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Bibliography on: Invasive Species

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 May 2024 at 01:52 Created: 

Invasive Species

Standard Definition: Invasive species are plants, animals, or pathogens that are non-native (or alien) to the ecosystem under consideration and whose introduction causes or is likely to cause harm. Although that definition allows a logical possibility that some species might be non-native and harmless, most of time it seems that invasive species and really bad critter (or weed) that should be eradicated are seen as equivalent phrases. But, there is a big conceptual problem with that notion: every species in every ecosystem started out in that ecosystem as an invader. If there were no invasive species, all of Hawaii would be nothing but bare volcanic rock. Without an invasion of species onto land, there would be no terrestrial ecosystems at all. For the entire history of life on Earth, the biosphere has responded to perturbation and to opportunity with evolutionary innovation and with physical movement. While one may raise economic or aesthetic arguments against invasive species, it is impossible to make such an argument on scientific grounds. Species movement — the occurrence of invasive species — is the way the biosphere responds to perturbation. One might even argue that species movement is the primary, short-term "healing" mechanism employed by the biosphere to respond to perturbation — to "damage." As with any healing process, the short-term effect may be aesthetically unappealing (who thinks scabs are appealing?), but the long-term effects can be glorious.

Created with PubMed® Query: ("invasive species" OR "invasion biology" OR "alien species" OR "introduced species" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-05-25

Gruľová D, Baranová B, Eliašová A, et al (2024)

Does the Invasive Heracleum mantegazzianum Influence Other Species by Allelopathy?.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(10): pii:plants13101333.

Heracleum mantegazzianum is an invasive species in middle Europe. The mode of action of its invasiveness is still not known. Our study focuses on observation of potential allelopathic influence by the production and release of phytochemicals into its environment. Plant material was collected four times within one season (April, May, June, July 2019) at locality Lekárovce (eastern Slovakia) for comparison of differences in composition and potential allelopathy. Water extracts from collected samples were used for different biological assays. The total phenols and flavonoids were determined spectrophotometrically. The profile and content of phenolic components, including coumarins, were determined by two techniques of liquid chromatography along with in vitro evaluation of the free radical scavenging activity of extracts (DPPH, Hydroxyl, Superoxide, and FRAP). The changes in composition in extracts in different seasonal periods were evident as well as potential phytotoxic activity in some concentrations on specific model plants. The slight antioxidant activity was noted. The invasiveness of the current species could be supported by the excretion of its phytochemicals into its surroundings and by different modes of action influencing living organisms in its environment.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Gierek M, Ochała-Gierek G, Woźnica AJ, et al (2024)

Winged Threat on the Offensive: A Literature Review Due to the First Identification of Aedes japonicus in Poland.

Viruses, 16(5): pii:v16050703.

Genetic studies preceded by the observation of an unknown mosquito species in Mikołów (Poland) confirmed that it belongs to a new invasive species in Polish fauna, Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901), a known vector for numerous infectious diseases. Ae. japonicus is expanding its geographical presence, raising concerns about potential disease transmission given its vector competence for chikungunya virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Zika virus. This first genetically confirmed identification of Ae. japonicus in Poland initiates a comprehensive review of the literature on Ae. japonicus, its biology and ecology, and the viral infections transmitted by this species. This paper also presents the circumstances of the observation of Ae. japonicus in Poland and a methodology for identifying this species.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Barabasz-Krasny B, Tatoj A, Chyc M, et al (2024)

Chemical Basis for Determining the Allelopathic Potential of Invasive Plant Wall Barley (Hordeum murinum L. subsp. murinum).

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 29(10): pii:molecules29102365.

The study investigated compounds present in the invasive grass Hordeum murinum L. subsp. murinum and tested the allelopathic potential of this plant against common meadow species Festuca rubra L. and Trifolium repens L. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) performed separately on the ears and stalks with leaves of wall barley revealed 32 compounds, including secondary metabolites, that may play an important role in allelopathy. Two compounds, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBS) and diphenylsulfone (DDS), were described for the first time for wall barley and the Poaceae family. The presence of 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-one (TMP) has also been documented. Aqueous extracts of H. murinum organs (ears and stalks with leaves) at concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% were used to evaluate its allelopathic potential. Compared to the control, all extracts inhibited germination and early growth stages of meadow species. The inhibitory effect was strongest at the highest concentration for both the underground and aboveground parts of the seedlings of the meadow species tested. Comparing the allelopathic effect, Trifolium repens proved to be more sensitive. In light of the results of the study, the removal of wall barley biomass appears to be important for the restoration of habitats where this species occurs due to its allelopathic potential.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Yang J, Wang Y, Zheng L, et al (2024)

Comparative Analysis of the Effect of Dietary Supplementation with Fermented and Water-Extracted Leaf Extracts of Eucommia ulmoides on Egg Production and Egg Nutrition.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 13(10): pii:foods13101521.

Although the water extract of Eucommia ulmoides leaf (WEE) promotes egg laying in hens, its palatability is poor. To improve the palatability of E. ulmoides leaf, probiotic fermentation was used, and fermented extract E. ulmoides leaf (FEE) was prepared using Lactiplantibacillus plantarum. The safety of FEE was investigated using a long-term toxicity test, and no oxidative damage, inflammatory reactions, or histological lesions were observed in the experimental rats receiving dietary supplementation of FEE at 200 mg/kg, suggesting that FEE is suitable for long-term feeding. Subsequently, dietary supplementation of FEE (group C) in comparison with dietary supplementation of WEE (group B), as well as a control (group A), was applied in the hen industry. Laying performance, egg quality, egg nutrition, egg flavor, and the gut microbiome were analyzed comparatively. Interestingly, the laying rate was observed to be four percentage points higher with dietary supplementation of FEE at 200 mg/kg compared with the control and two percentage points higher compared with the dietary addition of WEE at the same dosage. Simultaneously, a slight upregulation in daily feed consumption was determined in the FEE-supplemented group compared with the blank control and the WEE-supplemented group, indicating that the inclusion of FEE stimulated the hens' appetite. Moreover, variations in egg amino acids, fatty acids, and volatile components were obtained with either dietary addition, FEE or WEE, implying that dietary supplementation of the fermented and water-extracted E. ulmoides leaf extracts contributed to egg flavor change. Furthermore, variations in the gut microbiota were mediated by FEE, increasing the relative abundance of the genus Lactobacillus. These alterations in gut microbiota were tightly related to improved laying performance and egg flavor changes. Our results indicate that FEE is a better alternative feed additive in the hen industry than WEE.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Wang Y, Zhao X, Chen Q, et al (2024)

Complete Chloroplast Genome of Alternanthera sessilis and Comparative Analysis with Its Congeneric Invasive Weed Alternanthera philoxeroides.

Genes, 15(5): pii:genes15050544.

Alternanthera sessilis is considered the closest relative to the invasive weed Alternanthera philoxeroides in China, making it an important native species for studying the invasive mechanisms and adaptations of A. philoxeroides. Chloroplasts play a crucial role in a plant's environmental adaptation, with their genomes being pivotal in the evolution and adaptation of both invasive and related species. However, the chloroplast genome of A. sessilis has remained unknown until now. In this study, we sequenced and assembled the complete chloroplast genome of A. sessilis using high-throughput sequencing. The A. sessilis chloroplast genome is 151,935 base pairs long, comprising two inverted repeat regions, a large single copy region, and a small single copy region. This chloroplast genome contains 128 genes, including 8 rRNA-coding genes, 37 tRNA-coding genes, 4 pseudogenes, and 83 protein-coding genes. When compared to the chloroplast genome of the invasive weed A. philoxeroides and other Amaranthaceae species, we observed significant variations in the ccsA, ycf1, and ycf2 regions in the A. sessilis chloroplast genome. Moreover, two genes, ccsA and accD, were found to be undergoing rapid evolution due to positive selection pressure. The phylogenetic trees were constructed for the Amaranthaceae family, estimating the time of independent species formation between A. philoxeroides and A. sessilis to be approximately 3.5186-8.8242 million years ago. These findings provide a foundation for understanding the population variation within invasive species among the Alternanthera genus.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Poulson RL, Reeves AB, Ahlstrom CA, et al (2024)

Infectivity of Wild-Bird Origin Influenza A Viruses in Minnesota Wetlands across Seasons.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(5):.

The environmental tenacity of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the environment likely plays a role in their transmission; IAVs are able to remain infectious in aquatic habitats and may have the capacity to seed outbreaks when susceptible wild bird hosts utilize these same environments months or even seasons later. Here, we aimed to assess the persistence of low-pathogenicity IAVs from naturally infected ducks in Northwestern Minnesota through a field experiment. Viral infectivity was measured using replicate samples maintained in distilled water in a laboratory setting as well as in filtered water from four natural water bodies maintained in steel perforated drums (hereafter, mesocosms) within the field from autumn 2020 to spring 2021. There was limited evidence for the extended persistence of IAVs held in mesocosms; from 65 initial IAV-positive samples, only six IAVs persisted to at least 202 days in the mesocosms compared to 17 viruses persisting at least this long when held under temperature-controlled laboratory settings in distilled water. When accounting for the initial titer of samples, viruses detected at a higher concentration at the initiation of the experiment persisted longer than those with a lower starting titer. A parallel experimental laboratory model was used to further explore the effects of water type on viral persistence, and the results supported the finding of reduced tenacity of IAVs held in mesocosms compared to distilled water. The results of this investigation provide evidence that many factors, including temperature and physicochemical properties, impact the duration of viral infectivity in natural settings, further extending our understanding of the potential and limitations of environmental-based methodologies to recover infectious IAVs.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Zina V, Conde S, Branco M, et al (2024)

Do Dominant Native Ants Outcompete the Invasive Argentine Ant in Mediterranean Citrus Ecosystems? A Laboratory Test.

Insects, 15(5): pii:insects15050333.

The invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) poses a significant threat to ecosystem stability worldwide. In Mediterranean citrus ecosystems, its spread may be limited by interactions with dominant native ant species. We conducted laboratory experiments to investigate the competitive dynamics between Argentine ants and two major native species, Tapinoma nigerrimum and Lasius grandis. At the individual level, both native species exhibited superior competitive performance, attributed to their larger body sizes and potential differences in chemical defences. At the colony level, T. nigerrimum demonstrated efficiency in interference competition, successfully defending food resources from Argentine ants. However, the Argentine ant exhibited higher recruitment capacity, albeit it was density-dependent. Our findings support the hypothesis that dominant native ants can serve as barriers against Argentine ant invasion in citrus ecosystems, highlighting the importance of interspecific competition in shaping community dynamics and invasive species management. This study underscores the potential role of native ant species in mitigating the impacts of invasive ants on ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes, offering valuable insights for invasive species management strategies in Mediterranean citrus ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Kang I, Roda A, Misiaszek B, et al (2024)

Detection of Ochyromera ligustri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) in Ligustrum spp. (Oleaceae) Using Newly Developed PCR Primers.

Insects, 15(5): pii:insects15050320.

Ligustrum spp. (Oleaceae) have become invasive species in the US and negatively affect native plant diversity and richness in forests. Ochyromera ligustri (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is considered a potential biological control agent in the US because adults feed on the foliage and larvae are seed-feeders of Ligustrum spp. To discover the relationships between O. ligustri and Ligustrum spp., fruit dissections or rearing and field observations are required. In the current research project, novel PCR primers were developed to rapidly detect the DNA of O. ligustri in molecular analyses without rearing and observation. The developed PCR primers worked even with 0.01 ng of DNA and did not amplify the DNA of the other five curculionid species tested. When the novel primers were tested with three Ligustrum spp. species common in the southeastern US, the DNA of O. ligustri was detected from all three species. We expect that the novel primers will be utilized to find out the presence and impact of O. ligustri on Ligustrum spp rapidly and accurately.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Inokuchi F, Inoue MN, Kanbe Y, et al (2024)

Polyandry may mitigate the negative impact of reproductive interference among bumblebees in Japan.

Die Naturwissenschaften, 111(3):31.

In social hymenopterans, monandry of the queen is an ancestral trait, and polyandry is a derived trait. Polyandry of the queen is the norm in a limited number of lineages, such as honeybees, leaf-cutting ants, Pogonomyrmex ants, and Vespula wasps, which presumably provide fitness advantages for the whole colony. The queen of the introduced bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, is polyandrous in Japan, whereas it is monandrous in native regions. We hypothesize that polyandry can evolve in a process that avoids the negative impacts of reproductive interference caused by interspecific mating and conducted genetic studies of the invasive species B. terrestris and two native subspecies, Bombus hypocrita sapporoensis and Bombus hypocrita hypocrita, in Japan. Our results revealed that although the native queens of B. hypocrita hypocrita allopatric with B. terrestris were strictly monandrous, the native queens of B. hypocrita sapporoensis sympatric with B. terrestris were polyandrous. These results suggested that the queens of native B. hypocrita sapporoensis do not experience negative impacts on interspecific mating from the invasive B. terrestris. We discuss the possibility that reproductive interference is a driving force in selection for multiple mating through an arms race between sympatric species.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Nixon LJ, TC Leskey (2024)

Evaluation of insecticide residues against spotted lanternfly (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae).

Journal of economic entomology pii:7680244 [Epub ahead of print].

Lycorma delicatula White (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae), spotted lanternfly, is a univoltine, phloem-feeding, polyphagous and invasive insect in the United States. Although a primary host for this species is Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree of heaven, L. delicatula also feeds on many other plant species, including cultivated grapevines. As this species continues to spread, it is important to develop effective management tools. Here, we evaluated the residual efficacy of 4 insecticides commonly used in tree fruit management programs: dinotefuran, bifenthrin, carbaryl, and thiamethoxam. First, all mobile life stages (early instars, late instars, and adults) of L. delicatula were exposed for 1 h to dry insecticide residues (18 h old) applied to glass or A. altissima bark surfaces. While some mortality was detected immediately following the 1 h exposure period, 100% mortality occurred within 24 h for all materials and life stages exposed on both glass and bark surfaces. To evaluate longer residual activity of these materials, groups of adult L. delicatula were introduced into cages containing A. altissima trees treated with the same individual insecticides and exposed 6 h to residues that were 18 h or 7 days old. Paired, untreated A. altissima served as controls. In these bioassays, 48 h mortality for 18 h old residue reached 95% for thiamethoxam and 100% for bifenthrin and dinotefuran. Seven-day-old bifenthrin and dinotefuran residues again yielded 100% mortality, while thiamethoxam resulted in 58% mortality, and carbaryl yielded only 13.3% and was not significantly different from the control. These results clearly document the efficacy of specific insecticide applications as management tools against L. delicatula.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

de Carvalho-Souza GF, Gómez CL, E González-Ortegón (2024)

A non-native fish species reaches the south-western European waters: the Atlantic croaker, Micropogoniasundulatus (Acanthuriformes, Sciaenidae) and its invasion history in Europe.

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e120736.

The Atlantic croaker Micropogoniasundulatus, a sciaenid fish native to the North Atlantic American coast, holds importance in recreational and commercial fisheries. Moreover, its potential as an invasive species should be noted, given its expansion and establishment in Atlantic European waters. This study reports its southernmost occurrence in Europe, in the Gulf of Cadiz. Morphological and molecular analysis confirmed its identity, revealing genetic similarities to US sequences. A comprehensive review of historical non-native distribution records underscored the species' expansion throughout European waters, suggesting human-mediated introduction. The escalating frequency of such arrivals emphasises the critical need for effective monitoring and management efforts in order to control non-native species in this region.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Deeley B, N Petrovskaya (2024)

Transient Propagation of the Invasion Front in the Homogeneous Landscape and in the Presence of a Road.

Bulletin of mathematical biology, 86(7):78.

Understanding the propagation of invasive plants at the beginning of invasive spread is important as it can help practitioners eradicate harmful species more efficiently. In our work the propagation regime of the invasive plant species is studied at the short-time scale before a travelling wave is established and advances into space at a constant speed. The integro-difference framework has been employed to deal with a stage-structured population, and a short-distance dispersal mode has been considered in the homogeneous environment and when a road presents in the landscape. It is explained in the paper how nonlinear spatio-temporal dynamics arise in a transient regime where the propagation speed depends on the detection threshold population density. Furthermore, we investigate the question of whether the transient dynamics become different when the homogeneous landscape is transformed into the heterogeneous one. It is shown in the paper how invasion slows down in a transient regime in the presence of a road.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Leeming J (2024)

How my research is putting blue crab on the menu in Croatia.

Nature, 629(8013):964.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

McGann K, Johnson CN, Clinchy M, et al (2024)

Fear of the human 'super predator' in native marsupials and introduced deer in Australia.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2023):20232849.

Recent experiments have demonstrated that carnivores and ungulates in Africa, Asia, Europe and North America fear the human 'super predator' far more than other predators. Australian mammals have been a focus of research on predator naiveté because it is suspected they show atypical antipredator responses. To experimentally test if mammals in Australia also most fear humans, we quantified the responses of four native marsupials (eastern grey kangaroo, Bennett's wallaby, Tasmanian pademelon, common brushtail possum) and introduced fallow deer to playbacks of predator (human, dog, Tasmanian devil, wolf) or non-predator control (sheep) vocalizations. Native marsupials most feared the human 'super predator', fleeing humans 2.4 times more often than the next most frightening predator (dogs), and being most, and significantly, vigilant to humans. These results demonstrate that native marsupials are not naïve to the peril humans pose, substantially expanding the taxonomic and geographic scope of the growing experimental evidence that wildlife worldwide generally perceive humans as the planet's most frightening predator. Introduced fallow deer fled humans, but not more than other predators, which we suggest may result from their being introduced. Our results point to both challenges concerning marsupial conservation and opportunities for exploiting fear of humans as a wildlife management tool.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Yamany AS, R Abdel-Gaber (2024)

Influence of adult body size on blood feeding behavior and eggs retention in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

Microscopy research and technique [Epub ahead of print].

Mosquito-borne viruses continue to affect billions of people globally, posing a severe health risk and an economic burden. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), a highly invasive mosquito species, has repeatedly invaded and increased its presence, serving as a key vector of dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causing frequent outbreaks of related viral diseases. This study investigated the impact of larval diet quantity on larval duration and adult body size. The effect of adult mosquito body size on various aspects of Ae. albopictus was also examined, including blood-feeding behavior, follicular development, reproductive capacity, egg retention capacity, preoviposition period, and fecundity. These diverse characteristics all have an effect on arboviruses transmission. The changes in body size (small, medium, and large) are obtained by providing different quantities of larval diet (low, average, and high). The results indicate that the quantity of larval diet directly impacts the adult body size while inversely affecting the larval duration. Furthermore, a positive correlation exists between adult body size and wing length, implying that wing length could be a reliable indicator of adult body size and rearing conditions during the developmental stages. Large females exhibited higher numbers of follicles and greater fecundity. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between follicle number before the first blood meal and total egg number. In contrast, increasing wing length decreased the number of blood meals, egg retention, and the preoviposition period. The tendency of small females to perform multiple feedings was greater than that of large females. Small females exhibited a higher propensity for multiple feeding activities when compared to their larger counterparts. Most medium-sized females (92.8%) deposited eggs in their ovaries, however, 7.2% retained a few. In contrast, most large females (87.4%) had complete ovary egg-laying, whereas a minority (12.6%) retained some of their eggs. About 35.2% of small females showed ovarian egg retention, while 64.8% successfully laid all their eggs. After the first blood meal, the oviposition rate was 92% for large females, 88% for medium females, and 76% for small females. About 69.86% of the follicles in large females underwent vitellogenesis. This finding suggests that small females with low energy reserves exhibited incomplete oviposition and multiple blood feedings to increase their reproductive capacity. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Add more information about arbovirus epidemics and their consequences. Aedes albopictus is a global invasive species that transmit dengue virus, CHIKV, YFV, and ZIKV. A negative correlation was observed between body size, egg retention, and multiple blood feedings in Aedes albopictus. Size of the female's body was positively correlated with fecundity, while it was negatively correlated with the preoviposition period. Size-dependent multiple blood feeding affects vector-host contact frequency.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Poulain M, Rosinski E, Henri H, et al (2024)

Development, feeding, and sex shape the relative quantity of the nutritional obligatory symbiont Wolbachia in bed bugs.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1386458.

The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, is a hemipteran insect that feeds only on blood, and whose bites cause public health issues. Due to globalization and resistance to insecticides, this pest has undergone a significant and global resurgence in recent decades. Blood is an unbalanced diet, lacking notably sufficient B vitamins. Like all strict hematophagous arthropods, bed bugs host a nutritional symbiont supplying B vitamins. In C. lectularius, this nutritional symbiont is the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia (wCle). It is located in specific symbiotic organs, the bacteriomes, as well as in ovaries. Experimental depletion of wCle has been shown to result in longer nymphal development and lower fecundity. These phenotypes were rescued by B vitamin supplementation. Understanding the interaction between wCle and the bed bug may help to develop new pest control methods targeting the disruption of this symbiotic interaction. The objective of this work was thus to quantify accurately the density of wCle over the life cycle of the host and to describe potential associated morphological changes in the bacteriome. We also sought to determine the impact of sex, feeding status, and aging on the bacterial population dynamics. We showed that the relative quantity of wCle continuously increases during bed bug development, while the relative size of the bacteriome remains stable. We also showed that adult females harbor more wCle than males and that wCle relative quantity decreases slightly in adults with age, except in weekly-fed males. These results are discussed in the context of bed bug ecology and will help to define critical points of the symbiotic interaction during the bed bug life cycle.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Shen K, He Y, Xia T, et al (2024)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi improve the competitive advantage of a native plant relative to a congeneric invasive plant in growth and nutrition.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11459.

Plant invasions severely threaten natural ecosystems, and invasive plants often outcompete native plants across various ecosystems. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, serving as beneficial microorganisms for host plants, can greatly influence the competitive outcomes of invasive plants against native plants. However, it remains unclear how AM fungi alter the competitive balance between native and invasive species. A competitive experiment was conducted using an invasive Eupatorium adenophorum paired with a native congener Eupatorium lindleyanum. Specifically, both species were inoculated with (M[+]) or without (M[-]) the fungus Glomus etunicatum under intraspecific (Intra-) and interspecific (Inter-) competition. Plant traits were measured and analyzed regarding the growth and nutrition of both species. The results exhibited that the AM fungus significantly increased the height, diameter, biomass, C, N, and P acquisition of both the invasive E. adenophorum and the native E. lindleyanum. The root mycorrhizal colonization and the mycorrhizal dependency of native E. lindleyanum were greater than those of invasive E. adenophorum. Under M[+], the Inter-competition inhibited the growth and nutrition of invasive E. adenophorum compared to the Intra- competition. Further, native E. lindleyanum exhibited higher competitiveness than invasive E. adenophorum in growth and nutrition. Meanwhile, the AM fungus significantly improved the competitiveness of native E. lindleyanum over invasive E. adenophorum. In conclusion, AM fungus improved the competitive advantage of native E. lindleyanum over invasive E. adenophorum in growth and nutrition, potentially contributing to native species competitively resisting the invasion of exotic species. These findings emphasize the importance of AM fungi in helping native plants resist the invasion of exotic plants and further contribute to understanding plant invasion prevention mechanisms.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Lewis Najev BS, M Neiman (2024)

Invasive freshwater snails are less sensitive to population density than native conspecifics.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11161.

Understanding how and why some species or lineages become invasive is critically important for effectively predicting and mitigating biological invasions. Here, we address an important unanswered question in invasion biology: do key life-history traits of invasive versus native lineages within a species differ in response to key environmental stressors? We focus on the environmental factor of population density, which is a fundamental characteristic of all populations, and investigate how changes in density affect native versus invasive Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mudsnail). P. antipodarum has invaded 39 countries and detrimentally affects invaded environments. Previous studies of native and invasive populations and from laboratory experiments have demonstrated that growth and reproduction of P. antipodarum is sensitive to population density, though whether and how this sensitivity varies across native versus invasive lineages remains uncharacterized. We quantified individual growth rate and reproduction in P. antipodarum from multiple distinct native and invasive lineages across three different population density treatments. The growth of native but not invasive lineages decreased as density increased. There was no differential effect of density treatment on embryo production of invasive versus native snails, but a significantly higher proportion of snails were reproductive in high density compared to intermediate density for invasive lineages. In native lineages, there were no significant differences in the relative frequency of reproductive snails across density treatments. While the extent to which these results from our laboratory study can be extrapolated to the more complex natural world remain unclear, our findings are consistent with a scenario where differential sensitivity to population density could help explain why some lineages become successful invaders. Our findings also align with previous studies that show that invasive P. antipodarum lineages exhibit a relatively wide range of tolerance to environmental stressors.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Sánchez O, Oficialdegui FJ, Torralba-Burrial A, et al (2024)

Procambarus virginalis Lyko, 2017: A new threat to Iberian inland waters.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11362.

An eco-monitoring programme to assess faunal biodiversity in the main rivers of the northern Iberian Peninsula (Spain) reveals the first occurrence of the marbled crayfish Procambarus virginalis (Decapoda: Cambaridae) in Iberian inland waters. Iberian specimens have been identified by combining morphological and genetic traits. We discuss the most plausible pathways and introduction vectors, its potential invasiveness and subsequent impacts on host localities. Our preliminary results raise concern about the potential threat of P. virginalis to native fauna and ecosystem dynamics, as P. virginalis was found in an area of great cultural and ecological importance with relevant populations of endangered species. Due to the invasive history of the marbled crayfish, eradication of these individuals is urgent. This study confirms the importance of early warning systems for exotic species, keeping the population, forest guards and field technicians informed about potential invasive species to execute a rapid and effective response.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Bita-Nicolae C, Florescu LI, Purice D, et al (2024)

Riparian woody plant communities in the Romanian Carpathians: Species diversity and community structure of Salix and Hippophaë communities.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11361.

Riparian woody plant communities, including shrubs and trees, are essential for maintaining biodiversity, protecting against floods, reducing erosion, and transporting nutrients. However, these habitats are greatly threatened by human activities, particularly agricultural land acquisition, and the introduction of invasive species. This study examined species diversity and interspecific association in riparian woody plant communities along rivers in the Romanian Carpathians. The study focused on communities of Salix purpurea, S. alba, and Hippophaë rhamnoides in mountain regions, with varying sampling efforts at different sites for each species. A total of 174 plant species were found, predominantly herbaceous (77.9%), followed by trees (11.6%) and shrubs (10.5%). While S. alba and S. purpurea communities show high species richness and abundance, S. alba has slightly higher diversity (H' ≈ 2.23, SD = 0.28) than S. purpurea (H' ≈ 1.69, SD = 0.42). Contrarily, significant differences exist between H. rhamnoides and S. alba communities in species richness (p = .007) and Shannon diversity (p = .004). PCA analysis elaborated on distinct distribution patterns of plant associations within habitats S. purpurea community, H. rhamnoides community, and S. alba community. Four invasive species (Oenothera biennis L. and Oxalis stricta L. in S. alba communities, Reynoutria sachalinensis Nakai in both S. purpurea and H. rhamnoides communities, and Erigeron canadensis L. in H. rhamnoides communities) were identified, as requiring conservation efforts. Hemicryptophytes dominate species richness, while microphanerophytes and megaphanerophytes significantly contribute to plant abundance. H. rhamnoides formed Hippophaë rhamnoides dunes (2160) Natura 2000 habitat, while S. alba created galleries within the 92A0 Salix alba and Populus alba habitat. In conclusion, the findings from this study highlight the importance of preserving riparian habitats because their value goes beyond local or regional considerations and extends to the global scale due to their unique characteristics.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Jia M, Cheng F, Li J, et al (2024)

Distribution patterns of the two genetic groups of Corbicula fluminea in a lotic-lentic system.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11339.

Differences in local habitat conditions are often implicated as drivers for morphological and genetic divergence in natural populations. However, there are still relatively few studies regarding how divergent habitats influence patterns for morphotypes and genetic lineages in aquatic invertebrates. In this study, we explored the morphological patterns, genetic divergence, and distributions of a bivalve, Corbicula fluminea, in a lotic-lentic system. Sampling locations included lotic, ecotone, and lentic habitats. First, we found two lineages (Lineages A and B) with significant genetic divergence that primarily corresponded to two morphotypes (Morphs D and C) of C. fluminea. Lineage A consisted of 88.68% Morph D (shell sculpture: 8-14 ridges/cmsh) and 11.32% Morph C (shell sculpture: 15 ridges/cmsh) individuals and had genetic similarity to invasive populations. Lineage B consisted of only Morph C (shell sculpture: 15-23 ridges/cmsh). Second, we revealed clear effects of habitat on the spatial distribution patterns for the two lineages of C. fluminea. Lineage A was dominant in lotic habitats, with a significantly higher density than that of Lineage B in these locations. Lineage B was dominant in lentic habitats. However, both lineages had their highest densities in the ecotone habitat, without clear dominance and no significant difference in density between groups. Individuals of Lineages A and B are different in shell morphology, which may be related to a benefit trade-off between shell shapes that allow for rapid burrowing and holding position in different flow conditions. The distribution patterns indicate that Lineages A and B may not prefer uniquely lotic and lentic habitats, but each lineage is more tolerant to one habitat type, respectively. Generally, our study established a correlation among morphotypes, lineages, and different habitats for C. fluminea along a lotic-lentic gradient system, which has important implementations for fisheries management units and for understanding the role of habitat preference for this species in monitoring for pioneer dispersal in invasive species management.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Mudavanhu A, Schols R, Goossens E, et al (2024)

One Health monitoring reveals invasive freshwater snail species, new records, and undescribed parasite diversity in Zimbabwe.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):234.

BACKGROUND: Snail-borne trematodes afflict humans, livestock, and wildlife. Recognizing their zoonotic potential and possible hybridization, a One Health approach is essential for effective control. Given the dearth of knowledge on African trematodes, this study aimed to map snail and trematode diversity, focusing on (i) characterizing gastropod snail species and their trematode parasites, (ii) determining infection rates of snail species as intermediate hosts for medically, veterinary, and ecologically significant trematodes, and (iii) comparing their diversity across endemic regions.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in 2021 in Chiredzi and Wedza districts in Zimbabwe, known for high human schistosomiasis prevalence, involved malacological surveys at 56 sites. Trematode infections in snails were detected through shedding experiments and multiplex rapid diagnostic polymerase chain reactions (RD-PCRs). Morphological and molecular analyses were employed to identify snail and trematode species.

RESULTS: Among 3209 collected snail specimens, 11 species were identified, including schistosome and fasciolid competent snail species. We report for the first time the invasive exotic snail Tarebia granifera in Zimbabwe, which was highly abundant, mainly in Chiredzi, occurring at 29 out of 35 sites. Shedding experiments on 1303 snails revealed a 2.24% infection rate, with 15 trematode species identified through molecular genotyping. Five species were exclusive to Chiredzi: Bolbophorus sp., Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma mattheei, Calicophoron sp., and Uvulifer sp. Eight were exclusive to Wedza, including Trichobilharzia sp., Stephanoprora amurensis, Spirorchid sp., and Echinostoma sp. as well as an unidentified species of the Plagiorchioidea superfamily. One species, Tylodelphys mashonensis, was common to both regions. The RD-PCR screening of 976 non-shedding snails indicated a 35.7% trematode infection rate, including the presence of schistosomes (1.1%) Fasciola nyanzae (0.6%). In Chiredzi, Radix natalensis had the highest trematode infection prevalence (33.3%), while in Wedza, R. natalensis (55.4%) and Bulinus tropicus (53.2%) had the highest infection prevalence.

CONCLUSIONS: Our xenomonitoring approach unveiled 15 trematode species, including nine new records in Zimbabwe. Schistosoma mansoni persists in the study region despite six mass deworming rounds. The high snail and parasite diversity, including the presence of exotic snail species that can impact endemic species and biomedically important trematodes, underscores the need for increased monitoring.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Oh G, Wi Y, Kang HJ, et al (2024)

Assessment of American Bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) spreading in the Republic of Korea using rule learning of elementary cellular automata.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11548.

The spread of American Bullfrog has a significant impact on the surrounding ecosystem. It is important to study the mechanisms of their spreading so that proper mitigation can be applied when needed. This study analyzes data from national surveys on bullfrog distribution. We divided the data into 25 regional clusters. To assess the spread within each cluster, we constructed temporal sequences of spatial distribution using the agglomerative clustering method. We employed Elementary Cellular Automata (ECA) to identify rules governing the changes in spatial patterns. Each cell in the ECA grid represents either the presence or absence of bullfrogs based on observations. For each cluster, we counted the number of presence location in the sequence to quantify spreading intensity. We used a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) to learn the ECA rules and predict future spreading intensity by estimating the expected number of presence locations over 400 simulated generations. We incorporated environmental factors by obtaining habitat suitability maps using Maxent. We multiplied spreading intensity by habitat suitability to create an overall assessment of bullfrog invasion risk. We estimated the relative spreading assessment and classified it into four categories: rapidly spreading, slowly spreading, stable populations, and declining populations.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Yuan X, Zhang Y, Hu L, et al (2024)

Investigating the effects of species niche shifts on the potential distribution of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) by using global occurrence data.

Journal of insect science (Online), 24(3):.

Invasive species may occupy quite different environments in their invaded areas to native ones, which may intensively interfere with predicting potential distribution through ecological niche modeling (ENM). Here, we take the tomato leafminer Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), a tomato pest, as an example to investigate this topic. We analyzed niche expansion, stability, unfilling, and Schoener's D by principal component analysis (PCA) ordination method to examine its realized niche shifts and to explore how ENM approaches are affected by niche shifts. We used 5 datasets: Asian, African, European, South American, and global occurrence records in this study. Results showed that high niche unfilling for the species' invaded areas in Asia (20%), Africa (12%), and Europe (37%), possibly due to T. absoluta being in the early stages of invasion. High niche expansion was observed in Asia (38%) and Europe (19%), implying that some European and Asian populations had reached new climatic areas. African niche had the most niche stability (94%) and was equivalent to the native one in climate space (PCA ordination method), but the n-dimensional climate space framework showed that they were different. When projecting the native model to Asia and Europe, the native model performed poorly, implying that the niche shifts affected the transferability of the native model. ENM based on global data outperformed than other models, and our results suggested that T. absoluta has a large potential distribution in Asia, Mexico, South Europe, the United States, and Australia. Meanwhile, we recommend updating ENMs based on the species' invasion stage.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Gustafsson M, Strand Å, Laugen AT, et al (2024)

Unlocking the secret life of blue mussels: Exploring connectivity in the Skagerrak through biophysical modeling and population genomics.

Evolutionary applications, 17(5):e13704.

Knowledge of functional dispersal barriers in the marine environment can be used to inform a wide variety of management actions, such as marine spatial planning, restoration efforts, fisheries regulations, and invasive species management. Locations and causes of dispersal barriers can be studied through various methods, including movement tracking, biophysical modeling, demographic models, and genetics. Combining methods illustrating potential dispersal, such as biophysical modeling, with realized dispersal through, e.g., genetic connectivity estimates, provides particularly useful information for teasing apart potential causes of observed barriers. In this study, we focus on blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) in the Skagerrak-a marginal sea connected to the North Sea in Northern Europe-and combine biophysical models of larval dispersal with genomic data to infer locations and causes of dispersal barriers in the area. Results from both methods agree; patterns of ocean currents are a major structuring factor in the area. We find a complex pattern of source-sink dynamics with several dispersal barriers and show that some areas can be isolated despite an overall high dispersal capability. Finally, we translate our finding into management advice that can be used to sustainably manage this ecologically and economically important species in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Kosciolek C, Desurmont GA, Thomann T, et al (2024)

Toward a push-pull strategy against invasive snails using chemical and visual stimuli.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11511.

Four invasive Mediterranean snails, i.e., Theba pisana (Müller, 1774), Cernuella virgata (da Costa, 1778), Cochlicella acuta (Müller, 1774) and Cochlicella barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) cost $170 million yearly to the grain industry in Australia. Their impact is mainly due to their estivation behavior: snails climb on cereal and legume stalks to rest during summer, which coincides with harvest, causing grain contamination issues in crops such as wheat, barley and canola. Diverse management methods have been developed to regulate snail populations, with limited success. Our study investigates the potential for a push-pull strategy to divert invasive snails from cultivated fields. A "push" part (i.e. using a repellent stimuli) was based on the use of a chemical deterrent repelling snails from the cultivated field, and a "pull" part (i.e. using an attractive stimuli) was based on offering attractive estivation supports for snails to aggregate outside the cultivated field. First, artificial estivation supports of different colors were tested under laboratory and field conditions and showed that red supports were the most attractive for these snails. Second, different substances were tested as potential snail deterrents (garlic, coffee, coffee grounds, copper). Garlic extracts were the most powerful snail deterrent and were shown to effectively protect an estivation support and food source from snails under laboratory conditions. These results, which were highly consistent for the four species, illustrate the potential of a push-pull strategy against invasive snails in Australia. It is the first attempt to develop a push-pull strategy relying on both visual and chemical stimuli to achieve results, as well as manipulating the estivation behavior of a pest.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Jobart B, Delatte H, Lebreton G, et al (2024)

Parasite and virus dynamics in the honeybee Apis mellifera unicolor on a tropical island recently invaded by Varroa destructor.

Journal of invertebrate pathology, 204:108125.

In La Réunion, the established honeybee subspecies Apis mellifera unicolor, an endemic subspecies of African lineage, is facing considerable challenges. Since the introduction of the Varroa destructor mite in 2017 high colony losses have been recorded. We investigated the dynamics of V. destructor and two viruses, the Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), known to be transmitted by the mite, and the Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus (CBPV), in A. m. unicolor. Colonies from two apiaries located at 300 and 900 m a.s.l were monitored twice for one year without any acaricide treatment. The brood area, V. destructor infestation rates, DWV and CBPV prevalence and load were recorded monthly. A. m. unicolor maintained brood rearing throughout the year. Varroa destructor infestation resulted in high colony mortality (up to 85 %) and high phoretic mite rates (up to 52 mites per hundred bees). The establishment of DWV in colonies occurred after that of V. destructor and the mite infestation rate had a significant effect on the virus prevalence and load. CBPV appeared only transiently throughout the surveys. The data showed that, in tropical colonies with permanent brood rearing, V. destructor and DWV can reach high levels, but are still subject to seasonal variations that appear to be influenced by environmental conditions. This suggests that beekeeping practices could be adapted by favouring sites and periods for transhumance or acaricide treatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Yamada T, Nobetsu T, Urabe H, et al (2024)

Invasion status of hatchery-origin pink salmon in an unstocked river at the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site in northern Japan.

Journal of fish biology, 104(5):1633-1637.

Hatchery fish and their offspring (including hatchery-wild hybrids) have lower reproductive success than wild fish. Thus, the straying of hatchery fish may negatively impact wild populations, depending on the number of wild salmon returning and hatchery strays. We investigated the straying status of hatchery-origin pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), which have a higher straying rate than other salmonids, in an unstocked river at the Shiretoko World Natural Heritage Site, Japan. The hatchery strays accounted for 40.0% and 19.0% of the total samples in 2021 and 2022, respectively. These results indicate that hatchery pink salmon have invaded unstocked rivers and potentially genetically affect wild populations.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Mpopetsi PP, WT Kadye (2024)

Functional diversity does not explain the co-occurrence of non-native species within a flow-modified African river system.

Journal of fish biology, 104(5):1262-1275.

Globally, there is growing concern on the occurrence of multiple non-native species within invaded habitats. Proliferation of multiple non-native species together with anthropogenic-driven habitat modifications raise questions on the mechanisms facilitating the co-occurrence of these species and their potential impact within the recipient systems. Using the Great Fish River system (South Africa) which is anthropogenically-modified by inter-basin water transfer (IBWT), as a case study, this research employed trait-based approaches to explore patterns associated with the co-occurrence of multiple non-native fish species. This was achieved by investigating the role of functional diversity of non-native and native fishes in relation to their composition, distribution and environmental relationships. Nineteen functional traits that defined two broad ecological attributes (habitat use and feeding) were determined for 13 fish species that comprised eight native and five non-native fishes. We used these data to, firstly, evaluate functional diversity patterns and to compare functional traits of native and non-native fishes in the Great Fish River system. Secondly, we employed multivariate ordination analyses (factor analysis, RLQ and fourth-corner analyses) to investigate interspecific trait variations and potential species-trait-environmental relationships. From a functional diversity perspective, there were no significant differences in most functional diversity indices between native and non-native species. Despite interspecific variation in body morphology-related traits, we also found no clear separation between native and non-native species based on the ordination analysis of the functional traits. Furthermore, while RLQ ordination showed broad spatial patterns, the fourth-corner analyses revealed no significant relationships among species distribution, functional traits and environmental variables. The weak species-trait-environment relationship observed in this study suggests that environmental filtering was likely a poor determinant of functional trait structure within the Great Fish River. Modification of the natural flow regime may have weakened the relationship between species traits and the environment as has been shown in other systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Tang Q, Vargo EL, Ahmad I, et al (2024)

Solving the 250-year-old mystery of the origin and global spread of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(22):e2401185121.

The origin of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica, is enigmatic, in part because it is ubiquitous worldwide in human-built structures but absent from any natural habitats. The first historical records of this species are from ca. 250 years ago (ya) from central Europe (hence its name). However, recent research suggests that the center of diversity of the genus is Asian, where its closest relatives are found. To solve this paradox, we sampled genome-wide markers of 281 cockroaches from 17 countries across six continents. We confirm that B. germanica evolved from the Asian cockroach Blattella asahinai approximately 2,100 ya, probably by adapting to human settlements in India or Myanmar. Our genomic analyses reconstructed two primary global spread routes, one older, westward route to the Middle East coinciding with various Islamic dynasties (~1,200 ya), and another younger eastward route coinciding with the European colonial period (~390 ya). While Europe was not central to the early domestication and spread of the German cockroach, European advances in long-distance transportation and temperature-controlled housing were likely important for the more recent global spread, increasing chances of successful dispersal to and establishment in new regions. The global genetic structure of German cockroaches further supports our model, as it generally aligns with geopolitical boundaries, suggesting regional bridgehead populations established following the advent of international commerce.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Agrawal S, Kumar A, Kumar Singh A, et al (2024)

A comprehensive review on pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of 8 potent species of southeast Asia.

Journal of traditional Chinese medicine = Chung i tsa chih ying wen pan, 44(3):620-628.

Genus Prunus comprising around 430 species is a vast important genus of family Rosaceae, subfamily amygdalaoidae. Among all 430 species, around 19 important species are commonly found in Indian sub-continent due to their broad nutritional and economic importance. Some most common species of genus Prunus are Prunus amygdalus, Prunus persica, Prunus armeniaca, Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus cerasoides, Prunus domestica, Prunus mahaleb, etc. A newly introduced species of Prunus i.e Prunus sunhangii is recently discovered which is morphologically very similar to Prunus cerasoides. Plants of Prunus species are short to medium-sized deciduous trees mainly found in the northern hemisphere. In India and its subcontinent, it extends from the Himalayas to Sikkim, Meghalaya, Bhutan, Myanmar etc. Different Prunus species have been extensively studied for their morphological, microscopic, pharmacological and phytoconstituents characteristics. Total phenolic content of Prunus species explains the presence of phenols in high quantity and pharmacological activity due to phenols. Phytochemical screening of species of genus Prunus shows the presence of wide phytoconstituents which contributes in their pharmacological significance and reveals the therapeutic potential and traditional medicinal significance of this genus. Genus Prunus showed a potent antioxidant activity analyzed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical assay. Plant species belonging to the genus Prunus is widely used traditionally for the treatment of various disorders. Some specific Prunus species possess potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic etc. activity which makes the genus more interesting for further research and findings. This review is an attempt to summarize the comprehensive study of Prunus.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Taylor LU, Hodge W, Shlepr KR, et al (2024)

Interspecies conflict, precarious reasoning, and the gull problem in the Gulf of Maine.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Contemporary conservation science requires mediating conflicts among nonhuman species, but the grounds for favoring one species over another can be unclear. We examined the premises through which wildlife managers picked sides in an interspecies conflict: seabird conservation in the Gulf of Maine (GOM). Managers in the GOM follow a simple narrative dubbed the gull problem. This narrative assumes Larus gulls are overpopulated and unnatural in the region. In turn, these assumptions make gulls an easy target for culling and lethal control when the birds come into conflict with other seabirds, particularly Sterna terns. Surveying historical, natural historical, and ecological evidence, we found no scientific support for the claim that Larus gulls are overpopulated in the GOM. Claims of overpopulation originated from a historical context in which rising gull populations became a nuisance to humans. Further, we found only limited evidence that anthropogenic subsidies make gulls unnatural in the region, especially when compared with anthropogenic subsidies provided for other seabirds. The risks and consequences of leveraging precarious assumptions include cascading plans to cull additional gull populations, obfuscation of more fundamental environmental threats to seabirds, and the looming paradox of gull conservation-even if one is still inclined to protect terns in the GOM. Our close look at the regional history of a conservation practice thus revealed the importance of not only conservation decisions, but also conservation decision-making.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Chen W, Hubert N, Li Y, et al (2024)

Mitogenomic phylogeny, biogeography, and cryptic divergence of the genus Silurus (Siluriformes: Siluridae).

Zoological research, 45(4):711-723.

The genus Silurus, an important group of catfish, exhibits heterogeneous distribution in Eurasian freshwater systems. This group includes economically important and endangered species, thereby attracting considerable scientific interest. Despite this interest, the lack of a comprehensive phylogenetic framework impedes our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the extensive diversity found within this genus. Herein, we analyzed 89 newly sequenced and 20 previously published mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) from 13 morphological species to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships, biogeographic history, and species diversity of Silurus. Our phylogenetic reconstructions identified eight clades, supported by both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference. Sequence-based species delimitation analyses yielded multiple molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) in several taxa, including the Silurus asotus complex (four MOTUs) and Silurus microdorsalis (two MOTUs), suggesting that species diversity is underestimated in the genus. A reconstructed time-calibrated tree of Silurus species provided an age estimate of the most recent common ancestor of approximately 37.61 million years ago (Ma), with divergences among clades within the genus occurring between 11.56 Ma and 29.44 Ma, and divergences among MOTUs within species occurring between 3.71 Ma and 11.56 Ma. Biogeographic reconstructions suggested that the ancestral area for the genus likely encompassed China and the Korean Peninsula, with multiple inferred dispersal events to Europe and Central and Western Asia between 21.78 Ma and 26.67 Ma and to Japan between 2.51 Ma and 18.42 Ma. Key factors such as the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event, onset and intensification of the monsoon system, and glacial cycles associated with sea-level fluctuations have likely played significant roles in shaping the evolutionary history of the genus Silurus.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Chang CH, Shen HP, Sherlock E, et al (2024)

A review of the earthworm Amynthasmasatakae (Beddard, 1892) (Clitellata, Megascolecidae), with designation of two new synonyms.

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e119599.

Correct and timely identification of an invasive species during quarantine or at an early stage of invasion before establishment or spread is critical for preventing biological invasions. However, taxonomic confusion of potential invasive earthworm species caused by incorrect taxonomic treatment or reckless taxonomic work has made it difficult to properly recognize potential invasion threats. Through analyzing publicly available DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, we confirmed the validity of the specific status of Amynthasmasatakae (Beddard, 1892), a peregrine earthworm species in East Asia with the potential to spread to other regions of the world, and designated two new synonyms of A.masatakae: Amynthastralfamadore Blakemore, 2012 syn. nov. and Amynthasscaberulus Sun and Jiang, 2021 syn. nov. Additionally, the name A.triastriatususualis Dong, Jiang, Yuan, Zhao and Qiu, 2020 is nomenclaturally unavailable since it was published in an electronic journal without ZooBank registration and an explicit statement establishing a new nominal taxon. Specimens described under this unavailable name actually belong to A.masatakae. Inadequate literature review and erroneous species identities associated with sequences in GenBank have caused even more problems in the already confusing earthworm taxonomy.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Le ZJ, Ma LX, Zhou YF, et al (2024)

Functional analysis of nuclear receptor genes in molting and metamorphosis of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(24)03264-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors that are important for the normal growth and development of insects. However, systematic function analysis of NRs in the molting process of Lasioderma serricorne has not been reported. In this study, we identified and characterized 16 NR genes from L. serricorne. Spatiotemporal expression analysis revealed that six NRs were mainly expressed in 3-d-old 4th-instar larvae; five NRs were primarily expressed in 5-d-old adults and four NRs were predominately expressed in prepupae. All the NRs were highly expressed in epidermis, fat body and foregut. RNA interference (RNAi) experiments revealed that knockdown of 15 NRs disrupted the larva-pupa-adult transitions and caused 64.44-100 % mortality. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that depletion of 12 NRs prevented the formation of new cuticle and disrupted apolysis of old cuticle. Silencing of LsHR96, LsSVP and LsE78 led to newly formed cuticle that was thinner than the controls. The 20E titer and chitin content significantly decreased by 17.67-95.12 % after 15 NR dsRNA injection and the gene expression levels of 20E synthesis genes and chitin metabolism genes were significantly reduced. These results demonstrated that 15 NR genes are essential for normal molting and metamorphosis of L. serricorne by regulating 20E synthesis and chitin metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Liu L, Lin B, Fang Q, et al (2024)

Effectiveness assessment of China's coastal wetland ecological restoration: A meta-analysis.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03483-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the coastal wetland degradation caused by human activities and environmental changes, many coastal wetland restoration studies have been carried out in China to restore the degraded ecosystems, but it still lacks a comprehensive assessment of restoration effectiveness at national scale. In this study, a meta-analysis of 78 field studies was conducted to quantitatively assess the restoration effectiveness of biodiversity and ecosystem services in China's coastal wetlands. At the same time, we evaluated the impact factors such as ecosystem types, restoration methods and measures, and restoration time on restoration effectiveness. The results show that coastal wetland ecological restoration has improved the biodiversity and ecosystem services by 36.8 % and 38.2 % respectively within the time range reported in the research literature, but neither has returned to the level of natural ecosystems. Biodiversity recovery is significantly positively correlated with the recovery of ecosystem services, indicating the simultaneous recovery outcome. Compared with degraded wetlands, the effectiveness of passive restoration is better than that of active restoration. In the mangrove ecosystem, invasive species removal is the most effective among the restoration measures, and the restoration effectiveness of polyculture plantations is better than that of monoculture plantations. When time ranges from 0 to 20 years, the recovery level of coastal wetlands tends to increase with the extension of restoration time. However, when the restoration time is >20 years, the recovery level decreases, which may be related to the lack of maintenance and management measures in the later stage. Our study showcases the scientific evidence for future coastal wetland ecological restoration in China.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Li YL, Xie LN, Li SH, et al (2024)

Photosynthetic carbon allocation in native and invasive salt marshes undergoing hydrological change: A mesocosm experiment.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03379-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Biogeochemical processes mediated by plants and soil in coastal marshes are vulnerable to environmental changes and biological invasion. In particular, tidal inundation and salinity stress will intensify under future rising sea level scenarios. In this study, the interactive effects of flooding regimes (non-waterlogging vs. waterlogging) and salinity (0, 5, 15, and 30 parts per thousand (ppt)) on photosynthetic carbon allocation in plant, rhizodeposition, and microbial communities in native (Phragmites australis) and invasive (Spartina alterniflora) marshes were investigated using mesocosm experiments and [13]CO2 pulse-labeling techniques. The results showed that waterlogging and elevated salinity treatments decreased specific root allocation (SRA) of [13]C, rhizodeposition allocation (RA) [13]C, soil [13]C content, grouped microbial PLFAs, and the fungal [13]C proportion relative to total PLFAs-[13]C. The lowest SRA, RA, and fungal [13]C proportion occurred under the combined waterlogging and high (30 ppt) salinity treatments. Relative to S. alterniflora, P. australis displayed greater sensitivity to hydrological changes, with a greater reduction in rhizodeposition, soil [13]C content, and fungal PLFAs. S. alterniflora showed an earlier peak SRA but a lower root/shoot [13]C ratio than P. australis. This suggests that S. alterniflora may transfer more photosynthetic carbon to the shoot and rhizosphere to facilitate invasion under stress. Waterlogging and high salinity treatments shifted C allocation towards bacteria over fungi for both plant species, with a higher allocation shift in S. alterniflora soil, revealing the species-specific microbial response to hydrological stresses. Potential shifts towards less efficient bacterial pathways might result in accelerated carbon loss. Over the study period, salinity was the primary driver for both species, explaining 33.2-50.8 % of [13]C allocation in the plant-soil-microbe system. We propose that future carbon dynamics in coastal salt marshes under sea-level rise conditions depend on species-specific adaptive strategies and carbon allocation patterns of native and invasive plant-soil systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Outa JO, Bhika P, A Avenant-Oldewage (2024)

Gastropod invasions in anthropogenically impacted impoundments in South Africa: Tracing their origins and exploring field evidence of parasite spillback and amplification.

International journal for parasitology, 54(6):279-301.

Invasive snails are associated with ecological problems in freshwater bodies worldwide. However, their impact on the transmission of digenean infections remain underreported. In the present study, 1708 specimens representing four snail species were sampled from four impoundments in the Limpopo River system in South Africa. Gyraulus chinensis (Planorbidae), Physella acuta (Physidae) and Pseudosuccinea columella (Lymnaeidae), which are invasive, were found in all the sampling sites. In contrast, the native lymnaeid Radix natalensis occurred at only one study site. Digeneans were observed only from R. natalensis (prevalence = 49%) and Ps. columella (prevalence = 23%). Morphological and genetic analyses revealed four digeneans: Fasciola nyanzae, Orientocreadium sp., Petasiger sp. and Patagifer vioscai. Pseudosuccinea columella was infected by the four digeneans while R. natalensis harboured only Orientocreadium sp. and Petasiger sp. Partial sequences of Orientocreadium sp. from the current study differed from congeners whose DNA data are available on GenBank, by p-distances of at least 1.84 and 2.2% for 28S and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the present species is sister to Orientocreadium batrachoides. Genetic and phylogenetic data based on 28S and ITS rDNA suggested that Petasiger sp. from the present study and isolates of three unidentified Petasiger spp. from Kenya, Hungary and Australia, were representatives of the same species. This is the first known report of Orientocreadium, Petasiger and Patagifer from Ps. columella. The occurrence of F. nyanzae in Ps. columella indicates spillback from R. natalensis. These findings echo the concerns raised in previous studies about the potential role of Ps. columella in the amplification of digenean diseases in its introduced range. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 mitochondrial gene (cox1) showed multiple lineages of Ps. columella in North and South America. Pseudosuccinea columella specimens from the present study belong to an invasive genotype that has spread globally and has been reported from Zimbabwe, Egypt, Portugal, Australia, Argentina, Colombia and New Mexico (USA). Physella acuta from the current study had a stronger genetic relationship with isolates from Canada and Iceland, than with isolates from other parts of Africa, suggesting several invasion routes into Africa. This is the first known DNA characterisation of G. chinensis from Africa. Phylogenetic reconstruction indicated multiple exit events of G. chinensis from Asia into Europe and Africa. South African isolates clustered in a recent branch containing isolates from the Czech Republic and Hong Kong, China. Considering the presence of invasive snails in all the sampling sites in the present study, it is necessary to investigate the factors that enhance their establishment and to monitor their effects on the native snail populations.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Galià-Camps C, Junkin L, Borrallo X, et al (2024)

Navigating spatio-temporal microbiome dynamics: Environmental factors and trace elements shape the symbiont community of an invasive marine species.

Marine pollution bulletin, 203:116477 pii:S0025-326X(24)00454-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The proliferation of marine invasive species is a mounting concern. While the role of microbial communities in invasive ascidian species is recognized, the role of seasonal shifts in microbiome composition remains largely unexplored. We sampled five individuals of the invasive ascidian Styela plicata quarterly from January 2020 to October 2021 in two harbours, examining gills, tunics, and surrounding water. By analysing Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and seawater trace elements, we found that compartment (seawater, tunic, or gills) was the primary differentiating factor, followed by harbour. Clear seasonal patterns were evident in seawater bacteria, less so in gills, and absent in tunics. We identified compartment-specific bacteria, as well as seasonal indicator ASVs and ASVs correlated with trace element concentrations. Among these bacteria, we found that Endozoicomonas, Hepatoplasma and Rhodobacteraceae species had reported functions which might be necessary for overcoming seasonality and trace element shifts. This study contributes to understanding microbiome dynamics in invasive holobiont systems, and the patterns found indicate a potential role in adaptation and invasiveness.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Yamamoto MH, CC Jones (2024)

Comparing long-term patterns of spread of native and invasive plants in a successional forest.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

A fundamental question in invasive plant ecology is whether invasive and native plants have different ecological roles. Differences in functional traits have been explored, but we lack a comparison of the factors affecting the spread of co-occurring natives and invasives. Some have proposed that to succeed, invasives would colonize a wider variety of sites, would disperse farther, or would be better at colonizing sites with more available light and soil nutrients than natives. We examined patterns of spread over 70 years in a regenerating forest in Connecticut, USA, where both native and invasive species acted as colonizers. We compared seven invasive and 19 native species in the characteristics of colonized plots, variation in these characteristics, and the importance of site variables for colonization. We found little support for the hypotheses that invasive plants succeed by dispersing farther than native plants or by having a broader range of site tolerances. Colonization by invasives was also not more dependent on light than colonization by natives. Like native understory species, invasive plants spread into closed-canopy forest and species-rich communities despite earlier predictions that these communities would resist invasion. The biggest differences were that soil nitrate and the initial land cover being open field increased the odds of colonization for most invasives but only for some natives. In large part, though, the spread of native and invasive plants was affected by similar factors.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Wang S, Li W, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Alien range size, habitat breadth, origin location, and domestication of alien species matter to their impact risks.

Integrative zoology [Epub ahead of print].

Invasive alien species are a major driver of biodiversity loss. Currently, the process of biological invasions is experiencing a constant acceleration, foreshadowing a future increase in the threat posed by invasive alien species to global biodiversity. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the impact risks of invasive alien species and related factors. Here, we constructed a dataset of negative environmental impact events to evaluate the impact risks of alien species. We collected information on 1071 established alien terrestrial vertebrates and then gathered negative environmental impacts for 108 of those species. Generalized linear mixed-effects model and phylogenetic generalized least-squares regression model were used to examine the characteristic (including life-history traits, characteristics related to distribution, and introduction event characteristics) correlates of species' impact risks at the global scale for 108 established alien terrestrial vertebrates (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians). Our results showed that a total of 3158 negative environmental impacts were reported for 108 harmful species across 71 countries worldwide. Factors associated with impact risks varied slightly among taxa, but alien range size, habitat breadth, origin location, and domestication were significantly correlated with impact risks. Our study aims to identify the characteristics of alien species with high-impact risks to facilitate urgent assessment of alien species and to protect the local ecological environment and biodiversity.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Turner CM, Loughry WJ, Perez-Heydrich C, et al (2024)

Seroprevalence of Leprosy in Nine-Banded Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) from Tennessee, USA, 2021-22.

Journal of wildlife diseases pii:500822 [Epub ahead of print].

The nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) is currently considered an invasive species in parts of its range in the US, and this range continues to expand to the north and east. Nine-banded armadillos are one of a handful of mammals known to contract leprosy (also known as Hansen's disease); range expansion thus leads to public health concerns about whether this might increase human exposure to infected animals. We collected blood samples from 61 road-killed armadillos over two summers (2021 and 2022) in Tennessee, a US state near the northern extreme of the species' current range, and screened them for exposure to Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. All animals were seronegative, providing no evidence that range expansion is increasing the distribution of leprosy in the US.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Anchundia DJ, Green R, Pike CL, et al (2024)

Habitat restoration to conserve the Little Vermilion Flycatcher on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

Bird conservation international, 34:.

The endemic Little Vermilion Flycatcher (LVF), Pyrocephalus nanus, has suffered a drastic decline on Santa Cruz Island, where it was common 30 years ago. Currently, less than 40 individuals remain in the last remnants of natural humid forest in the Galapagos National Park on this island. This small population has low reproductive success, which is contributing to its decline in Santa Cruz. Previous studies have identified Avian Vampire Fly, Philornis downsi, parasitism, changes in food sources, and habitat alteration as threats to this species. In Santa Cruz, invasive plants may strongly affect the reproductive success of the LVF because they limit accessibility to prey near the ground, the preferred foraging niche of these birds. Since 2019, we restored the vegetation in seven plots of one hectare each by removing invasive blackberry plants and other introduced plant species. In all nests that reached late incubation, we also reduced the number of Avian Vampire Fly larvae. In this study, we compared foraging and perch height, pair formation, incubation time and reproductive success between managed and unmanaged areas. As predicted, we found significantly lower foraging height and perch height in 2021 in managed areas compared to unmanaged areas. In 2020, daily failure rate (DFR) of nests in the egg stage did not differ between management types; however, in 2021, DFR in the egg stage was significantly lower in managed areas than in unmanaged areas. The DFR during the nestling stage was similar between managed and unmanaged areas in 2020, but in 2021, only nests in managed areas reached the nestling stage. Females brooded significantly more during the incubation phase in managed areas. Additionally, we found significantly higher reproductive success in managed areas compared to unmanaged areas in 2021, but not in 2020. Habitat restoration is a long-term process and these findings suggest that habitat management positively affects this small population in the long term.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

de Haas FJH, Kläy L, Débarre F, et al (2024)

Modelling daisy quorum drive: A short-term bridge across engineered fitness valleys.

PLoS genetics, 20(5):e1011262 pii:PGENETICS-D-23-00206 [Epub ahead of print].

Engineered gene-drive techniques for population modification and/or suppression have the potential for tackling complex challenges, including reducing the spread of diseases and invasive species. Gene-drive systems with low threshold frequencies for invasion, such as homing-based gene drive, require initially few transgenic individuals to spread and are therefore easy to introduce. The self-propelled behavior of such drives presents a double-edged sword, however, as the low threshold can allow transgenic elements to expand beyond a target population. By contrast, systems where a high threshold frequency must be reached before alleles can spread-above a fitness valley-are less susceptible to spillover but require introduction at a high frequency. We model a proposed drive system, called "daisy quorum drive," that transitions over time from a low-threshold daisy-chain system (involving homing-based gene drive such as CRISPR-Cas9) to a high-threshold fitness-valley system (requiring a high frequency-a "quorum"-to spread). The daisy-chain construct temporarily lowers the high thresholds required for spread of the fitness-valley construct, facilitating use in a wide variety of species that are challenging to breed and release in large numbers. Because elements in the daisy chain only drive subsequent elements in the chain and not themselves and also carry deleterious alleles ("drive load"), the daisy chain is expected to exhaust itself, removing all CRISPR elements and leaving only the high-threshold fitness-valley construct, whose spread is more spatially restricted. Developing and analyzing both discrete patch and continuous space models, we explore how various attributes of daisy quorum drive affect the chance of modifying local population characteristics and the risk that transgenic elements expand beyond a target area. We also briefly explore daisy quorum drive when population suppression is the goal. We find that daisy quorum drive can provide a promising bridge between gene-drive and fitness-valley constructs, allowing spread from a low frequency in the short term and better containment in the long term, without requiring repeated introductions or persistence of CRISPR elements.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Harman RR, Morrison WR, Ludwick D, et al (2024)

Predicted range expansion of Prostephanus truncatus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) under projected climate change scenarios.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7675404 [Epub ahead of print].

The larger grain borer (Prostephanus truncatus [Horn] [Coleoptera: Bostrichidae]) is a wood-boring insect native to Central America and adapted to stored maize and cassava. It was accidentally introduced to Tanzania and became a pest across central Africa. Unlike many grain pests, P. truncatus populations can establish and move within forests. Consequently, novel infestations can occur without human influence. The objectives of our study were to (i) develop an updated current suitability projection for P. truncatus, (ii) assess its potential future distribution under different climate change scenarios, and (iii) identify climate variables that best inform the model. We used WALLACE and MaxEnt to predict potential global distribution by incorporating bioclimatic variables and occurrence records. Future models were projected for 2050 and 2070 with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 2.6 (low change) and 8.5 (high change). Distribution was most limited by high precipitation and cold temperatures. Globally, highly suitable areas (> 75%) primarily occurred along coastal and equatorial regions with novel areas in northern South America, India, southeastern Asia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, totaling 7% under current conditions. Highly suitable areas at RCPs 2.6 and 8.5 are estimated to increase to 12% and 15%, respectively, by 2050 and increase to 19% in 2070 under RCP 8.5. Centroids of highly suitable areas show distribution centers moving more inshore and away from the equator. Notably, the result is a range expansion, not a shift. Results can be used to decrease biosecurity risks through more spatially explicit and timely surveillance programs for targeting the exclusion of this pest.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Kennedy SM, Passler T, Ditchkoff SS, et al (2024)

Seroprevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Wild Pigs (Sus scrofa) in 17 States in the USA.

Journal of wildlife diseases pii:500800 [Epub ahead of print].

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are among the most detrimental invasive species in the USA. They are damaging to crops and agriculture, pose a public health risk as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens, and may also spread disease to livestock. One pathogen identified in wild pigs is bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a virus that causes an economically important disease of cattle (Bos taurus and Bos indicus). We sought to determine the BVDV seroprevalence in wild pigs in 17 states across the US and to determine whether age category, sex, or location were associated with a positive antibody titer. Serum samples from 945 wild pigs were collected from 17 US states. Virus neutralization assays were performed to determine antibody titers against BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a. Total BVDV seroprevalence for the study area was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.11-8.89). Seroprevalence across all evaluated states was determined to be 4.4% (95% CI, 2.48-6.82) for BVDV-1b and 3.6% (95% CI, 1.54-5.60) for BVDV-2a. The seroprevalence for individual states varied from 0% to 16.7%. There was no statistical difference in median antibody titer for BVDV-1b or BVDV-2a by sex or age category. State seroprevalences for both BVDV-1b and BVDV-2a were associated with wild pig population estimates for those states.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Douglas HB, Etzler FE, Johnson PJ, et al (2024)

Matrix-based key to the click beetle genera of Canada and USA with a summary of habitat use (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

ZooKeys, 1200:75-144.

The Elateridae, or click beetles are abundant and diverse in most terrestrial ecosystems in North America, acting as plant pests and filling many other ecological roles. The 112 genera of Elateridae Leach, 1815, or click beetles, known from Canada and USA are included in a first comprehensive digital interactive key to adults. A link to an online peer-reviewed LUCID key to elaterid genera and downloadable LUCID files are provided. Diagnostic morphological summaries using information from the 61 characters and 158 character states of the matrix key are presented for all genera. A table summarizes current understanding of habitat use by all elaterid genera in Canada and USA from literature, collections, citizen science, and our own observations. Diversity of elaterid genera was high throughout warm and cool temperate regions, especially in mountainous areas and mesic woodlands. Larvae of most genera were associated with soil, litter and decaying wood.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Li T, Jiang P, Liu J, et al (2024)

Considering climate change impact on the global potential geographical distribution of the invasive Argentine ant and little fire ant.

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S0007485324000270 [Epub ahead of print].

The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) and the little fire ant (Wasmannia auropunctata) are among the top 100 invasive alien species globally, causing significant ecological and economic harm. Therefore, it is crucial to study their potential geographic distribution worldwide. This study aimed to predict their global distribution under current and future climate conditions. We used distribution data from various sources, including CABI, GBIF, and PIAKey, and key climate variables selected from 19 environmental factors to model their potential geographic distribution using MaxEnt. The AUC values were 0.925 and 0.937 for L. humile and W. auropunctata, respectively, indicating good predictive performance. Suitable areas for L. humile were mainly in southern North America, northern South America, Europe, central Asia, southern Oceania, and parts of Africa, while W. auropunctata suitable areas were mostly in southern North America, most of South America, a small part of Europe, southern Asia, central Africa, and some parts of Oceania. Under climate change scenario, suitable areas for L. humile increased, while highly suitable areas for W. auropunctata decreased. The top four countries with the largest areas of overlapping suitable habitat under current climate were Brazil, China, Australia, and Argentina, while under future SSP585 climate scenario, the top four countries were Brazil, China, Indonesia, and Argentina. Some countries, such as Estonia and Finland, will see an overlapping adaptation area under climate change. In conclusion, this study provides insight into controlling the spread and harm of L. humile and W. auropunctata.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Xirocostas ZA, Ollerton J, Peco B, et al (2024)

Introduced species shed friends as well as enemies.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11088.

Many studies seeking to understand the success of biological invasions focus on species' escape from negative interactions, such as damage from herbivores, pathogens, or predators in their introduced range (enemy release). However, much less work has been done to assess the possibility that introduced species might shed mutualists such as pollinators, seed dispersers, and mycorrhizae when they are transported to a new range. We ran a cross-continental field study and found that plants were being visited by 2.6 times more potential pollinators with 1.8 times greater richness in their native range than in their introduced range. Understanding both the positive and negative consequences of introduction to a new range can help us predict, monitor, and manage future invasion events.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Cheng F, Liu J, Ren J, et al (2024)

Unveiling the landscape predictors of resilient vegetation in coastal wetlands to inform conservation in the face of climate extremes.

Global change biology, 30(5):e17314.

Unveiling spatial variation in vegetation resilience to climate extremes can inform effective conservation planning under climate change. Although many conservation efforts are implemented on landscape scales, they often remain blind to landscape variation in vegetation resilience. We explored the distribution of drought-resilient vegetation (i.e., vegetation that could withstand and quickly recover from drought) and its predictors across a heterogeneous coastal landscape under long-term wetland conversion, through a series of high-resolution satellite image interpretations, spatial analyses, and nonlinear modelling. We found that vegetation varied greatly in drought resilience across the coastal wetland landscape and that drought-resilient vegetation could be predicted with distances to coastline and tidal channel. Specifically, drought-resilient vegetation exhibited a nearly bimodal distribution and had a seaward optimum at ~2 km from coastline (corresponding to an inundation frequency of ~30%), a pattern particularly pronounced in areas further away from tidal channels. Furthermore, we found that areas with drought-resilient vegetation were more likely to be eliminated by wetland conversion. Even in protected areas where wetland conversion was slowed, drought-resilient vegetation was increasingly lost to wetland conversion at its landward optimum in combination with rapid plant invasions at its seaward optimum. Our study highlights that the distribution of drought-resilient vegetation can be predicted using landscape features but without incorporating this predictive understanding, conservation efforts may risk failing in the face of climate extremes.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Li H, Hu X, Geng X, et al (2024)

Competition mode and soil nutrient status shape the role of soil microbes in the diversity-invasibility relationship.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11425.

Understanding the relationship between plant diversity and invasibility is essential in invasion ecology. Species-rich communities are hypothesized to be more resistant to invasions than species-poor communities. However, while soil microorganisms play a crucial role in regulating this diversity-invasibility relationship, the effects of plant competition mode and soil nutrient status on their role remain unclear. To address this, we conducted a two-stage greenhouse experiment. Soils were first conditioned by growing nine native species separately in them for 1 year, then mixed in various configurations with soils conditioned using one, three, or six species, respectively. Next, we inoculated the mixed soil into sterilized substrate soil and planted the alien species Rhus typhina and native species Ailanthus altissima as test plants. We set up two competition modes (intraspecific and interspecific) and two nutrient levels (fertilization using slow-release fertilizer and nonfertilization). Under intraspecific competition, regardless of fertilization, the biomass of the alien species was higher in soil conditioned by six native species. By contrast, under interspecific competition, the biomass increased without fertilization but remained stable with fertilization in soil conditioned by six native species. Analysis of soil microbes suggests that pathogens and symbiotic fungi in diverse plant communities influenced R. typhina growth, which varied with competition mode and nutrient status. Our findings suggest that the soil microbiome is pivotal in mediating the diversity-invasibility relationship, and this influence varies according to competition mode and nutrient status.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Kharouba HM, JL Williams (2024)

Forecasting species' responses to climate change using space-for-time substitution.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(24)00082-X [Epub ahead of print].

To anticipate species' responses to climate change, ecologists have largely relied on the space-for-time-substitution (SFTS) approach. However, the hypothesis and its underlying assumptions have been poorly tested. Here, we detail how the efficacy of using the SFTS approach to predict future locations will depend on species' traits, the ecological context, and whether the species is declining or introduced. We argue that the SFTS approach will be least predictive in the contexts where we most need it to be: forecasting the expansion of the range of introduced species and the recovery of threatened species. We highlight how evaluating the underlying assumptions, along with improved methods, will rapidly advance our understanding of the applicability of the SFTS approach, particularly in the context of modelling the distribution of species.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Neven LG, Walker WB, Gowton C, et al (2024)

Using eDNA to play whack-a-mole with invasive species in green yard waste.

Journal of economic entomology pii:7671463 [Epub ahead of print].

As large cities begin to overrun their landfill capacities, they begin to look for alternative locations to handle the waste stream. Seeing an opportunity to bring in revenue, rural communities offer to handle municipal waste in their landfills. However, many rural communities are also places of agricultural production, which are vulnerable to attacks by invasive insect species, which could be present in green yard waste, the component of municipal waste most likely to contain agriculturally harmful insect species. We used environmental DNA (eDNA) to determine whether green yard waste could be a pathway for invasive insect species to enter and establish in the landfill-receiving agricultural community. We identified several target species that could be in green yard waste coming from Vancouver, BC, Canada, to Central Washington State, USA. We sampled green yard waste from 3 sites every 2 weeks from June to October in 2019 and 2020. DNA was extracted from the nearly 400 samples and subjected to amplification with COI barcoding primers followed by sequencing to identify target insects in the samples. Sequence analyses identified 3 species from the target list: 2 species that are pests of deciduous tree fruits and a generalist root-feeding crop pest. This eDNA technique was useful in identifying potential invasive species in green yard waste and may prove to be an important tool informing policy on the movement of biological material across borders and stemming the spread of invasive species.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Gougherty AV, Klapwijk M, Liebhold AM, et al (2024)

Identifying the generalizable controls on insect associations of native and non-native trees.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11265.

Trees growing outside their native geographic ranges often exhibit exceptional growth and survival due in part to the lack of co-evolved natural enemies that may limit their spread and suppress population growth. While most non-native trees tend to accumulate natural enemies over time, it remains uncertain which host and insect characteristics affect these novel associations and whether novel associations follow patterns of assembly similar to those of native hosts. Here, we used a dataset of insect-host tree associations in Europe to model which native insect species are paired with which native tree species, and then tested the model on its ability to predict which native insects are paired with which non-native trees. We show that native and non-native tree species closely related to known hosts are more likely to be hosts themselves, but that native host geographic range size, insect feeding guild, and sampling effort similarly affect insect associations. Our model had a strong ability to predict which insect species utilize non-native trees as hosts, but evolutionarily isolated tree species posed the greatest challenge to the model. These results demonstrate that insect-host associations can be reliably predicted, regardless of whether insect and host trees have co-evolved, and provide a framework for predicting future pest threats using a select number of easily attainable tree and insect characteristics.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Anderson D, Cervantez O, Bucciarelli GM, et al (2024)

Feral frogs, native newts, and chemical cues: identifying threats from and management opportunities for invasive African Clawed Frogs in Washington state.

PeerJ, 12:e17307 pii:17307.

Invasive species threaten biodiversity globally. Amphibians are one of the most threatened vertebrate taxa and are particularly sensitive to invasive species, including other amphibians. African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) are native to Southern Africa but have subsequently become invasive on multiple continents-including multiple parts of North America-due to releases from the pet and biomedical trades. Despite their prevalence as a global invader, the impact of X. laevis remains understudied. This includes the Pacific Northwest of the USA, which now hosts multiple expanding X. laevis populations. For many amphibians, chemical cues communicate important information, including the presence of predators. Here, we tested the role chemical cues may play in mediating interactions between feral X. laevis and native amphibians in the Pacific Northwest. We tested whether native red-legged frog (Rana aurora) tadpoles display an antipredator response to non-native frog (X. laevis) or native newt (rough-skinned newts, Taricha granulosa) predator chemical stimuli. We found that R. aurora tadpoles exhibited pronounced anti-predator responses when exposed to chemical cues from T. granulosa but did not display anti-predator response to invasive X. laevis chemical cues. We also began experimentally testing whether T. granulosa-which produce a powerful neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX)-may elicit an anti-predator response in X. laevis, that could serve to deter co-occupation. However, our short-duration experiments found that X. laevis were attracted to newt chemical stimuli rather than deterred. Our findings show that X. laevis likely poses a threat to native amphibians, and that these native species may also be particularly vulnerable to this invasive predator, compared to native predators, because toxic native newts may not limit X. laevis invasions. Our research provides some of the first indications that native Pacific Northwest species may be threatened by feral X. laevis and provides a foundation for future experiments testing potential management techniques for X. laevis.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Mittelberger C, Moser M, Hause B, et al (2024)

'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' SAP11-Like protein modulates expression of genes involved in energy production, photosynthesis, and defense in Nicotiana occidentalis leaves.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):393.

BACKGROUND: 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali', the causal agent of apple proliferation disease, exerts influence on its host plant through various effector proteins, including SAP11CaPm which interacts with different TEOSINTE BRANCHED1/ CYCLOIDEA/ PROLIFERATING CELL FACTOR 1 and 2 (TCP) transcription factors. This study examines the transcriptional response of the plant upon early expression of SAP11CaPm. For that purpose, leaves of Nicotiana occidentalis H.-M. Wheeler were Agrobacterium-infiltrated to induce transient expression of SAP11CaPm and changes in the transcriptome were recorded until 5 days post infiltration.

RESULTS: The RNA-seq analysis revealed that presence of SAP11CaPm in leaves leads to downregulation of genes involved in defense response and related to photosynthetic processes, while expression of genes involved in energy production was enhanced.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that early SAP11CaPm expression might be important for the colonization of the host plant since phytoplasmas lack many metabolic genes and are thus dependent on metabolites from their host plant.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Martelo J, Gkenas C, Ribeiro D, et al (2024)

Local environment and fragmentation by drought and damming shape different components of native and non-native fish beta diversity across pool refuges.

The Science of the total environment, 930:172517.

Pool refuges are critical for maintaining stream fish diversity in increasingly intermittent streams. Yet, the patterns and drivers of beta diversity of native and non-native fish in pool refuges remain poorly known. Focusing on Mediterranean streams, we decomposed beta diversity of native and non-native fish into richness difference (RichDiff) and species replacement (Repl), and local (LCBD, LCBDRichDiff and LCBDRepl) and species (SCBD) contributions. We assessed the influence of environmental and spatial factors associated with drought and damming fragmentations on beta diversity components and LCBDs, and of local species richness and occupancy on LCBDs and SCBD, respectively. Overall, non-native species showed a more limited occupancy of pool refuges than native fish. RichDiff dominated beta diversity, though it was influenced by drought and damming fragmentations for native fish and local environment for non-native fish. Repl for native fish was slightly influenced by local environment, but for non-native fish was largely driven by drought and damming, albeit with a contribution of local environment as well. LCBD and LCBDRichDiff increased in pools in low order streams for native fish and at low elevations for non-native fish, and with high or low species richness. SCBD was higher for native species with intermediated pool occupancy, but for non-native species with low occupancy. Our results suggest that stream fragmentation may drive native species loss and non-native species replacement in pool refuges, and that environmental filtering may shape non-native species loss. Pools in lower order streams harbouring unique species-rich or species-poor assemblages should be prioritize for conservation and restoration, respectively, and pools at low elevation with unique non-native assemblages should deserve control efforts. We encourage the partitioning of beta diversity and individual analysis of native and non-native fish in intermittent streams, which may be key in stressing the importance of pool refuges in safeguarding native fish diversity.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Littlefair M, Scheele BC, Westgate M, et al (2024)

The ecological and biodiversity conservation values of farm dams: A systematic review.

PloS one, 19(5):e0303504 pii:PONE-D-23-29523.

Biodiversity is in rapid decline globally with agriculture being one of the leading causes. Within agricultural landscapes, some features provide a benefit to biodiversity that is disproportionate to their spatial area. An interesting example is artificial ponds-or farm dams-which can support a large variety of taxa. Here, we present a global review of farm dam research related to biodiversity conservation objectives to provide an overview of the topics, key research insights, and the characteristics of current research. We used a three-stage process to screen literature and identified 104 relevant papers across 27 countries encompassing studies of 13 different taxa. Most of the studies were short-term (less than 5 years) with small sample sizes (less than 20 sites). Of the 104 papers, 88 were focussed primarily on ecological outcomes, such as species richness or abundance, and 15 on primary production outcomes, such as crop and livestock yield, despite addressing or measuring ecological metrics. Only one study measured both ecological and primary production outcomes. Studies frequently examined how the features of dams (79 studies) and attributes of the surrounding landscape (47 studies) impact particular species and communities. Terrestrial mammals (1 study) were under-represented in the literature with macrophytes (28 studies), macroinvertebrates (26 studies), and amphibians (19 studies) receiving the most attention. Our results reveal a growing trend towards recognizing farm dams as habitats for various taxa, including amphibians, beetles, dragonflies, and other macroinvertebrates within agricultural environments. Significant knowledge gaps exist in understanding how dam age, invasive species, and effective management practices impact the biodiversity conservation values of farm dams. Future research should emphasize enhancing biodiversity by collaborating with landholders to increase habitat through strategic vegetation planning, minimizing runoff and nutrient inflow, and restricting stock access.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Arriola K, Silva WD, Hanks LM, et al (2024)

A Polyketide Male-Produced Aggregation-Sex Pheromone Shared by the North American Cerambycid Beetle Graphisurus fasciatus and the South American Cerambycid Eutrypanus dorsalis.

Journal of chemical ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The longhorn beetle Graphisurus fasciatus (Degeer) ranges from southeastern Canada to Florida and west to Texas, and has frequently been caught during field trials testing attraction of other cerambycid species to their synthesized pheromones. Collections of headspace volatiles from live beetles revealed that males but not females produce a polyketide compound identified as (4R,6S,7E,9E)-4,6,8-trimethylundeca-7,9-dien-3-one ([4R,6S,7E,9E]-graphisurone). Field trials verified that beetles of both sexes were attracted to the synthesized compound, indicating that it is an aggregation-sex pheromone. This structure represents a new structural motif among cerambycid pheromones, and a new natural product. While this study was in progress, the same compound was isolated from males of the South American cerambycid Eutrypanus dorsalis (Germar), in the same subfamily (Lamiinae) and tribe (Acanthocinini) as G. fasciatus. Field trials in Brazil confirmed that (4R,6S,7E,9E)-graphisurone is also an aggregation-sex pheromone for E. dorsalis, and a possible pheromone for two additional sympatric lamiine species, Hylettus seniculus (Germar) (Acanthocinini) and Oreodera quinquetuberculata (Drapiez) (tribe Acrocinini). These results indicate that graphisurone may be shared among a number of related species, as has been found with many components of cerambycid pheromones.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Yan Y, Liu DQ, Li C, et al (2024)

Disruption of microRNA pathway core genes inhibits molting and reproduction of the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne.

Pest management science [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: MicroRNA (miRNA) pathway genes have been widely reported to participate in several physiological events in insect lifecycles. The cigarette beetle Lasioderma serricorne is an economically important storage pest worldwide. However, the functions of miRNA pathway genes in L. serricorne remain to be clarified. Herein, we investigated the function of molting and reproduction of the miRNA pathway in L. serricorne.

RESULTS: LsDicer-1, LsArgonaute-1, LsLoquacious and LsExportin-5 were universally expressed in adults, whereas LsPasha and LsDrosha were mainly expressed in the pupae. The genes presented different patterns in various tissues. Silencing of LsDicer-1, LsArgonaute-1, LsDrosha and LsExportin-5 resulted in a high proportion of wing deformities and molting defects. Silencing of LsDicer-1, LsArgonaute-1, LsPasha and LsLoquacious affected the development of the ovary and the maturation of oocytes, resulting in a significant decrease in fecundity. Further investigation revealed that the decreases in LsDicer-1 and LsArgonaute-1 expression destroyed follicular epithelia and delayed vitellogenesis and oocyte development. In addition, the expression levels of several miRNAs (let-7, let-7-5p, miR-8-3p, miR-8-5p, miR-9c-5p, miR-71, miR-252-5p, miR-277-3p, miR-263b and Novel-miR-50) were decreased significantly after knockdown of these miRNA pathway core genes, indicating that they played important roles in regulating miRNA-mediated gene expression.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that miRNA pathway genes play important roles in the molting, ovarian development and female fecundity of L. serricorne, and thus are potentially suitable target genes for developing an RNAi strategy against a major pest of stored products. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Wong TW, Ye W, Thiessen L, et al (2024)

Occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. in fields rotated with sweetpotato and host range of a North Carolina population of Meloidogyne enterolobii.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) are some of the most economically important and common plant parasitic nematodes in North Carolina (NC) cropping systems. Soil samples collected from fields planted with crops rotated with sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] in 39 NC counties in 2015-2018 were processed at the NC Nematode Assay Laboratory. The occurrence of second-stage juvenile (J2) RKN populations was examined based on collection year, month, county, and previous planted crop. The highest number of RKN positive samples originated from Cumberland (53%), Sampson (48%), and Johnston (48%) counties. The highest average RKN population density was detected in Sampson (147 J2/500 cm3 soil) and Nash (135 J2/500 cm3 soil) counties, while Wayne (7 J2/500 cm3 soil) and Greene (11 J2/500 cm3 soil) counties had the lowest average RKN population density. Meloidogyne enterolobii is a new invasive species that is impacting sweetpotato growers of NC. The host status of a NC population of M. enterolobii, the guava-root knot nematode, was determined by examining eggs per gram of fresh root (ER) and the final nematode egg population divided by the initial population egg count (reproductive factor, RF) in greenhouse experiments. This included eighteen vegetable, field, cover crops and weed species. The tomato 'Rutgers' was used as a susceptible control. Cabbage 'Stonehead', pepper 'Red bull', and watermelon 'Charleston gray' and 'Fascination' were hosts and had similar mean ER values to the positive control, ranging from 64 to 18,717. Among field crops, cotton, soybean 'P5018RX', and tobacco were hosts with ER values that ranged from 185 to 706. Members of the Poaceae family such as sweet corn (Zea mays) and sudangrass (Sorghum x drummondii) were non-hosts to M. enterolobii and the mean ER values ranged from 1.85 to 7. The peanut 'Tifguard' and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) also had lower ER values than the vegetable hosts. Growers should consider planting less susceptible or non-hosts such as peanut, sudangrass, sweet corn, and winter wheat in 2-3 year crop rotations to lower populations of this invasive nematode.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Haubrock PJ, Soto I, Ahmed DA, et al (2024)

Biological invasions are a population-level rather than a species-level phenomenon.

Global change biology, 30(5):e17312.

Biological invasions pose a rapidly expanding threat to the persistence, functioning and service provisioning of ecosystems globally, and to socio-economic interests. The stages of successful invasions are driven by the same mechanism that underlies adaptive changes across species in general-via natural selection on intraspecific variation in traits that influence survival and reproductive performance (i.e., fitness). Surprisingly, however, the rapid progress in the field of invasion science has resulted in a predominance of species-level approaches (such as deny lists), often irrespective of natural selection theory, local adaptation and other population-level processes that govern successful invasions. To address these issues, we analyse non-native species dynamics at the population level by employing a database of European freshwater macroinvertebrate time series, to investigate spreading speed, abundance dynamics and impact assessments among populations. Our findings reveal substantial variability in spreading speed and abundance trends within and between macroinvertebrate species across biogeographic regions, indicating that levels of invasiveness and impact differ markedly. Discrepancies and inconsistencies among species-level risk screenings and real population-level data were also identified, highlighting the inherent challenges in accurately assessing population-level effects through species-level assessments. In recognition of the importance of population-level assessments, we urge a shift in invasive species management frameworks, which should account for the dynamics of different populations and their environmental context. Adopting an adaptive, region-specific and population-focused approach is imperative, considering the diverse ecological contexts and varying degrees of susceptibility. Such an approach could improve and refine risk assessments while promoting mechanistic understandings of risks and impacts, thereby enabling the development of more effective conservation and management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Taylor BA, Tembrock LR, Sankovitz M, et al (2024)

Population genomics of the invasive Northern Giant Hornet Vespa mandarinia in North America and across its native range.

Scientific reports, 14(1):10803.

The northern giant hornet Vespa mandarinia (NGH) is a voracious predator of other insect species, including honey bees. NGH's native range spans subtropical and temperate regions across much of east and southeast Asia and, in 2019, exotic populations of the species were discovered in North America. Despite this broad range and invasive potential, investigation of the population genomic structure of NGH across its native and introduced ranges has thus far been limited to a small number of mitochondrial samples. Here, we present analyses of genomic data from NGH individuals collected across the species' native range and from exotic individuals collected in North America. We provide the first survey of whole-genome population variation for any hornet species, covering this species' native and invasive ranges, and in doing so confirm likely origins in Japan and South Korea for the two introductions. We additionally show that, while this introduced population exhibited strongly elevated levels of inbreeding, these signatures of inbreeding are also present in some long-standing native populations, which may indicate that inbreeding depression alone is insufficient to prevent the persistence of NGH populations. As well as highlighting the importance of ongoing monitoring and eradication efforts to limit the spread of this species outside of its natural range, our data will serve as a foundational database for future genomic studies into introduced hornet populations.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Nie P, Cao R, Yang R, et al (2024)

Future range dynamics of Asian yellow-legged hornets (Vespa velutina) and their range overlap with Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) reveal major challenges for bee conservation in Europe.

Pest management science, 80(6):2785-2795.

BACKGROUND: The invasion of Asian yellow-legged hornets (Vespa velutina) has significantly affected Western honey bees (Apis mellifera) and apiculture in Europe. However, the range dynamics of this hornet and its range overlap with the bees under future change scenarios have not yet been clarified. Using land-use, climate, and topographical datasets, we projected the range dynamics of this hornet and Western honey bees in Europe and the future overlap of their ranges.

RESULTS: We found that climatic factors had stronger effects on the potential ranges of the hornets compared with land-use and topographical factors. A considerable range expansion of this hornet was predicted, and an increase in the overlap between this pest and the bees was primarily caused by future decreases in temperature seasonality. Additionally, we detected future range expansions of the hornet in the UK and France; future range overlap between this pest and Western honey bees in the UK, Ireland, Portugal, and France; and future overlap between the ranges of this pest and bees but not under recent conditions was mainly projected in Germany, Denmark, and the UK.

CONCLUSION: Mitigating future climate change might effectively control the proliferation of the hornets and their effects on the bees. Strategies for preventing the invasion of this pest and developing European apiculture should be developed and implemented in these regions where future range overlap between them was projected. Given that climate-change scenarios may result in uncertainty in our projections, further investigation is needed to clarify future range changes of our target species. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Moyano J (2023)

Origins of successful invasions.

Nature ecology & evolution, 7(10):1583-1584.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Mungi NA, Jhala YV, Qureshi Q, et al (2023)

Megaherbivores provide biotic resistance against alien plant dominance.

Nature ecology & evolution, 7(10):1645-1653.

While human-driven biological invasions are rapidly spreading, finding scalable and effective control methods poses an unresolved challenge. Here, we assess whether megaherbivores-herbivores reaching ≥1,000 kg of body mass-offer a nature-based solution to plant invasions. Invasive plants are generally adapted to maximize vegetative growth. Megaherbivores, with broad dietary tolerances, could remove large biomass of established plants, facilitating new plant growth. We used a massive dataset obtained from 26,838 camera stations and 158,979 vegetation plots to assess the relationships between megaherbivores, native plants and alien plants across India (~121,330 km[2]). We found a positive relationship between megaherbivore abundance and native plant richness and abundance, and a concomitant reduction in alien plant abundance. This relationship was strongest in protected areas with midproductive ecosystem and high megaherbivore density but it was lost in areas where thicket-forming alien plants predominated (>40% cover). By incorporating the role of ecosystem productivity, plants traits and densities of megaherbivores on megaherbivore-vegetation relationships, our study highlights a function of megaherbivores in controlling alien plant proliferation and facilitating diverse native plants in invaded ecosystems. The study shows great potential for megafauna-based trophic rewilding as a nature-based solution to counteract dominance of plant invasions.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

García-Rodríguez A, H Zumbado-Ulate (2023)

Chytrid invasion drives frog redistributions.

Nature ecology & evolution, 7(10):1587-1588.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Bušić N, Klobučar A, Landeka N, et al (2024)

A DNA barcode reference library of Croatian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae): implications for identification and delimitation of species, with notes on the distribution of potential vector species.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):216.

BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes pose a risk to human health worldwide, and correct species identification and detection of cryptic species are the most important keys for surveillance and control of mosquito vectors. In addition to traditional identification based on morphology, DNA barcoding has recently been widely used as a complementary tool for reliable identification of mosquito species. The main objective of this study was to create a reference DNA barcode library for the Croatian mosquito fauna, which should contribute to more accurate and faster identification of species, including cryptic species, and recognition of relevant vector species.

METHODS: Sampling was carried out in three biogeographical regions of Croatia over six years (2017-2022). The mosquitoes were morphologically identified; molecular identification was based on the standard barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI gene and the nuclear ITS2 region, the latter to identify species within the Anopheles maculipennis complex. The BIN-RESL algorithm assigned the COI sequences to the corresponding BINs (Barcode Index Number clusters) in BOLD, i.e. to putative MOTUs (Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units). The bPTP and ASAP species delimitation methods were applied to the genus datasets in order to verify/confirm the assignment of specimens to specific MOTUs.

RESULTS: A total of 405 mosquito specimens belonging to six genera and 30 morphospecies were collected and processed. Species delimitation methods assigned the samples to 31 (BIN-RESL), 30 (bPTP) and 28 (ASAP) MOTUs, with most delimited MOTUs matching the morphological identification. Some species of the genera Culex, Aedes and Anopheles were assigned to the same MOTUs, especially species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically and/or represent species complexes. In total, COI barcode sequences for 34 mosquito species and ITS2 sequences for three species of the genus Anopheles were added to the mosquito sequence database for Croatia, including one individual from the Intrudens Group, which represents a new record for the Croatian mosquito fauna.

CONCLUSION: We present the results of the first comprehensive study combining morphological and molecular identification of most mosquito species present in Croatia, including several invasive and vector species. With the exception of some closely related species, this study confirmed that DNA barcoding based on COI provides a reliable basis for the identification of mosquito species in Croatia.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Zhang J, Xu C, Wang S, et al (2024)

Variations in Genetic Diversity of Invasive Species Lithobates catesbeianus in China.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(9): pii:ani14091287.

The introduction and subsequent range expansion of the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus) is part of a rising trend of troublesome biological invasions happening in China. This detrimental amphibious invasive species has strong adaptability. After its introduction and spread, it established its own ecological niche in many provinces of China, and its range has continued to expand to more areas. Previous studies recorded the introduction time of bullfrogs and calculated the changes in their genetic diversity in China using mitochondria, but the specific introduction route in China is still unknown. Expanding upon previous research, we employed whole-genome scans (utilizing 2b-RAD genomic sequencing) to examine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and microsatellites within Lithobates catesbeianus to screen the genomes of these invasive amphibian species from eight Chinese provinces and two U.S. states, including Kansas, where bullfrogs originate. A total of 1,336,475 single nucleotide polymorphic loci and 17 microsatellite loci were used to calculate the genetic diversity of bullfrogs and their migration pathways. Our results suggest that the population in Hunan was the first to be introduced and to spread, and there may have been multiple introductions of subpopulations. Additionally, the genetic diversity of both the SNP and microsatellite loci in the Chinese bullfrog population was lower than that of the US population due to bottleneck effects, but the bullfrogs can adapt and spread rapidly. This study will offer crucial insights for preventing and controlling future introductions into the natural habitats in China. Additionally, it will assist in devising more precise strategies to manage the existing populations and curtail their continued expansion, as well as aim to improve clarity and originality while mitigating plagiarism risk.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Oliveira TG, Araspin L, Navas CA, et al (2024)

Impacts of a Simulated Infection on the Locomotor Behavior of Invasive and Noninvasive Species of Congeneric Anurans.

Ecological and evolutionary physiology, 97(2):71-80.

AbstractLocomotion is essential for survival, but it requires resources such as energy and metabolites and therefore may conflict with other physiological processes that also demand resources, particularly expensive processes such as immunological responses. This possible trade-off may impose limits on either the magnitude of immune responses or the patterns of activity and performance. Previous studies have shown that invasive species may have a depressed immune response, allowing them to maintain locomotor function and reproduction even when sick. This may contribute to the ecological success of invasive species in colonization and dispersal. In contrast, noninvasive species tend to reduce activity as a response to infection. Here, we studied the impact of a simulated infection on locomotor performance and voluntary movement in the anurans Xenopus laevis (a globally invasive species) and Xenopus allofraseri (a noninvasive congeneric). We found that a simulated infection reduces locomotor performance in both species, with an accentuated effect on X. allofraseri. Voluntary movement was marginally different between species. Our data suggest that a simulated infection leads to behavioral depression and reduced locomotor performance in anurans and show that this effect is limited in the invasive X. laevis. Contrasting responses to an immune challenge have been reported in the few amphibian taxa analyzed to date and suggest relationships between ecology and immunology that deserve further investigation. Specifically, a depressed immune response may underlie a propension to invasion in some species. Whether this is a general trend for invasive species remains to be tested, but our data add to the growing body of work documenting depressed immune systems in invasive species.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Mahon MB, Sack A, Aleuy OA, et al (2024)

A meta-analysis on global change drivers and the risk of infectious disease.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic change is contributing to the rise in emerging infectious diseases, which are significantly correlated with socioeconomic, environmental and ecological factors[1]. Studies have shown that infectious disease risk is modified by changes to biodiversity[2-6], climate change[7-11], chemical pollution[12-14], landscape transformations[15-20] and species introductions[21]. However, it remains unclear which global change drivers most increase disease and under what contexts. Here we amassed a dataset from the literature that contains 2,938 observations of infectious disease responses to global change drivers across 1,497 host-parasite combinations, including plant, animal and human hosts. We found that biodiversity loss, chemical pollution, climate change and introduced species are associated with increases in disease-related end points or harm, whereas urbanization is associated with decreases in disease end points. Natural biodiversity gradients, deforestation and forest fragmentation are comparatively unimportant or idiosyncratic as drivers of disease. Overall, these results are consistent across human and non-human diseases. Nevertheless, context-dependent effects of the global change drivers on disease were found to be common. The findings uncovered by this meta-analysis should help target disease management and surveillance efforts towards global change drivers that increase disease. Specifically, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, managing ecosystem health, and preventing biological invasions and biodiversity loss could help to reduce the burden of plant, animal and human diseases, especially when coupled with improvements to social and economic determinants of health.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Cichy A, Stanicka A, E Żbikowska (2024)

Each coin has 2 sides: a positive role of alien Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Grey, 1843) snails in reducing the infection of native lymnaeids with trematodes.

Current zoology, 70(2):262-269 pii:zoac105.

The change in the distribution of organisms in freshwater ecosystems due to natural or manmade processes raises the question of the impact of alien species on local communities. Although most studies indicate a negative effect, the positive one is more difficult to discern, especially in multispecies systems, including hosts and parasites. The purpose of the study was to check whether the presence of an alien host, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, reduces the intensity of Echinoparyphium aconiatum metacercariae in a native host, Radix spp. We additionally tested the impact of water temperature and the biomass of the alien host on the dilution effect. We experimentally studied (1) the lifespan of echinostome cercariae in different temperatures, (2) the infectivity of cercariae toward the alien host and native host, and (3) the impact of different biomass of the alien host on the intensity of metacercariae in the native host. We found that cercarial survival and infectivity were temperature dependent. However, cercarial survival decreased with increasing temperature, contrary to cercarial infectivity. Echinostome cercariae entered the renal cavity of both the native host and alien host, and successfully transformed into metacercariae. The number of metacercariae in the native host decreased with the increasing biomass of the alien host. Our results indicate that lymnaeids may benefit from the co-occurrence with P. antipodarum, as the presence of additional hosts of different origins may reduce the prevalence of parasites in native communities. However, the scale of the dilution effect depends not only on the increased spectrum of susceptible hosts but also on the other variables of the environment, including water temperature and host density.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Fan P, Yu H, Lv T, et al (2024)

Alien emergent aquatic plants develop better ciprofloxacin tolerance and metabolic capacity than one native submerged species.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03177-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic pollution and biological invasions pose significant risks to freshwater biodiversity and ecosystem health. However, few studies have compared the ecological adaptability and ciprofloxacin (CIPR) degradation potential between alien and native macrophytes. We examined growth, physiological response, and CIPR accumulation, translocation and metabolic abilities of two alien plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Myriophyllum aquaticum) and one native submerged species (Vallisneria natans) exposed to CIPR at 0, 1 and 10 mg/L. We found that E. crassipes and M. aquaticum's growth were unaffected by CIPR while V. natans was significantly hindered under the 10 mg/L treatment. CIPR significantly decreased the maximal quantum yield of PSII, actual quantum yield of PSII and relative electron transfer rate in E. crassipes and V. natans but didn't impact these photosynthetic characteristics in M. aquaticum. All the plants can accumulate, translocate and metabolize CIPR. M. aquaticum and E. crassipes in the 10 mg/L treatment group showed greater CIPR accumulation potential than V. natans indicated by higher CIPR contents in their roots. The oxidative cleavage of the piperazine ring acts as a key pathway for these aquatic plants to metabolize CIPR and the metabolites mainly distributed in plant roots. M. aquaticum and E. crassipes showed a higher production of CIPR metabolites compared to V. natans, with M. aquaticum exhibiting the strongest CIPR metabolic ability, as indicated by the most extensive structural breakdown of CIPR and the largest number of potential metabolic pathways. Taken together, alien species outperformed the native species in ecological adaptability, CIPR accumulation and metabolic capacity. These findings may shed light on the successful invasion mechanisms of alien aquatic species under antibiotic pressure and highlight the potential ecological impacts of alien species, particularly M. aquaticum. Additionally, the interaction of antibiotic contamination and invasion might further challenge the native submerged macrophytes and pose greater risks to freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Wang X, Lu T, Yang B, et al (2024)

Exposure to resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) induces colonization of alien microorganisms with potential impacts on the gut microbiota and metabolic disruption in male zebrafish.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03039-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Organophosphate esters (OPEs) have been demonstrated to induce various forms of toxicity in aquatic organisms. However, a scarcity of evidence impedes the conclusive determination of whether OPEs manifest sex-dependent toxic effects. Here, we investigated the effects of tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) on the intestines of both female and male zebrafish. The results indicated that, in comparison to TCPP, RDP induced more pronounced intestinal microstructural damage and oxidative stress, particularly in male zebrafish. 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics revealed significant alterations in the species richness and oxidative stress-related metabolites in the intestinal microbiota of zebrafish under exposure to both TCPP and RDP, manifesting gender-specific effects. Based on differential species analysis, we defined invasive species and applied invasion theory to analyze the reasons for changes in the male fish intestinal community. Correlation analysis demonstrated that alien species may have potential effects on metabolism. Overall, this study reveals a pronounced gender-dependent impact on both the intestinal microbiota and metabolic disruptions of zebrafish due to OPEs exposure and offers a novel perspective on the influence of pollutants on intestinal microbial communities and metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Enriquez MS, Hall LM, Michels NO, et al (2024)

The effects of intensive trapping on invasive round goby densities.

PloS one, 19(5):e0301456 pii:PONE-D-23-38793.

The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive benthic fish first introduced to the Laurentian Great Lakes in 1990 that has negatively impacted native fishes through increased competition for food and habitat, aggressive interactions, and egg predation. While complete eradication of the round goby is currently not possible, intensive trapping in designated areas during spawning seasons could potentially protect critical native fish spawning habitats. Baited minnow traps were spaced 10 meters apart in shallow water along a 100-meter stretch of shoreline within the Duluth-Superior Harbor during the round goby breeding period (June to October) with captured round gobies removed from interior traps (N = 10) every 48 hours. These traps were bracketed by two pairs of reference traps deployed weekly for 48 hours, from which round gobies were also tagged and released. The number of round gobies captured in the interior traps declined by 67% compared to reference traps over the course of the study, with extended periods of no captures. The tagged round gobies showed high site affinity, with 82.8% of tagged fish recaptured at the previous release site. The results indicate that even at open water sites, which allow natural migration of round gobies into the area, extensive trapping could reduce local population numbers.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Wolfe ML, Bowers-Doerning CM, Espinosa A, et al (2024)

Intra-decadal increase in globally-spread Magallana gigas in southern California estuaries.

PloS one, 19(5):e0302935 pii:PONE-D-23-27175.

Introduction and establishment of non-indigenous species (NIS) has been accelerated on a global scale by climate change. NIS Magallana gigas' (formerly Crassostrea gigas') global spread over the past several decades has been linked to warming waters, specifically during summer months, raising the specter of more spread due to predicted warming. We tracked changes in density and size distribution of M. gigas in two southern California, USA bays over the decade spanning 2010-2020 using randomly placed quadrats across multiple intertidal habitats (e.g., cobble, seawalls, riprap) and documented density increases by 2.2 to 32.8 times at 7 of the 8 sites surveyed across the two bays. These increases in density were coincident with 2-4° C increases in median monthly seawater temperature during summer months, consistent with global spread of M. gigas elsewhere. Size frequency distribution data, with all size classes represented across sites, suggest now-regular recruitment of M. gigas. Our data provide a baseline against which to compare future changes in density and abundance of a globally-spread NIS of significant concern.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Zhao Z, Yang L, Long J, et al (2024)

Predicting suitable areas for Metcalfa pruinosa (Hemiptera: Flatidae) under climate change and implications for management.

Journal of insect science (Online), 24(3):.

Climate change is a prominent factor reshaping the distribution of invasive species. Metcalfa pruinosa (Say 1830) (Hemiptera: Flatidae), native to North America, has invaded other continents and poses a serious threat to various agricultural crops and the human residential environment. Understanding the distribution of M. pruinosa based on climatic conditions is a critical first step to prevent its further invasion. Therefore, based on its occurrence records and associated environmental variables, a Maxent model was developed to predict suitable areas for this species in the present and future on a global scale. The model exhibited outstanding performance, with a mean area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and true skill statistic values of 0.9329 and 0.926, respectively. The model also indicated that annual precipitation (Bio12) and max temperature of the warmest month (Bio5) were the key environmental variables limiting the distribution of M. pruinosa. Moreover, the model revealed that the current suitable area is 1.01 × 107 km2 worldwide, with southern China, southern Europe, and the eastern United States predicted to be the primary and highly suitable areas in the latter 2 regions. This area is expected to increase under future climate scenarios, mainly in the northern direction. The study's findings contribute to our understanding of climate change's impact on M. pruinosa distribution, and they will aid governments in developing appropriate pest management strategies, including global monitoring and strict quarantine measures.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Girard M, Martin E, Vallon L, et al (2024)

Human-aided dispersal and population bottlenecks facilitate parasitism escape in the most invasive mosquito species.

PNAS nexus, 3(5):pgae175.

During biological invasion process, species encounter new environments and partially escape some ecological constraints they faced in their native range, while they face new ones. The Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is one of the most iconic invasive species introduced in every inhabited continent due to international trade. It has also been shown to be infected by a prevalent yet disregarded microbial entomoparasite Ascogregarina taiwanensis. In this study, we aimed at deciphering the factors that shape the global dynamics of A. taiwanensis infection in natural A. albopictus populations. We showed that A. albopictus populations are highly colonized by several parasite genotypes but recently introduced ones are escaping it. We further performed experiments based on the invasion process to explain such pattern. To that end, we hypothesized that (i) mosquito passive dispersal (i.e. human-aided egg transportation) may affect the parasite infectiveness, (ii) founder effects (i.e. population establishment by a small number of mosquitoes) may influence the parasite dynamics, and (iii) unparasitized mosquitoes are more prompt to found new populations through active flight dispersal. The two first hypotheses were supported as we showed that parasite infection decreases over time when dry eggs are stored and that experimental increase in mosquitoes' density improves the parasite horizontal transmission to larvae. Surprisingly, parasitized mosquitoes tend to be more active than their unparasitized relatives. Finally, this study highlights the importance of global trade as a driver of biological invasion of the most invasive arthropod vector species.

RevDate: 2024-05-08
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Dobelmann J, Manley R, L Wilfert (2024)

Caught in the act: the invasion of a viral vector changes viral prevalence and titre in native honeybees and bumblebees.

Biology letters, 20(5):20230600.

Novel transmission routes change pathogen landscapes and may facilitate disease emergence. The varroa mite is a virus vector that switched to western honeybees at the beginning of the last century, leading to hive mortality, particularly in combination with RNA viruses. A recent invasion of varroa on the French island of Ushant introduced vector-mediated transmission to one of the last varroa-naive native honeybee populations and caused rapid changes in the honeybee viral community. These changes were characterized by a drastic increase in deformed wing virus type B prevalence and titre in honeybees, as well as knock-on effects in bumblebees, particularly in the year following the invasion. Slow bee paralysis virus also appeared in honeybees and bumblebees, with a 1 year delay, while black queen cell virus declined in honeybees. This study highlights the rapid and far-reaching effects of vector-borne transmission that can extend beyond the directly affected host species, and that the direction of the effect depends on the pathogen's virulence.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Wei Y, Su J, Wang H, et al (2024)

First Report of Exserohilum rostratum Causing Brown Spot on Spartina alterniflora in China.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Spartina alterniflora Loisel, a perennial grass, has become an invasive species in China's coastal wetlands (Zhang et al. 2018). In July 2021, brown spot symptoms were observed on S. alterniflora in a coastal wetland (21°45'48″N, 108°44'00″E) in Beihai City, Guangxi Province, China. The disease affected approximately 50% of the plants in the surveyed area (0.2 ha) and was also observed in other regions of Beihai. It caused brown lesions with a gray or whitish center on the leaves and stems of S. alterniflora. As the disease developed, it ultimately led to leaf shedding and plant death. To isolate the causal agent, 18 fragments (~ 5 mm) from six symptomatic plants (3 leaf pieces per plant) were surface sterilized with 1% NaOCl solution for 2 min and rinsed three times with sterilized water. Subsequently, the tissues were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium supplemented with chloramphenicol (0.1 g/liter) and incubated at 28°C for three days. The hyphal tips were transferred onto fresh PDA to obtain pure cultures. A total of 25 isolates were obtained, 20 of which shared similar morphologies, while the remaining five exhibited distinct morphological characteristics and were non-pathogenic to S. alterniflora. Three isolates (MC16.1.3, MC16.6.2, and MC16.8.3) were randomly selected from the 20 for further investigation. The colonies on PDA were flat with dense aerial mycelia. The colony margins were entire, light brown in the centre, white to grey at the margin; reverse dark brown in the centre, gray at the margin. Conidia were straight to slightly curved, light olive-brown to dark olive-brown, septate, measured 33.5 to 79.1 μm × 10.4 to 18.7 μm (average 52.9 × 14.4 μm, n = 100), with a distinctly protruding hilum swelled from the basal cell. For molecular identification, the genomic DNA was extracted from mycelium on PDA using the CTAB method (Guo et al. 2000). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1-α) genes were amplified and sequenced with the primer pairs ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990), GPD1/GPD2 (Berbee et al. 1999), and EF1-983/EF1-2218 (Rehner et al. 2005), respectively. A BLAST analysis revealed that the ITS (OR516787-9), GAPDH (OR523686-8), and TEF-α (OR523683-5) had 99.1 to 99.7% identity with those of E. rostratum strains BRIP 11417 (LT837836, LT882553, and LT896656) and CBS 128061 (KT265240, LT715900, and LT896658) (Hernández-Restrepo et al. 2018). Based on the concatenated sequences, a phylogenetic tree generated by PhyloSuite software (Zhang et al., 2020) through Bayesian inference (BI) and Maximum Likelihood (ML) methods placed the isolates within E. rostratum. These morphological characteristics and molecular analyses confirmed the pathogen as E. rostratum (Hernández-Restrepo et al. 2018; Kaboré et al. 2022). To confirm pathogenicity, a conidial water suspension (~ 1 × 106 conidia/ml) of each of the three strains was inoculated on nine healthy S. alterniflora plants that had been grown for six months. Control plants were treated with sterile water. All plants were then enclosed in plastic bags and incubated in a greenhouse at 28°C. Six days after inoculation, the plants exhibited symptoms similar to those observed in nature. The control plants developed no symptoms. These experiments were replicated three times with similar results. To fulfill Koch's postulates, E. rostratum was consistently re-isolated from symptomatic tissue and confirmed by morphology and sequencing, whereas no fungus was isolated from the control plants. In recent years, S. alterniflora has posed a serious threat to the indigenous biodiversity of wetland ecosystems (Zhang et al. 2018). To our knowledge, this is the first report of E. rostratum causing brown spot on S. alterniflora worldwide.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-07

Sandretti-Silva G, Vannucchi FS, Teixeira L, et al (2024)

Short-term extinction predicted by population viability analysis for a Neotropical salt marsh endemic bird.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 196(6):520.

Salt marshes pose challenges for the birds that inhabit them, including high rates of nest flooding, tipping, and predation. The impacts of rising sea levels and invasive species further exacerbate these challenges. To assess the urgency of conservation and adequacy of new actions, researchers and wildlife managers may use population viability analyses (PVAs) to identify population trends and major threats. We conducted PVA for Formicivora acutirostris, which is a threatened neotropical bird species endemic to salt marshes. We studied the species' demography in different sectors of an estuary in southern Brazil from 2006 to 2023 and estimated the sex ratio, longevity, productivity, first-year survival, and mortality rates. For a 133-year period, starting in 1990, we modeled four scenarios: (1) pessimistic and (2) optimistic scenarios, including the worst and best values for the parameters; (3) a baseline scenario, with intermediate values; and (4) scenarios under conservation management, with increased recruitment and/or habitat preservation. Projections indicated population decline for all assessment scenarios, with a 100% probability of extinction by 2054 in the pessimistic scenario and no extinction in the optimistic scenario. The conservation scenarios indicated population stability with 16% improvement in productivity, 10% improvement in first-year survival, and stable carrying capacity. The disjunct distribution of the species, with remnants concentrated in a broad interface with arboreal habitats, may seal the population decline by increasing nest predation. The species should be considered conservation dependent, and we recommend assisted colonization, predator control, habitat recovery, and ex situ conservation.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Hong Y, Yuan Z, X Liu (2024)

Global drivers of the conservation-invasion paradox.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

The conservation-invasion paradox (CIP) refers to a long-term phenomenon wherein species threatened in their native range can sustain viable populations when introduced to other regions. Understanding the drivers of CIP is helpful for conserving threatened species and managing invasive species, which is unfortunately still lacking. We compiled a global data set of 1071 introduction events, including 960 CIP events (successful establishment of threatened species outside its native range) and 111 non-CIP events (unsuccessful establishment of threatened species outside its native range after introduction), involving 174 terrestrial vertebrates. We then tested the relative importance of various predictors at the location, event, and species levels with generalized linear mixed models and model averaging. Successful CIP events occurred across taxonomic groups and biogeographic realms, especially for the mammal group in the Palearctic and Australia. Locations of successful CIP events had fewer native threat factors, especially less climate warming in invaded regions. The probability of a successful CIP event was highest when species introduction efforts were great and there were more local congeners and fewer natural enemies. These results can inform threatened species ex situ conservation and non-native invasive species mitigation.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Haberski A, MS Caterino (2024)

A review of Nearctic Lathrobium (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae), with revision and descriptions of new flightless species from the mountains of the southeastern U.S.

ZooKeys, 1198:193-277.

Species of the genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Paederinae) from North America north of Mexico are reviewed and 41 species are recognized. Morphology and mitochondrial COI sequence data were used to guide species designations in three flightless lineages endemic to the southern Appalachian Mountains, a biologically diverse region known for cryptic diversity. Using a combination of phylogeny, algorithm-based species delimitation analyses, and genitalic morphology, five new cryptic species are described and possible biogeographic scenarios for their speciation hypothesized: L.balsamense Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.camplyacra Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.islae Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.lividum Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.smokiense Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov. Five additional species are described: L.absconditum Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.hardeni Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.lapidum Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., L.solum Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov., and L.thompsonorum Haberski & Caterino, sp. nov. Two species are transferred from Lathrobium to Pseudolathra Casey: Pseudolathraparcum (LeConte, 1880), comb. nov. and Pseudolathratexana (Casey, 1905), comb. nov. Twenty-six names are reduced to synonymy. Lectotypes are designated for 47 species. Larvae are described where known, and characters of possible diagnostic value are summarized. Species diagnoses, distributions, illustrations of male and female genitalia, and a key to Lathrobium species known from the Nearctic region (including several introduced species) are provided.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Sisay K, Bekele K, Haji J, et al (2024)

Rural Households' Demand Status for Mitigation of Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC Invasion and Its Determinant Factors in Ethiopia: Empirical Evidence from Afar National Regional State.

TheScientificWorldJournal, 2024:5521245.

Ethiopia is among the world's poorest nations, and its economy is growing extremely slowly; thus, the government's budget to manage environmental amenities is not always sufficient. Thus, for the provision of environmental management services such as the eradication of Prosopis juliflora, the participation of local households and other stakeholders is crucial. This study is therefore initiated with the objective of assessing rural households' demands for mitigating Prosopis juliflora invasion in the Afar Region of Ethiopia. A multistage sampling technique was employed to obtain the 313 sample rural households that were used in the analysis, and those sample households were selected randomly and independently from the Amibara and Awash Fentale districts of Afar National Regional State, Ethiopia. In doing this, a seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model was used to determine factors affecting rural households' demands for mitigating Prosopis juliflora invasion. Consequently, as per the inferential statistical results, there was a significant mean/percentage difference between willing and nonwilling households for the hypothesized variables, except for some variables such as farm experience; years lived in the area, distance from the market, and dependency ratio. Furthermore, the seemingly unrelated bivariate probit model result indicates that sex, family size, tenure security, livestock holding, frequency of extension contact, and years lived in the area were important factors influencing the willingness to participate in Prosopis juliflora management practices positively, whereas age, off-farm/nonincome, and bid value affected willingness to pay negatively and significantly. Hence, to improve the participation level of households, policymakers should target these variables.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Thirunavukkarasu S, Murugan G, Hwang JS, et al (2024)

Morphology and morphometry of morphotypes in the population of Artemia franciscana (Kellogg, 1906) from salterns of the southeastern coast of India.

Heliyon, 10(9):e29796.

We document the morphology, morphometric variations among the morphotypes of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. From the samples collected at four different locations in South India, Tamil Nadu viz. Kelambakkam, Vedaranyam, Tuticorin and Nagarcoil we identified six morphotypes: M1, M3, M4 in males and F1, F2, F3 in females. The Scanning electron micrographs of male morphotypes show distinct variation in the basal width, shape and number of cuticular cones on the second antennae. Similarly, the female morphotypes show various shape and sizes of the ovisac with or without spines. However, the cyst surface topography is smooth without any specific variation/ornamentation in all three female morphotypes. Multivariate analysis of eighteen morphological traits measured in males and fifteen in females to elucidate the intraspecific variations among morphotypes indicate significant dissimilarity between males and females. Furthermore, relative length measurements showed distinct morphometric variation of traits between the morphotypes encountered at different sampling sites.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Mallett MC, Thiem JD, Butler GL, et al (2024)

A systematic review of approaches to assess fish health responses to anthropogenic threats in freshwater ecosystems.

Conservation physiology, 12(1):coae022.

Anthropogenic threats such as water infrastructure, land-use changes, overexploitation of fishes and other biological resources, invasive species and climate change present formidable challenges to freshwater biodiversity. Historically, management of fish and fishery species has largely been based on studies of population- and community-level dynamics; however, the emerging field of conservation physiology promotes the assessment of individual fish health as a key management tool. Fish health is highly sensitive to environmental disturbances and is also a fundamental driver of fitness, with implications for population dynamics such as recruitment and resilience. However, the mechanistic links between particular anthropogenic disturbances and changes in fish health, or impact pathways, are diverse and complex. The diversity of ways in which fish health can be measured also presents a challenge for researchers deciding on methods to employ in studies seeking to understand the impact of these threats. In this review, we aim to provide an understanding of the pathway through which anthropogenic threats in freshwater ecosystems impact fish health and the ways in which fish health components impacted by anthropogenic threats can be assessed. We employ a quantitative systematic approach to a corpus of papers related to fish health in freshwater and utilize a framework that summarizes the impact pathway of anthropogenic threats through environmental alterations and impact mechanisms that cause a response in fish health. We found that land-use changes were the most prolific anthropogenic threat, with a range of different health metrics being suitable for assessing the impact of this threat. Almost all anthropogenic threats impacted fish health through two or more impact pathways. A robust understanding of the impact pathways of anthropogenic threats and the fish health metrics that are sensitive to these threats is crucial for fisheries managers seeking to undertake targeted management of freshwater ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Gao X, Li X, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Does invasive submerged macrophyte diversity affect dissimilatory nitrate reduction processes in sediments with varying microplastics?.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134510 pii:S0304-3894(24)01089-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen removal is essential for restoring eutrophic lakes. Microorganisms and aquatic plants in lakes are both crucial for removing excess nitrogen. However, microplastic (MP) pollution and the invasion of exotic aquatic plants have become increasingly serious in lake ecosystems due to human activity and plant-dominant traits. This field mesocosm study explored how the diversity of invasive submerged macrophytes affects denitrification (DNF), anammox (ANA), and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in lake sediments with varying MPs. Results showed that invasive macrophytes suppressed DNF rates, but DNRA and ANA were less sensitive than DNF to the diversity of invasive species. Sediment MPs increased the biomass of invasive species more than native species, but did not affect microbial processes. The effects of MPs on nitrate dissimilatory reduction were process-specific. MPs increased DNF rates and the competitive advantage of DNF over DNRA by changing the sediment environment. The decoupling of DNF and ANA was also observed, with increased DNF rates and decreased ANA rates. The study findings suggested new insights into how the invasion of exotic submerged macrophytes affects the sediment nitrogen cycle complex environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Altamiranda-Saavedra M, Camaho-Portocarrero R, Machado JO, et al (2024)

Identifying Areas of Invasion Risk and Changes in the Ecological Niche Occupied by the Coffee Leaf Miner Leucoptera coffeella (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae).

Neotropical entomology, 53(3):608-616.

Insects of economic importance such as Leucoptera coffeella can cause high defoliation in plants and reduce crop yields. We aimed to identify changes in the ecological niche and potential zones of the invasion. Occurrence records were obtained from databases and bibliography. WorldClim V2.0 bioclimatic layers were used. For the modeling of the potential distribution, the kuenm R package was used by executing the Maxent algorithm. The potential distribution models suggested greatest environmental suitability extends from Europe, South Asia, and Central and South Africa, showing the "tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests" as the ecoregion that presents the greatest probability of the presence of L. coffeella. The potential distribution model projected in the invaded area agrees with the known distribution in the region (America), although the results show that it is occupying environmental spaces not present in the area of origin. This species presented a large proportion of the invaded niche that overlaps the native niche and is colonizing new environmental conditions in the invaded area relative to its native distribution (Africa). This information could be used in the planning of coffee crops on the American continent.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Chen GY, Huang SY, Lin MD, et al (2024)

Hybrids of two destructive subterranean termites established in the field, revealing a potential for gene flow between species.

Heredity, 132(5):257-266.

Hybridization between invasive pest species may lead to significant genetic and economic impacts that require close monitoring. The two most invasive and destructive termite species worldwide, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann), have the potential for hybridization in the field. A three-year field survey conducted during the dispersal flight season of Coptotermes in Taiwan identified alates with atypical morphology, which were confirmed as hybrids of the two Coptotermes species using microsatellite and mitochondrial analyses. Out of 27,601 alates collected over three years, 4.4% were confirmed as hybrid alates, and some advanced hybrids (>F1 generations) were identified. The hybrid alates had a dispersal flight season that overlapped with the two parental species 13 out of 15 times. Most of the hybrid alates were females, implying that mating opportunities beyond F1 may primarily be possible through female hybrids. However, the incipient colony growth results from all potential mating combinations suggest that only backcross colonies with hybrid males could sometimes lead to brood development. The observed asymmetrical viability and fertility of hybrid alates may critically reduce the probability of advanced-hybrid colonies being established in the field.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Bureš P, Del Guacchio E, Šmerda J, et al (2024)

Intergeneric hybrid origin of the invasive tetraploid Cirsium vulgare.

Plant biology (Stuttgart, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

The invasive tetraploid Cirsium vulgare hybridizes with both Cirsium and Lophiolepis. Its conflicted position in molecular phylogenies, and its peculiar combination of morphological, anatomical, and genomic features that are alternatively shared with representatives of Cirsium or Lophiolepis, strongly suggest its intergeneric hybrid origin. Genetic relationships of C. vulgare (8 samples) with genus Lophiolepis (11 species) and other representatives of genus Cirsium (12 species) were evaluated using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and examined using analytical and imaging approaches, such as NeighborNet, Heatmap, and STRUCTURE, to identify nuclear genomes admixture. Estimation of the intensity of spontaneous hybridization within and between Cirsium and Lophiolepis was based on herbarium revisions and published data for all reported hybrids pertinent to taxa currently included in Cirsium or Lophiolepis. The genome of any examined Cirsium species is more similar to C. vulgare than to any Lophiolepis species, and vice versa. The nuclear genome of the tetraploid C. vulgare is composed of two equivalent parts, each attributable either to Lophiolepis or to Cirsium; the organellar RADseq data clustered C. vulgare with the genus Cirsium. Spontaneous hybridization between Cirsium and Lophiolepis is significantly less intensive than within these genera. Our analyses provide compelling evidence that the invasive species C. vulgare has an allotetraploid intergeneric origin, with the maternal parent from Cirsium and the paternal from Lophiolepis. For the purpose of delimiting monophyletic genera, we propose keeping Lophiolepis separate from Cirsium and segregating C. vulgare into the hybridogenous genus Ascalea.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Cretini C, KA Galloway (2024)

Acidic Apple Snails: Effects of Climate Change on The Mechanical Properties of An Invasive Gastropod.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:7664374 [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change can directly and indirectly affect species distribution. Warming may allow for invasive species, such as apple snails, to migrate to higher latitudes where temperatures are more conducive to their survival and invasion success. Higher temperatures and lower pH ranges have been previously documented to affect the form and function of calcium carbonate shells, which serve many functions including protection from predators and thermoregulation. This study aimed to quantify differences in the morphology and mechanical properties of invasive apple snail, Pomacea maculata, shells after altering temperature and pH. We mechanically tested shells among three five-week treatments: control, higher temperature, lower pH. Ultimate Strength increased in shells that were exposed to higher temperatures, but Young's Modulus and Peak Load did not differ among control, temperature, and pH treatments. Apple snails in higher temperature tanks increased their shell length over the five-week trials, while snails in lower pH tanks decreased their shell length. Although snail morphometrics did not differ between sexes, male shells exhibited a higher Peak Load, Young's Modulus, and Ultimate Strength compared to female shells. Our findings are consistent with previous gastropod studies, in that a lower pH is associated with a decrease in shell size, and higher temperatures yield larger snail shells with a higher Ultimate Strength. Peak Load did not significantly differ among treatments, which suggests that the cross-sectional area is relatively important when considering this species mechanical performance today and in future climates. Due to the intense nutritional and calcium demands of egg production, female snails may be more susceptible to weakened shells due to low pH environments caused by climate change.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Ninsin KD, Souza PGC, Amaro GC, et al (2024)

Risk of spread of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Ghana.

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S0007485324000105 [Epub ahead of print].

The impact of invasive species on biodiversity, food security and economy is increasingly noticeable in various regions of the globe as a consequence of climate change. Yet, there is limited research on how climate change affects the distribution of the invasive Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera:Liviidae) in Ghana. Using maxnet package to fit the Maxent model in R software, we answered the following questions; (i) what are the main drivers for D. citri distribution, (ii) what are the D. citri-specific habitat requirements and (iii) how well do the risk maps fit with what we know to be correctly based on the available evidence?. We found that temperature seasonality (Bio04), mean temperature of warmest quarter (Bio10), precipitation of driest quarter (Bio17), moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer land cover and precipitation seasonality (Bio15), were the most important drivers of D. citri distribution. The results follow the known distribution records of the pest with potential expansion of habitat suitability in the future. Because many invasive species, including D. citri, can adapt to the changing climates, our findings can serve as a guide for surveillance, tracking and prevention of D. citri spread in Ghana.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Balah MA, Al-Andal A, Radwan AM, et al (2024)

Unveiling allelopathic dynamics and impacts of invasive Erigeron bonariensis and Bidens pilosa on plant communities and soil parameters.

Scientific reports, 14(1):10159.

Invasive alien species are becoming more and more prevalent worldwide, Erigeron bonariensis and Bidens pilosa are two invasive species of Asteraceae in Egypt. To mitigate their detrimental effects and understand their differences in invasiveness, we compared the allelopathic potentials of E. bonariensis and B. pilosa using leachates, decaying residues, and volatilization processes. Notably, the allelopathic variances in leachates were significant, influenced by plant types, concentrations, and response patterns of target plant traits, as indicated by EC50. The relative phytotoxicity of the invasive species decayed residues peaked between 20 and 25 days in the soil, with a positive correlation with concentrations and soil properties. The highest quantities of phenolic acids were chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid reaching (5.41 and 4.39 µg g[-1]) E. bonariensis and (4.53 and 4.46 µg g[-1]) B. pilosa, in leachates extracts respectively, while in the soil extract of decayed residues were coumaric acid and ferulic acid measuring (1.66 and 1.67 µg g[-1]) E. bonariensis and (1.47 and 1.57 µg g[-1]) B. pilosa, respectively. Using GC/MS analysis, the main volatile components in E. bonariensis were 1, 8 cineole (5.62%), and α-terpinene (5.43%) and iso-Caryophyllene (5.2%) which showed the greatest inhibitory effects. While B. pilosa main constituents were trans-sabinene (5.39%) and Camphene (5.11%), respectively. Finally, the high invasion level displayed from E. bonariensis (0.221) compared with B. pilosa (0.094) which correlated with the stronger allelopathic activities against plant species, and soil properties. Therefore, the allelopathic potentialities of these species are critically relevant to their invasion success.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Ranke PS, Pepke ML, Søraker JS, et al (2024)

Long-distance dispersal in the short-distance dispersing house sparrow (Passer domesticus).

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11356 pii:ECE311356.

The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a small passerine known to be highly sedentary. Throughout a 30-year capture-mark-recapture study, we have obtained occasional reports of recoveries far outside our main metapopulation study system, documenting unusually long dispersal distances. Our records constitute the highest occurrence of long-distance dispersal events recorded for this species in Scandinavia. Such long-distance dispersals radically change the predicted distribution of dispersal distances and connectedness for our study metapopulation. Moreover, it reveals a much greater potential for colonization than formerly recorded for the house sparrow, which is an invasive species across four continents. These rare and occasional long-distance dispersal events are challenging to document but may have important implications for the genetic composition of small and isolated populations and for our understanding of dispersal ecology and evolution.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Bashir I, War AF, Rafiq I, et al (2024)

Uncovering the secret weapons of an invasive plant: The endophytic microbes of Anthemis cotula.

Heliyon, 10(9):e29778 pii:S2405-8440(24)05809-2.

Understanding plant-microbe interaction can be useful in identifying the microbial drivers of plant invasions. It is in this context that we explored the diversity of endophytic microbes from leaves of Anthemis cotula, an annual plant that is highly invasive in Kashmir Himalaya. We also tried to establish the role of endophytes in the invasiveness of this alien species. We collected and processed leaf samples from three populations at three different sites. A total of 902 endophytic isolates belonging to 4 bacterial and 2 fungal phyla were recovered that belonged to 27 bacterial and 14 fungal genera. Firmicutes (29.1%), Proteobacteria (24.1%), Ascomycota (22.8%) and Actinobacteria (19%) were dominant across all samples. Plant growth promoting traits, such as Ammonia production, Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) production, Phosphate solubilization and biocontrol activity of these endophytes were also studied and most of the isolates (74.68%) were positive for ammonia production. IAA production, phosphate solubilization and biocontrol activity was present in 39.24%, 36.70% and 20.26% isolates, respectively. Furthermore, Botrytis cinerea, a pathogen of A. cotula in its native range, though present in Kashmir Himalaya does not affect A. cotula probably due to the presence of leaf endophytic microbial antagonists. Our results highlight that the beneficial plant growth promoting interactions and enemy suppression by leaf endophytes of A. cotula, may be contributing to its survival and invasion in the Kashmir Himalaya.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Hrabovský M, Kubalová S, Mičieta K, et al (2024)

Environmental impacts on intraspecific variation in Ambrosia artemisiifolia genome size in Slovakia, Central Europe.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The quantity of DNA in angiosperms exhibits variation attributed to many external influences, such as environmental factors, geographical features, or stress factors, which exert constant selection pressure on organisms. Since invasive species possess adaptive capabilities to acclimate to novel environmental conditions, ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) was chosen as a subject for investigating their influence on genome size variation. Slovakia has diverse climatic conditions, suitable for testing the hypothesis that air temperature and precipitation, the main limiting factors of ragweed occurrence, would also have an impact on its genome size. Our results using flow cytometry confirmed this hypothesis and also found a significant association with geographical features such as latitude, altitude, and longitude. We can conclude that plants growing in colder environments farther from oceanic influences exhibit smaller DNA amounts, while optimal growth conditions result in a greater variability in genome size, reflecting the diminished effect of selection pressure.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Lima CG, Campos JC, Regos A, et al (2024)

Fire suppression and land-use strategies drive future dynamics of an invasive plant in a fire-prone mountain area under climate change.

Journal of environmental management, 359:120997 pii:S0301-4797(24)00983-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Woody invasive alien species can have profound impacts on ecosystem processes and functions, including fire regulation, which can significantly affect landscape resilience. Acacia dealbata, a widespread invasive alien plant in the Iberian Peninsula, holds well-known fire-adaptation traits (e.g., massive soil seed banks and heat-stimulated seed germination). In this study, we assess to what extent fire suppression and land-use strategies could affect the potential distribution of A. dealbata in a fire-prone transboundary protected mountain area of Portugal and Spain, using Habitat Suitability Models. Specifically, we predicted changes in habitat suitability for A. dealbata between years 2010 and 2050. We explored the potential impacts of two land-use strategies ('Business-as-usual' or 'High Nature Value farmlands') combined with three levels of fire suppression effectiveness using the biomod2 package in R. We also considered the potential effects of two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Our modeling approach demonstrated a strong capacity to predict habitat suitability using either climate or land-cover information alone (AUC climate = 0.947; AUC LC = 0.957). According to climate-based models, A. dealbata thrives under conditions characterized by higher precipitation seasonality, higher precipitation in the warmest month, and higher minimum temperature in the coldest month. Regarding land cover, A. dealbata thrives mainly in landscapes dominated by urban areas and evergreen forest plantations. Our models forecasted that habitat suitability by 2050 could either increase or decrease depending on the specific combinations of fire suppression, land-use, and climate scenarios. Thus, a combination of business-as-usual and fire-exclusion strategies would enhance habitat suitability for the species. Conversely, management promoting High Nature Value farmlands would decrease the available suitable habitat, particularly under low fire suppression efforts. These findings suggest that promoting sustainable farming activities could impede the spread of A. dealbata by reducing habitat availability, while strategies aiming at fire-exclusion could facilitate its expansion, likely by enabling establishment and large seed production. This study highlights the complex interplay between fire-prone invasive species, fire and land-use strategies, and climate change; and thus the need to consider the interactions between land-use and fire management to promote invasive species control and landscape resilience.

RevDate: 2024-05-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-01

Bakaloudis DE, Thoma CT, Makridou KN, et al (2024)

Occupancy dynamics of free ranging American mink (Neogale vison) in Greece.

Scientific reports, 14(1):9973.

Identifying the environmental factors that determine the occurrence of invasive species is essential in defining and implementing effective control campaigns. Here, we applied multi-season occupancy models to analyze American mink (Neogale vison) track data collected using 121 floating rafts, as a function of factors occurring at multiple spatial scales. Our overall aim was to identify those factors that determine the use, colonization or abandonment of rafts by free ranging individuals found in western Macedonia, Greece. We found that increasing values of shrubs and rock cover at the micro-habitat scale were positively associated with the species' probability of raft use, as was the density of medium-sized rivers at the landscape scale. Colonization was found to increase with increasing amounts of shrub and reed cover; however, both variables were not informative. Conversely, the distance from the nearest fur farm was highly informative in predicting raft abandonment by the species. Effective control actions may require removal by trapping along rocky or densely vegetated riverbanks or lake shores located in the vicinity of the established fur farms in the area. Habitat management, although possible, may be difficult to implement due to the ability of the species to adapt. Finally, fur farms should maximize security and establish an early warning and rapid eradication system in case of future escapes.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Wessely J, Essl F, Fiedler K, et al (2024)

A climate-induced tree species bottleneck for forest management in Europe.

Nature ecology & evolution [Epub ahead of print].

Large pulses of tree mortality have ushered in a major reorganization of Europe's forest ecosystems. To initiate a robust next generation of trees, the species that are planted today need to be climatically suitable throughout the entire twenty-first century. Here we developed species distribution models for 69 European tree species based on occurrence data from 238,080 plot locations to investigate the option space for current forest management in Europe. We show that the average pool of tree species continuously suitable throughout the century is smaller than that under current and end-of-century climate conditions, creating a tree species bottleneck for current management. If the need for continuous climate suitability throughout the lifespan of a tree planted today is considered, climate change shrinks the tree species pool available to management by between 33% and 49% of its current values (40% and 54% of potential end-of-century values), under moderate (Representative Concentration Pathway 2.6) and severe (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5) climate change, respectively. This bottleneck could have strong negative impacts on timber production, carbon storage and biodiversity conservation, as only 3.18, 3.53 and 2.56 species of high potential for providing these functions remain suitable throughout the century on average per square kilometre in Europe. Our results indicate that the option space for silviculture is narrowing substantially because of climate change and that an important adaptation strategy in forestry-creating mixed forests-might be curtailed by widespread losses of climatically suitable tree species.

RevDate: 2024-05-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-01

Urvois T, Auger-Rozenberg MA, Roques A, et al (2024)

Intraspecific niche models for the invasive ambrosia beetle Xylosandrus crassiusculus suggest contrasted responses to climate change.

Oecologia, 204(4):761-774.

Xylosandrus crassiusculus is an invasive ambrosia beetle comprising two differentiated genetic lineages, named cluster 1 and cluster 2. These lineages invaded different parts of the world at different periods of time. We tested whether they exhibited different climatic niches using Schoener's D and Hellinger's I indices and modeled their current potential geographical ranges using the Maxent algorithm. The resulting models were projected according to future and recent past climate datasets for Europe and the Mediterranean region. The future projections were performed for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100 using 3 SSPs and 5 GCMs. The genetic lineages exhibited different climate niches. Parts of Europe, the Americas, Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Oceania were evaluated as suitable for cluster 1. Parts of Europe, South America, Central and South Africa, Asia, and Oceania were considered as suitable for cluster 2. Models projection under future climate scenarios indicated a decrease in climate suitability in Southern Europe and an increase in North Eastern Europe in 2071-2100. Most of Southern and Western Europe was evaluated as already suitable for both clusters in the early twentieth century. Our results show that large climatically suitable regions still remain uncolonized and that climate change will affect the geographical distribution of climatically suitable areas. Climate conditions in Europe were favorable in the twentieth century, suggesting that the recent colonization of Europe is rather due to an increase in propagule pressure via international trade than to recent environmental changes.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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