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Bibliography on: covid-19

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 May 2024 at 01:42 Created: 


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS coronavirus 2, or SARS-CoV-2), a virus closely related to the SARS virus. The disease was discovered and named during the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak. Those affected may develop a fever, dry cough, fatigue, and shortness of breath. A sore throat, runny nose or sneezing is less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure. The infection is spread from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing. Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days, with an average of 5 days. The standard method of diagnosis is by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) from a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum sample, with results within a few hours to 2 days. Antibody assays can also be used, using a blood serum sample, with results within a few days. The infection can also be diagnosed from a combination of symptoms, risk factors and a chest CT scan showing features of pneumonia. Correct handwashing technique, maintaining distance from people who are coughing and not touching one's face with unwashed hands are measures recommended to prevent the disease. It is also recommended to cover one's nose and mouth with a tissue or a bent elbow when coughing. Those who suspect they carry the virus are recommended to wear a surgical face mask and seek medical advice by calling a doctor rather than visiting a clinic in person. Masks are also recommended for those who are taking care of someone with a suspected infection but not for the general public. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care and experimental measures. The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared the 2019-20 coronavirus outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). As of 29 February 2020, China, Hong Kong, Iran, Italy, Japan, Singapore, South Korea and the United States are areas having evidence of community transmission of the disease.

NOTE: To obtain the entire bibliography (all 45467 citations) in bibtek format (a format that can be easily loaded into many different reference-manager software programs, click HERE.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( SARS-CoV-2 OR COVID-19 OR (wuhan AND coronavirus) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Kumawat P, Agarwal LK, K Sharma (2024)

An Overview of SARS-CoV-2 Potential Targets, Inhibitors, and Computational Insights to Enrich the Promising Treatment Strategies.

Current microbiology, 81(7):169.

The rapid spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has emphasized the urgent need for effective therapies to combat COVID-19. Investigating the potential targets, inhibitors, and in silico approaches pertinent to COVID-19 are of utmost need to develop novel therapeutic agents and reprofiling of existing FDA-approved drugs. This article reviews the viral enzymes and their counter receptors involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, replication of genomic RNA, and controlling the host cell physiology. In addition, the study provides an overview of the computational techniques such as docking simulations, molecular dynamics, QSAR modeling, and homology modeling that have been used to find the FDA-approved drugs and other inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, a comprehensive overview of virus-based and host-based druggable targets from a structural point of view, together with the reported therapeutic compounds against SARS-CoV-2 have also been presented. The current study offers future perspectives for research in the field of network pharmacology investigating the large unexplored molecular libraries. Overall, the present in-depth review aims to expedite the process of identifying and repurposing drugs for researchers involved in the field of COVID-19 drug discovery.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Hu C, Bai Y, Liu J, et al (2024)

Research progress on the quality control of mRNA vaccines.

Expert review of vaccines [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The mRNA vaccine technologies have progressed rapidly in recent years. The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the application of mRNA vaccines, with research and development and clinical trials underway for many vaccines. Application of the quality by design (QbD) framework to mRNA vaccine development and establishing standardized quality control protocols for mRNA vaccines are essential for the continued development of high-quality mRNA vaccines.

AREAS COVERED: mRNA vaccines include linear mRNA, self-amplifying mRNA, and circular RNA vaccines. This article summarizes the progress of research on quality control of these three types of vaccines and presents associated challenges and considerations.

EXPERT OPINION: Although there has been rapid progress in research on linear mRNA vaccines, their degradation patterns remain unclear. In addition, standardized assays for key impurities, such as residual dsRNA and T7 RNA polymerase, are still lacking. For self-amplifying mRNA vaccines, a key focus should be control of stability in vivo and in vitro. For circular RNA vaccines, standardized assays, and reference standards for determining degree of circularization should be established and optimized.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Elkaliny NE, Alzamel NM, Moussa SH, et al (2024)

Macroalgae Bioplastics: A Sustainable Shift to Mitigate the Ecological Impact of Petroleum-Based Plastics.

Polymers, 16(9):.

The surge in global utilization of petroleum-based plastics, which notably heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic, has substantially increased its harm to ecosystems. Considering the escalating environmental impact, a pivotal shift towards bioplastics usage is imperative. Exploring and implementing bioplastics as a viable alternative could mitigate the ecological burden posed by traditional plastics. Macroalgae is a potential feedstock for the production of bioplastics due to its abundance, fast growth, and high cellulose and sugar content. Researchers have recently explored various methods for extracting and converting macroalgae into bioplastic. Some of the key challenges in the production of macroalgae bioplastics are the high costs of large-scale production and the need to optimize the extraction and conversion processes to obtain high-quality bioplastics. However, the potential benefits of using macroalgae for bioplastic production include reducing plastic waste and greenhouse gas emissions, using healthier materials in various life practices, and developing a promising area for future research and development. Also, bioplastic provides job opportunities in free enterprise and contributes to various applications such as packaging, medical devices, electronics, textiles, and cosmetics. The presented review aims to discuss the problem of petroleum-based plastic, bioplastic extraction from macroalgae, bioplastic properties, biodegradability, its various applications, and its production challenges.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Taufer CR, da Silva J, PH Rampelotto (2024)

The Influence of Probiotic Lactobacilli on COVID-19 and the Microbiota.

Nutrients, 16(9):.

This comprehensive review explores the potential of using lactobacilli as a probiotic in the management of COVID-19. Our findings suggest that lactobacilli show promise in reducing the risk of death, gastrointestinal and overall symptoms, and respiratory failure, as well as in lowering cytokines and inflammatory markers associated with the disease. The molecular mechanisms by which lactobacilli protect against COVID-19 and other viral infections may be related to the reduction in inflammation, modulation of the immune response, and direct interaction with viruses to produce antiviral substances. However, the selected studies demonstrate the presence of mixed findings for various clinical, biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters, which may be attributed to methodological differences among studies. We highlight the importance of clearly describing randomization processes to minimize bias and caution against small sample sizes and inappropriate statistical tests that could lead to errors. This review offers valuable insights into the therapeutic potential of lactobacilli in the context of COVID-19 and identifies avenues for further research and applications. These findings hold promise for the development of novel approaches to managing COVID-19 and warrant further investigation into the potential benefits of lactobacilli in combating the disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Sinopoli A, Sciurti A, Isonne C, et al (2024)

The Efficacy of Multivitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin B, Vitamin C, and Vitamin D Supplements in the Prevention and Management of COVID-19 and Long-COVID: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Nutrients, 16(9):.

This review aims to evaluate the efficacy of any vitamin administration(s) in preventing and managing COVID-19 and/or long-COVID. Databases were searched up to May 2023 to identify randomized clinical trials comparing data on the effects of vitamin supplementation(s) versus placebo or standard of care on the two conditions of interest. Inverse-variance random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate pooled risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality between supplemented and non-supplemented individuals. Overall, 37 articles were included: two regarded COVID-19 and long-COVID prevention and 35 records the COVID-19 management. The effects of vitamin D in preventing COVID-19 and long-COVID were contrasting. Similarly, no conclusion could be drawn on the efficacy of multivitamins, vitamin A, and vitamin B in COVID-19 management. A few positive findings were reported in some vitamin C trials but results were inconsistent in most outcomes, excluding all-cause mortality (RR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.72-0.97). Vitamin D results were mixed in most aspects, including mortality, in which benefits were observed in regular administrations only (RR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.49-0.91). Despite some benefits, results were mostly contradictory. Variety in recruitment and treatment protocols might explain this heterogeneity. Better-designed studies are needed to clarify these vitamins' potential effects against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Lastrucci A, Wandael Y, Ricci R, et al (2024)

The Integration of Deep Learning in Radiotherapy: Exploring Challenges, Opportunities, and Future Directions through an Umbrella Review.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(9):.

This study investigates, through a narrative review, the transformative impact of deep learning (DL) in the field of radiotherapy, particularly in light of the accelerated developments prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The proposed approach was based on an umbrella review following a standard narrative checklist and a qualification process. The selection process identified 19 systematic review studies. Through an analysis of current research, the study highlights the revolutionary potential of DL algorithms in optimizing treatment planning, image analysis, and patient outcome prediction in radiotherapy. It underscores the necessity of further exploration into specific research areas to unlock the full capabilities of DL technology. Moreover, the study emphasizes the intricate interplay between digital radiology and radiotherapy, revealing how advancements in one field can significantly influence the other. This interdependence is crucial for addressing complex challenges and advancing the integration of cutting-edge technologies into clinical practice. Collaborative efforts among researchers, clinicians, and regulatory bodies are deemed essential to effectively navigate the evolving landscape of DL in radiotherapy. By fostering interdisciplinary collaborations and conducting thorough investigations, stakeholders can fully leverage the transformative power of DL to enhance patient care and refine therapeutic strategies. Ultimately, this promises to usher in a new era of personalized and optimized radiotherapy treatment for improved patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Riou M, Coste F, Meyer A, et al (2024)

Mechanisms of Pulmonary Vasculopathy in Acute and Long-Term COVID-19: A Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9):.

Despite the end of the pandemic, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a major public health concern. The first waves of the virus led to a better understanding of its pathogenesis, highlighting the fact that there is a specific pulmonary vascular disorder. Indeed, COVID-19 may predispose patients to thrombotic disease in both venous and arterial circulation, and many cases of severe acute pulmonary embolism have been reported. The demonstrated presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within the endothelial cells suggests that direct viral effects, in addition to indirect effects of perivascular inflammation and coagulopathy, may contribute to pulmonary vasculopathy in COVID-19. In this review, we discuss the pathological mechanisms leading to pulmonary vascular damage during acute infection, which appear to be mainly related to thromboembolic events, an impaired coagulation cascade, micro- and macrovascular thrombosis, endotheliitis and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. As many patients develop post-COVID symptoms, including dyspnea, we also discuss the hypothesis of pulmonary vascular damage and pulmonary hypertension as a sequela of the infection, which may be involved in the pathophysiology of long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Zou Y, Kamoi K, Zong Y, et al (2024)

Vaccines and the Eye: Current Understanding of the Molecular and Immunological Effects of Vaccination on the Eye.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9):.

Vaccination is a public health cornerstone that protects against numerous infectious diseases. Despite its benefits, immunization implications on ocular health warrant thorough investigation, particularly in the context of vaccine-induced ocular inflammation. This review aimed to elucidate the complex interplay between vaccination and the eye, focusing on the molecular and immunological pathways implicated in vaccine-associated ocular adverse effects. Through an in-depth analysis of recent advancements and the existing literature, we explored various mechanisms of vaccine-induced ocular inflammation, such as direct infection by live attenuated vaccines, immune complex formation, adjuvant-induced autoimmunity, molecular mimicry, hypersensitivity reactions, PEG-induced allergic reactions, Type 1 IFN activation, free extracellular RNA, and specific components. We further examined the specific ocular conditions associated with vaccination, such as uveitis, optic neuritis, and retinitis, and discussed the potential impact of novel vaccines, including those against SARS-CoV-2. This review sheds light on the intricate relationships between vaccination, the immune system, and ocular tissues, offering insights into informed discussions and future research directions aimed at optimizing vaccine safety and ophthalmological care. Our analysis underscores the importance of vigilance and further research to understand and mitigate the ocular side effects of vaccines, thereby ensuring the continued success of vaccination programs, while preserving ocular health.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Wu K, Z Zhang (2024)

Knowledge mapping of chronic insomnia: a bibliometric analysis (2000-2023).

Sleep & breathing = Schlaf & Atmung [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Recently, significant scientific research breakthroughs have been witnessed in the treatment of chronic insomnia. However, it seems that there is currently no bibliometric analysis of this. Therefore, we hope to comprehensively review and analyze the scholarly system and research focus in the field of chronic insomnia treatment through bibliometric methods.

METHODS: Between 2000 and 2023, we explored various papers in relation to the treatment of chronic insomnia in the Web of Science Core Collection(WOSCC) database. Subsequently, the collected papers were subjected to bibliometric analysis utilizing CiteSpace, VOSviewer, and the "bibliometric" package in R language.

RESULTS: With China and the United States(USA) among them, a total of 2937 papers were published across 49 countries. Publications related to the treatment of chronic insomnia were increasing year by year. The Laval University, Washington University, Pittsburgh University, and Stanford University were key research institutions. The journal Sleep was widely popular in the field and was also one of the most cited journals. These papers came from 148 authors, with Morin, Charles M., Roth, Thomas, Espie, Colin A., Harvey, Allison G., and Buysse, Daniel J. publishing the most papers and Morin, cm being co-cited the most. The treatment process of chronic insomnia can be divided into three main stages: drug intervention, diseases related to chronic insomnia, and cognitive behavioral therapy and mental health. Keywords such as "children and adolescents", "novel coronavirus pneumonia" (COVID-19), "mental health" and "heart failure" have become the focus of current research.

CONCLUSIONS: We carried out a detailed bibliometric review of the development trends and research results of chronic insomnia research through this study for the first time. The information it provides reveals recent research hotspots and cutting-edge issues, providing valuable reference materials for researchers focusing on the treatment of chronic insomnia.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Marziliano A, Byakova A, Patel P, et al (2024)

The Assessment of Social Isolation and Loneliness in Cancer Patients and Survivors in the Pre-COVID-19 Period: A Systematic Review.

International journal of behavioral medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In the context of cancer research, identifying social isolation and loneliness is a priority given how both exacerbate poor outcomes and lead to increased mortality in oncological populations. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify all quantitative instruments that have been used to assess either social isolation or loneliness in patients previously or currently diagnosed with cancer in the pre-COVID-19 period.

METHOD: PubMed (Web), Scopus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched on August 22, 2019. All databases were searched from inception with no filters applied. The search strategies included terms that captured the following concepts: instruments/tools, social isolation or loneliness, and cancer.

RESULTS: A total of 289 titles/abstracts were returned. Upon review, 114 titles/abstracts were deemed to be potentially eligible and the full text was retrieved. Of the 114 full texts, 69 articles met inclusion criteria and comprised the final sample. Publications span years 1980 through 2019, with the majority (71%) occurring in the last decade prior to this review, between 2009 and 2019. Average age of the study samples, with few exceptions, was often over 50 years old. Many studies used all-female samples, while only one study used an all-male sample. The most common cancer diagnosis of participants was breast cancer. The most common measure was the UCLA Loneliness Scale, used in 22 studies. Most measures we identified were used only once, and 11 measures were used 2-3 times. When the information was given, response ranges were always Likert-type scales most often ranging from 1-4 or 1-5, and sometimes from 1-10 possible response options. In terms of psychometrics, test-retest reliability and validity were rarely reported; by contrast, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) was reported more than half of the time (60.9%).

CONCLUSION: When selecting a measure to assess loneliness in cancer populations, the UCLA Loneliness Scale is both psychometrically strong and versatile across patients with different cancers, ages, and racial backgrounds. When selecting a measure to assess social isolation in cancer populations, both the PROMIS-SF V 2.0 social isolation and the Berkman-Syme Network Index are brief and have been used in patients with non-White racial backgrounds.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Varghese SM, Patel S, Nandan A, et al (2024)

Unraveling the Role of the Blood-Brain Barrier in the Pathophysiology of Depression: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Depression is a highly prevalent psychological disorder characterized by persistent dysphoria, psychomotor retardation, insomnia, anhedonia, suicidal ideation, and a remarkable decrease in overall well-being. Despite the prevalence of accessible antidepressant therapies, many individuals do not achieve substantial improvement. Understanding the multifactorial pathophysiology and the heterogeneous nature of the disorder could lead the way toward better outcomes. Recent findings have elucidated the substantial impact of compromised blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity on the manifestation of depression. BBB functions as an indispensable defense mechanism, tightly overseeing the transport of molecules from the periphery to preserve the integrity of the brain parenchyma. The dysfunction of the BBB has been implicated in a multitude of neurological disorders, and its disruption and consequent brain alterations could potentially serve as important factors in the pathogenesis and progression of depression. In this review, we extensively examine the pathophysiological relevance of the BBB and delve into the specific modifications of its components that underlie the complexities of depression. A particular focus has been placed on examining the effects of peripheral inflammation on the BBB in depression and elucidating the intricate interactions between the gut, BBB, and brain. Furthermore, this review encompasses significant updates on the assessment of BBB integrity and permeability, providing a comprehensive overview of the topic. Finally, we outline the therapeutic relevance and strategies based on BBB in depression, including COVID-19-associated BBB disruption and neuropsychiatric implications. Understanding the comprehensive pathogenic cascade of depression is crucial for shaping the trajectory of future research endeavors.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Caini S, Meijer A, Nunes MC, et al (2024)

Probable extinction of influenza B/Yamagata and its public health implications: a systematic literature review and assessment of global surveillance databases.

The Lancet. Microbe pii:S2666-5247(24)00066-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Early after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the detection of influenza B/Yamagata cases decreased globally. Given the potential public health implications of this decline, in this Review, we systematically analysed data on influenza B/Yamagata virus circulation (for 2020-23) from multiple complementary sources of information. We identified relevant articles published in PubMed and Embase, and data from the FluNet, Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data, and GenBank databases, webpages of respiratory virus surveillance systems from countries worldwide, and the Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network. A progressive decline of influenza B/Yamagata detections was reported across all sources, in absolute terms (total number of cases), as positivity rate, and as a proportion of influenza B detections. Sporadically reported influenza B/Yamagata cases since March, 2020 were mostly vaccine-derived, attributed to data entry errors, or have yet to be definitively confirmed. The likelihood of extinction necessitates a rapid response in terms of reassessing the composition of influenza vaccines, enhanced surveillance for B/Yamagata, and a possible change in the biosafety level when handling B/Yamagata viruses in laboratories.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Van Hout MC, Madroumi R, Andrews MD, et al (2024)

The nexus of immigration regulation and health governance: a scoping review of the extent to which right to access healthcare by migrants, refugees and asylum seekers was upheld in the United Kingdom during COVID-19.

Public health, 232:21-29 pii:S0033-3506(24)00157-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Complementing the well-established evidence base on health inequalities experienced by migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in the UK; we examined the extent to which their right to equal non-discriminatory access to health services (promotive, preventive, curative) was upheld during the COVID-19 pandemic.

STUDY DESIGN: Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework.

METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted on Medline, PubMed, and CINAHL using detailed MESH terms, for literature published between 01 January 2020 and 01 January 2024. The process was supported by a ten-page Google search and hand searching of reference lists. 42 records meeting the inclusion criteria were charted, coded inductively and analysed thematically in an integrated team-based approach.

RESULTS: Dissonance between immigration regulation and health governance is illustrated in four themes: Health systems leveraged to (re)enforce the hostile environment; Dissonance between health rights on paper and in practice; Structural failures to overcome communication and digital exclusion; and COVID-19 vaccine (in)equity exacerbated fear, mistrust and exclusion. Migrants, refugees and asylum seekers encountered substantial individual, structural and policy-level barriers to accessing healthcare in the UK during COVID-19. Insecure immigration status, institutional mistrust, data-sharing and charging fears, communication challenges and digital exclusion impacted heavily on their ability to access healthcare in an equitable non-discriminatory manner.

CONCLUSIONS: An inclusive and innovative health equity and rights-based responses reaching all migrants, refugees and asylum seekers are warranted if the National Health Service is to live up to its promise of 'leaving no one behind' in post-pandemic and future responses.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Al-Momani H, Aolymat I, S Al Haj Mahmoud (2024)

Critical appraisal of how COVID-19 infection and imposed lockdowns have impacted gastroesophageal reflux: A review.

Medicine, 103(19):e38074.

Previous literature has demonstrated that COronaVIrus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19) impacts an individual gastrointestinal tract (GIT), causing symptoms like nausea, diarrhea, and loss of appetite. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus RNA has been discovered in the stool of infected individuals in earlier research. It was discovered that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus was significantly expressed in the GIT, indicating that the virus can also infect the digestive system. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 functions as the viral receptor. The chronic illness known as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is typified by frequent reflux of stomach acid into the esophagus. By triggering the sensitized esophageal-bronchial neuronal circuit or aspirating into the airways (microaspiration), GER exacerbates respiratory diseases. Aspiration is a well-known risk to be considered when treating patients in intensive care units. Strong genetic correlations have been identified between COVID-19 infection and GERD susceptibility, suggesting a shared genetic basis for both conditions. Nonetheless, even though GERD, extraesophageal reflex, and COVID-19 have a number of significant risk factors and exhibit similar symptoms, the relationship between these illnesses has not yet been examined in depth. This review is the first of its kind to critically examine the association between the COVID-19 epidemic and GER and its associated diseases. The key objective of this work is to promote the creation of prevention plans, treatment plans, and guidelines while also enhancing and optimizing our understanding of the relationship between COVID-19 and GERs.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Marr LC, JM Samet (2024)

Reducing Transmission of Airborne Respiratory Pathogens: A New Beginning as the COVID-19 Emergency Ends.

Environmental health perspectives, 132(5):55001.

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, new evidence-based strategies have emerged for reducing transmission of respiratory infections through management of indoor air.

OBJECTIVES: This paper reviews critical advances that could reduce the burden of disease from inhaled pathogens and describes challenges in their implementation.

DISCUSSION: Proven strategies include assuring sufficient ventilation, air cleaning by filtration, and air disinfection by germicidal ultraviolet (UV) light. Layered intervention strategies are needed to maximize risk reduction. Case studies demonstrate how to implement these tools while also revealing barriers to implementation. Future needs include standards designed with infection resilience and equity in mind, buildings optimized for infection resilience among other drivers, new approaches and technologies to improve ventilation, scientific consensus on the amount of ventilation needed to achieve a desired level of risk, methods for evaluating new air-cleaning technologies, studies of their long-term health effects, workforce training on ventilation systems, easier access to federal funds, demonstration projects in schools, and communication with the public about the importance of indoor air quality and actions people can take to improve it.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Tang L, Rhoads WJ, Eichelberg A, et al (2024)

Applications of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Respiratory Pathogens and Implications for Uptake in Policy: A State-of-the-Science Review.

Environmental health perspectives, 132(5):56001.

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are major contributors to the global disease burden. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) holds potential as a rapidly deployable framework to understand respiratory pathogen transmission and inform policy on infection control.

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this paper was to evaluate, motivate, and inform further development of the use of QMRA as a rapid tool to understand the transmission of respiratory pathogens and improve the evidence base for infection control policies.

METHODS: We conducted a literature review to identify peer-reviewed studies of complete QMRA frameworks on aerosol inhalation or contact transmission of respiratory pathogens. From each of the identified studies, we extracted and summarized information on the applied exposure model approaches, dose-response models, and parameter values, including risk characterization. Finally, we reviewed linkages between model outcomes and policy.

RESULTS: We identified 93 studies conducted in 16 different countries with complete QMRA frameworks for diverse respiratory pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2, Legionella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, influenza, and Bacillus anthracis. Six distinct exposure models were identified across diverse and complex transmission pathways. In 57 studies, exposure model frameworks were informed by their ability to model the efficacy of potential interventions. Among interventions, masking, ventilation, social distancing, and other environmental source controls were commonly assessed. Pathogen concentration, aerosol concentration, and partitioning coefficient were influential exposure parameters as identified by sensitivity analysis. Most (84%, n=78) studies presented policy-relevant content including a) determining disease burden to call for policy intervention, b) determining risk-based threshold values for regulations, c) informing intervention and control strategies, and d) making recommendations and suggestions for QMRA application in policy.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified needs to further the development of QMRA frameworks for respiratory pathogens that prioritize appropriate aerosol exposure modeling approaches, consider trade-offs between model validity and complexity, and incorporate research that strengthens confidence in QMRA results.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Tekin YS, Kul SM, Sagdic O, et al (2024)

Optical biosensors for diagnosis of COVID-19: nanomaterial-enabled particle strategies for post pandemic era.

Mikrochimica acta, 191(6):320.

The COVID-19 pandemic underlines the need for effective strategies for controlling virus spread and ensuring sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2. This review presents the potential of nanomaterial-enabled optical biosensors for rapid and low-cost detection of SARS-CoV-2 biomarkers, demonstrating a comprehensive analysis including colorimetric, fluorescence, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, and surface plasmon resonance detection methods. Nanomaterials including metal-based nanomaterials, metal-organic frame-based nanoparticles, nanorods, nanoporous materials, nanoshell materials, and magnetic nanoparticles employed in the production of optical biosensors are presented in detail. This review also discusses the detection principles, fabrication methods, nanomaterial synthesis, and their applications for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in four categories: antibody-based, antigen-based, nucleic acid-based, and aptamer-based biosensors. This critical review includes reports published in the literature between the years 2021 and 2024. In addition, the review offers critical insights into optical nanobiosensors for the diagnosis of COVID-19. The integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning technologies with optical nanomaterial-enabled biosensors is proposed to improve the efficiency of optical diagnostic systems for future pandemic scenarios.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Campione-Barr N, Skinner A, Moeller K, et al (2024)

The role of family relationships on adolescents' development and adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review.

Journal of research on adolescence : the official journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence [Epub ahead of print].

In typical times, adolescents' relationships with family members influence changing cognitive, social, and physical aspects of their development. The COVID-19 pandemic, however, impacted the full family system in ways that were unprecedented. Scholars of adolescence worldwide were driven to understand how adolescents' relationships with family members changed due to these dramatic societal shifts and the influence these relationships had on adolescents' well-being. This systematic review examined two research questions with 189 articles published from 2020-2022: (1) How has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted families with adolescents, including broader family functioning, family relationship qualities, and parenting? and (2) How has the pandemic or pandemic-related stressors interacted with family functioning, family relationships, and parenting of adolescents to impact adolescent well-being and adjustment? Additionally, examination of the relevant studies were divided into sub-themes of pandemic influence: (a) family environment and routines, (b) family difficulties, (c) parenting and parent-adolescent relationships, and (d) sibling relationships.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Han SJ, Hong HJ, BS Shin (2024)

Korean Hospital Nurses' Experiences with COVID-19: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Findings.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9):.

This study aims to provide a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies examining the perceptions and experiences of nurses who cared for patients in dedicated COVID-19 hospitals in South Korea. We searched key health databases (RISS, KISS, KMbase, NDSL, KoreaMed, DBpia, PubMed, CINAHL, and Cochrane) from September to November 2023. We reviewed and analyzed articles using a thematic synthesis approach. The quality of the studies was ascertained using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist for qualitative research. Ultimately, 13 studies involving 219 nurses were included in the final review. Six major themes and thirteen subthemes emerged. During the unexpected COVID-19 pandemic, nurses were able to overcome difficult situations through their interactions with patients, sense of a professional mission, and commitment to nursing. Most importantly, they persevered through their collaboration and closeness with fellow nurses, despite confusion about their professional identity, the ethical dilemmas they faced in patient care, and the conflicting attitudes of their social support system. To prepare for future infectious disease outbreaks, a multifaceted support system should be established to enable nurses to have positive interactions with their families, colleagues, and patients, which have become central to their resilience.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Al-Mhanna SB, Batrakoulis A, Hofmeister M, et al (2024)

Psychophysiological Adaptations to Exercise Training in COVID-19 Patients: A Systematic Review.

BioMed research international, 2024:3325321.

INTRODUCTION: Many COVID-19 patients display adverse symptoms, such as reduced physical ability, poor quality of life, and impaired pulmonary function. Therefore, this systematic review is aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of physical exercise on various psychophysiological indicators among COVID-19 patients who may be at any stage of their illness (i.e., critically ill, hospitalized, postdischarge, and recovering).

METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar from 2019 to 2021. Twenty-seven studies, which assessed a total of 1525 patients, were included and analysed.

RESULTS: Overall, data revealed significant improvements in the following parameters: physical function, dyspnoea, pulmonary function, quality of life (QOL), lower limb endurance and strength, anxiety, depression, physical activity level, muscle strength, oxygen saturation, fatigue, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), lymphocyte, leukocytes, and a fibrin degradation product (D-dimer).

CONCLUSIONS: Physical training turns out to be an effective therapy that minimises the severity of COVID-19 in the intervention group compared to the standard treatment. Therefore, physical training could be incorporated into conventional treatment of COVID-19 patients. More randomized controlled studies with follow-up evaluations are required to evaluate the long-term advantages of physical training. Future research is essential to establish the optimal exercise intensity level and assess the musculoskeletal fitness of recovered COVID-19 patients. This trial is registered with CRD42021283087.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Liao Y, Zhang Y, Li H, et al (2024)

ACE2: the node connecting the lung cancer and COVID-19.

American journal of cancer research, 14(4):1466-1481.

Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) collaborates with Angiotensin (Ang) 1-7 and Mas receptors to establish the ACE2-Ang (1-7)-Mas receptor axis. ACE2 impacts lung function and can cause lung injury due to its inflammatory effects. Additionally, ACE2 contributes to pulmonary vasculature dysfunction, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, ACE2 is a receptor for coronavirus entry into host cells, leading to coronavirus infection. Lung cancer, one of the most common respiratory diseases worldwide, has a high rate of infection. Elevated levels of ACE2 in lung cancer patients, which increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease, have been demonstrated in clinical studies and by molecular mechanisms. The association between lung cancer and SARS-CoV-2 is closely linked to ACE2. This review examines the basic pathophysiological role of ACE2 in the lung, the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on lung function, the development of pulmonary fibrosis, chronic inflammation in long-term COVID patients, and the clinical research and mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of lung cancer patients to the virus. Possible mechanisms of lung cancer in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and the potential role of ACE2 in this process are also explored in this review. The role of ACE2 as a therapeutic target in the novel coronavirus infection process is also summarized. This will help to inform prevention and treatment of long-term pulmonary complications in patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Dong X, Chen M, J Li (2024)

Linking COVID-19 stress and Chinese nurses' life well-being: The influence of work-family conflict and work centrality.

Heliyon, 10(9):e30070.

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed enormous stress on health workers, exposing them to high levels of work-family conflict (WFC), which in turn affects their life well-being(LWB). To date, whether WFC is involved in the association between COVID-19 stress and the well-being of life has not been investigated. The purpose of this paper was to explore the connection between COVID-19 stress and LWB in Chinese nurses and to analyse the mediating role of WFC and the moderating effect of work centrality. The link between COVID-19 stress and LWB was examined by performing multiple regression analysis, common method bias analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis on data for 227 nurses.COVID-19 stress exerted a remarkable direct impact on nurses' LWB, and WFC mediated the link between COVID-19 stress and nurses' LWB. Work centrality moderated the link between COVID-19 stress and nurses' WFC. COVID-19 stress decreases nurses' LWB and increases their WFC, which also decreases their LWB. For nurses with higher work centrality, the connection of COVID-19 stress to work-family conflict was stronger. Hospital managers should focus on nurses' work-family balance and pay particular attention to the work-family balance of work-centered nurses to avoid compromising their LWB.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Bedoya-Gonzales M, Yucra-Mamani Y, Aragón-Cruz W, et al (2024)

Bibliometric study of the scientific productivity of the COVID-19 impact on constructs affecting happiness in university students.

Journal of education and health promotion, 13:96.

COVID-19 has caused a wide range of psychological problems, such as panic disorders, anxiety, and depression. Knowing what others have researched on, what constructs they have focused on, will (a) summarize published information, (b) help identify research gaps, and (c) encourage future research that addresses these gaps. The aim of the study was to analyze the bibliometric indicators of scientific productivity of the impact of COVID-19 on constructs affecting undergraduate happiness. A bibliometric study was conducted. The PubMed database was used. Data summarized were: authors, year of publication, journal name, country, language of publication, and subtopic addressed. A total of 16 English-language studies were identified between April 2022 and December 2022. There were 12 countries that have published on the impact of COVID-19 on constructs affecting college students' happiness. Most of the studies were developed in the United States (n = 4, 25%) and China (n = 2, 12.5%). Thirteen journals publishing these topics were detected. The subtopics considered were organized into nine categories (e.g., a: Psychological impact, b: Adverse childhood experiences, c: Stress, d: Personality traits, e: Perception of the educational environment, f: Spiritual health, g: Distress, h: Uncertainty and socioemotional learning, i: Satisfaction with life). This study suggests that the number of countries and scientific journals that have published on the impact of COVID-19 on constructs affecting college students' happiness is small. In addition, the most discussed subtopics during the pandemic were related to constructs such as psychological impact and stress affecting college students' happiness.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Ho LLY, Schiess GHA, Miranda P, et al (2024)

Pseudouridine and N1-methylpseudouridine as potent nucleotide analogues for RNA therapy and vaccine development.

RSC chemical biology, 5(5):418-425.

Modified nucleosides are integral to modern drug development, serving as crucial building blocks for creating safer, more potent, and more precisely targeted therapeutic interventions. Nucleobase modifications often confer antiviral and anti-cancer activity as monomers. When incorporated into nucleic acid oligomers, they increase stability against degradation by enzymes, enhancing the drugs' lifespan within the body. Moreover, modification strategies can mitigate potential toxic effects and reduce immunogenicity, making drugs safer and better tolerated. Particularly, N1-methylpseudouridine modification improved the efficacy of the mRNA coding for spike protein of COVID-19. This became a crucial step for developing COVID-19 vaccine applied during the 2020 pandemic. This makes N1-methylpseudouridine, and its "parent" analogue pseudouridine, potent nucleotide analogues for future RNA therapy and vaccine development. This review focuses on the structure and properties of pseudouridine and N1-methylpseudouridine. RNA has a greater structural versatility, different conformation, and chemical reactivity than DNA. Watson-Crick pairing is not strictly followed by RNA that has more unusual base pairs and base-triplets. This requires detailed structural studies and structure-activity relationship analyses for RNA, also when modifications are incorporated. Recent successes in this direction are revised in this review. We describe recent successes with using pseudouridine and N1-methylpseudouridine in mRNA drug candidates. We also highlight remaining challenges that need to be solved to develop new mRNA vaccines and therapies.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Packham A, Taylor AE, Karangwa MP, et al (2024)

Measles Vaccine Coverage and Disease Outbreaks: A Systematic Review of the Early Impact of COVID-19 in Low and Lower-Middle Income Countries.

International journal of public health, 69:1606997.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate changes to measles-containing vaccine (MCV) provision and subsequent measles disease cases in low- and lower-middle income countries (LICs, LMICs) in relation to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A systematic search was conducted of MEDLINE, OVID EMBASE and PubMed records. Primary quantitative and qualitative research studies published from January 2020 were included if they reported on COVID-19 impact on MCV provision and/or measles outbreak rates within LICs and LMICs. Results: 45 studies were included. The change in MCV1 vaccination coverage in national and international regions ranged -13% to +44.4% from pre-COVID time periods. In local regions, the median MCV1 and overall EPI rate changed by -23.3% and -28.5% respectively. Median MCV2 rate was disproportionally impacted in local areas during COVID-interruption time-periods (-48.2%) with ongoing disruption in early-recovery time-periods (-17.7%). 8.9% of studies reported on vaccination status of confirmed measles cases; from these, 71%-91% had received no MCV dose. Conclusion: MCV vaccination coverage experienced ongoing disruption during the recovery periods after initial COVID-19 disruption. Vaccination in local area datasets notably experienced longer-term disruption compared to nationally reported figures.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Duncanson K, Williams G, Hoedt EC, et al (2024)

Diet-microbiota associations in gastrointestinal research: a systematic review.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2350785.

Interactions between diet and gastrointestinal microbiota influence health status and outcomes. Evaluating these relationships requires accurate quantification of dietary variables relevant to microbial metabolism, however current dietary assessment methods focus on dietary components relevant to human digestion only. The aim of this study was to synthesize research on foods and nutrients that influence human gut microbiota and thereby identify knowledge gaps to inform dietary assessment advancements toward better understanding of diet-microbiota interactions. Thirty-eight systematic reviews and 106 primary studies reported on human diet-microbiota associations. Dietary factors altering colonic microbiota included dietary patterns, macronutrients, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and food additives. Reported diet-microbiota associations were dominated by routinely analyzed nutrients, which are absorbed from the small intestine but analyzed for correlation to stool microbiota. Dietary derived microbiota-relevant nutrients are more challenging to quantify and underrepresented in included studies. This evidence synthesis highlights advancements needed, including opportunities for expansion of food composition databases to include microbiota-relevant data, particularly for human intervention studies. These advances in dietary assessment methodology will facilitate translation of microbiota-specific nutrition therapy to practice.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Preshaw PM, Ramseier CA, Loos BG, et al (2024)

Contemporary educational methods in periodontology.

Journal of clinical periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: The 1st European Workshop on Periodontal Education in 2009 made recommendations regarding the scope of periodontal education at undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG) and continuing professional development (CPD) levels, defining competencies and learning outcomes that were instrumental at the time in helping to define periodontal teaching curricula. The 19th European Workshop on Periodontology and 2nd European Consensus Workshop on Education in Periodontology (Education in Periodontology in Europe) was held in 2023 to identify changes and future developments in periodontal education (including those informed by the COVID-19 pandemic) and embracing methods and formats of periodontal teaching and training. The aim of this review was to assess current knowledge regarding education methods in periodontology, including traditional face-to-face (F2F) teaching and the move to student-centred methods, virtual learning methods and use of digital technology, as well as blended teaching and learning (including teaching delivery and assessment) at UG, PG and CPD levels.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Systematic searches were conducted to identify relevant studies from the literature. Data were extracted and descriptive summaries collated.

RESULTS: The pandemic was a major disruptor of traditional F2F teaching but provided opportunities for rapid implementation of alternative and supplementary teaching methods. Although online learning has become an integral part of periodontal education, teachers and learners alike favour some form of F2F teaching. Blended teaching and learning are feasible in many areas of periodontal education, both for knowledge and skills acquisition as well as in assessment. Student-centred methods and blended approaches such as the flipped classroom seem highly effective, and online/virtual classrooms with both synchronous and asynchronous lectures are highly valued. Learning with haptic methods and virtual reality (VR) enhances the educational experience, especially when VR is integrated with traditional methods. The quality of the teacher continues to be decisive for the best knowledge transfer in all its forms.

CONCLUSIONS: Live F2F teaching continues to be highly trusted; however, all types of student-centred and interactive forms of knowledge transfer are embraced as enhancements. While digital methods offer innovation in education, blended approaches integrating both virtual and traditional methods appear optimal to maximize the achievement of learning outcomes. All areas of periodontal education (UG, PG and CPD) can benefit from such approaches; however, more research is needed to evaluate their benefits, both for knowledge transfer and skills development, as well as in assessment.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

den Boon JA, Nishikiori M, Zhan H, et al (2024)

Positive-strand RNA virus genome replication organelles: structure, assembly, control.

Trends in genetics : TIG pii:S0168-9525(24)00077-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] viruses include pandemic SARS-CoV-2, tumor-inducing hepatitis C virus, debilitating chikungunya virus (CHIKV), lethal encephalitis viruses, and many other major pathogens. (+)RNA viruses replicate their RNA genomes in virus-induced replication organelles (ROs) that also evolve new viral species and variants by recombination and mutation and are crucial virus control targets. Recent cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) reveals that viral RNA replication proteins form striking ringed 'crowns' at RO vesicle junctions with the cytosol. These crowns direct RO vesicle formation, viral (-)RNA and (+)RNA synthesis and capping, innate immune escape, and transfer of progeny (+)RNA genomes into translation and encapsidation. Ongoing studies are illuminating crown assembly, sequential functions, host factor interactions, etc., with significant implications for control and beneficial uses of viruses.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Gibbs VJ, Lin YH, Ghuge AA, et al (2024)

GCN2 in Viral Defence and the Subversive Tactics Employed by Viruses.

Journal of molecular biology pii:S0022-2836(24)00189-X [Epub ahead of print].

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and associated COVID19 disease illustrates the important role of viral defence mechanisms in ensuring survival and recovery of the host or patient. Viruses absolutely depend on the host's protein synthesis machinery to replicate, meaning that impeding translation is a powerful way to counteract viruses. One major approach used by cells to obstruct protein synthesis is to phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Mammals possess four different eIF2α-kinases: PKR, HRI, PEK/PERK, and GCN2. While PKR is currently considered the principal eIF2α-kinase involved in viral defence, the other eIF2α-kinases have also been found to play significant roles. Unsurprisingly, viruses have developed mechanisms to counteract the actions of eIF2α-kinases, or even to exploit them to their benefit. While some of these virulence factors are specific to one eIF2α-kinase, such as GCN2, others target all eIF2α-kinases. This review critically evaluates the current knowledge of viral mechanisms targeting the eIF2α-kinase GCN2. A detailed and in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which viruses evade host defence mechanisms will help to inform the development of powerful anti-viral measures.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Madhugiri R, Nguyen HV, Slanina H, et al (2024)

Alpha- and betacoronavirus cis-acting RNA elements.

Current opinion in microbiology, 79:102483 pii:S1369-5274(24)00059-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Coronaviruses have exceptionally large RNA genomes and employ multiprotein replication/transcription complexes to orchestrate specific steps of viral RNA genome replication and expression. Most of these processes involve viral cis-acting RNA elements that are engaged in vital RNA-RNA and/or RNA-protein interactions. Over the past years, a large number of studies provided interesting new insight into the structures and, to a lesser extent, functions of specific RNA elements for representative coronaviruses, and there is evidence to suggest that (a majority of) these RNA elements are conserved across genetically divergent coronavirus genera. It is becoming increasingly clear that at least some of these elements do not function in isolation but operate through complex and highly dynamic RNA-RNA interactions. This article reviews structural and functional aspects of cis-acting RNA elements conserved in alpha- and betacoronavirus 5'- and 3'-terminal genome regions, focusing on their critical roles in viral RNA synthesis and gene expression.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Al Maqbali M, Alsayed A, Hughes C, et al (2024)

Stress, anxiety, depression and sleep disturbance among healthcare professional during the COVID-19 pandemic: An umbrella review of 72 meta-analyses.

PloS one, 19(5):e0302597.

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, has significantly impacted the psychological and physical health of a wide range of individuals, including healthcare professionals (HCPs). This umbrella review aims provide a quantitative summary of meta-analyses that have investigated the prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance among HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic. An umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses reviews was conducted. The search was performed using the EMBASE, PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar databases from 01st January 2020 to 15th January 2024. A random-effects model was then used to estimate prevalence with a 95% confidence interval. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analyses were then conducted to explore the heterogeneity of the sample. Seventy-two meta-analyses involved 2,308 primary studies were included after a full-text review. The umbrella review revealed that the pooled prevalence of stress, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance among HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic was 37% (95% CI 32.87-41.22), 31.8% (95% CI 29.2-34.61) 29.4% (95% CI 27.13-31.84) 36.9% (95% CI 33.78-40.05) respectively. In subgroup analyses the prevalence of anxiety and depression was higher among nurses than among physicians. Evidence from this umbrella review suggested that a significant proportion of HCPs experienced stress, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic. This information will support authorities when implementing specific interventions that address mental health problems among HCPs during future pandemics or any other health crises. Such interventions may include the provision of mental health support services, such as counseling and peer support programs, as well as the implementation of organizational strategies to reduce workplace stressors.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Khoshnegah Z, Siyadat P, Rostami M, et al (2024)

Protein C and S activities in COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysis [Epub ahead of print].

COVID-19 has been associated with alterations in coagulation. Recent reports have shown that protein C and S activities are altered in COVID-19. This may affect the complications and outcome of the disease. However, their exact role in COVID-19 remains uncertain. The aim of the current study was therefore to analyze all papers in the literature on protein C and S activities in COVID-19. We searched three medical electronic databases. Of the 2442 papers, 28 studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. For the meta-analysis, means ± standard deviations with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for protein C and S activities were extracted. Pooled p values were calculated using STATA software. Protein C and S activities were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients than in healthy controls (pooled p values: 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Similarly, protein C activities were considerably lower in nonsurviving patients (pooled p value = 0.00). There was no association between proteins C or S and thrombosis risk or ICU admission in COVID-19 patients (p value > 0.05). COVID-19 patients may exhibit lower activities of the C and S proteins, which might affect disease outcome; however, additional attention should be given when considering therapeutic strategies for these patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Yu YJ, Liu XD, Liao C, et al (2024)

Targeting gut microbiota for immunotherapy of diseases.

Archives of toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

With advances in next-generation sequencing technology, there is growing evidence that the gut microbiome plays a key role in the host's innate and adaptive immune system. Gut microbes and their metabolites directly or indirectly regulate host immune cells. Crucially, dysregulation of the gut microbiota is often associated with many immune system diseases. In turn, microbes modulate disease immunotherapy. Data from preclinical to clinical studies suggest that the gut microbiota may influence the effectiveness of tumor immunotherapy, particularly immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). In addition, the most critical issue now is a COVID-19 vaccine that generates strong and durable immunity. A growing number of clinical studies confirm the potential of gut microbes to enhance the efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines. However, it is still unclear how gut bacteria interact with immune cells and what treatments are based on gut microbes. Here, we outline recent advances in the effects and mechanisms of the gut microbiota and its metabolites (tryptophan metabolites, bile acids, short-chain fatty acids, and inosine) on different immune cells (dendritic cells, CD4[+]T cells, and macrophages). It also highlights innovative intervention strategies and clinical trials of microbiota-based checkpoint blocking therapies for tumor immunity, and ongoing efforts to maintain the long-term immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines. Finally, the challenges to be overcome in this area are discussed. These provide an important basis for further research and clinical translation of gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Spytska L (2024)

Anxiety and depressive personality disorders in the modern world.

Acta psychologica, 246:104285.

The study's significance lies in the multitude of challenges facing individuals today, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, military conflicts like the war in Ukraine, and the escalating rates of cancer morbidity and mortality. These factors contribute to the onset of anxiety and depressive disorders, disrupting various aspects of individuals' mental functioning and social interactions. Addressing these disorders effectively necessitates a comprehensive approach, combining pharmacological interventions with psychotherapeutic strategies under the guidance of specialized professionals. In this regard, the study is aimed at identifying aspects and features of the development of psychological problems and personality disorders in the modern world filled with various stressors. The leading methods of studying this problem are analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, comparison, experiment and systematisation of approaches that will help determine a wide range of mental disorders. Theoretical methods were used to analyze the literature and summarize theoretical material on anxiety and depressive disorders. Diagnostic methods were used to assess the psychological state of the study population. The study examines significant clinical syndromes and vegetative disorders that disrupt normal lifestyle, hinder daily activities, and impede professional growth. It evaluates the roles of psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers in assisting individuals with anxiety disorders. It outlines preventive measures for anxiety and depression, while also delving into various types of anxiety disorders. The research proposes diverse methods to prevent emotional anxiety and instability. It underscores the importance of devising novel strategies for diagnosis and therapy, emphasizing a comprehensive approach involving psychotherapeutic support, medical intervention, and adaptive behavioral techniques. The findings of the study hold both practical and theoretical significance for professionals in psychology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and sociology who provide support for individuals with anxiety and depressive disorders. Furthermore, the insights provided may be pertinent to researchers and scholars investigating the psychological well-being of contemporary society amidst adverse external circumstances.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Merli R, A Costanza (2024)

Effectiveness of physical barriers to prevent suicide by jumping from high-risk bridges: From an integrative review to a northern Italian province's paradigm.

Preventive medicine reports, 42:102745.

BACKGROUND: Although uncommon, suicide by jumping is almost always lethal and can be significantly elevated locally due to the availability of tall structures including bridges and other high-risk locations. Empirical evidence suggests that restricting access to certain suicide methods is highly effective at preventing suicide, prompting the construction of physical barriers in many high-risk jumping locations. However, some have argued that these measures are too costly and only lead to method or location substitution.

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether physical barriers are effective at preventing suicide by jumping or whether method or location substitution occur.

METHODS: An integrative review of the most representative literature.

RESULTS: Results clearly show that physical barriers are highly effective at preventing suicide by jumping with little to no method or location substitution occurring. Furthermore, their cost is far outweighed by the monetary benefits of averted suicides.

CONCLUSIONS: Using the Italian pre-alpine/alpine areas as a paradigm, we argue that local topography and socioeconomic particularities led to significantly elevated rates of suicide in general, and of suicide by jumping from bridges in particular, especially among young adults who are more vulnerable to economic crises and show elevated susceptibility to impulsive acts, a known characteristic associated with suicide by jumping, which makes the issue even more topical and clinically relevant. As these finding are easily generalized to other territories with similar topographical and/or economic characteristics, we end with a call to action, urging local authorities to heed the scientific evidence and take the necessary steps to improve suicide prevention.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Cha HJ, C Hong (2024)

New insight of square stepping exercise in immune fine-tuning for anticipating emerging pandemics.

Animal cells and systems, 28(1):251-260.

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted human life, posing serious physical and psychological threats, particularly to the elderly. While individuals of all ages are susceptible to contracting COVID-19, older people face a heightened risk of developing various diseases due to age-related immunophysiological changes and preexisting health conditions. The interplay between immune health and physical activity is believed to hold even greater significance during a pandemic. Recent findings from our research indicate that the intervention of square stepping exercise (SSE), characterized by a rhythmic and controlled stepping pattern, resulted in increased levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in the elderly. BDNF, known to influence not only nerve cells but also immune cells, suggests a potential link between SSE and immune system modulation. Consequently, this exercise regimen holds promise in counteracting age-related immunophysiological changes, fine-tuning immune responses, and mitigating the severity of potential new virus outcomes, such as 'Disease X.' This review aims to underscore the significance of integrating SSE as a home-based program, serving as a potent tool to enhance immune resilience, prepare for future potential pandemics, and empower older individuals during challenging times. Through the practice of SSE, older adults may strengthen their ability to navigate the challenges posed by pandemics and maintain a sense of control over their well-being.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Alhur A (2024)

Redefining Healthcare With Artificial Intelligence (AI): The Contributions of ChatGPT, Gemini, and Co-pilot.

Cureus, 16(4):e57795.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare marks a new era of innovation and efficiency, characterized by the emergence of sophisticated language models such as ChatGPT (OpenAI, San Francisco, CA, USA), Gemini Advanced (Google LLC, Mountain View, CA, USA), and Co-pilot (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA, USA). This review explores the transformative impact of these AI technologies on various facets of healthcare, from enhancing patient care and treatment protocols to revolutionizing medical research and tackling intricate health science challenges. ChatGPT, with its advanced natural language processing capabilities, leads the way in providing personalized mental health support and improving chronic condition management. Gemini Advanced extends the boundary of AI in healthcare through data analytics, facilitating early disease detection and supporting medical decision-making. Co-pilot, by integrating seamlessly with healthcare systems, optimizes clinical workflows and encourages a culture of innovation among healthcare professionals. Additionally, the review highlights the significant contributions of AI in accelerating medical research, particularly in genomics and drug discovery, thus paving the path for personalized medicine and more effective treatments. The pivotal role of AI in epidemiology, especially in managing infectious diseases such as COVID-19, is also emphasized, demonstrating its value in enhancing public health strategies. However, the integration of AI technologies in healthcare comes with challenges. Concerns about data privacy, security, and the need for comprehensive cybersecurity measures are discussed, along with the importance of regulatory compliance and transparent consent management to uphold ethical standards and patient autonomy. The review points out the necessity for seamless integration, interoperability, and the maintenance of AI systems' reliability and accuracy to fully leverage AI's potential in advancing healthcare.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Tawil S, Haque S, P Salameh (2024)

Mental Health During COVID-19: An Evaluation of Academic Universities' Contribution to Existing Research.

Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare, 17:2053-2068.

Increases in mental health problems have been observed during COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, this topic of research became a priority, especially at the academic level. The objectives of this review were to summarize academic contribution to mental health research during the era of COVID-19. A scoping review of studies conducted at different academic institutions and examining alterations in mental health during the pandemic during the last three years was conducted. Fifty-five studies were included. These focused on different mental health changes that occurred in the era of COVID-19 such as changes in work habits or existing psychological conditions, COVID-19-related fear depression, anxiety and stress. Most of the included studies were observational (76.7%). The majority of the publications were published in Scimago Journal Rank Q1 journals (57.1%). The average number of citations per publication was 15.3 ± 30.13 [0-125]. The number of citations was higher in papers with international collaboration of authors (p = 0.031). Publications with COVID-19 as a main objective were more cited than papers not directly related to this subject (25.9 ± 39.45 vs 4.14 ± 3.2; p = 0.044). Mental health problems are a common response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The contribution of academic universities to different mental health research studies that took place during COVID-19 outbreak have underlined this reality. However, more representative research from other institutional settings will be needed, particularly in vulnerable populations.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Niese R, van der Vlist D, Verhagen M, et al (2024)

Risk mapping of respiratory viral transmission and disease severity using individual and environmental health parameters: A scoping review and protocol analysis.

One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 18:100741.

Due to the impact respiratory viruses have on human health, a lot of data has been collected and visualised in tools such as dashboards that provide retrospective insights into the course of an epidemic or pandemic. Two well-known respiratory viruses, influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, are the causative agents of influenza and COVID-19, respectively. A scoping review was performed using Embase including data from January 2000 until April 2021 to identify individual and environmental health parameters that affect transmission of influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2, as well as disease severity (morbidity (hospitalisation) and mortality) of influenza and COVID-19. Summary data was extracted from published articles. A total of 2280 unique articles were identified by the search, 484 articles were analysed, and 149 articles were included. The information of included articles was combined with data from Dutch databases to create prospective interactive maps that visualise risk areas in the Netherlands on health region, municipality, and neighbourhood-level. Included health parameters are contacts per day, mixing patterns, household composition, presence of certain indoor public spaces, urbanity, meteorological values, average income, age, ethnicity, comorbidity, sex, and smoking habits. The impact and input of these parameters are adjustable by users allowing a fit-for-purpose approach. These maps can be used to corroborate local policy decisions in times of health crisis, or in pandemic preparedness plans, serving as an instant visualisation tool of risk areas in the country. Despite limitations caused by data unavailability, simplification steps, and lack of validation, these interactive maps provide an important basis that can be elaborated on by further research that integrates both individual and environmental parameters.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Date H (2024)

Living-donor Lobar Lung Transplantation - Initiation and Development - Secondary Publication.

JMA journal, 7(2):190-194.

Due to the difficulty of finding brain-dead donors, in October 1998, I performed the first living-donor lobar lung transplantation (LDLLT) for a ventilator-dependent 24-year-old female patient with bronchiectasis using lobes from her parents. The patient is still alive and in good health 25 years after the transplantation. Over time, the indications for LDLLT have expanded to include pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, congenital genetic diseases, pulmonary complications after stem cell transplantation, and, more recently, severe lung injury due to COVID-19 infection. In 2022, we successfully performed an ABO-incompatible LDLLT. To address size mismatches, we have developed new LDLLT techniques, such as right-to-left inverted transplantation, upper lobe-sparing transplantation, and segmental lung transplantation. Our published studies cover a range of topics, encompassing both basic and clinical research. Of particular significance is the observation that LDLLT offers immunological advantages over cadaveric lung transplantation (CLT). Having conducted 353 cases of lung transplantation, including 161 LDLLTs and 192 CLTs, our 5-year survival rates were 83% after LDLLT and 74% after CLT, surpassing the 55% 5-year survival rate reported by the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. We have hosted numerous observers and research fellows from 15 countries. In addition, I have contributed to LDLLT procedures not only in Japan but also abroad. It brings me great satisfaction to think that my educational efforts may ultimately lead to saving the lives of those suffering from end-stage respiratory failure around the world.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Das Barshan A, ELA Matsumoto-Takahashi (2024)

Efficacy of COVID-19 Vaccines in Patients with Hematological Malignancy Compared to Healthy Controls: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JMA journal, 7(2):153-171.

BACKGROUND: The possibility of developing a severe coronavirus infectious (COVID-19) disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has increased, particularly in patients with hematological malignancies. These patients are more likely to produce less antibody protection due to the immunocompromised nature of the disease and the anticancer treatments. Therefore, the present systematic review intended to evaluate the seroconversion rate of COVID-19 vaccines in patients with hematological malignancies compared with healthy controls.

METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was conducted in Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, and the World Health Organization COVID-19 Research Database, as well as other searches (i.e., reference list from article search and manual searches), from December 2020 to May 2022. The outcome of interest included estimating the seroconversion rates following COVID-19 vaccination in patients with hematological malignancies and comparing them with those in healthy controls. After two-step screening, the data were extracted and the summary measures were calculated using a random-effects model.

RESULTS: A total of 39 articles regarding patients with hematological malignancies were included in the present review. After the first vaccine dose, these patients had considerably lower antibody response rates (37.0%) compared with healthy controls (74.5%). Following the second vaccine dose, the seroconversion rate in patients reached 66.8%, whereas it peaked at 97.9% in the healthy controls following complete immunization. Notably, the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 vaccine combination achieved the highest seropositivity rate of approximately 70%. Multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and lymphoma were the cancers of interest in most of the studies.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study highlighted the comparatively low seropositivity rates in patients with hematological malignancies, with substantial variations in rates across disease groups. The findings emphasize the possibility of additional booster doses for these individuals to enhance their immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Nishida Y, Hosomi S, Kobayashi Y, et al (2024)

Gastrointestinal: Severe SARS-CoV-2-related enteritis improved with cyclophosphamide.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Hariharan TS (2023)

COVID-19 Therapeutics Why Not Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)?.

The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 71(11):71-75.

Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a consistent feature of COVID-19 as indicated by high concentrations of angiotensin II (Ang II) in lungs and other tissues. Virus-induced downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) explains the raised Ang II levels. Available evidence points to the crucial role of Ang II in the pathogenesis of coronavirus disease. The proinflammatory, immune stimulant, and procoagulant effects exhibited by the peptide at high tissue levels explain lung injury, a characteristic feature of severe COVID-19. Angiotensin II (Ang II) inhibitors [both the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and the angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)] constitute the logical therapy for established COVID-19 infection. While ACEIs help to lower Ang II levels in the tissues, ARBs antagonize the effects of the peptide on the target tissues. Of the two, ARBs offer a better choice because of the minimal adverse effects of dry cough and angioedema. The effectiveness of Ang II inhibitors in COVID-19 is well supported by their protective effect against lung injury in animals induced by the virus spike protein as well as the clinical improvement of shortened hospital stay and reduced mortality in observational studies in humans. A unique feature of these agents is that mutations of the coronavirus 2 (CoV-2) would have little impact on their effectiveness since they do not interfere with the host cell entry of the virus or its replication. Expectedly, the agents might retain their usefulness against variant strains, including "ο" and its subvariants. The overall safety of Ang II inhibitors has been well established beyond doubt since they have been in use for years in the management of cardiovascular (CV) diseases, diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Regular use of ARBs in all patients who are COVID-19 positive and symptomatic (mild, moderate, or severe) offers a good option worth serious consideration. How to cite this article: S HT. COVID-19 Therapeutics Why Not Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs)? J Assoc Physicians India 2023;71(11):71-75.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Almeman A (2024)

The digital transformation in pharmacy: embracing online platforms and the cosmeceutical paradigm shift.

Journal of health, population, and nutrition, 43(1):60.

In the face of rapid technological advancement, the pharmacy sector is undergoing a significant digital transformation. This review explores the transformative impact of digitalization in the global pharmacy sector. We illustrated how advancements in technologies like artificial intelligence, blockchain, and online platforms are reshaping pharmacy services and education. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of the growth of online pharmacy platforms and the pivotal role of telepharmacy and telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additionally, it discusses the burgeoning cosmeceutical market within online pharmacies, the regulatory challenges faced globally, and the private sector's influence on healthcare technology. Conclusively, the paper highlights future trends and technological innovations, underscoring the dynamic evolution of the pharmacy landscape in response to digital transformation.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Vinals L, Radhakrishnan A, G Sarri (2024)

Opportunity and accessibility: an environmental scan of publicly available data repositories to address disparities in healthcare decision-making.

International journal for equity in health, 23(1):93.

BACKGROUND: Health disparities, starkly exposed and exacerbated by coronavirus disease 2019, pose a significant challenge to healthcare system access and health outcomes. Integrating health inequalities into health technology assessment calls for robust analytical methodologies utilizing disaggregated data to investigate and quantify the scope of these disparities. However, a comprehensive summary of population datasets that can be used for this purpose is lacking. The objective of this review was to identify publicly accessible health inequalities data repositories that are potential resources for healthcare decision-making and future health technology assessment submissions.

METHODS: An environmental scan was conducted in June of 2023 of six international organizations (World Health Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Eurostat, United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, and World Bank) and 38 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. The official websites of 42 jurisdictions, excluding non-English websites and those lacking English translations, were reviewed. Screening and data extraction were performed by two reviewers for each data repository, including health indicators, determinants of health, and health inequality metrics. The results were narratively synthesized.

RESULTS: The search identified only a limited number of country-level health inequalities data repositories. The World Health Organization Health Inequality Data Repository emerged as the most comprehensive source of health inequality data. Some country-level data repositories, such as Canada's Health Inequality Data Tool and England's Health Inequality Dashboard, offered rich local insights into determinants of health and numerous health status indicators, including mortality. Data repositories predominantly focused on determinants of health such as age, sex, social deprivation, and geography.

CONCLUSION: Interactive interfaces featuring data exploration and visualization options across diverse patient populations can serve as valuable tools to address health disparities. The data they provide may help inform complex analytical methodologies that integrate health inequality considerations into healthcare decision-making. This may include assessing the feasibility of transporting health inequality data across borders.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Bhatt A, Monk V, Bhatti A, et al (2024)

Identifying factors that can be used to assess a country's readiness to deploy a new vaccine or improve uptake of an underutilised vaccine: a scoping review.

BMJ open, 14(5):e080370.

OBJECTIVES: Identifying whether a country is ready to deploy a new vaccine or improve uptake of an existing vaccine requires knowledge of a diverse range of interdependent, context-specific factors. This scoping review aims to identify common themes that emerge across articles, which include tools or guidance that can be used to establish whether a country is ready to deploy a new vaccine or increase uptake of an underutilised vaccine.

DESIGN: Scoping review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Scoping Reviews guidelines.

DATA SOURCES: Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science were searched for articles published until 9 September 2023. Relevant articles were also identified through expert opinion.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Articles published in any year or language that included tools or guidance to identify factors that influence a country's readiness to deploy a new or underutilised vaccine.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two independent reviewers screened records and performed data extraction. Findings were synthesised by conducting a thematic analysis.

RESULTS: 38 articles met our inclusion criteria; these documents were created using methodologies including expert review panels and Delphi surveys and varied in terms of content and context-of-use. 12 common themes were identified relevant to a country's readiness to deploy a new or underutilised vaccine. These themes were as follows: (1) legal, political and professional consensus; (2) sociocultural factors and communication; (3) policy, guidelines and regulations; (4) financing; (5) vaccine characteristics and supply logistics; (6) programme planning; (7) programme monitoring and evaluation; (8) sustainable and integrated healthcare provision; (9) safety surveillance and reporting; (10) disease burden and characteristics; (11) vaccination equity and (12) human resources and training of professionals.

CONCLUSIONS: This information has the potential to form the basis of a globally applicable evidence-based vaccine readiness assessment tool that can inform policy and immunisation programme decision-makers.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Jiang Y, Liu L, Jin B, et al (2024)

Critical review on the environmental behaviors and toxicity of triclosan and its removal technologies.

The Science of the total environment, 932:173013 pii:S0048-9697(24)03160-7 [Epub ahead of print].

As a highly effective broad-spectrum antibacterial agent, triclosan (TCS) is widely used in personal care and medical disinfection products, resulting in its widespread occurrence in aquatic and terrestrial environments, and even in the human body. Notably, the use of TCS surged during the COVID-19 outbreak, leading to increasing environmental TCS pollution pressure. From the perspective of environmental health, it is essential to systematically understand the environmental occurrence and behavior of TCS, its toxicological effects on biota and humans, and technologies to remove TCS from the environment. This review comprehensively summarizes the current knowledge regarding the sources and behavior of TCS in surface water, groundwater, and soil systems, focusing on its toxicological effects on aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Effluent from wastewater treatment plants is the primary source of TCS in aquatic systems, whereas sewage application and/or wastewater irrigation are the major sources of TCS in soil. Human exposure pathways to TCS and associated adverse outcomes were also analyzed. Skin and oral mucosal absorption, and dietary intake are important TCS exposure pathways. Reducing or completely degrading TCS in the environment is important for alleviating environmental pollution and protecting public health. Therefore, this paper reviews the removal mechanisms, including adsorption, biotic and abiotic redox reactions, and the influencing factors. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the different techniques are compared, and development prospects are proposed. These findings provide a basis for the management and risk assessment of TCS and are beneficial for the application of treatment technology in TCS removal.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Rutter MK, Carr MJ, Wright AK, et al (2024)

Indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on diagnosing, monitoring, and prescribing in people with diabetes and strategies for diabetes service recovery internationally.

Diabetes research and clinical practice pii:S0168-8227(24)00603-X [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused major disruptions in clinical services for people with chronic long-term conditions. In this narrative review, we assess the indirect impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on diabetes services globally and the resulting adverse effects on rates of diagnosing, monitoring, and prescribing in people with type 2 diabetes. We summarise potential practical approaches that could address these issues and improve clinical services and outcomes for people living with diabetes during the recovery phase of the pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Brewster RCL, Wu A, RW Carroll (2024)

Open source approaches for pediatric global health technologies.

Journal of medical engineering & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Access to medical technologies is a critical component of universal access to care; however, the advancement of technologies for children has historically lagged behind those for adults. The small market size, anatomic and physiologic variability, and legal and ethical implications pose unique barriers to developing and commercialising paediatric biomedical innovations. These challenges are magnified in low-resource settings (LRS), which often lack appropriate regulatory oversight, support for service contracts, and supply chain capacity. The COVID-19 pandemic exposed shortcomings in the traditional industry model for medical technologies, while also catalysing open-source approaches to technology development and dissemination. Open-source pathways - where products are freely licenced to be distributed and modified - addressed key shortages in critical equipment. Relatedly, we argue that open-source approaches can accelerate paediatric global health technology development. Open-source approaches can be tailored to clinical challenges independent of economic factors, embrace low-cost manufacturing techniques, and can be highly customisable. Furthermore, diverse stakeholders, including families and patients, are empowered to participate in collaborative communities of practice. How to regulate the development, manufacture, and distribution of open-source technologies remains an ongoing area of exploration. The need for democratised innovation must be carefully balanced against the imperatives of safety and quality for paediatric-specific solutions. This can be achieved, in part, through close coordination between national regulatory agencies and decentralised networks where products can be peer-reviewed and tested. Altogether, there is significant potential for open source to advance more equitable and sustainable medical innovations for all children.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Varughese A, Balnadupete A, Ramesh P, et al (2024)

Guardians Turned Culprits: NETosis and Its Influence on Pulmonary Fibrosis Development.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a debilitating, life-threatening irreversible lung disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fibrotic tissue in the lungs, impairing their function. The exact mechanisms underlying Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) are multifaceted and not yet fully understood. Reports show that during COVID-19 pandemic, PF was dramatically increased due to the hyperactivation of the immune system. Neutrophils and macrophages are the patrolling immune cells that keep the microenvironment balanced. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are a normal protective mechanism of neutrophils. The chief components of the NETs include DNA, citrullinated histones, and anti-microbial peptides which are released by the activated neutrophils. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that hyperactivation of immune cells can also turn into criminals when it comes to pathological state. Dysregulated NETosis may contribute to sustained inflammation, overactivation of fibroblasts, and ultimately promoting collagen deposition which is the characteristic feature of PF. The role of NETs along with inflammation is attaining greater attention. However, seldom researches are related to the relationship between NETs causing PF. This review highlights the cellular mechanism of NETs-induced pulmonary fibrosis, which could give a better understanding of molecular targets which may be helpful for treating NETs-induced PF.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Costa ACFGSD, OCLD Fonseca Neto (2024)

Gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with COVID-19: an integrative review.

Revista do Colegio Brasileiro de Cirurgioes, 51:e20243600 pii:S0100-69912024000100300.

INTRODUCTION: In 2020, the world suffered a major impact from the COVID-19 pandemic, especially due to the high transmissibility of the virus. It is a disease that predominates with respiratory manifestations, but there is involvement of the gastrointestinal tract, causing symptoms ranging from mild to more severe. Highlighting gastrointestinal bleeding, it is a symptom resulting from the involvement of the SARS-CoV-2 virus described by several reports and case series.

METHODS: through an integrative literature review, of a qualitative nature, works that corresponded to the eligibility criteria were selected, totaling 16 articles included in this review.

RESULTS: of the patients who manifested gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the disease, common comorbidities and clinical manifestations were identified, in addition to therapies used to treat the infection, which were predisposing factors for the development of gastrointestinal bleeding.

CONCLUSION: The presence of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with COVID-19 is established in the literature, since the pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease directly affect the GIT. Early recognition of symptoms and suspicion of gastrointestinal involvement allows better management of patients and complications.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Tayal D, Jain P, B Goswami (2024)

D-dimer - a multifaceted molecule.

Hormone molecular biology and clinical investigation [Epub ahead of print].

D-dimer, a universally unique marker for fibrin degradation, is generated through the enzymatic interplay of thrombin, factor XIIIa, and plasmin. The emergence of D-dimer-containing fibrin molecules occurs in both intravascular and extravascular spaces during pivotal physiological processes like haemostasis, thrombosis, and tissue repair. Given the inherently physiological nature of fibrin formation and fibrinolysis, basal levels of D-dimer fragments are present in plasma. Beyond its role as a marker of routine physiological processes, aberrations in D-dimer levels are indicative of a spectrum of conditions, both non-pathological and pathological. The clinical utility of D-dimer has been firmly established, particularly in scenarios like venous thromboembolism (VTE), pulmonary embolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Additionally, recent applications have extended to assess the prognosis of COVID-19. While D-dimer is commonly associated with thrombotic conditions, its elevation is not confined to these conditions alone. Elevated D-dimer levels are observed across various diseases, where its significance extends beyond diagnostic indicators to prognostic implications.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Gupta A, R Duggal (2023)

Incidence of New-onset Hypertension and New-onset Type 2 Diabetes during or after SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 71(10):78-82.

Background: Considering the potential clinical and therapeutic implications, there is a need to determine whether or not COVID infection induces or unmasks new-onset/newly diagnosed hypertension/diabetes during the acute phase and post-COVID-19. Aim: In the current article, we discuss the current data at the intersection of COVID, hypertension, and COVID and diabetes, from prevalence, risk factors, and underlying mechanisms during an acute and post-COVID phase; focusing on new-onset hypertension and new onset type 2 diabetes. Method: We have performed a literature search via online databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar from December 2019-August 2022. The data from various studies and review articles have been included. Results: Current evidence suggests the occurrence of new-onset hypertension and new onset type 2 diabetes in patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Data also indicate a higher risk of negative outcomes in these patients. Conclusions: It is evident that the tenacity of these new-onset diseases post-COVID-19 is likely to have huge implications in terms of unexpected morbidity. Therefore, screening and follow-up of these patients seems reasonable. Clinicians shall have to deal with this evolving challenge and adequately equip themselves to address this facet of COVID-19 as well. Further data from various follow-up studies and registries like the CoviDIAB Project is required to be better equipped to propose exact recommendations for patients with NOD. On the contrary, more evidence is required for incidence and long-term sequelae for patients with new-onset hypertension. How to cite this article: Gupta A, Duggal R. Incidence of New-onset Hypertension and New-onset Type 2 Diabetes during or after SARS-CoV-2 Infection. J Assoc Physicians India 2023;71(10):78-82.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Al Qaf'an E, Alford S, Porteous K, et al (2024)

Healthcare Decision-Making in a Crisis: A Qualitative Systemic Review Protocol.

Emergency medicine international, 2024:2038608.

Background. Throughout history, communities have faced outbreaks of infectious diseases and other natural and man-made disasters that pose significant threats to lives, public health, and business continuity. Many of these disasters are crises that require critical decisions to be made in a short, crucial time with limited information and unforeseen circumstances amidst panic, fear, and shock. The COVID-19 pandemic is a recent example, with public leaders responding to and formulating strategies to attenuate the relentless waves of transmission and surges in resource demands. The pandemic underscored the importance of understanding how healthcare leaders make decisions in-crisis and what factors healthcare leaders prioritize in their decision-making process. Methods/Design. PubMed(NLM), Embase(Ovid), Scopus(Elsevier), Business Source(EBSCOhost), and ProQuest will be searched for primary qualitative studies published in English to explore the multi-faceted decision-making processes of healthcare leaders during a public health crisis. A meta-ethnographic approach will synthesize insights into healthcare leaders' experiences and perspectives and generate a conceptual theory of decision-making in crisis. Discussion. Understanding how healthcare leaders make critical decisions during public health crises takes advantage of the lessons learned to inform how future health crises are managed. (This systematic review is registered in PROSPERO: CRD42023475382).

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Xiong Y, Li Y, Qian W, et al (2024)

RNA m5C methylation modification: a potential therapeutic target for SARS-CoV-2-associated myocarditis.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1380697.

The Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has quickly spread worldwide and resulted in significant morbidity and mortality. Although most infections are mild, some patients can also develop severe and fatal myocarditis. In eukaryotic RNAs, 5-methylcytosine (m5C) is a common kind of post-transcriptional modification, which is involved in regulating various biological processes (such as RNA export, translation, and stability maintenance). With the rapid development of m5C modification detection technology, studies related to viral m5C modification are ever-increasing. These studies have revealed that m5C modification plays an important role in various stages of viral replication, including transcription and translation. According to recent studies, m5C methylation modification can regulate SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating innate immune signaling pathways. However, the specific role of m5C modification in SARS-CoV-2-induced myocarditis remains unclear. Therefore, this review aims to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of m5C methylation in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, the regulatory role of NSUN2 in viral infection and host innate immune response was also highlighted. This review may provide new directions for developing therapeutic strategies for SARS-CoV-2-associated myocarditis.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Lupu VV, Lupu A, Jechel E, et al (2024)

The role of vitamin D in pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus - a double pawn in the immune and microbial balance.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1373904.

Having increased popularity during the Covid-19 pandemic, vitamin D3 is currently impressing thanks to the numerous researches aimed at its interactions with the body's homeostasis. At the same time, there is a peak in terms of recommendations for supplementation with it. Some of the studies focus on the link between autoimmune diseases and nutritional deficiencies, especially vitamin D3. Since the specialized literature aimed at children (patients between 0-18 years old) is far from equal to the informational diversity of the adult-centered branch, this review aims to bring up to date the relationship between the microbial and nutritional balance and the activity of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE). The desired practical purpose resides in a better understanding and an adequate, individualized management of the affected persons to reduce morbidity. The center of the summary is to establish the impact of hypovitaminosis D in the development and evolution of pediatric lupus erythematosus. We will address aspects related to the two entities of the impact played by vitamin D3 in the pathophysiological cascade of lupus, but also the risk of toxicity and its effects when the deficiency is over supplemented (hypervitaminosis D). We will debate the relationship of hypovitaminosis D with the modulation of immune function, the potentiation of inflammatory processes, the increase of oxidative stress, the perfusion of cognitive brain areas, the seasonal incidence of SLE and its severity. Finally, we review current knowledge, post-pandemic, regarding the hypovitaminosis D - pSLE relationship.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Wang AYL, Chang YC, Chen KH, et al (2024)

Potential Application of Modified mRNA in Cardiac Regeneration.

Cell transplantation, 33:9636897241248956.

Heart failure remains the leading cause of human death worldwide. After a heart attack, the formation of scar tissue due to the massive death of cardiomyocytes leads to heart failure and sudden death in most cases. In addition, the regenerative ability of the adult heart is limited after injury, partly due to cell-cycle arrest in cardiomyocytes. In the current post-COVID-19 era, urgently authorized modified mRNA (modRNA) vaccines have been widely used to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, modRNA-based protein replacement may act as an alternative strategy for improving heart disease. It is a safe, effective, transient, low-immunogenic, and integration-free strategy for in vivo protein expression, in addition to recombinant protein and stem-cell regenerative therapies. In this review, we provide a summary of various cardiac factors that have been utilized with the modRNA method to enhance cardiovascular regeneration, cardiomyocyte proliferation, fibrosis inhibition, and apoptosis inhibition. We further discuss other cardiac factors, modRNA delivery methods, and injection methods using the modRNA approach to explore their application potential in heart disease. Factors for promoting cardiomyocyte proliferation such as a cocktail of three genes comprising FoxM1, Id1, and Jnk3-shRNA (FIJs), gp130, and melatonin have potential to be applied in the modRNA approach. We also discuss the current challenges with respect to modRNA-based cardiac regenerative medicine that need to be overcome to apply this approach to heart disease. This review provides a short description for investigators interested in the development of alternative cardiac regenerative medicines using the modRNA platform.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Seok H, DW Park (2024)

Role of biomarkers in antimicrobial stewardship: physicians' perspectives.

The Korean journal of internal medicine, 39(3):413-429.

Biomarkers are playing an increasingly important role in antimicrobial stewardship. Their applications have included use in algorithms that evaluate suspected bacterial infections or provide guidance on when to start or stop antibiotic therapy, or when therapy should be repeated over a short period (6-12 h). Diseases in which biomarkers are used as complementary tools to determine the initiation of antibiotics include sepsis, lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), COVID-19, acute heart failure, infectious endocarditis, acute coronary syndrome, and acute pancreatitis. In addition, cut-off values of biomarkers have been used to inform the decision to discontinue antibiotics for diseases such as sepsis, LRTI, and febrile neutropenia. The biomarkers used in antimicrobial stewardship include procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), presepsin, and interleukin (IL)-1β/IL-8. The cut-off values vary depending on the disease and study, with a range of 0.25-1.0 ng/mL for PCT and 8-50 mg/L for CRP. Biomarkers can complement clinical diagnosis, but further studies of microbiological biomarkers are needed to ensure appropriate antibiotic selection.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Saeed H, Martini ND, S Scahill (2024)

Exploring telepharmacy: A bibliometric analysis of past research and future directions.

Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP pii:S1551-7411(24)00156-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This bibliometric review analyzes the evolution of telepharmacy research, significantly amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. By employing bibliometric analysis, the study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current state and emerging trends in telepharmacy. This approach helps in identifying key areas of growth, predominant themes, and potential gaps in the literature. Utilizing data from 330 papers (1981-2023) sourced from Scopus and analyzed with Bibliometrix™, this study applies both performance analysis and science mapping methods to examine the telepharmacy literature. The findings reveal a consistent growth in telepharmacy research, with an 8.07 % average annual growth rate. Performance analysis highlights key authors, influential works, and leading journals and countries in the field. Document co-citation analysis identifies four developmental phases of telepharmacy: emergence, take-off, expansion, and future trajectory by uncovering the intellectual structure of the field. Co-words analysis elucidates evolving conceptual structures and significant subfields over time. These findings serve to inform practitioners and researchers about the evolving landscape of telepharmacy, guiding future research and practice in this increasingly important field.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Benvenuto S, Avcin T, A Taddio (2024)

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children: A review.

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To comprehensively review the literature on multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).

METHODS: Narrative review of relevant studies published between April 2020 and January 2024.

RESULTS: MIS-C is a SARS-CoV-2-related hyperinflammatory syndrome developing 2-6 weeks after COVID-19 in genetically susceptible individuals. Persisting fever, mucocutaneous manifestations, GI and cardiac involvement, together with lymphopenia and elevated inflammatory and cardiac markers are the main clinical features. It is believed to recognise some pathogenetic and clinical overlap with Kawasaki disease. New case definitions have been proposed after an assessment of the diagnostic performance of existing criteria; epidemiological criterion is however progressively losing its usefulness as the pandemic turns into an endemic and in the areas with the highest rates of COVID-19 vaccination. Current guidelines recommend both intravenous immunoglobulin and glucocorticoids in the first-line immunomodulatory treatment, mainly based on comparative retrospective cohorts; the actual role of biologics remains to be adequately established. Strict follow-up is mandatory, especially for those with severe cardiac involvement, as longitudinal studies evaluate the long-term evolution of cardiac damage.

CONCLUSION: In this paper, we review the epidemiological, pathogenetic, clinical and prognostic features of MIS-C, and outline the main questions which still remain unanswered after more than 3 years of research.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-07

Dai Z, Cai R, Zeng H, et al (2024)

Exosome may be the next generation of promising cell-free vaccines.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 20(1):2345940.

Traditional vaccines have limits against some persistent infections and pathogens. The development of novel vaccine technologies is particularly critical for the future. Exosomes play an important role in physiological and pathological processes. Exosomes present many advantages, such as inherent capacity being biocompatible, non-toxic, which make them a more desirable candidate for vaccines. However, research on exosomes are in their infancy and the barriers of low yield, low purity, and weak targeting of exosomes limit their applications in vaccines. Accordingly, further exploration is necessary to improve these problems and subsequently facilitate the functional studies of exosomes. In this study, we reviewed the origin, classification, functions, modifications, separation and purification, and characterization methods of exosomes. Meanwhile, we focused on the role and mechanism of exosomes for cancer and COVID-19 vaccines.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Kurnaz D, Şenoğlu A, Z Karaçam (2024)

The impact of antenatal telehealth services on maternal and neonatal outcomes, a comparison of results before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis (The impact of telehealth services on maternal and neonatal outcomes).

Midwifery, 134:104017 pii:S0266-6138(24)00100-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of antenatal follow-up using telehealth in the pre-COVID-19 and active pandemic periods.

DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

METHODS: Searches were conducted from inception to September 2023 through PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Embase, Web of Science, all via Ovid SP, the National Thesis Center, TR Index, Turkiye Clinics, and DergiPark Academic. Data were combined in the meta-analysis. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias 2 tool and quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation guidelines.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of antenatal telehealth services included 35 studies with a total sample size of 16 033. The combined results of the studies revealed that antenatal telehealth services were similar to face-to-face follow-ups for many maternal and newborn health outcomes. Maternal outcomes included abortion, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, weight gain, hypertensive disorders, maternal hospitalization, number of antenatal follow-ups, use of induction, vaginal and instrumental delivery, planned and emergency cesarean section, shoulder dystocia, episiotomy, perineal laceration, childbirth under the supervision of qualified personnel, breastfeeding problems and postpartum depression. Neonatal outcomes included an APGAR score of <7, neonatal hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, admission into the neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, neonatal death, birth weight, low birth weight and macrosomia. However, statistically significant reductions in excessive weight gain (p<0.001) and a 1.23-fold increase in vaccination administration (p=0.001) were observed with telehealth services. Additionally, the effects of telehealth services on preterm and cesarean delivery rates were similar in the pre-pandemic and pandemic periods.

This review reveals that while antenatal telehealth services are comparable to face-to-face care in terms of multiple pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes, they contribute to improvements in preventing extreme weight gain and vaccination hesitancy. These findings suggest that the telehealth method can be used as an alternative to face-to-face monitoring in antenatal follow-ups.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Pereira M, Santos Aleluia IR, de Castro CT, et al (2024)

COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance and Hesitancy among People Living with HIV: Review and Meta-Analysis.

AIDS and behavior [Epub ahead of print].

This study aims to estimate the COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among people living with HIV (PLWHA). A search for observational studies was conducted in five databases and preprinted literature. Summary estimates were pooled using a random effects model and meta-regression. Of 150 identified studies, 31 were eligible (18,550 PLWHA). The weighted prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy overall was 29.07% among PLWHA (95%CI = 24.33-34.32; I[2] = 98%,) and that of vaccine acceptance was 68.66% (95%CI = 62.25-74.43; I[2] = 98%). Higher hesitancy prevalence was identified in low/lower-middle income countries (35.05; 95% CI = 19.38-54.78). The heterogeneity was explained by the risk of bias, region, and year of data collection. The findings conclude that the COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy rate remains high, especially in low-income countries. Evidence-informed interventions aimed at increasing COVID-19 vaccine acceptance at the national and individual levels ought to be designed to increase COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among PLWHA.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-07

Shchepikhin EI, Shmelev EI, AE Ergeshov (2024)

[Pulmonary fibrosis after a new coronavirus infection - versions and controversies: A review].

Terapevticheskii arkhiv, 96(3):298-302.

Fibrosis is a dynamic process characterized by a typical cascade of events as a result of overexpressed repair of connective tissue in response to injury, and manifested by excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix. The development of fibrosis is a determining factor in the pathogenesis, clinical course and prognosis of many diseases, among which interstitial lung diseases occupy a special place. According to a large Russian registry ( NCT04492384), in a third of patients with COVID-19, the volume of lung parenchyma involvement exceeds 50% (CT 3-4). The rapid growth in the number of patients who have had a coronavirus infection with lung damage has raised the issues of its long-term consequences to the number of the most relevant in internal medicine of the current time. Often, in the outcome of a coronavirus infection, patients retain clinical and functional changes that are similar to interstitial lung diseases of a different origin, the prognosis of which is determined by the development of interstitial fibrosis and the rate of its progression. This article is an attempt to consider topical issues of fibrogenesis in patients who have undergone a new coronavirus infection through the prism of polar data on immunobiology, clinical course and prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Anastácio BM, Monteiro PB, MF Capelo (2024)

The impact of COVID-19 on male reproductive health: a Systematic Review.

JBRA assisted reproduction [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This systematic literature review aims to assess the impact of COVID-19 on male fertility.

DATA SOURCES: The study draws upon data extracted from PubMed, SciELO, and LILACS databases.

STUDY SELECTION: The review incorporates cross-sectional studies, cohort studies, and clinical trials, encompassing investigations related to the subject matter. The studies included were published between June 2020 and March 2023, and encompassed content in English, Portuguese, and Spanish. Exclusion criteria encompassed review articles, case reports, abstracts, studies involving animal models, duplicate articles, and letters to the editor.

DATA COLLECTION: Data extracted included the author's name and publication year, the number of patients studied, patient age, the presence of COVID-19 in semen, observed hormonal changes, and alterations in seminal quality.

CONCLUSIONS: While hormonal changes and a decline in seminal quality were observed in COVID-19 patients, the virus itself was not detected in semen in the analyzed articles, which contradicts certain findings in the existing literature. It is essential to note that methodologies in the studies were diverse, and, due to the novelty of this infection, it is premature to definitively ascertain its long-term effects on male fertility or whether fertility can recover after a period of convalescence. This underscores the necessity for further research, utilizing more robust methodologies such as cohort studies.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Zifko U, Guendling K, Seet R, et al (2024)

Management of cognitive impairment associated with post-COVID-19 syndrome: recommendations for primary care.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 15:1338235.

Introduction: Although post-COVID-19 syndrome (PCS) with cognitive impairment is increasingly encountered in primary care, evidence-based recommendations for its appropriate management are lacking. Methods: A systematic literature search evaluating the diagnosis and treatment of cognitive impairment associated with PCS was conducted. Practical recommendations for the management of PCS-associated cognitive impairment in primary care are summarized, based on an evaluation of pharmacological plausibility and clinical applications. Results: Currently, the pathology of cognitive impairment associated with PCS remains unclear with no high-quality data to support targeted interventions. Existing treatment approaches are directed towards symptom relief where counseling on the chronicity of the disease and regular reassessments at 4- to 8-week intervals is considered reasonable. Patients should be informed and encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle that centers around balanced nutrition and appropriate physical activities. They may also benefit from the intake of vitamins, micronutrients, and probiotics. The administration of Ginkgo biloba extract could offer a safe and potentially beneficial treatment option. Other non-pharmacological measures include physiotherapy, digitally supported cognitive training, and, if indicated, ergotherapy or speech therapy. In most patients, symptoms improve within 8 weeks. If serious, ambiguous, or when new symptoms occur, specialized diagnostic measures such as comprehensive neurocognitive testing or neuroimaging should be initiated. Very few patients would require inpatient rehabilitation. Conclusion: PCS with cognitive impairment is a debilitating condition that could affect daily functioning and reduce work productivity. Management in primary care should adopt a multidisciplinary approach, centering around physical, cognitive, and pharmacological therapies.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Safarabadi M, Motallebirad T, Azadi D, et al (2024)

Healthcare-associated infections in Iranian pediatric and adult intensive care units: A comprehensive review of risk factors, etiology, molecular epidemiology, antimicrobial sensitivity, and prevention strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Journal of intensive care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The current review article provides a comprehensive analysis of nosocomial infections in pediatric and adult intensive care units (ICUs) in Iran. We examine the risk factors and etiology of nosocomial infections, with a particular focus on molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial sensitivity. In this article, we explore a range of prevention strategies, including hand hygiene, personal protective equipment, environmental cleaning, antibiotic stewardship, education, and training. Moreover, we discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on infection control measures in ICUs and provide valuable insights for healthcare professionals and policymakers seeking to address this critical public health issue. In conclusion, this review article can serve as a valuable resource for those interested in understanding and improving infection control in ICUs and beyond.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Amjad W, Hamaad Rahman S, Schiano TD, et al (2024)

Epidemiology and Management of Infections in Liver Transplant Recipients.

Surgical infections, 25(4):272-290.

Background: Improvements in liver transplant (LT) outcomes are attributed to advances in surgical techniques, use of potent immunosuppressants, and rigorous pre-LT testing. Despite these improvements, post-LT infections remain the most common complication in this population. Bacteria constitute the most common infectious agents, while fungal and viral infections are also frequently encountered. Multi-drug-resistant bacterial infections develop because of polymicrobial overuse and prolonged hospital stays. Immediate post-LT infections are commonly caused by viruses. Conclusions: Appropriate vaccination, screening of both donor and recipients before LT and antiviral prophylaxis in high-risk individuals are recommended. Antimicrobial drug resistance is common in high-risk LT and associated with poor outcomes; epidemiology and management of these cases is discussed. Additionally, we also discuss the effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and monkeypox in the LT population.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Vecchio R, Gentile L, Tafuri S, et al (2024)

Exploring future perspectives and pipeline progression in vaccine research and development.

Annali di igiene : medicina preventiva e di comunita, 36(4):446-461.

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic had a profound impact on vaccines' Research and Development, on vaccines' market, and on immunization programmes and policies. The need to promptly respond to the health emergency boostered resources' al-location and innovation, while new technologies were made available. Regulatory procedures were revised and expedited, and global production and distribution capacities significantly increased. Aim of this review is to outline the trajectory of research in vaccinology and vaccines' pipeline, highlighting major challenges and opportunities, and projecting future perspectives in vaccine preventables diseases' prevention and control.

STUDY DESIGN: Narrative review.

METHODS: We comprehensively consulted key biomedical databases including "Medline" and "Embase", preprint platforms, including"MedRxiv" and "BioRxiv", clinical trial registries, selected grey literature sources and scientific reports. Further data and insights were collected from experts in the field. We first reflect on the impact that the COVID-19 had on vaccines' Research and Development, regulatory frameworks, and market, we then present updated figures of vaccines pipeline, by different technologies, comparatively highlighting advantages and disadvantages. We conclude summarizing future perspectives in vaccines' development and immunizations strategies, outlining key challenges, knowledge gaps and opportunities for prevention strategies.

RESULTS: COVID-19 vaccines' development has been largely supported by public funding. New technologies and expetited autho-rization and distribution processes allowed to control the pandemic, leading vaccines' market to grow exponentially. In the post-pandemic era investments in prevention are projected to decrease but advancements in technology offer great potential to future immunization strategies. As of 2023, the vaccine pipeline include almost 1,000 candidates, at different Research and Development phase, including innovative recombinant protein vaccines, nucleic acid vaccines and viral vector vaccines. Vaccines' technology platforms development varies by disease. Overall, vaccinology is progressing towards increasingly safe and effective products that are easily manufacturable and swiftly convertible.

CONCLUSIONS: Vaccine research is rapidly evolving, emerging technologies and new immunization models offer public health new tools and large potential to fight vaccines preventables diseases, with promising new platforms and broadened target populations. Real-life data analysis and operational research is needed to evaluate how such potential is exploited in public health practice to improve population health.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Sumichika Y, Temmoku J, Saito K, et al (2024)

New-onset Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Manifestation Following COVID-19: A Case Report and Literature Review.

Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan), 63(10):1491-1498.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory viral disease, and several cases of autoimmune diseases have been reported after infection. This report presents the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman who developed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) following COVID-19. Clinical manifestations included dermatological complications, joint pain, and positive autoantibodies. The patient met the SLE classification criteria, and renal involvement was observed. Her symptoms improved with immunosuppressive therapy. A literature review identified 10 similar cases, those with lymphopenia and renal involvement. SLE should be considered in patients with persistent nonspecific symptoms after COVID-19 infection, particularly when hematologic and renal involvement are present.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Ajmera H, Lakhawat SS, Malik N, et al (2024)

Global Emergence of SARS-CoV2 Infection and Scientific Interventions to Contain its Spread.

Current protein & peptide science, 25(4):307-325.

The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 posed a significant challenge to public health, necessitating rapid scientific interventions to tackle the spread of infection. The review discusses the key areas of research on COVID-19 including viral genomics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and therapeutics. The genome sequencing of the virus facilitated the tracking of its evolution, transmission dynamics, and identification of variants. Epidemiological studies have provided insights into disease spread, risk factors, and the impact of public health infrastructure and social distancing measures. Investigations of the viral pathogenesis have elucidated the mechanisms underlying immune responses and severe manifestations including the long-term effects of COVID-19. Overall, the article provides an updated overview of the diagnostic methods developed for SARS-CoV-2 and discusses their strengths, limitations, and appropriate utilization in different clinical and public health settings. Furthermore, therapeutic approaches including antiviral drugs, immunomodulatory therapies, and repurposed medications have been investigated to alleviate disease severity and improve patient outcomes. Through a comprehensive analysis of these scientific efforts, the review provides an overview of the advancements made in understanding and tackling SARS-CoV-2, while underscoring the need for continued research to address the evolving challenges posed by this global health crisis.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Buckland B, Sanyal G, Ranheim T, et al (2024)

Vaccine process technology-A decade of progress.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

In the past decade, new approaches to the discovery and development of vaccines have transformed the field. Advances during the COVID-19 pandemic allowed the production of billions of vaccine doses per year using novel platforms such as messenger RNA and viral vectors. Improvements in the analytical toolbox, equipment, and bioprocess technology have made it possible to achieve both unprecedented speed in vaccine development and scale of vaccine manufacturing. Macromolecular structure-function characterization technologies, combined with improved modeling and data analysis, enable quantitative evaluation of vaccine formulations at single-particle resolution and guided design of vaccine drug substances and drug products. These advances play a major role in precise assessment of critical quality attributes of vaccines delivered by newer platforms. Innovations in label-free and immunoassay technologies aid in the characterization of antigenic sites and the development of robust in vitro potency assays. These methods, along with molecular techniques such as next-generation sequencing, will accelerate characterization and release of vaccines delivered by all platforms. Process analytical technologies for real-time monitoring and optimization of process steps enable the implementation of quality-by-design principles and faster release of vaccine products. In the next decade, the field of vaccine discovery and development will continue to advance, bringing together new technologies, methods, and platforms to improve human health.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Boucher J, Gilbert C, Bose S, et al (2024)

S100A9: The Unusual Suspect Connecting Viral Infection and Inflammation.

Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 212(10):1523-1529.

The study of S100A9 in viral infections has seen increased interest since the COVID-19 pandemic. S100A8/A9 levels were found to be correlated with the severity of COVID-19 disease, cytokine storm, and changes in myeloid cell subsets. These data led to the hypothesis that S100A8/A9 proteins might play an active role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. This review explores the structures and functions of S100A8/9 and the current knowledge on the involvement of S100A8/A9 and its constituents in viral infections. The potential roles of S100A9 in SARS-CoV-2 infections are also discussed.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Megna M, Lauletta G, Tommasino N, et al (2024)

Management of Psoriasis Patients with Serious Infectious Diseases.

Advances in therapy [Epub ahead of print].

The management of patients affected by moderate-to-severe psoriasis may be challenging, in particular in patients with serious infectious diseases [tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B and C, HIV, COVID-19]. Indeed, these infections should be ruled out before starting and during systemic treatment for psoriasis. Currently, four conventional systemic drugs (methotrexate, dimethyl fumarate, acitretin, cyclosporine), four classes of biologics (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha, anti-interleukin (IL)12/23, anti-IL-17s, and anti-IL-23], and two oral small molecules (apremilast, deucravacitinib) have been licensed for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Each of these drugs is characterized by a unique safety profile which should be considered before starting therapy. Indeed, some comorbidities or risk factors may limit their use. In this context, the aim of this manuscript was to evaluate the management of patients affected by moderate-to-severe psoriasis with serious infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Ullah A, Singla RK, Batool Z, et al (2024)

Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines are the game-changers in childhood obesity-associated metabolic disorders (diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases).

Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders [Epub ahead of print].

Childhood obesity is a chronic inflammatory epidemic that affects children worldwide. Obesity affects approximately 1 in 5 children worldwide. Obesity in children can worsen weight gain and raise the risk of obesity-related comorbidities like diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It can also negatively impact the quality of life for these children. Obesity disrupts immune system function, influencing cytokine (interleukins) balance and expression levels, adipokines, and innate and adaptive immune cells. The altered expression of immune system mediators, including interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-18 (IL-18), transforming growth factor (TGF), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), and others, caused inflammation, progression, and the development of pediatric obesity and linked illnesses such as diabetes and NAFLD. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), have been shown to have anti-diabetes and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) anti-diabetic and pro-NAFLFD properties, and interleukin-10 (IL-10) has been shown to have a dual role in managing diabetes and anti-NAFLD. In light of the substantial increase in childhood obesity-associated disorders such as diabetes and NAFLD and the absence of an effective pharmaceutical intervention to inhibit immune modulation factors, it is critical to consider the alteration of immune system components as a preventive and therapeutic approach. Thus, the current review focuses on the most recent information regarding the influence of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukins) and their molecular mechanisms on pediatric obesity-associated disorders (diabetes and NAFLD). Furthermore, we discussed the current therapeutic clinical trials in childhood obesity-associated diseases, diabetes, and NAFLD.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Padhi BK, Gupta PC, Al Kaabi NA, et al (2024)

Incidence and Association of Uveitis with COVID-19 Vaccination: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ophthalmic epidemiology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines have been pivotal in curbing disease spread and severity. However, concerns over post-vaccination adverse events, including uveitis, an inflammatory ocular condition, have been noted. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the incidence and association of uveitis following COVID-19 vaccination.

METHODS: A literature search was performed across several databases on October 21, 2023. Human studies examining the incidence of uveitis post-COVID-19 vaccination were included. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used for quality appraisal of the included studies. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the overall incidence of uveitis and the relative risk of developing the condition post-vaccination. All statistical analyses were performed using R software version 4.3.

RESULTS: Six studies involving over 2 billion vaccine doses were included. The overall incidence of uveitis was 0.016% (95% CI: 0.010 to 0.026). No significant association was found between vaccination and the onset of uveitis (Relative Risk: 1.45 (95% CI: 0.82 to 2.57, p = 0.12) from four studies. The evidence quality was rated very low due to the limited number of studies and imprecision.

CONCLUSION: This analysis indicates a low incidence of uveitis following COVID-19 vaccination and no significant association with the vaccine. The findings are constrained by the small number of studies and low certainty of evidence, underscoring the need for further research. Comprehensive and longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm these findings and reinforce public confidence in COVID-19 vaccination programs.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Li Q, Li J, Zhou M, et al (2024)

Antiphospholipid antibody-related hepatic vasculitis in a juvenile after non-severe COVID-19: a case report and literature review.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1354349.

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are both laboratory evidence and causative factors for a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), with thrombotic and obstetric events being the most prevalent. Despite the aPL-triggered vasculopathy nature of APS, vasculitic-like manifestations rarely exist in APS and mainly appear associated with other concurrent connective tissue diseases like systemic lupus erythematous. Several studies have characterized pulmonary capillaritis related to pathogenic aPL, suggesting vasculitis as a potential associated non-thrombotic manifestation. Here, we describe a 15-year-old girl who develops hepatic infarction in the presence of highly positive aPL, temporally related to prior non-severe COVID-19 infection. aPL-related hepatic vasculitis, which has not been reported before, contributes to liver ischemic necrosis. Immunosuppression therapy brings about favorable outcomes. Our case together with retrieved literature provides supportive evidence for aPL-related vasculitis, extending the spectrum of vascular changes raised by pathogenic aPL. Differentiation between thrombotic and vasculitic forms of vascular lesions is essential for appropriate therapeutic decision to include additional immunosuppression therapy. We also perform a systematic review to characterize the prevalence and clinical features of new-onset APS and APS relapses after COVID-19 for the first time, indicating the pathogenicity of aPL in a subset of COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Haems M, Lanzilotto M, Mandelli A, et al (2024)

European community pharmacists practice in tackling influenza.

Exploratory research in clinical and social pharmacy, 14:100447.

BACKGROUND: In many European countries, flu vaccination coverage rates are below the 75% target. During the COVID-19 pandemic, many pharmacists around Europe were involved as vaccine administrators and demonstrated positive results in improving vaccine uptake. This paper explores the challenges, accomplishments, and best practices of various European pharmacists' associations in administering vaccines and positively contributing to public health.

METHODS: Eight pharmacists representing various associations from different countries across Europe (Italy, Belgium, Poland, Portugal, France, and Germany) convened to discuss their role as vaccination providers, the advantages, and strategies for improvement, and to identify barriers and gaps in the vaccination administration process, especially focusing on the administration of seasonal flu vaccines.

RESULTS: Currently, 15 European countries allow community pharmacists to dispense and administer flu vaccines. Among the ones that attended the meeting, Portugal initiated the flu immunization program at the pharmacy earliest, before the COVID era, but in other countries, the process started only in the last couple of years. Initial hesitancy and reluctance by other HCPs or institutions were overcome as the pilot projects showed positive and cost-effective public health results. Today, pharmacists are considered crucial professional figures to provide immunization services against COVID-19, the flu, and other vaccine-preventable diseases, and pursue important public health goals.Key takeaways to enhance the pharmacist's role in providing immunization services against vaccine-preventable diseases include improving interaction with policymakers and the public, generating real-world evidence highlighting public health benefits, and ensuring ongoing professional education and training for pharmacists.

CONCLUSION: Vaccinating pharmacists are gaining recognition of their role and the benefits derived from their broader involvement in the healthcare system, including immunization programs. Further efforts are needed in each country for an adequate recognition of the profession and a broader utilization of pharmacy services to exploit the benefit of immunization, especially against the flu.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Almulla N, Soltane R, Alasiri A, et al (2024)

Advancements in SARS-CoV-2 detection: Navigating the molecular landscape and diagnostic technologies.

Heliyon, 10(9):e29909.

According to information from the World Health Organization, the world has experienced about 430 million cases of COVID-19, a world-wide health crisis caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This outbreak, originating from China in 2019, has led to nearly 6 million deaths worldwide. As the number of confirmed infections continues to rise, the need for cutting-edge techniques that can detect SARS-CoV-2 infections early and accurately has become more critical. To address this, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) has issued emergency use authorizations (EUAs) for a wide range of diagnostic tools. These include tests based on detecting nucleic acids and antigen-antibody reactions. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) assay stands out as the gold standard for early virus detection. However, despite its accuracy, qRT-PCR has limitations, such as complex testing protocols and a risk of false negatives, which drive the continuous improvement in nucleic acid and serological testing approaches. The emergence of highly contagious variants of the coronavirus, such as Alpha (B.1.1.7), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529), has increased the need for tests that can specifically identify these mutations. This article explores both nucleic acid-based and antigen-antibody serological assays, assessing the performance of recently approved FDA tests and those documented in scientific research, especially in identifying new coronavirus strains.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Faraji N, Zeinali T, Joukar F, et al (2024)

Mutational dynamics of SARS-CoV-2: Impact on future COVID-19 vaccine strategies.

Heliyon, 10(9):e30208.

The rapid emergence of multiple strains of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has sparked profound concerns regarding the ongoing evolution of the virus and its potential impact on global health. Classified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as variants of concern (VOC), these strains exhibit heightened transmissibility and pathogenicity, posing significant challenges to existing vaccine strategies. Despite widespread vaccination efforts, the continual evolution of SARS-CoV-2 variants presents a formidable obstacle to achieving herd immunity. Of particular concern is the coronavirus spike (S) protein, a pivotal viral surface protein crucial for host cell entry and infectivity. Mutations within the S protein have been shown to enhance transmissibility and confer resistance to antibody-mediated neutralization, undermining the efficacy of traditional vaccine platforms. Moreover, the S protein undergoes rapid molecular evolution under selective immune pressure, leading to the emergence of diverse variants with distinct mutation profiles. This review underscores the urgent need for vigilance and adaptation in vaccine development efforts to combat the evolving landscape of SARS-CoV-2 mutations and ensure the long-term effectiveness of global immunization campaigns.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Jain MJ, Akbari GG, Umraniya YN, et al (2024)

Healthcare in the Dynamism of Metaverse After COVID-19: A Systematic Review of Literature.

Cureus, 16(4):e57554.

The idea of the "metaverse" is a relatively recent technological development. The industries that are most supportive of these developments include finance, entertainment, and communication. In addition to these, the healthcare domain has been added to the list of domains that benefit from the metaverse recently. Within the metaverse, research is being conducted on a wide range of medical topics, including conferences and seminars, surgical simulators, awareness campaigns, research projects, and much more. The metaverse is a flexible and highly customizable virtual digital platform that can be configured to suit specific needs, making it an adaptable instrument for medical advancement. These domains, together with their benefits and drawbacks, are thoroughly covered in this review article, which raises the discussion of the need for medical productivity. These studies have undergone a minimum amount of research and experimentation, and the findings are fair from an investigative standpoint. This review article's major goal is to make a provocative remark about metaverse domains and how they have already been used and might be used as an essential operational tool in the field of medicine in the future. Consequently, the objective of the present study is to review the current literature on post-COVID-19 pandemic development that connected the metaverse with the prevention and treatment of diseases, medical education and training, and expansion of available functionalities in research settings.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Jin D, Wei X, He Y, et al (2024)

The nutritional roles of zinc for immune system and COVID-19 patients.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1385591.

Zinc (Zn) is a vital micronutrient that strengthens the immune system, aids cellular activities, and treats infectious diseases. A deficiency in Zn can lead to an imbalance in the immune system. This imbalance is particularly evident in severe deficiency cases, where there is a high susceptibility to various viral infections, including COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2. This review article examines the nutritional roles of Zn in human health, the maintenance of Zn concentration, and Zn uptake. As Zn is an essential trace element that plays a critical role in the immune system and is necessary for immune cell function and cell signaling, the roles of Zn in the human immune system, immune cells, interleukins, and its role in SARS-CoV-2 infection are further discussed. In summary, this review paper encapsulates the nutritional role of Zn in the human immune system, with the hope of providing specific insights into Zn research.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Crespo-Bellido M, Fernandez Ong J, Yaroch A, et al (2024)

E-health Dietary Interventions for Participants of SNAP and WIC: A Systematic Review.

Current developments in nutrition, 8(4):102099.

The migration of federal assistance services to online platforms during the COVID-19 pandemic sparked interest in digital nutrition education for individuals participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) programs. With federal government investing in the modernization of the nutrition education components of both programs, there is a need to identify science-backed electronic health (e-health) dietary interventions to improve health outcomes in this population. Therefore, the objective of this systematic literature review was to summarize the effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility of e-health dietary interventions among individuals participating in WIC or SNAP. Keyword searches were performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Science Direct. The search included peer-reviewed literature from 2014 to 2023 and a few articles offering context about interventions used long-term by the nutrition assistance programs. PRISMA guidelines were followed to conduct this systematic literature review, which resulted in 36 articles eligible for extraction. The studies evaluated e-health (52.8%), short message service/text messaging (27.8%), and smartphone application interventions (19.4%) delivered to WIC or SNAP participants. The interventions identified aimed to modify food choice, eating behavior, and dietary intake among SNAP participants, SNAP-eligible adults, and WIC participants. Most interventions were developed using content delivery and health behavior theoretical frameworks (77.8%) and evidence-based nutritional recommendations (59.3%). Review findings show a high level of acceptability and feasibility for e-health and mobile health dietary interventions among WIC and SNAP participants but varying levels of effectiveness. Level of engagement, dosage, retention, and adherence were strong predictors of positive dietary behavior change regardless of the mode of intervention delivery. Future studies need to prioritize health equity by recruiting samples representative of food nutrition assistance participants and addressing digital health literacy as a potential barrier to intervention effectiveness, as none of the present studies measured literacy among participants.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Ulloque-Badaracco JR, Copaja-Corzo C, Hernandez-Bustamante EA, et al (2024)

Fungal infections in patients after recovering from COVID-19: a systematic review.

Therapeutic advances in infectious disease, 11:20499361241242963.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The presence of fungal infections has been described in patients after recovering from COVID-19. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of studies that reported fungal infections (Mucor spp., Pneumocystis jirovecii, or Aspergillus spp.) in adults after recovering from COVID-19.

METHODS: We performed a systematic review through PubMed, Web of Science, OVID-Medline, Embase, and Scopus. The study selection process was performed independently and by at least two authors. We performed a risk of bias assessment using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort and case-control studies, and the Joanna Briggs Institute's Checklists for Case Series and Case Reports.

RESULTS: The systematic search found 33 studies meeting all inclusion criteria. There was a total population of 774 participants, ranging from 21 to 87 years. From them, 746 developed a fungal infection. In 19 studies, Mucor spp. was reported as the main mycosis. In 10 studies, P. jirovecii was reported as the main mycosis. In seven studies, Aspergillus spp. was reported as the main mycosis. Regarding the quality assessment, 12 studies were classified as low risk of bias and the remaining studies as high risk of bias.

CONCLUSION: Patients' clinical presentation and prognosis after recovering from COVID-19 with fungal infection differ from those reported patients with acute COVID-19 infection and those without COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Rossini V, Tolosa-Enguis V, Frances-Cuesta C, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome and anti-viral immunity in COVID-19.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 64(14):4587-4602.

SARS-CoV-2 mainly affects the respiratory system, but the gastrointestinal tract is also a target. Prolonged gut disorders, in COVID-19 patients, were correlated with decreased richness and diversity of the gut microbiota, immune deregulation and delayed viral clearance. Although there are no definitive conclusions, ample evidence would suggest that the gut microbiome composition and function play a role in COVID-19 progression. Microbiome modulation strategies for population stratification and management of COVID-19 infection are under investigation, representing an area of interest in the ongoing pandemic. In this review, we present the existing data related to the interaction between gut microbes and the host's immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the implications for current disease management and readiness to face future pandemics.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-12

Li Y, Wang J, Liang S, et al (2024)

Clinical phenotype of AAV, anti-GBM disease and double-positive patients after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

Autoimmunity reviews, 23(4):103521.

The number of anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) disease and double-positive patients (DPPs) following the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine reported in the literature is increasing, we reviewed the reported cases of AAV, anti-GBM disease and DPPs subsequent to COVID-19 vaccination, and compared the disparities in DPPs who received the COVID-19 vaccination and those who did not. We did not observe any differences in clinical phenotype of AAV, anti-GBM disease and DPPs before and after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Gu SJ, Wen JL, Wang XY, et al (2024)

[Progress in the diagnose and treatment of pulmonary arterial thrombosis in situ].

Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 47(5):464-469.

In situ pulmonary arterial thrombosis (ISPAT) refers to the formation of new blood clots in the pulmonary arterial system in the absence of pre-existing clots in the peripheral venous system. With the emergence and prevalence of COVID-19, ISPAT has become an increasingly important cause of pulmonary arterial thrombosis (PAT) alongside thromboembolism. Several factors such as hypoxia, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulable state can lead to ISPAT, which is associated with a number of conditions such as thoracic trauma, partial lung resection, pulmonary infectious disease, pulmonary vasculitis, connective tissue diseases, severe pulmonary hypertension, radiation pneumonitis, and acute chest syndrome in sickle cell disease. It is important to differentiate between pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) and ISPAT for proper disease management and prognosis. In this review, we summarized the characteristics of ISPAT under different disease conditions, the methods to distinguish ISPAT from PTE, and the best treatment strategies. We hoped that this review could improve clinicians' understanding of this independent disease and provide guidance for the refined treatment of patients with PAT.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Yang LL, Huang LT, Ren SY, et al (2024)

[COVID-19 in patients with Good syndrome: report of 4 cases and literature review].

Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 47(5):430-436.

Objective: To summarize the clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with Good's syndrome. Methods: We included all cases of COVID-19 in patients with Good's syndrome in the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University from January 1, 2023 to August 31, 2023. In addition to our cases, we searched the published literature in Wanfang database and PubMed database using the keywords "Good's syndrome" and "COVID-19". The clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of the patients were summarized and analyzed. Results: A total of four patients with Good's syndrome complicated by COVID-19 were identified in our hospital, all of them were male, and the days of hospitalization were 17, 23, 7, and 13 days, respectively. Databases were searched for a total of six patients with Good's syndrome complicated by COVID-19, including three females and three males, all foreign patients, with hospitalization days of 12, 22, 13, 25, 21, and 34 days respectively. All ten patients met the diagnostic criteria for severe or critical COVID-19, and three(all middle-aged males) of them died, two from sepsis and one from respiratory failure. They were. Conclusion: COVID-19 in patients with Good's syndrome are prone to develop severe or critical disease and are more likely to be infected with multiple pathogens. Timely immunoglobulin supplementation is the key to treatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Etebar N, Naderpour S, Akbari S, et al (2024)

Impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on brain renin angiotensin system related signaling and its subsequent complications on brain: a theoretical perspective.

Journal of chemical neuroanatomy pii:S0891-0618(24)00036-X [Epub ahead of print].

Cellular ACE2 (cACE2), a vital component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), possesses catalytic activity to maintain AngII and Ang 1-7 balance, which is necessary to prevent harmful effects of AngII/AT2R and promote protective pathways of Ang (1-7)/MasR and Ang (1-7)/AT2R. Hemostasis of the brain-RAS is essential for maintaining normal central nervous system (CNS) function. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a viral disease that causes multi-organ dysfunction. SARS-CoV-2 mainly uses cACE2 to enter the cells and cause its downregulation. This, in turn, prevents the conversion of Ang II to Ang (1-7) and disrupts the normal balance of brain-RAS. Brain-RAS disturbances give rise to one of the pathological pathways in which SARS-CoV-2 suppresses neuroprotective pathways and induces inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. Finally, these impairments lead to neuroinflammation, neuronal injury, and neurological complications. In conclusion, the influence of RAS on various processes within the brain has significant implications for the neurological manifestations associated with COVID-19. These effects include sensory disturbances, such as olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions, as well as cerebrovascular and brain stem-related disorders, all of which are intertwined with disruptions in the RAS homeostasis of the brain.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Lohfeld L, Sharma M, Bennett D, et al (2024)

Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer patient pathways and outcomes in the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland - a scoping review.

British journal of cancer [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic brought unplanned service disruption for breast cancer diagnostic, treatment and support services. This scoping review describes these changes and their impact in the UK and the Republic of Ireland based on studies published between January 2020 and August 2023. Thirty-four of 569 papers were included. Data were extracted and results thematically organized. Findings include fewer new cases; stage shift (fewer early- and more late-stage disease); and changes to healthcare organization, breast screening and treatment. Examples are accepting fewer referrals, applying stricter referral criteria and relying more on virtual consultations and multi-disciplinary meetings. Screening service programs paused during the pandemic before enacting risk-based phased restarts with longer appointment times to accommodate reduced staffing numbers and enhanced infection-control regimes. Treatments shifted from predominantly conventional to hypofractionated radiotherapy, fewer surgical procedures and increased use of bridging endocrine therapy. The long-term impact of such changes are unknown so definitive guidelines for future emergencies are not yet available. Cancer registries, with their large sample sizes and population coverage, are well placed to monitor changes to stage and survival despite difficulties obtaining definitive staging during diagnosis because surgery and pathological assessments are delayed. Multisite longitudinal studies can also provide guidance for future disaster preparedness.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Yadav AK, Basavegowda N, Shirin S, et al (2024)

Emerging Trends of Gold Nanostructures for Point-of-Care Biosensor-Based Detection of COVID-19.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

In 2019, a worldwide pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged. SARS-CoV-2 is the deadly microorganism responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has caused millions of deaths and irreversible health problems worldwide. To restrict the spread of SARS-CoV-2, accurate detection of COVID-19 is essential for the identification and control of infected cases. Although recent detection technologies such as the real-time polymerase chain reaction delivers an accurate diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, they require a long processing duration, expensive equipment, and highly skilled personnel. Therefore, a rapid diagnosis with accurate results is indispensable to offer effective disease suppression. Nanotechnology is the backbone of current science and technology developments including nanoparticles (NPs) that can biomimic the corona and develop deep interaction with its proteins because of their identical structures on the nanoscale. Various NPs have been extensively applied in numerous medical applications, including implants, biosensors, drug delivery, and bioimaging. Among them, point-of-care biosensors mediated with gold nanoparticles (GNPSs) have received great attention due to their accurate sensing characteristics, which are widely used in the detection of amino acids, enzymes, DNA, and RNA in samples. GNPS have reconstructed the biomedical application of biosensors because of its outstanding physicochemical characteristics. This review provides an overview of emerging trends in GNP-mediated point-of-care biosensor strategies for diagnosing various mutated forms of human coronaviruses that incorporate different transducers and biomarkers. The review also specifically highlights trends in gold nanobiosensors for coronavirus detection, ranging from the initial COVID-19 outbreak to its subsequent evolution into a pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-05-04

Taibi T, Cheon S, Perna F, et al (2024)

mRNA-based therapeutic strategies for cancer treatment.

Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy pii:S1525-0016(24)00299-5 [Epub ahead of print].

In the rapidly evolving landscape of medical research, the emergence of RNA-based therapeutics is paradigm shifting. It is mainly driven by the molecular adaptability and capacity to provide precision in targeting. The Covid-19 pandemic crisis underscored the effectiveness of the mRNA therapeutic development platform and brought it to the forefront of RNA-based interventions. These RNA-based therapeutic approaches can reshape gene expression, manipulate cellular functions, and correct aberrant molecular processes underlying various diseases. The new technologies hold the potential to engineer and deliver tailored therapeutic agents to tackle genetic disorders, cancers, infectious diseases in a highly personalized and precisely tuned manner. The review discusses most recent advancements in the field of mRNA therapeutics for cancer treatment, with a focus on the features of the most utilized RNA-based therapeutic interventions, current pre-clinical and clinical developments and the remaining challenges in delivery strategies, effectiveness, and safety considerations.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Sharifi Aliabadi L, Azari M, Taherian MR, et al (2024)

Immunologic responses to the third and fourth doses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in cell therapy recipients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Virology journal, 21(1):103.

BACKGROUND: Multiple studies have provided evidence of suboptimal or poor immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and chimeric antigen receptor-T (CAR-T) cell therapy compared to healthy individuals. Given the dynamic nature of SARS-CoV2, characterized by the emergence of many viral variations throughout the general population, there is ongoing discussion regarding the optimal quantity and frequency of additional doses required to sustain protection against SARS-CoV2 especially in this susceptible population. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigated the immune responses of HSCT and CAR-T cell therapy recipients to additional doses of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

METHODS: Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, the study involved a comprehensive search across PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, Embase, and Cochrane Biorxiv and medRxiv, focusing on the serological responses to the third and fourth vaccine doses in HSCT and CAR-T cell patients.

RESULTS: This study included 32 papers, with 31 qualifying for the meta-analysis. Results showed that after the third dose, the seroconversion rate in HSCT and CAR-T cell therapy recipients who didn't respond to the second dose was 46.10 and 17.26%, respectively. Following the fourth dose, HSCT patients had a seroconversion rate of 27.23%. Moreover, post-third-dose seropositivity rates were 87.14% for HSCT and 32.96% for CAR-T cell therapy recipients. Additionally, the seropositive response to the fourth dose in the HSCT group was 90.04%.

CONCLUSION: While a significant portion of HSCT recipients developed antibodies after additional vaccinations, only a minority of CAR-T cell therapy patients showed a similar response. This suggests that alternative vaccination strategies are needed to protect these vulnerable groups effectively. Moreover, few studies have reported cellular responses to additional SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in these patients. Further studies evaluating cellular responses are required to determine a more precise assessment of immunogenicity strength against SARS-CoV-2 after additional doses.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Collingridge Moore D, Garner A, Cotterell N, et al (2024)

Long term care facilities in England during the COVID-19 pandemic-a scoping review of guidelines, policy and recommendations.

BMC geriatrics, 24(1):394.

BACKGROUND: The disproportionate effect of COVID-19 on long term care facility (LTCF) residents has highlighted the need for clear, consistent guidance on the management of pandemics in such settings. As research exploring the experiences of LTCFs during the pandemic and the implications of mass hospital discharge, restricting staff movement, and limiting visitation from relatives are emerging, an in-depth review of policies, guidance and recommendations issued during this time could facilitate wider understanding in this area.

AIMS: To identify policies, guidance, and recommendations related to LTCF staff and residents, in England issued by the government during the COVID-19 pandemic, developing a timeline of key events and synthesizing the policy aims, recommendations, implementation and intended outcomes.

METHOD: A scoping review of publicly available policy documents, guidance, and recommendations related to COVID-19 in LTCFs in England, identified using systematic searches of UK government websites. The main aims, recommendations, implementation and intended outcomes reported in included documents were extracted. Data was analysed using thematic synthesis following a three-stage approach: coding the text, grouping codes into descriptive themes, and development of analytical themes.

RESULTS: Thirty-three key policy documents were included in the review. Six areas of recommendations were identified: infection prevention and control, hospital discharge, testing and vaccination, staffing, visitation and continuing routine care. Seven areas of implementation were identified: funding, collaborative working, monitoring and data collection, reducing workload, decision making and leadership, training and technology, and communication.

DISCUSSION: LTCFs remain complex settings, and it is imperative that lessons are learned from the experiences during COVID-19 to ensure that future pandemics are managed appropriately. This review has synthesized the policies issued during this time, however, the extent to which such guidance was communicated to LTCFs, and subsequently implemented, in addition to being effective, requires further research. In particular, understanding the secondary effects of such policies and how they can be introduced within the existing challenges inherent to adult social care, need addressing.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Kim J, Jo S, SI Cho (2024)

New framework to assess tracing and testing based on South Korea's response to COVID-19.

BMC infectious diseases, 24(1):469.

South Korea's remarkable success in controlling the spread of COVID-19 during the pre-Omicron period was based on extensive contact tracing and large-scale testing. Here we suggest a general criterion for tracing and testing based on South Korea's experience, and propose a new framework to assess tracing and testing. We reviewed papers on South Korea's response to COVID-19 to capture its concept of tracing and testing. South Korea expanded its testing capabilities to enable group tracing combined with preemptive testing, and to conduct open testing. According to our proposed model, COVID-19 cases are classified into 4 types: confirmed in quarantine, source known, source unknown, and unidentified. The proportion of the first two case types among confirmed cases is defined as "traced proportion", and used as the indicator of tracing and testing effectiveness. In conclusion, South Korea successfully suppressed COVID-19 transmission by maintaining a high traced proportion (> 60%) using group tracing in conjunction with preemptive testing as a complementary strategy to traditional contact tracing.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Das S, Khan R, Banerjee S, et al (2024)

Alterations in Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Physical Activity in COVID-19: Mechanisms, Interventions, and Lessons for the Future.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Although the world is acquitting from the throes of COVID-19 and returning to the regularity of life, its effects on physical and mental health are prominently evident in the post-pandemic era. The pandemic subjected us to inadequate sleep and physical activities, stress, irregular eating patterns, and work hours beyond the regular rest-activity cycle. Thus, perturbing the synchrony of the regular circadian clock functions led to chronic psychiatric and neurological disorders and poor immunological response in several COVID-19 survivors. Understanding the links between the host immune system and viral replication machinery from a clock-infection biology perspective promises novel avenues of intervention. Behavioral improvements in our daily lifestyle can reduce the severity and expedite the convalescent stage of COVID-19 by maintaining consistent eating, sleep, and physical activity schedules. Including dietary supplements and nutraceuticals with prophylactic value aids in combating COVID-19, as their deficiency can lead to a higher risk of infection, vulnerability, and severity of COVID-19. Thus, besides developing therapeutic measures, perpetual healthy practices could also contribute to combating the upcoming pandemics. This review highlights the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on biological rhythms, sleep-wake cycles, physical activities, and eating patterns and how those disruptions possibly contribute to the response, severity, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Calvo Carrasco D (2024)

Exotic Animal Practice in Europe.

The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice pii:S1094-9194(24)00021-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The article delves into the multifaceted landscape of exotic pet medicine in Europe, exploring the impact of Brexit, evolving legislation surrounding exotic pet keeping, and challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic and the cost-of-living crisis. Regulatory changes, particularly in veterinary medication use, are discussed alongside the emergence of corporate entities in the veterinary industry. The article also underscores the need for improved education in exotic pet medicine and postgraduate qualifications. Overall, it provides a comprehensive overview of the dynamic factors shaping the practice, regulation, and education of exotic pet medicine across European countries.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Park IW, Fiadjoe HK, P Chaudhary (2024)

Impact of Annexin A2 on virus life cycles.

Virus research, 345:199384 pii:S0168-1702(24)00077-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the limited size of viral genomes, hijacking host machinery by the viruses taking place throughout the virus life cycle is inevitable for the survival and proliferation of the virus in the infected hosts. Recent reports indicated that Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a calcium- and lipid-binding cellular protein, plays an important role as a critical regulator in various steps of the virus life cycle. The multifarious AnxA2 functions in cells, such as adhesion, adsorption, endocytosis, exocytosis, cell proliferation and division, inflammation, cancer metastasis, angiogenesis, etc., are intimately related to the various clinical courses of viral infection. Ubiquitous expression of AnxA2 across multiple cell types indicates the broad range of susceptibility of diverse species of the virus to induce disparate viral disease in various tissues, and intracellular expression of AnxA2 in the cytoplasmic membrane, cytosol, and nucleus suggests the involvement of AnxA2 in the regulation of the different stages of various virus life cycles within host cells. However, it is yet unclear as to the molecular processes on how AnxA2 and the infected virus interplay to regulate virus life cycles and thereby the virus-associated disease courses, and hence elucidation of the molecular mechanisms on AnxA2-mediated virus life cycle will provide essential clues to develop therapeutics deterring viral disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Herre B, Rodés-Guirao L, Mathieu E, et al (2024)

Best practices for government agencies to publish data: lessons from COVID-19.

The Lancet. Public health pii:S2468-2667(24)00073-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Without data, knowing how to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic would have been impossible. Data were crucial to understanding how the disease spread and which efforts successfully protected people. Yet, national agencies often did not publish their data in an optimal way, which made responding to the pandemic challenging. Therefore, learning from what went well and what did not for the future is crucial. Drawing on our first-hand experience of republishing COVID-19 data, we identify seven best practices for how to publish data in an optimal way: collect the data that are relevant; make them comparable; clearly document the data; share them frequently and promptly; publish data at a stable location; choose a reusable format; and license others to reuse the data. These best practices are straightforward, inexpensive, and achievable, with some countries already having implemented most of them during the COVID-19 pandemic. More government agencies following these best practices will enable others to access their data and address the world's public health challenges-including the next pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-05-03
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Cogliandro V, P Bonfanti (2024)

Long COVID: lights and shadows on the clinical characterization of this emerging pathology.

The new microbiologica, 47(1):15-27.

More than 800 million individuals have contracted SARSCOV2 infection worldwide. It was estimated that almost 10-20% of these might suffer from Long COVID. It is a multisystemic syndrome, which negatively affects the quality of life with a significant burden of health loss compared to COVID negative individuals. Moreover, the risk of sequelae still remains high at 2 years in both nonhospitalized and hospitalized individuals. This review summarizes studies regarding long COVID and clarifies the definitions, the risk factors and the management of this syndrome. Finally, it delves into the most frequent long-term outcomes, especially postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome" (POTS), myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), brain fog, and their therapeutical possibilities.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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With the world now in the middle of a new and rapidly spreading pandemic, now is the time to read this book, originally published in 2012, that describes animal infections and the next human pandemic (that's actually the book's subtitle). You would be hard pressed to find a more relevant explanation of how this got started and why there will be more after this one. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )