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Bibliography on: Fecal Transplantation

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 02 Dec 2023 at 01:45 Created: 

Fecal Transplantation

Fecal Transplantion is a procedure in which fecal matter is collected from a tested donor, mixed with a saline or other solution, strained, and placed in a patient, by colonoscopy, endoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or enema. The theory behind the procedure is that a normal gut microbial ecosystem is required for good health and that sometimes a benefucuial ecosystem can be destroyed, perhaps by antibiotics, allowing other bacteria, specifically Clostridium difficile to over-populate the colon, causing debilitating, sometimes fatal diarrhea. C. diff. is on the rise throughout the world. The CDC reports that approximately 347,000 people in the U.S. alone were diagnosed with this infection in 2012. Of those, at least 14,000 died. Fecal transplant has also had promising results with many other digestive or auto-immune diseases, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Crohn's Disease, and Ulcerative Colitis. It has also been used around the world to treat other conditions, although more research in other areas is needed. Fecal transplant was first documented in 4th century China, where the treatment was known as yellow soup.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "(fecal OR faecal) (transplant OR transplantation)" OR "fecal microbiota transplant" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-11-30

Bai M, Guo H, XY Zheng (2023)

Inflammatory bowel disease and Clostridium difficile infection: clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management.

Therapeutic advances in gastroenterology, 16:17562848231207280.

As a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was confirmed to not only aggravate the symptoms of IBD but also result in unexpected outcomes, including death. With the increasing prevalence rate of IBD and the updating of CDI diagnosis, the incidence of CDI in IBD patients is also seen rising. Although a detection method consisting of glutamate dehydrogenase immunoassay or nucleic acid amplification test and then toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay was recommended and widely adopted, the diagnosis of CDI in IBD is still a challenge because of the overlap between the symptoms of CDI in IBD and CDI itself. Vancomycin and fidaxomicin are the first-line therapy for CDI in IBD; however, the treatment has different effects due to the complexity of IBD patients' conditions and the choice of different treatment schemes. Although the use of fecal microbial transplantation is now in the ascendant for IBD management, the prospects are still uncertain and the prevention and treatment of the recurrence of CDI in IBD remain a clinical challenge. In this paper, the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, prevention, and therapy of CDI in IBD were summarized and presented.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Chang TE, Lee KC, Lee PC, et al (2023)

Assuring safety of fecal microbiota transplantation in the COVID-19 era: A single-center experience.

JGH open : an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology, 7(11):765-771 pii:JGH312979.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used to treat recurrent or refractory Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). In the past, screening of fecal donors required surveillance of personal behavior, medical history, and diseases that could be transmitted by the blood or fecal-oral route. In addition, the exclusion of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) has been recommended since 2018. This task has become more complicated in the era of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To prevent fecal transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), it is crucial to commence screening for SARS-CoV-2, alongside other traditional tests. Our aim was to investigate whether hidden carriers of SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled for stool donation, and the status of the presence or incidence of MDRO during fecal donation in Taiwan.

METHODS: Fecal products collected from March 2019 to December 2022 were tested for MDRO and nucleic acid amplification tests for SARS-CoV-2 using the pooling method. The period of fecal product collection crossed the time before and during the COVID pandemic in Taiwan.

RESULTS: A total of 151 fecal samples were collected. The fecal products were tested using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect SARS-CoV-2. The results were negative for all stocks. This was similar to the results of MDRO testing. The safety of FMT products has been guaranteed during the pandemic.

CONCLUSION: Our FMT center produced MDRO-free and COVID-19-free products before and during the COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. Our protocol was effective for ensuring the safety of FMT products.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Zhu Q, Wu K, Yang Q, et al (2023)

Advances in psoriasis and gut microorganisms with co-metabolites.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1192543.

This review summarizes the potential role of gut microbes and their metabolites as novel mediators of psoriasis, including their composition and function in disease pathogenesis, progression, and management. Gut microbiota network analysis, colony construction, and in vivo large-scale interaction experiments showed that different degrees of damage and repair in psoriasis, both in animals and humans, involve cross-border homeostasis of the microbial community. Which gut microbiota interactions are present in psoriasis and how they collaborate with immune cells and influence psoriasis development via the gut-skin axis remain incompletely elucidated. In this article, we review the latest information on the unique patterns of gut microbiota and co-metabolites involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and attempt to explore microbial-based therapeutic targets derived from mono-and polymicrobial probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, pharmacomicrobiomics, and dietary interventions as diagnostic or therapeutic approaches promising to provide new options and long-term management for psoriasis.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Xiang W, Xiang H, Wang J, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation: a novel strategy for treating Alzheimer's disease.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1281233.

Alzheimer's disease is a common neurological disorder, which has become one of the major factors affecting human health due to its serious impact on individuals, families and society. It has been confirmed that gut microbiota can affect the occurrence and development of Alzheimer's disease. Especially, fecal microbiota transplantation plays a positive role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The mechanisms for improving Alzheimer's disease might include anti-inflammation and regulation of amyloid β-protein, synaptic plasticity, short-chain fatty acids, and histone acetylation. In this mini-review, the relationship between fecal microbiota transplantation and Alzheimer's disease was summarized. It is hoped that fecal microbiota transplantation would play a positive role in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease in the future.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Crossland NA, Beck S, Tan WY, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplanted from old mice promotes more colonic inflammation, proliferation, and tumor formation in azoxymethane-treated A/J mice than microbiota originating from young mice.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2288187.

Aging is a strong risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). It is well established that gut microbial dysbiosis can play a role in the etiology of CRC. Although the composition of the gut microbial community changes with age and is reported to become more pro-inflammatory, it is unclear whether such changes are also pro-tumorigenic for the colon. To address this gap, we conducted fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) from young (DY, ~6 wk) and old (DO, ~72 wk) donor mice into young (8 wk) recipient mice that were pre-treated with antibiotics. After initiating tumorigenesis with azoxymethane, recipients were maintained for 19 wk during which time they received monthly FMT boosters. Compared to recipients of young donors (RY), recipients of old donors (RO) had an approximately 3-fold higher prevalence of histologically confirmed colon tumors (15.8 vs 50%, Chi2 P = .03), approximately 2-fold higher proliferating colonocytes as well as significantly elevated colonic IL-6, IL-1β and Tnf-α. Transcriptomics analysis of the colonic mucosa revealed a striking upregulation of mitochondria-related genes in the RO mice, a finding corroborated by increased mitochondrial abundance. Amongst the differences in fecal microbiome observed between DY and DO mice, the genera Ruminoclostridium, Lachnoclostridium and Marvinbryantia were more abundant in DY mice while the genera Bacteroides and Akkermansia were more abundant in DO mice. Amongst recipients, Ruminoclostridium and Lachnoclostridium were higher in RY mice while Bacteroides was higher in RO mice. Differences in fecal microbiota were observed between young and old mice, some of which persisted upon transplant into recipient mice. Recipients of old donors displayed significantly higher colonic proliferation, inflammation and tumor abundance compared to recipients of young donors. These findings support an etiological role for altered gut microbial communities in the increased risk for CRC with increasing age and establishes that such risk can be transmitted between individuals.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Liu H, Li J, Yuan J, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation as a therapy for treating ulcerative colitis: an overview of systematic reviews.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):371.

AIM: The current overview on published systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analysis (MAs) aimed to systematically gather, evaluate, and synthesize solid evidence for using fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat ulcerative colitis (UC).

METHODS: Relevant articles published before January 2023 were collected from Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library. Two authors used Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2) tool, PRISMA checklists, and Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system were applied by two authors to independently evaluate the methodological quality, reporting quality, and evidence quality, respectively. Re-meta-analysis on the primary RCTs was conducted after excluding overlapping randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

RESULTS: Six SRs/MAs involving 12 primary RCTs and 544 participants were included. According to the AMSTAR-2 tool and PRISMA checklist, methodological quality and reporting quality of the included studies was overall satisfactory. The evidence quality of a great majority of outcomes was rated as moderate to high according to the GRADE system. Compared to placebo, the re-meta-analysis found a great advantage of use FMT in inducing combined clinical and endoscopic remission (OR 3.83 [2.31, 6.34]), clinical remission (3.31 [2.09, 5.25]), endoscopic remission (OR 3.75 [2.20, 6.39]), clinical response (OR 2.56 [1.64, 4.00]), and endoscopic response (OR 2.18 [1.12, 4.26]). Pooled data showed no significant difference in serious adverse events between patients receiving FMT and those receiving placebo (OR 1.53 [0.74, 3.19]). Evidence quality of the outcomes derived from re-meta-analysis was significantly higher after overcoming the limitations of previous SRs/MAs.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, moderate- to high-quality evidence supported a promising use of FMT to safely induce remission in UC. However, further trials with larger sample size are still required to comprehensively analyze the delivery route, total dosage, frequency, and donor selection in FMT.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Catalán V, J Gómez-Ambrosi (2023)

Will the manipulation of the gut microbiota be effective for the treatment of metabolic diseases?.

European journal of internal medicine pii:S0953-6205(23)00422-3 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Gong X, Ma Y, Deng X, et al (2023)

Intestinal dysbiosis exacerbates susceptibility to the anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis-like phenotype by changing blood brain barrier permeability and immune homeostasis.

Brain, behavior, and immunity pii:S0889-1591(23)00364-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Changes in the intestinal microbiota have been observed in patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis (NMDARE). However, whether and how the intestinal microbiota is involved in the pathogenesis of NMDARE susceptibility needs to be demonstrated. Here, we first showed that germ-free (GF) mice that underwent fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from NMDARE patients, whose fecal microbiota exhibited low short-chain fatty acid content, decreased abundance of Lachnospiraceae, and increased abundance of Verrucomicrobiota, Akkermansia, Parabacteroides, Oscillospirales, showed significant behavioral deficits. Then, these FMT mice were actively immunized with an amino terminal domain peptide from the GluN1 subunit (GluN1356-385) to mimic the pathogenic process of NMDARE. We found that FMT mice showed an increased susceptibility to an encephalitis-like phenotype characterized by more clinical symptoms, greater pentazole (PTZ)-induced susceptibility to seizures, and higher levels of T2 weighted image (T2WI) hyperintensities following immunization. Furthermore, mice with dysbiotic microbiota had impaired blood-brain barrier integrity and a proinflammatory condition. In NMDARE-microbiota recipient mice, the levels of Evan's blue (EB) dye extravasation increased, ZO-1 and claudin-5 expression decreased, and the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and LPS) increased. Finally, significant brain inflammation, mainly in hippocampal and cortical regions, with modest neuroinflammation, immune cell infiltration, and reduced expression of NMDA receptors were observed in NMDARE microbiota recipient mice following immunization. Overall, our findings demonstrated that intestinal dysbiosis increased NMDARE susceptibility, suggesting a new target for limiting the occurrence of the severe phenotype of NMDARE.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Xie Z, Zhou J, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Clinical potential of microbiota in thyroid cancer therapy.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease, 1870(2):166971 pii:S0925-4439(23)00337-X [Epub ahead of print].

Thyroid cancer is one of the most common tumors of the endocrine system because of its rapid and steady increase in incidence and prevalence. In recent years, a growing number of studies have identified a key role for the gut, thyroid tissue and oral microbiota in the regulation of metabolism and the immune system. A growing body of evidence has conclusively demonstrated that the microbiota influences tumor formation, prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. We provide extensive information in which oral, gut, and thyroid microbiota have an effect on thyroid cancer development in this review. In addition, we thoroughly discuss the various microbiota species, their potential functions, and the underlying mechanisms for thyroid cancer. The microbiome offers a unique opportunity to improve the effectiveness of immunotherapy and radioiodine therapy thyroid cancer by maintaining the right type of microbiota, and holds great promise for improving clinical outcomes and quality of life for thyroid cancer patients.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Zhang X, Luo X, Tian L, et al (2023)

The gut microbiome dysbiosis and regulation by fecal microbiota transplantation: umbrella review.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1286429.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiome dysbiosis has been implicated in various gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal diseases, but evidence on the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for therapeutic indications remains unclear.

METHODS: The gutMDisorder database was used to summarize the associations between gut microbiome dysbiosis and diseases. We performed an umbrella review of published meta-analyses to determine the evidence synthesis on the efficacy and safety of FMT in treating various diseases. Our study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022301226).

RESULTS: Gut microbiome dysbiosis was associated with 117 gastrointestinal and extra-gastrointestinal. Colorectal cancer was associated with 92 dysbiosis. Dysbiosis involving Firmicutes (phylum) was associated with 34 diseases. We identified 62 published meta-analyses of FMT. FMT was found to be effective for 13 diseases, with a 95.56% cure rate (95% CI: 93.88-97.05%) for recurrent Chloridoids difficile infection (rCDI). Evidence was high quality for rCDI and moderate to high quality for ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease but low to very low quality for other diseases.

CONCLUSION: Gut microbiome dysbiosis may be implicated in numerous diseases. Substantial evidence suggests FMT improves clinical outcomes for certain indications, but evidence quality varies greatly depending on the specific indication, route of administration, frequency of instillation, fecal preparation, and donor type. This variability should inform clinical, policy, and implementation decisions regarding FMT.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Sun H, Su X, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Roseburia intestinalis relieves intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy through bile acid/FXR-FGF15 in rats.

iScience, 26(12):108392 pii:S2589-0042(23)02469-0.

Previous research has demonstrated significant differences in intestinal flora between pregnant women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) and healthy pregnant women. The objective of our study is to identify the key bacteria involved in ICP rats and explore the underlying mechanism. We established an ICP rat model and collected rat feces for metagenomic sequencing and found that Roseburia intestinalis (R.I) is the key bacteria in ICP. Transplantation of R.I improved phenotypes associated with ICP through the bile acid/farnesoid X receptor-fibroblast growth factor 15 (FXR-FGF15) signaling pathway. We used the FXR antagonist Z-Guggulsterone (Z-Gu) to verify the key role of FXR in ICP and found that Z-Gu reversed the benefits of R.I on ICP rats. Our research highlights the important role of intestinal flora in the pathogenesis of ICP and provides a novel approach for its treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Mao Z, Hui H, Zhao X, et al (2023)

Protective effects of dioscin against Parkinson's disease via regulating bile acid metabolism through remodeling gut microbiome/GLP-1 signaling.

Journal of pharmaceutical analysis, 13(10):1153-1167.

It is necessary to explore potent therapeutic agents via regulating gut microbiota and metabolism to combat Parkinson's disease (PD). Dioscin, a bioactive steroidal saponin, shows various activities. However, its effects and mechanisms against PD are limited. In this study, dioscin dramatically alleviated neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and restored the disorders of mice induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). 16 S rDNA sequencing assay demonstrated that dioscin reversed MPTP-induced gut dysbiosis to decrease Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and the abundances of Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacteroides and Lactobacillus genera, which further inhibited bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity and blocked bile acid (BA) deconjugation. Fecal microbiome transplantation test showed that the anti-PD effect of dioscin was gut microbiota-dependent. In addition, non-targeted fecal metabolomics assays revealed many differential metabolites in adjusting steroid biosynthesis and primary bile acid biosynthesis. Moreover, targeted bile acid metabolomics assay indicated that dioscin increased the levels of ursodeoxycholic acid, tauroursodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid and β-muricholic acid in feces and serum. In addition, ursodeoxycholic acid administration markedly improved the protective effects of dioscin against PD in mice. Mechanistic test indicated that dioscin significantly up-regulated the levels of takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), GLP-1, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and down-regulated NADPH oxidases 2 (NOX2) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) levels. Our data indicated that dioscin ameliorated PD phenotype by restoring gut dysbiosis and regulating bile acid-mediated oxidative stress and neuroinflammation via targeting GLP-1 signal in MPTP-induced PD mice, suggesting that the compound should be considered as a prebiotic agent to treat PD in the future.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Zhao W, Lei J, Ke S, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation plus tislelizumab and fruquintinib in refractory microsatellite stable metastatic colorectal cancer: an open-label, single-arm, phase II trial (RENMIN-215).

EClinicalMedicine, 66:102315 pii:S2589-5370(23)00492-3.

BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of cancer. However, microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) shows a low response to PD-1 inhibitors. Antiangiogenic therapy can enhance anti-PD-1 efficacy, but it still cannot meet clinical needs. Increasing evidence supported a close relationship between gut microbiome and anti-PD-1 efficacy. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of the combination of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and tislelizumab and fruquintinib in refractory MSS mCRC.

METHODS: In the phase II trial, MSS mCRC patients were administered FMT plus tislelizumab and fruquintinib as a third-line or above treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), duration of response (DoR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), safety and quality of life. Feces and peripheral blood were collected for exploratory biomarker analysis. This study is registered with, identifier ChiCTR2100046768.

FINDINGS: From May 10, 2021 to January 17, 2022, 20 patients were enrolled. Median follow-up was 13.7 months. Median PFS was 9.6 months (95% CI 4.1-15.1). Median OS was 13.7 months (95% CI 9.3-17.7). Median DoR was 8.1 months (95% CI 1.7-10.6). ORR was 20% (95% CI 5.7-43.7). DCR was 95% (95% CI 75.1-99.9). CBR was 60% (95% CI 36.1-80.9). Nineteen patients (95%) experienced at least one treatment-related adverse event (TRAE). Six patients (30%) had grade 3-4 TRAEs, with the most common being albuminuria (10%), urine occult blood (10%), fecal occult blood (10%), hypertension (5%), hyperglycemia (5%), liver dysfunction (5%), hand-foot skin reaction (5%), and hypothyroidism (5%). No treatment-related deaths occurred. Responders had a high-abundance of Proteobacteria and Lachnospiraceae family and a low-abundance of Actinobacteriota and Bifidobacterium. The treatment did not change the structure of peripheral blood TCR repertoire. However, the expanded TCRs exhibited the characteristics of antigen-driven responses in responders.

INTERPRETATION: FMT plus tislelizumab and fruquintinib as third-line or above treatment showed improved survival and manageable safety in refractory MSS mCRC, suggesting a valuable new treatment option for this patient population.

FUNDING: This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (82102954 to Wensi Zhao) and the Special Project of Central Government for Local Science and Technology Development of Hubei Province (ZYYD2020000169 to Yongshun Chen).

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Sharifa M, Ghosh T, Daher OA, et al (2023)

Unraveling the Gut-Brain Axis in Multiple Sclerosis: Exploring Dysbiosis, Oxidative Stress, and Therapeutic Insights.

Cureus, 15(10):e47058.

This comprehensive review delves into the intricate relationship between the gut microbiota and multiple sclerosis (MS), shedding light on the potential therapeutic avenues for this complex autoimmune disease. It emphasizes the multifactorial nature of MS, including genetic, environmental, and gender-related factors. Furthermore, the article highlights the emerging role of gut microbiota in MS pathophysiology, particularly in terms of gut dysbiosis, oxidative stress, and inflammasome activation within the gut-brain axis. This interplay raises intriguing questions about how the gut microbiota influences the onset and progression of MS. Environmental factors, such as diet and pollutants, add further layers of complexity to the connection between gut health and MS risk. This review also discusses promising therapeutic interventions, such as fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary adjustments, and gut-derived metabolites that offer potential avenues for managing MS. It underscores the need for ongoing research to fully unravel the complexities of the role of the gut-brain axis in MS. Ultimately, this article provides a comprehensive exploration of the topic, offering hope for novel preventive and therapeutic strategies that could significantly improve the lives of individuals affected by this challenging autoimmune condition.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Sehgal K, P Feuerstadt (2023)

The real efficacy of microbiota restoration following standard of care antimicrobial in patients with recurrent Clostridiodes difficile.

Translational gastroenterology and hepatology, 8:31 pii:tgh-08-23-46.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Hu S, Zhao R, Xu Y, et al (2023)

Orally-administered nanomedicine systems targeting colon inflammation for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: latest advances.

Journal of materials chemistry. B [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and idiopathic condition that results in inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to conditions such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Commonly used treatments for IBD include anti-inflammatory drugs, immunosuppressants, and antibiotics. Fecal microbiota transplantation is also being explored as a potential treatment method; however, these drugs may lead to systemic side effects. Oral administration is preferred for IBD treatment, but accurately locating the inflamed area in the colon is challenging due to multiple physiological barriers. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems possess unique physicochemical properties that enable precise delivery to the target site for IBD treatment, exploiting the increased permeability and retention effect of inflamed intestines. The first part of this review comprehensively introduces the pathophysiological environment of IBD, covering the gastrointestinal pH, various enzymes in the pathway, transport time, intestinal mucus, intestinal epithelium, intestinal immune cells, and intestinal microbiota. The second part focuses on the latest advances in the mechanism and strategies of targeted delivery using oral nanoparticle drug delivery systems for colitis-related fields. Finally, we present challenges and potential directions for future IBD treatment with the assistance of nanotechnology.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Xiao Y, Feng J, Jia J, et al (2023)

Vitamin K1 ameliorates lipopolysaccharide-triggered skeletal muscle damage revealed by faecal bacteria transplantation.

Journal of cachexia, sarcopenia and muscle [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Sepsis-associated muscle weakness is common in patients of intensive care units (ICUs), and it is closely associated with poor outcomes. The mechanism of sepsis-induced muscle weakness is unclear. Recent studies have found that gut microbiota and metabolites are involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass and metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of gut microbiota and metabolites on sepsis-associated muscle weakness.

METHODS: In a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation mouse model, mice with different sensitivities to LPS-induced inflammation were considered as donor mice for the faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) assay, and recipient mice were divided into sensitive (Sen) and resistant (Res) groups. Skeletal muscle mass and function, as well as colonic barrier integrity were tested and gut microbiota and metabolite composition were analysed in both groups of mice. The effect of intestinal differential metabolite vitamin K1 on LPS-triggered muscle damage was investigated, and the underlying mechanism was explored.

RESULTS: Recipients exhibited varying LPS-triggered muscle damage and intestinal barrier disruption. Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Sen exhibited upregulated expression levels of MuRF-1 (0.825 ± 0.063 vs. 0.304 ± 0.293, P = 0.0141) and MAFbx (1.055 ± 0.079 vs. 0.456 ± 0.3, P = 0.0092). Colonic tight junction proteins ZO-1 (0.550 ± 0.087 vs. 0.842 ± 0.094, P = 0.0492) and occludin (0.284 ± 0.057 vs. 0.664 ± 0.191, P = 0.0487) were significantly downregulated in the Sen group. Metabolomic analysis showed significantly higher vitamin K1 in the faeces (P = 0.0195) and serum of the Res group (P = 0.0079) than those of the Sen group. After vitamin K1 intervention, muscle atrophy-related protein expression downregulated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile SIRT1 protein expression were upregulated (0.320 ± 0.035 vs. 0.685 ± 0.081, P = 0.0281) and pNF-κB protein expression were downregulated (0.815 ± 0.295 vs. 0.258 ± 0.130, P = 0.0308). PI3K (0.365 ± 0.142 vs. 0.763 ± 0.013, P = 0.0475), pAKT (0.493 ± 0.159 vs. 1.183 ± 0.344, P = 0.0254) and pmTOR (0.509 ± 0.088 vs. 1.110 ± 0.190, P = 0.0368) protein expression levels were upregulated in TA muscle. Meanwhile, vitamin K1 attenuated serum inflammatory factor levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin K1 might ameliorate LPS-triggered skeletal muscle damage by antagonizing NF-κB-mediated inflammation through upregulation of SIRT1 and regulating the balance between protein synthesis and catabolism.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Lin J, Xiong J, Jin Y, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation through transendoscopic enteral tubing for inflammatory bowel disease: High acceptance and high satisfaction.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to positively affect the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the safety and efficacy of FMT may depend on the route of microbiota delivery. This study investigates the acceptance, satisfaction, and selection preference of a new delivery route, transendoscopic enteral tubing (TET), for treating IBD.

METHODS: A survey was conducted among patients with IBD from five medical centers across China. The objective was to assess their acceptance, subjective feelings, and major concerns regarding two types of TET: colonic TET and mid-gut TET. In addition, the survey also analyzed the factors affecting the selection of TET and TET types among these patients.

RESULTS: The final analysis included 351 questionnaires. Up to 76.6% of patients were willing to accept TET and preferred to choose colonic TET when they first learned about TET. Patients with longer disease duration, history of enema therapy, or enteral nutrition were more open to considering TET among IBD patients. After treatment, 95.6% of patients were satisfied with TET, including colonic TET (95.9%) and mid-gut TET (95.1%). Patients with a history of enema therapy and ulcerative colitis preferred colonic TET. In contrast, those with a history of enteral nutrition and Crohn's disease were willing to choose mid-gut TET. However, some patients hesitated to accept TET due to concerns about efficacy, safety, and cost.

CONCLUSIONS: TET was highly accepted and satisfied patients with IBD. Disease type and combination therapy influenced the choice of colonic or mid-gut TET.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Li S, Chen T, Zhou Y, et al (2023)

Palmitic acid and trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate, the active ingredients of Yaobishu formula, reduce inflammation and pain by regulating gut microbiota and metabolic changes after lumbar disc herniation to activate autophagy and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease pii:S0925-4439(23)00338-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The imbalance in gut microbiota triggers an inflammatory response that spreads from the gut to the discs and is associated with lumbar disc herniation (LDH). In this study, we investigated the mechanism of palmitic acid (PA) and trans-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid (THMC) on microbiota, metabolic homeostasis, and autophagy after LDH. The LDH rat model was established by puncturing the exposed intervertebral disc. 16S rDNA was used to assess the gut microbiome composition. The microbial metabolites were analyzed by UPLC-MS. The mechanism of PA and THMC in LDH was explored by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We found that Yaobishu, PA, THMC, and the positive control drug Celebrex attenuated intervertebral disc damage in LDH rats and downregulated TRPV1, IL-1β, and IL-18 expression. In addition, Yaobishu reduced Oscillospirales and Ruminococcaceae abundances after LDH. PA increased Bacilli's abundance while decreasing Negativicutes and Ruminococcaceae abundances. Metabolomics showed that Yaobishu increased 2-hexanone, methyl isobutyl ketone, 2-methylpentan-3-one, and nonadecanoic acid levels but decreased pantetheine and urocanate levels. PA and THMC reduced uridine and urocanate levels. Yaobishu, PA, and THMC activated autophagy and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in LDH rats. Moreover, antibiotics abrogated these effects. FMT-PA and FMT-THMC activated autophagy and decreased IL-1β, IL-18, Wnt1, β-catenin, and TRPV1 expression. FMT-PA and FMT-THMC partially reversed the effects of 3-MA. Taken together, our data suggest that Yaobishu, PA, and THMC relieve inflammation and pain by remodeling the gut microbiota and restoring metabolic homeostasis after LDH to activate autophagy and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which provide a new therapeutic target for LDH in the clinic.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Wu Y, Zhang Y, Xie B, et al (2023)

Esketamine mitigates cognitive impairment following exposure to LPS by modulating the intestinal flora/subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve/spleen axis.

International immunopharmacology, 126:111284 pii:S1567-5769(23)01611-9 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Susceptibility to secondary infection often increases after primary infection. Secondary infections can lead to more severe inflammatory injuries; however, the underlying mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether esketamine treatment immediately after primary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure could alleviate cognitive impairment caused by secondary infection.

METHODS: Mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with LPS (5 mg/kg) 10 days apart. Esketamine (10, 15, or 30 mg/kg) was administered IP immediately after the primary LPS injection. Splenectomy or subdiaphragmatic vagotomy (SDV) was performed 7 days before secondary LPS exposure or broad-spectrum antibiotic administration.

RESULTS: Splenomegaly was observed after the primary LPS injection on Days 3 and 10. Splenomegaly was attenuated by treatment with 30 mg/kg esketamine. Esketamine treatment prevented increased plasma proinflammatory cytokines levels and cognitive dysfunction induced by secondary LPS exposure. Mice that underwent splenectomy or SDV had lower proinflammatory cytokines levels, higher hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, and improved cognitive function 1 day after secondary infection, which was not further improved by esketamine. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from endotoxic mice treated with esketamine attenuated hippocampal BDNF downregulation and cognitive dysfunction only in pseudo germ-free (PGF) mice without splenectomy. FMT with fecal suspensions from esketamine-treated endotoxic mice abrogated splenomegaly only in PGF mice without SDV. Blocking BDNF signaling blocked esketamine's ameliorating effects on secondary LPS exposure-induced cognitive dysfunction.

CONCLUSION: The intestinal flora/subdiaphragmatic vagus nerve/spleen axis-mediated hippocampal BDNF downregulation significantly affected secondary LPS-induced systemic inflammation and cognitive dysfunction. Esketamine preserves cognitive function via this mechanism.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Gurczynski SJ, Lipinski JH, Strauss JY, et al (2023)

Horizontal transmission of gut microbiota attenuates mortality in lung fibrosis.

JCI insight pii:164572 [Epub ahead of print].

Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic and often fatal disease. The pathogenesis is characterized by aberrant repair of lung parenchyma resulting in loss of physiological homeostasis, respiratory failure and death. The immune response in pulmonary fibrosis is dysregulated. The gut microbiome is a key regulator of immunity. The role of the gut microbiome in regulating the pulmonary immunity in lung fibrosis is poorly understood. Here, we determine the impact of gut microbiota on pulmonary fibrosis in C57BL/6 mice derived from different vendors (C57BL/6J and C57BL/6NCrl). We use germ free models, fecal microbiota transplantation and cohousing to transmit gut microbiota. Metagenomic studies of feces establish keystone species between sub-strains. Pulmonary fibrosis is microbiota dependent in C57BL/6 mice. Gut microbiota are distinct by β diversity (PERMANOVA P<0.001) and α diversity (P<0.0001). Mortality and lung fibrosis are attenuated in C57BL/6NCrl mice. Elevated CD4+ IL-10+ T cells and lower IL-6 occur in C57BL/6NCrl mice. Horizontal transmission of microbiota by cohousing attenuates mortality in C57BL/6J mice and promotes a transcriptionally altered pulmonary immunity. Temporal changes in lung and gut microbiota demonstrates that gut microbiota contribute largely to immunological phenotype. Key regulatory gut microbiota contribute to lung fibrosis generating rationale for human studies.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Sun L, Li Z, Hu C, et al (2023)

Age-dependent changes in the gut microbiota and serum metabolome correlate with renal function and human aging.

Aging cell [Epub ahead of print].

Human aging is invariably accompanied by a decline in renal function, a process potentially exacerbated by uremic toxins originating from gut microbes. Based on a registered household Chinese Guangxi longevity cohort (n = 151), we conducted comprehensive profiling of the gut microbiota and serum metabolome of individuals from 22 to 111 years of age and validated the findings in two independent East Asian aging cohorts (Japan aging cohort n = 330, Yunnan aging cohort n = 80), identifying unique age-dependent differences in the microbiota and serum metabolome. We discovered that the influence of the gut microbiota on serum metabolites intensifies with advancing age. Furthermore, mediation analyses unveiled putative causal relationships between the gut microbiota (Escherichia coli, Odoribacter splanchnicus, and Desulfovibrio piger) and serum metabolite markers related to impaired renal function (p-cresol, N-phenylacetylglutamine, 2-oxindole, and 4-aminohippuric acid) and aging. The fecal microbiota transplantation experiment demonstrated that the feces of elderly individuals could influence markers related to impaired renal function in the serum. Our findings reveal novel links between age-dependent alterations in the gut microbiota and serum metabolite markers of impaired renal function, providing novel insights into the effects of microbiota-metabolite interplay on renal function and healthy aging.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Frith ME, Kashyap PC, Linden DR, et al (2023)

Microbiota-dependent early life programming of gastrointestinal motility.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.08.566304.

Gastrointestinal microbes modulate peristalsis and stimulate the enteric nervous system (ENS), whose development, as in the central nervous system (CNS), continues into the murine postweaning period. Given that adult CNS function depends on stimuli received during critical periods of postnatal development, we hypothesized that adult ENS function, namely motility, depends on microbial stimuli during similar critical periods. We gave fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to germ-free mice at weaning or as adults and found that only the mice given FMT at weaning recovered normal transit, while those given FMT as adults showed limited improvements. RNAseq of colonic muscularis propria revealed enrichments in neuron developmental pathways in mice exposed to gut microbes earlier in life, while mice exposed later - or not at all - showed exaggerated expression of inflammatory pathways. These findings highlight a microbiota-dependent sensitive period in ENS development, pointing to potential roles of the early life microbiome in later life dysmotility.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Kim N, Ju IG, Jeon SH, et al (2023)

Inhibition of microfold cells ameliorates early pathological phenotypes by modulating microglial functions in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 20(1):282.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has recently attracted attention as a pathogenic factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Microfold (M) cells, which play a crucial role in the gut immune response against external antigens, are also exploited for the entry of pathogenic bacteria and proteins into the body. However, whether changes in M cells can affect the gut environments and consequently change brain pathologies in AD remains unknown.

METHODS: Five familial AD (5xFAD) and 5xFAD-derived fecal microbiota transplanted (5xFAD-FMT) naïve mice were used to investigate the changes of M cells in the AD environment. Next, to establish the effect of M cell depletion on AD environments, 5xFAD mice and Spib knockout mice were bred, and behavioral and histological analyses were performed when M cell-depleted 5xFAD mice were six or nine months of age.

RESULTS: In this study, we found that M cell numbers were increased in the colons of 5xFAD and 5xFAD-FMT mice compared to those of wild-type (WT) and WT-FMT mice. Moreover, the level of total bacteria infiltrating the colons increased in the AD-mimicked mice. The levels of M cell-related genes and that of infiltrating bacteria showed a significant correlation. The genetic inhibition of M cells (Spib knockout) in 5xFAD mice changed the composition of the gut microbiota, along with decreasing proinflammatory cytokine levels in the colons. M cell depletion ameliorated AD symptoms including amyloid-β accumulation, microglial dysfunction, neuroinflammation, and memory impairment. Similarly, 5xFAD-FMT did not induce AD-like pathologies, such as memory impairment and excessive neuroinflammation in Spib[-/-] mice.

CONCLUSION: Therefore, our findings provide evidence that the inhibiting M cells can prevent AD progression, with therapeutic implications.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Hart NH, Wallen MP, Farley MJ, et al (2023)

Exercise and the gut microbiome: implications for supportive care in cancer.

Supportive care in cancer : official journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer, 31(12):724.

PURPOSE: Growing recognition of the gut microbiome as an influential modulator of cancer treatment efficacy and toxicity has led to the emergence of clinical interventions targeting the microbiome to enhance cancer and health outcomes. The highly modifiable nature of microbiota to endogenous, exogenous, and environmental inputs enables interventions to promote resilience of the gut microbiome that have rapid effects on host health, or response to cancer treatment. While diet, probiotics, and faecal microbiota transplant are primary avenues of therapy focused on restoring or protecting gut function in people undergoing cancer treatment, the role of physical activity and exercise has scarcely been examined in this population.

METHODS: A narrative review was conducted to explore the nexus between cancer care and the gut microbiome in the context of physical activity and exercise as a widely available and clinically effective supportive care strategy used by cancer survivors.

RESULTS: Exercise can facilitate a more diverse gut microbiome and functional metabolome in humans; however, most physical activity and exercise studies have been conducted in healthy or athletic populations, primarily using aerobic exercise modalities. A scarcity of exercise and microbiome studies in cancer exists.

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise remains an attractive avenue to promote microbiome health in cancer survivors. Future research should elucidate the various influences of exercise modalities, intensities, frequencies, durations, and volumes to explore dose-response relationships between exercise and the gut microbiome among cancer survivors, as well as multifaceted approaches (such as diet and probiotics), and examine the influences of exercise on the gut microbiome and associated symptom burden prior to, during, and following cancer treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Choueiry F, Gold A, Xu R, et al (2023)

Secondary-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry-Based Online Analyses of Mouse Volatilome Uncover Gut Microbiome-Dictated Metabolic Changes in the Host.

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry [Epub ahead of print].

The symbiotic relationship between the gut microbial population is capable of regulating numerous aspects of host physiology, including metabolism. Bacteria can modulate the metabolic processes of the host by feeding on nutritional components within the lumen and releasing bioactive components into circulation. Endogenous volatile organic compound (VOC) synthesis is dependent on the availability of precursors found in mammalian metabolism. Herein, we report that microbial-mediated metabolic influences can alter the host volatilome and the prominent volatile changes can be uncovered by a novel volatile analysis technique named secondary electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Mice were subjected to an antibiotic cocktail to deplete the microbiome and then inoculated with either single strain bacteria or fecal matter transplantation (FMT) to replete the microbial population in the gut. VOC sampling was achieved by using an advanced secondary electrospray ionization (SESI) source that directly mounted onto a Thermo Q-Exactive high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRMS). A principal component analysis summarizing the volatile profiles of the mice revealed independent clustering of each strain of the FMT-inoculated groups, suggesting unique volatile profiles. The Mummichog algorithm uncovered phenylalanine metabolism as a significantly altered metabolic profile in the volatilome of the microbiome-repleted mice. Our results indicated that the systemic metabolic changes incurred by the host are translated to unique volatile profiles correlated to the diversity of the microbial population colonized within the host. It is thus possible to take advantage of SESI-HRMS-based platforms for noninvasive screening of VOCs to determine the contribution of various microbial colonization within human gut that may impact host health.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Liang D, Liu H, Jin R, et al (2023)

Escherichia coli triggers α-synuclein pathology in the LRRK2 transgenic mouse model of PD.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2276296.

Alpha-synuclein (α-syn) pathology is the hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). The leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene is a major-effect risk gene for sporadic PD (sPD). However, what environmental factors may trigger the formation of α-syn pathology in carriers of LRRK2 risk variants are still unknown. Here, we report that a markedly increased abundance of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in the intestinal microbiota was detected in LRRK2 risk variant(R1628P or G2385R) carriers with sPD compared with carriers without sPD. Animal experiments showed that E. coli administration triggered pathological α-syn accumulation in the colon and spread to the brain via the gut-brain axis in Lrrk2 R1628P mice, due to the co-occurrence of Lrrk2 variant-induced inhibition of α-syn autophagic degradation and increased phosphorylation of α-syn caused by curli in E. coli-derived extracellular vesicles. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) effectively ameliorated motor deficits and α-syn pathology in Lrrk2 R1628P mice. Our findings elaborate on the mechanism that E. coli triggers α-syn pathology in Lrrk2 R1628P mice, and highlight a novel gene-environment interaction pattern in LRRK2 risk variants. Even more importantly, the findings reveal the interplay between the specific risk gene and the matched environmental factors triggers the initiation of α-syn pathology in sPD.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Garrett S, Asada MC, J Sun (2023)

Axin1's mystique in manipulating microbiome amidst colitis.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2286674.

Classically, Axin1 is considered a regulator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. However, Axin1's roles in host-microbial interactions have been unknown. Our recent study has demonstrated that deletion of intestinal epithelial Axin1 in epithelial cells and Paneth cells protects the host against colitis by enhancing Akkermansia muciniphila. Loss of intestinal epithelial or Paneth cell Axin1 results in increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, proliferation, and cell migration. This is associated with morphologically altered goblet and Paneth cells, including increased Muc2 and decreased lysozyme. Axin1 deletion specifically enriched Akkermansia muciniphila. Akkermansia muciniphila in Axin1 knockout mice is the driver of protection against DSS-induced inflammation. Here, we feature several significant conceptual changes, such as differences between Axin1 and Axin2, Axin1 in innate immunity and microbial homeostasis, and Axin1 reduction of Akkermansia muciniphila. We discuss an important trend in the field related to Paneth cells and tissue-specific Axin1 manipulation of microbiome in health and inflammation.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Ahmad R, Kumar B, Thapa I, et al (2023)

Loss of claudin-3 expression increases colitis risk by promoting Gut Dysbiosis.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2282789.

Dysregulation of both the gut barrier and microbiota (dysbiosis) promotes susceptibility to and severity of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD). Leaky gut and dysbiosis often coexist; however, potential interdependence and molecular regulation are not well understood. Robust expression of claudin-3 (CLDN3) characterizes the gut epithelium, and studies have demonstrated a positive association between CLDN3 expression and gut barrier maturity and integrity, including in response to probiotics. However, the exact status and causal role of CLDN3 in IBD and regulation of gut dysbiosis remain unknown. Analysis of mouse and human IBD cohorts helped examine CLDN3 expression in IBD. The causal role was determined by modeling CLDN3 loss of expression during experimental colitis. 16S sequencing and in silico analysis helped examine gut microbiota diversity between Cldn3KO and WT mice and potential host metabolic responses. Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) studies were performed to assess the role of gut dysbiosis in the increased susceptibility of Cldn3KO mice to colitis. A significant decrease in CLDN3 expression characterized IBD and CLDN3 loss of expression promoted colitis. 16S sequencing analysis suggested gut microbiota changes in Cldn3KO mice that were capable of modulating fatty acid metabolism and oxidative stress response. FMT from naïve Cldn3KO mice promoted colitis susceptibility in recipient germ-free mice (GFM) compared with GFM-receiving microbiota from WT mice. Our data demonstrate a critical role of CLDN3 in maintaining normal gut microbiota and inflammatory responses, which can be harnessed to develop novel therapeutic opportunities for patients with IBD.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Ye H, Ghosh TS, Hueston CM, et al (2023)

Engraftment of aging-related human gut microbiota and the effect of a seven-species consortium in a pre-clinical model.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2282796.

Human aging is characterized by gut microbiome alteration and differential loss of gut commensal species associated with the onset of frailty. The administration of cultured commensal strains to replenish lost taxa could potentially promote healthy aging. To investigate the interaction of whole microbiomes and administered strains, we transplanted gut microbiota from a frail or healthy elderly subject into germ-free mice. We supplemented the frail-donor recipient group with a defined consortium of taxa (the "S7") that we identified by analyzing healthy aging subjects in our previous studies and whose abundance correlated with health-promoting dietary intervention. Inoculation with a frail or a healthy donor microbiome resulted in differential microbiota compositions in murine recipients 5 weeks post-transplantation. Fecal acetate levels were significantly higher in healthy donor recipient mice than in frail donor recipient mice after 4 weeks. However, the frailty-related phenotype was not replicated in recipient mice with single-dose microbiota transplantation from a healthy and a frail donor. Five S7 species colonized successfully in germ-free mice, with a relatively high abundance of Barnesiella intestinihominis and Eubacterium rectale. The engraftment of five S7 species in germ-free mice increased fecal acetate levels and reduced colon permeability and plasma TNF-ɑ concentration. Supplementation with the S7 in frail-microbiota recipient mice did not increase alpha-diversity but significantly increased the abundance of Barnesiella intestinihominis. S7 supplementation showed the potential for improving spatial reference memory in frail-microbiota recipient mice. Collectively, these data highlight the challenge of elderly microbiota engraftment in the germ-free mouse model but show promise for modulating the gut microbiome of frail elderly subjects by administering an artificial gut microbe consortium associated with healthy aging.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Xiong Y, He Y, Chen Z, et al (2023)

Lactobacillus induced by irbesartan on spontaneously hypertensive rat contribute to its antihypertensive effect.

Journal of hypertension pii:00004872-990000000-00360 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is linked to gut dysbiosis. Here, the impact of the angiotensin receptor antagonist irbesartan on the gut microbiota of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were investigated. In addition, we assessed their contribution to its antihypertensive effect.

METHODS: Eight-week-old Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and SHR were administered irbesartan for 8 weeks. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was performed from SHR treated with irbesartan or untreated SHR to recipient untreated SHR. The preventive effect of Lactobacillus on hypertension in SHR was evaluated. Blood pressure (BP) was calculated using a tail-sleeve sphygmomanometer. To better assess the composition of the gut microbiota, the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified while short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces were tested by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

RESULTS: Irbesartan restored gut dysbiosis, increased the abundance of Lactobacillus, and improved anti-inflammatory ability, antioxidative ability, intestinal integrity, and intestinal inflammation in SHR. The microbiota in SHR-treated irbesartan could reduce BP and improve antioxidative ability and gut integrity in SHR. Lactobacillus johnsonii (L. johnsonii) and Lactobacillus reuteri (L. reuteri) reduced BP, restored gut dysbiosis and improved anti-inflammatory ability, antioxidative ability, intestinal integrity in SHR. Most notably, irbesartan, L. johnsonii, and L. reuteri can significantly increase SCFA content in SHR feces.

CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrated that irbesartan treatment ameliorated gut dysbiosis in SHR. Irbesartan induced alterations in gut microbiota, with increased prevalence of Lactobacillus.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Hu S, Zhou J, Hao J, et al (2023)

Emodin ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by inhibiting ferroptosis through the remodeling of gut microbiota composition.

American journal of physiology. Cell physiology [Epub ahead of print].

The relationship between gut microbiota and doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity (DIC) is becoming increasingly clear. Emodin (EMO), a naturally occurring anthraquinone, exerts cardioprotective effects and plays a protective role by regulating gut microbiota composition. Therefore, the protective effect of EMO against DIC injury and its underlying mechanisms are worth investigating. In this study, we analyzed the differences in the gut microbiota in recipient mice transplanted with different flora using 16S-rDNA sequencing, analyzed the differences in serum metabolites among groups of mice using a non-targeted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupling system, and assessed cardiac function based on cardiac morphological staining, cardiac injury markers, and ferroptosis indicator assays. We found EMO ameliorated DIC and ferroptosis, as evidenced by decreased myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and myocardial disorganization; improved ferroptosis indicators; and the maintenance of normal mitochondrial morphology. The protective effect of EMO was eliminated by the scavenging effect of antibiotics on the gut microbiota. Through fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), we found that EMO restored the gut microbiota disrupted by doxorubicin (DOX) to near-normal levels. This was evidenced by an increased proportion of Bacteroidota and a decreased proportion of Verrucomicrobiota. FMT resulted in changes in the composition of serum metabolites. Mice transplanted with EMO-improved gut microbiota showed better cardiac function and ferroptosis indices; however, these beneficial effects were not observed in Nrf2[-/-] mice. Overall, EMO exerted a protective effect against DIC by attenuating ferroptosis, and the above effects occurred by remodeling the composition of gut microbiota perturbed by DOX and required Nrf2 mediation.

RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

Ma J, Zhou M, Song Z, et al (2023)

Clec7a drives gut fungus-mediated host lipid deposition.

Microbiome, 11(1):264.

BACKGROUND: Compared to that of bacteria, the role of gut fungi in obesity development remains unknown.

RESULTS: Here, alterations in gut fungal biodiversity and composition were confirmed in obese pig models and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Antifungal drugs improved diet-induced obesity, while fungal reconstruction by cohousing or fecal microbiota transplantation maintained the obese phenotype in HFD-fed mice. Fungal profiling identified 5 fungal species associated with obesity. Specifically, Ascomycota_sp. and Microascaceae_sp. were reduced in obese mice and negatively correlated with fat content. Oral supplementation with fungi was sufficient to prevent and treat diet-induced obesity. Clec7a, which is involved in fungal recognition, was highly expressed in HFD-fed mice. The Clec7a agonist accelerated diet-induced obesity, while Clec7a deficieny in mice resulted in resistance to diet-induced obesity and blocked the anti-obese effect of antifungal drugs and fungi.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that gut fungi/Clec7a signaling is involved in diet-induced obesity and may have therapeutic implications as a biomarker for metabolic dysregulation in humans. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Parigi TL, Vieujean S, Paridaens K, et al (2023)

Efficacy, Safety, and Concerns on Microbiota Modulation, Antibiotics, Probiotics, and Fecal Microbial Transplant for Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Other Gastrointestinal Conditions: Results from an International Survey.

Microorganisms, 11(11):.

The gut microbiota play a pivotal role in human health. Dysbiosis, alterations in microbiota composition and function, is associated with gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This international survey aimed to assess physicians' experiences, perceptions, and practices related to microbiome modulation for gastrointestinal conditions, with a focus on IBD. Results from 142 healthcare professionals, predominantly gastroenterologists, confirmed a consensus on the relevance of the gut microbiota in IBD pathogenesis. However, the utilization of microbial composition analysis and probiotics in clinical practice was limited, primarily due to the lack of standardized guidelines and supporting evidence. Physicians held conflicting views on antibiotics, recognizing their potential for inducing remission but also causing flares in IBD. Respondents also had varying opinions on the efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for different gastrointestinal conditions, with higher confidence in FMT effectiveness for irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, pouchitis, and ulcerative colitis. Concerns on FMT included uncertainty about effect duration, administration intervals, and conflicting evidence. Donor selection was believed to be a crucial factor in FMT outcomes. This survey highlights the need for further research and evidence-based guidelines to optimize the use of microbiome-based therapies in clinical practice. As our understanding of the gut microbiome continues to evolve, these insights will contribute to more informed and personalized approaches to managing gastrointestinal disorders.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Salandre A, Delannoy J, Goudiaby MTB, et al (2023)

A Simple In Vitro Test to Select Stools for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation to Limit Intestinal Carriage of Extensively Drug-Resistant Bacteria.

Microorganisms, 11(11):.

Treatment options for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are limited and often ineffective. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as a promising therapy for intestinal multidrug-resistant bacterial decolonization. However, clinical results are discrepant. The aim of our pilot study was to evaluate the screening performance of a simple diagnostic tool to select fecal samples that will be effective in decolonizing the intestine. Fecal samples from 10 healthy subjects were selected. We developed an agar spot test to evaluate their antagonistic activity toward the growth of VanA Enterococcus faecium and OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, two of the most serious and urgent threats of antibiotic resistance. Most fecal samples were able to limit the growth of both bacteria in vitro but with large inter-individual variation. The samples with the highest and lowest antagonistic activity were used for FMT in a mouse model of intestinal colonization. FMT was not successful in reducing intestinal colonization with VanA Enterococcus faecium, whereas FMT performed with the fecal sample showing the highest activity on the agar spot test was able to significantly reduce the intestinal colonization of mice with Klebsiella pneumoniae OXA-48. The agar spot test could thus serve as a reliable screening tool to select stool samples with the best potential to eradicate/reduce multidrug-resistant bacteria carriage after FMT.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Yan P, Luo S, Guo L, et al (2023)

Unraveling Intestinal Microbial Shifts in ESRD and Kidney Transplantation: Implications for Disease-Related Dysbiosis.

Microorganisms, 11(11):.

The composition of the gut microbiome is profoundly influenced by the accumulation of toxins in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and specific medical treatments during kidney transplantation (KT). However, variations in results may arise due to factors such as genetics, dietary habits, and the strategy of anti-rejection therapy. Therefore, we conducted a 16S rRNA sequencing study to characterize intestinal microbiomes by using 75 fecal specimens obtained from 25 paired Chinese living donors (LDs) of kidneys and recipients before and after KT. Surprisingly, similar enterotypes were observed between healthy LDs and ESRD recipients. Nonetheless, following KT, the fecal communities of recipients exhibited distinct clustering, which was primarily characterized by Escherichia-Shigella and Streptococcus at the genus level, along with a reduction in the diversity of microbiota. To further explore the characteristics of gut microorganisms in early rejection episodes, two recipients with biopsy-proven borderline changes during follow-up were enrolled in a preliminary sub-cohort study. Our findings reveal a comparable construction of gut microbiota between ESRD patients and their healthy relatives while also highlighting the significant impact of KT on gut microbial composition.

RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

Zhou J, V Ho (2023)

Role of Baseline Gut Microbiota on Response to Fiber Intervention in Individuals with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Nutrients, 15(22):.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gut disorders in the world. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum, a low-viscosity soluble fiber, has shown promise in the management of IBS-related symptoms. In this study, we aimed to determine if an individual's baseline gut microbiota impacted their response to a partially hydrolyzed guar gum intervention. Patients diagnosed with IBS undertook a 90-day intervention and follow-up. IBS symptom severity, tolerability, quality-of-life, and fecal microbiome composition were recorded during this study. Patients with normal microbiota diversity (Shannon index ≥ 3) showed significant improvements to IBS symptom scores, quality-of-life, and better tolerated the intervention compared to patients with low microbiota diversity (Shannon index < 3). Our findings suggest that an individual's baseline microbiome composition exerts a substantial influence on their response to fiber intervention. Future investigations should explore a symbiotic approach to the treatment of IBS.

RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

He S, Lin F, Hu X, et al (2023)

Gut Microbiome-Based Therapeutics in Critically Ill Adult Patients-A Narrative Review.

Nutrients, 15(22):.

The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the human microenvironment. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is a common pathophysiological phenomenon in critically ill patients. Therefore, utilizing intestinal microbiota to prevent complications and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients is a possible therapeutic direction. The gut microbiome-based therapeutics approach focuses on improving intestinal microbiota homeostasis by modulating its diversity, or treating critical illness by altering the metabolites of intestinal microbiota. There is growing evidence that fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), selective digestive decontamination (SDD), and microbiota-derived therapies are all effective treatments for critical illness. However, different treatments are appropriate for different conditions, and more evidence is needed to support the selection of optimal gut microbiota-related treatments for different diseases. This narrative review summarizes the curative effects and limitations of microbiome-based therapeutics in different critically ill adult patients, aiming to provide possible directions for gut microbiome-based therapeutics for critically ill patients such as ventilator-associated pneumonia, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and COVID-19, etc.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Xiao N, Ruan S, Mo Q, et al (2023)

The Effect of Sodium Benzoate on Host Health: Insight into Physiological Indexes and Gut Microbiota.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(22): pii:foods12224081.

Sodium benzoate (SB) is a common food preservative widely used in the food industry. However, the effects of SB intake on host health at different stages were still unclear. Hence, we investigated the impact of SB with three concentrations (150 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and at three stages (intake for 5-weeks, intake for 10-weeks and removal for 5 weeks) on host health in normal mice. The results showed that SB intake for 5 weeks slightly changed gut microbiota composition, but it significantly increased TG (only 150 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg) and blood glucose levels (only 500 mg/kg) and promoted the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 (p < 0.01). However, SB intake for 10 weeks mostly maintained normal glucolipid metabolism; although, IL-1β (p < 0.01) and IL-6 (p < 0.05) levels were also significantly increased and positively regulated the gut microbiota by significantly increasing the relative abundance of Lactobacillus and significantly decreasing the relative abundance of Ileibacterium. Meanwhile, the safety of SB for host metabolism and gut microbiota was also confirmed via a fecal microbiota transplantation experiment. In addition, we found that SB removal after 10 weeks of intake significantly increased the levels of blood glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR index, which might be attributed to gut microbiota dysbiosis. Mechanistically, these positive effects and negative effects had no close relationship with the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the gut, which might be associated with metabolites of SB or special bacterial strains. In short, this work provided positive evidence for the safety of SB consumption within the recommended range.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Boicean A, Birlutiu V, Ichim C, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Liver Cirrhosis.

Biomedicines, 11(11): pii:biomedicines11112930.

The human gastrointestinal tract houses a diverse array of probiotic and pathogenic bacteria and any alterations in this microbial composition can exert a significant influence on an individual's well-being. It is well-established that imbalances in the gut microbiota play a pivotal role in the development of liver diseases. In light of this, a new adjuvant therapy for liver diseases could be regulating the intestinal microbiota. Through fecal microbiota transplantation, patients whose microbiomes are compromised are treated with stool from healthy donors in an attempt to restore a normal microbiome and alleviate their symptoms. A review of cross-sectional studies and case reports suggests that fecal microbiota transplants may offer effective treatment for chronic liver diseases. Adding to the potential of this emerging therapy, recent research has indicated that fecal microbiota transplantation holds promise as a therapeutic approach specifically for liver cirrhosis. By introducing a diverse range of beneficial microorganisms into the gut, this innovative treatment aims to address the microbial imbalances often observed in cirrhotic patients. While further validation is still required, these preliminary findings highlight the potential impact of fecal microbiota transplantation as a novel and targeted method for managing liver cirrhosis. We aimed to summarize the current state of understanding regarding this procedure, as a new therapeutic method for liver cirrhosis, as well as to explain its clinical application and future potential.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Xu H, Fang F, Wu K, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota-bile acid crosstalk regulates murine lipid metabolism via the intestinal FXR-FGF19 axis in diet-induced humanized dyslipidemia.

Microbiome, 11(1):262.

BACKGROUND: Diet-induced dyslipidemia is linked to the gut microbiota, but the causality of microbiota-host interaction affecting lipid metabolism remains controversial. Here, the humanized dyslipidemia mice model was successfully built by using fecal microbiota transplantation from dyslipidemic donors (FMT-dd) to study the causal role of gut microbiota in diet-induced dyslipidemia.

RESULTS: We demonstrated that FMT-dd reshaped the gut microbiota of mice by increasing Faecalibaculum and Ruminococcaceae UCG-010, which then elevated serum cholicacid (CA), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), and deoxycholic acid (DCA), reduced bile acid synthesis and increased cholesterol accumulation via the hepatic farnesoid X receptor-small heterodimer partner (FXR-SHP) axis. Nevertheless, high-fat diet led to decreased Muribaculum in the humanized dyslipidemia mice induced by FMT-dd, which resulted in reduced intestinal hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), raised bile acid synthesis and increased lipid absorption via the intestinal farnesoid X receptor-fibroblast growth factor 19 (FXR-FGF19) axis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our studies implicated that intestinal FXR is responsible for the regulation of lipid metabolism in diet-induced dyslipidemia mediated by gut microbiota-bile acid crosstalk. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Yang Y, Yan J, Li S, et al (2023)

Efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Endocrine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the common metabolic diseases worldwide, and studies have found significant differences in the composition and ratio of intestinal flora between patients with T2DM and normal glucose tolerance, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota thereby alleviating the hyperglycemic state. We conducted a meta-analysis and systematic review of existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy of FMT in T2DM.

METHODS: We conducted a computer search of PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to screen randomized controlled trials studies on FMT treatment for T2DM and extracted data from studies that met inclusion criteria. RevMan 5.4 software and Stata 11 software was used for meta-analysis. The indexes of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), body mass index (BMI), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were mainly evaluated after FMT treatment of T2DM patients, and the changes of intestinal flora were evaluated.

RESULTS: Four RCTs met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Results of the meta-analysis showed that compared with the non-FMT group, FMT combined treatment could significantly reduce the PBG level in patients with type 2 diabetes (MD = -0.51, 95% CI: -1.42-0.40, P = 0.27). Compared with single FMT treatment, FMT combined treatment could reduce TG levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (MD = -0.60, 95% CI: -1.12~-0.07, P = 0.03). The levels of TG (MD = -0.26, 95% CI: -0.51~-0.02, P = 0.03), HOMA-IR (MD = -2.73, 95% CI: -4.71~0.75, P = 0.007) and HDL (MD = -0.06,95% CI: -0.10~-0.02, P = 0.003) were significantly decreased after treatment in the single FMT group. The level of TC (MD = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.00~-0.31, P = 0.0002) was significantly decreased after FMT combined treatment. Compared with before treatment, ALT (MD = -2.52, 95% CI: -3.86~-1.17, P = 0.0002) and DBP (MD = -2, 95% CI: -3.32~0.68, P = 0.003) levels decreased after treatment in the single FMT group and the FMT combined group. FPG (MD = -0.94, 95% CI: -1.86~-0.02, P = 0.04), TG (MD = -0.73, 95% CI: -1.42~-0.04, P = 0.04) and TC (MD = -0.94, 95% CI: -1.45~-0.43, P = 0.0003) were significantly decreased after combined drug and diet therapy. Secondly, FMT can promote the colonization and growth of donor-related flora in patients with type 2 diabetes.

CONCLUSION: In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, FMT treatment can reduce the levels of PBG, TG, HOMA-IR, TC, ALT, and DBP, especially in the combined treatment regimen. In addition, FMT can reshape the intestinal flora and establish the balance of dominant flora.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

de-Mendoza C, Pérez L, Rando A, et al (2023)

HTLV-1-associated myelopathy in Spain.

Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology, 169:105619 pii:S1386-6532(23)00242-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: HTLV-1 infection is a neglected disease. Over 10 million people are infected worldwide, with hot spots of high endemicity across all continents. Roughly 5% of HTLV-1 carriers develop HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), a progressive subacute neurological disabling disease.

METHODS: We report the main features of patients diagnosed with HAM up to date in Spain, a non-endemic country with a relatively high migrant flow from Latin America and Equatorial Africa, where HTLV-1 is endemic.

RESULTS: A total of 451 cases of HTLV-1 had been recorded in Spain until the end of year 2022. HAM had been diagnosed in 58 (12.9%). The current incidence is of 2-3 new cases per year. Women represent 76%. Mean age at diagnosis is 49 years-old. Nearly 60% are Latin Americans. Although sexual transmission is the most likely route of HTLV-1 acquisition, up to 6 individuals had been infected following solid organ transplantation. Rapid onset myelopathy developed in all but one of these transplant recipients from three HTLV-1-positive donors. HTLV-1 subtype 1a transcontinental was the only variant recognized in HAM patients. HTLV-1 proviral load was significantly greater in HAM patients than in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (677 vs 104 HTLV-1 DNA copies/10[4] PBMC; p = 0.012). Symptom relief medications and physiotherapy have been the only treatment providing some benefit to HAM patients. Neither significant clinical nor virological efficacy was noticed using antiretrovirals in at least 9 HAM patients. Two thirds of HAM patients ended up in a wheelchair and with urinary/fecal sphincter incontinence.

CONCLUSION: HAM is the most frequent clinical manifestation of HTLV-1 infection in Spain, a non-endemic country. Middle aged women migrants from Latin America are the most frequently affected. Two thirds end up in a wheelchair despite using antiretroviral therapy.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Duttagupta S, Hakozaki T, Routy B, et al (2023)

The Gut Microbiome from a Biomarker to a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Immunotherapy Response in Patients with Lung Cancer.

Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.), 30(11):9406-9427.

The gastrointestinal microbiome has been shown to play a key role in determining the responses to cancer immunotherapy, including immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and CAR-T. In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), increasing evidence suggests that a microbiome composition signature is associated with clinical response to ICIs as well as with the development of immune-related adverse events. In support of this, antibiotic (ATB)-related dysbiosis has been consistently linked with the deleterious impact of ICI response, shortening the overall survival (OS) among patients on ATBs prior to ICI initiation. In parallel, several preclinical experiments have unravelled various strategies using probiotics, prebiotics, diet, and fecal microbiota transplantation as new therapeutic tools to beneficially shift the microbiome and enhance ICI efficacy. These approaches are currently being evaluated in clinical trials and have achieved encouraging preliminary results. In this article, we reviewed the recent studies on the gut microbiome as a potential biomarker and an adjuvant therapy to ICIs in NSCLC patients.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

DuPont HL, MMH Salge (2023)

The Importance of a Healthy Microbiome in Pregnancy and Infancy and Microbiota Treatment to Reverse Dysbiosis for Improved Health.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11):.

BACKGROUND: The microbiome of newborn infants during the first 1000 days, influenced early on by their mothers' microbiome health, mode of delivery and breast feeding, orchestrates the education and programming of the infant's immune system and determines in large part the general health of the infant for years.

METHODS: PubMed was reviewed for maternal infant microbiome health and microbiota therapy in this setting with prebiotics, probiotics, vaginal seeding and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT).

RESULTS: A healthy nonobese mother, vaginal delivery and strict breast feeding contribute to microbiome health in a newborn and young infant. With reduced microbiome diversity (dysbiosis) during pregnancy, cesarean delivery, prematurity, and formula feeding contribute to dysbiosis in the newborn. Microbiota therapy is an important approach to repair dysbiosis in pregnant women and their infants. Currently available probiotics can have favorable metabolic effects on mothers and infants, but these effects are variable. In research settings, reversal of infant dysbiosis can be achieved via vaginal seeding or FMT. Next generation probiotics in development should replace current probiotics and FMT.

CONCLUSIONS: The most critical phase of human microbiome development is in the first 2-3 years of life. Preventing and treating dysbiosis during pregnancy and early life can have a profound effect on an infant's later health.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Chen YF, Li SC, EY Huang (2023)

Role of microbiota in radiation-induced small-bowel damage.

Journal of radiation research pii:7441102 [Epub ahead of print].

Radiation-induced gastrointestinal damage is a common acute radiation syndrome. Previous studies have highlighted that Galectin-1 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) are associated with flaking of small intestinal villi and intestinal radioresistance. Therefore, our goal is to study whether gut bacteria regulated by galectin-1 or IL-6 can mitigate radiation-induced small intestine damage. In this study, differences between galectin-1, sgp130-regulated and wild-type (WT) mice were analyzed by microbiome array. The effects of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and the proportion of bacterial distribution at the phylum level were observed after 18 Gy whole abdomen radiation. Fecal microbiota transplantation was used to implant radioresistant gut flora into WT mice, and the number of viable small intestinal crypt foci was observed by immunohistochemistry. Fecal transplantation from galectin-1 knockout and sgp130 transgenic mice, with higher radiation resistance, into WT mice significantly increased the number of surviving small intestinal crypts. This radiation resistance, generated through gene regulation, was not affected by the F/B ratio. We initially found that the small intestinal villi of WT mice receiving radioresistant mouse fecal bacteria demonstrated better repair outcomes after radiation exposure. These results indicate the need for a focus on the identification and application of superior radioresistant bacterial strains. In our laboratory, we will further investigate specific radioresistant bacterial strains to alleviate acute side effects of radiation therapy to improve the patients' immune ability and postoperative quality of life.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Distante M, Rotulo S, Ranalli M, et al (2023)

Clusters of Disease Activity and Early Risk Factors of Clinical Course of Pediatric Crohn's Disease.

Inflammatory bowel diseases pii:7444933 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to define clusters of disease activity and prognostic factors of disease course in a well-characterized cohort of children with Crohn's disease (CD).

METHODS: All patients from the SIGENP IBD (Italian Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Inflammatory Bowel Disease) registry with a 5-year follow-up and 6-monthly evaluation were included. Active disease was defined for each semester as follows: clinical activity (weighted Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index ≥12.5 or Mucosal Inflammation Noninvasive Index ≥8) and active disease on endoscopy (Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease >3 or fecal calprotectin >250 µg/g) or imaging. Formula-based clusters were generated based on previously published patterns in adults.

RESULTS: Data from 332 patients were analyzed. A total of 105 (32%) experienced a quiescent disease course; 49 (15%) and 31 (9%) a moderate-to-severe chronically active and chronic intermittent disease, respectively; 104 (31%) and 43 (13%) had active disease in the first 2 years after diagnosis and remission thereafter and vice versa, respectively. Surgery at diagnosis was significantly associated with a quiescent course (odds ratio [OR], 10.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.05-25.22; P=.0005), while growth impairment at the diagnosis and active disease requiring corticosteroids at 6 months were inversely related to the quiescent group (OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81; P= .007; and OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.16-0.71; P= .005, respectively). Perianal involvement at diagnosis and moderate-severe activity at 6 months correlated with disease progression (OR, 3.85; 95% CI, 1.20-12.85; P=.02).

CONCLUSIONS: During the first 5 years of follow-up, one-third of children with CD experience a quiescent course. However, another one-third have a moderate-to-severe disease course. Surgery at the diagnosis is related to a quiescent course, while growth impairment and lack of response to induction therapy correlate with more severe disease activity during follow-up.

RevDate: 2023-11-24
CmpDate: 2023-11-24

Li Z, Zhang X, Wu H, et al (2023)

Hydrangea paniculata coumarins attenuate experimental membranous nephritis by bidirectional interactions with the gut microbiota.

Communications biology, 6(1):1189.

Coumarins isolated from Hydrangea paniculata (HP) had a renal protective effect in experimental membranous nephritis (MN), but the mechanisms are not clear. Currently, we investigate whether the modulation of gut dysbiosis by HP contributes to its renal protection. Experimental MN rats were treated with HP for six weeks. Fecal 16S rDNA sequencing and metabolomics were performed. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used for the evaluation study. The results demonstrate that deteriorated renal function and gut dysbiosis are found in MN rats, as manifested by a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced diversity and richness, but both changes were reversed by HP treatment. Reduced gut dysbiosis is correlated with improved colonic integrity and lower endotoxemia in HP-treated rats. HP normalized the abnormal level of fecal metabolites by increasing short-chain fatty acid production and hindering the production of uremic toxin precursors. FMT of HP-treated feces to MN animals moderately reduced endotoxemia and albuminuria. Moreover, major coumarins in HP were only biotransformed into more bioactive 7-hydroxycoumarin by gut microbiota, which strengthened the effect of HP in vivo. Depletion of the gut microbiota partially abolished its renal protective effect. In conclusion, the bidirectional interaction between HP and the gut microbiota contributes to its beneficial effect.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Zhang C, Yu L, Ma C, et al (2023)

A key genetic factor governing arabinan utilization in the gut microbiome alleviates constipation.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(23)00415-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Impaired gastrointestinal motility is associated with gut dysbiosis. Probiotics, such as Bifidobacteria, can improve this bowel disorder; however, efficacy is strain-dependent. We determine that a genetic factor, the abfA cluster governing arabinan utilization, in Bifidobacterium longum impacts treatment efficacy against functional constipation (FC). In mice with FC, B. longum, but not an abfA mutant, improved gastrointestinal transit time, an affect that was dependent upon dietary arabinan. abfA genes were identified in other commensal bacteria, whose effects in ameliorating murine FC were similarly abfA-dependent. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, supplementation with abfA-cluster-carrying B. longum, but not an abfA-deficient strain, enriched arabinan-utilization residents, increased beneficial metabolites, and improved FC symptoms. Across human cohorts, abfA-cluster abundance can predict FC, and transplantation of abfA cluster-enriched human microbiota to FC-induced germ-free mice improved gut motility. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a role for microbial abfA cluster in ameliorating FC, establishing principles for genomics-directed probiotic therapies.

RevDate: 2023-11-24
CmpDate: 2023-11-24

Qian X, Hai W, Chen S, et al (2023)

Multi-omics data reveals aberrant gut microbiota-host glycerophospholipid metabolism in association with neuroinflammation in APP/PS1 mice.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2282790.

Numerous studies have described the notable impact of gut microbiota on the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) via the gut - brain axis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of gut microbiota in the development of AD are limited. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms of gut microbiota in AD by integrating multi-omics data. In this study, APP/PS1 and WT mice at nine months of age were used as study mouse model. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze test. The levels of Aβ plaque and neuroinflammation in the brain were detected using immunofluorescence and PET/CT. In addition, we not only used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metabolomics to explore the variation characteristics of gut microbiota and serum metabolism abundance, but also combined spatial metabolomics and transcriptomics to explore the change in the brain and identify their potential correlation. APP/PS1 mice showed significant cognitive impairment and amyloid-β deposits in the brain. The abundance of gut microbiota was significantly changed in APP/PS1 mice, including decreased Desulfoviobrio, Enterococcus, Turicibacter, and Ruminococcus and increased Pseudomonas. The integration of serum untargeted metabolomics and brain spatial metabolomics showed that glycerophospholipid metabolism was a common alteration pathway in APP/PS1 mice. Significant proliferation and activation of astrocyte and microglia were observed in APP/PS1 mice, accompanied by alterations in immune pathways. Integration analysis and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) intervention revealed potential association of gut microbiota, host glycerophospholipid metabolism, and neuroinflammation levels in APP/PS1 mice.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Zhang M, Yang T, Li R, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota of Suncus murinus, a naturally obesity-resistant animal, improves the ecological diversity of the gut microbiota in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

PloS one, 18(11):e0293213.

BACKGROUND: The global population of obese individuals is increasing, affecting human health. High-fat diets are a leading cause of this epidemic, and animal models, such as mice, are often used in related research. Obese individuals have a different gut microbiota composition from non-obese ones, characterized by a sizeable population of certain bacteria associated with fat storage. The gut microbiome plays a significant role in regulating human physiological and metabolic functions. Links between obesity, high-fat diets and gut microbiota have become hot topics of discussion. Recently, research on the modulation of the gut microbiota has focused on fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which has been recognized as an effective method of studying the function of gut microbiota.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate how the gut microbiota of Suncus murinus, a naturally obesity-resistant animal, through FMT, affected the ecology of the gut microbiota of high-fat diet induced obese mice.

METHODS: In this study, Suncus murinus was used as a donor for FMT. High-fat diet induced C57BL/6NCrSIc mice were used as recipients, the body weight changes were measured and changes in their gut flora were analyzed using a 16S rRNA gene analysis.

RESULTS: The study found that, after the FMT procedure, the FMT group tended to have a lower body weight than the control group. At the phylum level, the most predominant phyla in all groups were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, while Deferribacteres was not detected in the FMT or antibiotic administration groups, and Bacteroidetes was not present in the antibiotic administration group. At the genus level, the FMT group had significantly lower OTU richness than the control group but greater diversity than the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that FMT from Suncus murinus can help reorganize and improve the gut microbiota of mice in a balanced and diverse ecosystem.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Boatman S, Kaiser T, Nalluri-Butz H, et al (2023)

Diet-induced shifts in the gut microbiota influence anastomotic healing in a murine model of colonic surgery.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2283147.

Host diet and gut microbiota interact to contribute to perioperative complications, including anastomotic leak (AL). Using a murine surgical model of colonic anastomosis, we investigated how diet and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) impacted the intestinal microbiota and if a predictive signature for AL could be determined. We hypothesized that a Western diet (WD) would impact gut microbial composition and that the resulting dysbiosis would correlate with increased rates of AL, while FMT from healthy, lean diet (LD) donors would reduce the risk of AL. Furthermore, we predicted that surgical outcomes would allow for the development of a microbial preclinical translational tool to identify AL. Here, we show that AL is associated with a dysbiotic microbial community characterized by increased levels of Bacteroides and Akkermansia. We identified several key taxa that were associated with leak formation, and developed an index based on the ratio of bacteria associated with the absence and presence of leak. We also highlight a modifiable connection between diet, microbiota, and anastomotic healing, potentially paving the way for perioperative modulation by microbiota-targeted therapeutics to reduce AL.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Zhang S, Huang Y, Lu G, et al (2023)

Comparison between washed microbiota transplantation and infliximab: Medical cost during long-term management in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA pii:02118582-990000000-00303 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Both infliximab (IFX) and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) have shown the efficacy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there has no head-to-head study on the cost-value of the such treatments on IBD. This study aimed to compare the medical costs using IFX and the new method of FMT (washed microbiota transplantation, WMT) in the long-term management for IBD under the current health economic condition in China.

METHODS: Patients with IBD who underwent initial WMT via upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, mid-gut tube, or colonic transendoscopic enteral tubing at a university hospital between April 2013 and August 2021 and achieved the long-term sustainment with WMT or WMT combined with mesalazine until August 2022 were recruited in the real-world. The costs and hospitalizations were analyzed among two therapies mentioned above and IFX standard therapy. The charge of WMT was stable in the long term at our center, and the charge of IFX came from virtual statistics publicized by China Healthcare Security.

RESULTS: 60 eligible patients with IBD were included in the study. The long-term costs of patients using WMT monotherapy annually or per hospitalization were lower than those on WMT combined with mesalazine respectively (p < 0.001, respectively). The cumulative costs of IFX at the time of 0.52 and 0.85 years exceeded that of the above WMT respectively (p < 0.001, respectively). Besides, patients on WMT monotherapy paid 51.1k CNY annually in the non-sustain phase but cut down the costs by 7.2k CNY and duration of hospitalization by 5.1 days per hospitalization when reaching the goal of sustainment.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that WMT could dramatically reduce the cost and duration of hospitalizations in the long-term sustainment in the current Chinese IBD cohort. Compared with IFX, WMT could be a good way for the patients with IBD achieving long-term sustainment and saving medical costs.

RevDate: 2023-11-21

Berryhill BA, Burke KB, Fontaine J, et al (2023)

Enteric Populations of Escherichia coli are Likely to be Resistant to Phages Due to O Antigen Production.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.08.566299.

UNLABELLED: Bioinformatic and experimental data show that bacteriophages are ubiquitous in human enteric microbiomes. However, there are gaps in understanding the contribution of these viruses in shaping the bacterial strain and species composition of the gut microbiome and how these phages are maintained over time. To address these questions, we adapted and analyzed the properties of a mathematical model of the population and evolutionary dynamics of bacteria and phage and performed experiments with Escherichia coli and phages isolated from four fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) doses as representative samples of non-dysbiotic enteric microbiota. Our models predict and experiments confirm that due to production of the O antigen, E. coli in the enteric microbiome are likely to be resistant to infection with co-occurring phages. However, phages can be maintained in these populations in high densities due to high rates of transition between resistant and sensitive states, which we call leaky resistance. Based on these models and observations, we postulate that the phages found in the human gut are likely to play little role in shaping the composition of E. coli in the enteric microbiome in healthy individuals. How general this is for other species of bacteria in enteric microbiota is not yet clear, although O antigen production is broadly conserved across many taxa.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Little is known about the role that bacteriophages play in shaping the bacterial species and strain composition in the human gut microbiome or how they are maintained over time in this dynamic environment. Here we show that Escherichia coli isolated from fecal samples are likely to be resistant to their co-existing phages due to production of the O antigen. However, phages can be maintained in populations of mostly resistant bacteria if there is a rapid transition between resistant and sensitive states, a state called leaky resistance. Based on these results, we postulate that bacteriophages are likely playing little role of shaping the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the human gut microbiome in healthy individuals.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Oliva-Hemker M, Kahn SA, Steinbach WJ, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: Information for the Pediatrician.

Pediatrics pii:195486 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) involves the delivery of an entire microbial community from a healthy donor to a recipient with the intention of ameliorating or curing a specific disease. Current evidence strongly supports a role for FMT in the treatment of Clostridiodes difficile infection, with cure rates of approximately 80% to 90%. This success has led to increasing attention for FMT as a potential therapeutic intervention for other conditions associated with disturbances of the intestinal microbiome, including inflammatory bowel diseases, autism spectrum disorder, and obesity. This clinical report endorses the joint society statement by the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, and the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and is meant to provide the general pediatrician with a broad overview to enable appropriate guidance to families seeking FMT as treatment of a child's condition.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Arora U, Kedia S, V Ahuja (2023)

The practice of fecal microbiota transplantation in inflammatory bowel disease.

Intestinal research pii:ir.2023.00085 [Epub ahead of print].

Current evidence posits a central role for gut microbiota and the metabolome in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been established as a means to manipulate this microbiome safely and sustainably. Several aspects of the technical improvement including pretreatment with antibiotics, use of frozen stool samples as well as short donor-to-recipient time are proposed to improve its response rates. Its efficacy in ulcerative colitis has been proven in clinical trials while data is emerging for Crohn's disease. This review describes briefly the biology behind FMT, the available evidence for its use in IBD, and the host, recipient and procedural factors which determine the clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Zheng M, Ye H, Yang X, et al (2023)

Probiotic Clostridium butyricum ameliorates cognitive impairment in obesity via the microbiota-gut-brain axis.

Brain, behavior, and immunity, 115:565-587 pii:S0889-1591(23)00349-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Obesity is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). The gut microbiota-brain axis is altered in obesity and linked to cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we targeted obesity-induced cognitive impairment by testing the impact of the probiotic Clostridium butyricum, which has previously shown beneficial effects on gut homeostasis and brain function. Firstly, we characterized and analyzed the gut microbial profiles of participants with obesity and the correlation between gut microbiota and cognitive scores. Then, using an obese mouse model induced by a Western-style diet (high-fat and fiber-deficient diet), the effects of Clostridium butyricum on the microbiota-gut-brain axis and hippocampal cognitive function were evaluated. Finally, fecal microbiota transplantation was performed to assess the functional link between Clostridium butyricum remodeling gut microbiota and hippocampal synaptic protein and cognitive behaviors. Our results showed that participants with obesity had gut microbiota dysbiosis characterized by an increase in phylum Proteobacteria and a decrease in Clostridium butyricum, which were closely associated with cognitive decline. In diet-induced obese mice, oral Clostridium butyricum supplementation significantly alleviated cognitive impairment, attenuated the deficit of hippocampal neurite outgrowth and synaptic ultrastructure, improved hippocampal transcriptome related to synapses and dendrites; a comparison of the effects of Clostridium butyricum in mice against human AD datasets revealed that many of the genes changes in AD were reversed by Clostridium butyricum; concurrently, Clostridium butyricum also prevented gut microbiota dysbiosis, colonic barrier impairment and inflammation, and attenuated endotoxemia. Importantly, fecal microbiota transplantation from donor-obese mice with Clostridium butyricum supplementation facilitated cognitive variables and colonic integrity compared with from donor obese mice, highlighting that Clostridium butyricum's impact on cognitive function is largely due to its ability to remodel gut microbiota. Our findings provide the first insights into the neuroprotective effects of Clostridium butyricum on obesity-associated cognitive impairments and neurodegeneration via the gut microbiota-gut-brain axis.

RevDate: 2023-11-19

Liang Y, Liu D, Li Y, et al (2023)

Maternal polysorbate 80 intake promotes offspring metabolic syndrome through vertical microbial transmission in mice.

The Science of the total environment, 909:168624 pii:S0048-9697(23)07252-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Polysorbate 80 (P80) is an emulsifier extensively produced, consumed and discharged into the environment, consequently making human exposure inevitable. Despite evidence suggesting that P80 intake causes metabolic syndrome (MS) in mammals via microbial perturbation, limited data exist on its transgenerational impacts on offspring. In this study, we found that maternal P80 treatment impaired intestinal barrier integrity, leading to metabolic endotoxemia, low-grade inflammation and MS-related symptoms in C57BL/6J female offspring. Further analysis of the gut microbiome revealed MS-related changes in the offspring of P80-treated dams. Fecal microbiota transplantation experiment confirmed the crucial role of the altered microbiome in offspring in the transgenerational impacts of P80. Furthermore, we found that the P80-induced microbial alterations were directly transmitted from P80-treated mothers to their offspring and that interrupting vertical microbial transmission through cesarean section and foster nursing blocked the transgenerational impacts of P80 on the offspring microbiome and metabolic health. Moreover, maternal pectin supplementation also effectively mitigated P80-induced microbial alterations and MS-associated phenotypes in offspring. Together, our results indicated that maternal P80 intake could impair offspring metabolic health through the mother-to-offspring transmission of the microbiome, and maternal pectin supplementation might be a promising strategy for reducing the adverse effects of P80.

RevDate: 2023-11-18

Xi D, Liu P, Feng Y, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota transplantation regulates the microbiota-gut-spinal cord axis to promote recovery after spinal cord injury.

International immunopharmacology, 126:111212 pii:S1567-5769(23)01539-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is devastating for patients, and currently lacks effective treatments. Dysbiosis commonly occurs after SCI and has significant immunomodulatory effects, but its impact on recovery remains unclear. The current study investigated the effects and mechanisms of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in SCI. FMT was administered in a rat model of SCI and spinal pathology, inflammatory cytokines, and gut microbiome composition were assessed. Flow cytometry identified a source of interleukin (IL)-17 in spinal cord tissues, and carboxyfluorescein succimidyl ester labeling tracked γδ T cell migration. In vitro coculture was used to analyze the regulatory mechanisms of γδ T cells. Seahorse analysis was used to profile dendritic cell (DC) metabolism. Here we show that FMT improved spinal pathology and dampened post-injury inflammation. It also corrected post-SCI dysbiosis, increasing levels of the beneficial bacterium Akkermansia. The therapeutic effects of FMT were mediated by IL-17 produced by γδ T cells. FMT regulated γδ T cells via DC-T regulatory cell interaction, and induced metabolic reprogramming in DCs. These findings suggest that FMT represents a promising therapeutic approach for SCI, with potential to target IL-17[+] γδ T cells. Elucidating the interconnected pathways between microbiota, immunity, and the spinal cord may facilitate novel treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-11-18

Kujawa D, Laczmanski L, Budrewicz S, et al (2023)

Targeting gut microbiota: new therapeutic opportunities in multiple sclerosis.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2274126.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes long-lasting, multifocal damage to the central nervous system. The complex background of MS is associated with autoimmune inflammation and neurodegeneration processes, and is potentially affected by many contributing factors, including altered composition and function of the gut microbiota. In this review, current experimental and clinical evidence is presented for the characteristics of gut dysbiosis found in MS, as well as for its relevant links with the course of the disease and the dysregulated immune response and metabolic pathways involved in MS pathology. Furthermore, therapeutic implications of these investigations are discussed, with a range of pharmacological, dietary and other interventions targeted at the gut microbiome and thus intended to have beneficial effects on the course of MS.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Wang Y, Wang Z, Q Lu (2023)

Microbiome dynamics in rheumatic diseases.

Current opinion in rheumatology pii:00002281-990000000-00095 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Rheumatic disease are characterized by their autoimmune nature, frequently affecting joints, bones, muscles, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The onset of these conditions typically unfolds gradually and subtly. It is noteworthy that individuals with rheumatic diseases often experience shifts in their microbiome, specifically on mucosal surfaces. The purpose of this review is to delve into the intricate interplay between the microbiome, encompassing bacteria, viruses and fungi, and its role in the development and aggravation of various rheumatic diseases. Additionally, it aims to offer insights into microbiome-centered therapeutic approaches for patients in the field of rheumatology.

RECENT FINDINGS: The advent of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved our understanding of microbiome changes. Numerous studies have consistently revealed a strong link between rheumatism and the microbiome, especially in the oral and gut microbiota.

SUMMARY: A deeper comprehension of the microbiome's connection to rheumatism holds potential for enhancing disease diagnosis and treatment. Targeted therapeutic approaches, including probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and combination therapies with medications, offer promising avenues for disease management.

RevDate: 2023-11-18

Guo J, Zhou B, Niu Y, et al (2023)

Engineered probiotics introduced to improve intestinal microecology for the treatment of chronic diseases: present state and perspectives.

Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders, 22(2):1029-1038.

PURPOSE: Correcting intestinal microecological imbalance has become one of the core strategies to treat chronic diseases. Some traditional microecology-based therapies targeting intestine, such as prebiotic therapy, probiotic therapy and fecal microbiota transplantation therapy, have been used in the prevention and treatment of clinical chronic diseases, which still facing low safety and poor controllability problems. The development of synthetic biology technology has promoted the development of intestinal microecology-based therapeutics for chronic diseases, which exhibiting higher robustness and controllability, and become an important part of the next generation of microecological therapy. The purpose of this review is to summarize the application of synthetic biology in intestinal microecology-based therapeutics for chronic diseases.

METHODS: The available literatures were searched to find out experimental studies and relevant review articles on the application of synthetic biology in intestinal microecology-based therapeutics for chronic diseases from year 1990 to 2023.

RESULTS: Evidence proposed that synthetic biology has been applied in the intestinal microecology-based therapeutics for chronic diseases, covering metabolic diseases (e.g. diabetes, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and phenylketonuria), digestive diseases (e.g. inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer), and neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease).

CONCLUSION: This review summarizes the application of synthetic biology in intestinal microecology-based therapeutics for major chronic diseases and discusses the opportunities and challenges in the above process, providing clinical possibilities of synthetic biology technology applied in microecological therapies.

RevDate: 2023-11-19

Khan FA, Pandupuspitasari NS, Huang C, et al (2023)

Unlocking gut microbiota potential of dairy cows in varied environmental conditions using shotgun metagenomic approach.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):344.

Food security and environmental pollution are major concerns for the expanding world population, where farm animals are the largest source of dietary proteins and are responsible for producing anthropogenic gases, including methane, especially by cows. We sampled the fecal microbiomes of cows from varying environmental regions of Pakistan to determine the better-performing microbiomes for higher yields and lower methane emissions by applying the shotgun metagenomic approach. We selected managed dairy farms in the Chakwal, Salt Range, and Patoki regions of Pakistan, and also incorporated animals from local farmers. Milk yield and milk fat, and protein contents were measured and correlated with microbiome diversity and function. The average milk protein content from the Salt Range farms was 2.68%, with an average peak milk yield of 45 litters/head/day, compared to 3.68% in Patoki farms with an average peak milk yield of 18 litters/head/day. Salt-range dairy cows prefer S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) to S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) conversion reactions and are responsible for low milk protein content. It is linked to Bacteroides fragilles which account for 10% of the total Bacteroides, compared to 3% in the Patoki region. The solid Non-Fat in the salt range was 8.29%, whereas that in patoki was 6.34%. Moreover, Lactobacillus plantarum high abundance in Salt Range provided propionate as alternate sink to [H], and overcoming a Methanobrevibacter ruminantium high methane emissions in the Salt Range. Furthermore, our results identified ruminant fecal microbiomes that can be used as fecal microbiota transplants (FMT) to high-methane emitters and low-performing herds to increase farm output and reduce the environmental damage caused by anthropogenic gases emitted by dairy cows.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Drefs M, Schardey J, von Ehrlich-Treuenstätt V, et al (2022)

Endoscopic Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Leaks.

Visceral medicine, 38(5):311-321.

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous or postoperative gastrointestinal defects are still life-threatening complications with elevated morbidity and mortality. Recently, endoscopic treatment options - up and foremost endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) - have become increasingly popular and have shown promising results in these patients.

METHODS: We performed an electronic systematic search of the MEDLINE databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane) and searched for studies evaluating endoscopic options for the treatment of esophageal and colorectal leakages and/or perforations until March 2022.

RESULTS: The closure rate of both esophageal and colorectal defects by EVT is high and even exceeds the results of surgical revision in parts. Out of all endoscopic treatment options, EVT shows most evidence and appears to have the highest therapeutic success rates. Furthermore, EVT for both indications had a low rate of serious complications without relevant in-hospital mortality. In selected patients, EVT can be applied without fecal diversion and transferred to an outpatient setting.

CONCLUSION: Despite multiple endoscopic treatment options, EVT is increasingly becoming the new gold standard in endoscopic treatment of extraperitoneal defects of the upper and lower GI tract with localized peritonitis or mediastinitis and without close proximity to major blood vessels. However, further prospective, comparative studies are needed to strengthen the current evidence.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Zeng X, Liao Y, Qiao X, et al (2023)

Novel NIR-II fluorescent probes for biliary atresia imaging.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 13(11):4578-4590.

Biliary atresia is a rare infant disease that predisposes patients to liver transplantation and death if not treated in time. However, early diagnosis is challenging because the clinical manifestations and laboratory tests of biliary atresia overlap with other cholestatic diseases. Therefore, it is very important to develop a simple, safe and reliable method for the early diagnosis of biliary atresia. Herein, a novel NIR-II fluorescence probe, HZL2, with high quantum yield, excellent biocompatibility, low cytotoxicity and rapid excretion through the liver and gallbladder was developed based on the oil/water partition coefficient and permeability. A simple fecal sample after injection of HZL2 can be used to efficiently identify the success of the mouse model of biliary atresia for the first time, allowing for an early diagnosis of the disease. This study not only developed a simple and safe method for the early diagnosis of biliary atresia with great potential in clinical translation but also provides a research tool for the development of pathogenesis and therapeutic medicines for biliary atresia.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

Naito Y (2023)

Gut Frailty: Its Concept and Pathogenesis.

Digestion pii:000534733 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There is still a considerable gap between average life expectancy and healthy life expectancy in Japan. Recent research has revealed that gut frailty may be a worsening factor for various diseases, a cause of chronic inflammation, and a precursor to frailty.

SUMMARY: Among self-reported symptoms, constipation is particularly significant as one of the key symptoms of gut frailty. Studies have demonstrated that individuals with constipation have significantly lower survival rates and are also at a higher risk of developing various diseases such as chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders like Parkinson's disease. Various molecular mechanisms could contribute to gut frailty, and the decrease in mucus secretion is an extremely early-stage pathology. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota has a major impact on many conditions associated with gut frailty. Prebiotics, probiotics, post-biotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation are under investigation as a treatment option for gut frailty.

KEY MESSAGE: Although the concept of gut frailty has not yet gained widespread recognition, we hope to propose more practical screening methods, diagnostic approaches, and specific interventions in the future.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

An S, Zhen Z, Wang S, et al (2023)

Intestinal Microbiota Is a Key Target for Load Swimming to Improve Anxiety Behavior and Muscle Strength in Shank 3[-/-] Rats.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social disorder and stereotypical behavior, and its incidence rate is increasing yearly. It is considered that acritical period for the prognosis of young children with ASD exists, thus early treatment is crucial. Swimming, due to its comforting effect, is often used to induce enthusiasm in young children for completing activities and has a good effect in the treatment of ASD, but the effective path of swimming has yet to be reported. The intestinal microbiota of ASD patients and animal models has been reported to be different from that of healthy controls, and these changes may affect the brain environment. Therefore, whether the intestinal microbiota is involved in the treatment of ASD by early swimming is our concern. In this study, we used 8-day old Shank3 gene knockout rats with 8 weeks of early load swimming training and conducted behavioral, small intestine morphology, and intestinal content sequencing after training. The results showed that early load swimming significantly reduced the stereotyped and anxious behaviors of Shank3[-/-] rats, increased their muscle strength, increased the length of intestinal villi and the width of the muscular layer after Shank3 knockout, and affected the abundance of intestinal microorganisms. The abundances with statistical significance were Lactobacillus, Lachnospiraceae, and Alloprevotella. To further confirm the role of intestinal microorganisms in it, we designed a 14-day intestinal stool transplantation experiment. Fecal microbiota transplantation demonstrated that load swimming can significantly reduce the anxiety behavior of Shank3 rats, increase their muscle strength, change the structure of the small intestine, and affect the abundance of intestinal contents. The abundance of Epsilonbateraeota, Prevotella, and Bacteroides significantly changed after transplantation. Our findings confirm the possibility of early load swimming therapy for individuals with ASD and explain that the intestinal microbiota is a key pathway for early exercise therapy for patients with ASD.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Piazzesi A, Pane S, Russo A, et al (2023)

Case Report: The impact of severe cryptosporidiosis on the gut microbiota of a pediatric patient with CD40L immunodeficiency.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1281440.

Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite and one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in the world, primarily affecting very young children and immunocompromised patients. While infection is usually self-limiting, it can become chronic and even lethal in these vulnerable populations, in whom Cryptosporidium treatments are generally ineffective, due to their acting in concert with a functioning immune system. Here, we describe a case of chronic cryptosporidiosis in a European child with severe CD40L immunodeficiency infected with Cryptosporidium parvum of the IIa20G1 subgenotype, a lineage which has thus far only ever been described in the Middle East. After years of on-off treatment with conventional and non-conventional anti-parasitic drugs failed to clear parasitosis, we performed targeted metagenomics to observe the bacterial composition of the patient's gut microbiota (GM), and to evaluate fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as a potential treatment option. We found that C. parvum infection led to significant shifts in GM bacterial composition in our patient, with consequent shifts in predicted intestinal functional signatures consistent with a state of persistent inflammation. This, combined with the patient's poor prognosis and increasing parasitic burden despite many rounds of anti-parasitic drug treatments, made the patient a potential candidate for an experimental FMT procedure. Unfortunately, given the many comorbidities that were precipitated by the patient's immunodeficiency and chronic C. parvum infection, FMT was postponed in favor of more urgently necessary liver and bone marrow transplants. Tragically, after the first liver transplant failed, the patient lost his life before undergoing FMT and a second liver transplant. With this case report, we present the first description of how cryptosporidiosis can shape the gut microbiota of a pediatric patient with severe immunodeficiency. Finally, we discuss how both our results and the current scientific literature suggest that GM modulations, either by probiotics or FMT, can become novel treatment options for chronic Cryptosporidium infection and its consequent complications, especially in those patients who do not respond to the currently available anti-parasitic therapies.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Lachmansingh DA, Lavelle A, Cryan JF, et al (2023)

Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis and Antidepressant Treatment.

Current topics in behavioral neurosciences [Epub ahead of print].

In the treatment of depressive disorders, conventional antidepressant therapy has been the mainstay of clinical management, along with well-established nonpharmacological interventions such as various kinds of psychotherapy. Over the last 2 decades, there has been considerable interest in the role of the gastrointestinal system and its microbiota on brain function, behavior, and mental health. Components of what is referred to as the microbiota-gut-brain axis have been uncovered, and further research has elicited functional capabilities such as "gut-brain modules." Some studies have found associations with compositional alterations of gut microbiota in patients with depressive disorders and individuals experiencing symptoms of depression. Regarding the pathogenesis and neurobiology of depression itself, there appears to be a multifactorial contribution, in addition to the theories involving deficits in catecholaminergic and monoamine neurotransmission. Interestingly, there is evidence to suggest that antidepressants may play a role in modulating the gut microbiota, thereby possibly having an impact on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in this manner. The development of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics has led to studies investigating not only their impact on the microbiota but also their therapeutic value in mental health. These psychobiotics have the potential to be used as therapeutic adjuncts in the treatment of depression. Regarding future directions, and in an attempt to further understand the role of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in depression, more studies such as those involving fecal microbiota transplantation will be required. In addition to recent findings, it is also suggested that more research will have to be undertaken to elicit whether specific strains of gut organisms are linked to depression. In terms of further investigation of the therapeutic potential of prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics as adjuncts to antidepressant treatment, we also expect there to be more research targeting specific microorganisms, as well as a strong focus on the effects of specific prebiotic fibers from an individualized (personalized) point of view.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Yang T, Xie S, Cao L, et al (2023)

Astragaloside IV modulates gut macrophages M1/M2 polarization by reshaping gut microbiota and SCFA in sepsis.

Shock (Augusta, Ga.) pii:00024382-990000000-00304 [Epub ahead of print].

M1 macrophage-mediated inflammation is critical in sepsis. We previously found protective role of Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in sepsis-associated gut impairment, whose specific mechanism remains unknown. Gut microbiota modulates gut homeostatic balance to avoid excessive inflammation. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of AS-IV on gut macrophages polarization and potential roles of gut microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in septic gut damage. Mice were pre-treated by AS-IV gavage for 7 days before cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). M1 polarization of gut lamina propria macrophages (LpMs) was promoted by CLP, accompanied by abnormal cytokines release and intestinal barrier dysfunction. NLRP3 inflammasome was activated in M1 LpMs. 16S rRNA sequencing demonstrated gut microbiota imbalance. The levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate in fecal samples decreased. Notably, AS-IV reversed LpMs M1/M2 polarization, lightened gut inflammation and barrier injury, reduced NLRP3 inflammasome expression in LpMs, restored the diversity of gut microbiome and increased butyrate levels. Similarly, these benefits were mimicked by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or exogenous butyrate supplementation. In Caco-2 and THP-1 co-cultured model, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) caused THP-1 M1 polarization, Caco-2 barrier impairment, abnormal cytokines release and high NLRP3 inflammasome expression in THP-1 cells, all of which were mitigated by butyrate administration. However, these protective effects of butyrate were abrogated by NLRP3 gene overexpression in THP-1. In conclusion, AS-IV can ameliorate sepsis-induced gut inflammation and barrier dysfunction by modulating M1/M2 polarization of gut macrophages, whose underlying mechanism may be restoring gut microbiome and SCFA to restrain NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Guo S, Shi Y, Xu A, et al (2023)

Liubao tea extract ameliorates ovalbumin-induced allergic asthma by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Asthma, a chronic airway inflammatory disease, has a complicated pathogenesis and limited therapeutic treatment. Evidence shows that the intestinal microbiota exhibits crucial functional interaction with asthma syndrome. Liubao tea (LBT), a type of postfermented tea in China, positively modulates gut microbiota. However, the potential benefits of LBT extract (LBTE) for allergic asthma are still not understood. Herein, the anti-inflammatory effects of LBTE and its modulation of the gut microbiota of asthmatic mice induced by ovalbumin were explored. The results demonstrate that LBTE significantly inhibited airway hyper-responsiveness and restrained the proliferation of proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory cells associated with allergic asthma. Additionally, LBTE suppressed inflammatory infiltration, mucus secretion, and excessive goblet cell production by downregulating the gene expression of inflammatory indicators. Interestingly, fecal microbiota transplantation results further implied that the modulation of LBTE on gut microbiota played an essential role in alleviating airway inflammatory symptoms of allergic asthma.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Dubey H, Roychoudhury R, Alex A, et al (2023)

Effect of Human Infant Gut Microbiota on Mouse Behavior, Dendritic Complexity, and Myelination.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.10.24.563309.

UNLABELLED: The mammalian gut microbiome influences numerous developmental processes. In human infants it has been linked with cognition, social skills, hormonal responses to stress, and brain connectivity. Yet, these associations are not necessarily causal. The present study tested whether two microbial stool communities, common in human infants, affected behavior, myelination, dendritic morphology, and spine density when used to colonize mouse models. Humanized animals were more like specific-pathogen free mice than germ-free mice for most phenotypes, although in males, both humanized groups were less social. Both humanized groups had thinner myelin sheaths in the hippocampus, than did germ-free animals. Humanized animals were similar to each other except for dendritic morphology and spine density where one group had greater dendritic length in the prefrontal cortex, greater dendritic volume in the nucleus accumbens, and greater spine density in both regions, compared to the other. Results add to a body of literature suggesting the gut microbiome impacts brain development.

TEASER: Fecal transplants from human infants with highly abundant Bifidobacterium , an important inhabitant of the intestinal tract of breastfed newborns, may promote brain connectivity in mice.

RevDate: 2023-11-15
CmpDate: 2023-11-15

Zheng Y, Bonfili L, Wei T, et al (2023)

Understanding the Gut-Brain Axis and Its Therapeutic Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Nutrients, 15(21): pii:nu15214631.

The gut-brain axis (GBA) is a complex bidirectional communication network connecting the gut and brain. It involves neural, immune, and endocrine communication pathways between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS). Perturbations of the GBA have been reported in many neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others, suggesting a possible role in disease pathogenesis. The gut microbiota is a pivotal component of the GBA, and alterations in its composition, known as gut dysbiosis, have been associated with GBA dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The gut microbiota might influence the homeostasis of the CNS by modulating the immune system and, more directly, regulating the production of molecules and metabolites that influence the nervous and endocrine systems, making it a potential therapeutic target. Preclinical trials manipulating microbial composition through dietary intervention, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation, and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) have provided promising outcomes. However, its clear mechanism is not well understood, and the results are not always consistent. Here, we provide an overview of the major components and communication pathways of the GBA, as well as therapeutic approaches targeting the GBA to ameliorate NDDs.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Han Z, Min Y, Pang K, et al (2023)

Therapeutic Approach Targeting Gut Microbiome in Gastrointestinal Infectious Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(21): pii:ijms242115654.

While emerging evidence highlights the significance of gut microbiome in gastrointestinal infectious diseases, treatments like Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) and probiotics are gaining popularity, especially for diarrhea patients. However, the specific role of the gut microbiome in different gastrointestinal infectious diseases remains uncertain. There is no consensus on whether gut modulation therapy is universally effective for all such infections. In this comprehensive review, we examine recent developments of the gut microbiome's involvement in several gastrointestinal infectious diseases, including infection of Helicobacter pylori, Clostridium difficile, Vibrio cholerae, enteric viruses, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Giardia duodenalis. We have also incorporated information about fungi and engineered bacteria in gastrointestinal infectious diseases, aiming for a more comprehensive overview of the role of the gut microbiome. This review will provide insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of the gut microbiome while exploring the microbiome's potential in the prevention, diagnosis, prediction, and treatment of gastrointestinal infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Garner W, Hamza A, G Haidar (2023)

Investigational non-antibiotic therapeutics for infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies receiving cellular therapies.

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society [Epub ahead of print].

In the age of progressive antimicrobial resistance and increased difficulty combating infections in immunocompromised hosts, there has been renewed interest in the use of nontraditional therapeutics for infections. Herein, we review the use of investigational non-pharmaceutical anti-infective agents targeting fungal, bacterial, and viral infections in patients with hematologic malignancies, focusing on those receiving hematopoietic cell transplantation or cellular therapies. We discuss immune checkpoint inhibitors, granulocyte transfusions, bone marrow colony-stimulating factors, bacteriophages, fecal microbiota transplantation, and virus specific T-cell therapy. Although there is promising early experience with many of these treatments, further studies will be required to define their optimal role in the therapeutic armamentarium against infections in immunocompromised hosts.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Bornbusch SL, Power ML, Schulkin J, et al (2023)

Integrating microbiome science and evolutionary medicine into animal health and conservation.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiome science has provided groundbreaking insights into human and animal health. Similarly, evolutionary medicine - the incorporation of eco-evolutionary concepts into primarily human medical theory and practice - is increasingly recognised for its novel perspectives on modern diseases. Studies of host-microbe relationships have been expanded beyond humans to include a wide range of animal taxa, adding new facets to our understanding of animal ecology, evolution, behaviour, and health. In this review, we propose that a broader application of evolutionary medicine, combined with microbiome science, can provide valuable and innovative perspectives on animal care and conservation. First, we draw on classic ecological principles, such as alternative stable states, to propose an eco-evolutionary framework for understanding variation in animal microbiomes and their role in animal health and wellbeing. With a focus on mammalian gut microbiomes, we apply this framework to populations of animals under human care, with particular relevance to the many animal species that suffer diseases linked to gut microbial dysfunction (e.g. gut distress and infection, autoimmune disorders, obesity). We discuss diet and microbial landscapes (i.e. the microbes in the animal's external environment), as two factors that are (i) proposed to represent evolutionary mismatches for captive animals, (ii) linked to gut microbiome structure and function, and (iii) potentially best understood from an evolutionary medicine perspective. Keeping within our evolutionary framework, we highlight the potential benefits - and pitfalls - of modern microbial therapies, such as pre- and probiotics, faecal microbiota transplants, and microbial rewilding. We discuss the limited, yet growing, empirical evidence for the use of microbial therapies to modulate animal gut microbiomes beneficially. Interspersed throughout, we propose 12 actionable steps, grounded in evolutionary medicine, that can be applied to practical animal care and management. We encourage that these actionable steps be paired with integration of eco-evolutionary perspectives into our definitions of appropriate animal care standards. The evolutionary perspectives proposed herein may be best appreciated when applied to the broad diversity of species under human care, rather than when solely focused on humans. We urge animal care professionals, veterinarians, nutritionists, scientists, and others to collaborate on these efforts, allowing for simultaneous care of animal patients and the generation of valuable empirical data.

RevDate: 2023-11-14
CmpDate: 2023-11-14

Bibbò S, Porcari S, Del Vecchio LE, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota and immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma.

Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 19(3):2268982.

The gut microbiome has recently been proposed as a key player in cancer development and progression. Several studies have reported that the composition of the gut microbiome plays a role in the response to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). The gut microbiome modulation has been investigated as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer, mainly in patients undergoing therapy with ICIs. In particular, modulation through probiotics, FMT or other microbiome-related approaches have proven effective to improve the response to ICIs. In this review, we examine the role of the gut microbiome in enhancing clinical responses to ICIs in the treatment of renal cancer.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Vasudevan D, Ramakrishnan A, G Velmurugan (2023)

Exploring the diversity of blood microbiome during liver diseases: Unveiling Novel diagnostic and therapeutic Avenues.

Heliyon, 9(11):e21662.

Liver diseases are a group of major metabolic and immune or inflammation related diseases caused due to various reasons including infection, abnormalities in immune system, genetic defects, and lifestyle habits. However, the cause-effect relationship is not completely understood in liver disease. The role of microbiome, particularly, the role of gut and oral microbiome in liver diseases has been extensively studied in recent years. More interestingly, the presence of blood microbiome and tissue microbiome has been identified in many liver diseases. The translocation of microbes from the gut into the portal circulation has been attributed to be the major reason for the presence of blood microbial components and its clinical implications in liver disorders. Besides microbial translocation, Pathogen associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) derived from gut microbiota might also translocate. The presence of blood microbiome in liver disease has been reviewed earlier. However, the role of blood microbiome as a biomarker and therapeutic target in liver diseases has not been analysed earlier. In this review, we confabulate the origin and physiology of blood microbiome and blood microbial components in relation to the progression and pathogenesis of liver disease. In conclusion, we discuss the translational perspectives targeting the blood microbial components in the diagnosis and therapy of liver disease.

RevDate: 2023-11-13

Lee RB, M Gasparetto (2023)

Novel pharmacological developments in the management of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease: Time for guideline update - A narrative review.

Journal of paediatrics and child health [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: The incidence of paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) continues to increase in both adults and children across the globe, with more than one third of the patients not responding to anti-tumour necrosis factor biologics and immune modulators. This narrative review provides an overview of novel pharmacological developments in the management of paediatric IBD, including new biological therapies.

METHODS: A PubMed Medline search was performed to include randomised controlled trials, retrospective and prospective observational studies, and relevant case reports of children with IBD published between 2018 and January 2023. Guidelines and protocols from relevant paediatric and adult gastroenterology societies, such as the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition and the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation, were also included. Non-pharmacological treatments including therapeutic diets and faecal microbiota transplantation were outside the scope of this work.

RESULTS: Early real-world evidence suggests that newer biologics and small molecules, such as anti-integrins, interleukin-12 and/or interleukin-23 inhibitors, Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins inhibitors, are safe and effective in adult patients with IBD, with promising growing evidence for paediatric IBD.

CONCLUSION: While many developments have been achieved with novel pharmacological treatments to manage IBD, ongoing research is required to confirm their effectiveness and safety in the paediatric age. Extending the licence of novel treatments to children will be crucial to tackle the increasing loss of response to conventional treatments. International guidelines will require timely updating to incorporate novel treatments within the existing protocols.

RevDate: 2023-11-13

Mousavinasab F, Karimi R, Taheri S, et al (2023)

Microbiome modulation in inflammatory diseases: Progress to microbiome genetic engineering.

Cancer cell international, 23(1):271.

Recent developments in sequencing technology and analytical approaches have allowed researchers to show that the healthy gut microbiome is very varied and capable of performing a wide range of tasks. The importance of gut microbiota in controlling immunological, neurological, and endocrine function is becoming well-recognized. Thereby, numerous inflammatory diseases, including those that impact the gastrointestinal system, as well as less obvious ones, including Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cancer, gestational diabetes (GD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and type 2 diabetes (T2D), have been linked to dysbiotic gut microbiota. Microbiome engineering is a rapidly evolving frontier for solutions to improve human health. Microbiome engineering seeks to improve the function of an ecosystem by manipulating the composition of microbes. Thereby, generating potential therapies against metabolic, inflammatory, and immunological diseases will be possible through microbiome engineering. This essay first provides an overview of the traditional technological instruments that might be used for microbiome engineering, such as Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT), prebiotics, and probiotics. Moreover, we will also discuss experimental genetic methods such as Metagenomic Alteration of Gut microbiome by In situ Conjugation (MAGIC), Bacteriophage, and Conjugative plasmids in manipulating intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-11-13
CmpDate: 2023-11-13

Promsuwan O, Malathum K, A Ingsathit (2023)

Epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales infection in kidney transplant recipients.

Antimicrobial resistance and infection control, 12(1):123.

BACKGROUND: Extended-spectrum b-lactamase (ESBL)-producing gram-negative bacilli (ESBL-GNB) are the most important pathogenic bacteria infecting kidney transplant patients. Kidney transplantation has been shown to be a risk factor for nosocomial ESBL-GNB bacteremia. The aims of this study were to describe the epidemiology of ESBL-GNB acquisition and to identify factors associated with ESBL-GNB infection in kidney transplant recipients, including pretransplant ESBL-GNB fecal carriage.

METHODS: A prospective study of patients undergoing kidney transplantation at Ramathibodi Hospital from March 1, 2019-November 30, 2020 was conducted. During this period, 66 patients who underwent kidney transplantation. Perianal swab cultures and urine cultures for ESBL-GNB were obtained from all subjects upon admission for transplantation and on Days 3, 7, 14 and 21 after surgery to determine the prevalence, incidence, and duration of admission before acquisition of the organisms.

RESULTS: Of the 66 patients undergoing kidney transplantation, 18 preoperative perianal swabs were detected to be positive for ESBL-GNB upon admission, representing 27.3% of the cases. The in-hospital perianal swab tests showed a significant increase to 96.8% positive ESBL-GNB cultures at the end of week 3. Approximately one-fourth (27.8%) of patients who acquired ESBL-GNB developed a postoperative symptomatic infection. The infection occurred in 13% of such patients who were not ESBL positive at first. These infections included urinary tract infections (20 cases, [30%], of which 55% were due to ESBL-GNB) and bloodstream infections (13 cases; of which 9 [69.2%] were due to ESBL-GNB). E. coli was the most common pathogen. Previous exposure to antibiotics, including surgical prophylaxis, underlying disease, duration of indwelling urinary catheters and ureteric stents, as well as other operative factors were not found to be significantly associated with the acquisition of ESBL-producing organisms in this dataset.

CONCLUSIONS: ESBL carriage may be a risk factor for the development of bacteremia and other serious infections among kidney transplant recipients, although a statistically significant difference could not be demonstrated owing to the small size of the sample. The high rate of ESBL acquisition suggests that more stringent infection prevention and control efforts are needed.

RevDate: 2023-11-13
CmpDate: 2023-11-13

Song W, Wang Y, Li G, et al (2023)

Modulating the gut microbiota is involved in the effect of low-molecular-weight Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide on immune function.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2276814.

Low molecular weight (6.5 kDa) Glycyrrhiza polysaccharide (GP) exhibits good immunomodulatory activity, however, the mechanism underlying GP-mediated regulation of immunity and gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying GP-mediated regulation of immunity and gut microbiota using cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced immunosuppressed and intestinal mucosal injury models. GP reversed CTX-induced intestinal structural damage and increased the number of goblet cells, CD4[+], CD8[+] T lymphocytes, and mucin content, particularly by maintaining the balance of helper T lymphocyte 1/helper T lymphocyte 2 (Th1/Th2). Moreover, GP alleviated immunosuppression by down-regulating extracellular regulated protein kinases/p38/nuclear factor kappa-Bp50 pathways and increasing short-chain fatty acids level and secretion of cytokines, including interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-2, IL-10, IL-22, and transforming growth factor-β3 and immunoglobulin (Ig) M, IgG and secretory immunoglobulin A. GP treatment increased the total species and diversity of the gut microbiota. Microbiota analysis showed that GP promoted the proliferation of beneficial bacteria, including Muribaculaceae_unclassified, Alistipes, Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group, Ligilactobacillus, and Clostridia_vadinBB60_group, and reduced the abundance of Proteobacteria and CTX-derived bacteria (Clostridiales_unclassified, Candidatus_Arthromitus, Firmicutes_unclassified, and Clostridium). The studies of fecal microbiota transplantation and the pseudo-aseptic model conformed that the gut microbiota is crucial in GP-mediated immunity regulation. GP shows great potential as an immune enhancer and a natural medicine for treating intestinal inflammatory diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-10

Gudi RR, Johnson BM, Gaudreau MC, et al (2023)

Intestinal permeability and inflammatory features of juvenile age correlate with the eventual systemic autoimmunity in lupus-prone female SWR × NZB F1 (SNF1) mice.

Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

The incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is about nine times higher in women than in men, and the underlying mechanisms that contribute to this gender bias are not fully understood. Previously, using lupus-prone (SWR × NZB)F1 (SNF1) mice, we have shown that the intestinal immune system could play a role in the initiation and progression of disease in SLE, and depletion of gut microbiota produces more pronounced disease protection in females than in males. Here, we show that the gut permeability features of lupus-prone female SNF1 mice at juvenile ages directly correlate with the expression levels of pro-inflammatory factors, faecal IgA abundance and nAg reactivity and the eventual systemic autoantibody levels and proteinuria onset. Furthermore, we observed that the disease protection achieved in female SNF1 mice upon depletion of gut microbiota correlates with the diminished gut inflammatory protein levels, intestinal permeability and circulating microbial DNA levels. However, faecal microbiota transplant from juvenile male and females did not result in modulation of gut inflammatory features or permeability. Overall, these observations suggest that the early onset of intestinal inflammation, systemic autoantibody production and clinical stage disease in lupus-prone females is linked to higher gut permeability in them starting at as early as juvenile age. While the higher gut permeability in juvenile lupus-prone females is dependent on the presence of gut microbes, it appears to be independent of the composition of gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Zeng K, Brewster R, Kang JB, et al (2023)

Acute steroid-refractory GI GVHD is not associated with significant differences in gut taxonomic composition compared to steroid-sensitive GI GVHD immediately prior to onset of disease: GI GVHD is not characterized by gut microbial differences preceding symptom onset.

Transplantation and cellular therapy pii:S2666-6367(23)01673-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Taxonomic composition of the gut microbiota at the time of neutrophil engraftment is associated with the development of acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GI GVHD) in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, less is known about the relationship between the gut microbiota and development of steroid-refractory GI GVHD immediately prior to the onset of disease.

OBJECTIVES: Markers of steroid-refractory GI GVHD are needed in order to identify patients who may benefit from the early initiation of non-corticosteroid-based GVHD treatment. Our aim was to identify differences in taxonomic composition in stool samples from patients without GVHD, with steroid-responsive GVHD and with steroid-refractory GI GVHD in order to identify predictive microbiome biomarkers of steroid-refractory GI GVHD.

STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective case-control, single institution study, performing shotgun metagenomic sequencing on stool samples from patients with (n=36) and without GVHD (n=34) matched for time since transplant. We compared the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome in those with steroid-sensitive GI GVHD (n=17) and steroid-refractory GI GVHD (n=19) to each other and to those without GVHD. We also performed associations between steroid-refractory GI GVHD, gut taxonomic composition, and fecal calprotectin, a marker of GI GVHD to develop composite fecal markers of steroid-refractory GVHD prior to the onset of GI disease.

RESULTS: We found that fecal samples within 30 days of GVHD onset from patients with and without GVHD or with and without steroid-refractory GI GVHD did not differ significantly in Shannon diversity (alpha-diversity) or in overall taxonomic composition (beta-diversity). While those patients without GVHD had higher relative abundance of Clostridium spp., those with and without steroid-refractory GI GVHD did not significantly differ in taxonomic composition between one another. In our study, fecal calprotectin prior to disease onset was significantly higher in patients with GVHD compared to those without GVHD and higher in patients with steroid-refractory GI GVHD compared to steroid-sensitive GI GVHD. No taxa were significantly associated with higher levels of calprotectin.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

D T, MP Venkatesh (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation: History, Procedure and Regulatory Considerations.

Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983) pii:S0755-4982(23)00041-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a medical treatment which involves the transfer of feces from a healthy donor to a recipient to restore the balance of gut microbiota and improve clinical outcomes. FMT has gained recognition in recent years due to its effectiveness in treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) and other gastrointestinal disorders. Additionally, it has been studied as an intervention for some other conditions, like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This review covers regulatory considerations related to FMT, including the current state of FMT regulation and the need for further research to fully understand the safety and efficacy of this treatment. For transplantation of fecal microbiota, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies the treatment as an investigational new drug (IND), which typically requires physicians and scientists to submit an IND application. Ethical issues surrounding FMT, including the necessity of informed consent from donors and recipients and the potential transmission of infectious agents, are also discussed. Overall, FMT has the potential to offer significant therapeutic benefits, but it also raises regulatory and ethical considerations that require careful consideration. Further research is necessary to fully comprehend risks and benefits of FMT and to develop guidelines for its use in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Normington C, Chilton CH, AM Buckley (2023)

Clostridioides difficile infections; new treatments and future perspectives.

Current opinion in gastroenterology pii:00001574-990000000-00109 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As a significant cause of global morbidity and mortality, Clostridioides difficile infections (CDIs) are listed by the Centres for Disease Control and prevention as one of the top 5 urgent threats in the USA. CDI occurs from gut microbiome dysbiosis, typically through antibiotic-mediated disruption; however, antibiotics are the treatment of choice, which can result in recurrent infections. Here, we highlight new treatments available and provide a perspective on different classes of future treatments.

RECENT FINDINGS: Due to the reduced risk of disease recurrence, the microbiome-sparing antibiotic Fidaxomicin has been recommended as the first-line treatment for C. difficile infection. Based on the success of faecal microbiota transplantations (FMT) in treating CDI recurrence, defined microbiome biotherapeutics offer a safer and more tightly controlled alterative as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy. Given the association between antibiotic-mediated dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and the recurrence of CDI, future prospective therapies aim to reduce the dependence on antibiotics for the treatment of CDI.

SUMMARY: With current first-in-line antibiotic therapy options associated with high levels of recurrent CDI, the availability of new generation targeted therapeutics can really impact treatment success. There are still unknowns about the long-term implications of these new CDI therapeutics, but efforts to expand the CDI treatment toolbox can offer multiple solutions for clinicians to treat this multifaceted infectious disease to reduce patient suffering.

RevDate: 2023-11-10
CmpDate: 2023-11-10

Wang Q, Lin H, Shen C, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota regulates postprandial GLP-1 response via ileal bile acid-TGR5 signaling.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2274124.

The gut microbiota interacts with intestinal epithelial cells through microbial metabolites to regulate the release of gut hormones. We investigated whether the gut microbiota affects the postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response using antibiotic-treated mice and germ-free mice. Gut microbiome depletion completely abolished postprandial GLP-1 response in the circulation and ileum in a lipid tolerance test. Microbiome depletion did not influence the GLP-1 secretory function of primary ileal cells in response to stimulators in vitro, but dramatically changed the postprandial dynamics of endogenous bile acids, particularly ω-muricholic acid (ωMCA) and hyocholic acid (HCA). The bile acid receptor Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5 (TGR5) but not farnesoid X receptor (FXR), participated in the regulation of postprandial GLP-1 response in the circulation and ileum, and ωMCA or HCA stimulated GLP-1 secretion via TGR5. Finally, fecal microbiota transplantation or ωMCA and HCA supplementation restored postprandial GLP-1 response. In conclusion, gut microbiota is indispensable for maintaining the postprandial GLP-1 response specifically in the ileum, and bile acid (ωMCA and HCA)-TGR5 signaling is involved in this process. This study helps to understand the essential interplay between the gut microbiota and host in regulating postprandial GLP-1 response and opens the foundation for new therapeutic targets.

RevDate: 2023-11-08

Bu X, Pan W, Liu L, et al (2023)

Human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells prevent acute graft-versus-host disease in an intestinal microbiome-dependent manner.

Transplantation and cellular therapy pii:S2666-6367(23)01672-X [Epub ahead of print].

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) represents a fatal severe complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. As a promising cell therapeutic strategy of aGVHD, the mechanism of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to ameliorate aGVHD has not been fully clarified, especially in the field of intestinal homeostasis including the intestinal microbiome involved in the pathogenesis of aGVHD. The present study aimed to explore the effect of MSC on intestinal homeostasis including the intestinal barrier and intestinal microbiome and its metabolites as well as the role of intestinal microbiome in the preventive process of hAMSCs ameliorating aGVHD. The preventive effects of human amniotic membrane-derived MSC (hAMSCs) was assessed in humanized aGVHD models. Immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR were used to evaluate intestinal barrier function. 16S rRNA sequencing and targeted metabolomics assay were performed to observe the alternation of intestinal microbiome and the amounts of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), respectively. Flow cytometer was performed to analyze the frequencies of T immune cells. Through animal experiments, we found that hAMSCs had the potential to prevent aGVHD. hAMSCs could repair the damage of intestinal barrier structure and function as well as improve the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiome induced by aGVHD, and meanwhile, upregulate the concentration of metabolites SCFAs, so as to reshape intestinal homeostasis. Gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbial transplantation confirmed the involvement of intestinal microbiome in the preventive process of hAMSCs on aGVHD. Our findings showed that hAMSCs prevented aGVHD in an intestinal microbiome-dependent manner, which might shed light on a new mechanism of hAMSCs inhibiting aGVHD and promote the development of new prophylaxis regimes for aGVHD prevention.

RevDate: 2023-11-09
CmpDate: 2023-11-09

León-Janampa N, Caballero-Posadas I, Barc C, et al (2023)

A pig model of chronic hepatitis E displaying persistent viremia and a downregulation of innate immune responses in the liver.

Hepatology communications, 7(11): pii:02009842-202311010-00032.

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus transmitted by pig meat and responsible for chronic hepatitis E in immunocompromised patients. It has proved challenging to reproduce this disease in its natural reservoir. We therefore aimed to develop a pig model of chronic hepatitis E to improve the characterization of this disease.

METHODS: Ten pigs were treated with a tacrolimus-based regimen and intravenously inoculated with HEV. Tacrolimus trough concentration, HEV viremia, viral diversity, innate immune responses, liver histology, clinical disease and biochemical markers were monitored for 11 weeks post-infection (p.i.).

RESULTS: HEV viremia persisted for 11 weeks p.i. HEV RNA was detected in the liver, small intestine, and colon at necropsy. Histological analysis revealed liver inflammation and fibrosis. Several mutations selected in the HEV genome were associated with compartmentalization in the feces and intestinal tissues, consistent with the hypothesis of extrahepatic replication in the digestive tract. Antiviral responses were characterized by a downregulation of IFN pathways in the liver, despite an upregulation of RIG-I and ISGs in the blood and liver.

CONCLUSIONS: We developed a pig model of chronic hepatitis E that reproduced the major hallmarks of this disease. This model revealed a compartmentalization of HEV genomes in the digestive tract and a downregulation of innate immune responses in the liver. These original features highlight the relevance of our model for studies of the pathogenesis of chronic hepatitis E and for validating future treatments.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Chen Z, Guan D, Wang Z, et al (2023)

Microbiota in cancer: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.

MedComm, 4(6):e417.

The diverse bacterial populations within the symbiotic microbiota play a pivotal role in both health and disease. Microbiota modulates critical aspects of tumor biology including cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. This regulation occurs through mechanisms like enhancing genomic damage, hindering gene repair, activating aberrant cell signaling pathways, influencing tumor cell metabolism, promoting revascularization, and remodeling the tumor immune microenvironment. These microbiota-mediated effects significantly impact overall survival and the recurrence of tumors after surgery by affecting the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy. Moreover, leveraging the microbiota for the development of biovectors, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics, in addition to utilizing antibiotics, dietary adjustments, defensins, oncolytic virotherapy, and fecal microbiota transplantation, offers promising alternatives for cancer treatment. Nonetheless, due to the extensive and diverse nature of the microbiota, along with tumor heterogeneity, the molecular mechanisms underlying the role of microbiota in cancer remain a subject of intense debate. In this context, we refocus on various cancers, delving into the molecular signaling pathways associated with the microbiota and its derivatives, the reshaping of the tumor microenvironmental matrix, and the impact on tolerance to tumor treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This exploration aims to shed light on novel perspectives and potential applications in the field.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Secondo D, Massaro D, Verrienti G, et al (2023)

Clostridioides difficile Infection in the Neurorehabilitation Setting: Importance of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Impact of the Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.

Cureus, 15(10):e46574.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is considered to be one of the most frequent causes of bacterial infectious diarrhea in nosocomial settings. The prolonged hospitalization in bed-ridden conditions and the frequent administration of antibiotic therapy are usually encountered among the risk factors for CDI. Therefore, it is not surprising that CDI rates among rehabilitation hospitals are higher in neurologic facilities. In the neurorehabilitation setting, CDIs, especially if they present with refractory or recurrent aspects, may interrupt the normal course of rehabilitation, influencing, subsequently, the neurological outcomes. CDI treatment depends on the severity of the disease and includes both conservative and surgical approaches, with the latter reserved for severe complicated CDI. Another emerging, highly effective therapeutic option is represented by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), which consists of the transfer of screened healthy donor stool to a recipient's gastrointestinal tract. In this paper, we report two cases of refractory CDI, affecting patients in the neurorehabilitation pathway; both cases were resolved through FMT. On the one hand, our cases provide more evidence of FMT efficacy in refractory CDIs; on the other hand, they emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to grant the best care to CDI patients.

RevDate: 2023-11-09
CmpDate: 2023-11-09

Reynolds HM, ML Bettini (2023)

Early-life microbiota-immune homeostasis.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1266876.

As the prevalence of allergy and autoimmune disease in industrialized societies continues to rise, improving our understanding of the mechanistic roles behind microbiota-immune homeostasis has become critical for informing therapeutic interventions in cases of dysbiosis. Of particular importance, are alterations to intestinal microbiota occurring within the critical neonatal window, during which the immune system is highly vulnerable to environmental exposures. This review will highlight recent literature concerning mechanisms of early-life microbiota-immune homeostasis as well as discuss the potential for therapeutics in restoring dysbiosis in early life.

RevDate: 2023-11-08

Pan C, Zhang H, Zhang L, et al (2023)

Surgery-induced gut microbial dysbiosis promotes cognitive impairment via regulation of intestinal function and the metabolite palmitic amide.

Microbiome, 11(1):248.

BACKGROUND: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) are the most common postoperative complications with few therapeutic options. Gut microbial dysbiosis is associated with neurological diseases; however, the mechanisms by which the microbiota regulates postoperative gastrointestinal and cognitive function are incompletely understood.

METHODS: Behavioral testing, MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing, non-target metabolism, intestinal permeability detection, protein assays, and immunofluorescence staining were employed to discern the impacts of surgery on microbial profiles, intestinal barriers, serum metabolism, and the brain. Interventions in mice included fecal microbiota transplantation, the anti-inflammatory agent dexamethasone, Lactobacillus supplementation, indole propionic acid supplementation, and palmitic amide administration.

RESULTS: Surgery-induced cognitive impairment occurs predominantly in aged mice, and surgery-induced alterations in the microbiota composition profile exacerbate intestinal barrier disruption in aged mice. These adverse effects can be mitigated by transferring microbiota from young donors or by bolstering the intestinal barrier function using dexamethasone, Lactobacillus, or indole propionic acid. Moreover, microbiota composition profiles can be restored by transplanting feces from young mice to aged surgical mice, improving neuropathology and cognitive function, and these effects coincide with increased intestinal permeability. Metabolomic screening identified alterations in metabolites in mouse serum after surgery, especially the increase in palmitic amide. Palmitic amide levels in serum and brain can be decreased by transplanting feces from young mice to aged surgical mice. Oral palmitic amide exacerbates cognitive impairment and neuropathological changes in mice.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut microbial dysbiosis in mice after surgery is a key mechanism leading to cognition dysfunction, which disrupts the intestinal barrier and metabolic abnormalities, resulting in neuroinflammation and dendritic spine loss. Intestinal barrier damage and high level of palmitic amide in old mice may be the cause of high incidence of PND in the elderly. Preoperative microbiota regulation and intestinal barrier restoration may be of therapeutic benefit in preventing PND. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Pandey H, Jain D, Tang DWT, et al (2023)

Gut microbiota in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapeutics of inflammatory bowel disease.

Intestinal research pii:ir.2023.00080 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease, which is thought to be an interplay between genetic, environment, microbiota, and immune-mediated factors. Dysbiosis in the gut microbial composition, caused by antibiotics and diet, is closely related to the initiation and progression of IBD. Differences in gut microbiota composition between IBD patients and healthy individuals have been found, with reduced biodiversity of commensal microbes and colonization of opportunistic microbes in IBD patients. Gut microbiota can, therefore, potentially be used for diagnosing and prognosticating IBD, and predicting its treatment response. Currently, there are no curative therapies for IBD. Microbiota-based interventions, including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation, have been recognized as promising therapeutic strategies. Clinical studies and studies done in animal models have provided sufficient evidence that microbiota-based interventions may improve inflammation, the remission rate, and microscopic aspects of IBD. Further studies are required to better understand the mechanisms of action of such interventions. This will help in enhancing their effectiveness and developing personalized therapies. The present review summarizes the relationship between gut microbiota and IBD immunopathogenesis. It also discusses the use of gut microbiota as a noninvasive biomarker and potential therapeutic option.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Ye X, Sun P, Lao S, et al (2023)

Fgf21-Dubosiella axis mediates the protective effects of exercise against NAFLD development.

Life sciences pii:S0024-3205(23)00866-4 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To explore the mechanism of gut microbiota mediates protective effects of exercise against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development.

MAIN METHODS: The male C57BL/6 mice were fed with high fat food (HFD) or normal diet (CON) respectively, and the obese mice were randomly divided into sedentariness (HFD) and exercise groups (HFD + Exe). The total intervention period was 18 weeks. Antibiotic treatment and fecal microbiota transplantation were applied to evaluate gut microbiota mediates the protective effects of exercise against NAFLD development. 16S rDNA profiling of gut microbiota and extracorporeal rehydration of Dubosiella newyorkensis were performed to identify the crucial role of Dubosiella in NAFLD improvement during exercise training. FGF21 knock-out mice were used to reveal the potential mechanism of exercise increased the abundance of Dubosiella. RT-PCR, Western blot, Histopathological examinations and Biochemical testing were performed to evaluate the lipid deposition and function in the liver.

KEY FINDINGS: Treadmill exercise significantly ameliorated hepatic function and mitigated lipid accumulation in NAFLD mice, and these hepatoprotective benefits were mostly mediated by the Dubosiella. In addition, the increased abundance of Dubosiella during exercise training was modulated by FGF21 specifically.

SIGNIFICANCE: In short, Dubosiella, chiefly regulated by FGF21 signaling during exercise training, has been discovered to govern the protective impacts of exercising counter to the development of NAFLD and exhibits a promising treatment target for NAFLD.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Zhang T, Gao G, Kwok LY, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome-targeted therapies for Alzheimer's disease.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2271613.

The advent of high-throughput 'omics' technologies has improved our knowledge of gut microbiome in human health and disease, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder. Frequent bidirectional communications and mutual regulation exist between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system through the gut-brain axis. A large body of research has reported a close association between the gut microbiota and AD development, and restoring a healthy gut microbiota may curb or even improve AD symptoms and progression. Thus, modulation of the gut microbiota has become a novel paradigm for clinical management of AD, and emerging effort has focused on developing potential novel strategies for preventing and/or treating the disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the connection and causal relationship between gut dysbiosis and AD, the mechanisms of gut microbiota in driving AD progression, and the successes and challenges of implementing available gut microbiome-targeted therapies (including probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation) in preventive and/or therapeutic preclinical and clinical intervention studies of AD. Finally, we discuss the future directions in this field.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Cao Y, Zhang L, Xiong F, et al (2023)

Effect of probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation in dirty rats with established primary liver cancer.

Future microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Background: The modulating effects of probiotics and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on gut flora and their direct antitumor effects remain unclear in dirty rats with established primary liver cancer. Materials & methods: Probiotics (VSL#3), FMT or tap water were administrated to three groups. Fresh fecal samples were collected from all groups for 16S rRNA analysis. Liver cancer tissues were collected to evaluate the tumor response. Results: Significant modulation of β-diversity (p = 0.023) was observed after FMT. VSL#3 and FMT had no inhibitory effect on tumors, but the density of Treg cells decreased (p = 0.031) in the FMT group. Conclusion: FMT is a more attractive alternative to probiotics in dirty rats with liver cancer.

RevDate: 2023-11-08
CmpDate: 2023-11-08

Zhang M, Mo R, Wang H, et al (2023)

Grape seed proanthocyanidin improves intestinal inflammation in canine through regulating gut microbiota and bile acid compositions.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 37(12):e23285.

Although certain progress has been made in treating canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a large proportion of dogs have a poor prognosis and may develop resistance and side effects. Therefore, it is of great significance to prevent or alleviate canine IBD through nutritional intervention. Plant polyphenol can interact with intestinal bacteria and has important prospects in the intestinal health improvement. This study evaluated the effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP), a plant-derived natural polyphenol, on Labrador Retrievers with mild IBD. In Experiment 1 of this study, GSP alleviated persistent intestinal inflammation in canines by improving inflammatory indexes and reducing intestinal permeability. Moreover, GSP treatment increased the abundance of bacteria with potential anti-inflammatory properties and engaging bile acid metabolism, including Ruminococcaceae, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus_torques_group, and Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136_group. Notably, targeted metabolomic analysis identified elevated productions of fecal chenodeoxycholic acid and its microbial transformation product lithocholic acid, which might contribute to relieving canine intestinal inflammation. Further, in Experiment 2, fecal microbiota transplantation was used to determine whether gut microbiota is a potential mechanism for GSP efficacy. Dogs with mild IBD received the fecal microbiota from the group administered GSP and mirrored the improvement effects of GSP, which results verified that gut microbial alteration could be an underlying mechanism for GSP efficiency on canine IBD. Our findings highlight that the mechanism of the GSP function on canine IBD is mediated by altering gut microbial composition and improving bile acid metabolism. This study proposes a natural polyphenol-based dietary strategy for improving canine intestinal health.

RevDate: 2023-11-06

Blake SJ, Wolf Y, Boursi B, et al (2023)

Role of the microbiota in response to and recovery from cancer therapy.

Nature reviews. Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Our understanding of how the microbiota affects the balance between response to and failure of cancer treatment by modulating the tumour microenvironment and systemic immune system has advanced rapidly in recent years. Microbiota-targeting interventions in patients with cancer are an area of intensive investigation. Promisingly, phase I-II clinical trials have shown that interventions such as faecal microbiota transplantation can overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade in patients with melanoma, improve therapeutic outcomes in treatment-naive patients and reduce therapy-induced immunotoxicities. Here, we synthesize the evidence showing that the microbiota is an important determinant of both cancer treatment efficacy and treatment-induced acute and long-term toxicity, and we discuss the complex and inter-related mechanisms involved. We also assess the potential of microbiota-targeting interventions, including bacterial engineering and phage therapy, to optimize the response to and recovery from cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Okamura T, Hasegawa Y, Hamaguchi M, et al (2023)

The role of chicken eggs in modulating sarcopenic obesity and gut microbiota in db/db mice.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1281217.

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia obesity, in which loss of muscle mass and fat accumulation occur simultaneously, is the pathological basis of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The usefulness of chicken eggs in sarcopenia prevention has been reported in several previous studies. The purpose of this study was to determine the beneficial effects of chicken eggs in the prevention of sarcopenic obesity in db/db mice.

METHODS: We raised 8-week-old db/db male mice, a model of sarcopenia obesity, for 8 weeks and fed them a diet mixed with dried whole eggs. The fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) group was treated with antibiotics for 2 weeks, starting at 6 weeks of age, followed by FMT twice a week until 16 weeks of age.

RESULTS: Eggs administered to db/db mice showed increased grip strength (p = 0.022) and muscle mass (p = 0.013), decreased visceral fat mass (p = 0.005), and significantly increased physical activity (p < 0.001). The FMT group of egg-fed mice showed a significant improvement in glucose intolerance and sarcopenic obesity. Sequencing of gene expression in the small intestine showed that the gene expression of amino acid transporters such as Slc6a18, Slc6a19, and Slc38a6 was increased in egg-fed mice. 16S rRNA sequencing of the gut microbiota showed an increase in the genus Vampirovibrio in both the egg-fed and FMT groups compared to that in egg-fed mice.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that egg consumption not only increases the intake of amino acids and other nutrients but also alters the intestinal microbiota and increases amino acid absorption from the intestinal tract, suggesting that eggs might contribute to the ameliorative mechanism of sarcopenic obesity.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )