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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 20 Jul 2019 at 01:40 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: "invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-07-19

Mcgeoch MA, Latombe G, Andrew NR, et al (2019)

Measuring continuous compositional change using decline and decay in zeta diversity.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Incidence, or compositional, matrices are generated for a broad range of research applications in biology. Zeta diversity provides a common currency and conceptual framework that links incidence-based metrics with multiple patterns of interest in biology, ecology and biodiversity science. It quantifies the variation in species (or OTU) composition of multiple assemblages (or cases) in space or time, to capture the contribution of the full suite of narrow, intermediate and wide-ranging species to biotic heterogeneity. Here we provide a conceptual framework for the application and interpretation of patterns of continuous change in compositional diversity using zeta diversity. This includes consideration of the survey design context, and the multiple ways in which zeta diversity decline and decay can be used to examine and test turnover in the identity of elements across space and time. We introduce the zeta ratio-based retention rate curve to quantify rates of compositional change. We illustrate these applications using 11 empirical datasets from a broad range of taxa, scales and levels of biological organisation - from DNA molecules and microbes to communities and interaction networks - including one of the original data sets used to express compositional change and distance decay in ecology. We show (i) how different sample selection schemes used during the calculation of compositional change are appropriate for different data types and questions, (ii) how higher orders of zeta may in some cases better detect shifts and transitions, and (iii) the relative roles of rare versus common species in driving patterns of compositional change. By exploring the application of zeta diversity decline and decay, including the retention rate, across this broad range of contexts, we demonstrate its application for understanding continuous turnover in biological systems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-19

Cheng D, Chen S, Huang Y, et al (2019)

Symbiotic microbiota may reflect host adaptation by resident to invasive ant species.

PLoS pathogens, 15(7):e1007942 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-18-02136 [Epub ahead of print].

Exotic invasive species can influence the behavior and ecology of native and resident species, but these changes are often overlooked. Here we hypothesize that the ghost ant, Tapinoma melanocephalum, living in areas that have been invaded by the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, displays behavioral differences to interspecific competition that are reflected in both its trophic position and symbiotic microbiota. We demonstrate that T. melanocephalum workers from S. invicta invaded areas are less aggressive towards workers of S. invicta than those inhabiting non-invaded areas. Nitrogen isotope analyses reveal that colonies of T. melanocephalum have protein-rich diets in S. invicta invaded areas compared with the carbohydrate-rich diets of colonies living in non-invaded areas. Analysis of microbiota isolated from gut tissue shows that T. melanocephalum workers from S. invicta invaded areas also have different bacterial communities, including a higher abundance of Wolbachia that may play a role in vitamin B provisioning. In contrast, the microbiota of workers of T. melanocephalum from S. invicta-free areas are dominated by bacteria from the orders Bacillales, Lactobacillales and Enterobacteriales that may be involved in sugar metabolism. We further demonstrate experimentally that the composition and structure of the bacterial symbiont communities as well as the prevalence of vitamin B in T. melanocephalum workers from S. invicta invaded and non-invaded areas can be altered if T. melanocephalum workers are supplied with either protein-rich or carbohydrate-rich food. Our results support the hypothesis that bacterial symbiont communities can help hosts by buffering behavioral changes caused by interspecies competition as a consequence of biological invasions.

RevDate: 2019-07-19

Escobar-Correas S, Mendoza-Porras O, Dellagnola F, et al (2019)

Integrative proteomic analysis of digestive tract glycosidases from the invasive golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata.

Journal of proteome research [Epub ahead of print].

The freshwater snail Pomacea canaliculata, an invasive species of global significance, possesses a well-developed digestive system and diverse feeding mechanisms enabling the intake of a wide variety of food. The identification of glycosidases in adult snails would increase the understanding of their digestive physiology and potentially generate new opportunities to eradicate and/or control this invasive species. In this study, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was applied to define the occurrence, diversity, and origin of glycoside hydrolases along the digestive tract of P. canaliculata. A range of cellulases, hemicellulases, amylases, maltases, fucosidases, and galactosidases were identified across the digestive tract. The digestive gland and the contents of the crop and style sac yield a higher diversity of glycosidase-derived peptides. Subsequently, peptides derived from 81 glycosidases (46 proteins from the public database and 35 uniquely from the transcriptome database) that were distributed amongst 13 glycoside hydrolase families were selected and quantified using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry. This study showed a high glycosidase abundance and diversity in the gut contents of P. canaliculata which participate in extracellular digestion of complex dietary carbohydrates. Salivary and digestive glands were the main tissues involved in their synthesis and secretion.

RevDate: 2019-07-19

Abril S, C Gómez (2019)

Factors triggering queen executions in the Argentine ant.

Scientific reports, 9(1):10427 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46972-5.

Competition among queens in polygynous societies may result in queen executions or conflicts over personal reproduction. Understanding the factors that mediate the executions of ant queens should provide insight into how queen numbers are regulated in polygynous insect societies. The Argentine ant is a widespread invasive species that displays secondary polygyny, and workers execute 90% of their nestmate queens each spring. In this study, we investigated: (1) whether ambient temperature, queen number, and protein deprivation have an effect on queen executions and (2) whether workers select the queens slated for execution based on their cuticular hydrocarbon (CHC) profiles. We found that the percentage of queens executed was positively correlated with temperature and queen number but that protein deprivation did not play a role. As for queen fate, the levels of some CHCs were higher in surviving queens. One of these CHCs is associated with queen productivity (i.e egg-laying rate and ovarian index) suggesting that workers execute the least productive queens. Our findings suggest that chemical cues related to fertility signaling may mediate queen executions in Argentine ants.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Benucci GMN, Bonito V, G Bonito (2019)

Fungal, Bacterial, and Archaeal Diversity in Soils Beneath Native and Introduced Plants in Fiji, South Pacific.

Microbial ecology, 78(1):136-146.

The Fiji Islands is an archipelago of more than 330 islands located in the tropics of the South Pacific Ocean. Microbial diversity and biogeography in this region is still not understood. Here, we present the first molecular characterization of fungal, bacterial, and archaeal communities in soils from different habitats within the largest Fijian island, Viti Levu. Soil samples were collected from under native vegetation in maritime-, forest-, stream-, grassland-, and casuarina-dominated habitats, as well as from under the introduced agricultural crops sugarcane, cassava, pine, and mahogany. Soil microbial diversity was analyzed through MiSeq amplicon sequencing of 16S (for prokaryotes), ITS, LSU ribosomal DNA (for fungi). Prokaryotic communities were dominated by Proteobacteria (~ 25%), Acidobacteria (~ 19%), and Actinobacteria (~ 17%), and there were no indicator species associated with particular habitats. ITS and LSU were congruent in β-diversity patterns of fungi, and fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota (~ 57-64%), followed by Basidiomycota (~ 20-23%) and Mucoromycota (~ 10%) according to ITS, or Chytridiomycota (~ 9%) according to LSU. Indicator species analysis of fungi found statistical associations of Cenococcum, Wilcoxina, and Rhizopogon to Pinus caribaea. We hypothesize these obligate biotrophic fungi were co-introduced with their host plant. Entoloma was statistically associated with grassland soils, and Fusarium and Lecythophora with soils under cassava. Observed richness varied from 65 (casuarina) to 404 OTUs (cassava) for fungi according to ITS region, and from 1268 (pine) to 2931 OTUs (cassava) for bacteria and archaea. A major finding of this research is that nearly 25% of the fungal OTUs are poorly classified, indicative of novel biodiversity in this region. This preliminary survey provides important baseline data on fungal, bacterial, and archaeal diversity and biogeography in the Fiji Islands.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Tamate S, Iwasaki WM, Krysko KL, et al (2017)

Inferring evolutionary responses of Anolis carolinensis introduced into the Ogasawara archipelago using whole genome sequence data.

Scientific reports, 7(1):18008.

Invaded species often can rapidly expand and establish in novel environments through adaptive evolution, resulting in devastating effects on native communities. However, it is unclear if genetic variation at whole-genomic levels is actually reduced in the introduced populations and which genetic changes have occurred responding to adaptation to new environments. In the 1960s, Anolis carolinensis was introduced onto one of the Ogasawara Islands, Japan, and subsequently expanded its range rapidly throughout two of the islands. Morphological comparison showed that lower hindlimb length in the introduced populations tended to be longer than those in its native Florida populations. Using re-sequenced whole genomic data, we estimated that the effective population size at the time of introduction was actually small (less than 50). We also inferred putative genomic regions subject to natural selection after this introduction event using SweeD and a method based on Tajima's D, π and F ST . Five candidate genes that were potentially subject to selection were estimated by both methods. The results suggest that there were standing variations that could potentially contribute to adaptation to nonnative environments despite the founder population being small.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

White JD, Sarnelle O, SK Hamilton (2017)

Unexpected population response to increasing temperature in the context of a strong species interaction.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(5):1657-1665.

Climate change is driving large changes in the spatial and temporal distributions of species, with significant consequences for individual populations. Community- and ecosystem-level implications of altered species distributions may be complex and challenging to anticipate due to the cascading effects of disrupted interactions among species, which may exhibit threshold responses to extreme climatic events. Toxic, bloom-forming cyanobacteria like Microcystis are expected to increase worldwide with climate change, due in part to their high temperature optima for growth. In addition, invasive zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) have caused an increase in Microcystis aeruginosa, a species typically associated with eutrophication, in low-nutrient lakes. We conducted a 13-yr study of a M. aeruginosa population in a low-nutrient lake invaded by zebra mussels. In 10 of the 13 years, there was a significant positive relationship between M. aeruginosa biomass and accumulated degree days, which are projected to increase with climate change. In contrast, Microcystis biomass was up to an order of magnitude lower than predicted by the above relationship during the other three years, including the warmest in the data set, following repeated heat-induced mass mortality of D. polymorpha. Thus, the positive relationship between Microcystis biomass and temperature was negated when its facilitating species was suppressed during a series of exceptionally warm summers. Predicting the net response of a species to climate change may therefore require, at minimum, quantification of responses of both the focal species and species that strongly interact with it over sufficiently long time periods to encompass the full range of climatic variability. Our results could not have been predicted from existing data on the short-term responses of these two interacting species to increased temperature.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Schuster MJ, JS Dukes (2017)

Rainfall variability counteracts N addition by promoting invasive Lonicera maackii and extending phenology in prairie.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(5):1555-1563.

Although encroaching woody plants have reduced the global extent of grasslands, continuing increases in soil nitrogen availability could slow this trend by favoring resident herbaceous species. At the same time, projected increases in rainfall variability could promote woody encroachment by aligning spatiotemporal patterns of soil moisture availability with the needs of woody species. We evaluated the responses of two deciduous woody species to these simulated environmental changes by planting seedlings of Quercus palustris and Lonicera maackii into tallgrass prairie communities grown under a factorial combination of increased rainfall variability and nitrogen addition. Lonicera maackii growth was reduced 20% by nitrogen addition, and increased rainfall variability led to 33% larger seedlings, despite greater competition for light and soil resources. In contrast, Q. palustris growth showed little response to either treatment. Increased rainfall variability allowed both species to retain their leaves for an additional 6.5 d in autumn, potentially in response to wetter end-of-season shallow soils. Our findings suggest increases in rainfall variability will counteract the inhibitory effect of nitrogen deposition on growth of L. maackii, extend autumn phenology, and promote the encroachment of some woody species into grasslands.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Ceradini JP, AD Chalfoun (2017)

Species' traits help predict small mammal responses to habitat homogenization by an invasive grass.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(5):1451-1465.

Invasive plants can negatively affect native species, however, the strength, direction, and shape of responses may vary depending on the type of habitat alteration and the natural history of native species. To prioritize conservation of vulnerable species, it is therefore critical to effectively predict species' responses to invasive plants, which may be facilitated by a framework based on species' traits. We studied the population and community responses of small mammals and changes in habitat heterogeneity across a gradient of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) cover, a widespread invasive plant in North America. We live-trapped small mammals over two summers and assessed the effect of cheatgrass on native small mammal abundance, richness, and species-specific and trait-based occupancy, while accounting for detection probability and other key habitat elements. Abundance was only estimated for the most common species, deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). All species were pooled for the trait-based occupancy analysis to quantify the ability of small mammal traits (habitat association, mode of locomotion, and diet) to predict responses to cheatgrass invasion. Habitat heterogeneity decreased with cheatgrass cover. Deer mouse abundance increased marginally with cheatgrass. Species richness did not vary with cheatgrass, however, pocket mouse (Perognathus spp.) and harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys spp.) occupancy tended to decrease and increase, respectively, with cheatgrass cover, suggesting a shift in community composition. Cheatgrass had little effect on occupancy for deer mice, 13-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), and Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii). Species' responses to cheatgrass primarily corresponded with our a priori predictions based on species' traits. The probability of occupancy varied significantly with a species' habitat association but not with diet or mode of locomotion. When considered within the context of a rapid habitat change, such as caused by invasive plants, relevant species' traits may provide a useful framework for predicting species' responses to a variety of habitat disturbances. Understanding which species are likely to be most affected by exotic plant invasion will help facilitate more efficient, targeted management and conservation of native species and habitats.

RevDate: 2019-07-19
CmpDate: 2019-07-19

Thoresen JJ, Towns D, Leuzinger S, et al (2017)

Invasive rodents have multiple indirect effects on seabird island invertebrate food web structure.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(4):1190-1198.

Burrowing seabirds that nest on islands transfer nutrients from the sea, disturb the soil through burrowing, damage tree foliage when landing, and thereby modify the surface litter. However, seabirds are in decline worldwide, as are their community- and ecosystem-level impacts, primarily due to invasive predatory mammals. The direct and indirect effects of seabird decline on communities and ecosystems are inherently complex. Here we employed network analysis, as a means of simplifying ecological complexity, to better understand the effects seabird loss may have on island invertebrate communities. Using data on leaf litter communities, we constructed invertebrate food webs for each of 18 offshore oceanic islands in northeastern New Zealand, nine of which have high seabird densities and nine of were invaded by rats. Ten network topological metrics (including entropy, generality, and vulnerability) were compared between rat-invaded and uninvaded (seabird-dominant) islands. We found that, on rat-invaded islands, the invertebrate food webs were smaller and less complex than on their seabird-dominated counterparts, which may be due to the suppression of seabird-derived nutrients and consequent effects on trophic cascades. This decreased complexity of food webs due to the presence of rats is indicative of lower ecosystem resistance via lower trophic redundancy. Our results show that rat effects on island ecosystems are manifested throughout entire food webs, and demonstrate how network analysis may be useful to assess ecosystem recovery status as these invaded islands are restored.

RevDate: 2019-07-18

Hiller T, D Haelewaters (2019)

A case of silent invasion: Citizen science confirms the presence of Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) in Central America.

PloS one, 14(7):e0220082 pii:PONE-D-19-09776.

Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) is a globally invasive ladybird. It has been intentionally introduced in many countries as a biological control agent, whereas it has been unintentionally released in many others. Climatic factors are important in limiting the spread of H. axyridis. For example, very few records are known from tropical or desert regions. Currently, no published reports are known from Central America. Here, we report H. axyridis from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Puerto Rico. Specimens were either observed by the authors, discovered in dried insect collections, or retrieved from searching through online photographs available from the citizen science project iNaturalist and the photo-sharing website Flickr. These new records and the wide distribution of H. axyridis in Latin America suggest several invasion events, which have gone unnoticed until now. We stress the need for further, large-scale monitoring and show the advantage of citizen science to assess the presence of invasive alien species.

RevDate: 2019-07-18

Lu X, He M, Tang S, et al (2019)

Herbivory may promote a non-native plant invasion at low but not high latitudes.

Annals of botany pii:5535518 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The strengths of biotic interactions such as herbivory are expected to decrease with increasing latitude for native species. To what extent this applies to invasive species and what the consequences of this variation are for competition among native and invasive species remain unexplored. Here, herbivore impacts on the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides and its competition with the native congener A. sessilis were estimated across latitudes in China.

METHODS: An experiment in common gardens spanning ten latitudinal degrees was conducted to test how herbivore impacts on A. philoxeroides, A. sessilis and competition between them change with latitude. In addition, a field survey was conducted from 21 °N to 36.8 °N to test whether A. philoxeroides invasiveness changes with latitude in nature as a result of variations in herbivory.

KEY RESULTS: In the experiment, A. sessilis cover was significantly higher than A. philoxeroides cover when they competed in the absence of herbivores but otherwise their cover was comparable. But, A. philoxeroides cover was always higher on average than A. sessilis cover at middle latitude. At high latitude, only A. sessilis emerged in the second year. Herbivore abundance decreased with latitude and A. philoxeroides emerged earlier than A. sessilis at middle latitude. In the field survey, the ratio of A. philoxeroides to A. sessilis cover was hump-shaped with latitude.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that herbivory may promote A. philoxeroides invasion only at low latitude by altering the outcome of competition in favour of the invader and points to the importance of other factors, such as earlier emergence, in A. philoxeroides invasion at higher latitudes. These results suggest that the key factors promoting plant invasions might change with latitude, highlighting the importance of teasing apart the roles of multiple factors in plant invasions within a bio-geographic framework.

RevDate: 2019-07-18

Wegner B, Kronsbein AL, Gillefalk M, et al (2019)

Mutual Facilitation Among Invading Nuttall's Waterweed and Quagga Mussels.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:789.

Nuttall's waterweed (Elodea nuttallii) is the most abundant invasive aquatic plant species in several European countries. Elodea populations often follow a boom-bust cycle, but the causes and consequences of this dynamics are yet unknown. We hypothesize that both boom and bust periods can be affected by dreissenid mussel invasions. While mutual facilitations between these invaders could explain their rapid parallel expansion, subsequent competition for space might occur. To test this hypothesis, we use data on temporal changes in the water quality and the abundance of E. nuttallii and the quagga mussel Dreissena rostriformis bugensis in a temperate shallow lake. Lake Müggelsee (Germany) was turbid and devoid of submerged macrophytes for 20 years (1970-1989), but re-colonization with macrophytes started in 1990 upon reductions in nutrient loading. We mapped macrophyte abundance from 1999 and mussel abundance from 2011 onwards. E. nuttallii was first detected in 2011, spread rapidly, and was the most abundant macrophyte species by 2017. Native macrophyte species were not replaced, but spread more slowly, resulting in an overall increase in macrophyte coverage to 25% of the lake surface. The increased abundance of E. nuttallii was paralleled by increasing water clarity and decreasing total phosphorus concentrations in the water. These changes were attributed to a rapid invasion by quagga mussels in 2012. In 2017, they covered about one-third of the lake area, with mean abundances of 3,600 mussels m-2, filtering up to twice the lake's volume every day. The increasing light availability in deeper littoral areas supported the rapid spread of waterweed, while in turn waterweed provided surface for mussel colonization. Quantities of dreissenid mussels and E. nuttallii measured at 24 locations were significantly correlated in 2016, and yearly means of E. nuttallii quantities increased with increasing mean dreissenid mussel quantities between 2011 and 2018. In 2018, both E. nuttallii and dreissenid abundances declined. These data imply that invasive waterweed and quagga mussels initially facilitated their establishment, supporting the invasional meltdown hypothesis, while subsequently competition for space may have occurred. Such temporal changes in invasive species interaction might contribute to the boom-bust dynamics that have been observed in Elodea populations.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Ozaslan C, Farooq S, Onen H, et al (2017)

Germination Biology of Two Invasive Physalis Species and Implications for Their Management in Arid and Semi-arid Regions.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16960.

Two Solanaceae invasive plant species (Physalis angulata L. and P. philadelphica Lam. var. immaculata Waterfall) infest several arable crops and natural habitats in Southeastern Anatolia region, Turkey. However, almost no information is available regarding germination biology of both species. We performed several experiments to infer the effects of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of different populations of both species collected from various locations with different elevations and habitat characteristics. Seed dormancy level of all populations was decreased with increasing age of the seeds. Seed dormancy of freshly harvested and aged seeds of all populations was effectively released by running tap water. Germination was slightly affected by photoperiods, which suggests that seeds are slightly photoblastic. All seeds germinated under wide range of temperature (15-40 °C), pH (4-10), osmotic potential (0 to -1.2 MPa) and salinity (0-400 mM sodium chloride) levels. The germination ability of both plant species under wide range of environmental conditions suggests further invasion potential towards non-infested areas in the country. Increasing seed burial depth significantly reduced the seedling emergence, and seeds buried below 4 cm of soil surface were unable to emerge. In arable lands, soil inversion to maximum depth of emergence (i.e., 6 cm) followed by conservational tillage could be utilized as a viable management option.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Marie AD, Smith S, Green AJ, et al (2017)

Transcriptomic response to thermal and salinity stress in introduced and native sympatric Palaemon caridean shrimps.

Scientific reports, 7(1):13980.

Organisms develop local adaptations to cope with spatially and temporally variable environments such as estuarine habitats, where abiotic parameters such as salinity and temperature fluctuate continuously. Studying the regulation of gene expression in a variable environment allows us to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms of these adaptations and the relative roles of the genetic and plastic response. The transcriptomes of the European native Palaemon longirostris (PL) and the introduced P. macrodactylus (PM) shrimps are described and compared after an experiment simulating summer conditions in the Guadalquivir Estuary, Spain. Specimens, collected in the Guadalquivir Estuary, were maintained at a temperature and salinity of 20 °C and 5 ppt for the control, and 30 °C and 15 ppt for the stress treatment. A large amount of differential gene expression was observed: 16,013 and 2,594 for PL and PM respectively. Functionally annotated unigenes revealed some differences, with PL seemingly having to face stronger physiological stress than PM. Thus, PM seems to have greater resistance than PL under conditions of high temperature and salinity. These results constitute a step forward in the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of genetic adaptation of native invertebrates, and alien taxa that have successfully invaded estuaries in temperate regions around the world.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Shinobe S, Uchida S, Mori H, et al (2017)

Declining soil Crustacea in a World Heritage Site caused by land nemertean.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12400.

Invasive non-native species are of great concern throughout the world. Potential severity of the impacts of non-native species is assessed for effective conservation managements. However, such risk assessment is often difficult, and underestimating possible harm can cause substantial issues. Here, we document catastrophic decline of a soil ecosystem in the Ogasawara Islands, a UNESCO World Heritage site, due to predation by non-native land nemertine Geonemertes pelaensis of which harm has been previously unnoticed. This nemertine is widely distributed in tropical regions, and no study has shown that it feeds on arthropods. However, we experimentally confirmed that G. pelaensis predates various arthropod groups. Soil fauna of Ogasawara was originally dominated by isopods and amphipods, but our surveys in the southern parts of Hahajima Island showed that these became extremely scarce in the areas invaded by G. pelaensis. Carnivorous arthropods decreased by indirect effects of its predation. Radical decline of soil arthropods since the 1980s on Chichijima Island was also caused by G. pelaensis and was first recorded in 1981. Thus, the soil ecosystem was already seriously damaged in Ogasawara by the nemertine. The present findings raise an issue and limitation in recognizing threats of non-native species.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Alexiades AV, Flecker AS, CE Kraft (2017)

Nonnative fish stocking alters stream ecosystem nutrient dynamics.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(3):956-965.

Each year, millions of hatchery-raised fish are stocked into streams and rivers worldwide, yet the effects of hatchery-raised fish on stream nutrient cycles have seldom been examined. We quantified the influence of supplemental nonnative fish stocking, a widespread recreational fishery management practice, on in-stream nutrient storage and cycling. We predicted that supplemental, hatchery-raised brown trout (Salmo trutta) stocking would result in increased N and P supply relative to in-stream biotic demand for those nutrients and that stocked fishes would remineralize and store a significantly greater amount of N and P than the native fish community, due to higher areal biomass. To test these predictions, we measured the biomass, nutrient (NH4+ -N and soluble reactive phosphorus [SRP]) remineralization rates, and body carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content of the native fish community and trout stocked into four study streams. We then estimated fish growth rates to determine species-specific nutrient sequestration rates in body tissues for both stocked and native fish and measured ammonium and phosphorus uptake rates to determine the relative influence of net fish nutrient remineralization on stream nutrient cycles. When brown trout were stocked in these systems at density levels that were orders of magnitude higher than ambient native fish density, they provided a sizeable source of NH4+ -N that could account for up to 85% of demand for that nutrient. Stocked trout had minimal effects on in-stream SRP cycles even at high release densities, likely due to low per capita SRP excretion rates. A unique feature of our study was that we evaluated the temporal component of the stocked trout nutrient subsidy by estimating the number of fish removed from the system through natural mortality and angler harvest, which indicated that the stocked trout subsidy lasted approximately 6-8 weeks after stocking. By combining population models with areal nutrient excretion rates and estimates of biotic nutrient uptake, we showed that trout stocking provided a strong pulsed nutrient subsidy.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Douma JC, van der Werf W, Hemerik L, et al (2017)

Development of a pathway model to assess the exposure of European pine trees to pine wood nematode via the trade of wood.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(3):769-785.

Pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is a threat for pine species (Pinus spp.) throughout the world. The nematode is native to North America, and invaded Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, and more recently Portugal and Spain. PWN enters new areas through trade in wood products. Once established, eradication is not practically feasible. Therefore, preventing entry of PWN into new areas is crucial. Entry risk analysis can assist in targeting management to reduce the probability of entry. Assessing the entry of PWN is challenging due to the complexity of the wood trade and the wood processing chain. In this paper, we develop a pathway model that describes the wood trade and wood processing chain to determine the structure of the entry process. We consider entry of PWN through imported coniferous wood from China, a possible origin of Portuguese populations, to Europe. We show that exposure increased over years due to an increase in imports of sawn wood. From 2000 to 2012, Europe received an estimated 84 PWN propagules from China, 88% of which arose from imported sawn wood and 12% from round wood. The region in Portugal where the PWN was first reported is among those with the highest PWN transfer per unit of imported wood due to a high host cover and vector activity. An estimated 62% of PWN is expected to enter in countries where PWN is not expected to cause the wilt of pine trees because of low summer temperatures (e.g., Belgium, Sweden, Norway). In these countries, PWN is not easily detected, and such countries can thus serve as potential reservoirs of PWN. The model identifies ports and regions with high exposure, which helps targeting monitoring and surveillance, even in areas where wilt disease is not expected to occur. In addition, we show that exposure is most efficiently reduced by additional treatments in the country of origin, and/or import wood from PWN-free zones. Pathway modelling assists plant health managers in analyzing risks along the pathway and planning measures for enhancing biosecurity.

RevDate: 2019-07-18
CmpDate: 2019-07-18

Mitchell RM, Bakker JD, Vincent JB, et al (2017)

Relative importance of abiotic, biotic, and disturbance drivers of plant community structure in the sagebrush steppe.

Ecological applications : a publication of the Ecological Society of America, 27(3):756-768.

Abiotic conditions, biotic factors, and disturbances can act as filters that control community structure and composition. Understanding the relative importance of these drivers would allow us to understand and predict the causes and consequences of changes in community structure. We used long-term data (1989-2002) from the sagebrush steppe in the state of Washington, USA, to ask three questions: (1) What are the key drivers of community-level metrics of community structure? (2) Do community-level metrics and functional groups differ in magnitude or direction of response to drivers of community structure? (3) What is the relative importance of drivers of community structure? The vegetation in 2002 was expressed as seven response variables: three community-level metrics (species richness, total cover, compositional change from 1989 to 2002) and the relative abundances of four functional groups. We used a multi-model inference framework to identify a set of top models for each response metric beginning from a global model that included two abiotic drivers, six disturbances, a biotic driver (initial plant community), and interactions between the disturbance and biotic drivers. We also used a permutational relative variable importance metric to rank the influence of drivers. Moisture availability was the most important driver of species richness and of native forb cover. Fire was the most important driver of shrub cover and training area usage was important for compositional change, but disturbances, including grazing, were of secondary importance for most other variables. Biotic drivers, as represented by the initial plant communities, were the most important driver for total cover and for the relative covers of exotics and native grasses. Our results indicate that the relative importance of drivers is dependent on the choice of metric, and that drivers such as disturbance and initial plant community can interact.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Liu H, Wu X, Feng Y, et al (2019)

Autophagy contributes to the feeding, reproduction, and mobility of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus at low temperatures.

Acta biochimica et biophysica Sinica pii:5533127 [Epub ahead of print].

The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is the pathogen causing pine wilt disease (PWD), which is a devastating forest disease. At present, little is known about the defense mechanisms of the PWN, which limits PWD control. Although autophagy plays an important role in the physiological and pathological processes of eukaryotes, its significance in the PWN remains unknown. In this study, we prepared an anti-BxATG8 polyclonal antibody and identified two PWN autophagy marker proteins: BxATG8-I and BxATG8-II. By western blot analysis, we found that the ratio of BxATG8-II to BxATG8-I, which represents autophagic activity, was decreased significantly when samples were treated with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. As such, we were able to successfully detect and quantify autophagic activity in the PWN. Thereafter, we investigated the effects of low and high temperatures on PWN growth and reproduction. The results revealed that feeding rate, reproduction rate, and mobility decreased at 15°C and increased at 35°C. By contrast, autophagic activity was high at 15°C and low at 35°C, suggesting that the PWN regulates autophagic activity in response to changes in temperature to maintain physiological homeostasis. When autophagy was inhibited at 15°C, feeding rate, reproductive rate, and mobility declined further, indicating that autophagy is crucial for PWN growth and reproduction at low temperature. These results indicate that autophagy in the PWN is an important response mechanism to temperature changes.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Sherpa S, Blum MGB, L Després (2019)

Cold adaptation in the Asian tiger mosquito's native range precedes its invasion success in temperate regions.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Adaptation to environmental conditions within the native range of exotic species can condition the invasion success of these species outside their range. The striking success of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, to invade temperate regions has been attributed to the winter survival of diapause eggs in cold environments. In this study, we evaluate genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) and wing morphometric variation among three biogeographical regions of the native range of A. albopictus. Reconstructed demographic histories of populations show an initial expansion in Southeast Asia and suggest that marine regression during late Pleistocene and climate warming after the last glacial period favored expansion of populations in southern and northern regions respectively. Searching for genomic signatures of selection, we identified significantly differentiated SNPs among which several are located in or within 20kb distance from candidate genes for cold adaptation. These genes involve cellular and metabolic processes and several of them have been shown to be differentially expressed under diapausing conditions. The three biogeographical regions also differ for wing size and shape, and wing size increases with latitude supporting Bergmann's rule. Adaptive genetic and morphometric variation observed along the climatic gradient of A. albopictus native range suggests that colonization of northern latitudes promoted adaptation to cold environments prior to its worldwide invasion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Dalal A, Cuthbert RN, Dick JTA, et al (2019)

Prey preferences of notonectids towards larval mosquitoes across prey ontogeny and search area.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Predatory biological control agents can be effective natural means of managing pests, vectors and invasive species. However, the strength of predator-prey interactions can be regulated through context-dependencies that often remain unquantified. In particular, refuge effects can influence the efficacy of biological agents towards target species, and such effects are often driven by prey size and search area differences. In the present study, we thus quantify prey preferences of two predaceous notonectids, Anisops breddini and Anisops sardeus, towards four different aquatic larval instar stages of the medically-important mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus across variations in surface area and water depth.

RESULTS: Consumption rates differed significantly among the four larval sizes but not between the notonectids. Search area variations also elicited differences in consumption rates. Both predators tended to prefer second instar mosquito prey among surface area and water depth variations, whilst generally avoiding the largest (fourth instar) and smallest (first instar) prey instar stages. For both predators, differential selectivity traits were emergent across search area variations and water depth, with refuge effects for small prey generally greatest under intermediate-high depths with high surface areas. We thus demonstrate that predatory impacts of notonectids towards mosquito larvae differ significantly according to prey size, and likely peak at intermediate size classes.

CONCLUSION: Different mosquito size classes often coexist and compete, this selectivity has important implications for adult mosquito proliferations. Further, in ephemeral aquatic habitats where search areas and water depths are highly variable spatiotemporally, the efficacy of notonectids in controlling mosquito prey may differ substantially. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-07-17

Ke F, You S, Huang S, et al (2019)

Herbivore range expansion triggers adaptation in a subsequently-associated third trophic level species and shared microbial symbionts.

Scientific reports, 9(1):10314 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46742-3.

Invasive species may change the life history strategies, distribution, genetic configuration and trophic interactions of native species. The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., is an invasive herbivore attacking cultivated and wild brassica plants worldwide. Here we present phylogeographic analyses of P. xylostella and one of its major parasitoids, Cotesia vestalis, using mitochondrial markers, revealing the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of these two species. We find evidence that C. vestalis originated in Southwest China, then adapted to P. xylostella as a new host by ecological sorting as P. xylostella expanded its geographic range into this region. Associated with the expansion of P. xylostella, Wolbachia symbionts were introduced into local populations of the parasitoid through horizontal transfer from its newly associated host. Insights into the evolutionary history and phylogeographic system of the herbivore and its parasitoid provide an important basis for better understanding the impacts of biological invasion on genetic configuration of local species.

RevDate: 2019-07-17
CmpDate: 2019-07-17

Cohen O, Bar Kutiel P, Gamliel A, et al (2019)

Rain-based soil solarization for reducing the persistent seed banks of invasive plants in natural ecosystems - Acacia saligna as a model.

Pest management science, 75(7):1933-1941.

BACKGROUND: A large persistent seed bank of invasive plants is a significant obstacle to restoration programs. Soil solarization was demonstrated to be an effective method for reducing the seed bank of Australian acacias. However, use of this method in natural habitats might be limited due to the requirement to moisten the soil by irrigation. This study examined the possibility of replacing irrigation by trapping the soil moisture caused by the most recent rainfall, i.e. rain-based soil solarization (RBS).

RESULTS: Exposure of Acacia saligna seeds to 57 °C at 20% soil moisture for 68 h resulted in almost complete loss of seed viability. Similarly, RBS treatment significantly reduced the viability of A. saligna seeds buried at a soil depth of 1-19 cm as well as seed density in the natural seed bank, and almost completely eliminated seedling emergence from natural seed banks of A. saligna and other environmental weeds.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that RBS is an effective method for reducing the seed bank of invasive plants in natural habitats located in various climate regions characterized by different soil types. This is the first demonstration of a successful application of RBS for soil disinfestation. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-07-16

Pinochet J, Rivera R, Neill PE, et al (2019)

Spread of the non-native anemone Anemonia alicemartinae Häussermann & Försterra, 2001 along the Humboldt-current large marine ecosystem: an ecological niche model approach.

PeerJ, 7:e7156 pii:7156.

The geographical expansion of invasive species depends mainly on its dispersal potential, and the abiotic and biotic factors affecting it. Knowing the invasive dynamic of non-native species, as well as its behavior at different natural or anthropogenic scenarios, is fundamental for planning conservation management policies and control plans. The invasive sea anemone Anemonia alicemartinae in habits from the north (18°S) to the south-central (36°S) coast of Chile and its distribution range has expanded by approximately 1,928 km in the last 50 years. Previous works have proposed that human-mediated southward transport associated with regional-scale maritime activities could explain its rapid spread. To evaluate this hypothesis, we used ecological niche models (ENM) to evaluate the potential colonization of the southernmost area of South America. Additionally, we conducted a post hoc analysis to evaluate the relationship between the prediction of the ENM and human activity measured as the number of landings of ships in ports. The models were built based on presence records of A. alicemartinae, and oceanographic variables. Results showed that sea surface salinity and annual sea surface temperature (variance) are the best predictor variables to explain the distribution of A. alicemartinae. There was a positive and significant relationship between the geographical distribution of the sea anemone predicted by the ENM and the number of landings, as a proxy of anthropogenic activity. The most susceptible areas to invasion were those that showed the highest variability in both oceanographic predictors. These areas included the Biobío region, Chiloé´s inland sea, Aysén, and Chacabuco regions, which together comprise two biogeographical provinces. These results sustain the proposed hypothesis and, overall, the results suggest that along with the characteristics of the life history of A. alicemartinae, oceanographic conditions and maritime transport as vector contribute to the southern range expansion of this invasive cryptogenic species in the Humboldt-current large marine ecosystem.

RevDate: 2019-07-16

Godfree RC, Knerr N, Godfree D, et al (2019)

Historical reconstruction unveils the risk of mass mortality and ecosystem collapse during pancontinental megadrought.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1902046116 [Epub ahead of print].

An important new hypothesis in landscape ecology is that extreme, decade-scale megadroughts can be potent drivers of rapid, macroscale ecosystem degradation and collapse. If true, an increase in such events under climate change could have devastating consequences for global biodiversity. However, because few megadroughts have occurred in the modern ecological era, the taxonomic breadth, trophic depth, and geographic pattern of these impacts remain unknown. Here we use ecohistorical techniques to quantify the impact of a record, pancontinental megadrought period (1891 to 1903 CE) on the Australian biota. We show that during this event mortality and severe stress was recorded in >45 bird, mammal, fish, reptile, and plant families in arid, semiarid, dry temperate, and Mediterranean ecosystems over at least 2.8 million km2 (36%) of the Australian continent. Trophic analysis reveals a bottom-up pattern of mortality concentrated in primary producer, herbivore, and omnivore guilds. Spatial and temporal reconstruction of premortality rainfall shows that mass mortality and synchronous ecosystem-wide collapse emerged in multiple geographic hotspots after 2 to 4 y of severe (>40%) and intensifying rainfall deficits. However, the presence of hyperabundant herbivores significantly increased the sensitivity of ecosystems to overgrazing-induced meltdown and permanent ecosystem change. The unprecedented taxonomic breadth and spatial scale of these impacts demonstrate that continental-scale megadroughts pose a major future threat to global biodiversity, especially in ecosystems affected by intensive agricultural use, trophic simplification, and invasive species.

RevDate: 2019-07-16
CmpDate: 2019-07-16

Hradsky BA, Robley A, Alexander R, et al (2017)

Human-modified habitats facilitate forest-dwelling populations of an invasive predator, Vulpes vulpes.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12291.

Invasive and over-abundant predators pose a major threat to biodiversity and often benefit from human activities. Effective management requires understanding predator use of human-modified habitats (including resource subsidies and disturbed environments), and individual variation within populations. We investigated selection for human-modified habitats by invasive red foxes, Vulpes vulpes, within two predominantly forested Australian landscapes. We predicted that foxes would select for human-modified habitats in their range locations and fine-scale movements, but that selection would vary between individuals. We GPS-tracked 19 foxes for 17-166 days; ranges covered 33 to >2500 ha. Approximately half the foxes selected for human-modified habitats at the range scale, with some 'commuting' more than five kilometres to farmland or townships at night. Two foxes used burnt forest intensively after a prescribed fire. In their fine-scale nocturnal movements, most foxes selected for human-modified habitats such as reservoirs, forest edges and roads, but there was considerable individual variation. Native fauna in fragmented and disturbed habitats are likely to be exposed to high rates of fox predation, and anthropogenic food resources may subsidise fox populations within the forest interior. Coordinating fox control across land-tenures, targeting specific landscape features, and limiting fox access to anthropogenic resources will be important for biodiversity conservation.

RevDate: 2019-07-16
CmpDate: 2019-07-16

Rizzo L, Pusceddu A, Stabili L, et al (2017)

Potential effects of an invasive seaweed (Caulerpa cylindracea, Sonder) on sedimentary organic matter and microbial metabolic activities.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12113.

Caulerpa cylindracea (Sonder), among the most successful marine bio-invaders on a global scale, poses severe threats to biodiversity. However, the effects of this seaweed on the quantity and the biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter are still poorly known. Since the whole set of sedimentary features affects the availability of substrates for benthic microbial communities, we: i) investigated the biochemical composition of sediments colonized and not-colonized by C. cylindracea, and ii) compared the metabolic patterns of the microbial communities associated with C. cylindracea and in the sediments colonized and not-colonized by the seaweed. Our results show that C. cylindracea can influence the quantity and biochemical composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM), and that microbial populations associated with colonized sediments do have specific metabolic patterns and degradation capacities. Caulerpa cylindracea can also influence the metabolic patterns of the microbial community specifically adapted to degrade compounds released by the seaweed itself, with possible consequences on C cycling.

RevDate: 2019-07-15

Rossberg AG, Barabás G, Possingham HP, et al (2019)

Let's Train More Theoretical Ecologists - Here Is Why.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(19)30171-5 [Epub ahead of print].

A tangled web of vicious circles, driven by cultural issues, has prevented ecology from growing strong theoretical roots. Now this hinders development of effective conservation policies. To overcome these barriers in view of urgent societal needs, we propose a global network of postgraduate theoretical training programs.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Zhang L, Yu L, A Lou (2017)

No evolutionary change in the mating system of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae) during its invasion in China.

Scientific reports, 7(1):17698.

The mating system of flowering plants plays a key role during the process of invasion. Evolution from outcrossing to selfing can allow rapid regeneration of a population after long-distance dispersal by providing reproductive assurance. Solanum rostratum is a self-compatible annual herb that exhibits a high level of outcrossing in its native populations. However, the mating system of invasive populations of S. rostratum has never been assessed. Here, we investigated the mating system based on 11 microsatellite loci and explored ecological factors that may influence the outcrossing rate among 10 invasive populations of S. rostratum in China. We found that the mean outcrossing rate was 0.69 ± 0.12 (range 0.49 to 0.83) with multiple paternity within progeny arrays (average effective number of sires = 7.86), which suggests a mixed mating system dominated by outcrossing. Combined with the uniformly high outcrossing rate (0.70 ± 0.03) previously reported in its native range, these results indicate that there has been no evolutionary shift in mating system during the invasion in China by S. rostratum. There were no relationships between outcrossing and population size, population density, altitude, latitude or longitude. Furthermore, high outcrossing of S. rostratum in China may be facilitated by enantiostyly and heteranthery.

RevDate: 2019-07-15
CmpDate: 2019-07-15

Rossiter-Rachor NA, Setterfield SA, Hutley LB, et al (2017)

Invasive Andropogon gayanus (Gamba grass) alters litter decomposition and nitrogen fluxes in an Australian tropical savanna.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11705.

The African grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth. is invading Australian savannas, altering their ecological and biogeochemical function. To assess impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, we quantified litter decomposition and N dynamics of grass litter in native grass and A. gayanus invaded savanna using destructive in situ grass litter harvests and litterbag incubations (soil surface and aerial position). Only 30% of the A. gayanus in situ litter decomposed, compared to 61% of the native grass litter, due to the former being largely comprised of highly resistant A. gayanus stem. In contrast to the stem, A. gayanus leaf decomposition was approximately 3- and 2-times higher than the dominant native grass, Alloteropsis semilata at the surface and aerial position, respectively. Lower initial lignin concentrations, and higher consumption by termites, accounted for the greater surface decomposition rate of A. gayanus. N flux estimates suggest the N release of A. gayanus litter is insufficient to compensate for increased N uptake and N loss via fire in invaded plots. Annually burnt invaded savanna may lose up to 8.2% of the upper soil N pool over a decade. Without additional inputs via biological N fixation, A. gayanus invasion is likely to diminish the N capital of Australia's frequently burnt savannas.

RevDate: 2019-07-13

Boegehold AG, Johnson NS, DR Kashian (2019)

Dreissenid (quagga and zebra mussel) veligers are adversely affected by bloom forming cyanobacteria.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 182:109426 pii:S0147-6513(19)30756-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Quagga (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) and zebra (D. polymorpha) mussels are broadcast spawners that produce planktonic, free swimming veligers, a life history strategy dissimilar to native North American freshwater bivalves. Dreissenid veligers require highly nutritious food to grow and survive, and thus may be susceptible to increased mortality rates during harsh environmental conditions like cyanobacteria blooms. However, the impact of cyanobacteria and one of the toxins they can produce (microcystin) has not been evaluated in dreissenid veligers. Therefore, we exposed dreissenid veligers to eleven distinct cultures (isolates) of cyanobacteria representing Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Dolichospermum, Microcystis, and Planktothrix species and the cyanotoxin microcystin to determine the lethality of cyanobacteria on dreissenid veligers. Six-day laboratory bioassays were performed in microplates using dreissenid veligers collected from the Detroit River, Michigan, USA. Veligers were exposed to increasing concentrations of cyanobacteria and microcystin using the green algae Chlorella minutissima as a control. Based on dose response curves formulated from a Probit model, the LC50 values for cyanobacteria used in this study range between 15.06 and 135.06 μg/L chlorophyll-a, with the LC50 for microcystin-LR at 13.03 μg/L. Because LC50 values were within ranges observed in natural waterbodies, it is possible that dreissenid recruitment may be suppressed when veliger abundances overlap with seasonal cyanobacteria blooms. Thus, the toxicity of cyanobacteria to dreissenid veligers may be useful to include in models forecasting dreissenid mussel abundance and spread.

RevDate: 2019-07-13

Mazzei M, Cilia G, Forzan M, et al (2019)

Detection of replicative Kashmir Bee Virus and Black Queen Cell Virus in Asian hornet Vespa velutina (Lepelieter 1836) in Italy.

Scientific reports, 9(1):10091 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46565-2.

Information concerning the pathogenic role of honey bee viruses in invasive species are still scarce. The aim of this investigation was to assess the presence of several honey bee viruses, such as Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV), Slow Paralysis Virus (SPV), Sac Brood Virus (SBV), Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV), in Vespa velutina specimens collected in Italy during 2017. Results of this investigation indicate that among pathogens, replicative form of KBV and BQCV were detected, assessing the spillover effect of both these viruses from managed honey bees to hornets.

RevDate: 2019-07-13

Görres CM, D Chesmore (2019)

Active sound production of scarab beetle larvae opens up new possibilities for species-specific pest monitoring in soils.

Scientific reports, 9(1):10115 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46121-y.

Root-feeding Scarabaeidae larvae can pose a serious threat to agricultural and forest ecosystems, but many details of larval ecology are still unknown. We developed an acoustic data analysis method based on active sound production by larvae (i.e. stridulations) for gaining new insights into larval ecology. In a laboratory study, third instar larvae of the Common Cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha) (n = 38) and the Forest Cockchafer (M. hippocastani) (n = 15) kept in soil-filled containers were acoustically monitored for 5 min each, resulting in the first known stridulation recordings for each species. Subsequent continuous monitoring of three M. hippocastani larvae over several hours showed that a single larva could stridulate more than 70 times per hour, and stridulation rates increased drastically with increasing larval abundance. The new fractal dimension-based data analysis method automatically detected audio sections with stridulations and provided a semi-quantitative estimate of stridulation activity. It is the first data analysis method specifically targeting Scarabaeidae larvae stridulations in soils, enabling for the first time non-invasive species-specific pest monitoring.

RevDate: 2019-07-13

Cheng H, Liu J, Wen J, et al (2019)

Frequent intra- and inter-species introgression shapes the landscape of genetic variation in bread wheat.

Genome biology, 20(1):136 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1744-x.

BACKGROUND: Bread wheat is one of the most important and broadly studied crops. However, due to the complexity of its genome and incomplete genome collection of wild populations, the bread wheat genome landscape and domestication history remain elusive.

RESULTS: By investigating the whole-genome resequencing data of 93 accessions from worldwide populations of bread wheat and its diploid and tetraploid progenitors, together with 90 published exome-capture data, we find that the B subgenome has more variations than A and D subgenomes, including SNPs and deletions. Population genetics analyses support a monophyletic origin of domesticated wheat from wild emmer in northern Levant, with substantial introgressed genomic fragments from southern Levant. Southern Levant contributes more than 676 Mb in AB subgenomes and enriched in the pericentromeric regions. The AB subgenome introgression happens at the early stage of wheat speciation and partially contributes to their greater genetic diversity. Furthermore, we detect massive alien introgressions that originated from distant species through natural and artificial hybridizations, resulting in the reintroduction of ~ 709 Mb and ~ 1577 Mb sequences into bread wheat landraces and varieties, respectively. A large fraction of these intra- and inter-introgression fragments are associated with quantitative trait loci of important traits, and selection events are also identified.

CONCLUSION: We reveal the significance of multiple introgressions from distant wild populations and alien species in shaping the genetic components of bread wheat, and provide important resources and new perspectives for future wheat breeding.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Anglès d'Auriac MB, Strand DA, Mjelde M, et al (2019)

Detection of an invasive aquatic plant in natural water bodies using environmental DNA.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219700 pii:PONE-D-19-07540.

The ability to detect founding populations of invasive species or rare species with low number of individuals is important for aquatic ecosystem management. Traditional approaches use historical data, knowledge of the species' ecology and time-consuming surveys. Within the past decade, environmental DNA (eDNA) has emerged as a powerful additional tracking tool. While much work has been done with animals, comparatively very little has been done with aquatic plants. Here we investigated the transportation and seasonal changes in eDNA concentrations for an invasive aquatic species, Elodea canadensis, in Norway. A specific probe assay was developed using chloroplast DNA to study the fate of the targeted eDNA through space and time. The spatial study used a known source of Elodea canadensis within Lake Nordbytjern 400 m away from the lake outlet flowing into the stream Tveia. The rate of disappearance of E. canadensis eDNA was an order of magnitude loss over about 230 m in the lake and 1550 m in the stream. The time series study was performed monthly from May to October in lake Steinsfjorden harbouring E. canadensis, showing that eDNA concentrations varied by up to three orders of magnitude, peaking during fall. In both studies, the presence of suspended clay or turbidity for some samples did not hamper eDNA analysis. This study shows how efficient eDNA tools may be for tracking aquatic plants in the environment and provides key spatial and temporal information on the fate of eDNA.

RevDate: 2019-07-12

Kiehnau EL, LJ Weider (2019)

Phototactic behavior of native Daphnia in the presence of chemical cues from a non-native predator Bythotrephes.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-019-04461-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Chemical cues are used by many taxa to communicate within and among species. Behavioral defenses induced by predator cues are a mechanism by which prey species resist or avoid predator attack. This study examined the egg bank of native Daphnia species in a lake that has been invaded by Bythotrephes longimanus, an invertebrate zooplanktivore native to northern-central Europe and Asia (initial invasion 1994, population boom in 2009). Daphnia resting eggs from both pre- and post-B. longimanus invasion lake sediments were hatched and established as isofemale clonal lines. Phototactic behavior (a proxy for vertical migration behavior) was assessed in the presence and absence of B. longimanus cue. This was done to evaluate the hypothesis that the heavy predation imposed by B. longimanus would have been selected for Daphnia clones that are more negatively phototactic in the presence of B. longimanus cue, because B. longimanus is a visual predator. The behavior of the clones derived from pre-B. longimanus era resting eggs was not significantly different from the behavior of the clones from the post-B. longimanus era and exposure to predator cue did not affect the phototactic response of the clones. There was a significant difference in the phototactic behavior of the three Daphnia species tested (Daphnia ambigua, Daphnia mendotae, and Daphnia pulicaria). These results suggest that predation by B. longimanus is not the main factor that is influencing the phototactic behavior of Daphnia in the lake. Other factors such as fish predation may be playing a more significant role in this system.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Salinas ZA, Babini MS, Grenat PR, et al (2019)

Effect of parasitism of Lernaea cyprinacea on tadpoles of the invasive species Lithobates catesbeianus.

Heliyon, 5(6):e01834 pii:e01834.

The introduction of invasive species is one of the greatest threats currently faced by natural ecosystems, causing ecological imbalances between native populations and transmission of a variety of diseases. We reported the interaction between two exotic species given by the parasitic infestation of the copepod Lernaea cyprinacea in the early stages of the development of the American bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus in the central area of Argentina. In this paper we analysed the leukocyte profile of parasitized and non-parasitized tadpoles of L. catesbeianus with L. cyprinacea and their body condition (BC) as biomarkers of the health status of organisms. A total of 27 tadpoles of L. catesbeianus were analysed (12 non-parasitized and 15 parasitized). The lower BC recorded in parasitized organisms show a lower health status in these tadpoles, which could be affecting the metamorphosis and therefore impact at the population level. Leukocyte response of L. catesbeianus tadpoles to the parasitism of L. cyprinacea was found. Mature and immature lymphocyte frequencies and hematocrit were higher in parasitized compared to non-parasitized tadpoles, which is a typical response to the presence of parasites. However, eosinophils and monocytes were recorded at high frequencies in not parasitized tadpoles, which could be due to the important role played by these leucocytes in the metamorphosis of frogs. The results of this study constitute a first antecedent on leukocyte profile in aquatic stages of anurans during an ectoparasitosis and its possible implications for environmental health. The parasitism of L. cyprinacea influences the biology of the American bullfrog at both the individual and population levels. Parasitized individuals are not killed directly by the parasite, but they can create conditions for secondary infections, growth retardation, behavioral changes and, ultimately, reduce populations.

RevDate: 2019-07-11

Gu X, Zhao Y, Su Y, et al (2019)

A transcriptional and functional analysis of heat hardening in two invasive fruit fly species, Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta.

Evolutionary applications, 12(6):1147-1163 pii:EVA12793.

Many insects have the capacity to increase their resistance to high temperatures by undergoing heat hardening at nonlethal temperatures. Although this response is well established, its molecular underpinnings have only been investigated in a few species where it seems to relate at least partly to the expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) genes. Here, we studied the mechanism of hardening and associated transcription responses in larvae of two invasive fruit fly species in China, Bactrocera dorsalis and Bactrocera correcta. Both species showed hardening which increased resistance to 45°C, although the more widespread B. dorsalis hardened better at higher temperatures compared to B. correcta which hardened better at lower temperatures. Transcriptional analyses highlighted expression changes in a number of genes representing different biochemical pathways, but these changes and pathways were inconsistent between the two species. Overall B. dorsalis showed expression changes in more genes than B. correcta. Hsp genes tended to be upregulated at a hardening temperature of 38°C in both species, while at 35°C many Hsp genes tended to be upregulated in B. correcta but not B. dorsalis. One candidate gene (the small heat shock protein gene, Hsp23) with a particularly high level of upregulation was investigated functionally using RNA interference (RNAi). We found that RNAi may be more efficient in B. dorsalis, in which suppression of the expression of this gene removed the hardening response, whereas in B. correcta RNAi did not decrease the hardening response. The different patterns of gene expression in these two species at the two hardening temperatures highlight the diverse mechanisms underlying hardening even in closely related species. These results may provide target genes for future control efforts against such pest species.

RevDate: 2019-07-12
CmpDate: 2019-07-12

Guzzetti L, Galimberti A, Bruni I, et al (2017)

Bioprospecting on invasive plant species to prevent seed dispersal.

Scientific reports, 7(1):13799.

ABSRACT: The most anthropized regions of the world are characterized by an impressive abundance of invasive plants, which alter local biodiversity and ecosystem services. An alternative strategy to manage these species could be based on the exploitation of their fruits in a framework of bioprospecting to obtain high-added value compounds or phytocomplexes that are useful for humans. Here we tested this hypothesis on three invasive plants (Lonicera japonica Thunb., Phytolacca americana L., and Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the Po plain (northern Italy) which bear fruits that are highly consumed by frugivorous birds and therefore dispersed over large distances. Our biochemical analyses revealed that unripe fruit shows high antioxidant properties due to the presence of several classes of polyphenols, which have a high benchmark value on the market. Fruit collection for phytochemical extraction could really prevent seed dispersal mediated by frugivorous animals and produce economic gains to support local management actions.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Jan PL, Lehnen L, Besnard AL, et al (2019)

Range expansion is associated with increased survival and fecundity in a long-lived bat species.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1906):20190384.

The speed and dynamics of range expansions shape species distributions and community composition. Despite the critical impact of population growth rates for range expansion, they are neglected in existing empirical studies, which focus on the investigation of selected life-history traits. Here, we present an approach based on non-invasive genetic capture-mark-recapture data for the estimation of adult survival, fecundity and juvenile survival, which determine population growth. We demonstrate the reliability of our method with simulated data, and use it to investigate life-history changes associated with range expansion in 35 colonies of the bat species Rhinolophus hipposideros. Comparing the demographic parameters inferred for 19 of those colonies which belong to an expanding population with those inferred for the remaining 16 colonies from a non-expanding population reveals that range expansion is associated with higher net reproduction. Juvenile survival was the main driver of the observed reproduction increase in this long-lived bat species with low per capita annual reproductive output. The higher average growth rate in the expanding population was not associated with a trade-off between increased reproduction and survival, suggesting that the observed increase in reproduction stems from a higher resource acquisition in the expanding population. Environmental conditions in the novel habitat hence seem to have an important influence on range expansion dynamics, and warrant further investigation for the management of range expansion in both native and invasive species.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Pascoe EL, Marcantonio M, Caminade C, et al (2019)

Modeling Potential Habitat for Amblyomma Tick Species in California.

Insects, 10(7): pii:insects10070201.

The Amblyomma genus of ticks comprises species that are aggressive human biters and vectors of pathogens. Numerous species in the genus are undergoing rapid range expansion. Amblyomma ticks have occasionally been introduced into California, but as yet, no established populations have been reported in the state. Because California has high ecological diversity and is a transport hub for potentially parasitized humans and animals, the risk of future Amblyomma establishment may be high. We used ecological niche modeling to predict areas in California suitable for four tick species that pose high risk to humans: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Amblyomma cajennense and Amblyomma mixtum. We collected presence data in the Americas for each species from the published literature and online databases. Twenty-three climatic and ecological variables were used in a MaxEnt algorithm to predict the distribution of each species. The minimum temperature of the coldest month was an important predictor for all four species due to high mortality of Amblyomma at low temperatures. Areas in California appear to be ecologically suitable for A. americanum, A. maculatum, and A. cajennense, but not A. mixtum. These findings could inform targeted surveillance prior to an invasion event, to allow mitigation actions to be quickly implemented.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Wepprich T, Adrion JR, Ries L, et al (2019)

Butterfly abundance declines over 20 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA.

PloS one, 14(7):e0216270 pii:PONE-D-19-10894.

Severe insect declines make headlines, but they are rarely based on systematic monitoring outside of Europe. We estimate the rate of change in total butterfly abundance and the population trends for 81 species using 21 years of systematic monitoring in Ohio, USA. Total abundance is declining at 2% per year, resulting in a cumulative 33% reduction in butterfly abundance. Three times as many species have negative population trends compared to positive trends. The rate of total decline and the proportion of species in decline mirror those documented in three comparable long-term European monitoring programs. Multiple environmental changes such as climate change, habitat degradation, and agricultural practices may contribute to these declines in Ohio and shift the makeup of the butterfly community by benefiting some species over others. Our analysis of life-history traits associated with population trends shows an impact of climate change, as species with northern distributions and fewer annual generations declined more rapidly. However, even common and invasive species associated with human-dominated landscapes are declining, suggesting widespread environmental causes for these trends. Declines in common species, although they may not be close to extinction, will have an outsized impact on the ecosystem services provided by insects. These results from the most extensive, systematic insect monitoring program in North America demonstrate an ongoing defaunation in butterflies that on an annual scale might be imperceptible, but cumulatively has reduced butterfly numbers by a third over 20 years.

RevDate: 2019-07-09

Xue Q, Xiang Y, Wu XQ, et al (2019)

Bacterial Communities and Virulence Associated with Pine Wood Nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus from Different Pinus spp.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(13): pii:ijms20133342.

Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of pine wilt disease, is a destructive threat to pine forests. The role of bacteria associated with B. xylophilus in pine wilt disease has attracted widespread attention. This study investigated variation in bacterial communities and the virulence of surface-sterilized B. xylophilus from different Pinus spp. The predominant culturable bacteria of nematodes from different pines were Stenotrophomonas and Pseudomonas. Biolog EcoPlate analysis showed that metabolic diversity of bacteria in B. xylophilus from P. massoniana was the highest, followed by P. thunbergii and P. densiflora. High-throughput sequencing analysis indicated that bacterial diversity and community structure in nematodes from the different pine species varied, and the dominant bacteria were Stenotrophomonas and Elizabethkingia. The virulence determination of B. xylophilus showed that the nematodes from P. massoniana had the greatest virulence, followed by the nematodes from P. thunbergii and P. densiflora. After the nematodes were inoculated onto P. thunbergii, the relative abundance of the predominant bacteria changed greatly, and some new bacterial species emerged. Meanwhile, the virulence of all the nematode isolates increased after passage through P. thunbergii. These inferred that some bacteria associated with B. xylophilus isolated from different pine species might be helpful to adjust the PWN's parasitic adaptability.

RevDate: 2019-07-10

Yang RM (2019)

Mechanisms of soil organic carbon storage response to Spartina alterniflora invasion and climate change.

The Science of the total environment, 690:7-15 pii:S0048-9697(19)33046-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Coastal wetlands have been identified as vital global carbon (C) sinks; however, soil C sequestration in these ecosystems is susceptible to impacts of non-native species invasion and climate change worldwide. Although their potential impacts on soil organic C (SOC) storage have been reported in previous literature, the well-established mechanisms that control SOC storage response, especially in relation to soil depths, is still limited. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a structural equation model (SEM) to identify mechanisms that account for SOC changes in topsoil (0-0.3 m) and subsoil (0.3-0.6 m) on coastal wetland of the East China Sea, where SOC in both depths increased with exotic Spartina alterniflora invasion. In the initial model, we hypothesized that there were a set of direct and indirect effects of the invasion, climate, and soil physicochemical properties on SOC storage. By evaluating the interactions of these factors, we found relatively complex patterns that vary with depth. For topsoil, the invasion had not only direct effects on SOC storage, but also indirect effects through mediating effects of soil water content (SWC) that was linked to fine soil fractions. For subsoil, the invasion was indirectly related to SOC storage through mediating effects of SOC in topsoil, SWC, and salinity. SOC in subsoil was also affected by temperature. Our results highlight that the response of SOC storage to the invasion and climate change results from the interacting effects of climate-plant-soil system.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Towers IR, JM Dwyer (2018)

Regional climate and local-scale biotic acceptance explain native-exotic richness relationships in Australian annual plant communities.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 285(1886):.

Native and exotic species richness is expected to be negatively related at small spatial scales where individuals interact, and positive at larger spatial scales as a greater variety of habitats are sampled. However, a range of native-exotic richness relationships (NERRs) have been reported, including positive at small scales and negative at larger scales. We present a hierarchical metacommunity framework to explain how contrasting NERRs may emerge across scales and study systems, and then apply this framework to NERRs in an invaded winter annual plant system in southwest Western Australia. We analysed NERRs at increasing spatial scales from neighbourhoods (0.09 m2) to communities (225 m2) to metacommunities (greater than 10 ha) within a multilevel structural equation model. In contrast to many previous studies, native and exotic richness were positively related at the neighbourhood scale and were not significantly associated at larger scales. Heterogeneity in soil surface properties was weakly, but positively, associated with native and exotic richness at the community scale. Metacommunity exotic richness increased strongly with regional temperature and moisture availability, but relationships for native richness were negative and much weaker. Thus, we show that neutral NERRs can emerge at larger scales owing to differential climatic filtering of native and exotic species pools.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Koch MA, Michling F, Walther A, et al (2017)

Early-Mid Pleistocene genetic differentiation and range expansions as exemplified by invasive Eurasian Bunias orientalis (Brassicaceae) indicates the Caucasus as key region.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16764.

Turkish Warty cabbage, Bunias orientalis L. (Brassicaceae) is a perennial herb known for its 250 years of invasion history into Europe and worldwide temperate regions. Putative centers of origin were debated to be located in Turkey, the Caucasus or Eastern Europe. Based on the genetic variation from the nuclear and plastid genomes, we identified two major gene pools in the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian region and close to the Northern Caucasus, respectively. These gene pools are old and started to diverge and expand approximately 930 kya in the Caucasus. Pleistocene glaciation and deglaciation cycles favoured later expansion of a European gene pool 230 kya, which was effectively separated from the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian gene pool. Although the European gene pool is genetically less diverse, it has largely served as source for colonization of Western and Northern Europe in modern times with rare observations of genetic contributions from the Caucasian-Irano-Turanian gene pool such as in North-East America. This study largely utilized herbarium material to take advantage of a biodiversity treasure trove providing biological material and also giving access to detailed collection information.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Osten-Sacken N, Heddergott M, Schleimer A, et al (2018)

Similar yet different: co-analysis of the genetic diversity and structure of an invasive nematode parasite and its invasive mammalian host.

International journal for parasitology, 48(3-4):233-243.

Animal parasitic nematodes can cause serious diseases and their emergence in new areas can be an issue of major concern for biodiversity conservation and human health. Their ability to adapt to new environments and hosts is likely to be affected by their degree of genetic diversity, with gene flow between distinct populations counteracting genetic drift and increasing effective population size. The raccoon roundworm (Baylisascaris procyonis), a gastrointestinal parasite of the raccoon (Procyon lotor), has increased its global geographic range after being translocated with its host. The raccoon has been introduced multiple times to Germany, but not all its populations are infected with the parasite. While fewer introduced individuals may have led to reduced diversity in the parasite, admixture between different founder populations may have counteracted genetic drift and bottlenecks. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the roundworm and its raccoon host at the intersection of distinct raccoon populations infected with B. procyonis. We found evidence for two parasite clusters resulting from independent introductions. Both clusters exhibited an extremely low genetic diversity, suggesting small founding populations subjected to inbreeding and genetic drift with no, or very limited, genetic influx from population admixture. Comparison of the population genetic structures of both host and parasite suggested that the parasite spread to an uninfected raccoon founder population. On the other hand, an almost perfect match between cluster boundaries also suggested that the population genetic structure of B. procyonis has remained stable since its introduction, mirroring that of its raccoon host.

RevDate: 2019-07-09
CmpDate: 2019-07-09

Diagne C, Galan M, Tamisier L, et al (2017)

Ecological and sanitary impacts of bacterial communities associated to biological invasions in African commensal rodent communities.

Scientific reports, 7(1):14995.

Changes in host-parasite ecological interactions during biological invasion events may affect both the outcome of invasions and the dynamics of exotic and/or endemic infections. We tested these hypotheses, by investigating ongoing house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) and black rat (Rattus rattus) invasions in Senegal (West Africa). We used a 16S gene rRNA amplicon sequencing approach to study potentially zoonotic bacterial communities in invasive and native rodents sampled along two well-defined independent invasion routes. We found that individual host factors (body mass and sex) were important drivers of these bacterial infections in rodents. We observed that the bacterial communities varied along invasion routes and differed between invasive and native rodents, with native rodents displaying higher overall bacterial diversity than invasive rodents. Differences in prevalence levels for some bacterial Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) provided support for ecological processes connecting parasitism and invasion success. Finally, our results indicated that rodent invasions may lead to the introduction of exotic bacterial genera and/or to changes in the prevalence of endemic ones. This study illustrates the difficulty of predicting the relationship between biodiversity and disease risks, and advocate for public health prevention strategies based on global pathogen surveillance followed by accurate characterization of potential zoonotic agents.

RevDate: 2019-07-08
CmpDate: 2019-07-08

Suehiro W, Hyodo F, Tanaka HO, et al (2017)

Radiocarbon analysis reveals expanded diet breadth associates with the invasion of a predatory ant.

Scientific reports, 7(1):15016.

Invasions are ecologically destructive and can threaten biodiversity. Trophic flexibility has been proposed as a mechanism facilitating invasion, with more flexible species better able to invade. The termite hunting needle ant Brachyponera chinensis was introduced from East Asia to the United States where it disrupts native ecosystems. We show that B. chinensis has expanded dietary breadth without shifting trophic position in its introduced range. Transect sampling of ants and termites revealed a negative correlation between the abundance of B. chinensis and the abundance of other ants in introduced populations, but this pattern was not as strong in the native range. Both termite and B. chinensis abundance were higher in the introduced range than in native range. Radiocarbon (14C) analysis revealed that B. chinensis has significantly younger 'diet age', the time lag between carbon fixation by photosynthesis and its use by the consumer, in the introduced range than in the native range, while stable isotope analyses showed no change. These results suggest that in the introduced range B. chinensis remains a termite predator but also feeds on other consumer invertebrates with younger diet ages such as herbivorous insects. Radiocarbon analysis allowed us to elucidate cryptic dietary change associated with invasion success.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Mihalca AD, Păstrav IR, Sándor AD, et al (2019)

First report of the dog louse fly Hippobosca longipennis in Romania.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Hippobosca longipennis (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), the dog fly or dog louse fly, is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite of wild and domestic carnivores in Africa and the Middle East. Outside its typically known geographic range, H. longipennis has been reported occasionally on mainly domestic dogs in Asia and southern Europe, and infrequently in other areas (central Europe and the U.S.A.). This paper presents the first report of H. longipennis in Romania and the second record of Lipoptena fortisetosa (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), a potentially invasive species. Hippobosca longipennis was found on domestic dogs in two regions of the country (northern Romania in Maramures and southwestern Romania in Dobrogea) and on two road-killed wildcats in Maramures. Lipoptena fortisetosa was found on domestic dogs in Maramures. In both species identification was based on morphology and confirmed by barcoding of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. It is not clear for how long H. longipennis has been present in central Europe, nor if it was introduced (via the movement of domestic dogs or import of exotic carnivores) or present historically (Holocene remnants). This paper discusses the possible origins of H. longipennis in central Europe as its current distribution in the area is sparse and patchy.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Russo L, Vaudo AD, Fisher CJ, et al (2019)

Bee community preference for an invasive thistle associated with higher pollen protein content.

Oecologia pii:10.1007/s00442-019-04462-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Non-native plant species reliant on insect pollination must attract novel pollinators in their introduced habitat to reproduce. Indeed, pollination services provided by resident floral visitors may contribute to the spread of non-native species, which may then affect the pollination services received by native plants. To determine the mechanisms by which an invasive thistle attracts pollinators in its introduced range, and whether its presence changes the pollinator visitation to native plant species, we compared bee visitation to native plants in the presence or absence of the invader. We experimentally tested the effect of a thistle invasion into a native plant community. We found that the non-native thistle was the most attractive of the plant species to visiting bee species. However, there was no effect of experimental treatment (presence of thistle) on bee abundance or visitation rate (bees per unit floral area per sample) to native plant species. Across 68 bee and 6 plant species, we found a significant correlation between pollen protein content and bee abundance and visitation rate. Thistle pollen also had a similar protein:lipid ratio to legumes, which correlated with bumble bee visitation. The high protein content of the thistle pollen, as compared to four native asters, may allow it to attract pollinators in novel ecosystems, and potentially contribute to its success as an invader. At the same time, this high protein pollen may act as a novel resource to pollinators in the thistle's invaded range.

RevDate: 2019-07-07

Leza M, Herrera C, Marques A, et al (2019)

The impact of the invasive species Vespa velutina on honeybees: A new approach based on oxidative stress.

The Science of the total environment, 689:709-715 pii:S0048-9697(19)33083-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Honeybees have an essential role in ecosystems pollinating wild flowers and cultivated crops, representing an important cultural and economic benefit for humans. Honeybee populations are decreasing over the last decade, due to multifactorial causes. The aim of this field study was to investigate the effects of the presence of the invasive species Vespa velutina, a bee predator, in oxidative stress parameters of honeybee workers. To achieve this objective, positive or negative apiaries for the presence of the V. velutina were selected. Five honeybees from six hives of each apiary were sampled in spring, summer and autumn, analysing a total of 233 samples. Analysis of mRNA expression of oxidative stress-related genes, catalase enzymatic activity and lipid peroxidation were performed. An increase in sod2, tpx3, trxR1, gtpx1, gstS1, coxI, cytC and if2mt genes expression, as well as a raise in catalase activity and lipid peroxidation were observed in V. velutina positive samples. Thus, here we present a new methodology to analyze the impact of the predation pressure of the invasive species V. velutina on honeybees under field conditions. In conclusion, the results obtained in this study indicate the negative impact of the presence of the yellow-legged hornet on honeybees' health and the activation of their antioxidant system to protect them against this biotic stressor. Moreover, the redox status they present could increase the susceptibility of honeybees, essential insects that currently receive many inputs of different stresses, to another stressor.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Cuthbert RN, Dalu T, Mutshekwa T, et al (2019)

Leaf inputs from invasive and native plants drive differential mosquito abundances.

The Science of the total environment, 689:652-654 pii:S0048-9697(19)33044-X [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological impacts of invasive alien species can be unpredictable and simultaneously span multiple habitat types and taxonomic groups. Invasive alien plants can have particularly severe impacts, and plant inputs into aquatic environments can profoundly alter community composition of invertebrates, such as mosquitoes. Here, we examine larval mosquito colonisation of aquatic containers treated with leaves from four different terrestrial plants: the invasive tickberry Lantana camara, invasive guava Psidium guajava, native sycamore fig Ficus sycomorus and native silver cluster-leaf Terminalia sericea. Larval mosquito abundances differed significantly accordingly to leaf treatment, whilst no mosquitoes colonised leaf-free controls. Leaf litter from the invasive L. camara, invasive P. guajava and native F. sycomorus drove significant increases in mosquito abundances relative to native T. sericea. We demonstrate the importance of plant identity for larval mosquito proliferations in aquatic habitats, with changes in plant community composition following terrestrial plant invasions potentially resulting in increased mosquito abundances. In turn, this may have implications for the vectoring of mosquito-borne disease.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Ballardini M, Ferretti S, Chiaranz G, et al (2019)

First report of the invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus (Diptera: Culicidae) and of its establishment in Liguria, northwest Italy.

Parasites & vectors, 12(1):334 pii:10.1186/s13071-019-3589-2.

BACKGROUND: Invasive mosquito species (IMS) of the genus Aedes are a cause of increasing concern in Europe owing to their ability to vector important human viral diseases. Entomological surveillance to early detect alien mosquito and flavivirus circulation in Liguria, northwest Italy, has been carried out since 2011.

RESULTS: The invasive species Aedes koreicus was first detected in Genoa in September 2015, when a male specimen was caught near the international airport; species identity was confirmed by genetic analysis. Over the next three years, 86 more adult specimens were trapped at sites throughout the city, accounting for 0.50% of all mosquitoes and 1.04% of Aedes sp. mosquitoes trapped in Genova in the four-year period 2015-2018. So far, no other monitored sites in Liguria have revealed the presence of this species. Ovitraps at two sites became positive for the species in July-August 2017. All female Ae. koreicus pools analysed were negative in biomolecular assays for Flavivirus.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of Ae. koreicus in Genoa constitute, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the species in northwest Italy and in a Mediterranean port city. The species appears to be established; trapping and climatic data support survival of Ae. koreicus in the area through three consecutive winters. Monitoring of adult mosquitoes detected the species two years before its discovery with ovitraps; trapping for adult specimens appears to be a more effective tool for the early detection of IMS. The airport (located near the commercial port area) and the flower market are the most probable sites of introduction; however, the exact time and place of arrival of this IMS in Liguria remain unknown. Based on morphological and genetic data, a common origin for most of the Ae. koreicus populations established in Europe is suspected. So far, no control measures have been adopted in Genoa and the species will probably colonize an even wider area in the next few years.

RevDate: 2019-07-06

Łukowski A, Janek W, Baraniak E, et al (2019)

Changing Host Plants Causes Structural Differences in the Parasitoid Complex of the Monophagous Moth Yponomeuta evonymella, but Does Not Improve Survival Rate.

Insects, 10(7): pii:insects10070197.

Recently in Poland, cases of host expansion have frequently been observed in the typically monophagous bird-cherry ermine moth (Yponomeuta evonymella), which has moved from its native host plant, bird cherry (Prunus padus), to a new, widely distributed plant that is invasive in Europe, black cherry (P.serotina). We attempted to verify the reasons behind this host change in the context of the enemy-free space hypothesis by focusing on parasitoids attacking larval Y. evonymella on one of three host plant variants: The primary host, P. padus; initially P. padus and later P. serotina (P. padus/P. serotina); or the new host, P. serotina. This experiment investigated if changing the host plant could be beneficial to Y. evonymella in terms of escaping from harmful parasitoids and improving survival rate. We identified nine species of parasitoids that attack larval Y. evonymella, and we found that the number of parasitoid species showed a downward trend from the primary host plant to the P. padus/P. serotina combination to the new host plant alone. We observed a significant difference among variants in relation to the percentage of cocoons killed by specific parasitoids, but no effects of non-specific parasitoids or other factors. Total mortality did not significantly differ (ca. 37%) among larval rearing variants. Changing the host plant caused differences in the structure of the parasitoid complex of Y. evonymella but did not improve its survival rate. This study does not indicate that the host expansion of Y. evonymella is associated with the enemy-free space hypothesis; we therefore discuss alternative scenarios that may be more likely.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Adebayo AA, Zhan A, Bailey SA, et al (2014)

Domestic ships as a potential pathway of nonindigenous species from the Saint Lawrence River to the Great Lakes.

Biological invasions, 16(4):793-801.

Ballast water moved by transoceanic vessels has been recognized globally as a predominant vector for the introduction of aquatic nonindigenous species (NIS). In contrast, domestic ships operating within confined geographic areas have been viewed as low risk for invasions, and are exempt from regulation in consequence. We examined if the St. Lawrence River could serve as a source of NIS for the Laurentian Great Lakes by surveying ballast water carried by domestic vessels and comparing biological composition in predominant St. Lawrence River-Great Lakes port-pairs in order to determine the likelihood that NIS could be transported to, and survive in, the Great Lakes. Thirteen potential invaders were sampled from ballast water, while 26 taxa sampled from St. Lawrence River ports are not reported from the Great Lakes. The majority of NIS recorded in samples are marine species with low potential for survival in the Great Lakes, however two euryhaline species (copepod Oithona similis, and amphipod Gammarus palustris) and two taxa reported from brackish waters (copepod Microsetella norvegica and decapod Cancer irroratus) may pose a risk for invasion. In addition, four marine NIS were collected in freshwater samples indicating that at least a subset of marine species have potential as new invaders to the Great Lakes. Based on results from this study, the ports of Montreal, Sorel, Tracy and Trois Rivières appear to pose the highest risk for new ballast-mediated NIS from the St. Lawrence River to the Great Lakes.

RevDate: 2019-07-05

Sun W, Zeng CR, Yue D, et al (2019)

Involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in hepatotoxicity induced by Ageratina adenophora in mice.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B, 20(8):693-698.

Ageratina adenophora is a noxious plant and it is known to cause acute asthma, diarrhea, depilation, and even death in livestock (Zhu et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2017). A. adenophora grows near roadsides and degraded land worldwide (He et al., 2015b). In the areas where it grows, A. adenophora is an invasive species that inhibits the growth of local plants and causes poisoning in animals that come in contact with it (Nie et al., 2012). In China, these plants can be found in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Chongqing, and other southwestern areas (He et al., 2015a) and they have become a dominant species in these local regions. It threatens the native biodiversity and ecosystem in the invaded areas and causes serious economic losses (Wang et al., 2017). It has been reported that A. adenophora can grow in the northeast direction at a speed of 20 km per year in China (Guo et al., 2009). Because of the damage caused by A. adenophora, it ranks among the earliest alien invasive plant species in China (Wang et al., 2017).

RevDate: 2019-07-04

Newete SW, Allem SM, Venter N, et al (2019)

Tamarix efficiency in salt excretion and physiological tolerance to salt-induced stress in South Africa.

International journal of phytoremediation [Epub ahead of print].

This study, investigated the salt excretion efficiency and the level of the physiological response to salt-induced stresses between the native and exotic Tamarix species as well as their hybrids (Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix ramosissima and Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix usneoides). Ten potted plants from each of the five taxa were exposed to salt at a concentration of 3% (w/w) (180 mM) for 3 weeks. Measurements of electro-conductivity (EC), physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence, and water pressure and plant growth were taken from salt-treated and control plants. The EC in the exotic T. chinensis significantly increased by >30% compared with all other Tamarix taxa, suggesting that it is the most effective taxon for phytoremediation. Although there was no significant difference in plant growth between T. chinensis and T. usneoides, they both showed a significantly greater plant growth than the other taxa. However, the plant physiological parameters indicated that T. usneoides was less stressed by the salt exposure than the T. chinensis and the others. Thus, considering the T. usneoides greater tolerance to salt-induced and/water stresses and the strict environmental regulations of planting exotic Tamarix, the native Tamarix remains the preferred plant of choice for phytoremediation in South Africa.

RevDate: 2019-07-03

Parker C, Bernaola L, Lee BW, et al (2019)

Entomology in the 21st Century: Tackling Insect Invasions, Promoting Advancements in Technology, and Using Effective Science Communication-2018 Student Debates.

Journal of insect science (Online), 19(4):.

The 2018 student debates of the Entomological Society of America were held at the Joint Annual Meeting for the Entomological Societies of America, Canada, and British Columbia in Vancouver, BC. Three unbiased introductory speakers and six debate teams discussed and debated topics under the theme 'Entomology in the 21st Century: Tackling Insect Invasions, Promoting Advancements in Technology, and Using Effective Science Communication'. This year's debate topics included: 1) What is the most harmful invasive insect species in the world? 2) How can scientists diffuse the stigma or scare factor surrounding issues that become controversial such as genetically modified organisms, agricultural biotechnological developments, or pesticide chemicals? 3) What new/emerging technologies have the potential to revolutionize entomology (other than Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)? Introductory speakers and debate teams spent approximately 9 mo preparing their statements and arguments and had the opportunity to share this at the Joint Annual Meeting with an engaged audience.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Trujillo-González A, Becker JA, KS Hutson (2018)

Parasite Dispersal From the Ornamental Goldfish Trade.

Advances in parasitology, 100:239-281.

Goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, are immensely popular ornamental cyprinid fish, traded in more than 100 countries. For more than 500 years, human translocation has facilitated the spread of goldfish globally, which has enabled numerous and repeated introductions of parasite taxa that infect them. The parasite fauna assemblage of goldfish is generally well documented, but few studies provide evidence of parasite coinvasion following the release of goldfish. This review provides a comprehensive synopsis of parasites that infect goldfish in farmed, aquarium-held, native, and invasive populations globally and summarises evidence for the cointroduction and coinvasion of goldfish parasites. More than 113 species infect goldfish in their native range, of which 26 species have probably coinvaded with the international trade of goldfish. Of these, Schyzocotyle acheilognathi (Cestoda: Bothriocephalidae), Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora: Ichthyophthiriidae), Argulus japonicus (Crustacea: Argulidae), Lernaea cyprinacea (Crustacea: Ergasilidae), Dactylogyrus anchoratus, Dactylogyrus vastator and Dactylogyrus formosus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) are common to invasive goldfish populations in more than four countries and are considered a high risk of continued spread. Coinvasive parasites include species with direct and complex life cycles, which have successfully colonised new environments through utilisation of either new native hosts or suitable invasive hosts. Specifically, I. multifiliis, A. japonicus and L. cyprinacea can cause harm to farmed freshwater fish species and are important parasites to consider for biosecurity. These species may threaten other aquatic animal industries given their low host specificity and adaptable life histories. Future attention to biosecurity, management and border detection methods could limit the continued spread of exotic parasites from the ornamental trade of goldfish.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Hyldgaard B, Lambertini C, H Brix (2017)

Phylogeography reveals a potential cryptic invasion in the Southern Hemisphere of Ceratophyllum demersum, New Zealand's worst invasive macrophyte.

Scientific reports, 7(1):16569.

Ceratophyllum demersum (common hornwort) is presently considered the worst invasive submerged aquatic macrophyte in New Zealand. We explored the global phylogeographic pattern of the species, based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA, in order to identify the origin of the invasive populations in New Zealand and to clarify if there were multiple introductions. The phylogeographic study identified geographically differentiated gene pools in North America, tropical Asia, Australia, and South Africa, likely native to these regions, and a recent dispersal event of a Eurasian-related haplotype to North America, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. At least two different invasive genotypes of this Eurasian-related haplotype have been found in New Zealand. One genotype is closely related to genotypes in Australia and South Africa, while we could not trace the closest relatives of the other genotype within our C. demersum sample set. Contrasting spectra of genetic distances in New Zealand and in a region within the native range (Denmark), suggest that the invasive population was founded by vegetative reproduction, seen as low genetic distances among genotypes. We also discovered the introduction of the same Eurasian-related haplotype in Australia and South Africa and that a cryptic invasion may be occurring in these continents.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Ju RT, Gao L, Wei SJ, et al (2017)

Spring warming increases the abundance of an invasive specialist insect: links to phenology and life history.

Scientific reports, 7(1):14805.

Under global warming, shifts in phenological synchrony between insects and host plants (i.e., changes in the relative timing of the interaction) may reduce resource availability to specialist insects. Some specialists, however, can flexibly track the shifts in host-plant phenology, allowing them to obtain sufficient resources and therefore to benefit from rising temperatures. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on the life history of an invasive, specialist lace bug (Corythucha ciliata) and on the leaf expansion of its host plant (Platanus × acerifolia) in two spring seasons under field conditions in Shanghai, China. We found that a 2 °C increase in mean air temperature advanced the timing of the expansion of host leaves and of the activities of overwintering adult insects in both years but did not disrupt their synchrony. Warming also directly increased the reproduction of overwintering adults and enhanced the development and survival of their offspring. These results indicate that C. ciliata can well track the earlier emergence of available resources in response to springtime warming. Such plasticity, combined with the direct effects of rising temperatures, may increase the insect's population size and outbreak potential in eastern China under climate warming.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Hansson SV, Sonke J, Galop D, et al (2017)

Transfer of marine mercury to mountain lakes.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12719.

Stocking is a worldwide activity on geographical and historical scales. The rate of non-native fish introductions have more than doubled over the last decades yet the effect on natural ecosystems, in the scope of biologically mediated transport and biomagnification of Hg and Hg-isotopes, is unknown. Using geochemistry (THg) and stable isotopes (N, Sr and Hg), we evaluate natal origin and trophic position of brown trout (Salmo trutta fario), as well as mercury biomagnification trends and potential pollution sources to three high-altitude lakes. Farmed trout show Hg-isotope signatures similar to marine biota whereas wild trout shows Hg-isotope signatures typical of fresh water lakes. Stocked trout initially show Hg-isotope signatures similar to marine biota. As the stocked trout age and shifts diet to a higher trophic level, THg concentrations increase and the marine Hg isotope signatures, induced via farm fish feed, shift to locally produced MeHg with lower δ202Hg and higher Δ199Hg. We conclude that stocking acts a humanly induced biovector that transfers marine Hg to freshwater ecosystems, which is seen in the Hg-isotopic signature up to five years after stocking events occurred. This points to the need of further investigations of the role of stocking in MeHg exposure to freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-07-03
CmpDate: 2019-07-03

Bentur Y, Altunin S, Levdov I, et al (2018)

The clinical effects of the venomous Lessepsian migrant fish Plotosus lineatus (Thunberg, 1787) in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 56(5):327-331.

CONTEXT: Plotosus lineatus is a venomous fish that has migrated from the Indo-Pacific region to the Mediterranean Sea (Lessepsian migrant). Its presence in the Mediterranean Sea was first recorded in 2002 and was observed in growing schools. Its spines contain toxins with lytic, hemolytic and edematous activities.

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the injuries caused by Plotosus lineatus in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

METHODS: A prospective observational case series of consultations provided by a national Poison Center pertaining to Plotosus lineatus from 2007 to 2016. Demographic and clinical data and method of fish identification were retrieved from the medical toxicological records, and described.

RESULTS: Eighty four cases were included; the main findings are: median age 35 (range 3-80) years, 91.7% males, 51.2% fishermen, 78.6% palm injuries, 94% and 4.8% were mildly and moderately injured, respectively. Main local manifestations included pain, puncture wound, swelling, and erythema (90.5%, 70.2%, 33.3%, and 16.7%, respectively). Systemic signs were minor and infrequent (≤7.1%), including hypertension, tachycardia, vomiting, chills, and weakness. Management included wound disinfection, immersion in hot water, tetanus prophylaxis, and analgesics. No patient required hospital admission. The fish was identified mostly by the victim with the aid of the Poison Center (mainly by typical description, and a picture), and some by marine biologists.

CONCLUSIONS: Plotosus lineatus is a new fish in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea. It affects fishermen handling fishing nets, and beach hikers stepping on or holding it. Injuries caused by its spines usually result in minor effects; pain may be intense. Treatment includes disinfection, analgesics, and antitetanus and antibiotics as needed. No lethal cases were recorded, unlike exposure of animals to the venom of the Indo-Pacific species; reason is unclear. Our series illustrates the consequences of manmade disruption of ecosystem resulting in invasion of toxic species to a new environment, affecting human health.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Beuzelin JM, VanWeelden MT, Soto-Adames FN, et al (2019)

Effect of Sugarcane Cultivar and Foliar Insecticide Treatment on Infestations of the Invasive Sugarcane Thrips, Fulmekiola serrata (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in Florida.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5527365 [Epub ahead of print].

Fulmekiola serrata (Kobus) was observed infesting sugarcane, Saccharum spp. hybrids, in the United States for the first time in January 2017 in Florida. Field studies were conducted to determine F. serrata infestation levels on popular sugarcane cultivars and to determine the efficacy of foliar insecticide treatments that could be used for management. Cultivar evaluations comparing six and five commercial cultivars representing >46% of the sugarcane production area in Florida were conducted in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Fulmekiola serrata infestation levels did not differ among cultivars in 2017. However, infestation levels on CP 00-1101 were greater than on CP 96-1252 grown on organic soils, and infestation levels on CP 96-1252 were greater than on CPCL 97-2730 grown on mineral soils in 2018. Three insecticide evaluations, two in 2017 and one in 2018, were conducted. The pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin, which is registered for use on sugarcane, was consistently associated with the greatest decreases in F. serrata infestation levels. The neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, as well as the butenolide flupyradifurone, decreased infestation levels but to a lesser extent than did lambda-cyhalothrin. The spinosyn spinetoram was associated with the lowest decreases in F. serrata infestation levels. Our results supported short-term F. serrata management recommendations: Popular Florida sugarcane cultivars should be considered equally susceptible to F. serrata until additional evaluations are conducted and F. serrata outbreaks can be treated with lambda-cyhalothrin when infestations stress the crop beyond acceptable levels.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Villazana J, A Alyokhin (2019)

Tolerance of Immature Black Soldier Flies (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) to Cold Temperatures Above and Below Freezing Point.

Journal of economic entomology pii:5527364 [Epub ahead of print].

Black soldier flies, Hermetia illucens (L.), consume decaying organic materials at the larval stage and can be used for recycling a variety of biogenic wastes into value-added products. Black soldier flies are normally found in subtropical and warm temperate regions. Cold temperatures may prevent their establishment in colder areas, thus alleviating a concern of their becoming an invasive species. Potentially, cold temperatures can also be used to manipulate the rate of black soldier fly development, which may be needed for timing certain life stages for mass-production needs. In the present study, immature black soldier flies were highly susceptible to freezing. Their survivorship decreased as time spent at -12°C increased from 10 to 60 min. Only ca. 2% of eggs, <1% of larvae, and no pupae survived after 60 min of exposure. Chilling at 4°C also had a significant negative effect that became more pronounced as duration of exposure increased from 24 to 72 h. Only ca. 2% of eggs and second instars and ca. 23% of pupae survived after 72 h. In the same time, >80% of third instars and >90% of fifth instars were still alive following 72 h of exposure. Chilling fifth instars resulted in smaller adults but freezing them for 48 h resulted in bigger adults. Based on these results, black soldier fly is unlikely to establish in areas with long periods of subfreezing winter temperatures. Low temperatures may be used to manipulate development of the late instars, but at a cost of higher mortality.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Rose JP, Wademan C, Weir S, et al (2019)

Traditional trapping methods outperform eDNA sampling for introduced semi-aquatic snakes.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219244 pii:PONE-D-18-34493.

Given limited resources for managing invasive species, traditional survey methods may not be feasible to implement at a regional scale. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has proven to be an effective method for detecting some invasive species, but comparisons between the detection probability of eDNA and traditional survey methods using modern occupancy modeling methods are rare. We developed a qPCR assay to detect two species of watersnake (Nerodia fasciata and Nerodia sipedon) introduced to California, USA, and we compared the efficacy of eDNA and aquatic trapping. We tested 3-9 water samples each from 30 sites near the known range of N. fasciata, and 61 sites near the known range of N. sipedon. We also deployed aquatic funnel traps at a subset of sites for each species. We detected N. fasciata eDNA in three of nine water samples from just one site, but captured N. fasciata in traps at three of ten sites. We detected N. sipedon eDNA in five of six water samples from one site, which was also the only site of nine at which this species was captured in traps. Traditional trapping surveys had a higher probability of detecting watersnakes than eDNA surveys, and both survey methods had higher detection probability for N. sipedon than N. fasciata. Occupancy models that integrated both trapping and eDNA surveys estimated that 5 sites (95% Credible Interval: 4-10) of 91 were occupied by watersnakes (both species combined), although snakes were only detected at four sites (three for N. fasciata, one for N. sipedon). Our study shows that despite the many successes of eDNA surveys, traditional sampling methods can have higher detection probability for some species. We recommend those tasked with managing species invasions explicitly compare eDNA and traditional survey methods in an occupancy framework to inform their choice of the best method for detecting nascent populations.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Salinitro M, Alessandrini A, Zappi A, et al (2019)

Impact of climate change and urban development on the flora of a southern European city: analysis of biodiversity change over a 120-year period.

Scientific reports, 9(1):9464 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-46005-1.

Ecological studies in cities are not only aimed at investigating floristic diversity, but also represent informative test cases for understanding ecological system dynamics and responses to urban and climate changes since cities represent microcosms of environmental changes happening globally. The city of Bologna was selected as a case study since two specific and complete studies have been carried out in a 120-years timespan, one in 1894 and one in 2018. Since 1894, a large increase occurred in the number of taxa (families from 41 to 101, species from 176 to 477) and alien species (from 22 to 144), with a 65% total species turnover. The comparison of species life forms pointed out a noticeable recent expansion of phanerophytes and geophytes at the expense of therophytes and hemicryptophytes. The correlation between urbanistic features and plant richness indicated that the main factor affecting plant richness is the presence of green spaces (parks, tree lines, flowerbeds, etc.). Analysis of variation in Ellenberg's indicator values over the last 120 years evidenced a shift toward shade-tolerant species, mainly connected to the increased presence of parks and trees within the city. Climate change and the presence of artificially irrigated areas within the city has led to an increase in both hygrophilous and drought-resistant species. In particular, the temperature index showed a significantly higher amount of macrothermal species in accordance with a warmer climate and the urban heat island effect.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Barral A (2019)

Invasive species like it hot.

Nature plants pii:10.1038/s41477-019-0483-z [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Beechler BR, Boersma KS, Buss PE, et al (2019)

Bovine tuberculosis disturbs parasite functional trait composition in African buffalo.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1903674116 [Epub ahead of print].

Novel parasites can have wide-ranging impacts, not only on host populations, but also on the resident parasite community. Historically, impacts of novel parasites have been assessed by examining pairwise interactions between parasite species. However, parasite communities are complex networks of interacting species. Here we used multivariate taxonomic and trait-based approaches to determine how parasite community composition changed when African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) acquired an emerging disease, bovine tuberculosis (BTB). Both taxonomic and functional parasite richness increased significantly in animals that acquired BTB than in those that did not. Thus, the presence of BTB seems to catalyze extraordinary shifts in community composition. There were no differences in overall parasite taxonomic composition between infected and uninfected individuals, however. The trait-based analysis revealed an increase in direct-transmitted, quickly replicating parasites following BTB infection. This study demonstrates that trait-based approaches provide insight into parasite community dynamics in the context of emerging infections.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

David M, Magaletti E, Kraus R, et al (2019)

Vulnerability to bioinvasions: Current status, risk assessment and management of ballast water through A regional approach - The Adriatic Sea.

The United Nations recognised the transfer of invasive species across natural barriers as one of the greatest pressures to the world's oceans and seas. The BWM Convention sets the global standards on ballast water management (BWM) requirements, while recognising that regional and local specifics have to be considered for its effective implementation. In the Adriatic Sea cross-border activities were conducted to provide for essential information/data and tools to support a regionally coordinated implementation of the BWM Convention. This special issue contains 18 publications that include results and recommendations from studying the ballast water and management issues through sampling of ballast water on vessels, risk assessment for exemptions and BWM, biological and chemical port baseline surveys and monitoring conducted in ports along the Adriatic Sea coast, oceanographic conditions, ballast water sediment issues and their management in ports, and the implementation options of the BWM Convention through the Adriatic States' environmental law and institutions cooperation. Essential data and tools to support a regional approach in the implementation of the BWM Convention were provided, and are therefore available to the administrations of the Adriatic countries to enable protection of the Adriatic Sea environment, human health property and resources from negative impacts of ballast water being discharged in the area. Data, approaches and tools provided here may be helpful in any other region to support an effective BWM Convention implementation.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Tabanca N, Masi M, Epsky ND, et al (2019)

Laboratory Evaluation of Natural and Synthetic Aromatic Compounds as Potential Attractants for Male Mediterranean fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(13): pii:molecules24132409.

Ceratitis capitata, the Mediterranean fruit fly, is one of the most serious agricultural pests worldwide responsible for significant reduction in fruit and vegetable yields. Eradication is expensive and often not feasible. Current control methods include the application of conventional insecticides, leading to pesticide resistance and unwanted environmental effects. The aim of this study was to identify potential new attractants for incorporation into more environmentally sound management programs for C. capitata. In initial binary choice bioassays against control, a series of naturally occurring plant and fungal aromatic compounds and their related analogs were screened, identifying phenyllactic acid (7), estragole (24), o-eugenol (21), and 2-allylphenol (23) as promising attractants for male C. capitata. Subsequent binary choice tests evaluated five semisynthetic derivatives prepared from 2-allylphenol, but none of these were as attractive as 2-allylphenol. In binary choice bioassays with the four most attractive compounds, males were more attracted to o-eugenol (21) than to estragole (24), 2-allylphenol (23), or phenyllactic acid (7). In addition, electroantennography (EAG) was used to quantify antennal olfactory responses to the individual compounds (1-29), and the strongest EAG responses were elicited by 1-allyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene (11), estragole (24), 4-allyltoluene (14), trans-anethole (9), o-eugenol (21), and 2-allylphenol (23). The compounds evaluated in the current investigation provide insight into chemical structure-function relationships and help direct future efforts in the development of improved attractants for the detection and control of invasive C. capitata.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Bian C, Li J, Lin X, et al (2019)

Whole Genome Sequencing of the Blue Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) Provides a Valuable Genetic Resource for Biomedical Research on Tilapias.

Marine drugs, 17(7): pii:md17070386.

Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) has been an economically important fish in Asian countries. It can grow and reproduce in both freshwater and brackish water conditions, whereas it is also considered as a significant invasive species around the world. This species has been widely used as the hybridization parent(s) for tilapia breeding with a major aim to produce novel strains. However, available genomic resources are still limited for this important tilapia species. Here, we for the first time sequenced and assembled a draft genome for a seawater cultured blue tilapia (0.92 Gb), with 97.8% completeness and a scaffold N50 of 1.1 Mb, which suggests a relatively high quality of this genome assembly. We also predicted 23,117 protein-coding genes in the blue tilapia genome. Comparisons of predicted antimicrobial peptides between the blue tilapia and its close relative Nile tilapia proved that these immunological genes are highly similar with a genome-wide scattering distribution. As a valuable genetic resource, our blue tilapia genome assembly will benefit for biomedical researches and practical molecular breeding for high resistance to various diseases, which have been a critical problem in the aquaculture of tilapias.

RevDate: 2019-07-02

Kopeć D, Zakrzewska A, Halladin-Dąbrowska A, et al (2019)

Using Airborne Hyperspectral Imaging Spectroscopy to Accurately Monitor Invasive and Expansive Herb Plants: Limitations and Requirements of the Method.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 19(13): pii:s19132871.

Remote sensing (RS) is currently regarded as one of the standard tools used for mapping invasive and expansive plants for scientific purposes and it is increasingly widely used in nature conservation management. The applicability of RS methods is determined by its limitations and requirements. One of the most important limitations is the species percentage cover at which the classification result is correct and useful for nature conservation. The primary objective, carried out in 2017 in three areas of Poland, was to determine the minimum percentage cover from which it is possible to identify a target species by RS methods. A secondary objective of this research, related to the requirements of the method, was to optimize the set of training polygons for a target species in terms of the number of polygons and abundance percentage cover of the target species. Our method has to be easy to use, effective, and applicable, therefore the analysis was carried out using the basic set of rasters-the first 30 channels after the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) transformation (the mosaic of hyperspectral data from HySpex sensors with spectral range 0.4-2.5 µm) and commonly used Random Forest algorithm. The analysis used airborne hyperspectral data with a spatial resolution of 1 m to perform classification of one invasive and three expansive plants-two grasses and two large perennials. On-ground training and validation data sets were collected simultaneously with airborne data collection. When testing different classification scenarios, only the set of training polygons for a target species was changed. Classification results were evaluated based on three methods: accuracy measures (Kappa and F1), true-positive pixels in subclasses with different species cover and compatibility with field mapping. The classification results indicate that to classify the target plant species at the accepted level, the training dataset should contain polygons with a species cover ranging from 80-100%. Training performed only using polygons with a species characterized by a variable, but lower, cover (20-70%) and missing samples in the 80-100% range, led to a map which was not acceptable because of a high overestimation of target species. We achieved effective identification of species in areas where the species cover is above 50%, considering that ecosystems are heterogeneous. The results of these studies developed a methodology of field data acquisition and the necessity of synchronization in the acquisition of airborne data, and training and validation of on-ground sampling.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Epstein G, DA Smale (2018)

Environmental and ecological factors influencing the spillover of the non-native kelp, Undaria pinnatifida, from marinas into natural rocky reef communities.

Biological invasions, 20(4):1049-1072.

The non-native kelp, Undaria pinnatifida, is considered one of the world's worst invasive species. The northeast Atlantic is a hotspot of Undaria invasion, yet there is limited knowledge on its invasion dynamics. In the UK its distribution is strongly associated with artificial structures, primarily marina and harbour pontoons, with relatively few records of Undaria on natural substrates. Here, the southwest UK is used as a case region, to explicitly link Undaria distribution-abundance patterns in artificial marina habitats with those in natural rocky reef habitats. Using a mixture of in situ recording and video survey techniques, Undaria was found at all thirteen marina sites surveyed; but in only 17 of 35 rocky reef sites, all of which were in 2 of the 5 larger systems surveyed (Plymouth Sound and Torbay). The distribution-abundance patterns of Undaria at reef sites were analysed using zero-inflated models. The probability of finding Undaria on rocky reef increased with increasing proximity to marinas with high abundances of Undaria. Total propagule pressure from marinas also increased the probability of occurrence, and was positively related to Undaria abundance and cover at reef sites. Increases in the cover of native kelps, Laminaria spp., and wave exposure at reef sites were linked to a reduced probability of Undaria occurrence, and lower abundance and cover. Identifying high risk areas, natural boundaries and factors affecting the spread and abundance of non-native species in natural habitats is key to future management prioritisation. Where Undaria is confined to artificial substrates management may be deemed a low priority. However, the results of this study suggest that controlling the abundance and propagule pressure in artificial habitats may limit, to some extent, the spillover of Undaria into natural rocky reef habitats, where it has the potential to interact with and influence native communities.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Shogren CJ, TD Paine (2019)

Identification of the Klambothrips myopori (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) Predator Complex in California.

Environmental entomology pii:5526718 [Epub ahead of print].

To identify the predator complex of the invasive thrips, Klambothrips myopori, on its ornamental host plant Myoporum laetum, field surveys were conducted at three sites in southern California over the period of 1 y. Five insect orders and five spider families were represented in the survey. Although the most abundant groups differed among collection sites, syrphid larvae, anthocorids, Chrysoperla spp., Franklinothrips orizabensis Johansen (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae), and one spider family (Salticidae) were all collected at each site. Based on the field surveys, Orius spp. and Chrysoperla spp. were identified as possible key natural enemies of K. myopori. Laboratory studies were then conducted to determine the consumption rates of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Chrysoperla rufilabris Burmeister (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) at constant densities of K. myopori and to define the functional responses of the predators. Both predators consumed more second-instar larvae than other prey stages. Orius insidious displayed a type II functional response, while C. rufilabris displayed both type II and type III depending on prey stage. Generally speaking, O. insidiosus and C. rufilabris consumed a higher proportion of prey at lower pest densities, implying that in an augmentative control program using these commercially available natural enemies, predators could be released early in the year when host plants begin to flush and thrips populations are low to suppress population growth.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Vega A, L Castro (2019)

Impact of climate change on insect-human interactions.

Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To update the influence of the global climate change on Hymenoptera venom allergy.

RECENT FINDINGS: Climate change facilitates biological invasions of hymenopteran species and plays a role in the impact of introduced species relevant for human health. It contributes to a rise in the incidence of sting injuries and allergy reactions across the world.

SUMMARY: Global climate change has contributed to the expansion and the redistribution of allergenic insect species, increasing the number of allergy cases caused by stinging insects worldwide. Imported insects are trending species in systemic reactions for multiple stings or hymenopteran venom allergy. They represent a threat for humans and a challenge for the allergists.

RevDate: 2019-07-01

Yang Q, Umina PA, Rašić G, et al (2019)

Origin of resistance to pyrethroids in the redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor) in Australia: repeated local evolution and migration.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Halotydeus destructor is a major pest of crops and pastures across southern parts of Australia. This invasive mite has been chemically controlled for over 50 years, but resistance to synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphates is developing. Understanding processes behind the emerging resistance is important for effective management efforts. We undertook a ddRAD pool-sequencing approach to analyse genome-wide SNP variation in H. destructor population samples at two scales: local resistance across a set of fields, and regional resistance across their Australian range, along with toxicology bioassays to screen for pyrethroid resistance.

RESULTS: Spatial patterns of genomic variation and resistance at a local scale indicated genetic similarity among samples were more closely correlated with distance along roads and fence-lines than with straight-line geographic distance. This pattern was particularly strong in resistant samples, which were also more related than the susceptible samples, suggesting local spread of resistance within an area after it emerged. In contrast, regional data suggests resistance has repeatedly emerged within parts of Australia. Our de novo annotation of the H. destructor draft genome sequence and Bayesian analysis identified several candidate loci strongly associated with population-level resistance to pyrethroids, located in genomic regions that code for transmembrane transport and signalling proteins which have been previously linked to insecticide resistance in other arthropods.

CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight multiple independent evolutionary events leading to resistance in H. destructor, and demonstrate the utility and cost-effectiveness of a cross-population, genome-wide association study to reveal processes underlying adaptive evolution in a non-model invasive species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-30

Rumbold DG, IA Bartoszek (2019)

Mercury Concentrations in Invasive Burmese Pythons (Python bivitattus) of Southwest Florida.

Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology pii:10.1007/s00128-019-02670-6 [Epub ahead of print].

We determined mercury (Hg) concentrations in various tissues of Burmese pythons (Python bivitattus; n = 227) caught in southwest Florida from 2012-2018 as part of a program to control this invasive species. Mercury ranged as high as 4.86 mg/kg in liver tissue from a snake that was 4.7 m long but overall averaged 0.12 ± 0.19 mg/kg in tail tips (n = 123). These levels were relatively low as compared to concentrations reported in pythons from Everglades National Park, a recognized Hg hotspot. These results show that snakes, particularly watersnakes, present another opportunity to biomonitor Hg at the aquatic-terrestrial interface. Although capturing snakes presents obvious challenges, which differ from sampling other taxa typically used in monitoring programs, taking advantage of this program to control an invasive species was cost effective and alleviated concerns about sampling and possibly reducing native snake populations.

RevDate: 2019-06-28

Mankad A, Kennedy U, L Carter (2019)

Biological control of pests and a social model of animal welfare.

Journal of environmental management, 247:313-322 pii:S0301-4797(19)30881-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper considers the sociocultural implications of biological pest control that sit at the cusp of managing an invasive species for conservation or productivity (i.e. a 'natural enemy') and socially driven 'manipulating life' arguments. We consider the role of perceived humaneness or, more accurately, animal welfare as it relates to managing invasive species from a scientific and social perspective. In order to highlight and articulate particular nuances and standards across different pest control contexts, we use three case examples (feral cats, wild rabbits, and invasive cane toads) and explore where biological pest control and animal welfare interests intersect. The paper summarises key scientific welfare concerns and then extends the literature to also examine key social characteristics of each pest management scenario, including lay perceptions of animal welfare, the sociocultural context that pests exist within, and overarching psychological factors contributing to public sentiment, including perceived risks. The subsequent descriptive model presented is useful in articulating core sociocultural beliefs relative to each case and how these antecedent associations and attitudes about an animal influence subsequent beliefs about a pest management strategy and ultimately acceptance of the management approach. The model can inform invasive species management policies and highlight key sociocultural factors likely to influence public responses. The model also informs interdisciplinary science designed to develop acceptable and socially responsible biocontrol strategies that consider public perceptions of animal welfare and cultural appropriateness.

RevDate: 2019-06-28

Wu H, J Ding (2019)

Global Change Sharpens the Double-Edged Sword Effect of Aquatic Alien Plants in China and Beyond.

Frontiers in plant science, 10:787.

Many alien aquatic plants are deliberately introduced because they have economic, ornamental, or environmental values; however, they may also negatively affect aquatic ecosystems, by blocking rivers, restricting aquatic animals and plants by decreasing dissolved oxygen, and reducing native biodiversity. These positive and/or negative ecological effects may be enhanced under global change. Here, we examine the impacts of global change on aquatic alien plant introduction and/or invasions by reviewing their introduction pathways, distributions, and ecological effects. We focus on how climate change, aquatic environmental pollution, and China's rapid economic growth in recent decades affect their uses and invasiveness in China. Among 55 species of alien aquatic plants in China, 10 species are invasive, such as Eichhornia crassipes, Alternanthera philoxeroides, and Pistia stratiotes. Most of these invaders were intentionally introduced and dispersed across the country but are now widely distributed and invasive. Under climate warming, many species have expanded their distributions to areas where it was originally too cold for their survival. Thus, these species are (and will be) considered to be beneficial plants in aquaculture and for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems (for water purification) across larger areas. However, for potential invasive species, climate warming is (and will be) increasing their invasion risk in more areas. In addition, nitrogen deposition and phosphorus inputs may also alter the status of some alien species. Furthermore, climate warming has shifted the interactions between alien aquatic plants and herbivores, thus impacting their future spreads. Under climate change, more precipitation in North China and more frequent flooding in South China will increase the uncertainties of ecological effects of alien aquatic plants in these regions. We also predict that, under the continuing booming economy in China, more and more alien aquatic plants will be used for aquatic landscaping and water purification. In conclusion, our study indicates that both human activities under rapid economic growth and climate change can either increase the potential uses of alien aquatic plants or make the aquatic invaders worse in China and other areas in the world. These findings are critical for future risk assessment of aquatic plant introduction and aquatic ecosystem restoration.

RevDate: 2019-06-27
CmpDate: 2019-06-27

Lane SE, Hollings T, Hayes KR, et al (2018)

Risk factors for fouling biomass: evidence from small vessels in Australia.

Biofouling, 34(9):1032-1045.

Invasive non-indigenous species (NIS) are a threat to marine biodiversity and marine reliant industries. Recreational vessels are recognised as an important vector of NIS translocation, particularly domestically. This paper reports on a novel application of multilevel modelling and multiple imputation in order to quantify the relationship between biofouling biomass (wet weight) and the vessel-level characteristics of recreational and fishing vessels. It was found that the number of days since the vessel was last cleaned strongly related to the biofouling biomass, yet differed dependent on vessel type. Similarly, the median number of trips undertaken was related to the biofouling biomass, and varied according to the type of antifouling paint (AF) used. No relationship was found between vessel size and biofouling biomass per sample unit. To reduce the spread of NIS, vessel owners should use an AF paint suitable to their vessel's operational profile, and follow a maintenance schedule according to the paint manufacturer's specifications.

RevDate: 2019-06-27

Chester M (2019)

The makings of higher-order polyploids. A commentary on 'The story of promiscuous crucifers: origin and genome evolution of an invasive species, Cardamine occulta (Brassicaceae), and its relatives'.

Annals of botany pii:5521947 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-06-27

Yang ML, Rice E, Leimbach-Maus H, et al (2019)

Identification and characterization of Gypsophila paniculata color morphs in Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, MI, USA.

PeerJ, 7:e7100 pii:7100.

Background: Gypsophila paniculata (baby's breath) is an invasive species found throughout much of the northwest United States and western Canada. Recently, plants exhibiting a different color morphology were identified within the coastal dunes along eastern Lake Michigan. The common baby's breath (G. paniculata) typically produces stems that are purple in color (purple morph), while the atypical morph has stems that are green-yellow (green-yellow morph). The purpose of this study was to characterize these newly identified morphs and determine if they are genetically distinct species from the common baby's breath in order to assess whether alternative management strategies should be employed to control these populations.

Methods: We sequenced two chloroplast regions, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase gene (rbcL), and maturase K (matK), and one nuclear region, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), from the purple morphs and green-yellow morphs collected from Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, MI, USA (SBDNL). Sequences were aligned to reference sequences from other Gypsophila species obtained from the Barcode of Life Database and GenBank databases. We also collected seeds from wild purple morph and wild green-yellow morph plants in SBDNL. We grew the seeds in a common garden setting and characterized the proportion of green-yellow individuals produced from the two color morphs after 5-months of growth.

Results: Phylogenetic analyses based upon rbcL, matK, and ITS2 regions suggest that the two color morphs are not distinct species and they both belong to G. paniculata. Seeds collected from wild green-yellow morphs produced a significantly higher proportion of green-yellow individuals compared to the number produced by seeds collected from wild purple morphs. However, seeds collected from both color morphs produced more purple morphs than green-yellow morphs.

Discussion: Based upon these results, we propose that the two color morphs are variants of G. paniculata. Given the significant difference in the number of green-yellow morphs produced from the seeds of each morph type, we also suggest that this color difference has some genetic basis. We propose that current management continue to treat the two color morphs in a similar manner in terms of removal to prevent the further spread of this species.

RevDate: 2019-06-26

Plantamp C, Henri H, Andrieux T, et al (2019)

Phenotypic plasticity in the invasive pest Drosophila suzukii: activity rhythms and gene expression in response to temperature.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:jeb.199398 [Epub ahead of print].

Phenotypic plasticity may contribute to the invasive success of an alien species in a new environment. A higher plastic species may survive and reproduce in more diverse environments, thereby supporting establishment and colonization. We focused on plasticity in the circadian rhythm of activity, which can favour species coexistence in invasion, for the invasive species Drosophila suzukii, which is expected to be a weaker direct competitor than other Drosophila species of the resident community. We compared between the invasive D. suzukii and the resident D. melanogaster the circadian rhythms of the locomotor activity in adults and the expression of clock genes in response to temperature. We showed that D. suzukii is active in a narrower range of temperatures than D. melanogaster and that the activities of both species overlap during the day, regardless of the temperature. Both species are diurnal and exhibit rhythmic activity at dawn and dusk, with a much lower activity at dawn for D. suzukii females. Our results showed that the timeless and clock genes are good candidates to explain the plastic response that is observed in relation to temperature. Overall, our results suggest that thermal phenotypic plasticity in D. suzukii activity is not sufficient to explain the invasive success of D. suzukii and calls for testing other hypotheses, such as the release of competitors and/or predators.

RevDate: 2019-06-26

Garcia RA, S Clusella-Trullas (2019)

Thermal landscape change as a driver of ectotherm responses to plant invasions.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 286(1905):20191020.

A growing body of research demonstrates the impacts of invasive alien plants on native animals, but few studies consider thermal effects as a driver of the responses of native organisms. As invasive alien plants establish and alter the composition and arrangement of plant communities, the thermal landscapes available to ectotherms also change. Our study reviews the research undertaken to date on the thermal effects of alien plant invasions on native reptiles, amphibians, insects and arachnids. The 37 studies published between 1970 and early 2019 portray an overall detrimental effect of invasive plants on thermal landscapes, ectothermic individuals' performance and species abundance, diversity and composition. With a case study of a lizard species, we illustrate the use of thermal ecology tools in plant invasion research and test the generality of alien plant effects: changes in thermoregulation behaviour in invaded landscapes varied depending on the level of invasion and lizard traits. Together, the literature review and case study show that thermal effects of alien plants on ectotherms can be substantial albeit context-dependent. Further research should cover multiple combinations of native/invasive plant growth forms, invasion stages and ectotherm traits. More attention is also needed to test causality along the chain of effects from thermal landscapes to individuals, populations and communities.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Li XJ, Wu MF, Ma J, et al (2019)

Prediction of migratory routes of the invasive fall armyworm in eastern China using a trajectory analytical approach.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The fall armyworm (FAW), an invasive pest from the Americas, is rapidly spreading through the Old World, and has recently invaded the Indochinese Peninsula and southern China. In the Americas, FAW migrates from winter-breeding areas in the south into summer-breeding areas throughout North America where it is a major pest of corn. Asian populations are also likely to evolve migrations into the corn-producing regions of eastern China, where they will pose a serious threat to food security.

RESULTS: To evaluate the invasion risk in eastern China, the rate of expansion and future migratory range was modelled by a trajectory simulation approach, combined with flight behaviour and meteorological data. Our results predict that FAW will migrate from its new year-round breeding regions into the two main corn-producing regions of eastern China (Huang-Huai-Hai Summer Corn and Northeast Spring Corn Regions), via two pathways. The western pathway originates in Myanmar and Yunnan, and FAW will take four migration steps (i.e. four generations) to reach the Huang-Huai-Hai Region by July. Migration along the eastern pathway from Indochina and southern China progresses faster, with FAW reaching the Huang-Huai-Hai Region in three steps by June and reaching the Northeast Spring Region in July.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that there is a high risk that FAW will invade the major corn-producing areas of eastern China via two migration pathways, and cause significant impacts to agricultural productivity. Information on migration pathways and timings can be used to inform integrated pest management strategies for this emerging pest. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Bebber DP, Field E, Gui H, et al (2019)

Many unreported crop pests and pathogens are probably already present.

Global change biology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity, food security and ecosystem function. Such incursions present challenges to agriculture where invasive species cause significant crop damage and require major economic investment to control production losses. Pest risk analysis (PRA) is key to prioritize agricultural biosecurity efforts, but is hampered by incomplete knowledge of current crop pest and pathogen distributions. Here, we develop predictive models of current pest distributions and test these models using new observations at subnational resolution. We apply generalized linear models (GLM) to estimate presence probabilities for 1,739 crop pests in the CABI pest distribution database. We test model predictions for 100 unobserved pest occurrences in the People's Republic of China (PRC), against observations of these pests abstracted from the Chinese literature. This resource has hitherto been omitted from databases on global pest distributions. Finally, we predict occurrences of all unobserved pests globally. Presence probability increases with host presence, presence in neighbouring regions, per capita GDP and global prevalence. Presence probability decreases with mean distance from coast and known host number per pest. The models are good predictors of pest presence in provinces of the PRC, with area under the ROC curve (AUC) values of 0.75-0.76. Large numbers of currently unobserved, but probably present pests (defined here as unreported pests with a predicted presence probability >0.75), are predicted in China, India, southern Brazil and some countries of the former USSR. We show that GLMs can predict presences of pseudoabsent pests at subnational resolution. The Chinese literature has been largely inaccessible to Western academia but contains important information that can support PRA. Prior studies have often assumed that unreported pests in a global distribution database represent a true absence. Our analysis provides a method for quantifying pseudoabsences to enable improved PRA and species distribution modelling.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Selechnik D, Richardson MF, Shine R, et al (2019)

Immune and environment-driven gene expression during invasion: An eco-immunological application of RNA-Seq.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6708-6721 pii:ECE35249.

Host-pathogen associations change rapidly during a biological invasion and are predicted to impose strong selection on immune function. It has been proposed that the invader may experience an abrupt reduction in pathogen-mediated selection ("enemy release"), thereby favoring decreased investment into "costly" immune responses. Across plants and animals, there is mixed support for this prediction. Pathogens are not the only form of selection imposed on invaders; differences in abiotic environmental conditions between native and introduced ranges are also expected to drive rapid evolution. Here, we use RNA-Seq to assess the expression patterns of immune and environmentally associated genes in the cane toad (Rhinella marina) across its invasive Australian range. Transcripts encoding mediators of costly immune responses (inflammation, cytotoxicity) showed a curvilinear relationship with invasion history, with highest expression in toads from oldest and newest colonized areas. This pattern is surprising given theoretical expectations of density dynamics in invasive species and may be because density influences both intraspecific competition and parasite transmission, generating conflicting effects on the strength of immune responses. Alternatively, this expression pattern may be the result of other evolutionary forces, such as spatial sorting and genetic drift, working simultaneously with natural selection. Our findings do not support predictions about immune function based on the enemy release hypothesis and suggest instead that the effects of enemy release are difficult to isolate in wild populations, especially in the absence of information regarding parasite and pathogen infection. Additionally, expression patterns of genes underlying putatively environmentally associated traits are consistent with previous genetic studies, providing further support that Australian cane toads have adapted to novel abiotic challenges.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Gonthier J, Papach A, Straub L, et al (2019)

Bees and flowers: How to feed an invasive beetle species.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6422-6432 pii:ECE35217.

Invasive species may exploit a wide range of food sources, thereby fostering their success and hampering mitigation, but the actual degree of opportunism is often unknown. The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida, is a parasite of honeybee colonies endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. SHBs have now spread on all habitable continents and can also infest colonies of other social bees. To date, the possible role of solitary bee nests as alternative hosts is unknown. Similarly, flowers as possible alternative food sources are not well understood. Here, we show that SHBs can complete an entire life cycle in association with nests of solitary bees Megachile rotundata. The data also show that flowers can serve as alternative food sources. These results support the opportunistic nature of this invasive species, thereby generating further obstacles for mitigation efforts in the field. It also suggests that SHB invasions may result in more serious consequences for endemic bee fauna than previously thought. This provides further motivation to slow down the global spread of this pest, and to improve its management in areas, where it is established.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Lishawa SC, Lawrence BA, Albert DA, et al (2019)

Invasive species removal increases species and phylogenetic diversity of wetland plant communities.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6231-6244 pii:ECE35188.

Plant invasions result in biodiversity losses and altered ecological functions, though quantifying loss of multiple ecosystem functions presents a research challenge. Plant phylogenetic diversity correlates with a range of ecosystem functions and can be used as a proxy for ecosystem multifunctionality. Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands are ideal systems for testing invasive species management effects because they support diverse biological communities, provide numerous ecosystem services, and are increasingly dominated by invasive macrophytes. Invasive cattails are among the most widespread and abundant of these taxa. We conducted a three-year study in two Great Lakes wetlands, testing the effects of a gradient of cattail removal intensities (mowing, harvest, complete biomass removal) within two vegetation zones (emergent marsh and wet meadow) on plant taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity. To evaluate native plant recovery potential, we paired this with a seed bank emergence study that quantified diversity metrics in each zone under experimentally manipulated hydroperiods. Pretreatment, we found that wetland zones had distinct plant community composition. Wet meadow seed banks had greater taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity than emergent marsh seed banks, and high-water treatments tended to inhibit diversity by reducing germination. Aboveground harvesting of cattails and their litter increased phylogenetic diversity and species richness in both zones, more than doubling richness compared to unmanipulated controls. In the wet meadow, harvesting shifted the community toward an early successional state, favoring seed bank germination from early seral species, whereas emergent marsh complete removal treatments shifted the community toward an aquatic condition, favoring floating-leaved plants. Removing cattails and their litter increased taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity across water levels, a key environmental gradient, thereby potentially increasing the multifunctionality of these ecosystems. Killing invasive wetland macrophytes but leaving their biomass in situ does not address their underlying mechanism of dominance and is less effective than more intensive treatments that also remove their litter.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Sodhi DS, Livingstone SW, Carboni M, et al (2019)

Plant invasion alters trait composition and diversity across habitats.

Ecology and evolution, 9(11):6199-6210 pii:ECE35130.

Increased globalization has accelerated the movement of species around the world. Many of these nonnative species have the potential to profoundly alter ecosystems. The mechanisms underpinning this impact are often poorly understood, and traits are often overlooked when trying to understand and predict the impacts of species invasions on communities. We conducted an observational field experiment in Canada's first National Urban Park, where we collected trait data for seven different functional traits (height, stem width, specific leaf area, leaf percent nitrogen, and leaf percent carbon) across an abundance gradient of the invasive Vincetoxicum rossicum in open meadow and understory habitats. We assessed invasion impacts on communities, and associated mechanisms, by examining three complementary functional trait measures: community-weighted mean, range of trait values, and species' distances to the invader in trait space. We found that V. rossicum invasion significantly altered the functional structure of herbaceous plant communities. In both habitats V. rossicum changed the community-weighted means, causing invaded communities to become increasingly similar in their functional structure. In addition, V. rossicum also reduced the trait ranges for a majority of traits indicating that species are being deterministically excluded in invaded communities. Further, we observed different trends in the meadow and understory habitats: In the understory, resident species that were more similar to V. rossicum in multivariate trait space were excluded more, however this was not the case in the meadow habitat. This suggests that V. rossicum alters communities uniquely in each habitat, in part by creating a filter in which only certain resident species are able to persist. This filtering process causes a nonrandom reduction in species' abundances, which in turn would be expected to alter how the invaded ecosystems function. Using trait-based frameworks leads to better understanding and prediction of invasion impacts. This novel framework can also be used in restoration practices to understand how invasion impacts communities and to reassemble communities after invasive species management.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Louppe V, Leroy B, Herrel A, et al (2019)

Current and future climatic regions favourable for a globally introduced wild carnivore, the raccoon Procyon lotor.

Scientific reports, 9(1):9174 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-45713-y.

Invasive species are considered as one of the major threats to biodiversity and represent a major challenge in the conservation of natural ecosystems, in preventing damage to agricultural production, and human health risks. Environmental Niche Modelling has emerged as a powerful tool to predict the patterns of range expansion of non-native species and to direct effective strategies for managing biological invasions. The raccoon, Procyon lotor, is a wild mesocarnivore presenting a high adaptability and showing successful introduced populations worldwide. Here, we modelled the current and future climatically favourable areas for the raccoon using two protocols, based on data sets filtrated in geographic and environmental spaces. Projections from these models show extensive current favourable geographical areas covering extensive regions of temperate biomes. Moreover, predictions for 2050 reveals extensive new favourable areas north of the current favourable regions. However, the results of the two modeling approaches differ in the extent of predicted favourable spaces. Protocols using geographically filtered data present more conservative forecasts, while protocol using environmental filtration presents forecasts across greater areas. Given the biological characteristics and the ecological requirements of a generalist carnivore such as the raccoon, the latter forecasts appears more relevant and should be privileged in the development of conservation plans for ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-25

Bonacic C, Almuna R, JT Ibarra (2019)

Biodiversity Conservation Requires Management of Feral Domestic Animals.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(19)30154-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The proliferation of feral domestic animals (FDAs) has been favored by human-induced landscape changes, a world population becoming increasingly urban, and by inappropriate management of domestic animals. Here, we describe the impact of FDAs and the opposing views in societies that affect the decision-making process and management actions. We provide general recommendations for the participatory management of this emerging threat to biodiversity and rural ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Olivares-Ferretti P, Hernandez K, Peredo-Parada M, et al (2019)

Polyphenols obtained from Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmith altered the viability and proliferation of salmonids cells lines SHK-1 and CHSE-214.

Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 211:141-147.

Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) Schmidt, also referred to as Didymo, is an invasive diatom that forms nuisance mats. Since it was first reported in our country in approximately 2010, Didymo has expanded and colonized different rivers in the Zona Austral region of Chile. Its biology and effects on ecosystems are still being studied because Didymo is an invasive algal mat that forms in a range of systems from oligotrophic austral rivers to more subtropical systems. We aimed to evaluate the viability of two salmonid cell lines, CHSE-214 and SHK-1 (somatic and embryonic cell lines, respectively), in dilutions of river water alone and in river water contaminated with Didymo or polyphenols extracted from Didymo under controlled conditions. We developed an artificial river system (2 aquariums/replicate) from five different rivers from the central area (Bio-Bio) and Patagonia area (Futaleufú) of Chile to maintain Didymo in the benthic phase. The Didymo populations were maintained for six months in the water from the rivers, after which samples were obtained. Following the extraction of polyphenols from the Didymo samples maintained in the artificial rivers, toxicity assays (10 assays) were performed to determine cell viability. Our results indicated that the CHSE-214 cells were highly sensitive to increasing concentrations of Didymo extracts. We observed a 50% reduction in cell viability after 24 h of exposure to a 0.01 V/V dilution, and this treatment further reduced the proliferative capacity by 70% after 120 h. The SHK-1 cells were less responsive, showing only a 20% decrease in viability at 24 h and a lower cell proliferation rate (45%) after 120 h, which remained higher than that of the CHSE-214 cells. We conclude that certain cell types are sensitive to Didymo in rivers, suggesting that there are chronic effects on several aquatic species following exposure to these diatom substances. These effects should be further studied using this laboratory model to understand the full impact of Didymo on river ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Gutiérrez Y, Bacca T, Zambrano LS, et al (2019)

Trade-off and adaptive cost in a multiple-resistant strain of the invasive potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora.

Pest management science, 75(6):1655-1662.

BACKGROUND: Resistance to pesticides is an evolutionary process that entails, in most cases, substantial consequences to the biology of the resistant populations. In this study we focus on the life history traits of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora, an invasive and voracious pest for which resistance to pyrethroid insecticides was recently reported. Marginally resistant and multiple-resistant populations were selected from eight sampled localities in Colombia; the use of a fully susceptible population was not possible since none was recognized in the laboratory or field. The multiple-resistant Siachoque population exhibited a 42-fold resistance to the carbamate insecticide carbofuran, and low levels of resistance to chlorpyrifos, a trend observed in six of the eight tested populations. This population also exhibits 24-fold resistance to permethrin. The marginally resistant population of Gualmatán showed 4-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos.

RESULTS: The multiple-resistant population exhibited a 3.8-day shorter developmental time than the susceptible population, but with higher larval mortality. The peak of egg-laying was delayed in the resistant population in 9 days and the population growth rate was lower than that of the susceptible population.

CONCLUSION: We hypothesize that the short developmental time of the multiple-resistant population may be an adaptation to minimize exposure to insecticides, which are applied to the soil. This adaptation is likely to require the surviving adults to compensate for the smaller nutrient amounts accumulated by the larvae in investing part of its adult life in securing the necessary resources for late-life egg production. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Tang J, Li J, Lu H, et al (2019)

Potential distribution of an invasive pest, Euplatypus parallelus, in China as predicted by Maxent.

Pest management science, 75(6):1630-1637.

BACKGROUND: Euplatypus parallelus is a highly polyphagous invasive pest native to Central and South America. In recent years it has invaded many countries in Africa and Asia and resulted in considerable economic loss. In China it has been reported to have invaded Taiwan, and been also recorded in Hainan Province. Until now there has been no invasion into the mainland. In order to better manage this invasive pest, here we predicted the suitable area of E. parallelus in China by the Maxent model.

RESULTS: The Maxent model predicted the potential distribution of E. parallelus with a test AUC value of 0.962 and a training AUC value of 0.978. Temperature seasonality (Bio_04), annual temperature range (Bio_07), annual precipitation (Bio_12) and mean temperature of the coldest quarter (Bio_11) were the strongest predictors of E. parallelus distribution with 32.1%, 19.8%, 15% and 10.4% contributions, respectively. The potential suitable area for E. parallelus was mainly distributed in the southeastern coast, the southwestern border, and Taiwan and Hainan provinces in China, and the highly suitable areas were located in the northern coast of Hainan Province and the southwestern coast of Taiwan Province. This pest prefers a stable, warm and rainy climate, which indicates that tropics and subtropics would be its ideal area.

CONCLUSION: Euplatypus parallelus has invaded Hainan and Taiwan in China. Measures should be taken to prevent it from spreading on these two islands. Moreover, strict quarantine, biological study and control measures are necessary to block its spread, invasion and damage, especially in these climate-suitable areas. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2019-06-25
CmpDate: 2019-06-25

Lu X, He M, Ding J, et al (2018)

Latitudinal variation in soil biota: testing the biotic interaction hypothesis with an invasive plant and a native congener.

The ISME journal, 12(12):2811-2822.

Soil biota community structure can change with latitude, but the effects of changes on native plants, invasive plants, and their herbivores remain unclear. Here, we examined latitudinal variation in the soil biota community associated with the invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides and its native congener A. sessilis, and the effects of soil biota community variation on these plants and the beetle Agasicles hygrophila. We characterized the soil bacterial and fungal communities and root-knot nematodes of plant rhizospheres collected from 22 °N to 36.6 °N in China. Soil biota community structure changed with latitude as a function of climate and soil properties. Root-knot nematode abundance and potential soil fungal pathogen diversity (classified with FUNGuild) decreased with latitude, apparently due to higher soil pH and lower temperatures. A greenhouse experiment and lab bioassay showed native plant mass, seed production, and mass of beetles fed native foliage increased with soil collection latitude. However, there were no latitudinal patterns for the invasive plant. These results suggest that invasive and native plants and, consequently, their herbivores have different responses to latitudinal changes in soil-borne enemies, potentially creating spatial variation in enemy release or biotic resistance. This highlights the importance of linking above- and below-ground multitrophic interactions to explore the role of soil biota in non-native plant invasions with a biogeographic approach.

RevDate: 2019-06-26
CmpDate: 2019-06-26

Wen P, Cheng YN, Dong SH, et al (2017)

The sex pheromone of a globally invasive honey bee predator, the Asian eusocial hornet, Vespa velutina.

Scientific reports, 7(1):12956.

The Asian hornet, Vespa velutina, is an invasive, globally-distributed predator of European honey bees and other insects. To better under its reproductive biology and to find a specific, effective, and low-impact control method for this species, we identified and tested the key compounds in V. velutina sex pheromone. Virgin gynes (reproductive females) produced this sex pheromone in the sixth intersegmental sternal glands of their abdomens. The active compounds were 4-oxo-octanoic acid (4-OOA, 10.4 μg bee-1) and 4-oxo-decanoic acid (4-ODA, 13.3 μg bee-1) at a 0.78 ratio of 4-OOA/4-ODA. We synthesized these compounds and showed that male antennae were highly sensitive to them. Moreover, males were only strongly attracted to a 4-OOA/4-ODA blend at the natural ratio produced by gynes. These results provide the first demonstration of an effective way to lure V. velutina males, and the first chemical identification of a sex pheromone in the eusocial hornets.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )