context of COVID-19. All the related articles were extracted from various public repositories such as Google Scholar, Pubmed, ScienceDirect (Elsevier), Springer, Web of Science, etc. Results: The present analysis revealed that the key areas of the inventions were vaccines and diagnostic kits apart from developing the treatment of CoV. It was also observed that no specific vaccine treatments were available for the treatment of 2019-nCov; therefore, developing novel chemical or biological drugs and kits for early diagnosis, prevention, and disease management is the primary governing topic among the patented inventions. The present study also indicates potential research opportunities for the future, particularly to combat 2019-nCoV. The current focus of the researches has turned towards developing four potential treatments, including the development of candidate vaccines, development of novel potential drugs, repurposing of existing drugs, and development of convalescent plasma therapy. The PCR based diagnosis is the gold standard for the COVID-19 testing, but it requires resource time, expertise, and high associated cost; hence researchers are also developing different diagnostic methods for the COVID-19. Although vaccines are being developed by various companies and have passed the pre-clinical stages but there still exists no guarantee for these to come into effect. The current treatments that are being used for COVID-19 patients are not well established and have shown limited success.

CONCLUSION: The pandemic has challenged the medical, economic, and public health infrastructure across the globe. There is an urgent need to explore all available and possible methods/ approaches to study this disease for drug and vaccine development at the earliest.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Singh MK, Nimarko A, Bruno J, et al (2022)

Can Translational Social Neuroscience Research offer Insights to Mitigate Structural Racism in America?.

Biological psychiatry. Cognitive neuroscience and neuroimaging pii:S2451-9022(22)00121-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Social isolation and conflict due to structural racism may result in human suffering and loneliness across the lifespan. Given the rising prevalence of these problems in America, combined with disruptions experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic, the neurobiology of affiliative behaviors may offer practical solutions to the pressing challenges associated with structural racism. Controlled experiments across species demonstrate that social connections are critical to survival, although strengthening individual resilience is insufficient to address the magnitude and impact of structural racism. In contrast, the multi-level construct of social resilience, defined by the power of groups to cultivate, engage in, and sustain positive relationships that endure and recuperate from social adversities, offers unique insights that may have greater impact, reach, and durability than individual-level interventions. Here, we review the putative social resilience-enhancing interventions and, when available, their biological mediators, with the hope to stimulate discovery of novel approaches to mitigate structural racism. We will first explore the social neuroscience principles underlying psychotherapy and other psychiatric interventions. Then, we will explore translational efforts across species to tailor treatments that increase social resilience, with context and cultural sensitivity in mind. Finally, we will conclude with some practical future directions for understudied areas that may be essential for progress in biological psychiatry, including ethical ways to increase representation in research and developing social paradigms that inform dynamics toward or away from socially resilient outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Han J, Kyu Lee M, Jang Y, et al (2022)

Repurposing of cyclophilin A inhibitors as broad-spectrum antiviral agents.

Drug discovery today pii:S1359-6446(22)00207-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Cyclophilin A (CypA) is linked to diverse human diseases including viral infections. With the worldwide emergence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), drug repurposing has been highlighted as a strategy with the potential to speed up antiviral development. Because CypA acts as a proviral component in hepatitis C virus, coronavirus and HIV, its inhibitors have been suggested as potential treatments for these infections. Here, we review the structure of cyclosporin A and sanglifehrin A analogs as well as synthetic micromolecules inhibiting CypA; and we discuss their broad-spectrum antiviral efficacy in the context of the virus lifecycle.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Saavedra JM (2022)

The Changing Landscape of Children's Diet and Nutrition: New Threats, New Opportunities.

Annals of nutrition & metabolism pii:000524328 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Over the last 30-40 years, we have seen an improvement in global child undernutrition, with major reductions in wasting and stunting. Meanwhile, childhood obesity has dramatically increased, initially in high-income populations and subsequently in the more economically vulnerable. These trends are related to significant changes in diet and external factors, including new environmental threats.

SUMMARY: Obesity rates first increased in older children, then gradually in infants. And in the next couple of years, there will be more overweight and obese than moderately or severely underweight children in the world. The changes in childhood nutritional landscape are a result of poor diets. Today, almost 50% of the world's population consumes either too many or too few calories. Dietary disparities between countries result in disparities of under- and overnutrition and impact the global health landscape. Most children with obesity, wasting, and micronutrient deficiencies live in lower income countries and in lower income families within any country. High energy-low nutrient diets are contributing to the increase in non-communicable diseases, which will manifest later in this generation of children. In 1990, child wasting was the #1 leading risk factor for mortality for all ages, and high BMI was #16; today, they are #11 and #5, respectively. COVID-19 and climate change are new major threats to global nutrition. Current and future efforts to improve the state of child nutrition require multisectoral approaches to reprioritize actions which address current trends and emerging threats.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Jörgensen E, Koller D, Raman S, et al (2022)

The voices of children and young people during COVID-19: A critical review of methods.

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Critically review research methods used to elicit children and young people's views and experiences in the first year of COVID-19, using an ethical and child rights lens.

METHODS: Systematic search of peer-reviewed literature on children and young people's perspectives and experiences of COVID-19. LEGEND (Let Evidence Guide Every New Decision) tools were applied to assess the quality of included studies. The critical review methodology addressed four ethical parameters: 1) Duty of care; 2) Children and young people's consent; 3) Communication of findings; and 4) Reflexivity.

RESULTS: Two phases of searches identified 8,131 studies; 27 studies were included for final analysis, representing 43,877 children and young people's views. Most studies were from high-income countries. Three major themes emerged: a) Whose voices are heard; b) How are children and young people heard, and c) How do researchers engage in reflexivity and ethical practice? Online surveys of children and young people from middle-class backgrounds dominated the research during COVID-19. Three studies actively involved children and young people in the research process; two documented a rights-based framework. There was limited attention paid to some ethical issues, particularly the lack of inclusion of children and young people in research processes.

CONCLUSION: There are equity gaps in accessing the experiences of children and young people from disadvantaged settings. Most children and young people were not involved in shaping research methods by soliciting their voices.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Burtchell J, Clemmons D, Clemmons J, et al (2022)

A Targeted Literature Search and Phenomenological Review of Perspectives of People with Multiple Sclerosis and Healthcare Professionals of the Immunology of Disease-Modifying Therapies.

Neurology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms of action of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) are complex and involve an interplay of immune system components. People with MS (PwMS) may lack a clear understanding of the immunological pathways involved in MS and its treatment; effective communication between healthcare professionals (HCPs) and PwMS is needed to facilitate shared decision-making when discussing the disease and selecting DMTs and is particularly important in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era.

METHODS: In this patient-authored two-part review, we performed a targeted literature search to assess the need for better communication between HCPs and PwMS regarding treatment selection, and also conducted a qualitative survey of four patient and care-partner authors to obtain insights regarding their understanding of and preferences for the treatment and management of MS.

RESULTS: Following a search of the Embase and MEDLINE databases using Ovid in June 2020, an analysis of 40 journal articles and conference abstracts relating to patient empowerment and decision-making in DMT selection for MS showed a preference for safety and efficacy of treatments, followed by autonomy and convenience of administration. A need for better communication between HCPs and PwMS during treatment selection to improve patient satisfaction was also identified. The open survey responses from the patient authors revealed a need for greater involvement in decision-making processes and desire for improved communication and information tools.

CONCLUSIONS: This targeted literature search and phenomenological review confirms PwMS preferences for empowered decision-making in disease management and treatment selection, to optimize independence, safety, and efficacy. It also identifies an unmet need for improved communication and information tools that convey MS information in a relatable manner. Furthermore, this review seeks to address this unmet need by providing plain language figures and descriptions of MS immune mechanisms that can be used to facilitate discussions between HCPs and PwMS.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Al-Kuraishy HM, Al-Gareeb AI, El-Bouseary MM, et al (2022)

Hyperviscosity syndrome in COVID-19 and related vaccines: exploring of uncertainties.

Clinical and experimental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) recently emerged as a complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and COVID-19 vaccines. Therefore, the objectives of this critical review are to establish the association between COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines with the development of HVS. HVS may develop in various viral infections due to impairment of humoral and cellular immunity with elevation of immunoglobulins. COVID-19 can increase blood viscosity (BV) through modulation of fibrinogen, albumin, lipoproteins, and red blood cell (RBC) indices. HVS can cause cardiovascular and neurological complications in COVID-19 like myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. HVS with or without abnormal RBCs function in COVID-19 participates in the reduction of tissue oxygenation with the development of cardio-metabolic complications and long COVID-19. Besides, HVS may develop in vaccine recipients with previous COVID-19 due to higher underlying Ig concentrations and rarely without previous COVID-19. Similarly, patients with metabolic syndrome are at the highest risk for propagation of HVS after COVID-19 vaccination. In conclusion, COVID-19 and related vaccines are linked with the development of HVS, mainly in patients with previous COVID-19 and underlying metabolic derangements. The possible mechanism of HVS in COVID-19 and related vaccines is increasing levels of fibrinogen and immunoglobulins. However, dehydration, oxidative stress, and inflammatory reactions are regarded as additional contributing factors in the pathogenesis of HVS in COVID-19. However, this critical review cannot determine the final causal relationship between COVID-19 and related vaccines and the development of HVS. Prospective and retrospective studies are warranted in this field.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Sezer A, Halilović-Alihodžić M, Vanwieren AR, et al (2022)

A review on drug repurposing in COVID-19: from antiviral drugs to herbal alternatives.

Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, 20(1):78.

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is an illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Due to its rapid spread, in March 2020 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared pandemic. Since the outbreak of pandemic many governments, scientists, and institutions started to work on new vaccines and finding of new and repurposing drugs. Drug repurposing is an excellent option for discovery of already used drugs, effective against COVID-19, lowering the cost of production, and shortening the period of delivery, especially when preclinical safety studies have already been performed. There are many approved drugs that showed significant results against COVID-19, like ivermectin and hydrochloroquine, including alternative treatment options against COVID-19, utilizing herbal medicine.

SHORT CONCLUSION: This article summarized 11 repurposing drugs, their positive and negative health implications, along with traditional herbal alternatives, that harvest strong potential in efficient treatments options against COVID-19, with small or no significant side effects. Out of 11 repurposing drugs, four drugs are in status of emergency approval, most of them being in phase IV clinical trials. The first repurposing drug approved for clinical usage is remdesivir, whereas chloroquine and hydrochloroquine approval for emergency use was revoked by FDA for COVID-19 treatment in June 2020.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Huang Y, Jiang L, Liu Y, et al (2022)

Long non-coding RNAs in virus-related cancers.

Reviews in medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

Some viral infections lead to tumourigenesis explained by a variety of underlying molecular mechanisms. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have the potential to be added to this list due to their diverse mechanisms in biological functions and disease processes via gene alternation, transcriptional regulation, protein modification, microRNA sponging and interaction with RNA/DNA/proteins. In this review, we summarise the dysregulation and mechanism of lncRNAs in virus-related cancers focussing on Hepatitis B virus, Epstein-Barr virus, Human Papillomavirus. We will also discuss the potential implications of lncRNAs in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Tyrväinen O, H Karjaluoto (2022)

Online grocery shopping before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A meta-analytical review.

Telematics and informatics, 71:101839.

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced people to limit their physical interactions, which has led to explosive growth in online grocery shopping. However, there is no clear consensus in the retailing literature on whether consumers prefer to buy groceries online. The objective of this current study is to synthesize research about online grocery shopping published before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and to develop a conceptual framework about online grocery purchase intentions and their determinants, the mediation effects of consumers' attitudes, the moderating effects of COVID-19, and control variables. The meta-analysis presents data derived from 50 independent samples with a sample size of 20,538 respondents. Selected determinants were identified as triggers for online grocery purchase intentions, and perceived usefulness and consumer attitude were identified as important mediators between determinants and intentions. The findings clarify the mechanisms behind the increase in online grocery shopping during the pandemic by presenting a decrease in the importance of its strongest determinants (i.e., perceived usefulness and attitude). Based on these findings, we present contributions to theory, managerial implications, and future research directions.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Satnarine T, CM Lee Kin (2022)

A Review of Virtual Medical Student Rotations During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Their Role, Advantages, Disadvantages, and Future Prospects.

Cureus, 14(4):e24280.

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the pause of medical clinical rotations. As a result, virtual rotations were implemented. These are a form of remote learning that seeks to mimic the clinical learning environment that students were already accustomed to. This article seeks to review the published literature to explore which specialties adapted this format, what are the advantages and disadvantages observed, determine what were the responsibilities and involvements of students participating in these rotations, how well these rotations substituted for in-person rotations, and to evaluate if there is a continued role for them after, outside of COVID-19. Virtual rotations have been developed in almost every specialty. These rotations have been developed from small centers to large universities, and are widespread throughout the United States, and in other countries as well. These rotations are targeted toward medical students, medical residents, and physician assistants and range in length from one to four weeks. Responsibilities and scope of interaction varied according to rotation; some rotations allowed patient interaction, and observation of procedures and surgeries, whereas some were purely didactic. A mixture of inpatient and outpatient involvements was seen. Advantages included saving money and time, more flexibility, increased diversity, and participation of international medical graduates. Virtual rotations participants have been invited for interviews at the participating institution's residency programs and have matched there. Disadvantages included lack of assessment of practical skills, inability to receive credit, and inability to obtain a letter of recommendation. Virtual rotations have proven to be a good substitute for in-person rotations, with most medical students seeing a need for the rotations in the future. Due to widespread development and acceptance of these rotations, it is likely that these rotations will continue.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Federico M (2022)

Biological and Immune Responses to Current Anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccines beyond Anti-Spike Antibody Production.

Journal of immunology research, 2022:4028577.

Several vaccine strategies are now available to fight the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Those based on the administration of lipid-complexed messenger(m)RNA molecules represent the last frontiers in terms of technology innovation. mRNA molecules coding for the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein are intramuscularly injected, thereby entering cells by virtue of their encapsulation into synthetic lipid nanovesicles. mRNA-targeted cells express the Spike protein on their plasma membrane in a way that it can be sensed by the immune system, which reacts generating anti-Spike antibodies. Although this class of vaccines appears as the most effective against SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease, their safety and efficiency are challenged by several factors included, but not limited to the following: emergence of viral variants, lack of adequate pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics studies, inability to protect oral mucosa from infection, and antibody waning. Emergence of viral variants can be a consequence of mass vaccination carried out in a pandemic time using suboptimal vaccines against an RNA virus. On the other hand, understanding the remainder flaws could be of some help in designing next generation anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. In this commentary, issues regarding the fate of injected mRNA, the tissue distribution of the induced antiviral antibodies, and the generation of memory B cells are discussed. Careful evaluation of both experimental and clinical observations on these key aspects should be taken into account before planning booster administration, vaccination to non-at-risk population, and social restrictions.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

ElSawi HA, A Elborollosy (2022)

Immune-mediated adverse events post-COVID vaccination and types of vaccines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

The Egyptian journal of internal medicine, 34(1):44.

Background: In late 2019, Coronavirus disease 2019 has been declared as a global emergency by World Health Organization. Hopefully, recent reports of effective and safe vaccines were welcomed, and approved on emergency base. Millions of recipients had received one of the approved COVID 19 vaccines, with lots of adverse events recorded global wide.

Objective: To assess post-COVID vaccination immune-mediated adverse events and evaluate its association to specific type of vaccine global wide.

Methods: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis of published reports (since December 2020 till December 2021) on immune-mediated adverse events post-COVID vaccination.

Results: We evaluated 34 published studies; 460 cases with various adverse events post-COVID vaccination. Studies in current literature are primarily retrospective case series, isolated case reports or narrative studies. Different COVID vaccines were involved. Results' data was subcategorized according to associated vaccine. Adverse effects of COVID-19 vaccinations included thrombotic, neurological, myocarditis, ocular, dermatological, renal, hematological events timely linked to inoculation. Each vaccine type was linked to adverse profile that differ from others.

Conclusion: High suspicion of post-vaccination adverse events is mandatory to provoke earlier detection, better understanding, optimum prevention, and management. Specific vaccine/patient risk profile is needed to selectively categorize target population to reduce morbidity and mortality post-vaccination.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Hellwig S, K Domschke (2022)

[Post-COVID syndrome-Focus fatigue].

Der Nervenarzt [Epub ahead of print].

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines post-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a condition which occurs in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection 3 months after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms, lasts for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Core symptoms of post-COVID syndrome are fatigue, dyspnea and cognitive dysfunction, which have an impact on everyday functional level. Neuropsychiatric late sequelae are common in COVID-19 patients, with incidence rates over 30%. Beside the abovementioned core symptoms, sleep disorders, depression and anxiety show increased incidences. According to current opinion, associated neuropsychiatric symptoms are subsumed under the term post-COVID syndrome but are also interpreted as comorbidities, which can promote the manifestation of a post-COVID syndrome. The key symptom fatigue shows symptom overlapping and comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. Imaging studies indicate an organic correlate of fatigue in post-COVID patients. Furthermore, psychosocial aspects and psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression and anxiety disorders as modulating and therefore potentially treatable factors were identified. Treatment of fatigue consists of pharmacological management with stimulants and antidepressants as well as nonpharmacological strategies, most notably cognitive behavioral therapy and exercise-focused interventions. The evidence for this comes from meta-analyses of tumor-associated or post-viral fatigue.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Jt S, M H, Wam B, et al (2022)

Adenoviral vectors for cardiovascular gene therapy applications: a clinical and industry perspective.

Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the development of novel pharmacological treatments, cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality remain high indicating an unmet clinical need. Viral gene therapy enables targeted delivery of therapeutic transgenes and represents an attractive platform for tackling acquired and inherited cardiovascular diseases in the future. Current cardiovascular gene therapy trials in humans mainly focus on improving cardiac angiogenesis and function. Encouragingly, local delivery of therapeutic transgenes utilising first-generation human adenovirus serotype (HAd)-5 is safe in the short term and has shown some efficacy in drug refractory angina pectoris and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Despite this success, systemic delivery of therapeutic HAd-5 vectors targeting cardiovascular tissues and internal organs is limited by negligible gene transfer to target cells, elimination by the immune system, liver sequestration, off-target effects, and episomal degradation. To circumvent these barriers, cardiovascular gene therapy research has focused on determining the safety and efficacy of rare alternative serotypes and/or genetically engineered adenoviral capsid protein-modified vectors following local or systemic delivery. Pre-clinical studies have identified several vectors including HAd-11, HAd-35, and HAd-20-42-42 as promising platforms for local and systemic targeting of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In the past, clinical gene therapy trials were often restricted by limited scale-up capabilities of gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs) and lack of regulatory guidance. However, significant improvement of industrial GTMP scale-up and purification, development of novel producer cell lines, and issuing of GTMP regulatory guidance by national regulatory health agencies have addressed many of these challenges, creating a more robust framework for future adenoviral-based cardiovascular gene therapy. In addition, this has enabled the mass roll out of adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines. KEY MESSAGES: First-generation HAd-5 vectors are widely used in cardiovascular gene therapy. HAd-5-based gene therapy was shown to lead to cardiac angiogenesis and improved function. Novel HAd vectors may represent promising transgene carriers for systemic delivery. Novel methods allow industrial scale-up of rare/genetically altered Ad serotypes. National regulatory health agencies have issued guidance on GMP for GTMPs.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Mabrouk DM (2022)

Antimicrobial peptides: features, applications and the potential use against covid-19.

Molecular biology reports [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a diverse class of molecules that represent a vital part of innate immunity. AMPs are evolutionarily conserved molecules that exhibit structural and functional diversity. They provide a possible solution to the antibiotic-resistance crisis.

MAIN TEXT: These small cationic peptides can target bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as cancer cells. Their unique action mechanisms, rare antibiotic-resistant variants, broad-spectrum activity, low toxicity, and high specificity encourage pharmaceutical industries to conduct clinical trials to develop them as therapeutic drugs. The rapid development of computer-assisted strategies accelerated the identification of AMPs. The Antimicrobial Peptide Database (APD) so far contains 3324 AMPs from different sources. In addition to their applications in different fields, some AMPs demonstrated the potential to combat COVID-19, and hinder viral infectivity in diverse ways.

CONCLUSIONS: This review provides a brief history of AMPs and their features, including classification, evolution, sources and mechanisms of action, biosynthesis pathway, and identification techniques. Furthermore, their different applications, challenges to clinical applications, and their potential use against COVID-19 are presented.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Ghotbi T, Salami J, Kalteh EA, et al (2021)

Self-management of patients with chronic diseases during COVID19: a narrative review.

Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene, 62(4):E814-E821.

Introduction: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the self-management of patients with chronic disease all over the world. The present study COVID-19 is a review to investigate the chronic patient self-management challenges during the corona epidemic, and providing solutions to solve this problem.

Methods: The relevant literature on chronic patient self-management is investigated (from March 2019 to Jan 2021). Databases including Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer were used to search articles from the Latin articles. Also, keywords in this study included self-management, chronic disease, COVID-19. Finally, 26 relevant articles were used in this study.

Results: Studies assessed the effective role of self-management in control and prevention of complications of chronic diseases and the challenges related to self-management programs during COVID-19, in addition the role of the health team in patients' self-management during the corona epidemics.

Conclusion: the main challenges for chronic patients during the COVID-19 include decreased healthcare service and regular follow-ups because of physical restrictions; economic problems, change in lifestyle, and lack of rapid compliance with the changes. In this regard, the health team should provide the best healthcare services using the available resources to reduce suffer and pain of the patients.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Floridia M, Giuliano M, Monaco M, et al (2022)

Microbiologically confirmed infections and antibiotic-resistance in a national surveillance study of hospitalised patients who died with COVID-19, Italy 2020-2021.

Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 11(1):74.

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalised for COVID-19 may present with or acquire bacterial or fungal infections that can affect the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to describe the microbiological characteristics of laboratory-confirmed infections in hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19.

METHODS: We reviewed the hospital charts of a sample of patients deceased with COVID-19 from the Italian National COVID-19 Surveillance, who had laboratory-confirmed bacterial or fungal bloodstream infections (BSI) or lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), evaluating the pathogens responsible for the infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility.

RESULTS: Among 157 patients with infections hospitalised from February 2020 to April 2021, 28 (17.8%) had co-infections (≤ 48 h from admission) and 138 (87.9%) had secondary infections (> 48 h). Most infections were bacterial; LRTI were more frequent than BSI. The most common co-infection was pneumococcal LRTI. In secondary infections, Enterococci were the most frequently recovered pathogens in BSI (21.7% of patients), followed by Enterobacterales, mainly K. pneumoniae, while LRTI were mostly associated with Gram-negative bacteria, firstly Enterobacterales (27.4% of patients, K. pneumoniae 15.3%), followed by A. baumannii (19.1%). Fungal infections, both BSI and LRTI, were mostly due to C. albicans. Antibiotic resistance rates were extremely high in Gram-negative bacteria, with almost all A. baumannii isolates resistant to carbapenems (95.5%), and K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa showing carbapenem resistance rates of 59.5% and 34.6%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalised patients with severe COVID-19, secondary infections are considerably more common than co-infections, and are mostly due to Gram-negative bacterial pathogens showing a very high rate of antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Healey Q, Sheikh A, Daines L, et al (2022)

Symptoms and signs of long COVID: A rapid review and meta-analysis.

Journal of global health, 12:05014.

Background: Long COVID is defined as symptoms and signs related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that are present at least four weeks following acute infection. These symptoms and signs are poorly characterised but may be associated with significant morbidity. We sought to synthesise the evidence on their incidence to guide future research, policy and practice.

Methods: We searched Medline and Embase for longitudinal cohort studies from January 2020 to July 2021 that investigated adults with long COVID at least four weeks after acute infection. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist for cohort studies. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed with subgroup analysis by follow-up time (4-12 vs more than 12 weeks).

Results: 19 studies were included, 13 of which included patients hospitalised with COVID-19. The total sample size was 10 643 and the follow-up time ranged from 30 to 340 days. Risk of bias was assessed as high in one study, moderate in two studies and low in the remaining 16 studies. The most common symptoms and signs seen at any time point in long COVID were fatigue (37%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 23-55), dyspnoea (21%; 95% CI = 14-30), olfactory dysfunction (17%; 95% CI = 9-29), myalgia (12%; 95% CI = 5-25), cough (11%; 95% CI = 6-20) and gustatory dysfunction (10%; 95% CI = 7-17). High heterogeneity was seen for all meta-analyses and the presence of some funnel plot asymmetry may indicate reporting bias. No effect of follow-up time was found for any symptom or sign included in the subgroup analysis.

Conclusions: We have summarised evidence from longitudinal cohort studies on the most common symptoms and signs associated with long COVID. High heterogeneity seen in the meta-analysis means pooled incidence estimates should be interpreted with caution. This heterogeneity may be attributable to studies including patients from different health care settings and countries.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Kim H, Hughes E, Cavanagh A, et al (2022)

The health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults who experience imprisonment globally: A mixed methods systematic review.

PloS one, 17(5):e0268866.

BACKGROUND: The prison setting and health status of people who experience imprisonment increase the risks of COVID-19 infection and sequelae, and other health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

OBJECTIVES: To conduct a mixed methods systematic review on the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health of people who experience imprisonment.

DATA SOURCES: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Social Sciences Abstracts, CINAHL, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Sociology Database, Coronavirus Research Database, ERIC, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, Web of Science, and Scopus in October 2021. We reviewed reference lists for included studies.

STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Original research conducted in or after December 2019 on health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults in prisons or within three months of release.

We used the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist for Qualitative Research for qualitative studies and the Joanna Briggs Institute's Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data for quantitative studies. We qualitized quantitative data and extracted qualitative data, coded data, and collated similar data into categories.

RESULTS: We identified 62 studies. People in prisons had disproportionately high rates of COVID-19 infection and COVID-19 mortality. During the pandemic, all-cause mortality worsened, access to health care and other services worsened, and there were major impacts on mental wellbeing and on relationships with family and staff. There was limited evidence regarding key primary and secondary prevention strategies.

LIMITATIONS: Our search was limited to databases. As the COVID-19 pandemic is ongoing, more evidence will emerge.

CONCLUSIONS: Prisons and people who experience imprisonment should be prioritized for COVID-19 response and recovery efforts, and an explicit focus on prisons is needed for ongoing public health work including emergency preparedness.

PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: 239324.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Huang X, Zhang R, Li X, et al (2022)

Health-Based Geographic Information Systems for Mapping and Risk Modeling of Infectious Diseases and COVID-19 to Support Spatial Decision-Making.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1368:167-188.

Infectious diseases remain an essential global challenge in public health. For instance, novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has resulted in significant negative impacts on public health, infecting more than 214 million people and causing 4.47 million deaths worldwide as of August 2021. Geographic Information Systems have played an essential role in managing, storing, analyzing, and mapping disease and related risk information. This article provides an overview of a broad topic on applications of GIS into infectious disease research. Our review follows the framework of human-environment interactions, focusing on the environmental and social factors that cause the disease outbreak and the role of humans in disease control, including public health policies and interventions such as social distancing/face covering practice and mobility modeling. The work identifies key spatial decision-making issues where GIS becomes valued in the agenda for infectious disease research and highlights the importance of adopting science-based policies to protect the public during the current and future pandemics.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Gadermann A, Thomson K, Gill R, et al (2022)

Early Adolescents' Experiences During the COVID-19 Pandemic and Changes in Their Well-Being.

Frontiers in public health, 10:823303.

Background: Early adolescence is a time of psychological and social change that can coincide with declines in mental health and well-being. This study investigated the psychological and social impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of students who responded to a survey in Grades 7 and 8 (ages 12-14) in British Columbia (BC), Canada. The objectives of this study were (i) to provide an overview on early adolescents' experiences and social-emotional well-being during the pandemic; and (ii) to examine whether changes in social experiences as well as feeling safe from getting COVID-19 at school were associated with changes in well-being outcomes over the course of a year.

Methods: A sample of n = 1,755 students from a large public school district self-reported on their life satisfaction, optimism, and symptoms of sadness across two time points: First, in their Grade 7 year (pre-pandemic; January to March, 2020) and then 1 year later in their Grade 8 year (during the pandemic; January to March, 2021). In Grade 8, students also reported on pandemic-specific experiences, including changes in mental health, social relationships, and activities, as well as coping strategies and positive changes since the pandemic. Data were collected online using the Middle Years Development Instrument (MDI), a population-based self-report tool that assesses children's social-emotional development and well-being in the context of their home, school, and neighborhood. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to examine associations between pandemic-related changes in relationships and perceived safety from getting COVID-19 at school with changes in well-being outcomes.

Results: Students reported a range of experiences, with a large proportion reporting moderate concerns and impacts of the pandemic, including worries about their mental health and missing school activities. Students reported significantly lower optimism, lower life satisfaction, and higher sadness compared to the previous year. Within the sample, improvements in relationships with parents and other adults at home was associated with higher well-being during the pandemic.

Implications: Results from this study can inform decision making of policy-makers, educators, and practitioners working with youth, by providing information on students' experiences during the pandemic and identifying factors that may be protective for students' mental health during and beyond the pandemic.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Ferrari E, Gargani L, Barbieri G, et al (2022)

A causal learning framework for the analysis and interpretation of COVID-19 clinical data.

PloS one, 17(5):e0268327.

We present a workflow for clinical data analysis that relies on Bayesian Structure Learning (BSL), an unsupervised learning approach, robust to noise and biases, that allows to incorporate prior medical knowledge into the learning process and that provides explainable results in the form of a graph showing the causal connections among the analyzed features. The workflow consists in a multi-step approach that goes from identifying the main causes of patient's outcome through BSL, to the realization of a tool suitable for clinical practice, based on a Binary Decision Tree (BDT), to recognize patients at high-risk with information available already at hospital admission time. We evaluate our approach on a feature-rich dataset of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), showing that the proposed framework provides a schematic overview of the multi-factorial processes that jointly contribute to the outcome. We compare our findings with current literature on COVID-19, showing that this approach allows to re-discover established cause-effect relationships about the disease. Further, our approach yields to a highly interpretable tool correctly predicting the outcome of 85% of subjects based exclusively on 3 features: age, a previous history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio at the time of arrival to the hospital. The inclusion of additional information from 4 routine blood tests (Creatinine, Glucose, pO2 and Sodium) increases predictive accuracy to 94.5%.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Lotan I, Lydston M, M Levy (2022)

Neuro-Ophthalmological Complications of the COVID-19 Vaccines: A Systematic Review.

Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society, 42(2):154-162.

BACKGROUND: A worldwide mass vaccination campaign against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently underway. Although the safety data of the clinical trials did not report specific concerns regarding neuro-ophthalmological adverse events, they involved a limited number of individuals and were conducted over a relatively short time. The aim of the current review is to summarize the available postmarketing data regarding the occurrence of neuro-ophthalmological and other ocular complications of the COVID-19 vaccines.

EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Electronic searches for published literature were conducted using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov. The search strategy incorporated controlled vocabulary and free-text synonyms for the concepts of COVID, vaccines, and visual and neuro-ophthalmologic diseases and symptoms.

RESULTS: A total of 14 case reports and 2 case series have been selected for inclusion in the final report, reporting 76 cases of post-COVID-vaccination adverse events. The most common adverse event was optic neuritis (n = 61), followed by uveitis (n = 3), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (n = 2), acute macular neuroretinopathy (n = 2), optic disc edema as an atypical presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1), (arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; n = 1), abducens nerve palsy (n = 1), oculomotor nerve palsy (n = 1), Tolosa-Hunt syndrome (n = 1), central serous retinopathy (n = 1), acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (n = 1), and bilateral choroiditis (n = 1). Most cases were treated with high-dose steroids and had a favorable clinical outcome.

CONCLUSION: Since the implementation of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in the past year, several post-COVID-vaccination neuro-ophthalmological complications have been described. However, considering the number of individuals that have been exposed to the vaccines, the risk seems very low, and the clinical outcome in most cases is favorable. Therefore, on a population level, the benefits of the vaccines far outweigh the risk of neuro-ophthalmological complications.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Kim D, Han S, Ji Y, et al (2022)

Multimeric RNAs for efficient RNA-based therapeutics and vaccines.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 345:770-785.

There has been a growing interest in RNA therapeutics globally, and much progress has been made in this area, which has been further accelerated by the clinical applications of RNA-based vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Following these successful clinical trials, various technologies have been developed to improve the efficacy of RNA-based drugs. Multimerization of RNA therapeutics is one of the most attractive approaches to ensure high stability, high efficacy, and prolonged action of RNA-based drugs. In this review, we offer an overview of the representative approaches for generating repetitive functional RNAs by chemical conjugation, structural self-assembly, enzymatic elongation, and self-amplification. The therapeutic and vaccine applications of engineered multimeric RNAs in various diseases have also been summarized. By outlining the current status of multimeric RNAs, the potential of multimeric RNA as a promising treatment strategy is highlighted.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Shi J, Huang MW, Lu ZD, et al (2022)

Delivery of mRNA for regulating functions of immune cells.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 345:494-511.

Abnormal immune cell functions are commonly related to various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infectious diseases. Messenger RNA (mRNA)-based therapy can regulate the functions of immune cells or assign new functions to immune cells, thereby generating therapeutic immune responses to treat these diseases. However, mRNA is unstable in physiological environments and can hardly enter the cytoplasm of target cells; thus, effective mRNA delivery systems are critical for developing mRNA therapy. The two mRNA vaccines of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna have demonstrated that lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) can deliver mRNA into dendritic cells (DCs) to induce immunization against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which opened the floodgates to the development of mRNA therapy. Apart from DCs, other immune cells are promising targets for mRNA therapy. This review summarized the barriers to mRNA delivery and advances in mRNA delivery for regulating the functions of different immune cells.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Vitte J, Gonzalez C, Klingebiel C, et al (2022)

Tryptase and anaphylaxis: The case for systematic paired samples in all settings, from the playground to the COVID-19 vaccination center.

Revue francaise d'allergologie (2009), 62(3):287-288.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Nwokolo OO, Coombs AAT, Eltzschig HK, et al (2022)

Diversity and Inclusion in Anesthesiology.

Anesthesia and analgesia, 134(6):1166-1174.

In today's world, departments of anesthesiology and professional organizations are rightfully expected to have racial, ethnic, and gender diversity. Diversity and inclusiveness are considered important contributors to an effective and collaborative work environment by promoting excellence in patient care, education, and research. This has been re-emphasized in the racial reckoning in the summer of 2020, and the ongoing health care disparities manifested by the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Moreover, the negative consequences of a lack of diversity and inclusion in health care have been shown to impact recruitment, retention, and the economic well-being of academic departments. In the present article, we review the current state of diversity in anesthesiology departments and professional organizations in the United States. We discuss strategies and important approaches to further enhance diversity to promote an inclusive perioperative work environment.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Spigaglia P (2022)

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Anaerobe, 74:102518.

The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically tested healthcare systems around the world, with serious repercussions on the measures of prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Among HAIs, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) represents one of the most important global public health threats. Although the full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on CDI remains undetermined, depending on the development of the pandemic in the coming months, in this review literature studies of the last three years have been considered in order to depict the current situation, and make some considerations about possible future developments. If on the one hand, a general reduction in CDI incidence has been reported in several settings, mainly due to the extraordinary reinforcement of infection prevention measures, on the other hand, the critical circumstances experienced in many hospitals have limited the effectiveness of these measures, particularly in the intensive care units (ICUs), increasing the possibility of the occurrence of hospital-acquired CDI (HA-CDI). New concerns have arisen from the decrease in C. difficile testing and the increased use of broad-spectrum antibiotics reported during the pandemic. In particular, overuse of antibiotics and disinfectants may lead to a selection of resistant C. difficile strains not only in hospitals but also in the community. Furthermore, patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and patients that have survived COVID-19 may represent a new group of frail patients potentially at a higher risk of CDI, a group that could potentially increase in size due to SARS-CoV-2 evolution. In the dramatic COVID-19 era, the multifactorial nature of CDI has emerged more clearly than before, highlighting the necessity of a strong refocus on efforts to improve prevention strategies and to integrate CDI surveillance in a One Health prospective in order to curtail the public health threat posed by this infection in the next future.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Grishina A, Link F, Arend A, et al (2022)

A survey among physicians in surgery and anesthesiology departments after the first surge of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Germany : Preparing for further challenges ahead.

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift, 134(9-10):361-370.

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV‑2 pandemic has extensively challenged healthcare systems all over the world. Many elective operations were postponed or cancelled, changing priorities and workflows in surgery departments.

AIMS: The primary aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the workload and psychosocial burden of surgeons and anesthesiologists, working in German hospitals during the first wave of SARS-CoV‑2 infections in 2020.

METHODS: Quantitative online survey on the workplace situation including psychosocial and work-related stress factors among resident and board-certified surgeons and anesthesiologists. Physicians in German hospitals across all levels of healthcare were contacted via departments, professional associations and social media posts.

RESULTS: Among 154 total study participants, 54% of respondents stated a lack of personal protective equipment in their own wards and 56% reported increased staff shortages since the onset of the pandemic. While routine practice was reported as fully resumed in 71% of surgery departments at the time of the survey, work-related dissatisfaction among responding surgeons and anesthesiologists increased from 24% before the pandemic to 36% after the first wave of infections. As a countermeasure, 94% of participants deemed the establishment of action plans to increase pandemic preparedness and strengthening German public health systems a useful measure to respond to current challenges.

CONCLUSION: The aftermath of the first wave of SARS-CoV‑2 infections in Germany has left the surgical staff strained, despite temporarily decreased workloads. Overall, a critical review of the altered conditions is indispensable to identify and promote effective solutions and prudent action plans required to address imminent challenges.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Spiliopoulou A, Kolonitsiou F, Vrioni G, et al (2022)

Invasive Candida kefyr infection presenting as pyelonephritis in an ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patient: Case report and review of the literature.

Journal de mycologie medicale, 32(2):101236.

Candida kefyr (Kluyveromyces marxianus), an ascomycetous environmental yeast, occasionally isolated from dairy products, represents an uncommon but emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Herein, we present a case of C. kefyr pyelonephritis in a 41-year-old, previously immunocompetent, patient who was hospitalized in an COVID-19 ICU. Pyelonephritis was associated with caliectasis and obstruction due to possible fungus ball formation. Predisposing factors included ICU stay, use of broad spectrum antibiotics and steroids, central venous catheterization, mechanical ventilation and urologic manipulation. Susceptibility testing revealed high MIC values to amphotericin B. Infection was effectively controlled by prolonged administration of fluconazole without further surgical intervention. COVID-19 complicated with invasive candidiasis is an increasingly observed clinical situation that warrants high suspicion index and careful evaluation of laboratory data.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Arjmand B, Alavi-Moghadam S, Parhizkar-Roudsari P, et al (2022)

Metabolomics Signatures of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1376:45-59.

For a very long time, viral infections have been considered as one of the most important causes of death and disability around the world. Through the viral infection, viruses as small pathogens enter the host cells and use hosts' biosynthesis machinery to replicate and collect infectious lineages. Moreover, they can modify hosts' metabolic pathways in order to their own purposes. Nowadays (in 2019-2020), the most famous type of viral infection which was caused by a novel type of coronavirus is called COVID-19 disease. It has claimed the lives of many people around the world and is a very serious threat to health. Since investigations of the effects of viruses on host metabolism using metabolomics tools may have given focuses on novel appropriate treatments, in the current review the authors highlighted the virus-host metabolic interactions and metabolomics perspective in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Groppa SA, Ciolac D, Duarte C, et al (2022)

Molecular Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Pathogenicity on the Central Nervous System: Bridging Experimental Probes to Clinical Evidence and Therapeutic Interventions.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1376:1-27.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has dramatically impacted the global healthcare systems, constantly challenging both research and clinical practice. Although it was initially believed that the SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited merely to the respiratory system, emerging evidence indicates that COVID-19 affects multiple other systems including the central nervous system (CNS). Furthermore, most of the published clinical studies indicate that the confirmed CNS inflammatory manifestations in COVID-19 patients are meningitis, encephalitis, acute necrotizing encephalopathy, acute transverse myelitis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In addition, the neuroinflammation along with accelerated neurosenescence and susceptible genetic signatures in COVID-19 patients might prime the CNS to neurodegeneration and precipitate the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Thus, this review provides a critical evaluation and interpretive analysis of existing published preclinical as well as clinical studies on the key molecular mechanisms modulating neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration induced by the SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the essential age- and gender-dependent impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the CNS of COVID-19 patients are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-05-23
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Zanza C, Romenskaya T, Thangathurai D, et al (2022)

Microbiome in Critical Care: An Unconventional and Unknown Ally.

Current medicinal chemistry, 29(18):3179-3188.

BACKGROUND: The digestive tract represents an interface between the external environment and the body where the interaction of a complex polymicrobial ecology has an important influence on health and disease. The physiological mechanisms that are altered during hospitalization and in the intensive care unit (ICU) contribute to the pathobiota's growth. Intestinal dysbiosis occurs within hours of being admitted to ICU. This may be due to different factors, such as alterations of normal intestinal transit, administration of various medications, or alterations in the intestinal wall, which causes a cascade of events that will lead to the increase of nitrates and decrease of oxygen concentration, and the liberation of free radicals.

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to report the latest updates on the microbiota's contribution to developing sepsis in patients in the ICU department. In this short review, the latest scientific findings on the mechanisms of intestinal immune defenses performed both locally and systemically have been reviewed. Additionally, we considered it necessary to review the literature on the basis of the many studies carried out on the microbiota in the critically ill as a prevention to the spread of the infection in these patients.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review has been written to answer four main questions: 1- What are the main intestinal flora's defense mechanisms that help us to prevent the risk of developing systemic diseases? 2- What are the main Systemic Abnormalities of Dysbiosis? 3- What are the Modern Strategies Used in ICU to Prevent the Infection Spreading? 4- What is the Relationship between COVID-19 and Microbiota? We reviewed 72 articles using the combination of following keywords: "microbiota" and "microbiota" and "intensive care", "intensive care" and "gut", "critical illness", "microbiota" and "critical care", "microbiota" and "sepsis", "microbiota" and "infection", and "gastrointestinal immunity" in: Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Library, Medline and Pubmed, Google Scholar, Ovid/Wiley. Moreover, we also consulted the site ClinicalTrials.com to find out studies that have been recently conducted or are currently ongoing.

RESULTS: The critical illness can alter intestinal bacterial flora leading to homeostasis disequilibrium. Despite numerous mechanisms, such as epithelial cells with calciform cells that together build a mechanical barrier for pathogenic bacteria, the presence of mucous associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) which stimulates an immune response through the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and THN-a or or from the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines produced by lymphocytes Thelper 2. But these defenses can be altered following hospitalization in ICU and lead to serious complications, such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), health care associated pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP), systemic infection and multiple organ failure (MOF), but also to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). In addition, the microbiota has a significant impact on the development of intestinal complications and the severity of the SARS-COVID-19 patients.

CONCLUSION: The microbiota is recognized as one of the important factors that can worsen the clinical conditions of patients who are already very frail in the intensive care unit. At the same time, the microbiota also plays a crucial role in the prevention of ICU-associated complications. By using the resources that are available, such as probiotics, synbiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), we can preserve the integrity of the microbiota and the GUT, which will later help maintain homeostasis in ICU patients.

RevDate: 2022-05-23
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Damasceno DHP, Amaral AA, Silva CA, et al (2022)

The Impact of Vaccination Worldwide on SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Review on Vaccine Mechanisms, Results of Clinical Trials, Vaccinal Coverage and Interactions with Novel Variants.

Current medicinal chemistry, 29(15):2673-2690.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic demanded a global effort towards quickly developing safe and effective vaccines against SARS-CoV-2.

OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to discuss the main vaccines available, their mechanisms of action, results of clinical trials, and epidemiological behavior. The implications of viral variants were also debated.

METHODS: A non-systematic literature review was performed between February and March 2021 by searching the Pubmed, Scopus, and SciELO databases, using different combinations of the following terms: "vaccines", "clinical trials" , "SARS-CoV-2", "Coronavirus", "COVID-19", "mechanisms of action". Data regarding clinical trials of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and epidemiological information were also searched.

RESULTS: The mechanisms of action included vector-virus, mRNA and inactivated virus vaccines. The vaccines showed positive results in phases 2/3 clinical trials. The efficacy of the mRNA 1273 and of mRNA BNT 162b2 vaccines were 94.1% and 95%, respectively. The effectiveness of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine varied according to the scheme, with an overall value of 70.4%. The Gam-COVID-Vac vaccine had an efficacy of 91.6%. Regarding the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine, 99% or more of seroconversion was observed in all subgroups 29 days after vaccination. The CoronaVac vaccine induced an immune response in 92% of the volunteers receiving 3ug and in 98% with 6ug, in comparison to 3% in the placebo group.

CONCLUSION: Global efforts have resulted in vaccines being available in record time, with good safety and immunogenicity profile. However, only long-term studies can provide more information on the duration of immunity and the need for additional doses.

RevDate: 2022-05-23
CmpDate: 2022-05-23

Kushkestani M, Parvani M, Y Kazemzadeh (2022)

SARS-COV-2 in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: Possible Roles of Exercise Training as a Medicine.

Current diabetes reviews, 18(7):1-7.

SARS-COV-2 is the novel type of beta coronavirus that was first evolved in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. People with type 2 diabetes are the most vulnerable group to SARS-COV-2 and its associated complications. Many factors such as medication, pathophysiologic-induced compensatory mechanisms, and alterations in protein expression and immune system function can all contribute to severe outcomes in diabetics. In this review article, we first described the possible mechanisms of increased risk and more severe complications rate of SARS-COV-2 in diabetic patients. Secondly, we discussed the crucial role of exercise in diabetic patients in balancing the RAS system (ACE2/ACE). Finally, we examine the possible roles of acute and chronic exercise in reducing SARS-COV-2 severe outcomes in people with diabetes in accordance with the latest evidence. We concluded that regular exercise (especially moderate-intensity exercise) can play a role in immune- enhancing, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities and can balance the ACE2/ACE ratio (decreasing ANG2 levels) in diabetic subjects.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-05-19

Singh MP, Rai SN, Dubey SK, et al (2022)

Biomolecules of mushroom: a recipe of human wellness.

Critical reviews in biotechnology, 42(6):913-930.

The Indian system of medicine - Ayurveda says "When diet is wrong, medicine is of no use. When diet is correct, medicine is of no use". In this context, mushroom constitutes one of the major resources for nutraceuticals. Biomolecules of mushrooms have attracted the attention of researchers around the globe due to their proven healthy attributes. They have a plenitude of health-giving properties and these range from immunomodulatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, anticancer, anti-HIV, antidiabetic, anticholesterolic to antiarthritic activities.Mushrooms contain both primary and secondary metabolites. The primary metabolites provide energy while the secondary metabolite exhibits medicinal properties. Hence, the mushroom can be a recipe for human wellness and will play a significant role in fighting COVID-19 pandemics and other infectious diseases.The key findings suggested in this paper refer to the exploration of health and the healing traits of biomolecules of mushrooms. This article reviews the current status of the medicinal attributes of mushrooms and their biomolecules in different diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes, reproductive diseases, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. The global malnutrition-related morbidity and mortality among children under five and lactating women presents a frightening picture and also a black spot on the human face. Malnutrition is responsible for more ill-health than any other cause. Mushrooms as a rich source of bioactive compounds can be claimed as "Best from the Waste" since they grow on the most abundant organic wastes of the Earth, the lignocellulosic substrate, and 'Best of the Rest' because they are excellent nutraceutical resources.

RevDate: 2022-05-24
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Bhavaniramya S, Ramar V, Vishnupriya S, et al (2022)

Comprehensive Analysis of SARS-COV-2 Drug Targets and Pharmacological Aspects in Treating the COVID-19.

Current molecular pharmacology, 15(2):393-417.

Corona viruses are enveloped, single-stranded RNA (Ribonucleic acid) viruses, and they cause pandemic diseases having a devastating effect on both human healthcare and the global economy. To date, six corona viruses have been identified as pathogenic organisms, which are significantly responsible for the infection and cause severe respiratory diseases. Among them, the novel SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2) caused a major outbreak of coronavirus diseases in 2019 (COVID-19). Coronaviridae family members can affect both humans and animals. In humans, coronaviruses cause a severe acute respiratory syndrome with mild to severe outcomes. Several structural and genomics aspects have been investigated, and the genome encodes about 30 proteins most of them with unknown function though they share remarkable sequence identity with other proteins. There are no potent drugs against SARS-CoV-2 and several trials are underway to investigate the possible therapeutic agents against viral infection. However, some of the antiviral drugs that have been investigated against SARS-CoV-2 are under clinical trials. In the current review, we comparatively emphasize the emergence and pathogenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 and their infection, and discuss the various putative drug targets of both viral and host receptors for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to overcome the viral outbreak.

RevDate: 2022-05-20
CmpDate: 2022-05-20

Allali S, Beddok A, Y Kirova (2022)

Is cancer a prognostic factor for severe COVID-19, especially for breast cancer patients?.

Cancer radiotherapie : journal de la Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique, 26(3):491-493.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a global upheaval in our health care system. Our hospital facilities have been subjected to a major influx of patients and the prevention of cross-contamination has been a key issue in the spread of the virus. New recommendations for good hygiene practice and new recommendations for disease management have emerged to limit the spread of the virus and reorganize the provision of care in key services. Many studies have attempted to identify factors that contribute to poor prognosis for COVID-19 infection. Among them, cancer patients, were considered more at risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19. In this article, we provide an overview of the current state of the pandemic as well as new recommendations for disease management that have emerged in oncology and radiation therapy in particular. In this article, we will try to provide some answers through a review of the literature to the question: is cancer a prognostic factor for severe COVID-19?

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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