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Bibliography on: Biofilm

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 May 2024 at 01:40 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-24

Pires ACMDS, Carvalho AR, Vaso CO, et al (2024)

Influence of Zinc on Histoplasma capsulatum Planktonic and Biofilm Cells.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 10(5): pii:jof10050361.

Histoplasma capsulatum causes a fungal respiratory disease. Some studies suggest that the fungus requires zinc to consolidate the infection. This study aimed to investigate the influence of zinc and the metal chelator TPEN on the growth of Histoplasma in planktonic and biofilm forms. The results showed that zinc increased the metabolic activity, cell density, and cell viability of planktonic growth. Similarly, there was an increase in biofilm metabolic activity but no increase in biomass or extracellular matrix production. N'-N,N,N,N-tetrakis-2-pyridylmethylethane-1,2 diamine (TPEN) dramatically reduced the same parameters in the planktonic form and resulted in a decrease in metabolic activity, biomass, and extracellular matrix production for the biofilm form. Therefore, the unprecedented observations in this study highlight the importance of zinc ions for the growth, development, and proliferation of H. capsulatum cells and provide new insights into the role of metal ions for biofilm formation in the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma, which could be a potential therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Yun J, Burrow MF, Matinlinna JP, et al (2024)

Design of Multi-Functional Bio-Safe Dental Resin Composites with Mineralization and Anti-Biofilm Properties.

Journal of functional biomaterials, 15(5): pii:jfb15050120.

This study aims to develop multi-functional bio-safe dental resin composites with capabilities for mineralization, high in vitro biocompatibility, and anti-biofilm properties. To address this issue, experimental resin composites consisting of UDMA/TEGDMA-based dental resins and low quantities (1.9, 3.8, and 7.7 vol%) of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) particles were developed. To evaluate cellular responses of resin composites, MC3T3-E1 cells were (1) exposed to the original composites extracts, (2) cultured directly on the freshly cured resin composites, or (3) cultured on preconditioned composites that have been soaked in deionized water (DI water), a cell culture medium (MEM), or a simple HEPES-containing artificial remineralization promotion (SHARP) solution for 14 days. Cell adhesion, cell viability, and cell differentiation were, respectively, assessed. In addition, the anti-biofilm properties of BAG-loaded resin composites regarding bacterial viability, biofilm thickness, and biofilm morphology, were assessed for the first time. In vitro biological results demonstrated that cell metabolic activity and ALP expression were significantly diminished when subjected to composite extracts or direct contact with the resin composites containing BAG fillers. However, after the preconditioning treatments in MEM and SHARP solutions, the biomimetic calcium phosphate minerals on 7.7 vol% BAG-loaded composites revealed unimpaired or even better cellular processes, including cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and early cell differentiation. Furthermore, resin composites with 1.9, 3.8, and 7.7 vol% BAG could not only reduce cell viability in S. mutans biofilm on the composite surface but also reduce the biofilm thickness and bacterial aggregations. This phenomenon was more evident in BAG7.7 due to the high ionic osmotic pressure and alkaline microenvironment caused by BAG dissolution. This study concludes that multi-functional bio-safe resin composites with mineralization and anti-biofilm properties can be achieved by adding low quantities of BAG into the resin system, which offers promising abilities to mineralize as well as prevent caries without sacrificing biological activity.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Karacic J, Ruf M, Herzog J, et al (2024)

Effect of Dentifrice Ingredients on Volume and Vitality of a Simulated Periodontal Multispecies Biofilm.

Dentistry journal, 12(5): pii:dj12050141.

The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of different toothpaste ingredients on biofilm volume and vitality in an established non-contact biofilm removal model. A multi-species biofilm comprising Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum was grown on protein-coated titanium disks. Six disks per group were exposed to 4 seconds non-contact brushing using a sonic toothbrush. Four groups assessed slurries containing different ingredients, i.e., dexpanthenol (DP), peppermint oil (PO), cocamidopropyl betaine (CB), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH), one positive control group with the slurry of a toothpaste (POS), and a negative control group with physiological saline (NEG). Biofilm volume and vitality were measured using live-dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Statistical analysis comprised descriptive statistics and inter-group differences. In the test groups, lowest vitality and volume were found for CB (50.2 ± 11.9%) and PO (3.6 × 10[5] ± 1.8 × 10[5] µm[3]), respectively. Significant differences regarding biofilm vitality were found comparing CB and PO (p = 0.033), CB and NEG (p = 0.014), NaOH and NEG (p = 0.033), and POS and NEG (p = 0.037). However, no significant inter-group differences for biofilm volume were observed. These findings suggest that CB as a toothpaste ingredient had a considerable impact on biofilm vitality even in a non-contact brushing setting, while no considerable impact on biofilm volume was found.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Silva A, Silva V, Gomes JP, et al (2024)

Listeria monocytogenes from Food Products and Food Associated Environments: Antimicrobial Resistance, Genetic Clustering and Biofilm Insights.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(5): pii:antibiotics13050447.

Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen, exhibits high adaptability to adverse environmental conditions and is common in the food industry, especially in ready-to-eat foods. L. monocytogenes strains pose food safety challenges due to their ability to form biofilms, increased resistance to disinfectants, and long-term persistence in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and genetic diversity of L. monocytogenes in food and related environmental products collected from 2014 to 2022 and assess antibiotic susceptibility and biofilm formation abilities. L. monocytogenes was identified in 13 out of the 227 (6%) of samples, 7 from food products (meat preparation, cheeses, and raw milk) and 6 from food-processing environments (slaughterhouse-floor and catering establishments). All isolates exhibited high biofilm-forming capacity and antibiotic susceptibility testing showed resistance to several classes of antibiotics, especially trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and erythromycin. Genotyping and core-genome clustering identified eight sequence types and a cluster of three very closely related ST3 isolates (all from food), suggesting a common contamination source. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) analysis revealed resistance genes conferring resistance to fosfomycin (fosX), lincosamides (lin), fluoroquinolones (norB), and tetracycline (tetM). In addition, the qacJ gene was also detected, conferring resistance to disinfecting agents and antiseptics. Virulence gene profiling revealed the presence of 92 associated genes associated with pathogenicity, adherence, and persistence. These findings underscore the presence of L. monocytogenes strains in food products and food-associated environments, demonstrating a high virulence of these strains associated with resistance genes to antibiotics, but also to disinfectants and antiseptics. Moreover, they emphasize the need for continuous surveillance, effective risk assessment, and rigorous control measures to minimize the public health risks associated to severe infections, particularly listeriosis outbreaks. A better understanding of the complex dynamics of pathogens in food products and their associated environments can help improve overall food safety and develop more effective strategies to prevent severe health consequences and economic losses.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Lee J, Song H, K Kim (2024)

Inhibition of Candida albicans Biofilm Formation and Attenuation of Its Virulence by Liriope muscari.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(5): pii:antibiotics13050434.

(1) Background: Although Candida albicans accounts for the majority of fungal infections, therapeutic options are limited and require alternative antifungal agents with new targets; (2) Methods: A biofilm formation assay with RPMI1640 medium was performed with Liriope muscari extract. A combination antifungal assay, dimorphic transition assay, and adhesion assay were performed under the biofilm formation condition to determine the anti-biofilm formation effect. qRT-PCR analysis was accomplished to confirm changes in gene expression; (3) Results: L. muscari extract significantly reduces biofilm formation by 51.65% at 1.56 μg/mL use and therefore increases susceptibility to miconazole. L. muscari extract also inhibited the dimorphic transition of Candida; nearly 50% of the transition was inhibited when 1.56 μg/mL of the extract was treated. The extract of L. muscari inhibited the expression of genes related to hyphal development and extracellular matrix of 34.4% and 36.0%, respectively, as well as genes within the Ras1-cAMP-PKA, Cph2-Tec1, and MAP kinase signaling pathways of 25.58%, 7.1% and 15.8%, respectively, at 1.56 μg/mL of L. muscari extract treatment; (4) Conclusions: L. muscari extract significantly reduced Candida biofilm formation, which lead to induced antifungal susceptibility to miconazole. It suggests that L. muscari extract is a promising anti-biofilm candidate of Candida albicans since the biofilm formation of Candida albicans is an excellent target for candidiasis regulation.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-24

Xu L, Wang W, Zhang X, et al (2024)

Role of LsrR in the regulation of biofilm formation in mammary pathogenic Escherichia coli.

BMC veterinary research, 20(1):220.

BACKGROUND: Mammary Pathogenic Escherichia coli (MPEC) is an important pathogen that can escape the attack of the host immune system through biofilm formation and proliferate in the mammary gland continuously, resulting in mastitis in cows and causing enormous economic losses. As an effector of AI-2 quorum sensing, LsrR extensively affects the expression levels of hundreds of genes related to multiple biological processes in model E. coli strain. However, the regulatory role of LsrR in MPEC and whether it is involved in pathogenesis has been seldom reported.

RESULTS: In this study, the function of LsrR in strain MPEC5, obtained from a milk sample in dairy cows with mastitis, was investigated by performing high-throughput sequencing (RNA-seq) assays. The results revealed that LsrR down-regulated the transcript levels of fimAICDFGH (encoding Type 1 pili), which have been reported to be associated with biofilm formation process. Biofilm assays confirmed that deletion of lsrR resulted in a significant increase in biofilm formation in vitro. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) provided evidence that LsrR protein could directly bind to the promoter regions of fimAICDFGH in a dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that LsrR protein inhibits the biofilm formation ability of MPEC5 by directly binding to the fimAICDFGH promoter region. This study presents a novel clue for further exploration of the prevention and treatment of MPEC.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Samreen , Ahmad I, Khan SA, et al (2024)

Green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Phoenix dactylifera synergistically interact with bioactive extract of Punica granatum against bacterial virulence and biofilm development.

Microbial pathogenesis, 192:106708 pii:S0882-4010(24)00175-X [Epub ahead of print].

The global rise of antibiotic resistance poses a substantial risk to mankind, underscoring the necessity for alternative antimicrobial options. Developing novel drugs has become challenging in matching the pace at which microbial resistance is evolving. Recently, nanotechnology, coupled with natural compounds, has emerged as a promising solution to combat multidrug-resistant bacteria. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were green-synthesized using aqueous extract of Phoenix dactylifera (variety Ajwa) fruits and characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA). The in-vitro synergy of green synthesized P. dactylifera silver nanoparticle (PD-AgNPs) with selected antibiotics and bioactive extract of Punica granatum, i.e., ethyl acetate fraction (PGEF), was investigated using checkerboard assays. The most effective synergistic combination was evaluated against the QS-regulated virulence factors production and biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by spectroscopic assays and electron microscopy. In-vivo anti-infective efficacy was examined in Caenorhabditis elegans N2 worms. PD-AgNPs were characterized as spherical in shape with an average diameter of 28.9 nm. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of functional groups responsible for the decrease and stabilization of PD-AgNPs. The signals produced by TGA-DTA analysis indicated the generation of thermally stable and pure crystallite AgNPs. Key phytocompounds detected in bioactive fractions include gulonic acid, dihydrocaffeic acid 3-O-glucuronide, and various fatty acids. The MIC of PD-AgNPs and PGEF ranged from 32 to 128 μg/mL and 250-500 μg/mL, respectively, against test bacterial strains. In-vitro, PD-AgNPs showed additive interaction with selected antibiotics (FICI 0.625-0.75) and synergy with PGEF (FICI 0.25-0.375). This combination inhibited virulence factors by up to 75 % and biofilm formation by 84.87 % in P. aeruginosa PAO1. Infected C. elegans worms with P. aeruginosa PAO1 had a 92.55 % survival rate when treated with PD-AgNPs and PGEF. The combination also reduced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in C. elegans N2 compared to the untreated control. Overall, these findings highlight that biosynthesized PD-AgNPs and bioactive P. granatum extract may be used as a potential therapeutic formulation against MDR bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Gottenbos B, Suntjens W, S Hötzl (2024)

In Vitro Biofilm Removal From Human Enamel Using a Philips® Sonicare® Power Flosser.

Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995), 45(Suppl 1):21.

The objective of this in vitro study was to quantify the removal of dental biofilm from human enamel surfaces after treatment with the Philips® Sonicare® Power Flosser. Dental biofilms were grown from pooled human saliva on human enamel disks for 4 days, according to an established academic model.* The biofilms (n = 6) were treated with the Philips Sonicare Power Flosser for 3 seconds using the Quad Stream nozzle. To quantify the number of bacteria before treatment, the biofilm volume was measured using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and the bacterial cell density was determined from untreated control samples (n = 6) using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). After treatment the number of remaining bacteria were counted using CLSM. Additionally, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were recorded. While before treatment 0.2-mm thick dense biofilms were present, after treatment only scattered groups of bacteria remained (Figure 1 through Figure 4). Quantitative analysis showed 99.96% removal for the Quad Stream nozzle. The Philips Sonicare Power Flosser oral irrigator with Quad Stream nozzle removed over 99.9% of the bacteria in this established laboratory model of dental biofilm.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Gottenbos B, Balakrishnan A, F Mirza (2024)

In Vitro Comparison of the Area of Biofilm Removal by the Quad Stream Nozzle Versus a Traditional Oral Irrigator Standard Nozzle.

Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995), 45(Suppl 1):20.

The objective of this in vitro study was to compare the area of oral biofilm removal by the Philips Sonicare Quad Stream (PSQS) nozzle (used on a Philips® Sonicare® Power Flosser) and a traditional oral irrigator with a standard nozzle (TOIS) when used per the directions for use (DFU) instructions for both devices.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Gottenbos B, Balakrishnan A, van de Kamp-Peeters L, et al (2024)

Power Flossing Removes Biofilm From Model Periodontal Pockets In Vitro and Shifts the Microbiome During Biofilm Regrowth.

Compendium of continuing education in dentistry (Jamesburg, N.J. : 1995), 45(Suppl 1):18-19.

The Philips® Sonicare® Power Flosser (PSPF) is highly effective in reducing gum disease. Next to effective supragingival cleaning, this may be partially driven by subgingival cleaning. This in vitro study aimed to assess the effectiveness of the PSPF in removing biofilm from a model periodontal pocket up to 6 mm deep and to investigate the taxonomic composition of biofilm regrown after use of the PSPF.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Slobodianyk-Kolomoiets M, Khlebas S, Mazur I, et al (2024)

Extracellular host DNA contributes to pathogenic biofilm formation during periodontitis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1374817.

INTRODUCTION: Periodontal diseases are known to be associated with polymicrobial biofilms and inflammasome activation. A deeper understanding of the subgingival cytological (micro) landscape, the role of extracellular DNA (eDNA) during periodontitis, and contribution of the host immune eDNA to inflammasome persistence, may improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlaying severe forms of periodontitis.

METHODS: In this work, subgingival biolfilms developing on biologically neutral polyethylene terephthalate films placed in gingival cavities of patients with chronic periodontitis were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). This allowed examination of realistic cytological landscapes and visualization of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) including amyloids, total proteins, carbohydrates and eDNA, as well as comparison with several single-strain in vitro model biofilms produced by oral pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus gordonii, S. sanguinis and S. mitis. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was also used to identify eDNA derived from eubacteria, streptococci and members of the Bacteroides-Porphyromonas-Prevotella (BPP) group associated with periodontitis.

RESULTS: Analysis of subgingival biofilm EPS revealed low levels of amyloids and high levels of eDNA which appears to be the main matrix component. However, bacterial eDNA contributed less than a third of the total eDNA observed, suggesting that host-derived eDNA released in neutrophil extracellular traps may be of more importance in the development of biofilms causing periodontitis.

DISCUSSION: eDNA derived from host immunocompetent cells activated at the onset of periodontitis may therefore be a major driver of bacterial persistence and pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Wongsariya K, Lapirattanakul J, Chewchinda S, et al (2024)

Anti-oral streptococci and anti-biofilm properties of Etlingera pavieana essential oil and its bioactive compounds proposed for an alternative herbal mouthwash.

Heliyon, 10(10):e31136.

Oral streptococci are the major group of bacteria in the oral cavity. Some of their species cause oral diseases that may lead to tooth loss and quality-of-life reduction, such as dental caries. One of prevention techniques to promote oral health is rinsing mouthwash after toothbrushing. This study aimed to determine the potential uses of local food, also remedy, plant in Thailand called Reaw-Horm or Etlingera pavieana for alternative herbal mouthwash. The essential oil from E. pavieana rhizome (Eo) is used for anti-streptococci including Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus and anti-biofilm activities. The main components of Eo are methyl chavicol (MC) and trans-anethole (TA). The disk diffusion method showed the inhibition zone of Eo in a dose-dependent manner. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Eo and TA was >1.6 % v/v, and 0.4 % v/v of MC. Regarding anti-biofilm activities, MC showed nearly equal anti-biofilm formation of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, whereas Eo and TA acted toward S. sobrinus more than S. mutans biofilm. Sub-MIC killing effects on cells under biofilm were observed in Eo and MC. Therefore, MC was recommended as an active compound for anti-streptococci activities. Biocompatibility of Eo and MC were shown to be safe for epidermal cell lines. Herbal mouthwashes containing Eo were developed and had antioxidant and antimicrobial actions with established for 3 months. This study provides in vitro support on the use of herbal mouthwash with antioxidant and antimicrobial activities for dental caries prevention and well-being of individuals.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

AlMatar M, Var I, Sağlam S, et al (2024)

The Effectiveness of LISTEXTM P100 in Reducing the Biofilm of Listeria spp. on Steel, Plastic, and Galvanised Surfaces.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology pii:CPB-EPUB-140479 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Eliminating and managing L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii biofilms is a significant problem for food safety, as listeriosis is among the worst foodborne illnesses.

METHOD: The Listex P100 bacteriophage's bactericidal and inhibitory properties have been investigated in relation to varying strains of vegetative cells and biofilms of L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii.

RESULTS: The phage concentrations of 109 and 1010 PFU/ml showed strong antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii at both 10°C and 30°C (P<0.05). In 96- well microplate experiments, bacteriophage treatment inhibited biofilm development and reduced biofilm by up to 57.6% (P ≤ 0.05). When compared to controls, Listex P100 bacteriophage significantly reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii biofilms on the surfaces of galvanised, stainless steel, and plastic surfaces where holes were produced and the structure of Listeria spp. was disturbed.

CONCLUSION: This study clearly demonstrated that L. monocytogenes, L. welshimeri, and L. ivanovii biofilms on galvanised, stainless steel, and plastic surfaces might be removed by using Listex P100 bacteriophage.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Elghali F, Ibrahim I, Guesmi M, et al (2024)

Unveiling the impact of selected essential oils on MRSA strain ATCC 33591: antibacterial efficiency, biofilm disruption, and staphyloxanthin inhibition.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

This work aimed to evaluate the effects of 4 selected essential oils on planktonic cells and microbial biofilms of the Staphylococcus aureus strain (MRSA ATCC 33591). The antibacterial activities of the four essential oils Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens), PgEO, Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) MaEO, Lemon peel (Citrus limon) ClEO and Peppermint (Mentha piperita) MpEO had MICs ranging from 1.56 to 12.5 µl/ml. The evaluation of the antibiofilm activities of the 4 EOs revealed that they had antiadhesive activities against S. aureus MRSA biofilms; the activity reached 60% (the EO of MpEO peppermint at a concentration of 3.12 µl/ml), and the eradication activity was 80% (the EO of PgEO and MpEO at 3.12 µl/ml). The antibiofilm activity of S. aureus has been explained by the binding of several essential oil bioactive molecules to the SarA protein, the main target protein involved in biofilm formation. The synthesis of the virulence factor staphyloxanthin by S. aureus MRSA ATCC 33591 was significantly inhibited in the presence of PgEO at a concentration of MIC/2. This inhibition was explained by the binding of the main PgEO molecules (β-citronellol and geraniol) to the CrTM protein involved in the staphyloxanthin synthesis pathway. There is evidence that these essential oils could be used as potential anti-virulents to control Staphylococcus biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Salvado MG, André LSP, Pereira RFA, et al (2024)

Evaluating the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activity of three synthetic antimicrobial Citropin analogs and their ability to fight against Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7679140 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: We developed three new analogs of the antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Citropin 1.1: DAN-1-13, AJP-1-1, and HHX-2-28, and tested their potential antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius. Potential cytotoxic or hemolytic effects were determined using cultured human keratinocytes and erythrocytes to determine their safety.

METHODS AND RESULTS: To assess the antimicrobial activity of each compound, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible strains of S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius. Activity against newly formed and mature biofilms was determined in two clinical isolates using spectrophotometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All three compounds exhibited antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against all studied S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius strains, with MICs ranging from 4-32 μg ml- 1 and MBCs ranging from 8-128 μg ml- 1. Subinhibitory concentrations of all compounds also showed anti-biofilm activity in the two tested isolates. All compounds exhibited limited cytotoxic and hemolytic activity.

CONCLUSION: Novel analogs of Citropin 1.1 exhibit anti-microbial and bactericidal activities against S. aureus and S. pseudintermedius isolates and inhibit the biofilm formation of these bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Enrique CG, Medel-Plaza M, Correa JJA, et al (2024)

Biofilm on total joint replacement materials can be reduced through electromagnetic induction heating using a portable device.

Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research, 19(1):304.

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection is a serious complication following joint replacement. The development of bacterial biofilms bestows antibiotic resistance and restricts treatment via implant retention surgery. Electromagnetic induction heating is a novel technique for antibacterial treatment of metallic surfaces that has demonstrated in-vitro efficacy. Previous studies have always employed stationary, non-portable devices. This study aims to assess the in-vitro efficacy of induction-heating disinfection of metallic surfaces using a new Portable Disinfection System based on Induction Heating.

METHODS: Mature biofilms of three bacterial species: S. epidermidis ATCC 35,984, S. aureus ATCC 25,923, E. coli ATCC 25,922, were grown on 18 × 2 mm cylindrical coupons of Titanium-Aluminium-Vanadium (Ti6Al4V) or Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys. Study intervention was induction-heating of the coupon surface up to 70ºC for 210s, performed using the Portable Disinfection System (PDSIH). Temperature was monitored using thermographic imaging. For each bacterial strain and each metallic alloy, experiments and controls were conducted in triplicate. Bacterial load was quantified through scraping and drop plate techniques. Data were evaluated using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test for 2 group comparison. Statistical significance was fixed at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: All bacterial strains showed a statistically significant reduction of CFU per surface area in both materials. Bacterial load reduction amounted to 0.507 and 0.602 Log10 CFU/mL for S. aureus on Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo respectively, 5.937 and 3.500 Log10 CFU/mL for E. coli, and 1.222 and 0.372 Log10 CFU/mL for S. epidermidis.

CONCLUSIONS: Electromagnetic induction heating using PDSIH is efficacious to reduce mature biofilms of S aureus, E coli and S epidermidis growing on metallic surfaces of Ti6Al4V and CoCrMo alloys.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Lima LS, Müller TN, Ansiliero R, et al (2024)

Biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes from the meat processing industry environment and the use of different combinations of detergents, sanitizers, and UV-A radiation to control this microorganism in planktonic and sessile forms.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to evaluate the ability of biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes from the meat processing industry environment, as well as the use of different combinations of detergents, sanitizers, and UV-A radiation in the control of this microorganism in the planktonic and sessile forms. Four L. monocytogenes isolates were evaluated and showed moderate ability to form biofilm, as well as carried genes related to biofilm production (agrB, agrD, prfA, actA, cheA, cheY, flaA, sigB), and genes related to tolerance to sanitizers (lde and qacH). The biofilm-forming isolates of L. monocytogenes were susceptible to quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) and peracetic acid (PA) in planktonic form, with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 125 and 75 ppm, respectively, for contact times of 10 and 5 min. These concentrations are lower than those recommended by the manufacturers, which are at least 200 and 300 ppm for QAC and PA, respectively. Biofilms of L. monocytogenes formed from a pool of isolates on stainless steel and polyurethane coupons were subjected to 14 treatments involving acid and enzymatic detergents, QAC and PA sanitizers, and UV-A radiation at varying concentrations and contact times. All treatments reduced L. monocytogenes counts in the biofilm, indicating that the tested detergents, sanitizers, and UV-A radiation exhibited antimicrobial activity against biofilms on both surface types. Notably, the biofilm formed on polyurethane showed greater tolerance to the evaluated compounds than the biofilm on stainless steel, likely due to the material's surface facilitating faster microbial colonization and the development of a more complex structure, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from the meat processing industry carry genes associated with biofilm production and can form biofilms on both stainless steel and polyurethane surfaces, which may contribute to their persistence within meat processing lines. Despite carrying sanitizer tolerance genes, QAC and PA effectively controlled these microorganisms in their planktonic form. However, combinations of detergent (AC and ENZ) with sanitizers (QAC and PA) at minimum concentrations of 125 ppm and 300 ppm, respectively, were the most effective.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Ferreira I, de Campos MR, Sahm BD, et al (2024)

Influence of post-processing on the adhesion of dual-species biofilm on polylactic acid obtained by additive manufacturing.

The Saudi dental journal, 36(5):733-739.

INTRODUCTION: Post-processing (PP) is performed to improve the surface, which can favor microbial adhesion and consequent pathological manifestations that impair the indication of polylactic acid (PLA) obtained by fused filament fabrication (FFF) for biomedical applications. This aims to evaluate the influence of chemical, thermal, and mechanical PP on the adhesion of Streptococcus mutants and Candida albicans, roughness, and wettability of the PLA obtained by FFF with and without thermal aging.

METHODS: The specimens were designed in the 3D modeling program and printed. The chemical PP was performed by immersion in chloroform, the thermal by the annealing method, and the mechanical by polishing. Thermal aging was performed by alternating the temperature from 5 °C to 55 °C with 5000 cycles. Colony-forming unit (CFU/mL) counting was performed on dual-species biofilm of C. albicans and S. mutans. Roughness was analyzed by rugosimeter and wettability by the sessile drop technique. Data were verified for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test, two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) applied for CFU and wettability, and Kruskal-Wallis (α = 0.05) for roughness.

RESULTS: Chemical, thermal, and mechanical PP methods showed no influence on CFU/mL of C. albicans (p = 0.296) and S. mutans (p = 0.055). Thermal aging did not influence microbial adhesion. Chemical PP had lower roughness, which had increased after aging. Wettability of the mechanical PP was lower.

CONCLUSIONS: Post-processing techniques, do not present an influence on the adhesion of S. mutans and C. albicans in PLA obtained by FFF, chemical PP reduced roughness, and mechanical reduced wettability. Thermal aging did not alter the microbial adhesion and altered the roughness and wettability.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Ashrafudoulla M, Yun H, Ashikur Rahman M, et al (2024)

Prophylactic efficacy of baicalin and carvacrol against Salmonella Typhimurium biofilm on food and food contact surfaces.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 187:114458.

This study examines the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effectiveness of baicalin and carvacrol against Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium on food contact surfaces and chicken meat. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) for baicalin and carvacrol were found to be 100 μg/mL and 200 μg/mL, respectively, which aligns with findings from previous studies. The compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent decrease in microbial populations and biofilm formation. When used together, they displayed a remarkable synergistic effect, greatly augmenting their antibacterial activity. The assessment of food quality demonstrated that these treatments have no negative impact on the sensory characteristics of chicken meat. The impact of the structure on biofilms was observed through the use of Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM), revealing disrupted biofilm architectures and decreased cell viability. Crucially, RT-PCR analysis revealed a marked downregulation of quorum sensing (luxS), virulence (hilA), and stress response (rpoS) genes, highlighting the multifaceted antimicrobial mechanism of action. This gene-specific suppression suggests a targeted disruption of bacterial communication and virulence pathways, offering insight into the comprehensive antibiofilm strategy. This provides further insight into the molecular mechanisms that contribute to their antibiofilm effects.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Upmanyu K, Kumar R, Rizwanul Haque QM, et al (2024)

Exploring the evolutionary and pathogenic role of Acinetobacter baumannii biofilm-associated protein (Bap) through in silico structural modeling.

Archives of microbiology, 206(6):267.

Acinetobacter species encode for extracellularly secreted Biofilm-associated protein (Bap), a multi-domain protein with variable molecular weights reaching several hundred kilodaltons. Bap is crucial for the development of multi-dimensional structures of mature biofilms. In our investigation, we analyzed 7338 sequences of A. baumannii from the NCBI database and found that Bap or Bap-like protein (BLP) was present in 6422 (87.52%) isolates. Further classification revealed that 12.12% carried Type-1 Bap, 68.44% had Type-2, 6.91% had Type-3, 0.05% had Type-6 or SDF-Type, and 12.51% lacked Bap or BLP. The majority of isolates with Type-1, Type-2, and Type-3 Bap belonged to ST1, ST2, and ST25, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that Type-1 Bap is the most ancient, while Type-3 and SDF-Type have evolved recently. Studying the interaction of predicted Bap structures with human CEACAM-1 and PIgR showed that Bap with its BIg13 and BIg6 domains interact with the N-terminal domain of CEACAM-1, involving Arg[43] and Glu[40], involved in CEACAM-1 dimerization. Also, we found that recently evolved Type-3 and SDF-Type Bap showed greater interaction with CEACAM-1 and PIgR. It can be asserted that the evolution of Bap has conferred enhanced virulence characteristics to A. baumannii with increased interaction with CEACAM-1 and PIgR. Using in silico approaches, this study explores the evolutionary, physicochemical, and structural features of A. baumannii Bap and unravels its crucial role in mediating interaction with human CEACAM-1 and PIgR through detailed structure modelling. These findings advance our understanding of A. baumannii Bap and highlight its role in pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Lutfi LL, Shaaban MI, SL Elshaer (2024)

Vitamin D and vitamin K1 as novel inhibitors of biofilm in Gram-negative bacteria.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):173.

BACKGROUND: The persistent surge in antimicrobial resistance represents a global disaster. The initial attachment and maturation of microbial biofilms are intimately related to antimicrobial resistance, which in turn exacerbates the challenge of eradicating bacterial infections. Consequently, there is a pressing need for novel therapies to be employed either independently or as adjuvants to diminish bacterial virulence and pathogenicity. In this context, we propose a novel approach focusing on vitamin D and vitamin K1 as potential antibiofilm agents that target Gram-negative bacteria which are hazardous to human health.

RESULTS: Out of 130 Gram-negative bacterial isolates, 117 were confirmed to be A. baumannii (21 isolates, 17.9%), K. pneumoniae (40 isolates, 34.2%) and P. aeruginosa (56 isolates, 47.9%). The majority of the isolates were obtained from blood and wound specimens (27.4% each). Most of the isolates exhibited high resistance rates to β-lactams (60.7-100%), ciprofloxacin (62.5-100%), amikacin (53.6-76.2%) and gentamicin (65-71.4%). Approximately 93.2% of the isolates were biofilm producers, with 6.8% categorized as weak, 42.7% as moderate, and 50.4% as strong biofilm producers. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of vitamin D and vitamin K1 were 625-1250 µg mL-1 and 2500-5000 µg mL-1, respectively, against A. baumannii (A5, A20 and A21), K. pneumoniae (K25, K27 and K28), and P. aeruginosa (P8, P16, P24 and P27) clinical isolates and standard strains A. baumannii (ATCC 19606 and ATCC 17978), K. pneumoniae (ATCC 51503) and P. aeruginosa PAO1 and PAO14. Both vitamins significantly decreased bacterial attachment and significantly eradicated mature biofilms developed by the selected standard and clinical Gram-negative isolates. The anti-biofilm effects of both supplements were confirmed by a notable decrease in the relative expression of the biofilm-encoding genes cusD, bssS and pelA in A. baumannii A5, K. pneumoniae K28 and P. aeruginosa P16, respectively.

CONCLUSION: This study highlights the anti-biofilm activity of vitamins D and K1 against the tested Gram-negative strains, which emphasizes the potential of these vitamins for use as adjuvant therapies to increase the efficacy of treatment for infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains and biofilm-forming phenotypes. However, further validation through in vivo studies is needed to confirm these promising results.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Zulfiqar S, Sharif S, Nawaz MS, et al (2024)

Cu-MOF loaded chitosan based freeze-dried highly porous dressings with anti-biofilm and pro-angiogenic activities accelerated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infected wounds healing in rats.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(24)03248-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-based therapy opens a new area for antibiotic-drug free infections treatment. In the present study, chitosan membranes (CS) loaded with two concentrations of copper-MOF 10 mg/20 ml (Cu-MOF10/CS) & 20 mg/20 ml (Cu-MOF20/CS) were prepared by a simple lyophilization procedure. FTIR spectra of Cu-MOF10/CS and Cu-MOF20/CS dressings confirmed absence of any undesirable chemical changes after loading Cu-MOF. The SEM images of the synthesized materials (CS, Cu-MOF10/CS & Cu-MOF20/CS) showed interconnected porous structures. Cytocompatibility of the materials was confirmed by fibroblasts cells culturing and the materials were hemocompatible, with blood clotting index <5 %. Cu-MOF20/CS showed comparatively higher effective antibacterial activity against the tested strains; E. coli (149.2 %), P. aeruginosa (165 %) S. aureus (117.8 %) and MRSA (142 %) as compared to Amikacin, CS and Cu-MOF10/CS membranes. Similarly, Cu-MOF20/CS dressing significantly eradicated the biofilms; P. aeruginosa (37 %) and MRSA (52 %) respectively. In full thickness infected wound rat model, on day 23, Cu-MOF10/CS and Cu-MOF20/CS promoted wound healing up to 87.7 % and 82 % respectively. H&E staining of wounded tissues treated with Cu-MOF10/CS & Cu-MOF20/CS demonstrated enhanced neovascularization and re-epithelization along-with reduced inflammation, while trichrome staining exhibited increased collagen deposition. Overall, this study declares Cu-MOFs loaded chitosan dressings a multifunctional platform for the healing of infected wounds.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Goulart TS, Hawerroth T, da Silveira Teixeira C, et al (2024)

Assessment of multispecies biofilm growth on root canal dentin under different radiation therapy regimens.

Clinical oral investigations, 28(6):324.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the growth of a multispecies biofilm on root canal dentin under different radiotherapy regimens.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three human root dentin cylinders were distributed into six groups. In three groups, no biofilm was formed (n = 3): NoRT) non-irradiated dentin; RT55) 55 Gy; and RT70) 70 Gy. In the other three groups (n = 18), a 21-day multispecies biofilm (Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans) was formed in the canal: NoRT + Bio) non-irradiated + biofilm; RT55 + Bio) 55 Gy + biofilm; and RT70 + Bio) 70 Gy + biofilm. The biofilm was quantified (CFUs/mL). Biofilm microstructure was assessed under SEM. Microbial penetration into dentinal tubules was assessed under CLSM. For the biofilm biomass and dentin microhardness pre- and after biofilm growth assessments, 45 bovine dentin specimens were distributed into three groups (n = 15): NoRT) non-irradiated + biofilm; RT55 + Bio) 55 Gy + biofilm; and RT70 + Bio) 70 Gy + biofilm.

RESULTS: Irradiated specimens (70 Gy) had higher quantity of microorganisms than non-irradiated (p = .010). There was gradual increase in biofilm biomass from non-irradiated to 55 Gy and 70 Gy (p < .001). Irradiated specimens had greater reduction in microhardness after biofilm growth. Irradiated dentin led to the growth of a more complex and irregular biofilm. There was microbial penetration into the dentinal tubules, regardless of the radiation regimen.

CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy increased the number of microorganisms and biofilm biomass and reduced dentin microhardness. Microbial penetration into dentinal tubules was noticeable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Cumulative and potentially irreversible side effects of radiotherapy affect biofilm growth on root dentin. These changes could compromise the success of endodontic treatment in oncological patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Schaffler BC, Longwell M, Byers B, et al (2024)

Nanoparticle ultrasonication outperforms conventional irrigation solutions in eradicating Staphylococcus aureus biofilm from titanium surfaces: an in vitro study.

European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Bacterial biofilms create a challenge in the treatment of prosthetic joint infection (PJI), and failure to eradicate biofilms is often implicated in the high rates of recurrence. In this study, we aimed to compare the effectiveness of a novel nanoparticle ultrasonication technology on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm eradication compared to commonly used orthopedic irrigation solutions.

METHODS: Twenty-four sterile, titanium alloy discs were inoculated with a standardized concentration of methicillin-resistant S. aureus and cultured for seven days to allow for biofilm formation. Discs were then treated with either ultrasonicated nanoparticle therapy or irrigation with chlorhexidine gluconate, povidone-iodine or normal saline. The remaining bacteria on each surface was subsequently plated for colony-forming units of S. aureus. Bacterial eradication was reported as a decrease in CFUs relative to the control group. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare between groups.

RESULTS: Treatment with ultrasonicated nanoparticles resulted in a significant mean decrease in CFUs of 99.3% compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Irrigation with povidone-iodine also resulted in a significant 77.5% reduction in CFUs compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Comparisons between ultrasonicated nanoparticles and povidone-iodine demonstrated a significantly higher reduction in bacterial CFUs in the nanoparticle group (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: Ultrasonicated nanoparticle were superior to commonly used bactericidal irrigation solutions in the eradication of S. aureus from a titanium surface. Future clinical studies are warranted to evaluate this ultrsonication technology in the treatment of PJI.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Ruffier d'Epenoux L, Fayoux E, Veziers J, et al (2024)

Biofilm of Cutibacterium acnes: a target of different active substances.

International journal of dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis. Cutibacterium acnes plays a crucial role in the acne pathophysiology. Recent works present evidence of C. acnes growing as a biofilm in cutaneous follicles. This development is currently considered one of the leading causes of C. acnes in vivo persistence and resistance to antimicrobials used to treat acne.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the effects of various active compounds (clindamycin, erythromycin, doxycycline, and myrtle extract) on eight distinct, well-characterized strains of C. acnes following their growth in biofilm mode.

METHODS/RESULTS: Cutibacterium acnes isolates from phylotypes IA1 and IA2 produce more biofilm than other phylotypes. No antibiotic effect was observed either during the curative test or preventive test. Myrtle extract at 0.01% (w/v) showed significant efficacy on the biofilm for C. acnes strains (curative assays). Furthermore, it appear that myrtle extract and doxycycline together reduce the overall biomass of the biofilm. A significant dose-dependent effect was observed during the preventive test, greater than the one observed under curative conditions, with an important loss of activity of the myrtle extract observed from 0.001% (w/v) concentration onwards. Transmission electron microscopy showed that bacteria treated with myrtle extract grew biofilms much less frequently than untreated bacteria. Additionally, when the quantity of myrtle extract grew, the overall number of bacteria dropped, indicating an additional antibacterial action.

CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that the different C. acnes phylotypes have various aptitudes in forming biofilms. They also suggest that myrtle extract is a promising alternative as an anti-biofilm and antibacterial agent in fighting diseases caused by planktonic and biofilm C. acnes.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Zhao B, Yang G, Xie Z, et al (2024)

Efficient degradation of venlafaxine using intimately coupled high-active crystal facets exposed TiO2 and biodegradation system: Kinetic studies, biofilm stress behavior and transformation mechanism.

Journal of environmental management, 360:121159 pii:S0301-4797(24)01145-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) system is a potential wastewater treatment technology, of which TiO2-based ICPB system has been widely studied. There are many ways to improve the degradation efficiency of the ICPB process, but no crystal facet engineering method has been reported yet. In this work, a new ICPB system coated with NaF-TiO2 exposing high energy facets was designed to degrade biorecalcitrant psychotropic drug - venlafaxine (VNF). Initially, the TiO2 crystal surface was modified with NaF, resulting in the formation of NaF-TiO2 with a 14.4% increase in the exposure ratio of (001). The contribution rate of ·OH was increased by 9.5%, and the contribution rate of h[+] was increased by 33.2%. Next, NaF-TiO2 was loaded onto the surface of the sponge carrier, and then the ICPB system was constructed after about 15 days of biofilm formation. After the ICPB system was acclimated with VNF, the removal rate of COD decreased significantly (the lowest was 62.7%), but that of ammonia nitrogen remained at 50.5 ± 6.0% and the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) secretion increased by 84.1 mg/g VSS. According to the high throughput results, at the phylum level, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi together maintain the nitrogen removal capability and structural stability of the ICPB system. The relative abundance of Bacteroidota was significantly increased by 14.2%, suggesting that there may be some correlation between Bacteroidota and certain metabolites of the anti-depressant active ingredients. At the genus level, the Thauera (3.1%∼11.5%) is the major bacterial group that secretes EPS, protecting biofilm against external influences. Most of the changes in microorganisms are consistent with the decontamination properties and macroscopic appearance of EPS in the ICPB system. Finally, the degradation efficiency of ICPB system for VNF was investigated (92.7 ± 3.8%) and it was mostly through hydroxylation and demethylation pathways, with more small molecular products detected, providing the basis for biological assimilation of VNF. Collectively, the NaF-TiO2 based ICPB system would be lucrative for the future degradation of venlafaxine.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Khan A, Xu L, Kijkla P, et al (2024)

Surface roughness influence on extracellular electron microbiologically influenced corrosion of C1018 carbon steel by Desulfovibrio ferrophilus IS5 biofilm.

Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 159:108731 pii:S1567-5394(24)00093-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Carbon steel microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) is known to occur via extracellular electron transfer (EET). A higher biofilm sessile cell count leads to more electrons being harvested for sulfate reduction by SRB in energy production. Metal surface roughness can impact the severity of MIC by SRB because of varied biofilm attachment. C1018 carbon steel coupons (1.2 cm[2] top working surface) polished to 36 grit (4.06 μm roughness which is relatively rough) and 600 grit (0.13 μm) were incubated in enriched artificial seawater inoculated with highly corrosive Desulfovibrio ferrophilus IS5 at 28 ℃ for 7 d and 30 d. It was found that after 7 d of SRB incubation, 36 grit coupons had a 11% higher sessile cell count at (2.0 ± 0.17) × 10[8] cells/cm[2], 52% higher weight loss at 22.4 ± 5.9 mg/cm[2] (1.48 ± 0.39 mm/a uniform corrosion rate), and 18% higher maximum pit depth at 53 μm compared with 600 grit coupons. However, after 30 d, the differences diminished. Electrochemical tests with transient information supported the weight loss data trends. This work suggests that a rougher surface facilitates initial biofilm establishment but provides no long-term advantage for increased biofilm growth.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Song Z, Zhang L, Yang J, et al (2024)

Achieving high nitrogen and antibiotics removal efficiency by nZVI-C in partial nitritation/anammox system with a single-stage membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

Journal of hazardous materials, 473:134626 pii:S0304-3894(24)01205-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This study innovated constructed an activated carbon-loaded nano-zero-valent iron (nZVI-C) enhanced membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) coupled partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) system for optimizing nitrogen and antibiotics removal. Results showed that nitrogen and antibiotic removal efficiencies of 88.45 ± 0.14% and 89.90 ± 3.07% were obtained by nZVI-C, respectively. nZVI-C hastened Nitrosomonas enrichment (relative abundance raised from 2.85% to 12.28%) by increasing tryptophan content in EPS. Furthermore, nZVI-C proliferated amo gene by 3.92 times and directly generated electrons, stimulating Ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) co-metabolism activity. Concurrently, via antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) horizontal transfer, Nitrosomonas synergized with Arenimonas and Comamonadaceae for efficient antibiotic removal. Moreover, nZVI-C mitigated antibiotics inhibition of electron transfer by proliferating genes for PN and anammox electron production (hao, hdh) and utilization (amo, hzs, nir). That facilitated electron transfer and synergistic substrate conversion between ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB). Finally, the high nitrogen removal efficiency of the MABR-PN/A system was achieved.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Dang MH, Cai JN, Choi HM, et al (2024)

Difference in formation of a dental multi-species biofilm according to substratum direction.

Archives of oral biology, 164:106002 pii:S0003-9969(24)00123-7 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in dental biofilm formation according to substratum direction, using an artificial biofilm model.

METHODS: A three-species biofilm, consisting of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, and Actinomyces naeslundii, was formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) discs oriented in three directions: downward (the discs placed in the direction of gravity), vertical (the discs placed parallel to the direction of gravity), and upward (the discs placed in opposite direction of gravity). The biofilms at 22 h and 46 h of age were analyzed using microbiological and biochemical methods, fluorescence-based assays, and scanning electron microscopy to investigate difference in bacterial adhesion, early and mature biofilm formation.

RESULTS: The biofilms formed in the upward direction displayed the most complex structure, with the highest number and biovolume of bacteria, as well as the lowest pH conditions at both time points. The vertical and downward directions, however, had only scattered and small bacterial colonies. In the 22-h-old biofilms, the proportion of S. oralis was similar to, or slightly higher than, that of S. mutans in all directions of substratum surfaces. However, in the 46-h-old biofilms, S. mutans became the dominant bacteria in all directions, especially in the vertical and upward directions.

CONCLUSIONS: The direction of the substratum surface could impact the proportion of bacteria and cariogenic properties of the multi-species biofilm. Biofilms in an upward direction may exhibit a higher cariogenic potential, followed by those in the vertical and downward directions, which could be related to gravity.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Jiang W, Zhang Y, Yan J, et al (2024)

Differences of protein expression in enterococcus faecalis biofilm during resistance to environmental pressures.

Technology and health care : official journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine pii:THC248033 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis biofilm was frequently found on the failed treated root canal wall, which survived by resisting disinfectant during endodontic treatment.Many researches have been conducted to explore the mechanisms of persistence of this pathogen in unfavorable conditions. However, no comprehensive proteomics studies have been conducted to investigate stress response in Enterococcus faecalis caused by alkali and NaOCl.

OBJECTIVE: Enterococcus faecalis (E.f) has been recognized as a main pathogen of refractory apical periodontitis, its ability to withstand environmental pressure is the key to grow in the environment of high alkaline and anti-bacterial drug that causes chronic infection in the root canal. This study aims to focus on the protein expression patterns of E.f biofilm under extreme pressure environment".

METHODS: Enterococcus faecalis biofilm model was established in vitro. Liquid Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (LC-MS/MS)-based label free quantitative proteomics approach was applied to compare differential protein expression under different environmental pressures (pH 10 and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)). And then qPCR and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Verification (PRM) were utilized to verify the consequence of proteomics.

RESULTS: The number of taxa in this study was higher than those in previous studies, demonstrating the presence of a remarkable number of proteins in the groups of high alkaline and NaOCl. Proteins involved in ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter were significantly enriched in experimental samples. We identified a total of 15 highly expressed ABC transporters in the high alkaline environment pressure group, with 7 proteins greater than 1.5 times.

CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed considerable changes in expression of proteins in E.f biofilm during resistance to environmental pressures. The findings enriched our understanding of association between the differential expression proteins and environmental pressures.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Jang H, Song W, Song H, et al (2024)

Sustainable Biofilm Inhibition Using Chitosan-Mesoporous Nanoparticle-Based Hybrid Slippery Composites.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

In recent decades, extensive research has been directed toward mitigating microbial contamination and preventing biofilm formation. However, many conventional antibiofilm methods rely on hazardous and toxic substances, neglecting potential risks to human health and the environment. Moreover, these approaches often rely on single-strategy mechanisms, utilizing either bactericidal or fouling-resistant agents, which have shown limited efficacy in long-term biofilm suppression. In this study, we propose an efficient and sustainable biofilm-resistant slippery hybrid slippery composite. This composite integrates nontoxic and environmentally friendly materials including chitosan, silicone oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles in a synergistic manner. Leveraging the bacteria-killing properties of chitosan and the antifouling capabilities of the silicone oil layer, the hybrid composite exhibits robust antibiofilm performance against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, the inclusion of mesoporous silica nanoparticles enhances the oil absorption capacity and self-replenishing properties, ensuring exceptional biofilm inhibition even under harsh conditions such as exposure to high shear flow and prolonged incubation (7 days). This approach offers promising prospects for developing effective biofilm-resistant materials with a reduced environmental impact and improved long-term performance.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Wongchai M, Wongkaewkhiaw S, Kanthawong S, et al (2024)

Dual-function antimicrobial-antibiofilm peptide hybrid to tackle biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 23(1):44.

BACKGROUND: Due to their resistance and difficulty in treatment, biofilm-associated infections are problematic among hospitalized patients globally and account for 60% of all bacterial infections in humans. Antibiofilm peptides have recently emerged as an alternative treatment since they can be effectively designed and exert a different mode of biofilm inhibition and eradication.

METHODS: A novel antibiofilm peptide, BiF, was designed from the conserved sequence of 18 α-helical antibiofilm peptides by template-assisted technique and its activity was improved by hybridization with a lipid binding motif (KILRR). Novel antibiofilm peptide derivatives were modified by substituting hydrophobic amino acids at positions 5 or 7, and both, with positively charged lysines (L5K, L7K). These peptide derivatives were tested for antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities against biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis and multiple other microbes using crystal violet and broth microdilution assays, respectively. To assess their impact on mammalian cells, the toxicity of peptides was determined through hemolysis and cytotoxicity assays. The stability of candidate peptide, BiF2_5K7K, was assessed in human serum and its secondary structure in bacterial membrane-like environments was analyzed using circular dichroism. The action of BiF2_5K7K on planktonic S. epidermidis and its effect on biofilm cell viability were assessed via viable counting assays. Its biofilm inhibition mechanism was investigated through confocal laser scanning microscopy and transcription analysis. Additionally, its ability to eradicate mature biofilms was examined using colony counting. Finally, a preliminary evaluation involved coating a catheter with BiF2_5K7K to assess its preventive efficacy against S. epidermidis biofilm formation on the catheter and its surrounding area.

RESULTS: BiF2_5K7K, the modified antibiofilm peptide, exhibited dose-dependent antibiofilm activity against S. epidermidis. It inhibited biofilm formation at subinhibitory concentrations by altering S. epidermidis extracellular polysaccharide production and quorum-sensing gene expression. Additionally, it exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and no significant hemolysis or toxicity against mammalian cell lines was observed. Its activity is retained when exposed to human serum. In bacterial membrane-like environments, this peptide formed an α-helix amphipathic structure. Within 4 h, a reduction in the number of S. epidermidis colonies was observed, demonstrating the fast action of this peptide. As a preliminary test, a BiF2_5K7K-coated catheter was able to prevent the development of S. epidermidis biofilm both on the catheter surface and in its surrounding area.

CONCLUSIONS: Due to the safety and effectiveness of BiF2_5K7K, we suggest that this peptide be further developed to combat biofilm infections, particularly those of biofilm-forming S. epidermidis.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Lopes APR, Andrade AL, Pinheiro AA, et al (2024)

Lippia grata Essential Oil Acts Synergistically with Ampicillin Against Staphylococcus aureus and its Biofilm.

Current microbiology, 81(7):176.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) presents a global challenge as microorganisms evolve to withstand the effects of antibiotics. In addition, the improper use of antibiotics significantly contributes to the AMR acceleration. Essential oils have garnered attention for their antimicrobial potential. Indeed, essential oils extracted from plants contain compounds that exhibit antibacterial activity, including against resistant microorganisms. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity of the essential oil (EO) extracted from Lippia grata and its combination with ampicillin against Staphylococcus aureus strains (ATCC 25923, ATCC 700698, and JKD6008). The plant material (leaves) was gathered in Mossoro, RN, and the EO was obtained using the hydrodistillation method with the Clevenger apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of the EO was assessed through minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assays. Antibiofilm activity was evaluated by measuring biomass using crystal violet (CV) staining, viable cell counting, and analysis of preformed biofilms. In addition, the synergistic effects of the EO in combination with ampicillin were examined by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The EO displayed a MIC value of 2.5 mg/mL against all tested S. aureus strains and an MBC only against S. aureus JKD6008 at 2.5 mg/mL. L. grata EO caused complete biofilm inhibition at concentrations ranging from 10 to 0.312 mg/mL against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and 10 to 1.25 mg/mL against S. aureus ATCC 700698 and S. aureus JKD6008. In the viable cell quantification assay, there was a reduction in CFU ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 logs. The combination of EO with ampicillin exhibited a synergistic effect against all strains. Moreover, the combination showed a significantly inhibiting biofilm formation and eradicating preformed biofilms. Furthermore, the EO and ampicillin (individually and in combination) altered the cellular morphology of S. aureus cells. Regarding the mechanism, the results revealed that L. grata EO increased membrane permeability and caused significant membrane damage. Concerning the synergy mechanism, the results revealed that the combination of EO and ampicillin increases membrane permeability and causes considerable membrane damage, further inhibiting bacteria synergistically. The findings obtained here suggest that L. grata EO in combination with ampicillin could be a viable treatment option against S. aureus infections, including MRSA strain.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Fernández-Calvet A, Matilla-Cuenca L, Izco M, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota produces biofilm-associated amyloids with potential for neurodegeneration.

Nature communications, 15(1):4150.

Age-related neurodegenerative diseases involving amyloid aggregation remain one of the biggest challenges of modern medicine. Alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiome play an active role in the aetiology of neurological disorders. Here, we dissect the amyloidogenic properties of biofilm-associated proteins (BAPs) of the gut microbiota and their implications for synucleinopathies. We demonstrate that BAPs are naturally assembled as amyloid-like fibrils in insoluble fractions isolated from the human gut microbiota. We show that BAP genes are part of the accessory genomes, revealing microbiome variability. Remarkably, the abundance of certain BAP genes in the gut microbiome is correlated with Parkinson's disease (PD) incidence. Using cultured dopaminergic neurons and Caenorhabditis elegans models, we report that BAP-derived amyloids induce α-synuclein aggregation. Our results show that the chaperone-mediated autophagy is compromised by BAP amyloids. Indeed, inoculation of BAP fibrils into the brains of wild-type mice promote key pathological features of PD. Therefore, our findings establish the use of BAP amyloids as potential targets and biomarkers of α-synucleinopathies.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Daca A, Piechowicz L, Wiśniewska K, et al (2024)

Both biofilm cytotoxicity and monocytes' adhesion may be used as estimators of enterococcal virulence.

Letters in applied microbiology pii:7675502 [Epub ahead of print].

Our study aimed to identify markers of enterococci's virulence potential by evaluating the properties of strains of different sites of isolation. Enterococcal strains were isolated as commensals from faeces and as invasive strains from the urine and blood of patients from the University Clinical Centre, Gdańsk, Poland. Changes in monocytes' susceptibility to the cytotoxic activity of isolates of different origins and their adherence to biofilm were evaluated using a flow cytometer. The bacterial protein profile was estimated by MALDI-TOF MS. The cytotoxicity of biofilm and monocytes' adherence to it were the most accurate factors in predicting the prevalence of the strain in the specific niche. Additionally, a bacterial protein with mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) 5000 was found to be responsible for the increased bacterial cytotoxicity, while monocytes' decreased adherence to biofilm was linked with the presence of proteins either with m/z 3330 or 2435. The results illustrate that monocytes' reaction when exposed to the bacterial biofilm can be used as an estimator of pathogens' virulence potential. The observed differences in monocytes' response are explainable, by the bacterial proteins' profile. Additionally, the results indicate that the features of both bacteria and monocytes impact the outcome of the infection.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Sun Y, Zhao H, Pu F, et al (2024)

On-Demand Activatable and Integrated Bioorthogonal Nanocatalyst against Biofilm-Associated Infections.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Bioorthogonal chemistry has emerged as a powerful tool for manipulating biological processes. However, difficulties in controlling the exact location and on-demand catalytic synthesis limit its application in biological systems. Herein, we constructed an activatable bioorthogonal system integrating a shielded catalyst and prodrug molecules to combat biofilm-associated infections. The catalytic species is activated in response to the hyaluronidase (HAase) secreted by the bacteria and the acidic pH of the biofilm, which is accompanied by the release of prodrugs, to achieve the bioorthogonal catalytic synthesis of antibacterial molecules in situ. Moreover, the system can produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) to disperse bacterial biofilms, enabling the antibacterial molecules to penetrate the biofilm and eliminate the bacteria within it. This study promotes the design of efficient and safe bioorthogonal catalysts and the development of bioorthogonal chemistry-mediated antibacterial strategies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Bhatt P, Sharpe A, Staines K, et al (2024)

Topical desiccating agent (DEBRICHEM): an accessible debridement option for removing biofilm in hard-to-heal wounds.

Journal of wound care, 33(Sup5b):S4-S11.

It is now assumed that all hard-to-heal wounds contain biofilm. Debridement plays a key role in wound-bed preparation, as it can remove biofilm along with the devitalised tissue, potentially leaving a clean wound bed that is more likely to progress towards healing. The gold standard methods of debridement (surgical and sharp) are the least used, as they require specialist training and are often not readily available at the point of need. Most other methods can be used by generalists but are slower. They all need regular applications. The topical desiccating agent DEBRICHEM is an innovative alternative, as it is fast, effective and can be used in all clinical settings, as well as typically requiring only a single use. This article describes best practice for achieving optimal outcomes with its use.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Shang X, Bai H, Fan L, et al (2024)

In vitro biofilm formation of Gardnerella vaginalis and Escherichia coli associated with bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1387414.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimum biofilm formation ratio of Gardnerella vaginalis (G. vaginalis) in a mixed culture with Escherichia coli (E. coli).

METHODS: G. vaginalis ATCC14018, E. coli ATCC25922, as well as five strains of G. vaginalis were selected from the vaginal sources of patients whose biofilm forming capacity was determined by the Crystal Violet method. The biofilm forming capacity of E. coli in anaerobic and non-anaerobic environments were compared using the identical assay. The Crystal Violet method was also used to determine the biofilm forming capacity of a co-culture of G. vaginalis and E. coli in different ratios. After Live/Dead staining, biofilm thickness was measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy, and biofilm morphology was observed by scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS: The biofilm forming capacity of E. coli under anaerobic environment was similar to that in a 5% CO2 environment. The biofilm forming capacity of G. vaginalis and E. coli was stronger at 10[6]:10[5] CFU/mL than at other ratios (P<0.05). Their thicknesses were greater at 10[6]:10[5] CFU/mL than at the other ratios, with the exception of 10[6]:10[2] CFU/mL (P<0.05), under laser scanning microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy revealed increased biofilm formation at 10[6]:10[5] CFU/mL and 10[6]:10[2] CFU/mL, but no discernible E. coli was observed at 10[6]:10[2] CFU/mL.

CONCLUSION: G. vaginalis and E. coli showed the greatest biofilm forming capacity at a concentration of 10[6]:10[5] CFU/mL at 48 hours and could be used to simulate a mixed infection of bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis in vitro.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Kaplan JB, Cywes-Bentley C, Pier GB, et al (2024)

Poly-β-(1→6)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine mediates surface attachment, biofilm formation, and biocide resistance in Cutibacterium acnes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1386017.

BACKGROUND: The commensal skin bacterium Cutibacterium acnes plays a role in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris and also causes opportunistic infections of implanted medical devices due to its ability to form biofilms on biomaterial surfaces. Poly-β-(1→6)-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (PNAG) is an extracellular polysaccharide that mediates biofilm formation and biocide resistance in a wide range of bacterial pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine whether C. acnes produces PNAG, and whether PNAG contributes to C. acnes biofilm formation and biocide resistance in vitro.

METHODS: PNAG was detected on the surface of C. acnes cells by fluorescence confocal microscopy using the antigen-specific human IgG1 monoclonal antibody F598. PNAG was detected in C. acnes biofilms by measuring the ability of the PNAG-specific glycosidase dispersin B to inhibit biofilm formation and sensitize biofilms to biocide killing.

RESULTS: Monoclonal antibody F598 bound to the surface of C. acnes cells. Dispersin B inhibited attachment of C. acnes cells to polystyrene rods, inhibited biofilm formation by C. acnes in glass and polypropylene tubes, and sensitized C. acnes biofilms to killing by benzoyl peroxide and tetracycline.

CONCLUSION: C. acnes produces PNAG, and PNAG contributes to C. acnes biofilm formation and biocide resistance in vitro. PNAG may play a role in C. acnes skin colonization, biocide resistance, and virulence in vivo.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Cao B, Zhang J, Ma Y, et al (2024)

Dual-Polymer Functionalized Melanin-AgNPs Nanocomposite with Hydroxyapatite Binding Ability to Penetrate and Retain in Biofilm Sequentially Treating Periodontitis.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Periodontitis is the leading cause of adult tooth missing. Thorny bacterial biofilm and high reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in tissue are key elements for the periodontitis process. It is meaningful to develop an advanced therapeutic system with sequential antibacterial/ antioxidant ability to meet the overall goals of periodontitis therapy. Herein, a dual-polymer functionalized melanin-AgNPs (P/D-MNP-Ag) with biofilm penetration, hydroxyapatite binding, and sequentially treatment ability are fabricated. Polymer enriched with 2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (D), can be protonated in an acid environment with enhanced positive charge, promoting penetration in biofilm. The other polymer is rich in phosphate group (P) and can chelate Ca[2+], promoting the polymer to adhere to the hydroxyapatite surface. Melanin has good ROS scavenging and photothermal abilities, after in situ reduction Ag, melanin-AgNPs composite has sequentially transitioned between antibacterial and antioxidative ability due to heat and acid accelerated Ag[+] release. The released Ag[+] and heat have synergistic antibacterial effects for bacterial killing. With Ag[+] consumption, the antioxidant ability of MNP recovers to scavenge ROS in the inflammatory area. When applied in the periodontitis model, P/D-MNP-Ag has good therapeutical effects to ablate biofilm, relieve inflammation state, and reduce alveolar bone loss. P/D-MNP-Ag with sequential treatment ability provides a reference for developing advanced oral biofilm eradication systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Liu X, Wang D, Qi X, et al (2024)

Propionate outperforms conventional acetate as electron donors for highly-sensitive electrochemical active biofilm sensors in water biotoxicity early-warning.

Environmental research, 252(Pt 4):119127 pii:S0013-9351(24)01032-6 [Epub ahead of print].

With the ability to generate in situ real-time electric signals, electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) sensors have attracted wide attention as a promising water biotoxicity early-warning device. Organic matters serving as the electron donors potentially affect the electric signal's output and the sensitivity of the EAB sensor. To explore the influence of organic matters on EAB sensor's performance, this study tested six different organic matters during the sensor's inoculation. Besides the acetate, a conventional and widely used organic matter, propionate and lactate were also found capable of starting up the sensor. Moreover, the propionate-fed (PF) sensor delivered the highest sensitivity, which are respectively 1.4 times and 2.8 times of acetate-fed (AF) sensor and lactate-fed (LF) sensor. Further analysis revealed that EAB of PF sensor had more vulnerable intracellular metabolism than the others, which manifested as the most severe energy metabolic suppression and reactive oxygen species attack. Regarding the microbial function, a two-component system that was deemed as an environment awareness system was found in the EAB of PF, which also contributed to its high sensitivity. Finally, PF sensor was tested in real water environment to deliver early-warning signals.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Aragão MGB, He X, Aires CP, et al (2024)

Epigallocatechin gallate reduces the virulence of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm by affecting the synthesis of biofilm matrix components.

Archives of oral biology, 164:105990 pii:S0003-9969(24)00111-0 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: There have been reports on the effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) against Streptococcus mutans viability and acidogenesis. However, the effects of EGCG on the virulence of S. mutans biofilm development have yet to be fully investigated using validated cariogenic biofilm models.

OBJECTIVE: Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of EGCG on S. mutans biofilm virulence using a validated cariogenic model and clinically relevant treatment regimens, twice a day for 1.5 min.

METHODS: Effects of EGCG on bacterial viability, polyssacharide synthesis and biofilm acidogenesis were evaluated. The morphology and 3D structure of the biofilms were evaluated by scanning electron (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively.

RESULTS: No significant change in S. mutans viability or culture medium pH were observed when comparing EGCG-treated and NaCl-treated biofilms. EGCG significantly reduced the accumulation of soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, resulting in the formation of a biofilm with interspaced exopolysaccharide-microcolony complexes unevenly distributed on enamel. The SEM images of the biofilm treated with EGCG depict multilayers of cells arranged in short chains of microorganisms adhered to an unstructured matrix, which is not continuous and does not enmesh or protect the microorganisms entirely. Importantly, confocal images demonstrated that treatment with EGCG affected the 3D structure and organization of S. mutans biofilm, which presented a biofilm matrix more confined to the location of the microcolonies.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, EGCG lowered the virulence of S. mutans matrix-rich biofilm by reducing the synthesis of biofilm matrix components, altering the biofilm matrix structure, organization, and distribution.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Mishra AH, Mohan S, Gutti P, et al (2024)

Bioselective and Radiopaque Zinc-Biopolymeric Complex-Based Porous Biomaterials Promote Mammalian Tissue Ingrowth In Vivo While Inhibiting Microbial Biofilm Gene Expression and Biofilm Formation.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Metal-organic complexes have shown astounding bioactive properties; however, they are rarely explored as biomaterials. Recent studies showed that carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) genipin-conjugated zinc biomimetic scaffolds have unique bioselective properties. The biomaterial was reported to be mammalian cell-friendly; at the same time, it was found to discourage microbial biofilm formation on its surface, which seemed to be a promising solution to addressing the problem of trauma-associated biofilm formation and development of antimicrobial resistance. However, the mechanically frail characteristics and zinc overload raise concerns and limit the potential of the said biomaterials. Hence, the present work is focused on improving the strength of the earlier scaffold formulations, testing its in vivo efficacy and reaffirming its action against biofilm-forming microbe Staphylococcus aureus. Scaling up of CMC proportion increased rigidity, and 8% CMC was found to be the ideal concentration for robust scaffold fabrication. Freeze-dried CMC scaffolds with or without genipin (GP) cross-linking were conjugated with zinc using 2 M zinc acetate solution. Characterization results indicated that the CMC-Zn scaffolds, without genipin, showed mechanical properties close to bone fillers, resist in vitro enzymatic degradation until 4 weeks, are porous in nature, and have radiopacity close to mandibular bones. Upon implantation in a subcutaneous pocket of Wistar rats, the scaffolds showed tissue in-growth with simultaneous degradation without any signs of toxicity past 28 days. Neither were there any signs of toxicity in any of the vital organs. Considering many superior properties among the other formulations, the CMC-Zn scaffolds were furthered for biofilm studies. CMC-Zn showed negligible S. aureus biofilm formation on its surface as revealed by an alamar blue-based study. RT-PCR analysis revealed that CMC-Zn downregulated the expression of pro-biofilm effector genes such as icaC and clfB. A protein docking study predicted the inhibitory mechanism of CMC-Zn. Although it binds strongly when alone, at high density, it may cause inactivation of the transmembrane upstream activators of the said genes, thereby preventing their dimerization and subsequent inactivation of the effector genes. In conclusion, zinc-conjugated carboxymethyl-chitosan scaffolds are mechanically robust, porous, yet biodegradable, harmless to the host in the long term, they are radiopaque and prevent biofilm gene expression in notorious microbes; hence, they could be a suitable candidate for bone filler applications.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Fan D, Xie R, Liu X, et al (2024)

A peptide-based pH-sensitive antibacterial hydrogel for healing drug-resistant biofilm-infected diabetic wounds.

Journal of materials chemistry. B [Epub ahead of print].

Diabetic foot ulcers are a significant complication affecting roughly 15% of diabetic patients. These chronic wounds can be incredibly burdensome, leading to high treatment costs, potential amputations, and additional health complications. Microbiological studies reveal that bacterial infections are the primary culprit behind delayed wound healing. To solve the problem of infection at the wound site, the most fundamental thing is to kill the pathogenic bacteria. Herein, a neoteric strategy to construct novel antibacterial hydrogel COA-T3 that combined photosensitizers (PSs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) via covalent coupling was proposed. Hydrogel COA-T3 composed of quaternized chitosan (QCS) and oxidized dextran (OD) was constructed for co-delivery of the photosensitizer TPI-PN and the antimicrobial peptide HHC10. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated remarkable effectiveness of COA-T3 against drug-resistant bacteria. Furthermore, the hydrogel significantly promoted healing of diabetic infected wounds. This enhanced antibacterial activity is attributed to the pH-sensitive release of both PSs and AMPs within the hydrogel. Additionally, COA-T3 exhibits excellent biocompatibility, making it a promising candidate for wound dressing materials. These findings indicated that the COA-T3 hydrogel is a promising wound dressing material for promoting the healing of diabetic foot ulcers by providing an environment conducive to improved wound healing in diabetic patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

García-Bayona L, Said N, Coyne MJ, et al (2024)

A pervasive large conjugative plasmid mediates multispecies biofilm formation in the intestinal microbiota increasing resilience to perturbations.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.29.590671.

Although horizontal gene transfer is pervasive in the intestinal microbiota, we understand only superficially the roles of most exchanged genes and how the mobile repertoire affects community dynamics. Similarly, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the ability of a community to recover after a perturbation. Here, we identified and functionally characterized a large conjugative plasmid that is one of the most frequently transferred elements among Bacteroidales species and is ubiquitous in diverse human populations. This plasmid encodes both an extracellular polysaccharide and fimbriae, which promote the formation of multispecies biofilms in the mammalian gut. We use a hybridization-based approach to visualize biofilms in clarified whole colon tissue with unprecedented 3D spatial resolution. These biofilms increase bacterial survival to common stressors encountered in the gut, increasing strain resiliency, and providing a rationale for the plasmid's recent spread and high worldwide prevalence.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Pokhrel S, Sharma N, Aryal S, et al (2024)

Detection of Biofilm Production and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern among Clinically Isolated Staphylococcus aureus.

Journal of pathogens, 2024:2342468.

AIM: The increasing antibiotic resistance and the ability to form biofilms in medical devices have become the leading cause of severe infections associated with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Since the bacteria living in biofilms can exhibit 10- to 1,000-fold increase in antibiotic resistance and implicate chronic infectious diseases, the detection of S. aureus ability to form biofilms is of great importance for managing, minimizing, and effectively treating infections caused by it. This study aimed to compare the tube and tissue culture methods to detect biofilm production and antibiotic susceptibility in MRSA and MSSA.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The S. aureus isolates were identified by the examination of the colony morphology, Gram staining, and various biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of all isolates was performed by the modified Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as recommended by CLSI guidelines. MRSA screening was performed phenotypically using a cefoxitin disc (30 µg). Isolates were tested for inducible resistance using the D-test, and two phenotypic methods detected biofilm formation.

RESULTS: Among 982 nonrepeated clinical specimens, S. aureus was isolated from 103 (10.48%). Among 103 clinical isolates of S. aureus, 54 (52.42%) isolates were MRSA, and 49 (47.57%) were MSSA. Among 54 MRSA isolates, the inducible MLSB phenotype was observed in 23/54 (42.59%) with a positive D-test. By TCP method, 26 (48.1%) MRSA isolates were strong biofilm producers, whereas, among all MSSA isolates, only 6 (12.2%) were strong biofilm producers.

CONCLUSION: MRSA showed strong biofilm production in comparison with MSSA. The TCP method is a recommended reliable method to detect the biofilm among S. aureus isolates, and the TM method could be useful for the screening of biofilm production in S. aureus in the routine clinical laboratory.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Er-Rahmani S, Errabiti B, Matencio A, et al (2024)

Plant-derived bioactive compounds for the inhibition of biofilm formation: a comprehensive review.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation is a widespread phenomenon that impacts different fields, including the food industry, agriculture, health care and the environment. Accordingly, there is a serious need for new methods of managing the problem of biofilm formation. Natural products have historically been a rich source of varied compounds with a wide variety of biological functions, including antibiofilm agents. In this review, we critically highlight and discuss the recent progress in understanding the antibiofilm effects of several bioactive compounds isolated from different plants, and in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of action and the factors influencing their adhesion. The literature shows that bioactive compounds have promising antibiofilm potential against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial and fungal strains, via several mechanisms of action, such as suppressing the formation of the polymer matrix, limiting O2 consumption, inhibiting microbial DNA replication, decreasing hydrophobicity of cell surfaces and blocking the quorum sensing network. This antibiofilm activity is influenced by several environmental factors, such as nutritional cues, pH values, O2 availability and temperature. This review demonstrates that several bioactive compounds could mitigate the problem of biofilm production. However, toxicological assessment and pharmacokinetic investigations of these molecules are strongly required to validate their safety.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Pradhan L, Sah P, Nayak M, et al (2024)

Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles prevent bacterial infection in chicken egg model and mitigate biofilm formation on medical catheters.

Journal of biological inorganic chemistry : JBIC : a publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Investigating the application of innovative antimicrobial surface coatings on medical devices is an important field of research. Many of these coatings have significant drawbacks, including biocompatibility, coating stability and the inability to effectively combat multiple drug-resistant bacteria. In this research, we developed an antibiofilm surface coating for medical catheters using biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (b-Cs-AgNPs) developed using leaves extract of Calliandra surinamensis. Various characterization techniques were employed to thoroughly characterize the synthesized b-Cs-AgNPs and c-AgNPs. b-Cs-AgNPs were compatible with human normal kidney cells and chicken embryos. It did not trigger any skin inflammatory response in in vivo rat model. b-Cs-AgNPs demonstrated potent zone of inhibition of 19.09 mm when subjected to the disc diffusion method in E. coli confirming strong antibacterial property. Different anti-bacterial assays including liquid growth curve, colony counting assay, biofilm formation assay supported the potent antimicrobial efficacy of b-Cs-AgNPs alone and when coated to medical grade catheters. Mechanistic studies reveal the presence of ferulic acid, that was important for the synthesis of b-AgNPs along with enhanced antibacterial effects of b-Cs-AgNPs compared to c-AgNPs, supported by molecular docking analysis. These results together demonstrated the effective role b-Cs-AgNPs in combating infections and mitigating biofilm formations, highlighting their need for further study in the field of biomedical applications.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Kriswandini IL, Sidarningsih S, Hermanto AC, et al (2024)

The Influence of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation in a Polymicrobial Environment (Streptococcus gordonii & Porphyromonas gingivalis).

European journal of dentistry [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Biofilms play a vital role in the occurrence or worsening of an infectious disease. Streptococcus mutans is a bacterium with the ability to form biofilms that plays a key role in the development of infectious diseases such as dental caries. The formation of biofilms in S. mutans is mediated by quorum sensing. Inhibiting quorum sensing can be considered as one of the approaches to prevent caries. This study aims to investigate the ability of Streptococcus gordonii and Porphyromonas gingivalis bacteria to inhibit the formation of S. mutans biofilm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:  This research was conducted to analyze bacterial biofilm formation and metabolism. The bacteria used are S. mutans (serotype C), S. gordonii (ATCC 5165), and P. gingivalis (ATCC 33277). Biofilm formation was analyzed using the crystal violet assay. Bacterial metabolism was analyzed using the methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay.

RESULTS:  The results of the crystal violet assay indicate a decrease in biofilm formation in S. mutans when in the presence of S. gordonii and S. mutans in the presence of P. gingivalis. The results of the MTT assay show no significant change in the bacterial metabolism of S. mutans in the presence of S. gordonii and S. mutans in the presence of P. gingivalis. However, S. mutans with the presence of S. gordonii and P. gingivalis show an increase in biofilm formation and bacterial metabolism.

CONCLUSION:  S. gordonii and P. gingivalis are each capable of inhibiting the formation of S. mutans biofilm in a polymicrobial environment.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Cheng Y, Ding J, Wan J, et al (2024)

Improvement of biotic nitrate reduction in constructed photoautotrophic biofilm-soil microbial fuel cells.

Journal of environmental management, 360:121066 pii:S0301-4797(24)01052-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The biotic nitrate reduction rate in freshwater ecosystems is typically constrained by the scarcity of carbon sources. In this study, 'two-chambers' - 'two-electrodes' photoautotrophic biofilm-soil microbial fuel cells (P-SMFC) was developed to accelerate nitrate reduction by activating in situ electron donors that originated from the soil organic carbon (SOC). The nitrate reduction rate of P-SMFC (0.1341 d[-1]) improved by ∼ 1.6 times on the 28th day compared to the control photoautotrophic biofilm. The relative abundance of electroactive bacterium increased in the P-SMFC and this bacterium contributed to obtain electrons from SOC. Biochar amendment decreased the resistivity of P-SMFC, increased the electron transferring efficiency, and mitigated anodic acidification, which continuously facilitated the thriving of putative electroactive bacterium and promoted current generation. The results from physiological and ecological tests revealed that the cathodic photoautotrophic biofilm produced more extracellular protein, increased the relative abundance of Lachnospiraceae, Magnetospirillaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Sphingomonadaceae, and improved the activity of nitrate reductase and ATPase. Correspondingly, P-SMFC in the presence of biochar achieved the highest reaction rate constant for nitrate reduction (kobs) (0.2092 d[-1]) which was 2.4 times higher than the control photoautotrophic biofilm. This study provided a new strategy to vitalize in situ carbon sources in paddy soil for nitrate reduction by the construction of P-SMFC.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Müller N, Kollert M, Trampuz A, et al (2024)

Efficacy of different bioactive glass S53P4 formulations in biofilm eradication and the impact of pH and osmotic pressure.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 239:113940 pii:S0927-7765(24)00199-1 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: The challenging properties of biofilm-associated infections and the rise of multidrug-resistant bacteria are prompting the exploration of alternative treatment options. This study investigates the efficacy of different bioactive glass (BAG) formulations - alone or combined with vancomycin - to eradicate biofilm. Further, we study the influence of BAG on pH and osmotic pressure as important factors limiting bacterial growth.

METHOD: Different BAG S53P4 formulations were used for this study, including (a) powder (<45 μm), (b) granules (500-800 µm), (c) a cone-shaped scaffold and (d) two putty formulations containing granules with no powder (putty A) or with additional powder (putty B) bound together by a synthetic binder. Inert glass beads (1.0-1.3 mm) were included as control. All formulations were tested in a concentration of 1750 mg/ml in Müller-Hinton-Broth against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE). Vancomycin was tested at the minimum-inhibitory concentration for each strain. Changes in pH and osmolality over time were assessed at 0 h, 24 h, 72 h and 168 h.

RESULTS: All tested BAG formulations showed antibiofilm activity against MRSA and MRSE. Powder and putty B were the most effective formulations suppressing biofilm leading to its complete eradication after up to 168 h of co-incubation, followed by granules, scaffold and putty A. In general, MRSE appeared to be more susceptible to bioactive glass compared to MRSA. The addition of vancomycin had no substantial impact on biofilm eradication. We observed a positive correlation between a higher pH and higher antibiofilm activity.

CONCLUSIONS: BAG S53P4 has demonstrated efficient biofilm antibiofilm activity against MRSA and MRSE, especially in powder-containing formulations, resulting in complete eradication of biofilm. Our data indicate neither remarkable increase nor decrease in antimicrobial efficacy with addition of vancomycin. Moreover, high pH appears to have a direct antimicrobial impact; the role of high osmolality needs further investigation.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Qu L, Li X, Zhou J, et al (2024)

A novel acid-responsive polymer coating with antibacterial and antifouling properties for the prevention of biofilm-associated infections.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 239:113939 pii:S0927-7765(24)00198-X [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic infections caused by the pathogenic biofilms on implantable medical devices pose an increasing challenge. To combat long-term biofilm-associated infections, we developed a novel dual-functional polymer coating with antibacterial and antifouling properties. The coating consists of N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and 3-(acrylamido)phenylboronic acid (APBA) copolymer brushes, which bind to curcumin (Cur) as antibacterial molecules through acid-responsive boronate ester bonds. In this surface design, the hydrophilic poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) component improved antifouling performance and effectively prevented bacterial adhesion and aggregation during the initial phases. The poly (3-(acrylamido) phenylboronic acid) (PAPBA, abbreviated PB) component provided binding sites for Cur by forming acid-responsive boronate ester bonds. When fewer bacteria overcame the anti-adhesion barrier and colonized, the surface responded to the decreased microenvironmental pH by breaking the boronate ester bonds and releasing curcumin. This responsive mechanism enabled Cur to interfere with biofilm formation and provide a multilayer anti-biofilm protection system. The coating showed excellent antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, preventing biofilm formation for up to 7 days. The coating also inhibited protein adsorption and platelet adhesion significantly. This coating also exhibited high biocompatibility with animal erythrocytes and pre-osteoblasts. This research offers a promising approach for developing novel smart anti-biofilm coating materials.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

A D, Zhang Y, Huang H, et al (2024)

Unraveling the mechanism of interaction: accelerated phenanthrene degradation and rhizosphere biofilm/iron plaque formation influenced by phenolic root exudates.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Phenolic root exudates (PREs) secreted by wetland plants facilitate the accumulation of iron in the rhizosphere, potentially providing the essential active iron required for the generation of enzymes that degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, thereby enhancing their biodegradation. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are yet to be elucidated. This study focuses on phenanthrene (PHE), a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollutant, utilizing representative PREs from wetland plants, including p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and ferulic acids. Using hydroponic experiments, 16S rRNA sequencing, and multiple characterization techniques, we aimed to elucidate the interaction mechanism between the accelerated degradation of PHE and the formation of rhizosphere biofilm/iron plaque influenced by PREs. Although all four types of PREs altered the biofilm composition and promoted the formation of iron plaque on the root surface, only caffeic acid, possessing a similar structure to the intermediate metabolite of PHE (catechol), could accelerate the PHE degradation rate. Caffeic acid, notable for its catechol structure, plays a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation through two main mechanisms: (a) it directly boosts PHE co-metabolism by fostering the growth of PHE-degrading bacteria, specifically Burkholderiaceae, and by facilitating the production of the key metabolic enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O) and (b) it indirectly supports PHE biodegradation by promoting iron plaque formation on root surfaces, thereby enriching free iron for efficient microbial synthesis of C12O, a crucial factor in PHE decomposition.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Lopes N, Pereira RB, Correia A, et al (2024)

Deletion of codY impairs Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation, generation of viable but non-culturable cells and stimulates cytokine production in human macrophages.

Journal of medical microbiology, 73(5):.

Introduction. Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms are one of the major causes of bloodstream infections related to the use of medical devices. The diagnosis of these infections is challenging, delaying their treatment and resulting in increased morbidity and mortality rates. As such, it is urgent to characterize the mechanisms employed by this bacterium to endure antibiotic treatments and the response of the host immune system, to develop more effective therapeutic strategies. In several bacterial species, the gene codY was shown to encode a protein that regulates the expression of genes involved in biofilm formation and immune evasion. Additionally, in a previous study, our group generated evidence indicating that codY is involved in the emergence of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells in S. epidermidis.Gap statement/Hypothesis. As such, we hypothesized that the gene codY has have an important role in this bacterium virulence.Aim. This study aimed to assess, for the first time, the impact of the deletion of the gene codY in S. epidermidis virulence, namely, in antibiotic susceptibility, biofilm formation, VBNC state emergence and in vitro host immune system response.Methodology. Using an allelic replacement strategy, we constructed and then characterized an S. epidermidis strain lacking codY, in regards to biofilm and VBNC cell formation, susceptibility to antibiotics as well as their role in the interaction with human blood and plasma. Additionally, we investigate whether the codY gene can impact the activation of innate immune cells by evaluating the production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by THP-1 macrophages.Results. We demonstrated that the deletion of the gene codY resulted in biofilms with less c.f.u. counts and fewer VBNC cells. Furthermore, we show that although WT and mutant cells were similarly internalized in vitro by human macrophages, a stronger cytokine response was elicited by the mutant in a toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner.Conclusion. Our results indicate that codY contributes to S. epidermidis virulence, which in turn may have an impact on our ability to manage the biofilm-associated infections caused by this bacterium.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Ni L, Shen R, Luo H, et al (2024)

GlmS plays a key role in the virulence factor expression and biofilm formation ability of Staphylococcus aureus promoted by advanced glycation end products.

Virulence, 15(1):2352476.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is well known for its biofilm formation ability and is responsible for serious, chronic refractory infections worldwide. We previously demonstrated that advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a hallmark of chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetic tissues, enhanced biofilm formation by promoting eDNA release via sigB upregulation in S. aureus, contributing to the high morbidity and mortality of patients presenting a diabetic foot ulcer infection. However, the exact regulatory network has not been completely described. Here, we used pull-down assay and LC-MS/MS to identify the GlmS as a candidate regulator of sigB in S. aureus stimulated by AGEs. Dual-luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) revealed that GlmS directly upregulated the transcriptional activity of sigB. We constructed NCTC 8325 ∆glmS for further validation. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that AGEs promoted both glmS and sigB expression in the NCTC 8325 strain but had no effect on NCTC 8325 ∆glmS. NCTC 8325 ∆glmS showed a significant attenuation in biofilm formation and virulence factor expression, accompanied by a decrease in sigB expression, even under AGE stimulation. All of the changes, including pigment deficiency, decreased haemolysis ability, downregulation of hla and hld expression, and less and sparser biofilms, indicated that sigB and biofilm formation ability no longer responded to AGEs in NCTC 8325 ∆glmS. Our data extend the understanding of GlmS in the global regulatory network of S. aureus and demonstrate a new mechanism by which AGEs can upregulate GlmS, which directly regulates sigB and plays a significant role in mediating biofilm formation and virulence factor expression.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Haude S, Matthes R, Pitchika V, et al (2024)

In-vitro biofilm removal from TiUnite® implant surface with an air polishing and two different plasma devices.

BMC oral health, 24(1):558.

BACKGROUND: We investigated the efficacy of two different cold atmospheric pressure jet plasma devices (CAP09 and CAPmed) and an air polishing device with glycine powder (AP) either applied as monotherapies or combined therapies (AP + CAP09; AP + CAPmed), in microbial biofilm removal from discs with anodised titanium surface.

METHODS: Discs covered with 7-day-old microbial biofilm were treated either with CAP09, CAPmed, AP, AP + CAP09 or AP + CAPmed and compared with negative and positive controls. Biofilm removal was assessed with flourescence and electron microscopy immediately after treatment and after 5 days of reincubation of the treated discs.

RESULTS: Treatment with CAP09 or CAPmed did not lead to an effective biofilm removal, whereas treatment with AP detached the complete biofilm, which however regrew to baseline magnitude after 5 days of reincubation. Both combination therapies (AP + CAP09 and AP + CAPmed) achieved a complete biofilm removal immediately after cleaning. However, biofilm regrew after 5 days on 50% of the discs treated with the combination therapy.

CONCLUSION: AP treatment alone can remove gross biofilm immediately from anodised titanium surfaces. However, it did not impede regrowth after 5 days, because microorganisms were probably hidden in holes and troughs, from which they could regrow, and which were inaccessible to AP. The combination of AP and plasma treatment probably removed or inactivated microorganisms also from these hard to access spots. These results were independent of the choice of plasma device.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Ribeiro NS, da Rosa DF, Xavier MA, et al (2024)

Unveiling antibiofilm potential: proteins from Priestia sp. targeting Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 117(1):78.

Staphylococcus aureus is the etiologic agent of many nosocomial infections, and its biofilm is frequently isolated from medical devices. Moreover, the dissemination of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains from this pathogen, such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, is a worldwide public health issue. The inhibition of biofilm formation can be used as a strategy to weaken bacterial resistance. Taking that into account, we analysed the ability of marine sponge-associated bacteria to produce antibiofilm molecules, and we found that marine Priestia sp., isolated from marine sponge Scopalina sp. collected on the Brazilian coast, secretes proteins that impair biofilm development from S. aureus. Partially purified proteins (PPP) secreted after 24 hours of bacterial growth promoted a 92% biofilm mass reduction and 4.0 µg/dL was the minimum concentration to significantly inhibit biofilm formation. This reduction was visually confirmed by light microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, biochemical assays showed that the antibiofilm activity of PPP was reduced by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 1,10 phenanthroline (PHEN), while it was stimulated by zinc ions, suggesting an active metallopeptidase in PPP. This result agrees with mass spectrometry (MS) identification, which indicated the presence of a metallopeptidase from the M28 family. Additionally, whole-genome sequencing analysis of Priestia sp. shows that gene ywad, a metallopeptidase-encoding gene, was present. Therefore, the results presented herein indicate that PPP secreted by the marine Priestia sp. can be explored as a potential antibiofilm agent and help to treat chronic infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Xu Y, Luo W, Deng H, et al (2024)

Robust antibacterial activity of rare-earth ions on planktonic and biofilm bacteria.

Biomedical materials (Bristol, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial infections pose a serious threat to human health, with emerging antibiotic resistance, necessitating the development of new antibacterial agents. Cu[2+]and Ag[+]are widely recognized antibacterial agents with a low propensity for inducing bacterial resistance; however, their considerable cytotoxicity constrains their clinical applications. Rare-earth ions, owing to their unique electronic layer structure, hold promise as promising alternatives. However, their antibacterial efficacy and biocompatibility relative to conventional antibacterial agents remain underexplored, and the variations in activity across different rare-earth ions remain unclear. Here, we systematically evaluate the antibacterial activity of five rare-earth ions (Yb[3+], Gd[3+], Sm[3+], Tb[3+], and La[3+]) againstStaphylococcus aureusandPseudomonas aeruginosa, benchmarked against well-established antibacterial agents (Cu[2+], Ag[+]) and the antibiotic norfloxacin. Cytotoxicity is also assessed via live/dead staining of fibroblasts after 24 h rare-earth ion exposure. Our findings reveal that rare-earth ions require higher concentrations to match the antibacterial effects of traditional agents but offer the advantage of significantly lower cytotoxicity. In particular, Gd[3+]demonstrates potent bactericidal efficacy against both planktonic and biofilm bacteria, while maintaining the lowest cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells. Moreover, the tested rare-earth ions also exhibited excellent antifungal activity againstCandida albicans. This study provides a critical empirical framework to guide the selection of rare-earth ions for biomedical applications, offering a strategic direction for the development of novel antimicrobial agents.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Xiong L, Pereira De Sa N, Zarnowski R, et al (2024)

Biofilm-associated metabolism via ERG251 in Candida albicans.

PLoS pathogens, 20(5):e1012225 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-24-00231 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans is the basis for its ability to infect medical devices. The metabolic gene ERG251 has been identified as a target of biofilm transcriptional regulator Efg1, and here we report that ERG251 is required for biofilm formation but not conventional free-living planktonic growth. An erg251Δ/Δ mutation impairs biofilm formation in vitro and in an in vivo catheter infection model. In both in vitro and in vivo biofilm contexts, cell number is reduced and hyphal length is limited. To determine whether the mutant defect is in growth or some other aspect of biofilm development, we examined planktonic cell features in a biofilm-like environment, which was approximated with sealed unshaken cultures. Under those conditions, the erg251Δ/Δ mutation causes defects in growth and hyphal extension. Overexpression in the erg251Δ/Δ mutant of the paralog ERG25, which is normally expressed more weakly than ERG251, partially improves biofilm formation and biofilm hyphal content, as well as growth and hyphal extension in a biofilm-like environment. GC-MS analysis shows that the erg251Δ/Δ mutation causes a defect in ergosterol accumulation when cells are cultivated under biofilm-like conditions, but not under conventional planktonic conditions. Overexpression of ERG25 in the erg251Δ/Δ mutant causes some increase in ergosterol levels. Finally, the hypersensitivity of efg1Δ/Δ mutants to the ergosterol inhibitor fluconazole is reversed by ERG251 overexpression, arguing that reduced ERG251 expression contributes to this efg1Δ/Δ phenotype. Our results indicate that ERG251 is required for biofilm formation because its high expression levels are necessary for ergosterol synthesis in a biofilm-like environment.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Datta S, Singh V, Nag S, et al (2024)

Marine-Derived Cytosine Arabinoside (Ara-C) Inhibits Biofilm Formation by Inhibiting PEL Operon Proteins (Pel A and Pel B) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: An In Silico Approach.

Molecular biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a gram-negative biofilm-forming opportunistic human pathogen whose vital mechanism is biofilm formation for better survival. PelA and PelB proteins of the PEL operon are essential for bacterial-synthesized pellicle polysaccharide (PEL), which is a vital structural component of the biofilm. It helps in adherence of biofilm on the surface and maintenance of cell-to-cell interactions and with other matrix components. Here, in-silico molecular docking and simulation studies were performed against PelA and PelB using ten natural bioactive compounds, individually [podocarpic acids, ferruginol, scopadulcic acid B, pisiferic acid, metachromin A, Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside; Ara-C), ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, and betulinic acid], those have already been established as anti-infectious compounds. The results obtained from AutoDock and Glide-Schordinger stated that a marine-derived cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) among the ten compounds binds active sites of PelA and PelB, exhibiting strong binding affinity [Trp224 (hydrogen), Ser219 (polar), Val234 (hydrophobic) for PelA; Leu365 and Glu389 (hydrogen), Gln366 (polar) for PelB] with high negative binding energy - 5.518 kcal/mol and - 6.056 kcal/mol, respectively. The molecular dynamic and simulation studies for 100 ns showed the MMGBSA binding energy scores are - 16.4 kcal/mol (Ara-C with PelA), and - 22.25 kcal/mol (Ara-C with PelB). Further, ADME/T studies indicate the IC50 values of AraC are 6.10 mM for PelA and 18.78 mM for PelB, which is a comparatively very low dose. The zero violation of Lipinski's Rule of Five further established that Ara-C is a good candidate for drug development. Thus, Ara-C could be considered a potent anti-biofilm compound against PEL operon-dependent biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Quni S, Zhang Y, Liu L, et al (2024)

NF-κB-Signaling-Targeted Immunomodulatory Nanoparticle with Photothermal and Quorum-Sensing Inhibition Effects for Efficient Healing of Biofilm-Infected Wounds.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

The development of therapeutics with high antimicrobial activity and immunomodulatory effects is urgently needed for the treatment of infected wounds due to the increasing danger posed by recalcitrant-infected wounds. In this study, we developed light-controlled antibacterial, photothermal, and immunomodulatory biomimetic N/hPDA@M nanoparticles (NPs). This nanoplatform was developed by loading flavonoid naringenin onto hollow mesoporous polydopamine NPs in a π-π-stacked configuration and encasing them with macrophage membranes. First, our N/hPDA@M NPs efficiently neutralized inflammatory factors present within the wound microenvironment by the integration of macrophage membranes. Afterward, the N/hPDA@M NPs effectively dismantled bacterial biofilms through a combination of the photothermal properties of PDA and the quorum sensing inhibitory effects of naringenin. It is worth noting that N/hPDA@M NPs near-infrared-enhanced release of naringenin exhibited specificity toward the NF-κB-signaling pathway, effectively mitigating the inflammatory response. This innovative design not only conferred remarkable antibacterial properties upon the N/hPDA@M NPs but also endowed them with the capacity to modulate inflammatory responses, curbing excessive inflammation and steering macrophage polarization toward the M2 phenotype. As a result, this multifaceted approach significantly contributes to expediting the healing process of infected skin wounds.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Tang Y, Zhang Z, Tao C, et al (2024)

The mechanism of biofilm detachment in porous medium under flow field.

Biomicrofluidics, 18(3):034103.

Biofilms are communities formed by bacteria adhering to surfaces, widely present in porous medium, and their growth can lead to clogging. Our experiment finds that under certain flow conditions, biofilms detach in pores and form a dynamically changing flow path. We define detachment that occurs far from the boundary of the flow path (with a distance greater than 200 μm) as internal detachment and detachment that occurs at the boundary of the flow path as external detachment. To understand the mechanism of biofilm detachment, we study the detachment behaviors of the Bacillus subtilis biofilm in a porous medium in a microfluidic device, where Bacillus subtilis strain is triple fluorescent labeled, which can represent three main phenotypes during the biofilm formation: motile cells, matrix-producing cells, and spores. We find that slow small-scale internal detachment occurs in regions with very few motile cells and matrix-producing cells, and bacterial movement in these areas is disordered. The increase in the number of matrix-producing cells induces clogging, and after clogging, the rapid detachment of the bulk internal biofilm occurs due to the increased pressure difference at the inlet and outlet. When both internal and external detachments occur simultaneously, the number of matrix-producing cells in the internal detachment area is 2.5 times that in the external detachment area. The results indicate that biofilm detachment occurs in areas with fewer matrix-producing cells, as matrix-producing cells can help resist detachment by secreting extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs).

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Bakalakos M, Ampadiotaki MM, Vlachos C, et al (2024)

Molecular Mechanisms of Biofilm Formation on Orthopaedic Implants: Review of the Literature.

Maedica, 19(1):129-136.

Orthopaedic implant-associated infections (OIAIs) is one of the most catastrophic complications following joint arthroplasty or fracture fixation. Given the increasing number of orthopaedic implants which are used annually, periprosthetic infections emerge as a global problem. Their diagnosis and consequent therapeutic management remain challenging for clinicians. Biofilm formation is a complex and only partially understood process that has not been extensively studied. Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in biofilm formation is crucial in the amelioration of both diagnosis and therapeutic management of OIAIs. We performed a literature review of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and discussed the four most common and thoroughly researched microbes of biofilm-related OIAIs.

RevDate: 2024-05-12
CmpDate: 2024-05-12

Pozelli Macedo MJ, Xavier-Queiroz M, Dabul ANG, et al (2024)

Biochemical properties of a Flavobacterium johnsoniae dextranase and its biotechnological potential for Streptococcus mutans biofilm degradation.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(7):201.

Cariogenic biofilms have a matrix rich in exopolysaccharides (EPS), mutans and dextrans, that contribute to caries development. Although several physical and chemical treatments can be employed to remove oral biofilms, those are only partly efficient and use of biofilm-degrading enzymes represents an exciting opportunity to improve the performance of oral hygiene products. In the present study, a member of a glycosyl hydrolase family 66 from Flavobacterium johnsoniae (FjGH66) was heterologously expressed and biochemically characterized. The recombinant FjGH66 showed a hydrolytic activity against an early EPS-containing S. mutans biofilm, and, when associated with a α-(1,3)-glucosyl hydrolase (mutanase) from GH87 family, displayed outstanding performance, removing more than 80% of the plate-adhered biofilm. The mixture containing FjGH66 and Prevotella melaninogenica GH87 α-1,3-mutanase was added to a commercial mouthwash liquid to synergistically remove the biofilm. Dental floss and polyethylene disks coated with biofilm-degrading enzymes also degraded plate-adhered biofilm with a high efficiency. The results presented in this study might be valuable for future development of novel oral hygiene products.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Pandey P, Rao L, Shekhar BR, et al (2024)

Molecular Insights into Flavone-Mediated Quorum Sensing Interference: A Novel Strategy Against Serratia marcescens Biofilm-Induced Antibiotic Resistance".

Chemico-biological interactions pii:S0009-2797(24)00173-X [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge in modern medicine, urging the exploration of innovative approaches to combat bacterial infections. Biofilms, complex bacterial communities encased in a protective matrix, contribute to resistance by impeding antibiotic efficacy and promoting genetic exchange. Understanding biofilm dynamics is crucial for developing effective antimicrobial therapies against antibiotic resistance. This study explores the potential of flavone to combat biofilm-induced antibiotic resistance by employing in-vit1ro biochemical, cell biology, and In silico (MD simulation), approaches. Flavone exhibited potent antibacterial effects with a low minimum inhibitory concentration by inducing intracellular reactive oxygen species. Flavones further inhibited the formation of biofilms by 50-60% and disrupted the pre-formed biofilms by reducing the extracellular polysaccharide substance protective layer formed on the biofilm by 80 %. Quorum sensing (QS) plays a crucial role in bacterial pathogenicity and flavone significantly attenuated the production of QS-induced virulence factors like urease, protease, lipase, hemolysin and prodigiosin pigment in a dose-dependent manner. Further In-silico molecular docking studies along with Molecular Dynamic simulations run for 100 ns proved the stable binding affinity of flavone with QS-specific proteins which are crucial for biofilm formation. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of flavone to target QS-signaling pathway to combat S. marcescens biofilms.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Long J, Yang C, Liu J, et al (2024)

Tannic acid inhibits Escherichia coli biofilm formation and underlying molecular mechanisms: Biofilm regulator CsgD.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 175:116716 pii:S0753-3322(24)00600-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms often engender persistent infections, heightened antibiotic resistance, and the recurrence of infections. Therefor, infections related to bacterial biofilms are often chronic and pose challenges in terms of treatment. The main transcription regulatory factor, CsgD, activates csgABC-encoded curli to participate in the composition of extracellular matrix, which is an important skeleton for biofilm development in enterobacteriaceae. In our previous study, a wide range of natural bioactive compounds that exhibit strong affinity to CsgD were screened and identified via molecular docking. Tannic acid (TA) was subsequently chosen, based on its potent biofilm inhibition effect as observed in crystal violet staining. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the specific effects of TA on the biofilm formation of clinically isolated Escherichia coli (E. coli). Results demonstrated a significant inhibition of E. coli Ec032 biofilm formation by TA, while not substantially affecting the biofilm of the ΔcsgD strain. Moreover, deletion of the csgD gene led to a reduction in Ec032 biofilm formation, alongside diminished bacterial motility and curli synthesis inhibition. Transcriptomic analysis and RT-qPCR revealed that TA repressed genes associated with the csg operon and other biofilm-related genes. In conclusion, our results suggest that CsgD is one of the key targets for TA to inhibit E. coli biofilm formation. This work preliminarily elucidates the molecular mechanisms of TA inhibiting E. coli biofilm formation, which could provide a lead structure for the development of future antibiofilm drugs.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Sun L, Yue X, Zhang G, et al (2024)

A pilot-scale anoxic-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic combined with moving bed biofilm reactor system for advanced treatment of rural wastewater.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03221-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Rural domestic poses a significant challenge to treatment technologies due to significant fluctuations in both water quality, particularly in terms of carbon concentration, and quantity. Conventional biological technology, such as anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A[2]O) systems, is inefficient. In this work, a continuous pilot-scale anoxic-anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A[3]O) reactor with a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) system was constructed and optimized to improve the treatment efficiency of rural domestic wastewater. The sludge return ratio, volume ratio of the oxic-to-anoxic zone (Voxi/Vano), step-feeding and hydraulic retention time (HRT) at low temperature were considered the main parameters for optimization. Microbial analysis was performed on both the mixed liquor and carrier of the A3O-MBBR system under initial and post-optimized conditions. The results indicated that the A[3]O-MBBR improved the treatment efficiency of rural domestic wastewater, especially for total phosphorus (TP), which increased by 20 % compared with that of the A[2]O-MBR. In addition, the removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus were further optimized, and the average concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and TP in the effluent reached 2.46 and 0.364 mg/L, respectively, at a sludge reflux ratio of 100 or 150 %, Voxi/Vano =200 %, step-feeding of 0.5Q/0.5Q (anaerobic/anoxic) and HRT of 15 h at low temperature in the A[3]O-MBBR, which met standard A of GB18918-2002, China (TN < 15 mg/L, TP < 0.5 mg/L). The average rate of attaining the standard increased by 58.63 % (post optimization). The microbial analysis showed an increase in species diversity and richness after the parameters were optimized. Moreover, compared to the microbial community structure before optimization, the post-optimization exhibited a more stable microbial structure with a significant enrichment of functional bacteria. Defluviimonas, Novosphingobium and Bifidobacterium, considered as the dominant nitrification or denitrifying bacteria, were enriched in the suspended sludge of the MBBR reactor, which the relative abundance increased by 3.11 %, 3.84 %, and 3.24 %, respectively. Further analysis of the microbial community in the carrier revealed that the abundance of Nitrospira and the denitrifying bacteria carried by the carrier were much greater than those in the suspended sludge. Consequently, the microorganism cooperation between suspended sludge and biofilm might be responsible for the improved performance of the optimized A[3]O-MBBR.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Di Pietro M, Filardo S, Mattioli R, et al (2024)

Anti-Biofilm Activity of Oleacein and Oleocanthal from Extra-Virgin Olive Oil toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9):.

New antimicrobial molecules effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known as an antibiotic-resistant "high-priority pathogen", are urgently required because of its ability to develop biofilms related to healthcare-acquired infections. In this study, for the first time, the anti-biofilm and anti-virulence activities of a polyphenolic extract of extra-virgin olive oil as well as purified oleocanthal and oleacein, toward P. aeruginosa clinical isolates were investigated. The main result of our study was the anti-virulence activity of the mixture of oleacein and oleocanthal toward multidrug-resistant and intermediately resistant strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia or surgical site infection. Specifically, the mixture of oleacein (2.5 mM)/oleocanthal (2.5 mM) significantly inhibited biofilm formation, alginate and pyocyanin production, and motility in both P. aeruginosa strains (p < 0.05); scanning electron microscopy analysis further evidenced its ability to inhibit bacterial cell adhesion as well as the production of the extracellular matrix. In conclusion, our results suggest the potential application of the oleacein/oleocanthal mixture in the management of healthcare-associated P. aeruginosa infections, particularly in the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Yi L, Fan H, Yuan S, et al (2024)

Antimicrobial Resistance and Biofilm Formation of Bordetella bronchiseptica in Central China, with Evidence of a Rare Heteroresistance Strain to Gentamicin.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(9): pii:ani14091301.

Bordetella bronchiseptica is a significant contributor to respiratory disease in pigs, leading to substantial economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. We isolated 52 B. bronchiseptica strains from 542 samples collected from pigs with atrophic rhinitis and bronchopneumonia in central China. Multi-locus sequence typing identified two prevalent sequence types: ST6 (69.23%) and ST7 (30.77%). PCR-based detection of seven virulence genes (fhaB, prn, cyaA, dnt, bteA, fla, and bfrZ) revealed that six of these genes were present in over 90% of the isolates, with bfrZ being the exception at 59.62%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, performed using the K-B method, demonstrated high sensitivity to enrofloxacin, polymyxin, and doxycycline but a notable resistance to tylosin, trimethoprim, tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, and amikacin. Remarkably, 86.54% of the isolates exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Notably, we successfully screened a strain of B. bronchiseptica with a heteroresistance phenotype to gentamicin using population analysis profiling, which is a rare case. Biofilm-formation assays indicated that 96.15% of the isolates possessed biofilm-forming capabilities. These findings provide crucial insights into the prevalence of B. bronchiseptica in central China, facilitating the development of effective preventive measures to safeguard both animal and human health.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Li P, Zhang Y, Chen D, et al (2024)

Investigation of a novel biofilm model close to the original oral microbiome.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):330.

A more optimized culture medium used in vitro to mimic the bacterial composition of original oral flora as similar as possible remains difficult at present, and the goal of this study is to develop a novel oral biofilm medium to restore the original oral microbiome. Firstly, we conducted a systematic literature review by searching PubMed and summarized the current reported culture media in vitro. Seven culture media were found. We used mixed saliva as the origin of oral species to compare the effects of the above media in culturing oral multispecies biofilms. Results indicated that among the seven media brain heart infusion containing 1% sucrose (BHIs) medium, PG medium, artificial saliva (AS) medium, and SHI medium could obviously gain large oral biofilm in vitro. The nutrients contained in different culture media may be suitable for the growth of different oral bacteria; therefore, we optimized several novel media accordingly. Notably, results of crystal violet staining showed that the biofilm cultured in our modified artificial saliva (MAS) medium had the highest amount of biofilm biomass. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and Shannon index of biofilm cultured in MAS medium were also the highest among all the tested media. More importantly, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that the biofilm cultured in MAS medium was closer to the original saliva species. Besides, biofilm cultured by MAS was denser and produced more exopolysaccharides. MAS supported stable biofilm formation on different substrata. In conclusion, this study demonstrated a novel MAS medium that could culture oral biofilm in vitro closer to the original oral microbiome, showing a good application prospect. KEY POINTS: • We compare the effects of different media in culturing oral biofilms • A novel modified artificial saliva (MAS) medium was obtained in our study • The MAS medium could culture biofilm that was closer to oral microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Islam N, D Reid (2024)

Inhaled antibiotics: A promising drug delivery strategies for efficient treatment of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) associated with antibiotic resistant biofilm-dwelling and intracellular bacterial pathogens.

Respiratory medicine pii:S0954-6111(24)00135-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with LRTIs are frequently associated with inefficient treatment outcomes. Antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus, infections are strongly associated with pulmonary exacerbations and require frequent hospital admissions, usually following failed management in the community. These bacteria are difficult to treat as they demonstrate multiple adaptational mechanisms including biofilm formation to resist antibiotic threats. Currently, many patients with the genetic disease cystic fibrosis (CF), non-CF bronchiectasis (NCFB) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) experience exacerbations of their lung disease and require high doses of systemically administered antibiotics to achieve meaningful clinical effects, but even with high systemic doses penetration of antibiotic into the site of infection within the lung is suboptimal. Pulmonary drug delivery technology that reliably deliver antibacterials directly into the infected cells of the lungs and penetrate bacterial biofilms to provide therapeutic doses with a greatly reduced risk of systemic adverse effects. Inhaled liposomal-packaged antibiotic with biofilm-dissolving drugs offer the opportunity for targeted, and highly effective antibacterial therapeutics in the lungs. Although the challenges with development of some inhaled antibiotics and their clinicals trials have been studied; however, only few inhaled products are available on market. This review addresses the current treatment challenges of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the lung with some clinical outcomes and provides future directions with innovative ideas on new inhaled formulations and delivery technology that promise enhanced killing of antibiotic-resistant biofilm-dwelling bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Nosair N, Elzayat S, Elsharaby R, et al (2024)

The Association of Bacterial Biofilm and Middle Ear Mucosa in Patients with Mucosal Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media.

Acta otorrinolaringologica espanola pii:S2173-5735(24)00050-4 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the bacterial biofilm's role in mucosal chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

METHODS: This study involved 123 participating patients with active and inactive mucosal CSOM who are undergoing tympanomastoid surgery. SEM was used to examine middle ear mucosa biopsies for the development of biofilms. Middle ear discharge or mucosal swabs from patients were cultured to detect any bacterial growth. The biofilm formation was correlated to the culture results.

RESULTS: The biofilm was present in 69.9 % of patients (59% of them were with active mucosal CSOM) and absent in 30.1 % of the patients (70% of them were with inactive mucosal CSOM), being more statistically significant in active mucosal CSOM (p-value = 0.003). A correlation that was statistically significant was found between active mucosal CSOM and higher grades (3 and 4) of biofilms (p-value <0.05). The mucosal CSOM type and the results of the culture had a relationship that was statistically significant (p-value <0.001). 60% of patients had positive culture (70% of them were with active mucosal CSOM). There was a statistically significant relation between Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial growth and active mucosal CSOM (p-value = 0.004) as well as higher grades of biofilms in mucosal CSOM.

CONCLUSION: Mucosal CSOM, especially the active type, is a biofilm-related disease. There is a significant relation between the state of mucosal CSOM (active or inactive) and culture results with predominance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial growth in active mucosal CSOM and in higher grades of biofilms in mucosal CSOM.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Liu W, Wang Y, Sun Y, et al (2024)

Baicalein inhibits biofilm formation of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in vitro mainly by affecting adhesion.

Research in veterinary science, 174:105291 pii:S0034-5288(24)00157-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a widespread bacterium that causes significant economic losses to the poultry industry. APEC biofilm formation may result in chronic, persistent, and recurrent infections in clinics, making treatment challenging. Baicalein is a natural product that exhibits antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. This study investigates the inhibitory effect of baicalein on APEC biofilm formation at different stages. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of baicalein on APEC was determined, and the growth curve of APEC biofilm formation was determined. The effects of baicalein on APEC biofilm adhesion, accumulation, and maturation were observed using optical microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The biofilm inhibition rate of baicalein was calculated at different stages. The MIC of baicalein against APEC was 256 μg/mL. The process of APEC biofilm maturation takes approximately 48 h after incubation, with initial adhesion completed at 12 h, and cell accumulation finished at 24 h. Baicalein had a significant inhibitory effect on APEC biofilm formation at concentrations above 1 μg/mL (p < 0.01). Notably, baicalein had the highest rate of biofilm formation inhibition when added at the adhesion stage. Therefore, it can be concluded that baicalein is a potent inhibitor of APEC biofilm formation in vitro and acts, primarily by inhibiting cell adhesion. These findings suggests that baicalein has a potential application for inhibiting APEC biofilm formation and provides a novel approach for the prevention and control APEC-related diseases.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Jan H, Ghayas S, Higazy D, et al (2024)

Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of antibiotic-free phosphatidylglycerol/docosahexaenoic acid lamellar and non-lamellar liquid crystalline nanoparticles.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 669:537-551 pii:S0021-9797(24)00914-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious diseases, particularly those associated with biofilms, are challenging to treat due to an increased tolerance to commonly used antibiotics. This underscores the urgent need for innovative antimicrobial strategies. Here, we present an alternative simple-by-design approach focusing on the development of biocompatible and antibiotic-free nanocarriers from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that has the potential to combat microbial infections and phosphatidylglycerol (DOPG), which is attractive for use as a biocompatible prominent amphiphilic component of Gram-positive bacterial cell membranes. We assessed the anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities of these nanoformulations (hexosomes and vesicles) against S. aureus and S. epidermidis, which are the most common causes of infections on catheters and medical devices by different methods (including resazurin assay, time-kill assay, and confocal laser scanning microscopy on an in vitro catheter biofilm model). In a DHA-concentration-dependent manner, these nano-self-assemblies demonstrated strong anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activities, particularly against S. aureus. A five-fold reduction of the planktonic and a four-fold reduction of biofilm populations of S. aureus were observed after treatment with hexosomes. The nanoparticles had a bacteriostatic effect against S. epidermidis planktonic cells but no anti-biofilm activity was detected. We discuss the findings in terms of nanoparticle-bacterial cell interactions, plausible alterations in the phospholipid membrane composition, and potential penetration of DHA into these membranes, leading to changes in their structural and biophysical properties. The implications for the future development of biocompatible nanocarriers for the delivery of DHA alone or in combination with other anti-bacterial agents are discussed, as novel treatment strategies of Gram-positive infections, including biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Xiong F, Dai T, Zheng Y, et al (2024)

Enhanced AHL-mediated quorum sensing accelerates the start-up of biofilm reactors by elevating the fitness of fast-growing bacteria in sludge and biofilm communities.

Water research, 257:121697 pii:S0043-1354(24)00598-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Quorum sensing (QS)-based manipulations emerge as a promising solution for biofilm reactors to overcome challenges from inefficient biofilm formation and lengthy start-ups. However, the ecological mechanisms underlying how QS regulates microbial behaviors and community assembly remain elusive. Herein, by introducing different levels of N-acyl-homoserine lactones, we manipulated the strength of QS during the start-up of moving bed biofilm reactors and compared the dynamics of bacterial communities. We found that enhanced QS elevated the fitness of fast-growing bacteria with high ribosomal RNA operon (rrn) copy numbers in their genomes in both the sludge and biofilm communities. This led to notably increased extracellular substance production, as evidenced by strong positive correlations between community-level rrn copy numbers and extracellular proteins and polysaccharides (Pearson's r = 0.529-0.830, P < 0.001). Network analyses demonstrated that enhanced QS significantly promoted the ecological interactions among taxa, particularly cooperative interactions. Bacterial taxa with higher network degrees were more strongly correlated with extracellular substances, suggesting their crucial roles as public goods in regulating bacterial interactions and shaping network structures. However, the assembly of more cooperative communities in QS-enhanced reactors came at the cost of decreased network stability and modularity. Null model and dissimilarity-overlap curve analysis revealed that enhanced QS strengthened stochastic processes in community assembly and rendered the universal population dynamics more convergent. Additionally, these shaping effects were consistent for both the sludge and biofilm communities, underpinning the planktonic-to-biofilm transition. This work highlights that QS manipulations efficiently drive community assembly and confer specialized functional traits to communities by recruiting taxa with specific life strategies and regulating interspecific interactions. These ecological insights deepen our understanding of the rules governing microbial societies and provide guidance for managing engineering ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Patil SB, Basrani ST, Chougule SA, et al (2024)

Butyl isothiocyanate exhibits antifungal and anti-biofilm activity against Candida albicans by targeting cell membrane integrity, cell cycle progression and oxidative stress.

Archives of microbiology, 206(6):251.

The prevalence of Candida albicans infection has increased during the past few years, which contributes to the need for new, effective treatments due to the increasing concerns regarding antifungal drug toxicity and multidrug resistance. Butyl isothiocyanate (butylITC) is a glucosinolate derivative, and has shown a significant antifungal effect contrary to Candida albicans. Additionally, how butylITC affects the virulence traits of C. albicans and molecular mode of actions are not well known. Present study shows that at 17.36 mM concentration butylITC inhibit planktonic growth. butylITC initially slowed the hyphal transition at 0.542 mM concentration. butylITC hampered biofilm development, and inhibits biofilm formation at 17.36 mM concentration which was analysed using metabolic assay (XTT assay) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, it was noted that butylITC inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. The permeability of cell membranes was enhanced by butylITC treatment. Moreover, butylITC arrests cells at S-phase and induces intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) accumulation in C. albicans. The results suggest that butylITC may have a dual mode of action, inhibit virulence factors and modulate cellular processes like inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis, cell cycle arrest, induces ROS production which leads to cell death in C. albicans.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Ding M, Zhang Y, Li X, et al (2024)

Simultaneous Biofilm Disruption, Bacterial Killing, and Inflammation Elimination for Wound Treatment Using Silver Embellished Polydopamine Nanoplatform.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Due to the presence of spatial barriers, persistent bacteria, and excessive inflammation in bacteria biofilm-infected wounds, current nanoplatforms cannot effectively address these issues simultaneously during the therapeutic process. Herein, a novel biomimetic photothermal nanoplatform integrating silver and polydopamine nanoparticles (Ag/PDAs) that can damage biofilms, kill bacterial persisters, and reduce inflammation for wound treatment is presented. These findings reveal that Ag/PDAs exhibit a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity through direct damage to the bacterial membrane structure. Additionally, Ag/PDAs demonstrate a potent photothermal conversion efficiency. When combined with near-infrared (NIR) irradiation, Ag/PDAs effectively disrupt the spatial structure of biofilms and synergistically eradicate the resident bacteria. Furthermore, Ag/PDAs show remarkable anti-inflammatory properties in counteracting bacterium-induced macrophage polarization. The in vivo results confirm that the topical application of Ag/PDAs significantly suppress Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-infected wounds in murine models, concurrently facilitating wound healing. This research provides a promising avenue for the eradication of bacterial biofilms and the treatment of biofilm-infected wounds.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Okouakoua FY, Kayath CA, Mokemiabeka SN, et al (2024)

Involvement of the Bacillus SecYEG Pathway in Biosurfactant Production and Biofilm Formation.

International journal of microbiology, 2024:6627190.

With Bacillus species, about 30% of extracellular proteins are translocated through the cytoplasmic membrane, coordinated by the Sec translocase. This system mainly consists of the cytoplasmic ATPase SecA and the membrane-embedded SecYEG channel. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of the SecYEG export system on the production of industrial biomolecules, such as biosurfactants, proteases, amylases, and cellulases. Fifty-two isolates of Bacillus species were obtained from traditional fermented foods and then characterized using molecular microbiology methods. The isolates secreted exoenzymes that included cellulases, amylases, and proteases. We present evidence that a biosurfactant-like molecule requires the SecA ATPase and the SecYEG membrane channel for its secretion. In addition, we showed that biomolecules involved in biofilm formation required the SecYEG pathway. This work presents a novel seven-target fragment multiplex PCR assay capable of identification at the species level of Bacillus through a unique SecDF chromosomal gene. The bacterial membrane protein SecDF allowed the discrimination of Bacillus subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and B. sonorensis. SecA was able to interact with AprE, AmyE, and TasA. The Rose Bengal inhibitor of SecA crucially affected the interaction of AprE, AmyE, TapA, and TasA with recombinant Gst-SecA. The Rose Bengal prevented Bacillus species from secreting and producing proteases, cellulases, amylases, and biosurfactant-like molecules. It also inhibited the formation of biofilm cell communities. The data support, for the first time, that the SecYEG translocon mediates the secretion of a biosurfactant-like molecule.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Nayak R, Rai VK, Pradhan D, et al (2024)

Exploring the Biofilm Inhibition Potential of a Novel Phytic Acid-Crosslinked Chitosan Nanoparticle: In Vitro and In Vivo Investigations.

AAPS PharmSciTech, 25(5):106.

The primary factor underlying the virulence of Candida albicans is its capacity to form biofilms, which in turn leads to recurrent complications. Over-the-counter antifungal treatments have proven ineffective in eliminating fungal biofilms and the inflammatory cytokines produced during fungal infections. Chitosan nanoparticles offer broad and versatile therapeutic potential as both antifungal agents and carriers for antifungal drugs to combat biofilm-associated Candida infections. In our study, we endeavoured to develop chitosan nanoparticles utilising chitosan and the antifungal crosslinker phytic acid targeting C. albicans. Phytic acid, known for its potent antifungal and anti-inflammatory properties, efficiently crosslinks with chitosan. The nanoparticles were synthesised using the ionic gelation technique and subjected to analyses including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential analysis. The synthesised nanoparticles exhibited dimensions with a diameter (Dh) of 103 ± 3.9 nm, polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.33, and zeta potential (ZP) of 37 ± 2.5 mV. These nanoparticles demonstrated an antifungal effect with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 140 ± 2.2 µg/mL, maintaining cell viability at approximately 90% of the MIC value and reducing cytokine levels. Additionally, the nanoparticles reduced ergosterol content and exhibited a 62% ± 1.2 reduction in biofilm susceptibility, as supported by colony-forming unit (CFU) and XTT assays-furthermore, treatment with nanoparticles reduced exopolysaccharide production and decreased secretion of aspartyl protease by C. albicans. Our findings suggest that the synthesised nanoparticles effectively combat Candida albicans infections. In vivo studies conducted on a mouse model of vaginal candidiasis confirmed the efficacy of the nanoparticles in combating fungal infections in vivo.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Xie Z, Ou Z, Zhang M, et al (2024)

Indole-3-acetic acid regulating the initial adhesion of microalgae in biofilm formation.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00998-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Regulating the microalgal initial adhesion in biofilm formation is a key approach to address the challenges of attached microalgae cultivation. As a type of phytohormone, Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) can promote the growth and metabolism of microalgae. However, limited knowledge has been acquired of how IAA can change the initial adhesion of microalgae in biofilm formation. This study focused on investigating the initial adhesion of microalgae under different IAA concentrations exposure in biofilm formation. The results showed that IAA showed obvious hormesis-like effects on the initial adhesion ability of microalgae biofilm.. Under exposure to the low concentration (0.1mg/L) of IAA, the initial adhesion quantity of microalgae on the surface of the carrier reached the highest value of 7.2 g/m[2]. However, exposure to the excessively high concentration (10mg/L) of IAA led to a decrease in the initial adhesion capability of microalgal biofilms. The enhanced adhesion of microalgal biofilms due to IAA was attributed to the upregulation of genes related to the Calvin Cycle, which promoted the synthesis of hydrophobic amino acids, leading to increased protein secretion and altering the surface electron donor characteristics of microalgal biofilms. This, in turn, reduced the energy barrier between the carriers and microalgae. The research findings would provide crucial support for the application of IAA in regulating the operation of microalgal biofilm systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Wu T, Ding J, Wang S, et al (2024)

Insight into effect of polyethylene microplastic on nitrogen removal in moving bed biofilm reactor: Focusing on microbial community and species interactions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03180-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics (MPs) pollution has emerged as a global concern, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the potential sources of MPs in the environment. However, the effect of polyethylene MPs (PE) on nitrogen (N) removal in moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) remains unclear. We hypothesized that PE would affect N removal in MBBR by influencing its microbial community. In this study, we investigated the impacts of different PE concentrations (100, 500, and 1000 μg/L) on N removal, enzyme activities, and microbial community in MBBR. Folin-phenol and anthrone colorimetric methods, oxidative stress and enzyme activity tests, and high-throughput sequencing combined with bioinformation analysis were used to decipher the potential mechanisms. The results demonstrated that 1000 μg/L PE had the greatest effect on NH4[+]-N and TN removal, with a decrease of 33.5 % and 35.2 %, and nitrifying and denitrifying enzyme activities were restrained by 29.5-39.6 % and 24.6-47.4 %. Polysaccharide and protein contents were enhanced by PE, except for 1000 μg/L PE, which decreased protein content by 65.4 mg/g VSS. The positive links of species interactions under 1000 μg/L PE exposure was 52.07 %, higher than under 500 μg/L (51.05 %) and 100 μg/L PE (50.35 %). Relative abundance of some metabolism pathways like carbohydrate metabolism and energy metabolism were restrained by 0.07-0.11 % and 0.27-0.4 %. Moreover, the total abundance of nitrification and denitrification genes both decreased under PE exposure. Overall, PE reduced N removal by affecting microbial community structure and species interactions, inhibiting some key metabolic pathways, and suppressing key enzyme activity and functional gene abundance. This paper provides new insights into assessing the risk of MPs to WWTPs, contributing to ensuring the health of aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Wang J, Guo Y, Lu W, et al (2024)

Dry powder inhalation containing muco-inert ciprofloxacin and colistin co-loaded liposomes for pulmonary P. Aeruginosa biofilm eradication.

International journal of pharmaceutics pii:S0378-5173(24)00442-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), a predominant pathogen in lung infections, poses significant challenges due to its biofilm formation, which is the primary cause of chronic and recalcitrant pulmonary infections. Bacteria within these biofilms exhibit heightened resistance to antibiotics compared to their planktonic counterparts, and their secreted toxins exacerbate lung infections. Diverging from traditional antibacterial therapy for biofilm eradication, this study introduces a novel dry powder inhalation containing muco-inert ciprofloxacin and colistin co-encapsulated liposomes (Cipro-Col-Lips) prepared using ultrasonic spray freeze drying (USFD) technique. This USFD dry powder is designed to efficiently deliver muco-inert Cipro-Col-Lips to the lungs. Once deposited, the liposomes rapidly diffuse into the airway mucus, reaching the biofilm sites. The muco-inert Cipro-Col-Lips neutralize the biofilm-secreted toxins and simultaneously trigger the release of their therapeutic payload, exerting a synergistic antibiofilm effect. Our results demonstrated that the optimal USFD liposomal dry powder formulation exhibited satisfactory in vitro aerosol performance in terms of fine particle fraction (FPF) of 44.44 ± 0.78 %, mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 4.27 ± 0.21 μm, and emitted dose (ED) of 99.31 ± 3.31 %. The muco-inert Cipro-Col-Lips effectively penetrate the airway mucus and accumulate at the biofilm site, neutralizing toxins and safeguarding lung cells. The triggered release of ciprofloxacin and colistin works synergistically to reduce the biofilm's antibiotic resistance, impede the development of antibiotic resistance, and eliminate 99.99 % of biofilm-embedded bacteria, including persister bacteria. Using a PA-beads induced biofilm-associated lung infection mouse model, the in vivo efficacy of this liposomal dry powder aerosol was tested, and the results demonstrated that this liposomal dry powder aerosol achieved a 99.7 % reduction in bacterial colonization, and significantly mitigated inflammation and pulmonary fibrosis. The USFD dry powder inhalation containing muco-inert Cipro-Col-Lips emerges as a promising therapeutic strategy for treating PA biofilm-associated lung infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Jo S, Chao C, Khilnani TK, et al (2024)

The Infected Polypropylene Mesh: When Does Biofilm Form and Which Antiseptic Solution Most Effectively Removes It?.

The Journal of arthroplasty pii:S0883-5403(24)00429-7 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Polypropylene (PPE) mesh is commonly utilized to reconstruct catastrophic extensor mechanism disruptions in revision total knee arthroplasty. Unfortunately, these procedures are associated with a high rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). The purpose of the current study was to: 1) visualize and quantify the progression of bacterial biofilm growth on PPE-mesh; and 2) determine which antiseptic solutions effectively remove viable bacteria.

METHODS: Knitted PPE mesh samples were cultured with either methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or Escherichia coli (E. coli) for 7 days, with regular quantification of colony forming units (CFUs) and visualization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to identify maturity. Immature (24 hour) and mature (72 hour) biofilm was treated with one of five commercial antiseptics for three minutes. A 0.05% chlorhexidine gluconate, a surfactant-based formulation of ethanol, acetic acid, sodium acetate, benzalkonium chloride, diluted povidone-iodine (0.35%), undiluted (10%) povidone-iodine, and 1:1 combination of 10% povidone-iodine and 3% hydrogen peroxide. A three-log reduction in colony-forming units (CFUs) compared to saline was considered clinically meaningful.

RESULTS: The CFU counts plateaued, indicating maturity, at 72 hours for both MSSA and E. coli. The SEM confirmed confluent biofilm formation after 72 hours. The 10% povidone-iodine was clinically effective against all MSSA biofilms and immature E. coli biofilms. The 10% povidone-iodine with hydrogen peroxide was effective in all conditions. Only 10% povidone iodine formulations produced significantly (P < 0.0083) reduced CFU counts against mature biofilms.

CONCLUSION: Bacteria rapidly form biofilm on PPE mesh. Mesh contamination can be catastrophic, and clinicians should consider utilizing an antiseptic solution at the conclusion of mesh implantation. Undiluted povidone-iodine with hydrogen peroxide should be considered when attempting to salvage infected PPE mesh.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Kim BH, Ashrafudoulla M, Shaila S, et al (2024)

Isolation, characterization, and application of bacteriophage on Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilm to control seafood contamination.

International journal of antimicrobial agents pii:S0924-8579(24)00112-2 [Epub ahead of print].

This study intended to isolate a Vibrio-particular phage from the natural environment, analyze its characteristics and genome sequence, and investigate its reduction effect on V. parahaemolyticus biofilm as a biocontrol agent in squid and mackerel. Among 21 phages, phage CAU_VPP01, isolated from beach mud, was chosen for further experiments based on host range and EOP tests. When examining the reduction effect of phage CAU_VPP01 against Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilms on surfaces (stainless steel [SS] and polyethylene terephthalate [PET]) and food surfaces (squid and mackerel), the phage showed the most excellent reduction effect at a multiplicity-of-infection (MOI) 10. Three-dimensional images acquired with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis were quantified using COMSTAT, which showed that biomass, average thickness, and roughness coefficient decreased when treated with the phage. Color and texture analysis confirmed that the quality of squid and mackerel was maintained after the phage treatment. Finally, a comparison of gene expression levels determined by qRT-PCR analysis showed that the phage treatment induced a decrease in the gene expression of flaA, vp0962, and luxS, as examples. This study indicated that Vibrio-specific phage CAU_VPP01 effectively controlled V. parahaemolyticus biofilms under various conditions and confirmed that the isolated phage could possibly be used as an effective biocontrol weapon in the seafood manufacturing industry.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Yan Z, Han X, Wang H, et al (2024)

Influence of aeration modes and DO on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in treatment of hypersaline high-strength nitrogen wastewater using sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR).

Journal of environmental management, 359:121075 pii:S0301-4797(24)01061-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) has the potential to treat hypersaline high-strength nitrogen wastewater by simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND). Dissolved oxygen (DO) and aeration modes are major factors affecting pollutant removal. Low DO (0.35-3.5 mg/L) and alternative anoxic/aerobic (A/O) mode are commonly used for municipal wastewater treatment, however, the appropriate DO concentration and operation mode are still unknown under hypersaline environment because of the restricted oxygen transfer in denser extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) barrier and the decreased carbon source consumption during the anoxic phase. Herein, two SBBRs (R1, fully aerobic mode; R2, A/O mode) were used for the treatment of hypersaline high-strength nitrogen wastewater (200 mg/L NH4[+]-N, COD/N of 3 and 3% salinity). The results showed that the relatively low DO (2 mg/L) could not realize effective nitrification, while high DO (4.5 mg/L) evidently increased nitrification efficiency by enhancing oxygen transfer in denser biofilm that was stimulated by high salinity. A stable SND was reached 16 days faster with a ∼10% increase of TN removal under A/O mode. Mechanism analysis found that denser biofilm with coccus and bacillus were present in A/O mode instead of filamentous microorganisms, with the secretion of more EPS. Corynebacterium and Halomonas were the dominant genera in both SBBRs, and HN-AD process might assist partial nitrification-denitrification (PND) for highly efficient TN removal in biofilm systems. By using the appropriate operation mode and parameters, the average NH4[+]-N and TN removal efficiency could respectively reach 100% and 70.8% under the NLR of 0.2 kg N·m[-3]·d[-1] (COD/N of 3), which was the highest among the published works using SND-based SBBRs in treatment of saline high-strength ammonia nitrogen (low COD/N) wastewater. This study provided new insights in biofilm under hypersaline stress and provided a solution for the treatment of hypersaline high-strength nitrogen (low COD/N) water.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Reis-Neta GRD, Ricomini-Filho AP, Martorano-Fernandes L, et al (2024)

Effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles coating of titanium surface on biofilm adhesion: An in vitro study.

Archives of oral biology, 164:105986 pii:S0003-9969(24)00107-9 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To evaluate the adhesion of mono and duospecies biofilm on a commercially available dental implant surface coated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (nanoHA).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Titanium discs were divided into two groups: double acid-etched (AE) and AE coated with nanoHA (NanoHA). Surface characteristics evaluated were morphology, topography, and wettability. Mono and duospecies biofilms of Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) were formed. Discs were exposed to fetal bovine serum (FBS) to form the pellicle. Biofilm was growth in RPMI1640 medium with 10% FBS and 10% BHI medium for 6 h. Microbial viability was evaluated using colony-forming unit and metabolic activity by a colorimetric assay of the tetrazolium salt XTT. Biofilm architecture and organization were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

RESULTS: AE surface had more pores, while NanoHA had even nanoHA crystals distribution. Roughness was similar (AE: 0.59 ± 0.07 µm, NanoHA: 0.69 ± 0.18 µm), but wettability was different (AE: Θw= 81.79 ± 8.55°, NanoHA: Θw= 53.26 ± 11.86°; P = 0.01). NanoHA had lower S. sanguinis viability in monospecies biofilm (P = 0.007). Metabolic activity was similar among all biofilms. In SEM both surfaces on C. albicans biofilm show a similar distribution of hyphae in mono and duospecies biofilms. AE surface has more S. sanguinis than the NanoHA surface in the duospecies biofilm. CLSM showed a large proportion of live cells in all groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The nanoHA surface reduced the adhesion of S. sanguinis biofilm but did not alter the adhesion of C. albicans or the biofilm formed by both species.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Zhang H, Cheng Y, Qiu L, et al (2024)

In situ electron generation through Fe/C supported sludge coupled with a counter-diffusion biofilm for electron-deficient wastewater treatment: Binding properties and catalytic competition mechanism of nitrate reductase.

Water research, 257:121688 pii:S0043-1354(24)00589-X [Epub ahead of print].

A membrane-aerated biofilm-coupled Fe/C supported sludge system (MABR-Fe/C) was constructed to achieve in situ electron production for NO3[-]-N reduction enhancement in different Fe/C loadings (10 g and 200 g). The anoxic environment formed in the MABR-Fe/C promoted a continual Fe[2+]release of Fe/C in 120 d operation (average Fe[2+]concentrations is 1.18 and 2.95 mg/L in MABR-Fe/C10 and MABR-Fe/C200, respectively). Metagenomics results suggested that the electrons generated from ongoing Fe[2+] oxidation were transferred via the Quinone pool to EC rather than EC to complete the process of NO3[-]-N reduction to NO2[-]-N in Acidovorax, Ottowia, and Polaromonas. In the absence of organic matter, the NO3[-]-N removal in MABR-Fe/C10 and MABR-Fe/C200 increased by 11.99 and 12.52 mg/L, respectively, compared to that in MABR. In the further NO2[-]-N reduction, even if the minimum binding free energy (MBFE) was low, NO2[-]-N in Acidovorax and Dechloromonas preferentially bind the Gln-residues for dissimilatory nitrate reduction (DNR) in the presence of Fe/C. Increasing Fe/C loading (MABR-Fe/C200) caused the formation of different residue binding sites, further enhancing the already dominant DNR. When DNR in MABR-Fe/C200 intensified, the TN in the effluent increased by 3.75 mg/L although the effluent NO3[-]-N concentration was lower than that in MABR-Fe/C10. This study demonstrated a new MABR-Fe/C system for in situ electron generation to enhance biological nitrogen removal and analyzed the NO3[-]-N reduction pathway and metabolic mechanism, thus providing new ideas for nitrogen removal in electron-deficient wastewater.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Noori R, Bano N, Ahmad S, et al (2024)

Microbial Biofilm Inhibition Using Magnetic Cross-Linked Polyphenol Oxidase Aggregates.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial biofilm accumulation poses a serious threat to the environment, presents significant challenges to different industries, and exhibits a large impact on public health. Since there has not been a conclusive answer found despite various efforts, the potential green and economical methods are being focused on, particularly the innovative approaches that employ biochemical agents. In the present study, we propose a bio-nanotechnological method using magnetic cross-linked polyphenol oxidase aggregates (PPO m-CLEA) for inhibition of microbial biofilm including multidrug resistant bacteria. Free PPO solution showed only 55-60% biofilm inhibition, whereas m-CLEA showed 70-75% inhibition, as confirmed through microscopic techniques. The carbohydrate and protein contents in biofilm extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) were reduced significantly. The m-CLEA demonstrated reusability up to 5 cycles with consistent efficiency in biofilm inhibition. Computational work was also done where molecular docking of PPO with microbial proteins associated with biofilm formation was conducted, resulting in favorable binding scores and inter-residual interactions. Overall, both in vitro and in silico results suggest that PPO interferes with microbial cell attachment and EPS formation, thereby preventing biofilm colonization.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Perasoli FB, B Silva LS, C Figueiredo BI, et al (2024)

Poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethyl acrylamide)-silver nanocomposite prevents biofilm formation in medical devices.

Nanomedicine (London, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Aim: To investigate whether medical devices coated with a synthesized nanocomposite of poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethyl acrylamide) (PMMDMA) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could improve their antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities. We also investigated the nanocomposite's safety. Materials & methods: The nanocomposite was synthesized and characterized using analytical techniques. Medical devices coated with the nanocomposite were evaluated for bacterial adhesion and hemolytic activity in vitro. Results: The nanocomposite formation was demonstrated with the incorporation of AgNPs into the polymer matrix. The nanocomposite proved to be nonhemolytic and significantly inhibited bacterial biofilm formation. Conclusion: The PMMDMA-AgNPs nanocomposite was more effective in preventing biofilm formation than PMMDMA alone and is a promising strategy for coating medical devices and reducing mortality due to hospital-acquired infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Jarrett CO, Leung JM, Motoshi S, et al (2024)

Role of the Yersinia pestis phospholipase D (Ymt) in the initial aggregation step of biofilm formation in the flea.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Transmission of Yersinia pestis by fleas depends on the formation of condensed bacterial aggregates embedded within a gel-like matrix that localizes to the proventricular valve in the flea foregut and interferes with normal blood feeding. This is essentially a bacterial biofilm phenomenon, which at its end stage requires the production of a Y. pestis exopolysaccharide that bridges the bacteria together in a cohesive, dense biofilm that completely blocks the proventriculus. However, bacterial aggregates are evident within an hour after a flea ingests Y. pestis, and the bacterial exopolysaccharide is not required for this process. In this study, we characterized the biochemical composition of the initial aggregates and demonstrated that the yersinia murine toxin (Ymt), a Y. pestis phospholipase D, greatly enhances rapid aggregation following infected mouse blood meals. The matrix of the bacterial aggregates is complex, containing large amounts of protein and lipid (particularly cholesterol) derived from the flea's blood meal. A similar incidence of proventricular aggregation occurred after fleas ingested whole blood or serum containing Y. pestis, and intact, viable bacteria were not required. The initial aggregation of Y. pestis in the flea gut is likely due to a spontaneous physical process termed depletion aggregation that occurs commonly in environments with high concentrations of polymers or other macromolecules and particles such as bacteria. The initial aggregation sets up subsequent binding aggregation mediated by the bacterially produced exopolysaccharide and mature biofilm that results in proventricular blockage and efficient flea-borne transmission.

IMPORTANCE: Yersinia pestis, the bacterial agent of plague, is maintained in nature in mammal-flea-mammal transmission cycles. After a flea feeds on a mammal with septicemic plague, the bacteria rapidly coalesce in the flea's digestive tract to form dense aggregates enveloped in a viscous matrix that often localizes to the foregut. This represents the initial stage of biofilm development that potentiates transmission of Y. pestis when the flea later bites a new host. The rapid aggregation likely occurs via a depletion-aggregation mechanism, a non-canonical first step of bacterial biofilm development. We found that the biofilm matrix is largely composed of host blood proteins and lipids, particularly cholesterol, and that the enzymatic activity of a Y. pestis phospholipase D (Ymt) enhances the initial aggregation. Y. pestis transmitted by flea bite is likely associated with this host-derived matrix, which may initially shield the bacteria from recognition by the host's intradermal innate immune response.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Wang J, Mao D, Dai B, et al (2024)

Silicon-induced biofilm improves peripheral nerve defect in rats mediated by VEGF/VEGFR2/ERK.

Neurological research [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Injury of peripheral nerve capable of regeneration with much poorer prognosis affects people's life quality. The recovery of nerve function after transplantation for peripheral nerve injury remain a worldwide problem. Silicon-induced biofilms as vascularized biological conduits can promote nerve regeneration by encapsulating autologous or allogeneic nerve graft.Objective: We proposed to explore the effect of silicon-induced biofilms on nerves regeneration and whether the VEGF/VEGFR2/ERK pathway was involved in the present study.Methods: Biofilms around the transplanted nerves in peripheral nerve injury rats were induced by silicon. Vascularization and proteins related to VEGF/VEGFR2/ERK were measured. Pathology and morphology of nerves were investigated after encapsulating the transplanted nerves by silicon-induced biofilms.Results: Our results indicated that the biofilms induced by silicon for 6 weeks showed the most intensive vascularization and the optimal effect on nerve regeneration. Moreover, silicon-induced biofilms for 4, 6 and 8 weeks could significantly secrete VEGF with the highest content at week 6 after induction. VEGFR2, VEGF, p-VEGFR2, ERK1, ERK2, p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 were expressed in the biofilms. p-VEGFR2, p-ERK1 and p-ERK2 expression were different at each time point and significantly increased at week 6 compared with that at week 4 or week 8 which was consistent with that 6 week of was the optimum time for biofilms induction to improve the nerve repair after peripheral nerve injury.Conclusion: Our results suggested that combination of silicon-induced autologous vascularized biofilm and autologous transplantation may promote the repair of rat sciatic nerve defect quickly through VEGF/VEGFR2/ERK pathway.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Ezeh CK, MEU Dibua (2024)

Anti-biofilm, drug delivery and cytotoxicity properties of dendrimers.

ADMET & DMPK, 12(2):239-267.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatments using antimicrobial agents have faced many difficulties as a result of biofilm formation by pathogenic microorganisms. The biofilm matrix formed by these microorganisms prevents antimicrobial agents from penetrating the interior where they can exact their activity effectively. Additionally, extracellular polymeric molecules associated with biofilm surfaces can absorb antimicrobial compounds, lowering their bioavailability. This problem has resulted in the quest for alternative treatment protocols, and the development of nanomaterials and devices through nanotechnology has recently been on the rise.

RESEARCH APPROACH: The literature on dendrimers was searched for in databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect.

KEY RESULTS: As a nanomaterial, dendrimers have found useful applications as a drug delivery vehicle for antimicrobial agents against biofilm-mediated infections to circumvent these defense mechanisms. The distinctive properties of dendrimers, such as multi-valency, biocompatibility, high water solubility, non-immunogenicity, and biofilm matrix-/cell membrane fusogenicity (ability to merge with intracellular membrane or other proteins), significantly increase the efficacy of antimicrobial agents and reduce the likelihood of recurring infections.

CONCLUSION: This review outlines the current state of dendrimer carriers for biofilm treatments, provides examples of their real-world uses, and examines potential drawbacks.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Abdelrazek HM, Ghozlan HA, Sabry SA, et al (2024)

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) as a key player in the production of oil-based paint against biofilm and other activities.

Heliyon, 10(9):e29758.

Copper oxide nanoparticles are among the metal nanoparticles gaining popularity in many biotechnological fields, particularly in marine environments. Their antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities make them appealing to many researchers. Among the various methods of producing nanoparticles, biosynthesis is crucial. Thus, a large number of reports have been made about the microbiological manufacture of these nanoparticles by bacteria. Nevertheless, bio-production by means of the cell-free supernatant of marine bacteria is still in its primary phase. This is landmark research to look at how bacteria make a lot (14 g/L) of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) via the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus siamensis HS, their characterization, and their environmental and medical approaches. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized using a UV-visible spectrum range that provides two maximum absorption peaks, one obtained at 400 nm and the other around 550-600 nm. Diffraction of X-rays (XRD) clarifies that the size of the NPs obtained was estimated to be 18 nm using Debye-Scherrer's equation. Scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) displays 91.93 % copper oxide purity. The Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) image proves that the particles have a spherical form and an average diameter of 6.54-8.60 nm. At the environmental level, nanoparticles incorporated into oil-based paint can be used as antibiofilm tools to diminish the biofilm formed on the submerged surface in the marine environment. In disease management, NPs can be used as a wound healing agent to reduce the wound gap size as well as an anti-tumour agent to control liver cancer cells (hepatoma cells (HepG2)).

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Wen H, Zhang Y, Mi Z, et al (2024)

Rational design of PspAlgL to improve its thermostability and anti-biofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 269(Pt 1):132084 pii:S0141-8130(24)02889-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm enhances tolerance to antimicrobials and immune system defenses. Alginate is an important component of biofilm and a virulence factor of P. aeruginosa. The degradation of alginate by alginate lyases has come to serve as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy against P. aeruginosa biofilm, but poor stability of the enzyme limited this application. Thus, PspAlgL, an alginate lyase, can degrade acetylated alginate but has poor thermostability. The 3D structure of PspAlgL was predicted, and the thermostability of PspAlgL was rationally designed by GRAPE strategy, resulting in two variants with better stability. These variants, PspAlgLS270F/E311P and PspAlgLG291S/E311P, effectively degraded the alginate in biofilm. In addition, compared with PspAlgL, these variants were more efficient in inhibiting biofilm formation and degrading the established biofilm of P. aeruginosa PAO1, and they were also able to destroy the biofilm attached to catheters and to increase the sensitivity of P. aeruginosa to the antibiotic amikacin. This study provides one potential anti-biofilm agent for P. aeruginosa infection.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Divya M, Chen J, Durán-Lara EF, et al (2024)

Revolutionizing Healthcare: Harnessing Nano Biotechnology with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to combat Biofilm and Bacterial Infections-A Short Review.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(24)00146-3 [Epub ahead of print].

A crucial pathogenic mechanism in many bacterial diseases is the ability to create biofilms. Biofilms are suspected to play a role in over 80% of microbial illnesses in humans. In light of the critical requirement for efficient management of bacterial infections, researchers have explored alternative techniques for treating bacterial disorders. One of the most promising ways to address this issue is through the development of long-lasting coatings with antibacterial properties. In recent years, antibacterial treatments based on metallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as an effective strategy in the fight over bacterial drug resistance. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are the basis of a new composite coating material. This article begins with a brief overview of the mechanisms that underlie bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs. A detailed examination of the properties of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) and their potential use as antibacterial drugs for curing drug-sensitive and resistant bacteria follows. Furthermore, we assess metal nanoparticles (NPs) as powerful agents to fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the growth of biofilm, and we look into their potential toxicological effects for the development of future medicines.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Kang S, Li Q, Yang Y, et al (2024)

Effect of luminescent materials on the aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria natans and periphytic biofilm.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 211:108672 pii:S0981-9428(24)00340-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Luminescent materials can adjust the spectrum of light energy utilization by plants. However, current research on the effects of luminescent materials on aquatic plants and periphytic biofilms is limited. This study investigated the effects of the luminescent materials 4-(di-p-tolylamino) benzaldehyde-A (DTB-A) and 4-(di-p-tolylamino) benzaldehyde-M (DTB-M) on the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans (V. natans) and periphytic biofilm. Result demonstrated that low concentrations of DTB (0.1 μM) significantly promoted the growth and photosynthetic rate of V. natans. In terms of enzyme activity, exposure to a higher concentration of DTB (10 μM) increased the activities of peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). A combination of DTB-A and DTB-M treatment significantly changed the V. natans morphology and physiological characteristics, reducing the thickness of the cell wall and subsequently, promoting protein accumulation in leaves. There was no difference in the removal of ammonia or phosphate by V. natans at the 0.1 μM concentration, and the removal of ammonia and phosphate by V. natans decreased significantly as the concentration of luminescent material increased. A total of 3563 OTUs were identified in the biofilm community. The microbial community was dominated by Pseudomonas and Fusobacteria. Furthermore, results showed that an obvious decrease in diversity in the DTB-A and DTB-M mixed treatment group. In addition, the migratory aggregation of DTB molecules in plants was observed by fluorescence imaging. Overall, these findings extend our understanding of the mechanism of effect of luminescent materials on submerged macrophytes and their periphytic microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Liu S, Zhang Z, Zhao C, et al (2024)

Nonlinear responses of biofilm bacteria to alkyl-chain length of parabens by DFT calculation.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134460 pii:S0304-3894(24)01039-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Parabens can particularly raise significant concerns regarding the disruption of microbial ecology due to their antimicrobial properties. However, the responses of biofilm bacteria to diverse parabens with different alkyl-chain length remains unclear. Here, theoretical calculations and bioinformatic analysis were performed to decipher the influence of parabens varying alkyl-chain lengths on the biofilm bacteria. Our results showed that the disturbances in bacterial community did not linearly response to the alkyl-chain length of parabens, and propylparaben (PrP), with median chain length, had more severe impact on bacterial community. Despite the fact that paraben lethality linearly increased with chain length, the PrP had a higher chemical reactions potential than parabens with shorter or longer alkyl-chain. The chemical reactions potential was critical in the nonlinear responses of bacterial community to alkyl-chain length of parabens. PrP could impose selective pressure to disturb the bacterial community, because it had a more profound contribution to deterministic assembly process. Furthermore, N-acyl-homoserine lactones was also significantly promoted under PrP exposure, confirming that PrP could affect the bacterial community by influencing the quorum-sensing system. Overall, our study reveals the nonlinear responses of bacterial communities to the alkyl-chain lengths of parabens and provides insightful perspectives for the better regulation of parabens. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION: Parabens are recognized as emerging organic pollutants, which specially raise great concerns due to their antimicrobial properties disturbing microbial ecology. However, few study have addressed the relationship between bacterial community responses and the molecular structural features of parabens with different alkyl-chain length. This investigation revealed nonlinear responses of the bacterial community to the alkyl-chain length of parabens through DFT calculation and bioinformatic analysis and identified the critical roles of chemical reactions potential in nonlinear responses of bacterial community. Our results benefit the precise evaluation of ecological hazards posed by parabens and provide useful insights for better regulation of parabens.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Taşkın Kafa AH, Aslan R, Durna Daştan S, et al (2024)

Molecular diversity of Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates: antimicrobial resistance, virulence, and biofilm formation.

Nucleosides, nucleotides & nucleic acids [Epub ahead of print].

One of the mechanisms responsible for antibiotic resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae is the enzymes produced by the bacteria; another important mechanism is the ability to form biofilm. In this study, antibiotic resistance, genes associated with virulence, and biofilm-forming properties of K. pneumoniae strains were investigated. A total of 100 K. pneumoniae isolates were obtained from different clinical samples identified by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed with the Phoenix 100 apparatus. The biofilm forming properties of strains were determined by the microtiter plate method. For molecular analysis, genes encoding the carbapenemase enzyme (blaOXA-48, blaNDM-1, blaIMP, and blaVIM) and biofilm-related genes (treC, luxS, mrkA, and wza) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). While 76% of clinical isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobials, 24% were classified as non-multidrug resistant (non-MDR). When biofilm-forming capacities of clinical isolates were tested, it was determined that the resistant-isolates produced 59.2% strong biofilm, and susceptible-isolates produced 12.5% strong biofilm. According to PCR results, carbapenemase genes were determined as follows: blaOXA-48-70%, blaNDM-49%, and blaKPC-19%, blaOXA-48/blaNDM/blaKPC-12%, blaOXA-48/blaNDM-26%, and blaOXA-48/blaKPC-4%. The biofilm-associated genes in bacterial isolates were determined as follows: luxS-98%, treC-94%, mrkA-88%, and wza-15%. In addition, Hierarchical Clustering Tree and Heatmap analysis revealed an association between isolates that lacks resistance genes and isolates lacks biofilm-formation related genes that were included in MDR or non-MDR classes. As a result, biofilm should be considered in the treatment of MDR infections, and therapy should be planned accordingly. In addition, pursuing the data and genes of antibiotic resistance is significant for combating resistance.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Lencova S, Stindlova M, Havlickova K, et al (2024)

Influence of Fiber Diameter of Polycaprolactone Nanofibrous Materials on Biofilm Formation and Retention of Bacterial Cells.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

To develop microbiologically safe nanofibrous materials, it is crucial to understand their interactions with microbial cells. Current research indicates that the morphology of nanofibers, particularly the diameter of the fibers, may play a significant role in biofilm formation and retention. However, it has not yet been determined how the fiber diameter of poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), one of the most widely used biopolymers, affects these microbial interactions. In this study, two nanofibrous materials electrospun from PCL (PCL45 and PCL80) with different fiber diameter and characteristic distance δ between fibers were compared in terms of their ability to support or inhibit bacterial biofilm formation and retain bacterial cells. Strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922 and ATCC 8739) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 and ATCC 6538) were used as model bacteria. Biofilm formation rate and retention varied significantly between the E. coli and S. aureus strains (p < 0.05) for the tested nanomaterials. In general, PCL showed a lower tendency to be colonized by the tested bacteria compared to the control material (polystyrene). Fiber diameter did not influence the biofilm formation rate of S. aureus strains and E. coli 25922 (p > 0.05), but it did significantly impact the biofilm formation rate of E. coli 8739 and biofilm morphology formed by all of the tested bacterial strains. In PCL45, thick uniform biofilm layers were formed preferably on the surface, while in PCL80 smaller clusters formed preferably inside the structure. Further, fiber diameter significantly influenced the retention of bacterial cells of all the tested strains (p < 0.001). PCL45, with thin fibers (average fiber diameter of 376 nm), retained up to 7 log (CFU mL[-1]) of staphylococcal cells (100% retention). The overall results indicate PCL45's potential for further research and highlight the nanofibers' morphology influence on bacterial interactions and differences in bacterial strains' behavior in the presence of nanomaterials.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Wang Z, Zhang X, Liu Q, et al (2024)

Balancing Bioresponsive Biofilm Eradication and Guided Tissue Repair via Pro-Efferocytosis and Bidirectional Pyroptosis Regulation during Implant Surgery.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

There is an increasingly growing demand to balance tissue repair guidance and opportunistic infection (OI) inhibition in clinical implant surgery. Herein, we developed a nanoadjuvant for all-stage tissue repair guidance and biofilm-responsive OI eradication via in situ incorporating Cobaltiprotoporphyrin (CoPP) into Prussian blue (PB) to prepare PB-CoPP nanozymes (PCZs). Released CoPP possesses a pro-efferocytosis effect for eliminating apoptotic and progressing necrotic cells in tissue trauma, thus preventing secondary inflammation. Once OIs occur, PCZs with switchable nanocatalytic capacity can achieve bidirectional pyroptosis regulation. Once reaching the acidic biofilm microenvironment, PCZs possess peroxidase (POD)-like activity that can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to eradicate bacterial biofilms, especially when synergized with the photothermal effect. Furthermore, generated ROS can promote macrophage pyroptosis to secrete inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial proteins for biofilm eradication in vivo. After eradicating the biofilm, PCZs possess catalase (CAT)-like activity in a neutral environment, which can scavenge ROS and inhibit macrophage pyroptosis, thereby improving the inflammatory microenvironment. Briefly, PCZs as nanoadjuvants feature the capability of all-stage tissue repair guidance and biofilm-responsive OI inhibition that can be routinely performed in all implant surgeries, providing a wide range of application prospects and commercial translational value.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )