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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:04 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-11-09

Bernal B, Kim S, TJ Mozdzer (2022)

Species shifts induce soil organic matter priming and changes in microbial communities.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07056-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasion of plant species with functional traits that influences the rhizosphere can have significant effects on soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics if the invasive species stimulates soil microbial communities with, for example, an enhanced supply of labile carbon and oxygen. We evaluated these effects along a Phragmites invasion chronosequence spanning over 40 years. Using a δ13C and δ15N enriched substrate, we separated SOM-derived and substrate-derived carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization in surface (top 15 cm), shallow (30-45 cm), and deep (65-80 cm) soils collected from established, newly invaded, and native plant communities. We found all soils were susceptible to SOM priming, but priming profiles differed between vegetation communities, being highest at the surface in native assemblage soils, whereas highest at depth under invasive plants. Changes in functional microbial community composition at depth in Phragmites soils, evidenced by an increase in relative fungal laccase abundance, explained the SOM priming in these deep invaded soils. Our results show that invasive Phragmites maintains a microbial community at depth able to degrade SOM faster than that under native vegetation, evidencing that plant species shifts can fundamentally change soil biogeochemistry, altering element cycling and decreasing SOM residence time. Furthermore, our experimental design also allowed to quantify real-time SOM-C and SOM-N gross mineralization, resulting in a new model relating C and N mineralization in these wetland soils and providing new insights on how SOM decomposition impacts N availability and cycling across wetland N pools.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Masrahi Y, Al-Namazi A, Alammari B, et al (2022)

Adaptations facilitate the invasion of Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb. (Cactaceae) in the highlands of southwestern Saudi Arabia.

Plant signaling & behavior, 17(1):2144593.

The colonization and expansion of any plant species into a novel environment depend on its structural and functional characteristics. Therefore, developing better control measures for any invasive plant species requires examining and understanding the mechanisms underlying its reproduction and adaptation to the environment it invades. Recently, a novel exotic species Cylindropuntia rosea (DC.) Backeb. has been identified in Baljurashi, Al-Baha province, in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Reports suggest that this species may become invasive with the current rate of habitat expansion in Baljurashi. Although C. rosea is an important invasive species, most of its morpho-anatomical and physiological characteristics have not been examined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the morpho-anatomical and related physiological adaptations of C. rosea in its new habitats in the southwestern highlands of Saudi Arabia. We observed that the species is well-equipped for invasion with traits to handle semi-arid conditions, including some morphological and anatomical features, CAM photosynthetic pathway, high growth rate, and highly effective defense mechanisms against herbivores and insects. These morpho-anatomical and physiological characteristics contribute to the high invasiveness of this species in Saudi Arabia.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Jaureguiberry P, Titeux N, Wiemers M, et al (2022)

The direct drivers of recent global anthropogenic biodiversity loss.

Science advances, 8(45):eabm9982.

Effective policies to halt biodiversity loss require knowing which anthropogenic drivers are the most important direct causes. Whereas previous knowledge has been limited in scope and rigor, here we statistically synthesize empirical comparisons of recent driver impacts found through a wide-ranging review. We show that land/sea use change has been the dominant direct driver of recent biodiversity loss worldwide. Direct exploitation of natural resources ranks second and pollution third; climate change and invasive alien species have been significantly less important than the top two drivers. The oceans, where direct exploitation and climate change dominate, have a different driver hierarchy from land and fresh water. It also varies among types of biodiversity indicators. For example, climate change is a more important driver of community composition change than of changes in species populations. Stopping global biodiversity loss requires policies and actions to tackle all the major drivers and their interactions, not some of them in isolation.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Bourret SL, Kovach RP, Cline TJ, et al (2022)

High dispersal rates in hybrids drive expansion of maladaptive hybridization.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1986):20221813.

Hybridization between native and invasive species, a major cause of biodiversity loss, can spread rapidly even when hybrids have reduced fitness. This paradox suggests that hybrids have greater dispersal rates than non-hybridized individuals, yet this mechanism has not been empirically tested in animal populations. Here, we test if non-native genetic introgression increases reproductive dispersal using a human-mediated hybrid zone between native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii) and invasive rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a large and connected river system. We quantified the propensity for individuals to migrate from natal rearing habitats (migrate), reproduce in non-natal habitats (stray), and the joint probability of dispersal as a function of genetic ancestry. Hybrid trout with predominantly non-native rainbow trout ancestry were more likely to migrate as juveniles and to stray as adults. Overall, hybrids with greater than 50% rainbow trout ancestry were 5.7 times more likely to disperse than native or hybrid trout with small amounts of rainbow trout ancestry. Our results show a genetic basis for increased dispersal in hybrids that is likely contributing to the rapid expansion of invasive hybridization between these species. Management actions that decrease the probability of hybrid dispersal may mitigate the harmful effects of invasive hybridization on native biodiversity.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Bodey TW, Angulo E, Bang A, et al (2022)

Economic costs of protecting islands from invasive alien species.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions represent a key threat to insular systems and have pronounced impacts across environments and economies. The ecological impacts have received substantial focus, but the socioeconomic impacts are poorly synthesized across spatial and temporal scales. We used the InvaCost database, the most comprehensive assessment of published economic costs of invasive species, to assess economic impacts on islands worldwide. We analyzed socioeconomic costs across differing expenditure types and examined temporal trends across islands that differ in their political geography - island nation states, overseas territories, and islands of continental countries. Over US$36 billion in total costs (including damages and management) has occurred on islands from 1965 to 2020 due to invasive species' impacts. Nation states incurred the greatest total and management costs, and islands of continental countries incurred costs of similar magnitude, both far higher than those in overseas territories. Damage-loss costs were significantly lower, but with qualitatively similar patterns across differing political geographies. The predominance of management spending differs from the pattern found for most countries examined and suggests important knowledge gaps in the extent of many damage-related socioeconomic impacts. Nation states spent the greatest proportion of their gross domestic products countering these costs, at least 1order of magnitude higher than other locations. Most costs were borne by authorities and stakeholders, demonstrating the key role of governmental and nongovernmental bodies in addressing island invasions. Temporal trends revealed cost increases across all island types, potentially reflecting efforts to tackle invasive species at larger, more socially complex scales. Nevertheless, the already high total economic costs of island invasions substantiate the role of biosecurity in reducing and preventing invasive species arrivals to reduce strains on limited financial resources and avoid threats to sustainable development goals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Rochat EC, Paterson RA, Blasco-Costa I, et al (2022)

Temporal stability of polymorphic Arctic charr parasite communities reflects sustained divergent trophic niches.

Ecology and evolution, 12(11):e9460 pii:ECE39460.

Polymorphic Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus populations frequently display distinct differences in habitat use, diet, and parasite communities. Changes to the relative species densities and composition of the wider fish community have the potential to alter the habitat niche of sympatric Arctic charr populations. This study evaluated the temporal stability of the parasite community, diet, and stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) of three sympatric Arctic charr morphs (piscivore, benthivore, and planktivore) from Loch Rannoch, Scotland, in relation to changes to the fish community. All Arctic charr morphs displayed distinct differences in parasite communities, diet, and stable isotope signatures over time, despite the establishment of four new trophically transmitted parasite taxa, and increased fish and zooplankton consumption by the piscivorous and planktivore morphs, respectively. Native parasite prevalence also increased in all Arctic charr morphs. Overall, Loch Rannoch polymorphic Arctic charr morph populations have maintained their distinct trophic niches and parasite communities through time despite changes in the fish community. This result indicates that re-stocking a native fish species has the potential to induce shifts in the parasite community and diet of Arctic charr morphs.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Wei H, Liang Y, Luo Q, et al (2022)

Environmental-related variation of stoichiometric traits in body and organs of non-native sailfin catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp.

Ecology and evolution, 12(11):e9483 pii:ECE39483.

Intraspecific variation in stoichiometric traits was thought to be an adaptive response to reduce the elemental imbalance between organism and diet in the habitat. Studying the spatial variation of stoichiometric traits of non-native species and the factors contributing to the variation could help to better understand the invasion mechanism of non-native fish. In this study, stoichiometric traits (i.e. carbon [C], phosphorus [P], calcium [Ca] and their ratios) variation in the body and organs of non-native sailfin catfishes Pterygoplichthys spp. were investigated across 13 river sections in the main river basins of Guangdong province. The relationships between environmental factors and stoichiometric traits were analyzed using a general linear model and an information-theoretic approach. A manipulated feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of food quality on the stoichiometry of sailfin catfishes in a greenhouse. Sailfin catfishes exhibited considerable variability in body and organ elemental composition. Site identity was the main factor contributing to the variation, which could be explained by a combination of environmental factors including climate, diet quality, fish species richness and trophic status in the invaded rivers. Water chemistry (i.e. total nitrogen and phosphorus, ammonia nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus) contributed to the most variation of stoichiometric traits. Imbalances of P and Ca between sailfin catfishes and food resources varied among sampling sites, reflecting the spatial heterogeneity of nutrients limitation. Juvenile sailfin catfishes exhibited stoichiometric homeostasis (0 < 1/H < 0.25) for all elemental contents and ratios in the feeding experiment. These findings suggested variation in stoichiometric traits of sailfin catfishes might be attributed to the changes in elemental metabolism to cope with context-specific environments. This study provided heuristic knowledge about environmental-related variation in stoichiometric traits, which could enhance the understanding of the non-native species' adaptation to resource fluctuation in the invaded ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Witmer GW, Snow NP, PW Burke (2010)

Evaluating commercially available rodenticide baits for invasive Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus).

Crop protection (Guildford, Surrey), 29(9):1011-1014.

Gambian giant pouched rats (Cricetomys gambianus) are native to Africa, but they are popular in the pet industry in the United States. They were reservoir hosts during a monkeypox outbreak in the Midwestern United States in 2003. A free-ranging population became established on Grassy Key in the Florida Keys, apparently because of a release by a pet breeder. These rodents could cause significant damage to agricultural crops should they reach the mainland. Research under controlled conditions was needed to identify effective rodenticides for Grassy Key or other cases where an invasion of Gambian rats might occur. We tested 2 formulations of diphacinone baits and 1 formulation each of brodifacoum, zinc phosphide, bromethalin, and chlorophacinone baits with captive Gambian rats in multiple-choice food trials. Both the brodifacoum and zinc phosphide rodenticide baits were highly effective (100% mortality). Also, brodifacoum and zinc phosphide treatments performed similar to the Environmental Protection Agency's standard for toxicants of (i.e., 90% mortality in laboratory trials). The chlorophacinone, diphacinone, and bromethalin baits did not appear to be very effective at killing Gambian rats (≤50% mortality) in our study. Effective tools to combat Gambian giant pouched rats have been identified in a laboratory trial. Further field testing of commercially available brodifacoum and zinc phosphide baits may prove useful for controlling the potentially invading Gambian rats.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Le CTU, ML Campbell (2022)

Public's perceptions of marine bioinvasive risks and responsible parties - Implications for social acceptability and better-informed communication in the marine biosecurity context.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114283 pii:S0025-326X(22)00965-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Using the survey data on a representative sample of the New Zealand population, our study presents a process of understanding citizens' perceptions, identifying patterns in the perceptions, and recognising the knowledge gaps existing in the citizenry in the marine biosecurity context. While our findings show a healthy sign of the public accepting their own responsibility and the devolved responsibility of business/industry, there are considerable gaps between the general public's perceptions and (marine) biosecurity current practices and expectations. There is a moderately strong signal from survey respondents that suggest the need of significantly more effort and improved transparency in marine biosecurity communication. Our outcomes indicate an anthropocentric tendency, with influences of gender, age, education, income, frequency of beach visitation upon societal perceptions in terms of awareness, concern, perceived non-indigenous marine species impacts, and accountability in marine biosecurity management. The recognised socio-demographic patterns in societal perceptions would inform marine biosecurity communication strategies.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Li H, Wang X, Mai Y, et al (2022)

Potential of microplastics participate in selective bioaccumulation of low-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons depending on the biological habits of fishes.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07039-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Currently, although the cumulative effects of microplastics (MPs) and organic pollutants (OPs) in the environment and within organisms are being investigated, whether and how MPs participate in bioaccumulation of OPs based on a carrier effect is still unclear. In the present study, water and aquatic organisms were collected from the Pearl River. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and MPs were separated by solid phase extraction and were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. Higher PAH concentrations at the river outlet and higher MPs abundance in the inner river were observed, indicating a mismatched distribution between PAHs and MPs. No correlation between MP abundance and PAH concentration in fishes was detected, implying that MPs exerted limited influence on PAH concentrations. Interestingly, bioconcentration factors of one major low-ring PAH (phenanthrene) in fishes showed a significant correlation with MPs abundance, implying that although MPs did not affect the variation in PAH concentrations, they potentially participated in selective bioaccumulation of PAHs. Moreover, significant correlations between MPs abundance and PAHs in fishes with different feeding and living habits were found, indicating that MPs' participation in PAH bioaccumulation was dependent on fish biology and life history. Furthermore, the health risk posed by PAHs in fishes at the river outlet surpassed the line of potential high risk, while the ecological risk posed by MPs at the inner river was in the danger category, indicating the ecological risks posed by PAHs and MPs are uneven along the Pearl River. These findings deepen our understanding of the underlying mechanism of MPs participating in selective bioaccumulation of low-ring PAHs in fishes based on fish biology and point out the present risks posed by these two pollutants in the Pearl River and its estuary, which contribute to aquatic environmental protection and fishery production in this region.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Tempesti J, Langeneck J, Lardicci C, et al (2022)

Short-term colonization of fouling communities within the port of Livorno (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Western Mediterranean): Influence of substrate three-dimensional complexity on non-indigenous species establishment.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114302 pii:S0025-326X(22)00984-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The influence of substrate morphology on early stages of fouling development was assessed through submerged experimental substrates with different morphological complexity. The experiment was carried out within commercial and touristic harbours of the port of Livorno (Italy), analysing the communities at three steps of colonization (14, 28, 42 days). We assessed the effect of substrate complexity on recruitment of non-indigenous species (NIS), combined with the influence of port use destinations. NIS were recorded in both use destination areas since the first step of colonization. Substrate morphological complexity significantly affected fouling colonization and particularly NIS assemblages. We found that high-complexity substrates are particularly suitable for NIS establishment in comparison with less complex ones. The touristic harbour exhibited a potential for fouling colonization higher than the commercial harbour. These results contributed to the understanding of factors involved in NIS establishment and spread, as well as in their spatial-temporal dynamics within port environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Williams-Mounsey J, Crowle A, Grayson R, et al (2022)

Surface structure on abandoned upland blanket peatland tracks.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116561 pii:S0301-4797(22)02134-X [Epub ahead of print].

Temporary permissions are often granted for track use on peatlands. However, even when peatland track designs attempt to minimise environmental impacts via use of mesh systems, such linear disturbances may have persistent impacts. We evaluated the surface peatland structure of five abandoned tracks (four with a mesh surface, one unsurfaced) with varying past usage frequencies, at an upland site in northern England. Simplification of the surface nanotopography was found on all tracks compared to surrounding control areas, with increased micro-erosion patterns in rutted areas, and invasive species on some treatments. The frequency of previous usage was not found to be a significant factor controlling nano-topographic loss. Edge effects and hillslope position were influential in places, but these effects were not consistent across treatments. Nano-topographic recovery was found to be inhibited when track usage commenced within a short time frame after track construction. Mesh tracks appear to create a spatial constraint leading to poor development of plants and a reduced ability to form characteristic structures which are integral to mire function.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Bohannon GR, Johnson CL, Jetton RM, et al (2022)

Phenology and Voltinism of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Central North Carolina.

Environmental entomology pii:6805357 [Epub ahead of print].

The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed millions of ash (Fraxinus spp.) trees across North America. Classical biological control using introductions of parasitoid wasps may provide a sustainable approach to managing this invasive insect. However, the establishment of parasitoids in the southern United States has been difficult. The phenology of emerald ash borer was studied in central North Carolina to inform biological control efforts that better align with the seasonal availability of susceptible emerald ash borer life stages in the warm climate of this region. Biweekly emerald ash borer life stage assessments were conducted in stands of infested green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall, Lamiales: Oleaceae) over 26 consecutive months (June 2019 through August 2021). Adult trapping was also conducted in these stands in the spring and summer of 2019, 2020, and 2021. Based on these collections, emerald ash borer exhibits a univoltine (1-yr) life cycle. Parasitoid-susceptible larvae (third and fourth instars in galleries) are present from late June through October (~1,100-3,000 degree days base 10ºC) and are mostly absent during the remainder of the year. Parasitoid release timings and the life history of selected parasitoid species should be aligned with this window of host availability to be effective. This characterization of emerald ash borer phenology and voltinism will help improve the timing and effectiveness of management efforts as this forest pest continues to spread in southern North America.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Mghili B, De-la-Torre GE, Analla M, et al (2022)

Marine macroinvertebrates fouled in marine anthropogenic litter in the Moroccan Mediterranean.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114266 pii:S0025-326X(22)00948-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The existence of floating marine litter in marine environments enhances the potential for the transport of fouling organisms using these substrates as vectors. In this study, we examined the fouling organisms on different types of litter stranded on two beaches of the Moroccan Mediterranean. The study revealed 13 fouling species belonging to 8 phyla (Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Annelida, Mollusca, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Chlorophyta, and Ochrophyta) on marine litter. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to land-based sources. The most common fouling species were the crustacean Lepas pectinata, Lepas anatifera, Perforatus perforatus, and bryozoan species. More taxa were found on large litter than on small litter. Relative substratum coverage was highest for bryozoan sp. (31.0 %), green algae (29.0 %), Lepas anatifera (21.42 %), Lepas pectinata (17.8 %), and Perforatus perforatus (17.46 %). Our results suggest that the growing generation of plastic litter may enhance the probability of the introduction of non-native species into the Moroccan Mediterranean. Therefore, monitoring efforts are needed to identify vectors and the arrival of novel invasive species in this area.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Kinani S, Roumiguières A, S Bouchonnet (2022)

A Critical Review on Chemical Speciation of Chlorine-Produced Oxidants (CPOs) in Seawater. Part 1: Chlorine Chemistry in Seawater and Its Consequences in Terms of Biocidal Effectiveness and Environmental Impact.

Critical reviews in analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Seawater chlorination has three main industrial uses: disinfection of water and installations, control of biofouling, and preventing the transport of aquatic invasive species. Once in contact with seawater, chlorine reacts rapidly with water constituents (e.g. bromide ions, ammonia, and nitrogen-containing compounds) to form a range of oxidative species (e.g. bromine and N-haloamines), termed "chlorine-produced oxidants" (CPOs) or "total residual oxidants" (TRO). The chemical nature of CPOs and their concentration are a function of two categories of parameters related to treatment modality (e.g. chlorine dose) and water quality (e.g. temperature, pH, ammonia concentration, and organic constituents). The chlorination process may result in continuous or intermittent releases of CPOs in seawater. The reactivity and potential ecotoxicity of CPO species largely depend on their physical and chemical properties. Therefore, evaluation of the biocidal effectiveness of chlorination and its potential impacts requires not only determining the sum of CPOs (via a bulk parameter), but also their chemical speciation. The aim of this article - which is the first of a trilogy dedicated to the chemical speciation of CPOs in seawater - is to provide an overview of current knowledge about chlorine chemistry in seawater and to discuss the biocidal efficacy and the environmental fate of resulting CPOs. The 2nd and 3rd articles delineate a comprehensive and critical review of analytical methods and approaches for the determination of CPOs in seawater.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Stupar M, Savković Ž, Breka K, et al (2022)

A Variety of Fungal Species on the Green Frogs' Skin (Pelophylax esculentus complex) in South Banat.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In the last several decades, amphibian populations have been declining worldwide. Many factors have been linked to global amphibian decline, including habitat destruction, pollution, introduced species, global environmental changes, and emerging infectious diseases. Recent studies of amphibian skin infections were mainly focused on the presence of chytridiomycosis, neglecting other members of the frogs' skin communities. The diversity pattern of fungal dwellers on the skin of green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) was investigated. A total of 100 adults were sampled from three localities in South Banat (northern Serbia) over three consecutive years and detected fungal dwellers were identified using light microscopy and ITS and BenA gene sequencing. Structures belonging to fungi and fungus-like organisms including a variety of spores and different mycelia types were documented in the biofilm formed on amphibian skin, and are classified into 10 groups. In total, 42 fungal isolates were identified to species, section, or genus level. The difference in mycobiota composition between sampling points (localities and green frog taxa) was documented. The highest number of fungal structures and isolates was recorded on the hybrid taxon P. esculentus and locality Stevanove ravnice. Parental species showed a markedly lower diversity than the hybrid taxon and were more similar in diversity patterns and were placed in the same homogenous group. The locality Stevanove ravnice exhibited more pronounced differences in diversity pattern than the other two localities and was placed in a distinct and separate homogenous group. Among the fungal isolates, the highest isolation frequency was documented for Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp. sect. Nigri, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Trichoderma atroviride. Among the documented species, dematiaceous fungi, causative agents of chromomycosis in amphibians, were also recorded in this research with high isolation frequency. Also, some rare fungal species such as Quambalaria cyanescens and Pseudoteniolina globosa are documented for the first time in this research as microbial inhabitants of amphibian skin.

RevDate: 2022-11-02
CmpDate: 2022-11-02

Nikookar SH, Maleki A, Fazeli-Dinan M, et al (2022)

Entomological Surveillance of the Invasive Aedes Species at Higher-Priority Entry Points in Northern Iran: Exploratory Report on a Field Study.

JMIR public health and surveillance, 8(10):e38647 pii:v8i10e38647.

BACKGROUND: Arboviral diseases such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Ae albopictus and are emerging global public health concerns.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide up-to-date data on the occurrence of the invasive Aedes species in a given area as this is essential for planning and implementing timely control strategies.

METHODS: Entomological surveillance was planned and carried out monthly from May 2018 to December 2019 at higher-priority entry points in Guilan Province, Northern Iran, using ovitraps, larval collection, and human-baited traps. Species richness (R), Simpson (D), evenness (E), and Shannon-Wiener indexes (H̕) were measured to better understand the diversity of the Aedes species. The Spearman correlation coefficient and regression models were used for data analysis.

RESULTS: We collected a total of 3964 mosquito samples including 17.20% (682/3964) belonging to the Aedes species, from 3 genera and 13 species, and morphologically identified them from May 2018 to December 2019. Ae vexans and Ae geniculatus, which showed a peak in activity levels and population in October (226/564, 40.07% and 26/103, 25.2%), were the eudominant species (D=75.7%; D=21.2%) with constant (C=100) and frequent (C=66.7%) distributions, respectively. The population of Ae vexans had a significant positive correlation with precipitation (r=0.521; P=.009) and relative humidity (r=0.510; P=.01), whereas it was inversely associated with temperature (r=-0.432; P=.04). The Shannon-Wiener Index was up to 0.84 and 1.04 in the city of Rasht and in July, respectively. The rarefaction curve showed sufficiency in sampling efforts by reaching the asymptotic line at all spatial and temporal scales, except in Rasht and in October.

CONCLUSIONS: Although no specimens of the Ae aegypti and Ae albopictus species were collected, this surveillance provides a better understanding of the native Aedes species in the northern regions of Iran. These data will assist the health system in future arbovirus research, and in the implementation of effective vector control and prevention strategies, should Ae aegypti and Ae albopictus be found in the province.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Kenyeres Z, Andrási L, Kovács P, et al (2022)

THE EFFICIENCY OF BIOGENTS SENTINEL 2.0 TRAPPING AND HUMAN-LANDING CATCHING METHODS TO CALCULATE HUMAN BITING RATES.

Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association pii:488096 [Epub ahead of print].

To calculate human biting rates for various mosquito species, we performed simultaneous collections for 15 wk at 6 ecologically variable sites in Hungary. Of the dominant species, the relative abundance of Aedes vexans, Ae. sticticus, and Coquillettidia richiardii showed a significant positive correlation between CO2 + Biogents lure and human landing catch (HLC). The relative abundance of Culex pipiens was significantly lower in the HLC samples than in the CO2 + BG lure samples. Of the invasive species, Aedes korecius was found more frequently in HLC, while Ae. japonicus was more common in CO2 + BG lure samples. Estimated human biting rates, determined with the 2 collection methods, showed no significant differences at high mosquito density (100-120 bites/h/person), but there was considerable variation at low mosquito biting rates. Therefore, correcting the CO2 + BG lure trapping data to include only species biting humans provides estimates approaching the values of the HLC. Our study confirmed that while HLC is the gold standard method for determining the human biting rate, provided appropriate data adjustments are made, trapping methods performing automated data collection can provide similar data while reducing the exposure of the data collector.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Vieira JL, Oliveira LO, Barrigossi JAF, et al (2022)

Disentangling a Neotropical pest species complex: Genetic diversity and population structure of the native rice stink bug Oebalus poecilus and the invasive O. ypsilongriseus.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: A first step in any pest management initiative is recognizing the existing problem - identifying the pest species and its abundance and dispersal capacities. This is not simple and even more challenging when insidious (invasive) species are involved constituting a pest complex. Understanding a species' population diversity and structure can provide a better understanding of its adaptation and relative pest potential. Such is the need for the native rice stink bug Oebalus poecilus and the invasive O. ypsilongriseus in low and high flatlands of South America.

RESULTS: The genetic structure differed between both rice stink bug species (FST = 0.157, P = 0.001), where 84% of the overall genetic variability takes place within species and three genetic groups were recognized through Bayesian approach (K = 3). Oebalus poecilus exhibited slightly higher genetic diversity (HE = 0.253) and structuring (FST = 0.050, P = 0.001) than the invasive O. ypsilongriseus (HE = 0.211; FST = 0.038, P = 0.013). Nonetheless, only the former exhibited significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances (r = 0.48, P = 0.013).

CONCLUSION: Despite the pointed peculiarities, the obtained results indicate overlap in both species' occurrence and similar genetic structure allowing for a compound problem to be dealt with as the complex requires managing without, as yet, a prevailing species or a niche specialization. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Chen Y, Ni P, Fu R, et al (2022)

(Epi)genomic adaptation driven by fine geographical scale environmental heterogeneity after recent biological invasions.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Elucidating processes and mechanisms involved in rapid local adaptation to varied environments is a poorly understood but crucial component in management of invasive species. Recent studies have proposed that genetic and epigenetic variation could both contribute to ecological adaptation, yet it remains unclear on the interplay between these two components underpinning rapid adaptation in wild animal populations. To assess their respective contributions to local adaptation, we explored epigenomic and genomic responses to environmental heterogeneity in eight recently colonized ascidian (Ciona intestinalis) populations at a relatively fine geographical scale. Based on MethylRADseq data, we detected strong patterns of local environment-driven DNA methylation divergence among populations, significant epigenetic isolation by environment (IBE), and a large number of local environment-associated epigenetic loci. Meanwhile, multiple genetic analyses based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) showed genomic footprints of divergent selection. In addition, for five genetically similar populations, we detected significant methylation divergence and local environment-driven methylation patterns, indicating strong effects of local environments on epigenetic variation. From a functional perspective, a majority of functional genes, gene ontology (GO) terms, and biological pathways were largely specific to one of these two types of variation, suggesting partial independence between epigenetic and genetic adaptation. The methylation quantitative trait loci (mQTL) analysis showed that the genetic variation explained only 18.67% of methylation variation, further confirming the autonomous relationship between these two types of variation. Altogether, we highlight the complementary interplay of genetic and epigenetic variation involved in local adaptation, which may jointly promote populations' rapid adaptive capacity and successful invasions in different environments. The findings here provide valuable insights into interactions between invaders and local environments to allow invasive species to rapidly spread, thus contributing to better prediction of invasion success and development of management strategies.

RevDate: 2022-11-01
CmpDate: 2022-11-01

Zhang Z, Liu Y, Hardrath A, et al (2022)

Increases in multiple resources promote competitive ability of naturalized non-native plants.

Communications biology, 5(1):1150.

Invasion by non-native plants is frequently attributed to increased resource availability. Still, our understanding is mainly based on effects of single resources and on plants grown without competition despite the fact that plants rely on multiple resources and usually grow in competition. How multiple resources affects competition between native and non-native plants remains largely unexplored. Here, with two similar common garden experiments, one in China and one in Germany, we tested whether nutrient and light availabilities affected the competitive outcomes, in terms of biomass production, between native and naturalized non-native plants. We found that under low resource availability or with addition of only one type of resource non-natives were not more competitive than natives. However, with a joint increase of nutrients and light intensity, non-natives were more competitive than natives. Our finding indicates that addition of multiple resources could greatly reduce the niche dimensionality (i.e. number of limiting factors), favoring dominance of non-native species. It also indicates that habitats experiencing multiple global changes might be more vulnerable to plant invasion.

RevDate: 2022-11-01
CmpDate: 2022-11-01

Piquet JC, Maestresalas B, M López-Darias (2022)

Coupling phenotypic changes to extinction and survival in an endemic prey community threatened by an invasive snake.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18249.

When facing novel invasive predators, native prey can either go extinct or survive through exaptation or phenotypic shifts (either plastic or adaptive). Native prey can also reflect stress-mediated responses against invasive predators, affecting their body condition. Although multiple native prey are likely to present both types of responses against a single invader, community-level studies are infrequent. The invasive California kingsnake (Lampropeltis californiae) a good example to explore invasive predators' effects on morphology and body condition at a community level, as this invader is known to locally extinct the Gran Canaria giant lizard (Gallotia stehlini) and to notably reduce the numbers of the Gran Canaria skink (Chalcides sexlineatus) and the Boettger's gecko (Tarentola boettgeri). By comparing a set of morphological traits and body condition (i.e. body index and ectoparasite load) between invaded and uninvaded areas for the three squamates, we found clear evidence of a link between a lack of phenotypic change and extinction, as G. stehlini was the single native prey that did not show morphological shifts. On the other side, surviving C. sexlineatus and T. boettgeri exhibited phenotypic differences in several morphological traits that could reflect plastic responses that contribute to their capacity to cope with the snake. Body condition responses varied among species, indicating the potential existence of simultaneous consumptive and non-consumptive effects at a community level. Our study further highlights the importance addressing the impact of invasive predators from a community perspective in order to gain a deeper understanding of their effect in native ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Laginhas BB, Fertakos ME, BA Bradley (2022)

We don't know what we're missing: Evidence of a vastly undersampled invasive plant pool.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive plants are a prominent threat to ecosystems and economies worldwide. Knowing the identity of invasive plants is critical for preventing their introduction and spread. Yet several lines of evidence, including spatial and taxonomic biases in reporting and the ongoing emergence of new invasives, suggest that we are missing basic information about the identity of invasive plants. Using a database of invasive plants reported in the peer-reviewed literature between 1959-2020, we examined trends in the accumulation of new invasive plants over time and estimated the size of the current pool of invasive plants both continentally and globally. The number of new invasive plants continues to increase exponentially over time, showing no sign of saturation, even in the best studied regions. Moreover, a sample-size based rarefaction-extrapolation curve of reported taxa suggests that what is documented in the current literature (3,008 taxa) only captures 64% of the likely number of invasive plants globally (4,721 taxa +/- 132 standard error). These estimates varied continentally; less than half of invasive plant taxa have likely been identified in Oceania and Central & South Americas. Studies that included multiple invasive plants (e.g., floristic studies) were much more efficient at adding new taxa to our global understanding of what is invasive (identifying 4.2 times more new taxa than single-taxon studies). With more potential invaders arriving every day, this analysis highlights a critical gap in our knowledge of the current invasive plant pool. Expanding invasion science to better encompass understudied geographic areas and increasing the numbers of floristic surveys would greatly improve our ability to accurately and efficiently identify what taxa are invasive. Preventing invasive plant introductions is incumbent upon knowing the identity of invasive plants. Thus, large knowledge gaps remain in invasion ecology that hinder efforts to proactively prevent and manage invasive plants.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Hougardy E, Hogg BN, Wang X, et al (2022)

Discrimination Abilities and Parasitism Success of Pupal Parasitoids Towards Spotted-Wing Drosophila Pupae Previously Parasitized by the Larval Parasitoid Ganaspis brasiliensis (Hymenoptera: Figitidae).

Environmental entomology pii:6782927 [Epub ahead of print].

Pachycrepoideus vindemiae (Rondani) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Trichopria drosophilae (Perkins) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) are two cosmopolitan and generalist pupal parasitoids that are among a few of the resident parasitoids in North America capable of attacking Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive pest of small and soft fruit crops worldwide. Ganaspis brasiliensis (Ihering) is a specialist larval parasitoid of D. suzukii that was recently approved for biological control introduction against D. suzukii in the USA. As a solitary koinobiont species, G. brasiliensis oviposits in the host larva but emerges as an adult from the host puparium. This study investigated the discrimination ability and parasitism success by the pupal parasitoids towards D. suzukii pupae previously parasitized by G. brasiliensis, to examine whether interactions with resident parasitoids will affect G. brasiliensis after it is released in the USA. We found preliminary evidence that neither pupal parasitoid could discriminate towards D. suzukii pupae parasitized by early instars of G. brasiliensis. Pachycrepoideus vindemiae was able to successfully develop on D. suzukii pupae containing all preimaginal stages of G. brasiliensis, although parasitism success was significantly higher on those bearing later rather than early stages of G. brasiliensis. Trichopria drosophilae was only able to successfully develop on D. suzukii puparia containing early instars of G. brasiliensis. These results suggest that D. suzukii parasitized by the larval parasitoid could be subsequently attacked by the pupal parasitoids, possibly affecting the success of G. brasiliensis releases.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Fleming PA, Stobo-Wilson AM, Crawford HM, et al (2022)

Distinctive diets of eutherian predators in Australia.

Royal Society open science, 9(10):220792 pii:rsos220792.

Introduction of the domestic cat and red fox has devastated Australian native fauna. We synthesized Australian diet analyses to identify traits of prey species in cat, fox and dingo diets, which prey were more frequent or distinctive to the diet of each predator, and quantified dietary overlap. Nearly half (45%) of all Australian terrestrial mammal, bird and reptile species occurred in the diets of one or more predators. Cat and dingo diets overlapped least (0.64 ± 0.27, n = 24 location/time points) and cat diet changed little over 55 years of study. Cats were more likely to have eaten birds, reptiles and small mammals than foxes or dingoes. Dingo diet remained constant over 53 years and constituted the largest mammal, bird and reptile prey species, including more macropods/potoroids, wombats, monotremes and bandicoots/bilbies than cats or foxes. Fox diet had greater overlap with both cats (0.79 ± 0.20, n = 37) and dingoes (0.73 ± 0.21, n = 42), fewer distinctive items (plant material, possums/gliders) and significant spatial and temporal heterogeneity over 69 years, suggesting the opportunity for prey switching (especially of mammal prey) to mitigate competition. Our study reinforced concerns about mesopredator impacts upon scarce/threatened species and the need to control foxes and cats for fauna conservation. However, extensive dietary overlap and opportunism, as well as low incidence of mesopredators in dingo diets, precluded resolution of the debate about possible dingo suppression of foxes and cats.

RevDate: 2022-10-30

Tanaka M, Imatake S, Takeshita H, et al (2022)

Feeding ecology of Swinhoe's tree lizard (Diploderma swinhonis (Günther, 1864)) in Hyuga City, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan.

The Journal of veterinary medical science [Epub ahead of print].

Swinhoe's tree lizard (Diploderma swinhonis: D. swinhonis) is an arboreal agamid that is native to Taiwan. In Taiwan, the lizard is considered to be a generalist that feeds primarily on ants and a diversity of small insect prey by employing an opportunistic sit-and-wait foraging strategy. In Japan, D. swinhonis is considered as an invasive alien species that was discovered in Hyuga city, Miyazaki Prefecture, in 2016. Despite concerns about the impact of D. swinhonis on native fauna, little information about the diet of this alien species has been published to date. This study, therefore, investigated the feeding ecology of D. swinhonis in Hyuga city to evaluate their potential impact on the ecosystem. Specifically, prey preference was investigated by examining the stomach contents of males, females, and juveniles captured from April to December 2020 and in March 2021. The results showed that the lizards in Hyuga preyed upon a wide variety of invertebrates as in Taiwan, while ants accounted for the largest proportion of the prey items consumed regardless of sex, age or changes in season. These findings indicated that D. swinhonis might cause a decrease in the abundance of the native insect fauna of Hyuga city or competition with native lizards for foods in Hyuga city. Since its impact is not currently apparent, it's necessary to monitor its effect in the future.

RevDate: 2022-10-30

Lai FY, Yin CY, Ding ST, et al (2022)

Analysis of the population genetic structure using microsatellite markers in goat populations in Taiwan.

Animal biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the poor growth rate of the Taiwan black (TB) goat in Taiwan, many exotic breeds were brought into breeding schemes to improve TB goat. However, the excessive cross-breeding of alien species with TB goat has decreased its population numbers, genetic variation and biodiversity. Therefore, TB goat population considered an endemic species in Taiwan that needed to be conservation. The objective of the present study was to analyze the genetic structure and TB goat using genetic markers for genetic improvement and to sustain germplasm conservation and utilization. 15 microsatellite markers, divided into three sets, were used to analyze 690 goats sampled from 10 goat populations. The average number of alleles (Na) and effective alleles (Ne) was 11.87 ± 3.93 and 5.093 ± 1.768, respectively. The average expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO) was 0.780 ± 0.084 and 0.602 ± 0.116, respectively. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.747 ± 0.103; FIS was 0.058 ± 0.075. All 15 microsatellite markers were highly polymorphic. The genetic distances between individuals were estimated to construct a phylogenetic tree. In present study, the 690 goat samples were divided into 8 clusters. The results indicated that these 15 microsatellite markers successfully clustered goat populations in Taiwan and could assist in the preservation of TB goats.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Luo Z, Mowery MA, Cheng X, et al (2022)

Realized niche shift of an invasive widow spider: drivers and impacts of human activities.

Frontiers in zoology, 19(1):25.

BACKGROUND: Predicting invasiveness requires an understanding of the propensity of a given species to thrive in areas with novel ecological challenges. Evaluation of realized niche shift of an invasive species in its invasive range, detecting the main drivers of the realized niche shift, and predicting the potential distribution of the species can provide important information for the management of populations of invasive species and the conservation of biodiversity. The Australian redback spider, Latrodectus hasselti, is a widow spider that is native to Australia and established in Japan, New Zealand, and Southeast Asia. We used ecological niche models and ordinal comparisons in an integrative method to compare the realized niches of native and invasive populations of this spider species. We also assessed the impact of several climatic predictor variables and human activity on this niche shift. We hypothesized that human impact is important for successful establishment of this anthropophilic species, and that climatic predictor variables may determine suitable habitat and thus predict invasive ranges.

RESULTS: Our models showed that L. hasselti distributions are positively influenced by human impact in both of the native and invasive ranges. Maximum temperature was the most important climatic variable in predictions of the distribution of native populations, while precipitation seasonality was the most important in predictions of invasive populations. The realized niche of L. hasselti in its invasive range differed from that in its native range, indicating possible realized niche shift.

CONCLUSIONS: We infer that a preference for human-disturbed environments may underlie invasion and establishment in this spider species, as anthropogenic habitat modifications could provide shelters from unsuitable climatic conditions and extreme climatic stresses to the spiders. Because Australia and the countries in which the species is invasive have differing climates, differences in the availability of certain climatic conditions could have played a role in the realized niche shift of L. hasselti.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Moyano J, Zamora-Nasca LB, Caplat P, et al (2022)

Predicting the impact of invasive trees from different measures of abundance.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116480 pii:S0301-4797(22)02053-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Biological invasions produce negative impacts worldwide, causing massive economic costs and ecological impacts. Knowing the relationship between invasive species abundance and the magnitude of their impacts (abundance-impact curves) is critical to designing prevention and management strategies that effectively tackle these impacts. However, different measures of abundance may produce different abundance-impact curves. Woody plants are among the most transformative invaders, especially in grassland ecosystems because of the introduction of hitherto absent life forms. In this study, our first goal was to assess the impact of a woody invader, Pinus contorta (hereafter pine), on native grassland productivity and livestock grazing in Patagonia (Argentina), building abundance-impact curves. Our second goal, was to compare different measure of pine abundance (density, basal area and canopy cover) as predictors of pine's impact on grassland productivity. Our third goal, was to compare abundance-impact curves among the mentioned measures of pine abundance and among different measures of impact: total grassland productivity, palatable productivity and sheep stocking rate (the number of sheep that the grassland can sustainably support). Pine canopy cover, closely followed by basal area, was the measure of abundance that best explained the impact on grassland productivity, but the shape of abundance impact curves differed between measures of abundance. While increases in pine density and basal area always reduced grassland productivity, pine canopy cover below 30% slightly increased grassland productivity and higher values caused an exponential decline. This increase in grassland productivity with low levels of pine canopy cover could be explained by the amelioration of stressful abiotic conditions for grassland species. Different measures of impact, namely total productivity, palatable productivity and sheep stocking rate, drew very similar results. Our abundance-impact curves are key to guide the management of invasive pines because a proper assessment of how many invasive individuals (per surface unit) are unacceptable, according to environmental or economic impact thresholds, is fundamental to define when to start management actions.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Csákvári E, Molnár Z, M Halassy (2022)

Estimates of regeneration potential in the Pannonian sand region help prioritize ecological restoration interventions.

Communications biology, 5(1):1136.

Restoration prioritization helps determine optimal restoration interventions in national and regional spatial planning to create sustainable landscapes and maintain biodiversity. Here we investigate different forest-steppe vegetation types in the Pannonian sand region to provide restoration recommendations for conservation management, policy and research. We create spatial trajectories based on local, neighbouring and old-field regeneration capacity estimates of the Hungarian Habitat Mapping Database, compare the trajectories between different mesoregions and determine which environmental predictors possibly influence them at the mesoregion level using a random forest model. The trajectories indicate which types of passive or active restoration intervention are needed, including increasing connectivity, controlling invasive species, or introducing native species. Better restoration results can be achieve in the vicinity of larger (semi-)natural areas, but the specific site conditions must also be taken into account during prioritization. We also propose large-scale grassland restoration on abandoned agricultural fields instead of industrial forest plantations and afforestation with non-native species.

RevDate: 2022-10-28
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Lee CC, Hsu HW, Lin CY, et al (2022)

First Polycipivirus and Unmapped RNA Virus Diversity in the Yellow Crazy Ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes.

Viruses, 14(10): pii:v14102161.

The yellow crazy ant, Anoplolepis gracilipes is a widespread invasive ant that poses significant threats to local biodiversity. Yet, compared to other global invasive ant species such as the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) or the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), little is known about the diversity of RNA viruses in the yellow crazy ant. In the current study, we generated a transcriptomic database for A. gracilipes using a high throughput sequencing approach to identify new RNA viruses and characterize their genomes. Four virus species assigned to Dicistroviridae, two to Iflaviridae, one to Polycipiviridae, and two unclassified Riboviria viruses were identified. Detailed genomic characterization was carried out on the polycipivirus and revealed that this virus comprises 11,644 nucleotides with six open reading frames. Phylogenetic analysis and pairwise amino acid identity comparison classified this virus into the genus Sopolycivirus under Polycipiviridae, which is tentatively named "Anoplolepis gracilipes virus 3 (AgrV-3)". Evolutionary analysis showed that AgrV-3 possesses a high level of genetic diversity and elevated mutation rate, combined with the common presence of multiple viral strains within single worker individuals, suggesting AgrV-3 likely evolves following the quasispecies model. A subsequent field survey placed the viral pathogen "hotspot" of A. gracilipes in the Southeast Asian region, a pattern consistent with the region being recognized as part of the ant's native range. Lastly, infection of multiple virus species seems prevalent across field colonies and may have been linked to the ant's social organization.

RevDate: 2022-10-28
CmpDate: 2022-10-28

Haddad Junior V, Giarrizzo T, MO Soares (2022)

Lionfish envenomation on the Brazilian coast: first report.

Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, 55:e02412022 pii:S0037-86822022000100909.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Szymura TH, Chmolowska D, Szymura M, et al (2022)

Drivers of systematic bias in alien plant species distribution data.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06698-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Among the main challenges in modelling biological invasion is a lack of valid data on the absence of invasive species. Absence data are important for assessing the reliability of models, but multiple surveys at a location are needed. In practice, omission errors are more frequent than commission errors. We therefore quantified how eliminating potentially biased areas from invasive species distribution models (iSDMs) affected the models' performance, and we assessed how the distribution of biased areas correlated with environmental factors. We hypothesized that for neophytes, the distribution of biased areas corresponds to specific land relief and/or particular landscape and land use, but not the density of roads and urbanized areas. The data on neophytes were obtained from a distribution atlas covering approximately 31,000 km2 in Central Europe overlaid with a 2 × 2 km square grid. One hundred fifty-three species were used for modelling neophyte richness, and negative residuals from the model were assumed to indicate biased squares. Twenty invasive species were used as an independent dataset for testing the effect of excluding the biased squares on iSDM performance. The exclusion of biased squares increased the iSDM performance from an area under the curve value of 0.73 to 0.78. The best results were obtained by excluding 30 % of the squares from the original dataset. The presence of damp sites explained the distribution of biased squares; the density of roads and urbanized areas had no impact. The applied method allows distinguishing biased, plausibly undersampled squares in a species distribution atlas, the exclusion of which significantly improves iSDM performance. The results suggest that the commonly observed low sampling effort in areas distant from communication routes and urbanized areas was not crucial in modelling invasive species distribution, which can be related to smaller neophyte richness in remote areas resulting from low propagule pressure.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Reed EMX, Reiskind MH, MO Burford Reiskind (2022)

Life-history stage and the population genetics of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus at a fine spatial scale.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

As a widespread vector of disease with an expanding range, the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is a high priority for research and management. A. albopictus has a complex life history with aquatic egg, larval and pupal stages, and a terrestrial adult stage. This requires targeted management strategies for each life stage, coordinated across time and space. Population genetics can aid in A. albopictus control by evaluating patterns of genetic diversity and dispersal. However, how life stage impacts population genetic characteristics is unknown. We examined whether patterns of A. albopictus genetic diversity and differentiation changed with life stage at a spatial scale relevant to management efforts. We first conducted a literature review of field-caught A. albopictus population genetic papers and identified 101 peer-reviewed publications, none of which compared results between life stages. Our study uniquely examines population genomic patterns of egg and adult A. albopictus at five sites in Wake County, North Carolina, USA, using 8425 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that the level of genetic diversity and connectivity between sites varied between adults and eggs. This warrants further study and is critical for research aimed at informing local management.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Mugnai M, Benesperi R, Viciani D, et al (2022)

Impacts of the Invasive Alien Carpobrotus spp. on Coastal Habitats on a Mediterranean Island (Giglio Island, Central Italy).

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(20): pii:plants11202802.

Carpobrotus acinaciformis and C. edulis are well-known invasive alien plants native to South Africa, whose detrimental effects on native communities are widely documented in the Mediterranean basin and thus largely managed in coastal ecosystems. Most of the literature on these species focuses on their impacts on habitats of sandy coastal dunes, while the effects of Carpobrotus spp. invasion on other habitats such as rocky cliffs and coastal scrubs and garrigues are almost neglected. We present a study case conducted on a small Mediterranean island where Carpobrotus spp. invaded three different natural habitats listed within the Habitat Directive 92/43/CEE (Natura 2000 codes 1240, 1430, and 5320). We surveyed the presence and abundance of native species and Carpobrotus spp. on 44 permanent square plots of 4 m2 in invaded and uninvaded areas in each of the three habitats. We found impacts on plant alpha diversity (intended as the species diversity within each sampled plot) in all the habitats investigated in terms of a decrease in species richness, Shannon index, and abundance. Invaded communities also showed a severe change in species composition with a strong homogenization of the floras of the three habitats. Finally, the negative effect of invasion emerged even through the analyses of beta diversity (expressing the species diversity among sampled plots of the same habitat type), with Carpobrotus spp. replacing a large set of native species.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Plášek V, Číhal L, Müller F, et al (2022)

Quo Vadis, Orthotrichum pulchellum? A Journey of Epiphytic Moss across the European Continent.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(20): pii:plants11202669.

Orthotrichum pulchellum is a species of epiphytic moss in which a significant expansion from the oceanic part of Europe to the east of the continent has been observed in the recent two decades. The improvement in air quality in Central and Eastern Europe, but also climate change, probably plays a role in this. This study shows what direction of its spreading we can expect in the future. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) is a widespread method to find out species niches in environmental and geographical space, which allows us to highlight areas that have a higher probability of occurrences of the studied species, based on identifying similar environmental conditions to those already known. We also made predictions for different future scenarios (CMIP5 climatology datasets for the years 2041-2060). Because we were not able to distinguish between historical and newly settled areas, and so, had to use some of the traditional approaches when modeling invasive species, we proposed to use niche clusters based on environmental layers to split the data of all known occurrences and make models separately for each cluster. This approach seems reasonable from the ecological species point of view because using all the morphologically same samples could be misleading. Altogether, 2712 samples were used from three separate niche clusters. For building the models, the Maxent algorithm was used as a well-tested, well-accepted, and commonly used method.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Ibrahim YE, Paredes-Montero JR, Al-Saleh MA, et al (2022)

Characterization of the Asian Citrus Psyllid-'Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus' Pathosystem in Saudi Arabia Reveals Two Predominant CLas Lineages and One Asian Citrus Psyllid Vector Haplotype.

Microorganisms, 10(10): pii:microorganisms10101991.

In Saudi Arabia (SA), the citrus greening disease is caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri. The origin and route(s) of the ACP-CLas pathosystem invasion in SA have not been studied. Adult ACP were collected from citrus trees in SA and differentiated by analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) and nuclear copper transporting protein (atox1) genes. A phylogenetic analysis of the Wolbachia spp. surface protein (wsp) gene was used to identify the ACP-associated Wolbachia spp. A phylogenetic analysis of the atox1 and mtCOI gene sequences revealed one predominant ACP haplotype most closely related to the Indian subcontinent founder populations. The detection and identification of CLas in citrus trees were carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S rDNA gene. The CLas-integrated prophage genomes were sequenced, annotated, and used to differentiate CLas populations. The ML and ASTRAL trees reconstructed with prophages type 1 and 2 genome sequences, separately and concatenated, resolved two major lineages, CLas-1 and -2. The CLas-1 clade, reported here for the first time, consisted of isolates from SA isolates and Pakistan. The CLas-2 sequences formed two groups, CLas-2-1 and -2-2, previously the 'Asiatic' and 'Floridian' strains, respectively. Members of CLas-2-1 originated from Southeast Asia, the USA, and other worldwide locations, while CLas-2-2 was identified only in Florida. This study provides the first snapshot into the status of the ACP-CLas pathosystem in SA. In addition, the results provide new insights into the pathosystem coevolution and global invasion histories of two ACP-CLas lineages with a predicted center of origin in South and Southeast Asia, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Zhao C, Zhao X, J Li (2022)

Elevated CO2 and Increased N Intensify Competition between Two Invasive Annual Plants in China.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:life12101669.

As multiple invaders often co-occur, understanding the interactions between different invasive species is important. Previous studies have reported on invasional meltdown and neutral and interference relationships between invasive species. However, interspecific interactions may vary with environmental change owing to the different responses of interacting invaders. To better understand the interaction of notorious invasive alien plants under CO2 enrichment and N deposition, the growth characteristics of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) were studied when they were planted in monoculture (4Rag and 4Pig) or mixture (1Rag:3Pig, 2Rag:2Pig, 3Rag:1Pig) under four environmental treatments: elevated CO2, increased N, elevated CO2 + increased N and a control. Increased N positively affected almost all the traits (basal stem diameter, height, shoot biomass, root biomass and total biomass) of common ragweed, except for branch number and root-shoot ratio. But increased N only promoted redroot pigweed's height and basal stem diameter. interspecific competition promoted basal stem diameter and number of branches but decreased root biomass of common ragweed, and the basal stem diameter was significantly higher in 1Rag:3Pig and 2Rag:2Pig compared to the other two treatments. interspecific competition inhibited almost all the characteristics of redroot pigweed. The interaction between elevated CO2 and increased N also increased the biomass characteristics (shoot biomass, root biomass and total biomass) of common ragweed. However, elevated CO2 inhibited the root biomass of redroot pigweed. The results indicated that common ragweed was a superior competitor under conditions of elevated CO2 and increased N. Moreover, environmental change might strengthen the super-invasive plant common ragweed's competitive ability.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Jawdhari A, Mihăilescu DF, Fendrihan S, et al (2022)

Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) (Asian Silver Carp) Presence in Danube Delta and Romania-A Review with Data on Natural Reproduction.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:life12101582.

The Danube River has a large hydrographical basin, being the second largest river in Europe. The main channel flows through seven European countries with many species of fish inhabiting it. In this review we focused on the invasive species silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), which plays an important ecological and economic role in its original habitat, but since introduced in Europe's rivers, the species has posed a serious ecological risk under global warming. In this review paper, we gathered data regarding silver carp, such as when and how it entered the Danube Delta and the water temperature suitable for its growth and reproduction, mainly in the context of global warming, as well as the nature of nutrition and the ecological risk the species poses.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Lu P, Hao E, Bao M, et al (2022)

Mating Behavior and Identification of Male-Produced Pheromone Components in Two Woodwasps, Sirex noctilio and Sirex nitobei, in China.

Insects, 13(10): pii:insects13100966.

To protect vulnerable trees from native and invasive wood wasps, the mating behavior of these two woodwasp species (S. noctilio and S. nitobei, respectively) and factors influencing this behavior were investigated in cages outdoors. Male-produced pheromones were identified in both woodwasp species. Compared with the native species S. nitobei, the invasive species S. noctilio showed stronger mating ability, including mating frequency, time, and duration. The mating behavior of both species mainly occurred from 9:00 to 17:00 each day, peaking at 11:00 and 12:00. The daily mating behavior of both species was most directly related to light intensity. Both female and male S. noctilio and S. nitobei were capable of mating upon emergence, and most individuals mated at 2 days of age. For both species, a female-to-male ratio of 5:15 was most conducive to mating, and individuals with a larger body size were preferred as mates by males and females. (Z)-3-decenol was present in solid-phase microextraction extracts of both species. Two reported minor reference components, (Z)-4-decen-1-ol and (E, E)-2,4-decadienal, were not identified in either woodwasp species. The peak of male pheromone release occurred from 11:00-12:00 for 2-day-old individuals.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Ademokoya B, Athey K, J Ruberson (2022)

Natural Enemies and Biological Control of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in North America.

Insects, 13(10): pii:insects13100932.

Stink bugs comprise a significant and costly pest complex for numerous crops in the US, including row crops, vegetables, and tree fruits and nuts. Most management relies on the use of broad-spectrum and disruptive insecticides with high human and environmental risks associated with them. Growing concerns about pesticide resistance in stink bugs are forcing pest managers to explore safer and more sustainable options. Here, we review the diverse suite of natural enemies of stink bugs in the US, noting that the egg and the late nymphal and adult stages of stink bugs are the most commonly attacked by parasitoids, whereas eggs and young nymphs are the stages most commonly attacked by predators. The effectiveness of stink bugs' natural enemies varies widely with stink bug species and habitats, influencing the biological control of stink bugs across crops. Historically, biological control of stink bugs has focused on introduction of exotic natural enemies against exotic stink bugs. Conservation and augmentation methods of biological control have received less attention in the US, although there may be good opportunities to utilize these approaches. We identify some considerations for the current and future use of biological control for stink bugs, including the potential for area-wide management approaches.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Jakubska-Busse A, Dziadas M, Gruss I, et al (2022)

Floral Volatile Organic Compounds and a List of Pollinators of Fallopia baldschuanica (Polygonaceae).

Insects, 13(10): pii:insects13100904.

Fallopia baldschuanica (Polygonaceae) is an Asian plant growing wild in parts of Europe and North and Central America as an introduced taxon, in many countries it is considered a potentially invasive species. This article presents the list of 18 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by the flowers of F. baldchuanica and identified by headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) analyzes, and a list of flower-visiting and pollinating insects that have been observed in the city center of Wrocław (SW Poland). β-ocimene, heptanal, nonanal, α-pinene, 3-thujene, and limonene, were detected as the floral scent's most important aroma compounds. F. baldschuanica also produces the aphid alarm pheromones, i.e., β-farnesene and limonene, that repels aphids. Additionally, the pollinators of F. baldschuanica were indicated, based on two years of observations in five sites in the urban area. It was found, that the pollinators of this plant with the highest species stability are: Diptera from families Syrphidae (Chrysotoxum&nbsp;bicinctum, Eristalis&nbsp;pertinax, Eupeodes&nbsp;corollae, Episyrphus&nbsp;balteatus, Eristalis tenax, Syrphus ribesii, Eristalis intricaria), Muscidae (Musca domestica), Sarcophagidae (Sarcophaga spp.), Calliphoridae (Lucilia sericata, Lucilia caesar), Hymenoptera from families Vespidae (Vespula vulgaris), and Apidae (Apis sp., Bombus sp.). The key role of VOCs in adaptation to plant expansion is discussed.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Azlan A, Yunus MA, Abdul Halim M, et al (2022)

Revised Annotation and Characterization of Novel Aedes albopictus miRNAs and Their Potential Functions in Dengue Virus Infection.

Biology, 11(10): pii:biology11101536.

The Asian tiger mosquito, Ae. albopictus, is a highly invasive species that transmits several arboviruses including dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), and chikungunya (CHIKV). Although several studies have identified microRNAs (miRNAs) in Ae. albopictus, it is crucial to extend and improve current annotations with both the newly improved genome assembly and the increased number of small RNA-sequencing data. We combined our high-depth sequence data and 26 public datasets to re-annotate Ae. albopictus miRNAs and found a total of 72 novel mature miRNAs. We discovered that the expression of novel miRNAs was lower than known miRNAs. Furthermore, compared to known miRNAs, novel miRNAs are prone to expression in a stage-specific manner. Upon DENV infection, a total of 44 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed, and target prediction analysis revealed that miRNA-target genes were involved in lipid metabolism and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Taken together, the miRNA annotation profile provided here is the most comprehensive to date. We believed that this would facilitate future research in understanding virus-host interactions, particularly in the role of miRNAs.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Li X, Wang X, Lu J, et al (2022)

Eating More and Fighting Less: Social Foraging Is a Potential Advantage for Successful Expansion of Bird Source Populations.

Biology, 11(10): pii:biology11101496.

Animals can expand distributions in response to climatic and environmental changes, but the potential expansive ability of a source population is rarely evaluated using designed experiments. Group foraging can increase survival in new environments, but it also increases intraspecific competition. The trade-off between benefit and conflict needs to be determined. The expanding Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis was used as a model to test mechanisms promoting successful expansion. Social foraging and its advantages were evaluated using lab-designed feeding trials. Consuming novel foods was compared between bulbuls and a sympatric, nonexpansive relative species, the finchbill Spizixos semitorques, from native areas at both solitary and social levels. Bulbuls increased their eating times when transferred from solitary to group, whereas social context did not affect finchbills. Bulbuls were significantly more likely to eat with their companions than finchbills when in a group. Thus, exploring food resources in a bulbul source population was facilitated by social context, indicating that social foraging is an important means by which birds successfully expand and respond to environmental changes. This research increases understanding of successful expansion mechanisms and will consequently help predict invasive potentials of alien species.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Castriota L, Falautano M, Maggio T, et al (2022)

The Blue Swimming Crab Portunus segnis in the Mediterranean Sea: Invasion Paths, Impacts and Management Measures.

Biology, 11(10): pii:biology11101473.

Invasive alien species represent one of the main environmental emergencies and are considered by the scientific community as being among the leading causes of biodiversity loss on a global scale. Therefore, detecting their pathways, hotspot areas and invasion trends becomes extremely important also for management purposes. A systematic review on presence of Portunus segnis in the Suez Canal and Mediterranean Sea was carried out in order to study the invasion paths from its entry from the Red Sea into the Suez Canal (1886) until recently (2021) through ecological indicators elaborated with GIS spatial-temporal statistics. Arrival, establishment and expansion phases and areas of P. segnis in the Mediterranean were identified. Settlement areas were detected along the Suez Canal as well as in the Levantine Sea, western Ionian Sea and Tunisian plateau ecoregions. Since 2015 a persistent area has formed in Tunisia from where the species is spreading northward and eastward. The study provides an insight on the impact of P. segnis on biodiversity and ecosystem services and proposes a series of desirable management actions to mitigate the expansion of its population. Following the 8Rs model that introduces the rules to mitigate non-indigenous species pollution, six of them (Recognize, Reduce, Replace, Reuse, Remove, and Regulate) have been identified as applicable and are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Cassini MH (2022)

Human-Wildlife Conflicts: Does Origin Matter?.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(20): pii:ani12202872.

Conservation biologists have divided wildlife in two antagonist categories-native and introduced populations-because they defend the hypothesis that the latter acquires or expresses harmful qualities that a population that remains in its original environment does not possess. Invasion biology has emerged as a branch of conservation biology dedicated exclusively to conflicts between introduced wildlife and human interest, including the protection of biodiversity. For invasion biology, the damage caused by native species is different and must be managed differently. However, the consensus around this native-introduced dichotomy is not universal, and a debate has intensified in recent years. The objective of this work was to compare the impacts of native and introduced species of terrestrial vertebrates of the United States using the dataset provided by Wildlife Services (WS), which depend upon the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the Department of Agriculture. Annually, they receive thousands of reports and complaints of human-wildlife conflicts. I analyzed the WS databases and found, against expectations, that native species produce significantly more damage than nonnative ones, especially regarding damage to agriculture, property and health and safety. In the category of impacts on biodiversity and natural ecosystems, the differences were minor. I discuss several potential explanations of these patterns in the results. I also discuss the ecological foundations of the native-introduced dichotomy hypothesis.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Chang B, Kim I, Choi K, et al (2022)

Population Dynamics of American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Implications for Control.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(20): pii:ani12202827.

Lithobates catesbeianus (American bullfrog), known to be one of the notorious invasive species, was introduced to South Korea and has proliferated in the Korean natural environment for the past 25 years. The ecological impact caused by the species is well known, and several management decisions have been implemented to cull its population. However, the effectiveness of past control decisions is largely unknown. We built a population dynamics model for L. catesbeianus in the Onseok reservoir, South Korea, using STELLA architect software. The population model was based on the demographics and ecological process of the species developing through several life stages, with respective parameters for survivorship and carrying capacity. Control scenarios with varying intensities were simulated to evaluate their effectiveness. The limitations of isolated control methods and the importance of integrated management are shown in our results. The population of the American bullfrog in the reservoir was reduced to a manageable level under intensive control of the tadpole stage, using three sets of double fyke nets and 80% direct removal of juvenile and adult stages. According to our results, integrated, intensive, and continuous control is essential for managing the invasive American bullfrog population. Finally, our modeling approach can assist in determining the control intensity to improve the efficiency of measures against L. catesbeianus.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Hildebrand J, Jurczyk K, Popiołek M, et al (2022)

Occurrence of Borrelia sp. among Wild Living Invasive and Native Mesocarnivores in Poland.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(20): pii:ani12202829.

Wild living mesocarnivores, both introduced and native species, are able to adapt well to peri-urban environments, facilitating cross-species pathogen transmission with domestic animals, and potentially humans. Individual tissue samples derived from 284 specimens of six carnivore species, i.e., raccoon, raccoon dog, red fox, European badger, pine marten and stone marten, were used for molecular investigations with the nested PCR method. The animals were sampled in the Ruszów Forest District (Poland). We aimed to examine the relative importance of the studied mesocarnivores as hosts of Borrelia spp. and investigated their role in this spirochaete's transmission cycle. We also aimed to trace the reservoir competence of these invasive and native predators and borreliosis eco-epidemiology in the context of a dilution effect. The overall prevalence of Borrelia spp. in the tested carnivores was 8.8%. Almost all of the consensus sequences of the partial flaB gene shared identity with a sequence of specific Borrelia species, i.e., B. afzelii, B. garinii and B. burgdorferi. Our results suggest that raccoons may play a role as reservoir hosts for these spirochaetal bacteria. The role of invasive species seems to be worthy of further analysis with reference to the circulation of vector-borne pathogens as well as in the context of the "dilution effect" hypothesis.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Diéguez-Antón A, Escuredo O, Seijo MC, et al (2022)

Embryo, Relocation and Secondary Nests of the Invasive Species Vespa velutina in Galicia (NW Spain).

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(20): pii:ani12202781.

Invasive species become established in non-native areas due to their intrinsic characteristics and the ability to adapt to new environments. This work describes the characteristics of the nesting behavior of the invasive yellow-legged hornet (Vespa velutina nigrithorax) in Galicia (Northwest Spain). The first nest was detected in the area in 2012 and after that, the distribution pattern shows a species-invasion curve with slow progress at first but followed by rapid expansion. The nesting places for this hornet differ between the kinds of nests, while embryo nests are mainly found in buildings in spring, secondary nests are observed in vegetation in summer, autumn, and winter. The annual life cycle starts when the queen builds the embryo nests and starts to lay eggs. This leads to the emergence of the first workers, usually small in size, and sometimes a few males. After this stage, large nests called secondary nests are normally observed in most exposed sites. Relocation nests can also be observed; these are nests in the first stage of development presenting adults insects but without brood or meconium. The period of decline is characterized by the emergence of new queens and males, that are distinguishable even in the pupal stage, the appearance of two eggs per cell, and an irregular brood pattern.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Gethöffer F, Gregor KM, Zdora I, et al (2022)

Suspected Frostbite Injuries in Coypu (Myocastor coypus).

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(20): pii:ani12202777.

Native to South America, the coypu (Myocastor coypus) is an invasive alien species (IAS) of Union concern. It was introduced to Germany a hundred years ago and is considered established in all German federal states. Between January and February 2021, ground temperatures below -10° Celsius were recorded in Lower Saxony, Germany, for approximately two consecutive weeks. Five male and five female coypus, harvested between 23 February and 31 March 2021, received a post-mortem examination. Nutritional status was poor in six cases, moderate in three and good in one case. Pregnancy was observed in two females. In all the animals, lesions were predominantly found on the distal limbs (n = 7) and/or tail (n = 10), involving the skin and soft tissue with occasional exposure or loss of bones. The histological findings consisted of chronic, ulcerative to necrotizing dermatitis and occasional ulcerative-suppurative dermatitis, necrotizing myositis, thrombosis, granulation tissue, fibrosis and intralesional dystrophic mineralization. Intralesional bacteria were present in six and fungal spores in one animal. Determination of the exact cause was not possible; however, considering the local weather conditions and the distribution of lesions, frostbite injuries have to be considered as the most likely cause. The intralesional bacteria and fungal spores most likely represent secondary contaminants. Interestingly, lesions of this kind have not been reported in coypus in Germany so far. Therefore, frostbite should be considered as a potential cause of disease in coypus, warranting further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Cruciani D, Crotti S, Paoloni D, et al (2022)

Health Status of the Eastern Grey Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) Population in Umbria: Results of the LIFE Project 'U-SAVEREDS'.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(20): pii:ani12202741.

The introduction of the Eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Europe is one of the best-known cases of invasive alien species (IAS) colonisation, that poses a severe risk to the conservation of biodiversity. In 2003, it was released in a private wildlife park near the city of Perugia (Italy), where it is replacing the native Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris). The LIFE13 BIO/IT/000204 Project (U-SAVEREDS) was set up for the Sciurus vulgaris conservation in Umbria through an eradication campaign of grey squirrels. One hundred and fifty-four animals were analysed for bacteriological, mycological, virological, and serological investigations (C4 action). Sanitary screening showed that Sciurus carolinensis is a dermatophyte carrier, and therefore, it could cause public health issues for humans, considering its confident behaviour. Moreover, it has been marginally responsible for the spreading of Candida albicans, Coxiella burnetii, and Borrelia lusitaniae. Health status evaluation conducted on the Sciurus carolinensis population indicated that it is necessary to raise awareness of its impacts on biodiversity and human health. Moreover, the health status and behaviours of the IAS must be considered when control or eradication campaigns are planned.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Collins SM, Hendrix JG, Webber QMR, et al (2022)

Bibliometric investigation of the integration of animal personality in conservation contexts.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Consistent individual differences in behavior, commonly termed animal personality, are a widespread phenomenon across taxa with important consequences for fitness, natural selection, and trophic interactions. Animal personality research may prove useful in several conservation contexts, but in which particular contexts remains to be determined. Building on a prior review of the intersections of behavioral ecology and conservation, we conducted a structured literature review of n = 654 studies combining search terms for animal personality and various conservation subfields. We also scored the relevance of both personality and conservation issues for each study to identify which studies meaningfully integrated the two fields as opposed to surface-level connections or vague allusions. We found a taxonomic bias towards mammals with very few amphibian or reptile studies applying personality research to conservation issues. Invasive species and climate change were by far the most abundant conservation subfields that occurred in our search, though a substantial proportion of these papers weakly integrated conservation and animal personality. Based on our results, we first recommend that researchers strive for consistent and broadly applicable terminology when describing consistent behavioral differences to minimize confusion and improve the searchability of research. Second, we identify several gaps in the collected literature for various taxa, personality traits, and conservation subfields that appear to be promising and fruitful avenues for future research. Finally, we recommend ways that practitioners can begin informing future conservation efforts with knowledge gained from animal personality research. Article Impact Statement: Studies integrating animal personality and conservation are exponentially increasing and reveal ways to improve future conservation efforts. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Laidemitt MR, Gleichsner AM, Ingram CD, et al (2022)

Host preference of field-derived Schistosoma mansoni is influenced by snail host compatibility and infection status.

Ecosphere (Washington, D.C), 13(4):.

Schistosome parasites cause a chronic inflammatory disease in humans, and recent studies have emphasized the importance of control programs for understanding the aquatic phases of schistosomiasis transmission. The host-seeking behavior of larval schistosomes (miracidia) for their snail intermediate hosts plays a critical role in parasite transmission. Using field-derived strains of Kenyan snails and parasites, we tested two main hypotheses: (1) Parasites prefer the most compatible host, and (2) parasites avoid hosts that are already infected. We tested preference to three Biomphalaria host snail taxa (B. pfeifferi, B. sudanica, and B. choanomphala), using allopatric and sympatric Schistosoma mansoni isolates and two different nonhost snail species that co-occur with Biomphalaria, Bulinus globosus, and Physa acuta. We also tested whether schistosomes avoid snail hosts that are already infected by another trematode species and whether competitive dominance played a role in their behavior. Preference was assessed using two-way choice chambers and by visually counting parasites that moved toward competing stimuli. In pairwise comparisons, we found that S. mansoni did not always prefer the more compatible snail taxon, but never favored an incompatible host over a compatible host. While parasites preferred B. pfeifferi to the nonhost species B. globosus, they did not significantly prefer B. pfeifferi versus P. acuta, an introduced species in Kenya. Finally, we demonstrated that parasites avoid infected snails if the resident parasite was competitively dominant (Patagifer sp.), and preferred snails infected with subordinates (xiphidiocercariae) to uninfected snails. These results provide evidence of "fine tuning" in the ability of schistosome miracidia to detect hosts; however, they did not always select hosts that would maximize fitness. Appreciating such discriminatory abilities could lead to a better understanding of how ecosystem host and parasite diversity influences disease transmission and could provide novel control mechanisms to improve human health.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Guo Y, Zhang A, Qin C, et al (2022)

Community assembly patterns and processes of microbiome responses to habitats and Mytilopsis sallei invasion in the tidal zones of the Pearl River Estuary.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06775-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The sustainability of estuarine ecosystem functions depends on the stabilization of microbial ecological processes. However, due to the unique and variable habitat characteristics of estuarine areas, in-depth studies on ecological processes such as the spatial distribution and assembly patterns of microbial community structure are lacking. As methods to elucidate this structure, we used 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA and ITS sequencing technologies to study the composition, diversity, spatial pattern and aggregation mechanism of the bacterial, protist and fungal communities in the tidal zones of the Pearl River Estuary (PRETZ). The abundance of bacterial communities was much higher than that of protists and fungi, and the spatial pattern was obvious in PRETZ. The application of neutral and null models revealed the assembly process of three microbial communities dominated by stochastic processes. Among the stochastic processes, undominated processes (64.03 %, 62.45 %, and 59.29 %) were the most critical processes in the assembly of bacterial, fungal and protist communities. Meanwhile, environmental variables, geographic locations, and biological factors were associated with the composition and assembly of bacterial, protist, and fungal communities. Among the environmental variables, dissolved oxygen and salinity were the main predictors that jointly affected the differences in the community structure of the three microorganisms, and geographic location was the second predictor affecting the community structure of the three microorganisms and had a more pronounced effect on the diversity and network structure of the bacterial and fungal communities. However, biological factors exerted a weaker effect on the microbial community structure than spatial factors and only affected bacteria and protists; the invasive species Mytilopsis sallei only affected the process of protist community assembly. In addition, environmental variables affected the relative importance of stochastic processes. In summary, the formation of microbial communities in the PRETZ was affected by random processes, environmental variables, geographic location, and invasive species.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Siddiqui JA, Luo Y, Sheikh UAA, et al (2022)

Transcriptome analysis reveals differential effects of beta-cypermethrin and fipronil insecticides on detoxification mechanisms in Solenopsis invicta.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:1018731 pii:1018731.

Insecticide resistance poses many challenges in insect pest control, particularly in the control of destructive pests such as red imported fire ants (Solenopsis invicta). In recent years, beta-cypermethrin and fipronil have been extensively used to manage invasive ants, but their effects on resistance development in S. invicta are still unknown. To investigate resistance development, S. invicta was collected from populations in five different cities in Guangdong, China. The results showed 105.71- and 2.98-fold higher resistance against fipronil and beta-cypermethrin, respectively, in the Guangzhou population. The enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase, carboxylases, and glutathione S-transferases significantly increased with increasing beta-cypermethrin and fipronil concentrations. Transcriptomic analysis revealed 117 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the BC-ck vs. BC-30 treatments (39 upregulated and 78 downregulated), 109 DEGs in F-ck vs. F-30 (33 upregulated and 76 downregulated), and 499 DEGs in BC-30 vs. F-30 (312 upregulated and 187 downregulated). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that DEGs associated with insecticide resistance were significantly enriched in metabolic pathways, the AMPK signaling pathway, the insulin signaling pathway, carbon metabolism, peroxisomes, fatty acid metabolism, drug metabolism enzymes and the metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450. Furthermore, we found that DEGs important for insecticide detoxification pathways were differentially regulated under both insecticide treatments in S. invicta. Comprehensive transcriptomic data confirmed that detoxification enzymes play a significant role in insecticide detoxification and resistance development in S. invicta in Guangdong Province. Numerous identified insecticide-related genes, GO terms, and KEGG pathways indicated the resistance of S. invicta workers to both insecticides. Importantly, this transcriptome profile variability serves as a starting point for future research on insecticide risk evaluation and the molecular mechanism of insecticide detoxification in invasive red imported fire ants.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Probert AF, Wegmann D, Volery L, et al (2022)

Identifying, reducing, and communicating uncertainty in community science: a focus on alien species.

Biological invasions, 24(11):3395-3421.

Community science (also often referred to as citizen science) provides a unique opportunity to address questions beyond the scope of other research methods whilst simultaneously engaging communities in the scientific process. This leads to broad educational benefits, empowers people, and can increase public awareness of societally relevant issues such as the biodiversity crisis. As such, community science has become a favourable framework for researching alien species where data on the presence, absence, abundance, phenology, and impact of species is important in informing management decisions. However, uncertainties arising at different stages can limit the interpretation of data and lead to projects failing to achieve their intended outcomes. Focusing on alien species centered community science projects, we identified key research questions and the relevant uncertainties that arise during the process of developing the study design, for example, when collecting the data and during the statistical analyses. Additionally, we assessed uncertainties from a linguistic perspective, and how the communication stages among project coordinators, participants and other stakeholders can alter the way in which information may be interpreted. We discuss existing methods for reducing uncertainty and suggest further solutions to improve data reliability. Further, we make suggestions to reduce the uncertainties that emerge at each project step and provide guidance and recommendations that can be readily applied in practice. Reducing uncertainties is essential and necessary to strengthen the scientific and community outcomes of community science, which is of particular importance to ensure the success of projects aimed at detecting novel alien species and monitoring their dynamics across space and time.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10530-022-02858-8.

RevDate: 2022-10-23

Martínez-Ibarra JA, Martínez-Hernández F, Grant-Guillén Y, et al (2022)

Vital statistics of the introduced species Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in western Mexico under laboratory conditions.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(22)00420-X [Epub ahead of print].

Triatoma infestans, one of the most important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans, has recently been discovered introduced in Mexico. Some of the most important biological parameters to estimate the vectorial capacity of a triatomine, such as the hatching of eggs, life cycle, feeding and defecation behaviors for each instar of a population of T. infestans introduced into Mexico are reported. The egg-to-adult development times of the three studied cohorts had a mean of 215.7 days. The mean total number of blood meals required to molt from first-instar nymphs to adults was 11.7. The cumulative mortality was 30.8%. The highest mortality rate was recorded for third-instar nymphs (10.3%), whereas the lowest rate (0.8%) was recorded for first-instar nymphs. All studied specimens began feeding as soon as a blood meal source was offered, showing "aggressive" behavior. Feeding times were ˃ 10 min for all instars, increasing according to instar, in a similar pattern to the development times and the required blood meals before molting. Most (57.7 -82.5%) of the studied specimens of the first- to third-instar nymphs and adults of T. infestans defecated when feeding (WF). The average number of eggs laid per female per day was 0.9, with an eclosion rate of 96.4%. The results of most of the studied parameters confirm the importance of T. infestans wherever it is found because of its potential high capacity for transmitting T. cruzi to hosts. Active entomological surveillance should be carried out in the area of the first discovery of the introduced T. infestans and its surroundings to avoid the dissemination of this effective vector species in Mexico.

RevDate: 2022-10-22

Yazici R (2022)

Sex-linked variations in the sagittal otolith biometry of Nemipterus randalli (Russell, 1986) from the eastern Mediterranean Sea.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Few studies have been conducted on the sagittal otolith shape and morphometry of Nemipterus randalli, and none of these studies has examined the effect of sexual dimorphism on the otolith morphology of this species. Therefore, this study aims to contribute to knowledge about the otolith morphology of N. randalli, an invasive fish species for the Mediterranean Sea. For this purpose, a total of 132 samples (51 female and 81 male) were obtained from İskenderun Bay with the help of commercial fishermen in November 2018. Relationships between otolith measurements and fish size were determined. Shape indices and elliptic Fourier coefficients were calculated. Significant differences were detected between males and females in all analysis. The sexes were separated from each other using both shape indices and elliptic Fourier coefficients. However, shape analysis was more effective in distinguishing sexes than traditional morphometric analysis. Asymmetry in otolith morphology of sexes has been attributed to differences in growth and sexual maturity of male and female fish. The results of this study indicated that the sexual dimorphism in Nemipterus randalli was also reflected in the otolith morphology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Park JH, Lee JM, Kim EJ, et al (2022)

A study on the proliferation of Myzus persicae (sulzer) during the winter season for year-round production within a smart farm facility.

PloS one, 17(10):e0276520 pii:PONE-D-22-16811.

In this study, we examined the feasibility of Myzus persicae proliferation through interrelationships with host plants in a smart farm facility during winter. We investigated aphid proliferation under an LED artificial light source and attempted to interpret aphid proliferation in relation to the net photosynthetic rate of the host plant, Eutrema japonicum. We observed that aphids continuously proliferated in the smart farm facility in winter without dormancy. The average number of aphids was greater under the 1:1 red:blue light irradiation time ratio, where the photosynthetic rate of the host plant was lower than under the 5:1 and 10:1 red:blue light irradiation time ratios. These results show that it is important to maintain a low net photosynthetic rate of the host plant, E. japonicum, in order to effectively proliferate aphids under artificial light such as in the case of smart farm facilities.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Desautels DJ, Hartman RB, Weber ME, et al (2022)

Experimental water hyacinth invasion and destructive management increase human schistosome transmission potential.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species cause environmental degradation, decrease biodiversity, and alter ecosystem function. Invasions can also drive changes in vector-borne and zoonotic diseases by altering important traits of wildlife hosts or disease vectors. Managing invasive species can restore biodiversity and ecosystem function, but it may have cascading effects on hosts, parasites, and human risk of infection. Water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, is an extremely detrimental invader in many sites of human schistosome transmission, especially in Lake Victoria, where hyacinth is correlated with high snail abundance and hotspots of human schistosome infection. Hyacinth is often managed via removal or in situ destruction, but the effects of these strategies on snail intermediate hosts and schistosomes are not known. We evaluated the effects of water hyacinth invasion and these management strategies on the dynamics of human schistosomes, Schistosoma mansoni, and snails, Biomphalaria glabrata, in experimental mesocosms over 17 weeks. We hypothesized that hyacinth, which is inedible to snails, would affect snail growth, reproduction, and cercariae production through the balance of its competitive effects on edible algae and its production of edible detritus. We predicted that destruction would create a pulse of edible detrital resources, thereby increasing snail growth, reproduction, and parasite production. Conversely, we predicted that removal would have small or negligible effects on snails and schistosomes because it would alleviate competition on edible algae without generating a resource pulse. We found that hyacinth invasion suppressed algae, changed the timing of peak snail abundance, and increased total production of human-infectious cercariae ~6-fold relative to uninvaded controls. Hyacinth management had complex effects on algae, snails, and schistosomes. Removal increased algal growth and snail abundance (but not biomass), and slightly reduced schistosome production. In contrast, destruction increased snail biomass (but not abundance), indicating increases in body size. Destruction caused the greatest schistosome production (10-fold more than the control), consistent with evidence that larger snails with greater access to food are most infectious. Our results highlight the dynamic effects of invasion and management on a globally impactful human parasite and its intermediate host. Ultimately, preventing or removing hyacinth invasions would simultaneously benefit human and environmental health outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Carey JR, Harder D, Zalom F, et al (2022)

Failure by Design: Lessons from the recently rescinded light brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana) eradication program in California.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

This paper was motivated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) announcement that on December 17, 2021 it rescinded Federal Orders of May 2, 2007 that regulated (what was believed to be) a new outbreak of the light brown apple moth (LBAM, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker)) in the mainland United States. Our paper follows from, and builds on, a 2013 article published by Carey and Harder that outlined major concerns about the LBAM eradication program including the need, cost, safety, practicality, and feasibility of the program and the public opposition to it. The program began with an emergency order based on USDA claims of billions of dollars in potential crop losses and the need to circumvent safety review processes to urgently prevent the pest's establishment. The program ended with the realization by government decision-makers, 14 years after initiating the program, that LBAM posed no quarantine-level threat in the first place and with no evidence of any economic damage done by the insect. This paper summarizes the mistakes made in devising and carrying out what has ultimately proven to be one of the most oversold, overhyped, misguided, ill-advised, unnecessary, and costly programs in the recent history of insect eradication programs in California. Termination of the LBAM program by USDA-APHIS presents an opportunity to review the program from to identify lessons learned and provide recommendations to help avoid similar mistakes in future invasive species response programs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Güçlü SS (2022)

The First Data on the Biology of Anatolichthys meridionalis (Actinopterygii, Aphaniidae): an Endemic and Endangered Fish of Turkey (Dalaman River Basin).

Inland water biology, 15(5):613-623.

Species belonging to the Aphaniidae, extant as well as fossil, are widel distributed along the late-period Tethys Sea coast lines. Among the mentioned genera, Anatolichthys is the genus that includes the 13 species. Anatolia has been a center in the diversity of Anatolichthys. The study is one of the first studies on the growth of the species. On this occasion, in study, it was aimed to examine the growth parameters of the Anatolichthys meridionalis Akşiray, 1948 population, which is an endemic and endangered species in Anatolia. The population structure of endemic species Anatolichthys meridionalis in Gökpınar Spring (Dalaman River basin-Turkey) (37.34° N, 29.44° E) was studied, using 108 fish in October 2019 and September 2020. The growth and reproductive characteristics of A. meridionalis were examined in the study. Males made up 42.59%, females 57.41% of the population. The length-weight relationship and Von Bertalanffy growth equation were W = 0.0112L 3.4638, R 2 = 0.9793, L t = 22.97 (1 - e-0.0304 (t+2.834)), respectively. Average growth performance and condition factor are calculated as 1.21 and 1.84, respectively. The gonadosomatic index was found in a maximum value (12.742%) in July and a minimum value (0.545%) in January. Reproduction time was found to be in between of July and September. The mean fecundity and mean egg diameter were found as 147.94 ± 28.03 number/individual/year and 1.35 ± 0.04 mm, respectively. The first maturation was found to be at age I. First maturity length (L m) was estimated at 23.95 mm for females and 22.04 mm for males. Although the study shows that the species has no problem in finding food and is a population with a wide age range, the presence of invasive species in the habitat, the habitat is directly affected by pollution from agricultural activities, water is drawn by pumps for agricultural activities, and it is narrowly distributed and endangered species, A. meridionalis and its habitat Gökpınar Spring should be protected.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Somveille M, D Ellis-Soto (2022)

Linking animal migration and ecosystem processes: Data-driven simulation of propagule dispersal by migratory herbivores.

Ecology and evolution, 12(10):e9383 pii:ECE39383.

Animal migration is a key process underlying active subsidies and species dispersal over long distances, which affects the connectivity and functioning of ecosystems. Despite much research describing patterns of where animals migrate, we still lack a framework for quantifying and predicting how animal migration affects ecosystem processes. In this study, we aim to integrate animal movement behavior and ecosystem functioning by developing a predictive modeling framework that can inform ecosystem management and conservation.We propose a framework to model individual-level migration trajectories between populations' seasonal ranges as well as the resulting dispersal and fate of propagules carried by the migratory animals, which can be calibrated using empirical data at every step of the modeling process. As a case study, we applied our framework to model the spread of guava seeds, Psidium guajava, by a population of migratory Galapagos tortoises, Chelonoidis porteri, across Santa Cruz Island. Galapagos tortoises are large herbivores that transport seeds and nutrients across the island, while Guava is one of the most problematic invasive species in the Galapagos archipelago.Our model can predict the pattern of spread of guava seeds alongside tortoises' downslope migration range, and it identified areas most likely to see establishment success. Our results show that Galapagos tortoises' seed dispersal may particularly contribute to guava range expansion on Santa Cruz Island, due to both long gut retention time and tortoise's long-distance migration across vegetation zones. In particular, we predict that tortoises are dispersing a significant amount of guava seeds into the Galapagos National Park, which has important consequences for the native flora.The flexibility and modularity of our framework allow for the integration of multiple data sources. It also allows for a wide range of applications to investigate how migratory animals affect ecosystem processes, including propagule dispersal but also other processes such as nutrient transport across ecosystems. Our framework is also a valuable tool for predicting how animal-mediated propagule dispersal can be affected by environmental change. These different applications can have important conservation implications for the management of ecosystems that include migratory animals.

RevDate: 2022-10-21
CmpDate: 2022-10-21

Zhu X, Li W, Shao H, et al (2022)

Selected Aspects of Invasive Solidago canadensis with an Emphasis on Its Allelopathic Abilities: A Review.

Chemistry & biodiversity, 19(10):e202200728.

Solidago canadensis L., native to North America, is now an invasive plant worldwide. Its abundant seeds, rapid vegetative reproduction ability, and allelopathy to other plants are the main reasons for its successful invasion. It has negative impacts on the ecological environment of the invaded area and causes a reduction in local biodiversity and economic losses of agriculture and stock farming. Each part of the plant contains a variety of allelochemicals (terpenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids), including a large number of essential oil components. These allelochemicals can be released in various ways to inhibit the growth of adjacent plants and promote their invasion; they can also affect soil properties and soil microorganisms. This article summarizes the allelopathic effects of S. canadensis on other plant species and the interaction mechanism between it and the ecosystem.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Wang S, Deng T, Zhang J, et al (2022)

Global economic costs of mammal invasions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06578-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive alien mammals cause huge adverse ecological impact on human society and natural ecosystems. Although studies have estimated economic costs of mammal invasions at regional scales, there is lacking the large-scale comprehensive assessment of currency costs for this taxon. Here, we estimated the economic cost of invasive alien mammals on a global scale using the most comprehensive global database compiling economic costs of invasive species (InvaCost). From 1960 to 2021, mammal invasions caused costs (summing damage costs and management costs) of US$ 462.49 billion to the global economy, while the total amount of robust costs reached US$ 52.49 billion. The majority of the total economic costs corresponded to damage costs (90.27 %), while only 7.43 % were related to management cost. Economic costs showed an increasing trend over time. The distribution of costs was uneven among taxonomic groups and regions, with the global total cost highly biasing toward to 5 species (European rabbit, Domestic cat, Black rat, Wild boar and Coypu), and North America reporting much higher costs (60.78 % of total economic costs) than other regions. The total costs were borne by agriculture, environment, authorities stakeholders and other sectors. Geographic and taxonomic biases suggested that total economic costs caused by invasive alien mammals were underestimated. Integrated research efforts are needed to fill in knowledge gaps in the economic costs generated by mammal invasions and to identify the drivers of the economic costs.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Bobier CA, BL Allen (2022)

Compassionate Conservation is indistinguishable from traditional forms of conservation in practice.

Frontiers in psychology, 13:750313.

Animal welfare and ethics are important factors influencing wildlife conservation practice, and critics are increasingly challenging the underlying ethics and motivations supporting common conservation practices. "Compassionate Conservationists" argue that all conservationists should respect the rights of individual sentient animals and approach conservation problems from a position of compassion, and that doing so requires implementing practices that avoid direct harm to individual animals. In this way Compassionate Conservationists seek to contrast themselves with "Traditional Conservationists" who often express consequentialist decision-making processes that ostensibly aim to dispassionately minimize net animal harms, resulting in the common use of practices that directly harm or kill some animals. Conservationists and other observers might therefore conclude that the two sides of this debate are distinct and/or that their policy proscriptions produce different welfare outcomes for animals. To explore the validity of this conclusion we review the ethical philosophies underpinning two types of Compassionate Conservation-deontology and virtue ethics. Deontology focusses on animal rights or the moral duties or obligations of conservationists, whereas virtue ethics focusses on acting in ways that are virtuous or compassionate. We demonstrate that both types permit the intentional harm and killing of animals when faced with common conservation problems where animals will be harmed no matter what the conservationist does or does not do. We then describe the applied decision-making processes exhibited by Compassionate Conservationists (of both types) and Traditional Conservationists to show that they may each lead to the implementation of similar conservation practices (including lethal control) and produce similar outcomes for animals, despite the perceived differences in their ethical motivations. The widespread presence of wildlife conservation problems that cannot be resolved without causing at least some harm to some animals means that conservationists of all persuasions must routinely make trade-offs between the welfare of some animals over others. Compassionate Conservationists do this from an explicit position of animal rights and/or compassion, whereas Traditional Conservationists respect animal rights and exhibit this same compassion implicitly. These observations lead to the conclusion that Compassionate Conservation is indistinguishable from traditional forms of conservation in practice, and that the apparent disagreement among conservationists primarily concerns the effectiveness of various wildlife management practices at minimizing animal harm, and not the underlying ethics, motivations or morality of those practices.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Borowy D, CM Swan (2022)

The effects of local filtering processes on the structure and functioning of native plant communities in experimental urban habitats.

Ecology and evolution, 12(10):e9397 pii:ECE39397.

Despite a growing literature-base devoted to document biodiversity patterns in cities, little is known about the processes that influence these patterns, and whether they are consistent over time. In particular, numerous studies have identified the capacity of cities to host a rich diversity of plant species. This trend, however, is driven primarily by introduced species, which comprise a large proportion of the urban species pool relative to natives. Using an experimental common garden study, we assessed the relative influence of local assembly processes (i.e., soil environmental filtering and competition from spontaneous urban species) on the taxonomic and functional diversity of native plant communities sampled over four seasons in 2016-2018. Taxonomic and functional diversity exhibited different responses to local processes, supporting the general conclusion that species- and trait-based measures of biodiversity offer distinct insights into community assembly dynamics. Additionally, we found that neither soil nor competition from spontaneous urban species influenced taxonomic or functional composition of native species. Functional composition, however, did shift strongly over time and was driven by community-weighted mean differences in both measured traits (maximum height, Hmax; specific leaf area, SLA; leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence, Chl a) and the relative proportions of different functional groups (legumes, annual and biennial-perennial species, C4 grasses, and forbs). By contrast, taxonomic composition only diverged between early and late seasons. Overall, our results indicate that native species are not only capable of establishing and persisting in vacant urban habitats, they can functionally respond to local filtering pressures over time. This suggests that regional dispersal limitation may be a primary factor limiting native species in urban environments. Thus, future regreening and management plans should focus on enhancing the dispersal potential of native plant species in urban environments, in order to achieve set goals for increasing native species diversity and associated ecosystem services in cities.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Zhang Z, Pan M, Zhang X, et al (2022)

Responses of invasive and native plants to different forms and availability of phosphorus.

American journal of botany [Epub ahead of print].

PREMISE: Many studies have assessed the various responses of alien plants to changes in overall nutrient or different nitrogen (N) availabilities. However, in natural soils, nutrients are present as different elements (e.g., N and phosphorus [P]) and forms (e.g., inorganic and organic). Few studies have explored whether invasive and native species differ in their responses to varying P availability and forms.

METHODS: We grew five taxonomically related pairs of common herbaceous, invasive and native species alone or in competition under six different conditions of P availability or forms and assessed their growth performance.

RESULTS: Invasive species overall did not produce more biomass than native species did in the various P conditions. However, the biomass response to organic forms of P was, relative to the response to inorganic forms of P, stronger for the invasive species than that for the native species and agreed with invasive species mainly allocating biomass to the root system under organic P conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: While invasive species were not more promiscuous than the native species, they took great advantage of the organic P forms. Therefore, the invasion risk of alien species may increase in habitats with more organic P sources.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Li H, Mao D, Wang Z, et al (2022)

Invasion of Spartina alterniflora in the coastal zone of mainland China: Control achievements from 2015 to 2020 towards the Sustainable Development Goals.

Journal of environmental management, 323:116242.

The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Convention on Biological Diversity's 15th Conference of the Parties (CBD COP15) both emphasized the urgency of protecting biological diversity. Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora), as an invasive species in China, has posed severe biodiversity challenges, demanding nationwide control and management. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of S. alterniflora management during China's SDGs implementation from 2015 to 2020. Landsat images acquired in 2015 (the beginning year of SDGs), 2018, and 2020 (the end year of SDGs' targets 6.6, 14.2, 14.5, and 15.8 related to alien invasion) were applied to quantify the spatiotemporal dynamics of S. alterniflora extent. The results revealed a consistent shrinkage of S. alterniflora, with a net areal reduction of 2610 ha from 2015 to 2020, implying the effectiveness of control measures on S. alterniflora invasion. Provinces including Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shanghai have succeeded in controlling S. alterniflora, evidenced by the sharp reduction in S. alterniflora area by 4908 ha, 2176 ha, and 1034 ha, respectively, from 2015 to 2020. However, better management of S. alterniflora is needed in regions with more severe S. alterniflora invasion, e.g., Shandong, Fujian, and Guangdong provinces. Our results suggest that relevant policies, regulations, and ecological restoration projects implemented by national or local governments in China received satisfactory results in S. alterniflora control. Nevertheless, S. alterniflora potential utilities and its governance effectiveness should be objectively evaluated and weighed to obtain the greatest ecological benefits and promote sustainable coastal ecosystems. The results of this study are expected to provide important baseline information benefitting the formulation of coastal protection and restoration strategies in China.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Parvizi E, Dhami MK, Yan J, et al (2022)

Population genomic insights into invasion success in the polyphagous agricultural pest, Halyomorpha halys.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species are increasingly threatening ecosystems and agriculture by rapidly expanding their range and adapting to environmental and human-imposed selective pressures. The genomic mechanisms that underlie such rapid changes remain unclear, especially for agriculturally important pests. Here, we use genome-wide polymorphisms derived from native, invasive, and intercepted samples and populations of the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, to gain insights into population genomics processes that have promoted the successful global invasion of this polyphagous pest. Our analysis demonstrated that BMSB exhibits spatial structure but admixture rates are high among introduced populations, resulting in similar levels of genomic diversity across native and introduced populations. These spatial genomic patterns suggest a complex invasion scenario, potentially with multiple bridgehead events, posing a challenge for accurately assigning BMSB incursions to their source using reduced-representation genomic data. By associating allele frequencies with the invasion status of BMSB populations, we found significantly differentiated SNPs located in close proximity to genes for insecticide resistance and olfaction. Comparing variations in allele frequencies among populations for outlier SNPs suggests that BMSB invasion success has likely evolved from standing genetic variation. In addition to being a major nuisance of households, BMSB has caused significant economic losses to agriculture in recent years and continues to expand its range. Despite no record of BMSB insecticide resistance to date, our results show high capacity for potential evolution of such characters, highlighting the need for future sustainable and targeted management strategies.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Hanson HE, Wang C, Schrey AW, et al (2022)

Epigenetic Potential and DNA Methylation in an Ongoing House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) Range Expansion.

The American naturalist, 200(5):662-674.

AbstractDuring range expansions, organisms can use epigenetic mechanisms to adjust to conditions in novel areas by altering gene expression and enabling phenotypic plasticity. Here, we predicted that the number of CpG sites within the genome, one form of epigenetic potential, would be important for successful range expansions because DNA methylation can modulate gene expression and, consequently, plasticity. We asked how the number of CpG sites and DNA methylation varied across five locations in the ∼70-year-old Kenyan house sparrow (Passer domesticus) range expansion. We found that the number of CpG sites was highest toward the vanguard of the invasion and decreased toward the range core. Analysis suggests that this pattern may have been driven by selection, favoring birds with more CpG sites at the range edge. However, we cannot rule out other processes, including nonrandom gene flow. Additionally, DNA methylation did not change across the range expansion, nor was it more variable. We hypothesize that as new areas are colonized, epigenetic potential may be selectively advantageous early but eventually be replaced by less plastic and perhaps genetically canalized traits as populations adapt to local conditions. Although further work is needed on epigenetic potential, this form (CpG number) appears to be a promising mechanism to investigate as a driver of expansions via capacitated phenotypic plasticity in other natural and anthropogenic range expansions.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Pérez-Méndez N, Alcaraz C, Bertolero A, et al (2022)

Agricultural policies against invasive species generate contrasting outcomes for climate change mitigation and biodiversity conservation.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 289(1985):20221081.

Direct consequences of biological invasions on biodiversity and the environment have been largely documented. Yet collateral indirect effects mediated by changes in agri-environmental policies aimed at combating invasions remain little explored. Here we assessed the effects of recent changes in water management in rice farming, which are aimed at buffering the impact of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea maculata, Lamarck) on greenhouse gas emissions and diversity of waterbird communities. We used observational data from a 2-year field monitoring (2015-2016) performed at the Ebro Delta regional scale. We found that drying rice fields reduced methane emission rates by 82% (2015) and 51% (2016), thereby reflecting the contribution of rice farming to climate change. However, there was a marked reduction (75% in 2015 and 57% in 2016) in waterbird diversity in dry fields compared with flooded fields, thus suggesting that post-invasion policies might hinder biodiversity conservation. Our results highlight the need for accounting for potential collateral effects during the policy decision-making process to design efficient agricultural management plans that lessen undesirable agri-environmental outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Moles AT, Dalrymple RL, Raghu S, et al (2022)

Advancing the missed mutualist hypothesis, the under-appreciated twin of the enemy release hypothesis.

Biology letters, 18(10):20220220.

Introduced species often benefit from escaping their enemies when they are transported to a new range, an idea commonly expressed as the enemy release hypothesis. However, species might shed mutualists as well as enemies when they colonize a new range. Loss of mutualists might reduce the success of introduced populations, or even cause failure to establish. We provide the first quantitative synthesis testing this natural but often overlooked parallel of the enemy release hypothesis, which is known as the missed mutualist hypothesis. Meta-analysis showed that plants interact with 1.9 times more mutualist species, and have 2.3 times more interactions with mutualists per unit time in their native range than in their introduced range. Species may mitigate the negative effects of missed mutualists. For instance, selection arising from missed mutualists could cause introduced species to evolve either to facilitate interactions with a new suite of species or to exist without mutualisms. Just as enemy release can allow introduced populations to redirect energy from defence to growth, potentially evolving increased competitive ability, species that shift to strategies without mutualists may be able to reallocate energy from mutualism toward increased competitive ability or seed production. The missed mutualist hypothesis advances understanding of the selective forces and filters that act on plant species in the early stages of introduction and establishment and thus could inform the management of introduced species.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Meinita MDN, Harwanto D, JS Choi (2022)

A concise review of the bioactivity and pharmacological properties of the genus Codium (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta).

Journal of applied phycology pii:2842 [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Codium is one of the most important genera of marine green macroalgae. Its distribution is widespread worldwide and it has a high degree of diversity in species and characteristics. This genus plays an important ecological role in marine ecosystems as it is a primary producer. However, some species in the genus Codium are invasive species and may disturb the functioning of the ecosystem. Economically, Codium has promising potential as a source of diverse nutritional and pharmacological compounds. Codium is edible, has a high nutrient value, and is rich in bioactive compounds. Hence, some species of Codium have been consumed as food and used as herbal medicines in some Asian countries. In recent decades, studies of the bioactivity and pharmacological properties of the genus Codium have attracted the attention of scientists. This review aims to identify gaps in studies analyzing Codium that have been conducted in the past three decades by assessing published research articles on its bioactivity and pharmacological properties. Compounds obtained from Codium have demonstrated significant biological activities, such as immunostimulatory, anticoagulant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antitumor, anti-angiogenic, osteoprotective, and anti-obesity activities. This review provides information that can be used as a future guideline for sustainably utilizing the genus Codium.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Dung NTK, Veettil BK, Bao DQ, et al (2022)

Environmental management in Ramsar designated wetland areas in Vietnam: studies from U Minh Thuong and Tram Chim national parks (Mekong Delta).

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 194(Suppl 2):777.

This study investigated the possibility of using remotely sensed data and field surveys for understanding the environmental management practices in two Ramsar sites - U Minh Thong and Tram Chim national parks - in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta. Enhanced agriculture, infrastructure development, changes in hydrological regime, forest fires, and natural resources exploitation are the key variables that caused the depletion of these two wetland areas. Land cover, particularly vegetation coverage, has been changed considerably during the post-war period and agriculture has been intensified in the surrounding areas of U Minh Thuong and Tram Chim wetlands. The current water management strategies in U Minh Thuong and Tram Chim were designated to ensure proper water circulation during the dry and wet seasons in a way helpful to agriculture in the buffer zones and to prevent forest fires during the dry season. It is found that the water management strategies to prevent forest fires in both the parks resulted in the accumulation of toxic agrochemicals within the park during the wet season. Both U Minh Thuong and Tram Chim wetlands are invaded by alien plant species which is threatening the natural biodiversity of the area. Proper monitoring and control of invasive species is necessary for protecting the natural biodiversity of these wetland ecosystems. Proper law enforcement and an interactive and inclusive wetland management should be practiced in order to conserve these valuable wetland ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Lenzner B, Latombe G, Schertler A, et al (2022)

Naturalized alien floras still carry the legacy of European colonialism.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

The redistribution of alien species across the globe accelerated with the start of European colonialism. European powers were responsible for the deliberate and accidental transportation, introduction and establishment of alien species throughout their occupied territories and the metropolitan state. Here, we show that these activities left a lasting imprint on the global distribution of alien plants. Specifically, we investigated how four European empires (British, Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch) structured current alien floras worldwide. We found that compositional similarity is higher than expected among regions that once were occupied by the same empire. Further, we provide strong evidence that floristic similarity between regions occupied by the same empire increases with the time a region was occupied. Network analysis suggests that historically more economically or strategically important regions have more similar alien floras across regions occupied by an empire. Overall, we find that European colonial history is still detectable in alien floras worldwide.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

da Silva CS, Tucker JJ, Maia FJ, et al (2022)

The impact of maturity stages on yield, quality, and nutritive value of ensiled Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers].

Translational animal science, 6(4):txac118 pii:txac118.

Johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] is a non-native, invasive species that causes substantial losses in row crops and hay fields, which could be minimized by using Johnsongrass as a conserved forage. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the yield and quality of Johnsongrass ensiled at four maturities: harvested every 3 weeks (3WK), boot stage (BOOT), flower stage (FLOWER), and dough (DOUGH) stages. In experiment 1, yield, botanical composition, nutritive value, and fermentation characteristics of Johnsongrass were measured. In experiment 2, Johnsongrass silage was incubated for 48 h for assessment of gas production, pH, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), and volatile fatty acids. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots (2.74 m × 4.57 m) divided into four blocks, and treatment was randomly assigned to plot within block. Each year, silage was prepared for each plot from the two cutting closest to July 1. After 10 weeks, the silos were opened, and silage samples were frozen for further analysis. Data from both experiments were tested for the effects of maturity stage and harvest timing (first and second harvest). The results from experiment 1 showed an increase (P < 0.0001) in dry matter yield from 3WK stage to DOUGH. Johnsongrass, as a proportion of the total botanical composition, declined at the end of the growing season for 3WK but increased in FLOWER (P = 0.0010). In the first harvest, 3WK and BOOT stage silages had the greatest concentrations of crude protein and total digestible nutrients and lowest of fiber (neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber; P < 0.0001). In the second harvest, differences in nutrient content were significant only for 3WK silages, which showed the best nutritive value (P < 0.0001). In experiment 2, IVDMD of silage followed the same trends described for nutritive value from experiment 1. Overall, these results demonstrate that Johnsongrass can be successfully ensiled, but to optimize forage nutritive value and quantity, Johnsongrass should be ensiled before it reaches the flower stage.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Li G, Zhao Y, Liu F, et al (2022)

Transcriptional memory of gene expression across generations participates in transgenerational plasticity of field pennycress in response to cadmium stress.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:953794.

Transgenerational plasticity (TGP) occurs when maternal environments influence the expression of traits in offspring, and in some cases may increase fitness of offspring and have evolutionary significance. However, little is known about the extent of maternal environment influence on gene expression of offspring, and its relationship with trait variations across generations. In this study, we examined TGP in the traits and gene expression of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) in response to cadmium (Cd) stress. In the first generation, along with the increase of soil Cd concentration, the total biomass, individual height, and number of seeds significantly decreased, whereas time to flowering, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and content of reduced glutathione significantly increased. Among these traits, only SOD activity showed a significant effect of TGP; the offspring of Cd-treated individuals maintained high SOD activity in the absence of Cd stress. According to the results of RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis, 10,028 transcripts were identified as Cd-responsive genes. Among them, only 401 were identified as transcriptional memory genes (TMGs) that maintained the same expression pattern under normal conditions in the second generation as in Cd-treated parents in the first generation. These genes mainly participated in Cd tolerance-related processes such as response to oxidative stress, cell wall biogenesis, and the abscisic acid signaling pathways. The results of weighted correlation network analysis showed that modules correlated with SOD activity recruited more TMGs than modules correlated with other traits. The SOD-coding gene CSD2 was found in one of the modules correlated with SOD activity. Furthermore, several TMGs co-expressed with CSD2 were hub genes that were highly connected to other nodes and critical to the network's topology; therefore, recruitment of TMGs in offspring was potentially related to TGP. These findings indicated that, across generations, transcriptional memory of gene expression played an important role in TGP. Moreover, these results provided new insights into the trait evolution processes mediated by phenotypic plasticity.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Yabiku ST, Sullivan A, York AM, et al (2022)

Drivers of prohibited natural resource collection in Chitwan National Park, Nepal.

Environmental conservation, 49(2):114-121.

Protected areas (PAs) are critical for achieving conservation, economic and development goals, but the factors that lead households to engage in prohibited resource collection in PAs are not well understood. We examine collection behaviours in community forests and the protected Chitwan National Park in Chitwan, Nepal. Our approach incorporates household and ecological data, including structured interviews, spatially explicit data on collection behaviours measured with computer tablets and a systematic field survey of invasive species. We pair our data with a framework that considers factors related to a household's demand for resources, barriers to prohibited resource collection, barriers to legal resource collection and alternatives to resource collection. The analysis identifies key drivers of prohibited collection, including sociodemographic variables and perceptions of an invasive plant (Mikania micrantha). The social-ecological systems approach reveals that household perceptions of the presence of M. micrantha were more strongly associated with resource collection decisions than the actual ecologically measured presence of the plant. We explore the policy implications of our findings for PAs and propose that employing a social-ecological systems approach leads to conservation policy and scientific insights that are not possible to achieve with social or ecological approaches alone.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Crane K, Kregting L, Coughlan NE, et al (2022)

Abiotic and biotic correlates of the occurrence, extent and cover of invasive aquatic Elodea nuttallii.

Freshwater biology, 67(9):1559-1570.

Biological invasions, especially invasive alien aquatic plants, are a major and growing ecological and socioeconomic problem worldwide. Freshwater systems are particularly vulnerable to invasion, where impacts of invasive alien species can damage ecological structure and function. Identifying abiotic and biotic factors that mediate successful invasions is a management priority. Our aim was to determine the environmental correlates of Elodea nuttallii; a globally significant invasive aquatic species. Elodea nuttallii presence/absence (occurrence), extent (patch area) and percentage cover (density) was visually assessed from a boat throughout Lough Erne (approximately 144 km2), County Fermanagh, Northern Ireland during the active summer growth season (July-September). In addition, substrate type and zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha occurrence was recorded. Fourteen water chemistry variables were collected monthly from 12 recording stations throughout the lake during the 9 years before the survey to spatially interpolate values and establish temporal trajectories in their change. Shoreline land use was derived from CORINE land cover maps. Environmental associations between E. nuttallii, substrate, D. polymorpha, water chemistry and land use were assessed. Elodea nuttallii occurrence was positively associated with water conductivity, alkalinity, suspended solids, phosphorus (both total and soluble) and chlorophyll-a concentrations, but negatively associated with pH and total oxidised nitrogen. E. nuttallii patch extent and proportional cover were positively associated, to varying degrees, with the presence of D. polymorpha, biological oxygen demand, water clarity and soft substrate, but negatively associated with urban development and ammonium. Elodea nuttallii displayed high levels of phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental variation, allowing it to adapt to a wide range of conditions and potentially gain competitive advantage over native or other invasive macrophytes.It is evident that multiple abiotic and biotic factors, including facilitation by co-occurring invasive dreissenid mussels, interact to influence the distribution and abundance of E. nuttallii. Thus, it is necessary to consider a more comprehensive environmental context when planning Elodea management strategies.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Sakamoto H, K Goka (2022)

Efficiency of ant-control agents in colony-level oral toxicity tests using Tetramorium tsushimae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for post-establishment control of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

Applied entomology and zoology pii:800 [Epub ahead of print].

The red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) causes serious damage worldwide as an invasive alien species. The species has expanded its range to the Pacific Rim since 2000s and Japan has faced its multiple introductions since 2017. While colony-level control methods are urgently needed, testing living colonies of the unestablished species is challenging especially due to various restrictions under the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we proposed alternative long-term toxicity assays using artificial colonies of Tetramorium tsushimae Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a Japanese native species belonging to the same subfamily (Myrmicinae) as S. invicta. We conducted an acute toxicity test to determine if T. tsushimae is a suitable substitute for S. invicta using fipronil and found the LD50 value in T. tsushimae was close to that in S. invicta. Then, we conducted the long-term toxicity test with fipronil and two insect growth regulators (pyriproxyfen and etoxazole) using artificial colonies of T. tsushimae. All workers and larvae in the fipronil-treated colonies died within 3 days of treatment initiation. Emergence of new workers was observed after 18 days in the etoxazole-treated and control colonies, but not in the pyriproxyfen-treated colonies. We concluded that fipronil was the most promising insecticide for post-establishment control, and pyriproxyfen was effective as a toxic-bait agent for colony-level control.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13355-022-00800-x.

RevDate: 2022-10-17
CmpDate: 2022-10-17

Zhao X, Xie H, Zhao X, et al (2022)

Combined Inhibitory Effect of Canada Goldenrod Invasion and Soil Microplastics on Rice Growth.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(19):.

Alien plant invasion and residual soil microplastics (MPs) are growing threats to agricultural crop production. This study determined the adverse effects of Canadian goldenrod (Solidago canadensis L.) invasion and residual soil MPs on rice growth and development. The biomass, phenological indices, photosynthetic parameters, and antioxidant enzyme activities of rice were measured on the 50th and 80th day of post-plantation. Biomass and phenotypic results indicated the more harmful effects of the combination of S. canadensis invasion and residual soil MPs compared to S. canadensis invasion or residual soil MPs effects alone. Moreover, the interaction effect of S. canadensis invasion and residual soil MPs markedly reduced the ascorbate peroxidase and catalase belowground, while they increased in the aboveground parts of the rice. However, the S. canadensis invasion and residual soil MPs interactive treatments lowered the superoxide dismutase concentrations in the belowground parts of the rice plants while elevating the peroxidase and reactive oxygen species concentrations in both the belowground and aboveground parts compared to the other treatments. Among all treatments, S. canadensis invasion alone had the most negligible negative impact on rice biomass and growth indices. Our study suggests that soil MPs could negatively affect crop production with invasive alien plants, and the combined effects were more harmful than either of the single factors. Our findings will lay the groundwork for analyzing the impacts of invasive alien plants on rice crops.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Kharivha T, Ruwanza S, G Thondhlana (2022)

Effects of Elevated Temperature and High and Low Rainfall on the Germination and Growth of the Invasive Alien Plant Acacia mearnsii.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(19): pii:plants11192633.

The impact of climate change on the germination and growth of invasive alien plants varies depending on the plant species and invasion process. We experimentally assessed the responses of the invasive alien plant Acacia mearnsii to future climate change scenarios-namely, elevated temperature as well as high and low rainfall. Acacia mearnsii was grown at an elevated air temperature (+2 °C), high rainfall (6 mm per day), and low rainfall (1.5 mm per day), and its germination and growth performance were measured over five months. We further examined changes in soil nutrients to assess if the above-mentioned climate change scenarios affected soils. Both elevated temperature and high rainfall did not influence A. mearnsii germination and seedling growth. In contrast, we observed reductions in A. mearnsii germination and growth in the low rainfall treatment, an indication that future drought conditions might negatively affect A. mearnsii invasion. We noted that elevated temperature and rainfall resulted in varied effects on soil properties (particularly soil C, N, Ca, and Mg content). We conclude that both elevated temperature and high rainfall may not enhance A. mearnsii invasion through altering germination and growth, but a decrease in A. mearnsii invasiveness is possible under low rainfall conditions.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Gedalof Z, Davy LE, A Berg (2022)

Exotic Grasses Reduce Infiltration and Moisture Availability in a Temperate Oak Savanna.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(19): pii:plants11192577.

Biological invasions represent one of the most urgent conservation challenges. Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana) savannas, a complex of grassland and transitional forest, are especially sensitive to these invasions. These ecosystems have been severely degraded and fragmented over the past century and are being encroached by conifers, and oak seedlings are failing to emerge from the understory at many locations. Understanding competitive interactions between Oregon white oak and associated native and exotic vegetation would provide insight into forest-grassland dynamics and the role of exotic grasses in the decline of native species, the processes that maintain temperate savanna ecosystems, and the role of soil water uptake by individual savanna species in contributing to overall species assemblages. In this study, we quantified the soil moisture budget for invaded and uninvaded oak-associated ecosystems. From February to October 2007 we used a split paired plot experiment in Duncan, British Columbia, Canada to measure soil moisture on treatment sites where exotic grasses were removed with herbicide and control plots where they were not, using three depths (5, 20, and 35 or 50 cm) in the soil profile. Our results show that the plots that contained exotic vegetation had a faster rate of soil drying following precipitation events at the 5 cm depth than plots with the predominantly native species. We attribute this difference to the capacity of exotic vegetation to exploit soil moisture more rapidly than native vegetation at times of the year when native vegetation cannot. These results provide insight into one mechanism by which exotic grasses affect associated native plants and could help guide restoration efforts.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Kato-Noguchi H (2022)

Allelopathy and Allelochemicals of Imperata cylindrica as an Invasive Plant Species.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(19): pii:plants11192551.

Imperata cylindrica is native to Southeast Asia and East Africa and has become naturalized in humid tropics, subtropics and warmer temperate zones of the world. The species is one of the top ten worst weeds in the worlds and is listed among the world's top 100 worst invasive alien species. It is an aggressive colonizer and forms large monospecific stands in several countries. Possible evidence of the allelopathy of I. cylindrica has been accumulated in the literature over three decades. The extracts, leachates, root exudates, decomposing residues and rhizosphere soil of I. cylindrica were found to suppress the germination and growth of several plant species, including woody plant species, and to reduce their rhizobium nodulation and mycorrhizal colonization. Several allelochemicals, such as fatty acids, terpenoids, simple phenolics, benzoic acids, phenolic acids, phenolic aldehydes, phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, quinones and alkaloids, were also found in the extracts, leachates, root exudates and/or growth medium of I. cylindrica. These observations suggest that allelochemicals may be synthesized in I. cylindrica and released into the rhizosphere soil and surrounding environments either by the leachates, root exudation or decomposition process of plant parts, and certain allelochemicals may contribute to the alteration of the microbial community, including rhizobia and mycorrhizal fungi, suppressing the regeneration process of native plant species through the inhibition of their germination and growth. Therefore, the allelopathy of I. cylindrica may support its invasiveness, naturalization and formation of large monospecific stands. This is the first review article focusing on the allelopathy of I. cylindrica.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Vetter J (2022)

The Norsesquiterpene Glycoside Ptaquiloside as a Poisonous, Carcinogenic Component of Certain Ferns.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(19): pii:molecules27196662.

Previous studies related to the ptaquiloside molecule, a carcinogenic secondary metabolite known from the world of ferns, are summarised. Ptaquiloside (PTA) belongs to the group of norsesquiterpenes of the illudane type. The name illudane refers to the fungal taxa from which the first representatives of the molecular group were identified. Ptaquiloside occurs mainly in Pteridium fern species, although it is also known in other fern taxa. The species of the genus Pteridium are common, frequent invasive species on all continents, and PTA is formed in smaller or larger amounts in all organs of the affected species. The effects of PTA and of their derivatives on animals and humans are of great toxicological significance. Its basic chemical property is that the molecule can be transformed. First, with the loss of sugar moiety, ptaquilosine is formed, and then, under certain conditions, a dienone derivative (pteridienone) may arise. The latter can alkylate (through its cyclopropane groups) certain molecules, including DNA, in animal or human organisms. In this case, DNA adducts are formed, which can later have a carcinogenic effect through point mutations. The scope of the PTA is interdisciplinary in nature since, for example, molecules from plant biomass can enter the body of animals or humans in several ways (directly and indirectly). Due to its physico-chemical properties (excellent water solubility), PTA can get from the plant into the soil and then into different water layers. PTA molecules that enter the soil, but mainly water, undergo degradation (hydrolytic) processes, so it is very important to clarify the toxicological conditions of a given ecosystem and to estimate the possible risks caused by PTA. The toxicoses and diseases of the animal world (mainly for ruminant farm animals) caused by PTA are briefly described. The intake of PTA-containing plants as a feed source causes not only various syndromes but can also enter the milk (and meat) of animals. In connection with the toxicological safety of the food chain, it is important to investigate the transport of carcinogenic PTA metabolites between organisms in a reassuring manner and in detail. This is a global, interdisciplinary task. The present review aims to contribute to this.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Dolma SK, SGE Reddy (2022)

Characterization of Triadica sebifera (L.) Small Extracts, Antifeedant Activities of Extracts, Fractions, Seed Oil and Isolated Compounds against Plutella xylostella (L.) and Their Effect on Detoxification Enzymes.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(19): pii:molecules27196239.

Plutella xylostella L. is one of the world's major pests of cruciferous crops. The indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides has led to insecticide resistance and resurgence, and has been harmful to non-target organisms and the environment. Botanical insecticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides for the management of pests in organic agriculture and integrated management. T. sebifera is an invasive species and has good potential as an insecticide due to the availability of plant material in some parts of India. The antifeedant activities of T. sebifera have not been reported against P. xylostella and other lepidopteron insects to date. Therefore, the current study targeted the characterization of leaf and bark extracts, feeding deterrence, synergistic and detoxification enzyme activities of leaf/bark ethanolic extracts/fractions, seed oil, and isolated compounds. UHPLC-QTOF-IMS analysis showed that shikimic acid, xanthoxylin, quercetin, kaempferol, methyl gallate, and stigmasterol are common metabolites identified in leaf and bark extracts. The combination of seed oil with bark extract showed higher deterrence (DC50 = 317.10 mg/L) as compared to leaf/bark extracts alone. Gallic acid showed higher deterrence (67.48%) than kaempferol and quercetin. The n-butanol fraction of bark was more repellent (RC50 = 414.61 mg/L). Based on DC50, the seed oil with leaf extract (1:1 ratio) alone with choice and seed oil with leaf and bark extract without choice showed synergistic interaction, but seed oil with bark extract with choice showed additive interaction. The ethanol extract of leaf, bark, and seed oil inhibited GST and AChE in P. xylostella. The leaf extract and seed oil or their combinations may be recommended as antifeedants to reduce damage by P. xylostella based on persistence, antifeedant, phytotoxicity, safety to predators/parasitoids, etc., under field conditions.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Chen W, Li C, Li X, et al (2022)

Unraveling the Drifting Larval Fish Community in a Large Spawning Ground in the Middle Pearl River Using DNA Barcoding.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(19): pii:ani12192555.

Resolving the species composition of a larval pool in a spawning ground can provide novel insights into regional fish stocks and can support the development of effective monitoring and conservation policies. However, it is challenging to identify fish larvae to species due to their high diversity and dramatic phenotypic changes over development. In this study, we collected fish larvae in the Dongta spawning ground (Guiping City, Guangxi Province, China) in the middle reaches of the Pearl River between May and August 2018. We used a DNA barcoding approach to determine the species composition of the larval pool. A total of 905 larvae were chosen for molecular identification, of which 750 yielded high-quality barcoding sequences. Of these, 597 (≈79.6%), 151 (≈20.1%)/and 2 (≈0.3%) were assigned to 28 species, 8 genera, and 1 subfamily using the Barcode of Life Data System and GenBank nucleotide databases, respectively. Among the 28 identified species, 21 were cyprinids. Two species (Mugilogobius myxodermus and Pseudolaubuca engraulis) that were present only infrequently in previous adult surveys were abundant in the larval pool. Six invasive species were identified in the larval pool, implying that these species had successfully colonized the studied river section. Several migratory species common in the lower Pearl River were rare or absent in the investigated region, suggesting that dam construction in the Pearl River has had adverse effects on these migratory species. In summary, our study confirmed the applicability of DNA barcoding to studies of fish larval ecology and provided important reference data for fishery management and conservation in the Pearl River.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Baxter-Gilbert J, Riley JL, Wagener C, et al (2022)

Island Hopping through Urban Filters: Anthropogenic Habitats and Colonized Landscapes Alter Morphological and Performance Traits of an Invasive Amphibian.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 12(19): pii:ani12192549.

A prominent feature of the modern era is the increasing spread of invasive species, particularly within island and urban ecosystems, and these occurrences provide valuable natural experiments by which evolutionary and invasion hypotheses can be tested. In this study, we used the invasion route of guttural toads (Sclerophrys gutturalis) from natural-native and urban-native populations (Durban, South Africa) to their urban-invasive and natural-invasive populations (Mauritius and Réunion) to determine whether phenotypic changes that arose once the toads became urbanized in their native range have increased their invasive potential before they were transported (i.e., prior adaptation) or whether the observed changes are unique to the invasive populations. This urban/natural by native/invasive gradient allowed us to examine differences in guttural toad morphology (i.e., body size, hindlimb, and hindfoot length) and performance capacity (i.e., escape speed, endurance, and climbing ability) along their invasion route. Our findings indicate that invasive island populations have reduced body sizes, shorter limbs in relation to snout-vent length, decreased escape speeds, and decreased endurance capacities that are distinct from the native mainland populations (i.e., invasion-derived change). Thus, these characteristics did not likely arise directly from a pre-transport anthropogenic "filter" (i.e., urban-derived change). Climbing ability, however, did appear to originate within the urban-native range and was maintained within the invasive populations, thereby suggesting it may have been a prior adaptation that provided this species with an advantage during its establishment in urban areas and spread into natural forests. We discuss how this shift in climbing performance may be ecologically related to the success of urban and invasive guttural toad populations, as well as how it may have impacted other island-derived morphological and performance phenotypes.

RevDate: 2022-10-13

Buhler KJ, Fernando C, Hill JE, et al (2022)

Combining deep sequencing and conventional molecular approaches reveals broad diversity and distribution of fleas and Bartonella in rodents and shrews from Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems.

Parasites & vectors, 15(1):366.

BACKGROUND: Bartonella are intracellular bacteria that are transmitted via animal scratches, bites and hematophagous arthropods. Rodents and their associated fleas play a key role in the maintenance of Bartonella worldwide, with > 22 species identified in rodent hosts. No studies have addressed the occurrence and diversity of Bartonella species and vectors for small mammals in Arctic and Subarctic ecosystems, which are increasingly impacted by invasive species and climate change.

METHODS: In this study, we characterized the diversity of rodent fleas using conventional PCR targeting the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase II gene (COII) and Bartonella species in rodents and shrews (n = 505) from northern Canada using conventional PCR targeting the ITS (intergenic transcribed spacer) region and gltA (citrate synthase) gene. Metagenomic sequencing of a portion of the gltA gene was completed on a subset of 42 rodents and four rodent flea pools.

RESULTS: Year, total summer precipitation the year prior to sampling, average minimum spring temperature and small mammal species were significant factors in predicting Bartonella positivity. Occurrence based on the ITS region was more than double that of the gltA gene and was 34% (n = 349) in northern red-backed voles, 35% (n = 20) in meadow voles, 37% (n = 68) in deer mice and 31% (n = 59) in shrews. Six species of Bartonella were identified with the ITS region, including B. grahamii, B. elizabethae, B. washoensis, Candidatus B. rudakovii, B. doshiae, B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and subsp. arupensis. In addition, 47% (n = 49/105) of ITS amplicons had < 97% identity to sequences in GenBank, possibly due to a limited reference library or previously unreported species. An additional Bartonella species (B. heixiaziensis) was detected during metagenomic sequencing of the gltA gene in 6/11 rodents that had ITS sequences with < 97% identity in GenBank, highlighting that a limited reference library for the ITS marker likely accounted for low sequence similarity in our specimens. In addition, one flea pool from a northern red-backed vole contained multiple species (B. grahamii and B. heixiaziensis).

CONCLUSION: Our study calls attention to the usefulness of a combined approach to determine the occurrence and diversity of Bartonella communities in hosts and vectors.

RevDate: 2022-10-13

Thys KJM, Vanhove MPM, Custers JWJ, et al (2022)

Co-introduction of Dolicirroplectanum lacustre, a monogenean gill parasite of the invasive Nile perch Lates niloticus: intraspecific diversification and mitonuclear discordance in native versus introduced areas.

International journal for parasitology pii:S0020-7519(22)00119-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a notorious invasive species. The introductions of Nile perch into several lakes and rivers in the Lake Victoria, Uganda, region led to the impoverishment of the trophic food webs, particularly well documented in Lake Victoria. Additionally, its parasites were co-introduced, including Dolicirroplectanum lacustre (Monogenea, Diplectanidae). Dolicirroplectanum lacustre is the single monogenean gill parasite of latid fishes (Lates spp.) inhabiting several major African freshwater systems. We examined the intra-specific diversification of D. lacustre from Lates niloticus in Lake Albert, Uganda (native range) and Lake Victoria (introduced range) by assessing morphological and genetic differentiation, and microhabitat preference. We expected reduced morphological and genetic diversity for D. lacustre in Lake Victoria compared with Lake Albert, as a result of the historical introductions. We found that D. lacustre displayed high morphological variability within and between African freshwaters, with two morphotypes identified, as in former studies. The single shared morphotype between Lake Albert and Lake Victoria displayed similar levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity between the lakes. Mitonuclear discordance within the morphotypes of D. lacustre indicates an incomplete reproductive barrier between the morphotypes. The diversification in the mitochondrial gene portion is directly linked with the morphotypes, while the nuclear gene portions indicate conspecificity. Based on our results, we reported reduced genetic and morphological diversity, potentially being a result of a founder effect in Lake Victoria.

RevDate: 2022-10-12

Keith DA, Ferrer-Paris JR, Nicholson E, et al (2022)

A function-based typology for Earth's ecosystems.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

As the United Nations develops a post-2020 global biodiversity framework for the Convention on Biological Diversity, attention is focusing on how new goals and targets for ecosystem conservation might serve its vision of 'living in harmony with nature'1,2. Advancing dual imperatives to conserve biodiversity and sustain ecosystem services requires reliable and resilient generalizations and predictions about ecosystem responses to environmental change and management3. Ecosystems vary in their biota4, service provision5 and relative exposure to risks6, yet there is no globally consistent classification of ecosystems that reflects functional responses to change and management. This hampers progress on developing conservation targets and sustainability goals. Here we present the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Global Ecosystem Typology, a conceptually robust, scalable, spatially explicit approach for generalizations and predictions about functions, biota, risks and management remedies across the entire biosphere. The outcome of a major cross-disciplinary collaboration, this novel framework places all of Earth's ecosystems into a unifying theoretical context to guide the transformation of ecosystem policy and management from global to local scales. This new information infrastructure will support knowledge transfer for ecosystem-specific management and restoration, globally standardized ecosystem risk assessments, natural capital accounting and progress on the post-2020 global biodiversity framework.

RevDate: 2022-10-12

Barzaghi B, Melotto A, Cogliati P, et al (2022)

Factors determining the dorsal coloration pattern of aposematic salamanders.

Scientific reports, 12(1):17090.

Aposematic bright colors have a key role for animal defense and can be expressed through metabolic production or by acquiring pigments from diet. Aposematic coloration can be related to both local adaptations and availability of trophic resources. The European fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) shows significant color variability and occurs across a broad range of habitats. Here we combined field observations with common rearing experiments to disentangle the role of environmental conditions and local adaptations in determining aposematic coloration of salamander populations. We assessed color variation and measured habitat features and food availability in adults from 25 populations. Furthermore, we reared newborn larvae from 10 populations under different food availability and analyzed color of metamorphs. To assess color pattern, we measured the percentage of yellow covering the body, and the Hue, Saturation and Value of yellow coloration. Adult showed strong variation of color pattern; variation was strongly related to the individual's size, to habitat productivity and to food availability. Under common garden conditions, differences between populations were not anymore evident, and coloration was only affected by resource availability during larval development. Our results suggest that environmental conditions and food availability are more important than local adaptations in determining differences in aposematic color pattern.

RevDate: 2022-10-13
CmpDate: 2022-10-13

Huang SY, Chiu CI, Tsai YY, et al (2022)

Nationwide Termite Pest Survey Conducted in Taiwan as a Citizen Science Project.

Journal of economic entomology, 115(5):1650-1658.

Information regarding the species composition and dispersal flight season of termites is crucial for termite management. The major obstacles to collecting such information are a lack of access to private buildings and shortage of workers to monitor and report on termite swarming. To overcome these difficulties, we launched a citizen science project in which members of the public and pest management professionals were invited to collect termite samples. We created the website, Taiwan Termite Identification Service, on which populace could log the collection information, and ship termite samples to our laboratory for identification. We also established a Facebook group, called the "Termite Forum," to publicize this project. A total of 3024 samples were collected from 2015 to 2020, and we identified the species of >93% of the samples. Based on 1499 samples collected from buildings, five structural termite pests were identified, and species composition in each county of Taiwan is available. According to 844 dispersal flight events, termite dispersal flight timing peak and degree of centralization were estimated using a Gaussian model. The collected data demonstrated that the invasive termite species, Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae), continued northward expansion. The first intercepted alate of Schedorhinotermes sp. (Blattodea: Rhinotermitidae) indicated that it may be a new invasive pest from Southeast Asia. This study reports on a successful case of a citizen science project where urban pest data were collected on a national scale.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Chapple DG, Naimo AC, Brand JA, et al (2022)

Biological invasions as a selective filter driving behavioral divergence.

Nature communications, 13(1):5996.

Biological invasions are a multi-stage process (i.e., transport, introduction, establishment, spread), with each stage potentially acting as a selective filter on traits associated with invasion success. Behavior (e.g., exploration, activity, boldness) plays a key role in facilitating species introductions, but whether invasion acts as a selective filter on such traits is not well known. Here we capitalize on the well-characterized introduction of an invasive lizard (Lampropholis delicata) across three independent lineages throughout the Pacific, and show that invasion shifted behavioral trait means and reduced among-individual variation-two key predictions of the selective filter hypothesis. Moreover, lizards from all three invasive ranges were also more behaviorally plastic (i.e., greater within-individual variation) than their native range counterparts. We provide support for the importance of selective filtering of behavioral traits in a widespread invasion. Given that invasive species are a leading driver of global biodiversity loss, understanding how invasion selects for specific behaviors is critical for improving predictions of the effects of alien species on invaded communities.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Southwell D, Skroblin A, Moseby K, et al (2022)

Designing a large-scale track-based monitoring program to detect changes in species distributions in arid Australia.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Monitoring trends in animal populations in arid regions is challenging due to remoteness and low population densities. However, detecting species' tracks or sign is an effective survey technique for monitoring population trends across large spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we developed a simulation framework to evaluate the performance of alternative track-based monitoring designs at detecting change in species distributions in arid Australia. We collated presence-absence records from 550 2-ha track-based plots for 11 vertebrates over 13 years and fitted ensemble species distribution models to predict occupancy in 2018. We simulated plausible changes in species' distributions over the next 15 years, and with estimates of detectability, simulated monitoring to evaluate the statistical power of three alternative monitoring scenarios: 1) when surveys were restricted to existing 2-ha plots; 2) when surveys were optimised to target all species equally; 3) when surveys were optimised to target two species of conservation concern. Across all monitoring designs and scenarios, we found that power was higher when detecting increasing occupancy trends compared to decreasing trends due to relatively low levels of initial occupancy. Our results suggest that surveying 200 of the existing plots annually (with a small subset re-surveyed twice within a year) will have at least an 80% chance at detecting 30% declines in occupancy for 4 of the 5 invasive species modelled and 1 of the 6 native species. This increased to 10 of the 11 species assuming larger (50%) declines. When plots were positioned to target all species equally, power improved slightly for most compared to the existing survey network. When plots were positioned to target two species of conservation concern (crest-tailed mulgara and dusky hopping mouse), power to detect 30% declines increased by 29% and 31% for these species, respectively, at the cost of reduced power for remaining species. The effect of varying survey frequency depended on its trade-off with the number of sites sampled and requires further consideration. Nonetheless, our research suggests that track-based surveying is an effective and logistically feasible approach for monitoring broad-scale occupancy trends in desert species with both widespread and restricted distributions.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Uden DR, Mech AM, Havill NP, et al (2022)

Phylogenetic risk assessment is robust for forecasting the impact of European insects on North American conifers.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America [Epub ahead of print].

Some introduced species cause severe damage, though the majority have little impact. Robust predictions of which species are most likely to cause substantial impacts could focus efforts to mitigate those impacts or prevent certain invasions entirely. Introduced herbivorous insects can reduce crop yield, fundamentally alter natural and managed forest ecosystems, and are unique among invasive species in that they require certain host plants to succeed. Recent studies have demonstrated that understanding the evolutionary history of introduced herbivores and their host plants can provide robust predictions of impact. Specifically, divergence times between hosts in the native and introduced ranges of a non-native insect can be used to predict the potential impact of the insect should it establish in a novel ecosystem. However, divergence time estimates vary among published phylogenetic datasets, making it crucial to understand if and how the choice of phylogeny affects prediction of impact. Here, we tested the robustness of impact prediction to variation in host phylogeny by using insects that feed on conifers and predicting the likelihood of high impact using four different published phylogenies. Our analyses ranked 62 insects that are not established in North America and 47 North American conifer species according to overall risk and vulnerability, respectively. We found that results were robust to the choice of phylogeny. Although published vascular plant phylogenies continue to be refined, our analysis indicates that those differences are not substantial enough to alter the predictions of invader impact. Our results can assist in focusing biosecurity programs for conifer pests and can be more generally applied to non-native insects and their potential hosts by prioritizing surveillance for those insects most likely to be damaging invaders.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Paul GC, Tauhida , D Kumar (2022)

Revisiting Fisher-KPP model to interpret the spatial spreading of invasive cell population in biology.

Heliyon, 8(10):e10773 pii:S2405-8440(22)02061-8.

In this paper, the homotopy analysis method, a powerful analytical technique, is applied to obtain analytical solutions to the Fisher-KPP equation in studying the spatial spreading of invasive species in ecology and to extract the nature of the spatial spreading of invasive cell populations in biology. The effect of the proliferation rate of the model of interest on the entire population is studied. It is observed that the invasive cell or the invasive population is decreased within a short time with the minimum proliferation rate. The homotopy analysis method is found to be superior to other analytical methods, namely the Adomian decomposition method, the homotopy perturbation method, etc. because of containing an auxiliary parameter, which provides us with a convenient way to adjust and control the region of convergence of the series solution. Graphical representation of the approximate series solutions obtained by the homotopy analysis method, the Adomian decomposition method, and the Homotopy perturbation method is illustrated, which shows the superiority of the homotopy analysis method. The method is examined on several examples, which reveal the ingenuousness and the effectiveness of the method of interest.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-07

Perera PCD, Gruss I, Twardowski J, et al (2022)

The impact of restoration methods for Solidago-invaded land on soil invertebrates.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16634.

The belowground community structure of soil biota depends on plant composition and may be affected by invasive plant species. We hypothesized that the type of land restoration method applied affects the abundance and composition of soil invertebrates. Our field experiment centred on Solidago species control using different seed mixtures and methods of seed introduction (sowing mixtures: grasses, grasses with legumes, seeds from a seminatural meadow, and application of fresh hay) and different frequencies of mowing (one, two, or three times per year). Soil invertebrates were identified to the taxa, using light microscopes. Richness and diversity indices were calculated, and a redundancy analysis was conducted. Generally, mowing intensity negatively influenced soil organisms, although increased mowing frequency positively affected the abundance of some taxa (Symphyla, Hemiptera). Mowing twice per year decreased the abundance of soil invertebrates, but not their diversity. Soil invertebrate taxa had the greatest abundance in the plots sown with a seed mixture containing grasses with legumes. Among the restoration methods studied, mowing once a year and introducing grasses with legumes represented the least harmful strategy with regard to soil invertebrate abundance. Further studies are needed to investigate the dynamics of soil mesofauna exposed to long-term mowing and changes in vegetation characteristics.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-10-05

Mackenzie HR, Latham MC, Anderson DP, et al (2022)

Detection parameters for managing invasive rats in urban environments.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16520.

Effective mitigation of the impacts of invasive ship rats (Rattus rattus) requires a good understanding of their ecology, but this knowledge is very sparse for urban and peri-urban areas. We radiomarked ship rats in Wellington, New Zealand, to estimate detection parameters (σ, ε0, θ, and g0) that describe the process of an animal encountering a device (bait stations, chew cards and WaxTags) from a distance, and then approaching it and deciding whether to interact with it. We used this information in simulation models to estimate optimal device spacing for eradicating ship rats from Wellington, and for confirming eradication. Mean σ was 25.37 m (SD = 11.63), which equates to a circular home range of 1.21 ha. The mean nightly probability of an individual encountering a device at its home range center (ε0) was 0.38 (SD = 0.11), whereas the probability of interacting with the encountered device (θ) was 0.34 (SD = 0.12). The derived mean nightly probability of an individual interacting with a device at its home range center (g0) was 0.13 (SD = 0.08). Importantly, σ and g0 are intrinsically linked through a negative relationship, thus g0 should be derived from σ using a predictive model including individual variability. Simulations using this approach showed that bait stations deployed for about 500 days using a 25 m × 25 m grid consistently achieved eradication, and that a surveillance network of 3.25 chew cards ha-1 or 3.75 WaxTags ha-1 active for 14 nights would be required to confidently declare eradication. This density could be halved if the surveillance network was deployed for 28 nights or if the prior confidence in eradication was high (0.85). These recommendations take no account of differences in detection parameters between habitats. Therefore, if surveillance suggests that individuals are not encountering devices in certain habitats, device density should be adaptively revised. This approach applies to initiatives globally that aim to optimise eradication with limited funding.

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ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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