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Bibliography on: Biofilm

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 02 Dec 2023 at 01:39 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-12-01

Hassani M, Kamankesh M, Rad-Malekshahi M, et al (2023)

Biomaterials coated with zwitterionic polymer brush demonstrated significant resistance to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation in comparison to brush coatings incorporated with antibiotics.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 234:113671 pii:S0927-7765(23)00565-9 [Epub ahead of print].

A critical problem with the use of biomaterial implants is associated with bacterial adhesion on the surface of implants and in turn the biofilm formation. Among different strategies that have been reported to resolve this dilemma, surface design combined with both antiadhesive and antimicrobial properties has proven to be highly effective. Physiochemical properties of polymer brush coatings possess non-adhesive capability against bacterial adhesion and create a niche for further functionalization. The current study aims to evaluate the effect of antibiotics incorporated into the polymer brush on bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Brushes made of zwitterionic polymers were synthesized, functionalized with vancomycin via both physical and chemical conjugation, and grafted onto the silicon rubber surfaces. Antibacterial and antiadhesive measurements of designed coated biomaterials were mediated through the use of a parallel plate flow chamber against biofilm growth developed by Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli over a period of 24 h. The analysis of biofilm growth on designed coated biomaterials showed that the pristine coated zwitterionic brushes are significantly resistant to bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation but not in the polymer brush coating incorporated with antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-12-01

Veiga FF, Marcomini EK, Salvador A, et al (2023)

Detection of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and its modulating effect in biofilm of Fusarium oxysporum.

Molecular microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

In immunocompetent individuals, Fusarium spp. stands out as the causative agent of onychomycosis, among the non-dermatophyte molds. Despite evidence indicating that Fusarium oxysporum organizes itself in the form of a biofilm causing onychomycosis, there is little literature on the etiopathogenesis of the biofilm on the nail, specifically the signaling molecules present, known as quorum sensing (QS). Thus, this study detected the presence of a molecule related to QS from the ex vivo biofilm of F. oxysporum on human nail and investigated its effect on preformed biofilm in vitro. The detection and physicochemical characterization of a QS molecule, from the extracellular matrix (ECM), was carried out by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory and by headspace gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. Determination of viable cells, cell activity, total biomass, ECM components and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to evaluate the influence of the QS molecule on the in vitro biofilm of F. oxysporum. The beginning, in the ex vivo biofilm of F. oxysporum on human nails, the volatile organic compound 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (2EH) was detected as a component of QS. Thereafter in vitro analyses, synthetic 2EH was able to modulate the biofilm by stimulating its filament, increasing total biomass and ECM production in terms of total carbohydrates, but with a reduction in total proteins and nucleic acids. We thus evidence, for the first time, the presence of 2EH in the biofilm of F. oxysporum, developed on the human nail, and the in vitro action of this compound as a QS molecule.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Preziuso S, Attili AR, V Cuteri (2023)

Methicillin-resistant staphylococci in clinical bovine mastitis: occurrence, molecular analysis, and biofilm production.

Veterinary research communications [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen that causes mastitis in cattle, and the emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) poses a threat to veterinary and human medicine. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence of MRSA and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) isolated from clinical mastitis, their ability to form biofilms, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of S. aureus strains. In addition, the Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, spa type and the presence of Panton-Valentine Leucocidin in MRSA were evaluated. A total of 326 staphylococcal strains were screened by multiplex-PCR for S. aureus and Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG) identification. The S. aureus strains (n = 163) were subjected to phenotypic testing for antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm formation. Molecular analysis was performed on MRSA mecA-positive strains. Of 163 S. aureus isolates, 142 strains (87.1%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and all 19 MRSA strains were resistant to at least four out of five antibiotics tested. All S. aureus strains harboured the icaA gene and were biofilm producers. Nineteen MR-CoNS strains were also isolated. The most prevalent spa types among MRSA were t001 (57.9%) and t037 (31.6%), while one MRSA was type t008 and one was type t041. Most MRSA were SCCmec type I (63.2%) and III (31.6%) and only one strain was type IV. None of the MRSA isolates had the PVL gene. The prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus in bovine mastitis is a serious concern. The finding of MRSA with spa types predominant in humans and infrequent in Italian cows and with SCCmec infrequently found in bovine milk or cheese suggest a human origin of these strains. The ability of MRSA and MR-CoNS involved in bovine mastitis to be transferred to humans and vice versa poses a public health concern.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Zhou W, Niu D, Gao S, et al (2023)

Erratum to 'Prevalence, biofilm formation, and mass spectrometric characterization of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus capitis isolated from a tertiary hospital in China' [Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance 33 (2023) 155-163].

Journal of global antimicrobial resistance, 35:358.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Guo G, Liu Z, Yu J, et al (2023)

Neutrophil Function Conversion Driven by Immune Switchpoint Regulator Against Diabetes-Related Biofilm Infections.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Reinforced biofilm structures and dysfunctional neutrophils induced by excessive oxidative stress contribute to the refractoriness of diabetes-related biofilm infections (DRBIs). Herein, in contrast to traditional antibacterial therapies, an immune switchpoint-driven neutrophil immune function conversion (NIFC) strategy based on a deoxyribonuclease I loaded vanadium carbide MXene (DNase-I@V2 C) nano-regulator was proposed to treat DRBIs via biofilm lysis and redirecting neutrophil functions from NETosis to phagocytosis in diabetes. Owing to its intrinsic SOD/CAT-like activities, DNase-I@V2 C effectively scavenged ROS in a high oxidative stress microenvironment to maintain the biological activity of DNase-I. By increasing the depth of biofilm penetration of DNase-I, DNase-I@V2 C thoroughly degraded extracellular DNA (eDNA) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), thus breaking the physical barrier of biofilms. More importantly, as an immune switchpoint regulator, DNase-I@V2 C can skew neutrophil functions from NETosis towards phagocytosis by intercepting ROS-NE/MPO-PAD4 and activating ROS-PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways in diabetic microenvironment, thereby eliminating biofilm infections. Biofilm lysis and synergistic neutrophil function conversion exerted favorable therapeutic effects on biofilm infections in vitro and in vivo. This study serves as a proof-of-principle demonstration of effectively achieving DRBIs with high therapeutic efficacy by regulating immune switchpoint to reverse neutrophil functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

El-Demerdash AS, Orady RM, Matter AA, et al (2023)

An Alternative Approach Using Nano-garlic Emulsion and its Synergy with Antibiotics for Controlling Biofilm-Producing Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella in Chicken.

Indian journal of microbiology, 63(4):632-644.

Surface-growing antibiotic-resistant pathogenic Salmonella is emerging as a global health challenge due to its high economic loss in the poultry industry. Their pathogenesis, increasing antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm formation make them challenging to treat with traditional therapy. The identification of antimicrobial herbal ingredients may provide valuable solutions to solve this problem. Therefore, our aim is to evaluate the potency of nano garlic as the alternative of choice against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella isolates using disc diffusion and microdilution assays. Then, checkerboard titration in trays was applied, and FIC was measured to identify the type of interaction between the two antimicrobials. A disc diffusion assay revealed that neomycin was the drug of choice. The range of nano garlic MIC was 12.5-25 μg/ml, while the neomycin MIC range was 32-64 μg/ml. The FIC index established a synergistic association between the two tested drugs in 85% of isolates. An experimental model was used including nano garlic and neomycin alone and in combination against Salmonella infection. The combination therapy significantly improved body productivity and inhibited biofilm formation by more than 50% down regulating the CsgBAD, motB, and sipA operons, which are responsible for curli fimbriae production and biofilm formation in Salmonella serotypes.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Moradi F, Ghaedi A, Fooladfar Z, et al (2023)

Recent advance on nanoparticles or nanomaterials with anti-multidrug resistant bacteria and anti-bacterial biofilm properties: A systematic review.

Heliyon, 9(11):e22105 pii:S2405-8440(23)09313-1.

OBJECTIVE: With the wide spread of Multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) due to the transfer and acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes and the formation of microbial biofilm, various researchers around the world are looking for a solution to overcome these resistances. One potential strategy and the best candidate to overcome these infections is using an effective nanomaterial with antibacterial properties against them.

METHODS: and analysis: In this study, we overview nanomaterials with anti-MDR bacteria and anti-biofilm properties. Hence, we systematically explored biomedical databases (Web of Sciences, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus) to categorize related studies about nanomaterial with anti-MDR bacteria and anti-biofilm activities from 2007 to December 2022.

RESULTS: In total, forty-one studies were investigated to find antibacterial and anti-biofilm information about the nanomaterial during 2007-2022. According to the collected documents, nineteen types of nanomaterial showed putative antibacterial effects such as Cu, Ag, Au, Au/Pt, TiO2, Al2O3, ZnO, Se, CuO, Cu/Ni, Cu/Zn, Fe3O4, Au/Fe3O4, Au/Ag, Au/Pt, Graphene O, and CuS. In addition, seven types of them considered as anti-biofilm agents such as Ag, ZnO, Au/Ag, Graphene O, Cu, Fe3O4, and Au/Ag.

CONCLUSION: According to the studies, each of nanomaterial has been designed with different methods and their effects against standard strains, clinical strains, MDR strains, and bacterial biofilms have been investigated in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. In addition, nanomaterials have different destructive mechanism on bacterial structures. Various nanoparticles (NP) introduced as the best candidate to designing new drug and medical equipment preventing infectious disease outbreaks by overcome antibiotic resistance and bacterial biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Choudhari S, Krithikadatta J, Vejendla I, et al (2023)

Microbial Interactions in Oral Biofilm: Evaluating Therapeutic Interventions and the Emergence of Resistance: A Narrative Review.

Cureus, 15(10):e48021.

The oral cavity comprises numerous anatomical surfaces that are inhabited by a diverse array of bacteria, collectively forming a bacterial biofilm. Within this complex microbial community, certain bacterial species are etiologically linked to the development of common oral pathologies, such as dental caries and periodontitis, which stand as prominent instances of bacterial infections frequently encountered in clinical settings. Most biofilms are believed to be multispecies consortia. While single-species biofilms have been well-researched, mixed-species biofilms and their interactions amongst themselves have not drawn interest. The aim of the current review was to assess the various interactions of dual-species microorganisms in oral biofilm formation. Farnesol given exogenously for the treatment of biofilm can enhance or inhibit the growth of certain organisms, as seen in Candida albicans. In the age of antibiotic resistance, it is imperative to develop and uncover drugs capable of simultaneously targeting multiple species in order to mitigate antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Sindhu BU, Praveen S, Sandeep JN, et al (2023)

Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) against periodontal biofilm.

Journal of oral and maxillofacial pathology : JOMFP, 27(3):499-506.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the action of immunoglobulin Y (IgY) on supragingival microbiota and on subgingival microbiota in patients with gingivitis and periodontitis through microbial reduction assay.

METHODOLOGY: 40 systemically healthy patients were divided into two groups (gingivitis and periodontitis) with 20 patients per group. Supragingival and subgingival plaque samples were collected from each patient in Group I and Group II, respectively. Sample 1 and Sample 2 from each patient were immediately transferred into sterile Eppendorf tube 1 and tube 2 with microbial transport media, respectively. Both the tubes were then immediately transferred into an anaerobic jar and sent to the microbial facility. IgY was then added to these samples. All the samples were collected in duplicate vials to check the in vitro antimicrobial activity of microbes with IgY and without IgY. Microbial reduction percentage was calculated based on the colony count comparing the colonies with and without IgY.

RESULTS: The mean CFUs in the gingivitis group with IgY samples was significantly lesser as compared to the periodontitis group. The mean CFUs in gingivitis and periodontitis group with IgY samples was significantly lesser as compared to those without IgY samples.

CONCLUSION: IgY has a significant role in the reduction of bacterial count in supragingival and subgingival plaque samples. So, IgY when used as a local drug delivery agent or mouthwash, as an adjunct to scaling and root planing may reduce gingival and periodontal diseases but further studies showing its effect must be carried out to validate the same.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Bakenhus I, Jongsma R, Michler-Kozma D, et al (2023)

A domesticated photoautotrophic microbial community as a biofilm model system for analyzing the influence of plastic surfaces on invertebrate grazers in limnic environments.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1238913.

The environmental fate of plastic particles in water bodies is influenced by microbial biofilm formation. Invertebrate grazers may be affected when foraging biofilms on plastics compared to biofilms on natural substrata but the mechanistic basis for these effects is unknown. For analyzing these effects in ecotoxicological assays stable and reproducible biofilm communities are required that are related to the environmental site of interest. Here, a defined biofilm community was established and used to perform grazing experiments with a freshwater snail. For this, snippets of different plastic materials were incubated in the photic zone of three different freshwater sites. Amplicon sequencing of biofilms formed on these snippets showed that the site of incubation and not the plastic material dominated the microbial community composition. From these biofilms, individual microbial strains as well as photoautotrophic consortia were isolated; these consortia consisted of heterotrophic bacteria that were apparently nourished by microalga. While biofilms formed by defined dual cultures of a microalga and an Alphaproteobacterium were not accepted by the snail P. fontinalis, a photoautotrophic consortium (Co_3) sustained growth and metabolism of this grazer. Amplicon sequencing revealed that consortium Co_3, which could be stably maintained on solid medium under photoautotrophic conditions, reproducibly formed biofilms of a defined composition on three different plastic materials and on glass surfaces. In conclusion, our study shows that the generation of domesticated photoautotrophic microbial communities is a valid novel approach for establishing laboratory ecotoxicological assays with higher environmental relevance than those based on defined microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Hu Y, Webb JS, SQ An (2023)

Host cell-based screening assays for identification of molecules targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa cyclic di-GMP signaling and biofilm formation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1279922.

The rapid emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in current use is occurring worldwide and poses a significant threat to global healthcare systems. Recent research to identify new effective anti-bacterial agents has focused on regulatory pathways as targets for interference. Regulatory mechanisms employing intracellular Bis-(3',5') cyclic di-guanylate (c-di-GMP) as a secondary messenger represent a distinct category of subjects. This molecule, c-di-GMP, is present in nearly all bacterial species and plays a pivotal role in governing various biological processes, encompassing antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence. Alteration of the cellular concentrations of the nucleotide through modulation of associated signaling pathways has the potential to reduce biofilm formation or increase susceptibility of the biofilm bacteria to antibiotics. Here, we have developed a screen for compounds that alter c-di-GMP levels in Pseudomonas aeruginosa in co-culture with bronchial epithelial cells. Through the assay of 200 natural compounds, we were able to identify several substances showing promising effects on P. aeruginosa in a host biofilm infection model. Importantly, we detected compounds that inhibit c-di-GMP levels and showed significant influence on biofilm formation and virulence in P. aeruginosa in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, we offer proof-of-concept information regarding swift and practical drug screening assays, suitable for medium- to high-throughput applications, which target the c-di-GMP signaling pathways in this significant Gram-negative pathogen.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Gedefie A, Alemayehu E, Mohammed O, et al (2023)

Prevalence of biofilm producing Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

PloS one, 18(11):e0287211 pii:PONE-D-22-23282.

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii, the first human pathogen to be designated as a "red-alert" pathogen, is on the critical priority list of pathogens requiring new antibiotics. Biofilm-associated diseases are the most common infections caused by the antibiotic-resistant bacteria A. baumannii. Multidrug-resistant strains are more easily transmitted around the world due to A. baumannii's ability to produce biofilms, which allows it to develop antibiotic resistance mechanisms and thrive in healthcare environments. As a result, A. baumannii infections are becoming increasingly common in hospital settings allover the world. As a result, a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out to determine the global prevalence of biofilm-producing A. baumannii clinical isolates.

METHODS: Articles were extensively searched in bibliographic databases and grey literatures using entry terms or phrases. Studies meeting eligibility criteria were extracted in MS Excel and exported into STATA version 12 software for statistical analysis. A random-effects model was used to compute the pooled prevalence of biofilm-producing A. baumannii clinical isolates. The heterogeneity was quantified by using the I2 value. Publication bias was assessed using a funnel plot and Egger's test. Sensitivity analysis was done to assess the impact of a single study on pooled effect size.

RESULT: Of the 862 studies identified, 26 studies consisted of 2123 A.baumannii clinical isolates of which 1456 were biofilm-producing. The pooled prevalence of biofilm-producing A.baumannii clinical isolates was 65.63% (95% CI = 56.70%-74.56%). There was substantial heterogeneity with an I2 value of 98.1%. Moreover, 41.34%, 33.57%, and 27.63% of isolates of strong, mild, and weak producers of biofilm. Higher prevalence was found in studies published after 2014 (66.31%); Western Pacific region (76.17%); and Asia (66.22%) followed by the African continent (57.29%).

CONCLUSION: The pooled prevalence of biofilm-producing A. baumannii clinical isolates has risen alarmingly, posing a public health risk. This indicates the burden of biofilm-producing A. baumannii infections urges routine screening and appropriate treatment for better management of hospitalized patients, as well as effective controlling of the emergence of drug resistance. Furthermore, this finding is an alert call for the stakeholders to develop strong infection prevention and antibiotics stewardship programs for the prevention and control of biofilm-producing bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Al Bataineh MT, A Alazzam (2023)

Transforming medical device biofilm control with surface treatment using microfabrication techniques.

PloS one, 18(11):e0292647 pii:PONE-D-23-16596.

Biofilm deposition on indwelling medical devices and implanted biomaterials is frequently attributed to the prevalence of resistant infections in humans. Further, the nature of persistent infections is widely believed to have a biofilm etiology. In this study, the wettability of commercially available indwelling medical devices was explored for the first time, and its effect on the formation of biofilm was determined in vitro. Surprisingly, all tested indwelling devices were found to be hydrophilic, with surface water contact angles ranging from 60° to 75°. First, we established a thriving Candida albicans biofilm growth at 24 hours. in YEPD at 30°C and 37°C plus serum in vitro at Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) modified surface, which was subsequently confirmed via scanning electron microscopy, while their cellular metabolic function was assessed using the XTT cell viability assay. Surfaces with patterned wettability show that a contact angle of 110° (hydrophobic) inhibits C. albicans planktonic and biofilm formation completely compared to robust growth at a contact angle of 40° (hydrophilic). This finding may provide a novel antimicrobial strategy to prevent biofilm growth and antimicrobial resistance on indwelling devices and prosthetic implants. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the surface characteristics of medical devices and their potential impact on biofilm formation, leading to the development of improved approaches to control and prevent microbial biofilms and re-infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Khan I, Minto RE, Kelley-Patteson C, et al (2023)

Biofilm derived oxylipin 10-HOME mediated immune response in women with breast implants.

The Journal of clinical investigation pii:165644 [Epub ahead of print].

The study investigates a mechanistic link if bacterial biofilm mediated host-pathogen interaction leads to immunological complications associated with breast implant illness (BII). Over 10 million women worldwide have breast implants. In recent years, women have described a constellation of immunological symptoms believed to be related to their breast implants. The study included 178 subjects divided in three cohorts. Eighty-six patients reported symptoms consistent with BII. Control group I (non-BII, N=55) included patients with breast implants without BII symptoms but went through explantation of the breast implant. Control group II (normal tissue, N=37) was comprised of women without an implant, whose breast tissue was removed as an unrelated clinically indicated surgical procedures. We report that periprosthetic breast tissue of BII had increased abundance of biofilm and biofilm-derived oxylipin, 10-HOME. S. epidermidis biofilm was observed to be higher in the BII group (73.33%) compared to non-BII group (16.67%, p=0.018) and the normal group (10%, p=0.036). The oxylipin was found to be immunogenic capable of polarizing naïve CD4+ T cells with a resulting Th1 subtype in vitro and in vivo. Consistently, an abundance of CD4+Th1 subtype was observed in the periprosthetic breast tissue and blood of BII subjects. Mice injected with 10-HOME also had increased Th1 subtype in blood akin to BII patients and demonstrated fatigue-like symptoms. The identification of an oxylipin-mediated mechanism of immune activation induced by local bacterial biofilm associated with BII provides insight into the possible pathogenesis of implant-associated immune symptoms of BII.

RevDate: 2023-11-30

Aksoy N, Vatansever C, Adalı C, et al (2023)

The Inhibitory Effects of Amylase and Streptokinase on Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Antibiotics Used to Treat Gram Negative Bacteria Biofilm Infection on Indwelling Devices.

Indian journal of microbiology, 63(4):533-540.

The study evaluated and compared the effect of adding streptokinase and amylase to antibiotics that are already used in clinical practice to treat Gram negative bacteria biofilm infection on indwelling devices on the antibiotics' minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). 24 h-old biofilms were developed on 96-well plate with eight clinical isolates. MIC of amikacin, cefepime, ceftazidime, colistin, meropenem, and piperacillin-tazobactam, on biofilms were measured before and after the addition of 25 U/ml streptokinase and 25 μg/ml amylase with microplate reader. The addition of streptokinase reduces the MICs of cefepime, ceftazidime, colistin, meropenem from (16, 16, 8, 4 μg/ml) to (8, 1, 1, 0.5 μg/ml) in Escherichia coli (isolate 1). While the addition of amylase reduces the MICs of only cefepime, ceftazidime from (16, 16 μg/ml) to (2, 4 μg/ml) in E. coli (isolate 1). In Pseudomonas aeruginosa (isolate 4), the MICs of amikacin, cefepime, ceftazidime, colistin and meropenem (64, 16, 32, 4, 32 μg/ml) reduced to (2, 1, 0.5, 0.25, 0.5 μg/ml) with streptokinase and (4, 4, 4, 2, 0.5 μg/ml) with amylase respectively. Similar inhibitions were seen in Pseudomonas putida, Proteus mirabilis. We can conclude that the addition of streptokinase and amylase were effective in reducing the MICs of antibiotics that are commonly used to treat Gram negative bacteria biofilm infection on indwelling devices, thereby increasing susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics. Streptokinase obviously had a greater effect than amylase, implying that it should be prioritized in future in vivo and clinical studies to obtain successful therapy with antibiotics on biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Jalil AT, Alrawe RTA, Al-Saffar MA, et al (2023)

The use of combination therapy for the improvement of colistin activity against bacterial biofilm.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Colistin is used as a last resort for the management of infections caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria. However, the use of this antibiotic could lead to different side effects, such as nephrotoxicity, in most patients, and the high prevalence of colistin-resistant strains restricts the use of colistin in the clinical setting. Additionally, colistin could induce resistance through the increased formation of biofilm; biofilm-embedded cells are highly resistant to antibiotics, and as with other antibiotics, colistin is impaired by bacteria in the biofilm community. In this regard, the researchers used combination therapy for the enhancement of colistin activity against bacterial biofilm, especially MDR bacteria. Different antibacterial agents, such as antimicrobial peptides, bacteriophages, natural compounds, antibiotics from different families, N-acetylcysteine, and quorum-sensing inhibitors, showed promising results when combined with colistin. Additionally, the use of different drug platforms could also boost the efficacy of this antibiotic against biofilm. The mentioned colistin-based combination therapy not only could suppress the formation of biofilm but also could destroy the established biofilm. These kinds of treatments also avoided the emergence of colistin-resistant subpopulations, reduced the required dosage of colistin for inhibition of biofilm, and finally enhanced the dosage of this antibiotic at the site of infection. However, the exact interaction of colistin with other antibacterial agents has not been elucidated yet; therefore, further studies are required to identify the precise mechanism underlying the efficient removal of biofilms by colistin-based combination therapy.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Lago A, Silva B, T Tavares (2023)

Sustainable permeable biobarriers for atrazine removal in packed bed biofilm reactors.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)02035-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The synergy between two supported bacterial biofilms of S. equisimilis and P. putida and a sustainable biocarrier (raw pine) was studied, working both as biobarriers for the treatment of water contaminated with atrazine. Firstly, the effects of ATZ exposure on bacterial growth were evaluated, with Gram-positive S. equisimilis being a more tolerant bacterium to higher amounts of the herbicide. The bioremoval of ATZ by S. equisimilis concentrated biomass was then assessed, reaching around 83.5% after 15 days due to the potential degradation by the biomass and biosorption by the solids, with overlapping of both mechanisms. The optimization of bacterial biofilm attachment onto raw pine prior to bioremoval assays in lab-scale packed bed biofilm reactors was performed by varying initial biomass concentration, inocula growth time and hydrodynamic conditions. Lastly, the optimized biosystems were tested as sustainable remediation designs to treat water contaminated with the selected herbicide. Results reveal an added beneficial effect towards the bioremoval of atrazine using supported biofilms onto raw pine, reaching 90.42% and 79.71% by S. equisimilis and P. putida biofilms, respectively, over 58.31% increase when compared to sorption on fixed bed of pine. The coupling of biosorption/biodegradation favors the bioremoval process significantly.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Thombre D, Shelar A, Nakhale S, et al (2023)

Green synthesis of biogenic selenium nanoparticles functionalized with ginger dietary extract targeting virulence factor and biofilm formation in Candida albicans.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00495-3 [Epub ahead of print].

To treat the systemic infections caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), various drugs have been used, however, infections still persisted due to virulence factors and increasing antifungal resistance. As a solution to this problem, we synthesized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) by using Bacillus cereus bacteria. This is the first study to report a higher (70 %) reduction of selenite ions into SeNPs in under 6 h. The as-synthesized, biogenic SeNPs were used to deliver bioactive constituents of aqueous extract of ginger for inhibiting the growth and biofilm (virulence factors) in C. albicans. UV-visible spectroscopy revealed a characteristic absorption at 280 nm, and Raman spectroscopy showed a characteristic peak shift at 253 cm[-1] for the biogenic SeNPs. The synthesized SeNPs are spherical with 240-250 nm in size as determined by electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the functionalization of antifungal constituents of ginger over the SeNPs (formation of Ginger@SeNPs nanoconjugates). In contrast to biogenic SeNPs, nanoconjugates were active against C. albicans for inhibiting growth and biofilm (virulence factor) formation. To understand the antifungal action of nanoconjugates, genes involved in the biofilm were targeted. In order to reveal antifungal mechanism of nanoconjugates', real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was performed. Nanoconjugates inhibited 25 % growth of human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cell line, indicating moderate cytotoxicity of active nanoconjugates in an in-vitro cytotoxicity study. Therefore, biogenic SeNPs conjugated with ginger dietary extract may be a potential antifungal agent and drug carrier for inhibiting C. albicans growth and biofilm (virulence factor) formation.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Wu KK, Zhao L, Wang ZH, et al (2023)

Simultaneous biogas upgrading and medium-chain fatty acids production using a dual membrane biofilm reactor.

Water research, 249:120915 pii:S0043-1354(23)01355-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Utilizing H2-assisted ex-situ biogas upgrading and acetate recovery holds great promise for achieving high value utilization of biogas. However, it faces a significant challenge due to acetate's high solubility and limited economic value. To address this challenge, we propose an innovative strategy for simultaneous upgrading of biogas and the production of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs). A series of batch tests evaluated the strategy's efficiency under varying initial gas ratios (v/v) of H2, CH4, CO2, along with varying ethanol concentrations. The results identified the optimal conditions as initial gas ratios of 3H2:3CH4:2CO2 and an ethanol concentration of 241.2 mmol L[-1], leading to maximum CH4 purity (97.2 %), MCFAs yield (54.2 ± 2.1 mmol L[-1]), and MCFAs carbon-flow distribution (62.3 %). Additionally, an analysis of the microbial community's response to varying conditions highlighted the crucial roles played by microorganisms such as Clostridium, Proteiniphilum, Sporanaerobacter, and Bacteroides in synergistically assimilating H2 and CO2 for MCFAs production. Furthermore, a 160-day continuous operation using a dual-membrane aerated biofilm reactor (dMBfR) was conducted. Remarkable achievements were made at a hydraulic retention time of 2 days, including an upgraded CH4 content of 96.4 ± 0.3 %, ethanol utilization ratio (URethanol) of 95.7 %, MCFAs production rate of 28.8 ± 0.3 mmol L[-1] d[-1], and MCFAs carbon-flow distribution of 70 ± 0.8 %. This enhancement is proved to be an efficient in biogas upgrading and MCFAs production. These results lay the foundation for maximizing the value of biogas, reducing CO2 emissions, and providing valuable insights into resource recovery.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Zhang T, Liu Z, Wang H, et al (2023)

Multi-omics analysis reveals genes and metabolites involved in Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum biofilm formation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1287680.

Bacterial biofilm is an emerging form of life that involves cell populations living embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of Bifidobacterium biofilm formation. We used the Bifidobacterium biofilm fermentation system to preparation of biofilms on wheat fibers, and multi-omics analysis of both B. pseudocatenulatum biofilms and planktonic cells were performed to identify genes and metabolites involved in biofilm formation. The average diameter of wheat fibers was around 50 μm, while the diameter of particle in wheat fibers culture of B. pseudocatenulatum was over 260 μm at 22 h with 78.96% biofilm formation rate (BR), and the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) results showed that biofilm cells on the surface of wheat fibers secreted EPS. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that genes associated with stress response (groS, mntH, nth, pdtaR, pstA, pstC, radA, rbpA, whiB, ybjG), quorum sensing (dppC, livM, luxS, sapF), polysaccharide metabolic process (rfbX, galE, zwf, opcA, glgC, glgP, gtfA) may be involved in biofilm formation. In addition, 17 weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) modules were identified and two of them positively correlated to BR. Metabolomic analysis indicated that amino acids and amides; organic acids, alcohols and esters; and sugar (trehalose-6-phosphate, uridine diphosphategalactose, uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine) were main metabolites during biofilm formation. These results indicate that stress response, quorum sensing (QS), and EPS production are essential during B. pseudocatenulatum biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Oliveira RIS, de Oliveira IN, de Conto JF, et al (2023)

Photocatalytic effect of N-TiO2 conjugated with folic acid against biofilm-forming resistant bacteria.

Heliyon, 9(11):e22108 pii:S2405-8440(23)09316-7.

Antibiotic resistance challenges the treatment of bacterial biofilm-related infections, but the use of nanoparticles as a treatment is a promising strategy to overcome bacterial infections. This study applied nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) conjugated with folic acid (FA) on biofilm-forming resistant bacteria. The photocatalytic effect of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was studied under ultraviolet (UV), visible light, and dark conditions at 60, 120, and 180 min against planktonic cells and biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TiO2 NPs were in the anatase phase, spherical shaped with sizes of 10-13 nm, and effectively doped and conjugated with N and FA. The FA-conjugated nanoparticles (N-TiO2-FA and FA-TiO2) were shown to have a bactericidal effect on all bacteria between 60 and 180 min under UV and visible light conditions. Concerning biofilms, N-TiO2-FA was shown to have a highly disruptive effect on all bacterial biofilms under UV irradiation at 180 min. Meanwhile, the nanoparticles did not show DNA damaging potential and they had no cytostatic effect, indicating that these NPs are biocompatible. In sum, nanoparticle conjugation with FA promoted photocatalytic effectiveness, revealing the promise this nanomaterial holds as a biocompatible antimicrobial agent.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Zhang S, Shu Y, Zhang W, et al (2023)

Quorum sensing N-acyl homoserine lactones-SdiA enhances the biofilm formation of E. coli by regulating sRNA CsrB expression.

Heliyon, 9(11):e21658 pii:S2405-8440(23)08866-7.

As an important virulence phenotype of Escherichia coli, the regulation mechanism of biofilm by non-coding RNA and quorum sensing system has not been clarified. Here, by transcriptome sequencing and RT-PCR analysis, we found CsrB, a non-coding RNA of the carbon storage regulation system, was positively regulated by the LuxR protein SdiA. Furthermore, β-galactosidase reporter assays showed that SdiA enhanced promoter transcriptional activity of csrB. The consistent dynamic expression levels of SdiA and CsrB during Escherichia coli growth were also detected. Moreover, curli assays and biofilm assays showed sdiA deficiency in Escherichia coli SM10λπ or BW25113 led to a decreased formation of biofilm, and was significantly restored by over-expression of CsrB. Interestingly, the regulations of SdiA on CsrB in biofilm formation were enhanced by quorum sensing signal molecules AHLs. In conclusion, SdiA plays a crucial role in Escherichia coli biofilm formation by regulating the expression of non-coding RNA CsrB. Our study provides new insights into SdiA-non-coding RNA regulatory network involved in Escherichia coli biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Wächter J, Vestweber PK, Planz V, et al (2023)

Unravelling host-pathogen interactions by biofilm infected human wound models.

Biofilm, 6:100164 pii:S2590-2075(23)00061-8.

Approximately 80 % of persistent wound infections are affected by the presence of bacterial biofilms, resulting in a severe clinical challenge associated with prolonged healing periods, increased morbidity, and high healthcare costs. Unfortunately, in vitro models for wound infection research almost exclusively focus on early infection stages with planktonic bacteria. In this study, we present a new approach to emulate biofilm-infected human wounds by three-dimensional human in vitro systems. For this purpose, a matured biofilm consisting of the clinical key wound pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa was pre-cultivated on electrospun scaffolds allowing for non-destructive transfer of the matured biofilm to human in vitro wound models. We infected tissue-engineered human in vitro skin models as well as ex vivo human skin explants with the biofilm and analyzed structural tissue characteristics, biofilm growth behavior, and biofilm-tissue interactions. The structural development of biofilms in close proximity to the tissue, resulting in high bacterial burden and in vivo-like morphology, confirmed a manifest wound infection on all tested wound models, validating their applicability for general investigations of biofilm growth and structure. The extent of bacterial colonization of the wound bed, as well as the subsequent changes in molecular composition of skin tissue, were inherently linked to the characteristics of the underlying wound models including their viability and origin. Notably, the immune response observed in viable ex vivo and in vitro models was consistent with previous in vivo reports. While ex vivo models offered greater complexity and closer similarity to the in vivo conditions, in vitro models consistently demonstrated higher reproducibility. As a consequence, when focusing on direct biofilm-skin interactions, the viability of the wound models as well as their advantages and limitations should be aligned to the particular research question of future studies. Altogether, the novel model allows for a systematic investigation of host-pathogen interactions of bacterial biofilms and human wound tissue, also paving the way for development and predictive testing of novel therapeutics to combat biofilm-infected wounds.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Mirzahosseini HK, Najmeddin F, Najafi A, et al (2023)

Correlation of biofilm formation, virulence factors, and phylogenetic groups among Escherichia coli strains causing urinary tract infection: A global systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 28:66 pii:JRMS-28-66.

BACKGROUND: Different virulence factors are involved in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC); hence, this study aimed to study the prevalence of biofilm formation, virulence factors, and phylogenetic groups and their correlation with biofilm formation among UPEC isolates through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted from 1, 2000, to the end of 2021 in different databases for studies that reported biofilm together with virulence genes or phylogenetic groups in UPEC isolates from patients with UTI according to PRISMA protocol. Data were analyzed by Comprehensive meta-analysis software.

RESULTS: The pooled prevalence of biofilm formers was 74.7%. The combined prevalence of phylogenetic Groups A, B1, B2, and D (s) were reported at 19.6%, 11%, 50.7%, and 20.5%, respectively. The most common virulence genes reported worldwide were fimA, ecpA, and fimH, with a combined prevalence of 90.3%, 86.6%, and 64.9%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of biofilm formation in UPEC isolates with phylogenetic Groups A, B1, B2, D, C, and F were 12.4%, 8.7%, 33.7%, 12.4%, 2.6%, and 2.65%, respectively. Several studies showed a correlation between biofilm production and virulence genes, or phylogenetic groups.

CONCLUSION: Regarding data obtained, the high level of combined biofilm formation (74.7%) and the presence of a positive correlation between biofilm production and virulence genes, or phylogenetic groups as reported by the most studies included in the present review, indicates an important role of biofilm in the persistence of UPEC in the UTI.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Gnilitskyi I, Rymar S, Iungin O, et al (2023)

Femtosecond laser modified metal surfaces alter biofilm architecture and reduce bacterial biofilm formation.

Nanoscale advances, 5(23):6659-6669 pii:d3na00599b.

Biofilm formation, or microfouling, is a basic strategy of bacteria to colonise a surface and may happen on surfaces of any nature whenever bacteria are present. Biofilms are hard to eradicate due to the matrix in which the bacteria reside, consisting of strong, adhesive and adaptive self-produced polymers such as eDNA and functional amyloids. Targeting a biofilm matrix may be a promising strategy to prevent biofilm formation. Here, femtosecond laser irradiation was used to modify the stainless steel surface in order to introduce either conical spike or conical groove textures. The resulting topography consists of hierarchical nano-microstructures which substantially increase roughness. The biofilms of two model bacterial strains, P. aeruginosa PA01 and S. aureus ATCC29423, formed on such nanotextured metal surfaces, were considerably modified due to a substantial reduction in amyloid production and due to changes in eDNA surface adhesion, leading to significant reduction in biofilm biomass. Altering the topography of the metal surface, therefore, radically diminishes biofilm development solely by altering biofilm architecture. At the same time, growth and colonisation of the surface by eukaryotic adipose tissue-derived stem cells were apparently enhanced, leading to possible further advantages in controlling eukaryotic growth while suppressing prokaryotic contamination. The obtained results are important for developing anti-bacterial surfaces for numerous applications.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Faustova MO, Chumak YV, Loban' GA, et al (2023)

Decamethoxin and chlorhexidine bigluconate effect on the adhesive and biofilm-forming properties of Streptococcus mitis.

Frontiers in oral health, 4:1268676.

THE AIM OF THE STUDY: Was to investigate the effect of antiseptics on the adhesive and biofilm-forming properties of clinical S.mitis isolates isolated from the oral cavity of patients with an infectious and inflammatory post-extraction complication.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four clinical isolates of S.mitis isolated from patients were studied. The studied antiseptics included 0.02% aqueous solution of decamethoxin and 0.05% solution of chlorhexidine bigluconate. Adhesion of clinical isolates under the action of decamethoxin and chlorhexidine bigluconate was determined by the method of V.I. Brillis. The biofilm-forming properties of clinical isolates were studied using the "microtiter plate test" according to G.D. Christensen.

RESULTS: The studied clinical isolates of S.mitis are classified as highly adherent microorganisms. Action of decamethoxin on clinical isolates decreases the adhesion index of the studied isolates in comparison with the adhesion index of the control culture. Action of chlorhexidine bigluconate on S.mitis isolates increases of adhession of the studied clinical isolates in comparison with the control. After the effect of decamethoxin, the optical density of clinical isolates decreased considering the optical density results of the control. The clinical isolates left an average film-forming capacity even after chlorhexidine bigluconate action.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinical isolates of S.mitis are highly adherent microorganisms. The antiseptic decamethoxin decreases the adhesion index of these bacteria, while chlorhexidine bigluconate increases the adhesion index of clinical S.mitis isolates. Clinical S. mitis isolates have an average biofilm formation capacity index. The antiseptic decamethoxin inhibits the biofilm formation capacity of S.mitis from medium to low.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Ibrahim GI, HA Jawad (2023)

Investigating the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser agitation of sodium hypochlorite on the removal of mature biofilm in the complex root canal systems using atomic force microscopy.

Journal of dental research, dental clinics, dental prospects, 17(3):154-161.

BACKGROUND: Endodontic infections caused by remaining biofilm following disinfection with chemical fluids encourage secondary bacterial infection; hence, employing laser pulses to activate the fluids is advised to improve microbial biofilm clearance. This study investigated the performance of Er,Cr:YSGG laser in photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) agitation of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) to enhance the removal of mature Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) biofilms in complex root canal systems.

METHODS: The mesial roots of the lower first and second molars were separated and inoculated with E. faecalis bacteria for 30 days. The roots were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, some of them were agitated with passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and the other roots were agitated by Er,Cr:YSGG laser using PIPS at 60 µs/pulse, 5 Hz, and 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 1.25 W. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used as a new method to obtain the results in the isthmus area; the results that have been obtained from each group were compared with each other. ANOVA was utilized to compare the means of the test groups.

RESULTS: Based on the AFM and SEM analyses, laser agitation and passive ultrasonic activation groups have shown higher antimicrobial efficacy than the conventional syringe irrigation group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of this investigation, the agitation of 5.25% NaOCl solution by Er,Cr:YSGG laser in PIPS at (60 µs/pulse, 5 Hz, 1.25 W) offers better mature bacterial biofilm removal in the mesial root of lower human molars than the same irrigant with syringe irrigation and passive ultrasonic activation technique.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Shrestha O, Shrestha N, Khanal S, et al (2023)

Inhibition and Reduction of Biofilm Production along with Their Antibiogram Pattern among Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates.

International journal of biomaterials, 2023:6619268.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial biofilm is a significant virulence factor threatening patients, leading to chronic infections and economic burdens. Therefore, it is crucial to identify biofilm production, its inhibition, and reduction. In this study, we investigated biofilm production among Gram-negative isolates and assessed the inhibitory and reduction potential of ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) towards them. In addition, we studied the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the Gram-negative isolates.

METHODS: Bacterial isolation and identification was done using standard microbiological techniques, following the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline, 28th edition. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolates, and β-lactamase production was tested via the combination disk method. Biofilm formation was detected through the tissue culture plate (TCP) method. Different concentrations of EDTA and DMSO were used to determine their inhibitory and reduction properties against the biofilm. Both inhibition and reduction by the various concentrations of EDTA and DMSO were analyzed using paired t-tests.

RESULTS: Among the 110 clinical isolates, 61.8% (68) were found to be multidrug resistant (MDR). 30% (33/110) of the isolates were extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers, 14.5% (16/110) were metallo-β-lactamase (MBL), and 8% (9/110) were Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers. Biofilm formation was detected in 35.4% of the isolates. Biofilm-producing organisms showed the highest resistance to antibiotics such as cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and carbapenem. The inhibition and reduction of biofilm were significantly lower (p < 0.05) for 1 mM of EDTA and 2% of DMSO.

CONCLUSION: Isolates forming biofilm had a higher resistance rate and β-lactamase production compared to biofilm nonproducers. EDTA and DMSO were found to be potential antibiofilm agents. Hence, EDTA and DMSO might be an effective antibiofilm agent to control biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Girija ASS (2023)

Prediction of Antigenic Vaccine Peptide Candidates From BfmRS Associated With Biofilm Formation in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Cureus, 15(10):e47804.

INTRODUCTION: A. baumannii is categorized as a priority pathogen due to its propensity for multi-drug resistance, exhibiting resistance against the last resort of antibiotics. It is also considered a potent nosocomial pathogen, so targeting the microbe using novel strategies would be the need of the hour. In this context, the in-silico computational approach would serve the best to design the possible epitope peptides, which may be further considered for the experimental trials for their immunological response. Objective: To predict the immune-dominant epitope peptide candidates against the bfmR and bfmS proteins mediating the two-component system adaptation in the formation of biofilm in A. baumannii.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: 11 different FASTA sequences of bfmR and bfmS from A. baumannii strains retrieved based on the blast-p similarity search tool were subjected to linear epitope B-cell epitope predictions under the IEDB B-cell epitope prediction server. Further analysis on antigenicity, allergenicity, and toxigenicity was achieved using the AntigenPro, Vaxijen, and AlgPred tools, with the physical and chemical properties evaluated using the Expasy Protparam server. Selection of the immunodominant peptides for T-cells was done through the databases under IEDB. The final assessment of protein-TLR2 interactions was done by MHC cluster servers.

RESULTS: Four peptide sequences (E1-E4) were predicted for B-cell dominance, with E1, E2, and E4 as probable antigens. All were soluble and non-toxigenic. E1 and E3 were considered non-allergens. GRAVY values were negative for all the peptides, indicating the protein to be hydrophilic in nature. Analysis of the T-cell epitopes was promising, with 100% conservancy for class-I HLA alleles, high interaction scores for similarity with TLR2, and more hydrogen bonds for E2, followed by other epitope peptides.

CONCLUSION: The promising four epitopes, as predicted for bfmR and bfmS in the present study, suggest their potent role as possible candidates for the design of vaccines targeting the TCS of A. baumannii, recommending further in vitro and in vivo experimental validation.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Ramsundar K, Jain RK, SG Pitchaipillai (2023)

Inhibition of Quorum Sensing Controlled Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans Isolated From Orthodontic Subjects by 4-Hydroxycinnamic Acid.

Cureus, 15(10):e47490.

Introduction Dental plaque biofilms are a collection of microorganisms that are adhered to the tooth enamel surface. Inhibition of plaque biofilms is required to prevent dental caries and periodontitis and currently, there are many chemical and herbal products in use for inhibition of biofilms but with limited success. Materials and methods Dental plaque collection was done from subjects undergoing orthodontic therapy followed by isolation of Streptococcus mutans. Isolated S. mutans were subjected to disk diffusion assay with 4-HCA (baseline 10mg/mL) for the zone of inhibition and broth micro-dilution to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and sub-MIC. Crystal violet staining was done for biofilm inhibition assay. Results Growth of S. mutans was inhibited by 4-HCA at concentrations as low as 0.31 mg/mL. 4-HCA (40μL) inhibited the bacterial growth and a clear zone (15 mm) was observed. 4-Hydroxycinnamic acids treated culture showed progressive reduction in the biofilm production at the concentration of 0.01 mg/mL. The 4-HCA concentration as low as 4 mg and 2 mg has remarkably inhibited biofilm formation of 49.3% and 34.3%, respectively. Conclusion The anti-quorum sensing and anti-biofilm activity of 4-Hydroxycinnamic acid against S. mutans isolated from subjects undergoing orthodontic treatment showed a remarkable result.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Valan AS, Krithikadatta J, Doble M, et al (2023)

Biomimetic Approach to Counter Streptococcus mutans Biofilm: An In Vitro Study on Seashells.

Cureus, 15(10):e47758.

Aim This study aimed to investigate the anti-adherent property of the seashell surface and periostracum to prevent the formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Materials and methods The seashells were initially collected from the natural urban beach, and an antibiofilm assay of the shells with and without periostracum was performed against Streptococcus mutans. Furthermore, the seashells were analyzed with a stylus profilometer (Mitutoyo Surftest SJ-301, Mitutoyo America Corporation, Illinois, USA), atomic force microscope (AFM; Nanosurf Easyscan 2, Nanosurf Inc., USA), contact angle assessment, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM; JEOL USA, Inc., FE-SEM IT800, Massachusetts, USA) analysis. The ability of seashells to prevent the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and form a biofilm with and without periostracum was studied by crystal violet assay. Results The results revealed that shells without periostracum promoted higher biofilm formation when compared to those having intact periostracum (by 15%, p<0.001). Shell 1 showed the highest biofilm formation, whereas shell 3 showed the least biofilm formation due to the differences in their surface morphologies. The remaining shells (4, 2, 6, and 5) showed interspersed biofilm formation. Conclusion In summary, our study was able to correlate the topologies of the shell surface with the biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans with the wetting behavior of those shell surfaces and their roughness. More hydrophobic surfaces (with intact periostracum) were observed to lead to less attachment (correlation coefficient=-0.67). This study can pave the way for designing such biomimetic surfaces to prevent bacterial attachment.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Săndulescu M (2022)

Peri-implantitis, biofilm contamination and peri-implant bone loss.

Germs, 12(4):432-433 pii:germs.2022.1348.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Li JG, Chen XF, Lu TY, et al (2023)

Increased Activity of β-Lactam Antibiotics in Combination with Carvacrol against MRSA Bacteremia and Catheter-Associated Biofilm Infections.

ACS infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

β-Lactam antibiotics are the mainstay for the treatment of staphylococcal infections, but their utility is greatly limited by the emergence and rapid dissemination of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Herein, we evaluated the ability of the plant-derived monoterpene carvacrol to act as an antibiotic adjuvant, revitalizing the anti-MRSA activity of β-lactam antibiotics. Increased susceptibility of MRSA to β-lactam antibiotics and significant synergistic activities were observed with carvacrol-based combinations. Carvacrol significantly inhibited MRSA biofilms and reduced the production of exopolysaccharide, polysaccharide intercellular adhesin, and extracellular DNA and showed synergistic biofilm inhibition in combination with β-lactams. Transcriptome analysis revealed profound downregulation in the expression of genes involved in two-component systems and S. aureus infection. Mechanistic studies indicate that carvacrol inhibits the expression of staphylococcal accessory regulator sarA and interferes with SarA-mecA promoter binding that decreases mecA-mediated β-lactam resistance. Consistently, the in vivo experiment also supported that carvacrol restored MRSA sensitivity to β-lactam antibiotic treatments in both murine models of bacteremia and biofilm-associated infection. Our results indicated that carvacrol has a potential role as a combinatorial partner with β-lactam antibiotics to address MRSA infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Jayakumar D, Mini M, Kumar P, et al (2023)

Synergistic Effect of Thymol-Ciprofloxacin Combination on Planktonic Cells and Biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Current microbiology, 81(1):23.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacteria causing severe and life-threatening infections in individuals with weakened immune systems. P. aeruginosa forms antibiotic-resistant biofilms, rendering it challenging to treat; hence, alternate therapies are required to eliminate it. Treatment of infections using a combination of drugs is gaining momentum to combat drug-resistant pathogens, including P. aeruginosa. This study explores the synergistic effects of Thymol in combination with Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin and Colistin against planktonic cells and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. Thymol in combination with Ciprofloxacin yields the fractional inhibitory concentration index values 0.156 and 0.375 in P. aeruginosa strains, GC14 and ATCC 9027, respectively, highlighting a robust synergistic effect on both the planktonic and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. The results showed that Thymol (512 μg/mL) and Ciprofloxacin (0.125 μg/mL) were the most effective combination with 95 and 93.5% total biofilm inhibition in GC14 and PA27, respectively, compared to the Thymol (512 μg/mL) and Ciprofloxacin (0.125 μg/mL) alone. Our findings suggest that the combinations of Thymol and Ciprofloxacin may be a potential therapeutic strategy to address the issue of infections caused by P. aeruginosa biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Liu P, Kang X, Chen X, et al (2023)

Quercetin targets SarA of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus to mitigate biofilm formation.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Anti-biofilm is an important strategy against Staphylococcus aureus chronic infection. SarA is a positive regulator of biofilm formation in S. aureus. In this study, we identified the SarA inhibitor quercetin using computer simulation screening. Previous studies have shown that quercetin inhibits biofilm; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the SarA protein. We also isolated the SarA protein and confirmed its interaction with quercetin in vitro. Besides, the inhibitory effect of quercetin on the transcription and translation levels of the SarA protein was also determined. The effects of quercetin on S. aureus biofilm inhibition and biofilm components were consistent with the changes in the transcription level of biofilm-related genes regulated by SarA. In summary, our study revealed the mechanism by which quercetin affects biofilm formation by inhibiting the transcriptional regulator SarA of S. aureus.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Hemmati J, Nazari M, Ahmadi A, et al (2023)

In vitro evaluation of biofilm phenotypic and genotypic characteristics among clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Hamadan, West of Iran.

Journal of applied genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Due to high antimicrobial resistance and biofilm-forming ability, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the seriously life-threatening agents causing chronic and nosocomial infections. This study was performed to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, biofilm formation, and frequency of biofilm-related genes in P. aeruginosa strains. In total, 123 P. aeruginosa isolates were collected from different clinical sources. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was performed to detect multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa (MDRPA) isolates. To evaluate the biofilm-forming isolates, the microtiter plate (MTP) method was carried out. Also, the prevalence of biofilm genotype patterns, including pslA, pslD, pelA, pelF, and algD genes, was detected by polymerases chain reaction (PCR). According to our findings, the highest resistance and susceptibility rates were found in ceftazidime with 74.7% (n = 92) and ciprofloxacin with 42.2% (n = 52), respectively. In our study, the highest level of antibiotic resistance belonged to wound isolates which meropenem had the most antibacterial activity against them. In total, 86.1% (n = 106) P. aeruginosa isolates were determined as MDRPA, of which 61.3% (n = 65) were able to form strong biofilm. The highest and lowest frequency of biofilm-related genes among biofilm producer isolates belonged to pelF with 82.1% (n = 101) and algD with 55.2% (n = 68), respectively. The findings of the conducted study indicate a significant relationship between MDRPA and biofilm genotypic/phenotypic patterns, suggesting the necessity of a careful surveillance program in hospital settings.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Nguyen VT, Le VA, Do QH, et al (2023)

Emerging revolving algae biofilm system for algal biomass production and nutrient recovery from wastewater.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)07540-X [Epub ahead of print].

Toward the direction of zero‑carbon emission and green technologies for wastewater treatment, algae-based technologies are considered promising candidates to deal with the current situation of pollution and climate change. Recent developments of algae-based technologies have been introduced in previous studies in which their performances were optimized for wastewater treatment and biomass production. Among these, revolving algae biofilm (RAB) reactors have been proven to have a great potential in high biomass productivity, simple harvesting method, great CO2 transfer rate, high light-use efficiency, heavy metal capture, nutrient removal, and acid mine drainage treatment in previous studies. However, there were few articles detailing RAB performance, which concealed its enormous potential and diminished interest in the model. Hence, this review aims to reveal the major benefit of RAB reactors in simultaneous wastewater treatment and biomass cultivation. However, there is still a lack of research on aspects to upgrade this technology which requires further investigations to improve performance or fulfill the concept of circular economy.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Klopper KB, Bester E, van Schalkwyk M, et al (2023)

Highlighting the limitations of static microplate biofilm assays for industrial biocide effectiveness compared to dynamic flow conditions.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

The minimal inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial required to inhibit the growth of planktonic populations (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC]) remains the 'gold standard' even though biofilms are acknowledged to be recalcitrant to concentrations that greatly exceed the MIC. As a result, most studies focus on biofilm tolerance to high antimicrobial concentrations, whereas the effect of environmentally relevant sub-MIC on biofilms is neglected. The effect of the MIC and sub-MIC of an isothiazolinone biocide on a microbial community isolated from an industrial cooling system was assessed under static and flow conditions. The differential response of planktonic and sessile populations to these biocide concentrations was discerned by modifying the broth microdilution assay. However, the end-point analysis of biofilms cultivated in static microplates obscured the effect of sub-MIC and MIC on biofilms. A transition from batch to the continuous flow system revealed a more nuanced response of biofilms to these biocide concentrations, where biofilm-derived planktonic cell production was maintained despite an increase in the frequency and extent of biofilm sloughing. A holistic, 'best of both worlds' approach that combines the use of static and continuous flow systems is useful to investigate the potential for the development of persistent biofilms under conditions where exposure to sub-MIC and MIC may occur.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Kalia M, Amari D, Davies DG, et al (2023)

cis-DA-dependent dispersion by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm and identification of cis-DA-sensory protein DspS.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Dispersion is an essential stage of the biofilm life cycle resulting in the release of bacteria from a biofilm into the surrounding environment. Dispersion contributes to bacterial survival by relieving overcrowding within a biofilm and allowing dissemination of cells into new habitats for colonization. Thus, dispersion can contribute to biofilm survival as well as disease progression and transmission. Cells dispersed from a biofilm rapidly lose their recalcitrant antimicrobial-tolerant biofilm phenotype and transition to a state that is susceptible to antibiotics. However, much of what is known about this biofilm developmental stage has been inferred from exogenously induced dispersion. Our findings provide the first evidence that native dispersion is coincident with reduced cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate levels, while also relying on at least some of the same factors that are central to the environmentally induced dispersion response, namely, BdlA, DipA, RbdA, and AmrZ. Additionally, we demonstrate for the first time that cis-DA signaling to induce dispersion is attributed to the two-component sensor/response regulator DspS, a homolog of the DSF sensor RpfC. Our findings also provide a path toward manipulating the native dispersion response as a novel and highly promising therapeutic intervention.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Greenwich JL, Eagan JL, Feirer N, et al (2023)

Control of Biofilm Formation by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Pterin-Binding Periplasmic Protein Conserved Among Pathogenic Bacteria.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.18.567607.

UNLABELLED: Biofilm formation and surface attachment in multiple Alphaproteobacteria is driven by unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesins. The pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a UPP adhesin, which is regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (cdGMP). Prior studies revealed that DcpA, a diguanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase (DGC-PDE), is crucial in control of UPP production and surface attachment. DcpA is regulated by PruR, a protein with distant similarity to enzymatic domains known to coordinate the molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo). Pterins are bicyclic nitrogen-rich compounds, several of which are formed via a non-essential branch of the folate biosynthesis pathway, distinct from MoCo. The pterin-binding protein PruR controls DcpA activity, fostering cdGMP breakdown and dampening its synthesis. Pterins are excreted and we report here that PruR associates with these metabolites in the periplasm, promoting interaction with the DcpA periplasmic domain. The pteridine reductase PruA, which reduces specific dihydro-pterin molecules to their tetrahydro forms, imparts control over DcpA activity through PruR. Tetrahydromonapterin preferentially associates with PruR relative to other related pterins, and the PruR-DcpA interaction is decreased in a pruA mutant. PruR and DcpA are encoded in an operon that is conserved amongst multiple Proteobacteria including mammalian pathogens. Crystal structures reveal that PruR and several orthologs adopt a conserved fold, with a pterin-specific binding cleft that coordinates the bicyclic pterin ring. These findings define a new pterin-responsive regulatory mechanism that controls biofilm formation and related cdGMP-dependent phenotypes in A. tumefaciens and is found in multiple additional bacterial pathogens.

SIGNIFICANCE: Biofilms are bacterial communities attached to surfaces, physiologically distinct from free-living cells, and a common cause of persistent infections. Here we define the mechanism of a novel biofilm regulatory system based on excreted metabolites called pterins, that is conserved within a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria, including multiple pathogens of animals and plants. The molecular mechanism of pterin-dependent regulation is reported including structural determination of several members of a new family of pterin-binding proteins. Pterins are produced across all domains of life and mechanistic insights into this regulatory circuit could lead to new advances in antibiofilm treatments.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Alhajj N, Yahya MFZR, O'Reilly NJ, et al (2023)

Development and characterization of a spray-dried inhalable ternary combination for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infection in cystic fibrosis.

European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences pii:S0928-0987(23)00283-X [Epub ahead of print].

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited lung disease characterised by the accumulation of thick layers of dried mucus in the lungs which serve as a nidus for chronic infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominant cause of chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis. The dense mucus coupled with biofilm formation hinder antibiotic penetration and prevent them from reaching their target. Mucoactive agents are recommended in the treatment of CF in combination with antibiotics. In spite of the extensive research in developing novel drug combinations for the treatment of lung infection in CF, to our knowledge, there is no study that combines antibiotic, antibiofilm and mucoactive agent in a single inhaled dry powder formulation. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of adding a mucoactive agent to our previously developed ciprofloxacinquercetin (antibiotic-antibiofilm) dry powder for inhalation. Three mucoactive agents, namely mannitol (MAN), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB), were investigated for this purpose. The ternary combinations were prepared via spray drying without the addition of excipients. All ternary combinations conserved or improved the antibacterial and biofilm inhibition activities of ciprofloxacin against P. aeruginosa (ATCC 10145). The addition of AMB resulted in an amorphous ternary combination (SD-CQA) with superior physical stability as indicated by DSC and nonambient XRPD. Furthermore, SD-CQA displayed better in vitro aerosolization performance (ED ∼ 71%; FPF ∼ 49%) compared to formulations containing MAN and NAC (ED ∼ 64% and 44%; FPF ∼ 44% and 29%, respectively). In conclusion, a ternary drug combination powder with suitable aerosolization, physical stability and antibacterial/antibiofilm properties was prepared by a single spray drying step.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Tsitouras A, Al-Ghussain N, Butcher J, et al (2023)

The microbiome of two strategies for ammonia removal with the sequencing batch moving bed biofilm reactor treating cheese production wastewater.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Cheese production facilities must abide by sewage discharge bylaws that prevent overloading municipal water resource recovery facilities, eutrophication, and toxicity to aquatic life. Compact treatment systems can permit on-site treatment of cheese production wastewater; however, competition between heterotrophs and nitrifiers impedes the implementation of the sequencing batch moving bed biofilm reactor (SB-MBBR) for nitrification from high-carbon wastewaters. This study demonstrates that a single SB-MBBR is not feasible for nitrification when operated with anerobic and aerobic cycling for carbon and phosphorous removal from cheese production wastewater, as nitrification does not occur in a single reactor. Thus, two reactors in series are recommended to achieve nitrification from cheese production wastewater in SB-MBBRs. These findings can be applied to pilot and full-scale SB-MBBR operations. By demonstrating the potential to implement partial nitrification in the SB-MBBR system, this study presents the possibility of implementing partial nitrification in the SB-MBBR, resulting in the potential for more sustainable treatment of nitrogen from cheese production wastewater.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Behera S, Mumtaz S, Singh M, et al (2023)

Synergistic Potential of α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone Based Analogues with Conventional Antibiotic against Planktonic, Biofilm-Embedded, and Systemic Infection Model of MRSA.

ACS infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

The repotentiation of the existing antibiotics by exploiting the combinatorial potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with them is a promising approach to address the challenges of slow antibiotic development and rising antimicrobial resistance. In the current study, we explored the ability of lead second generation Ana-peptides viz. Ana-9 and Ana-10, derived from Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (α-MSH), to act synergistically with different classes of conventional antibiotics against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The peptides exhibited prominent synergy with β-lactam antibiotics, namely, oxacillin, ampicillin, and cephalothin, against planktonic MRSA. Furthermore, the lead combination of Ana-9/Ana-10 with oxacillin provided synergistic activity against clinical MRSA isolates. Though the treatment of MRSA is complicated by biofilms, the lead combinations successfully inhibited biofilm formation and also demonstrated biofilm disruption potential. Encouragingly, the peptides alone and in combination were able to elicit in vivo anti-MRSA activity and reduce the bacterial load in the liver and kidney of immune-compromised mice. Importantly, the presence of Ana-peptides at sub-MIC doses slowed the resistance development against oxacillin in MRSA cells. Thus, this study highlights the synergistic activity of Ana-peptides with oxacillin advocating for the potential of Ana-peptides as an alternative therapeutic and could pave the way for the reintroduction of less potent conventional antibiotics into clinical use against MRSA infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-26

Doose C, C Hubas (2023)

The metabolites of light: Untargeted metabolomic approaches bring new clues to understand light-driven acclimation of intertidal mudflat biofilm.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)07320-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The microphytobenthos (MPB), a microbial community of primary producers, play a key role in coastal ecosystem functioning, particularly in intertidal mudflats. These mudflats experience challenging variations of irradiance, forcing the micro-organisms to develop photoprotective mechanisms to survive and thrive in this dynamic environment. Two major adaptations to light are well described in literature: the excess of light energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), and the vertical migration in the sediment. These mechanisms trigger considerable scientific interest, but the biological processes and metabolic mechanisms involved in light-driven vertical migration remain largely unknown. To our knowledge, this study investigates for the first time metabolomic responses of a migrational mudflat biofilm exposed for 30 min to a light gradient of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) from 50 to 1000 μmol photons m[-2] s[-1]. The untargeted metabolomic analysis allowed to identify metabolites involved in two types of responses to light irradiance levels. On the one hand, the production of SFAs and MUFAs, primarily derived from bacteria, indicates a healthy photosynthetic state of MPB under low light (LL; 50 and 100 PAR) and medium light (ML; 250 PAR) conditions. Conversely, when exposed to high light (HL; 500, 750 and 1000 PAR), the MPB experienced light-induced stress, triggering the production of alka(e)nes and fatty alcohols. The physiological and ecological roles of these compounds are poorly described in literature. This study sheds new light on the topic, as it suggests that these compounds may play a crucial and previously unexplored role in light-induced stress acclimation of migrational MPB biofilms. Since alka(e)nes are produced from FAs decarboxylation, these results thus emphasize for the first time the importance of FAs pathways in microphytobenthic biofilms acclimation to light.

RevDate: 2023-11-26

Liang S, Xiao L, Fang Y, et al (2023)

A nanocomposite hydrogel for co-delivery of multiple anti-biofilm therapeutics to enhance the treatment of bacterial biofilm-related infections.

International journal of pharmaceutics pii:S0378-5173(23)01060-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The characteristics of biofilms have exacerbated the issue of clinical antibiotic resistance, rendering it a pressing challenge in need of resolution. The combination of biofilm-dispersing agents and antibiotics can eliminate biofilms and promote healing synergistically in infected wounds. In this study, we developed a novel nanocomposite hydrogel (NC gel) comprised of the poly(lactic acid)-hyperbranched polyglycerol (PLA-HPG) based bioadhesive nanoparticles (BNPs) and a hydrophilic carboxymethyl chitosan (CS) network. The NC gel was designed to co-deliver two biofilm-dispersing agents (an NO-donor SNO, and an α-amylase Am) and an antibiotic, cefepime (Cef), utilizing a synergistic anti-biofilm mechanism in which Am loosens the matrix structure and NO promotes the release of biofilm bacteria via quorum sensing, and Cef kills bacteria. The drug-loaded NC gels (SNO/BNP/CS@Am-Cef) demonstrated sustained drug release, minimal cytotoxicity, and increased drug-bacterial interactions at the site of infection. When applied to mice infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms in vivo, SNO/BNP/CS@Am-Cef enhanced biofilm elimination and promoted wound healing compared to traditional antibiotic treatments. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of the co-delivery of biofilm-dispersing agents and antibiotics using the NC gel and presents a promising approach for the polytherapy of bacterial biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-26

Wu C, Zhou J, Pang S, et al (2023)

Reduction and precipitation of chromium(VI) using a palladized membrane biofilm reactor.

Water research, 249:120878 pii:S0043-1354(23)01318-0 [Epub ahead of print].

H2-driven reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using precious-metal catalysts is promising, but its implementation in water treatment has been restricted by poor H2-transfer efficiency and high catalyst loss. We investigated the reduction of Cr(VI) through hydrogenation catalyzed by elemental-palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) generated in-situ within biofilm of a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), creating a Pd-MBfR. Experiments were conducted using a Pd-MBfR and a non-Pd MBfR. The Pd-MBfR achieved Cr(VI) (1000 μg L[-1]) reduction of >99 % and reduced the concentration of total Cr to below 50 μg L[-1], much lower than the total Cr concentration in the non-Pd MBfR effluent (290 μg L[-1]). The Pd-MBfR also had a lower concentration of dissolved organic compounds compared to the non-Pd MBfR, which minimized the formation of soluble organo-Cr(III) complexes and promoted precipitation of Cr(OH)3. Solid-state characterizations documented deposition of Cr(OH)3 as the product of Cr(VI) reduction in the Pd-MBfR. Metagenomic analyses revealed that the addition and reduction of Cr(VI) had minimal impact on the microbial community (dominated by Dechloromonas) and functional genes in the biofilm of the Pd-MBfR, since the PdNP-catalyzed reduction process was rapid. This study documented efficient Cr(VI) reduction and precipitation of Cr(OH)3 by the Pd-MBfR technology.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Gautam D, Dolma KG, Khandelwal B, et al (2023)

Acinetobacter baumannii in suspected bacterial infections: Association between multidrug resistance, virulence genes, & biofilm production.

The Indian journal of medical research, 158(4):439-446.

BACKGROUND OBJECTIVES: Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a nosocomial pathogen with a tendency of high antibiotic resistance and biofilm production. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of A. baumannii from different clinical specimens of suspected bacterial infections and furthermore to see the association of biofilm production with multidrug resistance and expression of virulence factor genes in A. baumannii.

METHODS: A. baumannii was confirmed in clinical specimens by the detection of the blaOXA-51-like gene. Biofilm production was tested by microtitre plate assay and virulence genes were detected by real-time PCR.

RESULTS: A. baumannii was isolated from a total of 307 clinical specimens. The isolate which showed the highest number of A. baumannii was an endotracheal tube specimen (44.95%), then sputum (19.54%), followed by pus (17.26%), urine (7.49%) and blood (5.86%), and <2 per cent from body fluids, catheter-tips and urogenital specimens. A resistance rate of 70-81.43 per cent against all antibiotics tested, except colistin and tigecycline, was noted, and 242 (78.82%) isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Biofilm was detected in 205 (66.78%) with a distribution of 54.1 per cent weak, 10.42 per cent medium and 2.28 per cent strong biofilms. 71.07 per cent of MDR isolates produce biofilm (P<0.05). Amongst virulence factor genes, 281 (91.53%) outer membrane protein A (OmpA) and 98 (31.92%) biofilm-associated protein (Bap) were detected. Amongst 100 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, the blaOXA-23-like gene was predominant (96%), the blaOXA-58-like gene (6%) and none harboured the blaOXA-24-like gene. The metallo-β-lactamase genes blaIMP-1 (4%) and blaVIM-1(8%) were detected, and 76 per cent showed the insertion sequence ISAba1.

INTERPRETATION CONCLUSIONS: The majority of isolates studied were from lower respiratory tract specimens. The high MDR rate and its positive association with biofilm formation indicate the nosocomial distribution of A. baumannii. The biofilm formation and the presence of Bap were not interrelated, indicating that biofilm formation was not regulated by a single factor. The MDR rate and the presence of OmpA and Bap showed a positive association (P<0.05). The isolates co-harbouring different carbapenem resistance genes were the predominant biofilm producers, which will seriously limit the therapeutic options suggesting the need for strict antimicrobial stewardship and molecular surveillance in hospitals.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Cai T, Tang H, Du X, et al (2023)

Genomic Island-Encoded Diguanylate Cyclase from Vibrio alginolyticus Regulates Biofilm Formation and Motility in Pseudoalteromonas.

Microorganisms, 11(11):.

Many bacteria use the second messenger c-di-GMP to regulate exopolysaccharide production, biofilm formation, motility, virulence, and other phenotypes. The c-di-GMP level is controlled by the complex network of diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP. In addition to chromosomally encoded DGCs, increasing numbers of DGCs were found to be located on mobile genetic elements. Whether these mobile genetic element-encoded DGCs can modulate the physiological phenotypes in recipient bacteria after horizontal gene transfer should be investigated. In our previous study, a genomic island encoding three DGC proteins (Dgc137, Dgc139, and Dgc140) was characterized in Vibrio alginolyticus isolated from the gastric cavity of the coral Galaxea fascicularis. Here, the effect of the three DGCs in four Pseudoalteromonas strains isolated from coral Galaxea fascicularis and other marine environments was explored. The results showed that when dgc137 is present rather than the three DGC genes, it obviously modulates biofilm formation and bacterial motility in these Pseudoalteromonas strains. Our findings implied that mobile genetic element-encoded DGC could regulate the physiological status of neighboring bacteria in a microbial community by modulating the c-di-GMP level after horizontal gene transfer.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Shahi Ardakani A, Afrasiabi S, Sarraf P, et al (2023)

In Vitro Assessment of SWEEPS and Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy Alone or in Combination for Eradicating Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm in Root Canals.

Pharmaceutics, 15(11):.

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) using riboflavin and a blue diode laser (BDL), combined with shock wave-enhanced emission photoacoustic streaming (SWEEPS), against Enterococcus faecalis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 48 extracted single-rooted human teeth were used. The root canals were instrumented, sealed at their apices, had the smear layer removed, and then underwent autoclave sterilization. Subsequently, each canal was inoculated with E. faecalis bacterial suspension and allowed to incubate for ten days. After confirming the presence of biofilms through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in three teeth, the remaining teeth were randomly allocated into nine groups, each containing five teeth: control, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), BDL, SWEEPS + normal saline, SWEEPS + NaOCl, riboflavin, riboflavin + SWEEPS, riboflavin + BDL, and riboflavin + BDL + SWEEPS. After the treatment, the numbers of colony-forming units (CFUs)/mL were calculated. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test for comparisons.

RESULTS: All groups, with the exception of the BDL group, exhibited a significant reduction in E. faecalis CFU/mL when compared to the control group (p < 0.001). The difference in CFU/mL value between riboflavin + BDL + SWEEPS and riboflavin + SWEEPS was significant (p = 0.029), whereas there was no significant difference between riboflavin + BDL + SWEEPS and riboflavin + BDL (p = 0.397). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the riboflavin + SWEEPS group and the riboflavin + BDL group (p = 0.893).

CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated that combining the SWEEPS technique with riboflavin as a photosensitizer activated by BDL in aPDT effectively reduced the presence of E. faecalis in root canals.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Guo Y, Mao Z, Ran F, et al (2023)

Nanotechnology-Based Drug Delivery Systems to Control Bacterial-Biofilm-Associated Lung Infections.

Pharmaceutics, 15(11): pii:pharmaceutics15112582.

Airway mucus dysfunction and impaired immunological defenses are hallmarks of several lung diseases, including asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and are mostly causative factors in bacterial-biofilm-associated respiratory tract infections. Bacteria residing within the biofilm architecture pose a complex challenge in clinical settings due to their increased tolerance to currently available antibiotics and host immune responses, resulting in chronic infections with high recalcitrance and high rates of morbidity and mortality. To address these unmet clinical needs, potential anti-biofilm therapeutic strategies are being developed to effectively control bacterial biofilm. This review focuses on recent advances in the development and application of nanoparticulate drug delivery systems for the treatment of biofilm-associated respiratory tract infections, especially addressing the respiratory barriers of concern for biofilm accessibility and the various types of nanoparticles used to combat biofilms. Understanding the obstacles facing pulmonary drug delivery to bacterial biofilms and nanoparticle-based approaches to combatting biofilm may encourage researchers to explore promising treatment modalities for bacterial-biofilm-associated chronic lung infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Bonincontro G, Scuderi SA, Marino A, et al (2023)

Synergistic Effect of Plant Compounds in Combination with Conventional Antimicrobials against Biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida spp.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(11): pii:ph16111531.

Bacterial and fungal biofilm has increased antibiotic resistance and plays an essential role in many persistent diseases. Biofilm-associated chronic infections are difficult to treat and reduce the efficacy of medical devices. This global problem has prompted extensive research to find alternative strategies to fight microbial chronic infections. Plant bioactive metabolites with antibiofilm activity are known to be potential resources to alleviate this problem. The phytochemical screening of some medicinal plants showed different active groups, such as stilbenes, tannins, alkaloids, terpenes, polyphenolics, flavonoids, lignans, quinones, and coumarins. Synergistic effects can be observed in the interaction between plant compounds and conventional drugs. This review analyses and summarises the current knowledge on the synergistic effects of plant metabolites in combination with conventional antimicrobials against biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. The synergism of conventional antimicrobials with plant compounds can modify and inhibit the mechanisms of acquired resistance, reduce undesirable effects, and obtain an appropriate therapeutic effect at lower doses. A deeper knowledge of these combinations and of their possible antibiofilm targets is needed to develop next-generation novel antimicrobials and/or improve current antimicrobials to fight drug-resistant infections attributed to biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Soltane R, Alasiri A, Taha MN, et al (2023)

Norlobaridone Inhibits Quorum Sensing-Dependent Biofilm Formation and Some Virulence Factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Disrupting Its Transcriptional Activator Protein LasR Dimerization.

Biomolecules, 13(11): pii:biom13111573.

In the present study, norlobaridone (NBD) was isolated from Parmotrema and then evaluated as a new potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development. This phenolic natural product was found to reduce P. aeruginosa biofilm formation (64.6% inhibition) and its related virulence factors, such as pyocyanin and rhamnolipids (% inhibition = 61.1% and 55%, respectively). In vitro assays inhibitory effects against a number of known LuxR-type receptors revealed that NBD was able to specifically block P. aeruginosa's LasR in a dose-dependent manner. Further molecular studies (e.g., sedimentation velocity and thermal shift assays) demonstrated that NBD destabilized LasR upon binding and damaged its functional quaternary structure (i.e., the functional dimeric form). The use of modelling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations also allowed us to further understand its interaction with LasR, and how this can disrupt its dimeric form. Finally, our findings show that NBD is a powerful and specific LasR antagonist that should be widely employed as a chemical probe in QS of P. aeruginosa, providing new insights into LasR antagonism processes. The new discoveries shed light on the mysterious world of LuxR-type QS in this key opportunistic pathogen.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Priya GB, Srinivas K, Shilla H, et al (2023)

High Prevalence of Multidrug-Resistant, Biofilm-Forming Virulent Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chicken Retail Points in Northeast India.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 12(22): pii:foods12224185.

In light of the significant public health and food safety implications associated with Clostridium perfringens, this study aimed to isolate and characterize C. perfringens in samples obtained from broiler chicken retail points in Meghalaya, northeastern India. A total of 280 samples comprising meat, intestinal contents, water, and hand swabs were processed to detect contamination by C. perfringens. The isolates were subjected to toxinotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and biofilm-forming ability test. The overall occurrence of C. perfringens was 22.5% (17.74-27.85, 95% CI) with the highest recovery from intestine samples (31%; 22.13-41.03, 95% CI), followed by meat (23%, 15.17-32.49, 95% CI) and water samples (18%, 8.58-31.44, 95% CI). Type A was the predominant toxinotype (71.43%, 58.65-82.11, 95% CI), followed by Type A with beta2 toxin (17.46%, 9.05-29.10, 95% CI), Type C (7.94%, 2.63-17.56, 95% CI), and Type C with beta2 toxin (3.17%, 0.39-11.0, 95% CI). Nearly all (95.24%) isolates were multidrug resistant and 68.25% were biofilm formers. The predominance of multidrug-resistant and virulent Type A and Type C C. perfringens in retail broiler meat and intestines in the tribal-dominated northeastern region of India is of great concern from food safety and public health perspectives.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Alvira-Arill GR, Willems HME, Fortwendel JP, et al (2023)

Impact of intravenous fat emulsion choice on Candida biofilm, hyphal growth, and catheter-related bloodstream infections in pediatric patients.

The Journal of infectious diseases pii:7450276 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Use of mixed-oil intravenous fat emulsion (MO-IFE) was shown to inhibit C. albicans biofilm formation and overall rate of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) compared to soybean-oil IFE (SO-IFE). We aimed to delineate this inhibitory mechanism and impact of IFE choice on distribution of fungal CR-BSIs.

METHODS: Transcriptional profiling was conducted on C. albicans grown in SO-IFE, MO-IFE, or SO-IFE+capric acid. Overexpression strains of shared downregulated genes were constructed using a tetracycline-off system to assess hypha and biofilm formation in IFEs. A 5-year retrospective multi-center cohort study was performed to assess differences in CR-BSIs caused by Candida species based on IFE formulation received in pediatric patients.

RESULTS: Genes significantly downregulated in MO-IFE and SO-IFE+capric acid included CDC11, HGC1, and UME6. Overexpression of HGC1 or UME6 enabled filamentation in capric acid and MO-IFE. Interestingly, only overexpression of UME6 was sufficient to rescue biofilm growth in MO-IFE. MO-IFE administration was associated with a higher proportion of non-albicans Candida vs. C. albicans CR-BSIs (42% vs 33%; OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.46 to 3.26).

CONCLUSIONS: MO-IFE impacts C. albicans biofilm formation and hyphal growth via a UME6-dependent mechanism. A numerical, but not statistically significant difference in distribution of Candida spp. among CR-BSIs was observed.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Wang X, Zhang C, He L, et al (2023)

Near infrared II excitation nanoplatform for photothermal/chemodynamic/antibiotic synergistic therapy combating bacterial biofilm infections.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 21(1):446.

Drug-resistant bacterial biofilm infections (BBIs) are refractory to elimination. Near-infrared-II photothermal therapy (NIR-II PTT) and chemodynamic therapy (CDT) are emerging antibiofilm approaches because of the heavy damage they inflict upon bacterial membrane structures and minimal drug-resistance. Hence, synergistic NIR-II PTT and CDT hold great promise for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of BBIs. Herein, we propose a biofilm microenvironment (BME)-responsive nanoplatform, BTFB@Fe@Van, for use in the synergistic NIR-II PTT/CDT/antibiotic treatment of BBIs. BTFB@Fe@Van was prepared through the self-assembly of phenylboronic acid (PBA)-modified small-molecule BTFB, vancomycin, and the CDT catalyst Fe[2+] ions in DSPE-PEG2000. Vancomycin was conjugated with BTFB through a pH-sensitive PBA-diol interaction, while the Fe[2+] ions were bonded to the sulfur and nitrogen atoms of BTFB. The PBA-diol bonds decomposed in the acidic BME, simultaneously freeing the vancomycin and Fe[2+] irons. Subsequently, the catalytic product hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fe[2+] ions in the oxidative BME overexpressed with H2O2. Moreover, under 1064 nm laser, BTFB@Fe@Van exhibited outstanding hyperthermia and accelerated the release rate of vancomycin and the efficacy of CDT. Furthermore, the BTFB@Fe@Van nanoplatform enabled the precise NIR-II imaging of the infected sites. Both in-vitro and in-vivo experiments demonstrated that BTFB@Fe@Van possesses a synergistic NIR-II PTT/CDT/antibiotic mechanism against BBIs.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Rao PD, Sandeep AH, Madhubala MM, et al (2023)

Comparative evaluation of effect of nisin-incorporated ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and MTAD on endodontic biofilm eradication, smear layer removal, and depth of sealer penetration.

Clinical oral investigations [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To comparatively evaluate the nisin-incorporated ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (N-EDTA) and MTAD on cytotoxicity, endodontic biofilm eradication potential, smear layer removal ability, and sealer penetration depth.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: N-EDTA was prepared and characterized using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Minimum inhibitory, minimum bactericidal, and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBC, MIC, and MBIC) were determined on Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) strain. The cytocompatibility of N-EDTA and MTAD was evaluated using 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-based colorimetric assay. Dentin specimens (n = 88 for antibacterial analysis, n = 170 for sealer penetration depth) were prepared and subjected to the classical irrigating strategy and obturation, respectively. The scanning electron microscopic evaluation (SEM) was done for the evaluation of biofilm disruption and smear layer removal. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) evaluation was done for determining percentage of bacterial viability and sealer penetration depth. Statistical analysis of one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc tests for bacterial viability and Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test for smear layer removal and depth of penetration were done with the significance level set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: MTAD and N-EDTA showed cytocompatibility without any statistical differences from each other. For N-EDTA, the MIC and MBC values were 12.5 μg/ml (1:8), and MBIC values were 36 μg/ml. Biofilm disruption and killed bacterial percentage of N-EDTA was statistically higher than MTAD, whereas both the materials showed similar efficacy in the removal of the smear layer and sealer penetration depth.

CONCLUSION: N-EDTA had negligible cytotoxicity with similar smear layer removal ability, sealer penetration, and better antibiofilm potential than MTAD.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: N-EDTA can serve as a viable alternative endodontic irrigant.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Marques A, Carabineiro SAC, Aureliano M, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Gold Complexes to Address Bacterial Resistance, Quorum Sensing, Biofilm Formation, and Their Antiviral Properties against Bacteriophages.

Toxics, 11(11): pii:toxics11110879.

The worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance poses a significant challenge, and researchers are diligently seeking new drugs to combat infections and prevent bacterial pathogens from developing resistance. Gold (I and III) complexes are suitable for this purpose. In this study, we tested four gold (I and III) complexes, (1) chlorotrimethylphosphine gold(I); (2) chlorotriphenylphosphine gold(I); (3) dichloro(2-pyridinecarboxylate) gold (III); and (4) 1,3-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene gold(I) chloride, for their antibacterial, antibiofilm, antiviral, and anti-quorum sensing activities. Results reveal that 1 significantly inhibits Escherichia coli DSM 1077 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, while 2, 3, and 4 only inhibit S. aureus ATCC 6538. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1 for S. aureus ATCC 6538 is 0.59 μg/mL (1.91 μM), and for methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains MRSA 12 and MRSA 15, it is 1.16 μg/mL (3.75 μM). For E. coli DSM 1077 (Gram-negative), the MIC is 4.63 μg/mL (15 μM), and for multi-resistant E. coli I731940778-1, it is 9.25 μg/mL (30 μM). Complex 1 also disrupts biofilm formation in E. coli and S. aureus after 6 h or 24 h exposure. Moreover, 1 and 2 inhibit the replication of two enterobacteria phages. Anti-quorum sensing potential still requires further clarification. These findings highlight the potential of gold complexes as effective agents to combat bacterial and viral infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Alshora D, Ashri L, Alfaraj R, et al (2023)

Formulation and In Vivo Evaluation of Biofilm Loaded with Silver Sulfadiazine for Burn Healing.

Gels (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11): pii:gels9110855.

Infected burned skin is a life-threatening condition, which may lead to sepsis. The aims of this work are to formulate a biofilm composed of silver sulfadiazine (SSD), chitosan (CS), and sodium alginate (SA), and to evaluate its wound-healing effectiveness. A full factorial design was used to formulate different matrix formulations. The prepared biofilm was tested for physicochemical, and in vitro release. The optimized formulation is composed of 0.833% of CS and 0.75% of SA. The release of SSD almost reached 100% after 6 h. The mechanical properties of the optimized formula were reasonable. The antibacterial activity for the optimized biofilm was significantly higher than that of blank biofilm, which is composed of CS and SA, p = 1.53922 × 10[-12]. Moreover, the in vivo study showed a 75% reduction in wound width when using the formulated SSD biofilm compared to standard marketed cream (57%) and the untreated group (0%).

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Karkowska-Kuleta J, Kulig K, Bras G, et al (2023)

Candida albicans Biofilm-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Are Involved in the Tolerance to Caspofungin, Biofilm Detachment, and Fungal Proteolytic Activity.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11): pii:jof9111078.

It has been repeatedly reported that the cells of organisms in all kingdoms of life produce nanometer-sized lipid membrane-enveloped extracellular vesicles (EVs), transporting and protecting various substances of cellular origin. While the composition of EVs produced by human pathogenic fungi has been studied in recent decades, another important challenge is the analysis of their functionality. Thus far, fungal EVs have been shown to play significant roles in intercellular communication, biofilm production, and modulation of host immune cell responses. In this study, we verified the involvement of biofilm-derived EVs produced by two different strains of Candida albicans-C. albicans SC5314 and 3147 (ATCC 10231)-in various aspects of biofilm function by examining its thickness, stability, metabolic activity, and cell viability in the presence of EVs and the antifungal drug caspofungin. Furthermore, the proteolytic activity against the kininogen-derived antimicrobial peptide NAT26 was confirmed by HPLC analysis for C. albicans EVs that are known to carry, among others, particular members of the secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) family. In conclusion, EVs derived from C. albicans biofilms were shown to be involved in biofilm tolerance to caspofungin, biofilm detachment, and fungal proteolytic activity.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Ribeiro AB, Tinelli BM, Clemente LM, et al (2023)

Effect of Hygiene Protocols on the Mechanical and Physical Properties of Two 3D-Printed Denture Resins Characterized by Extrinsic Pigmentation as Well as the Mixed Biofilm Formed on the Surface.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11): pii:antibiotics12111630.

To assess the effect of hygiene protocols and time on the physical-mechanical properties and colony-forming units (CFU) of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus mutans on 3D-printed denture resins (SmartPrint and Yller) with extrinsic pigmentation compared to conventional resin (CR). The protocols were evaluated: brushing (B), brushing and immersion in water (W), 0.25% sodium hypochlorite (SH), and 0.15% triclosan (T), simulating 0, 1, 3, and 5 years. The data were analyzed by ANOVA with repeated measurements, ANOVA (Three-way) and Tukey's post-test, generalized linear model with Bonferroni adjustment, and ANOVA (Two-way) and Tukey's post-test (α = 0.05). The protocols influenced color (p = 0.036) and Knoop hardness (p < 0.001). Surface roughness was influenced by protocols/resin (p < 0.001) and time/resin (p = 0.001), and flexural strength by time/protocols (p = 0.014). C. albicans showed interactions with all factors (p = 0.033). Staphylococcus aureus was affected by protocols (p < 0.001). Streptococcus mutans exhibited no count for SH and T (p < 0.001). Yller resin showed more color changes. The 3D-printed resins displayed lower microhardness, increased roughness, and decreased flexural strength compared to CR with all protocols in a simulated period of 5 years. The indication of printed resins should be restricted to less than 3 years.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Cruz JERD, Saldanha HC, Nascimento AMD, et al (2023)

Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Anti-Biofilm Effects of the Stem Bark, Leaf, and Seed Extracts from Hymenaea courbaril and Characterization by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS Analysis.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11): pii:antibiotics12111601.

Currently, biofilm-forming bacteria are difficult to treat by conventional antibiotic therapy and are, thus, becoming a clinical and epidemiological problem worldwide. Medicinal plants have been identified as novel alternative treatments due to their therapeutic and antimicrobial effects. In this context, the present study aimed to determine the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antimicrobial and anti-biofilm potential of nine extracts of Hymenaea courbaril (Fabaceae), popularly known as Jatobá. Furthermore, extracts that exhibited biofilm inhibitory activity against S. aureus (ATCC 25923) were selected for UPLC-HRMS/MS chemical analysis. Our results showed a high total phenolic content, mainly in the stem bark extract, and that the plant is rich in compounds with antioxidant activity. In the anti-biofilm analysis, leaf extracts stood out in comparison with chloramphenicol, with inhibition percentages of 78.29% and 78.85%, respectively. Through chemical analysis by UPLC-HRMS/MS, chrysoeriol-7-O-neohesperidoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, and 3,7-di-O-methylquercetin were annotated for the first time in the leaves of H. courbaril. Therefore, these results showed the potential use of H. courbaril as an antioxidant and point to its use in antimicrobial therapy with an anti-biofilm effect.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Leesombun A, Sungpradit S, Sariya L, et al (2023)

Transcriptional Profiling of the Effect of Coleus amboinicus L. Essential Oil against Salmonella Typhimurium Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11): pii:antibiotics12111598.

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cause infections primarily through foodborne transmission and remains a significant public health concern. The biofilm formation of this bacteria also contributes to their multidrug-resistant nature. Essential oils from medicinal plants are considered potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics. Therefore, this study assessed the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of Coleus amboinicus essential oil (EO-CA) against S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028. Seventeen chemical compounds of EO-CA were identified, and carvacrol (38.26%) was found to be the main constituent. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO-CA for S. Typhimurium planktonic growth was 1024 µg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration was 1024 µg/mL. EO-CA at sub-MIC (≥1/16× MIC) exhibited antibiofilm activity against the prebiofilm formation of S. Typhimurium at 24 h. Furthermore, EO-CA (≥1/4× MIC) inhibited postbiofilm formation at 24 and 48 h (p < 0.05). Transcriptional profiling revealed that the EO-CA-treated group at 1/2× MIC had 375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 106 of which were upregulated and 269 were downregulated. Five significantly downregulated virulent DEGs responsible for motility (flhD, fljB, and fimD), curli fimbriae (csgD), and invasion (hilA) were screened via quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This study suggests the potential of EO-CA as an effective antimicrobial agent for combating planktonic and biofilm formation of Salmonella.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Plotkin BJ, Halkyard S, Spoolstra E, et al (2023)

The Role of the Insulin/Glucose Ratio in the Regulation of Pathogen Biofilm Formation.

Biology, 12(11): pii:biology12111432.

UNLABELLED: During the management of patients in acute trauma the resulting transient hyperglycemia is treated by administration of insulin. Since the effect of insulin, a quorum sensing compound, together with glucose affects biofilm formation in a concentration-specific manner, we hypothesize that the insulin/glucose ratio over the physiologic range modulates biofilm formation potentially influencing the establishment of infection through biofilm formation.

METHODS: A variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were grown in peptone (1%) yeast nitrogen base broth overnight in 96-well plates with various concentrations of glucose and insulin. Biofilm formation was determined by the crystal violet staining procedure. Expression of insulin binding was determined by fluorescent microscopy (FITC-insulin). Controls were buffer alone, insulin alone, and glucose alone.

RESULTS: Overall, maximal biofilm levels were measured at 220 mg/dL of glucose, regardless of insulin concentration (10, 100, 200 µU/mL) of the organism tested. In general, insulin with glucose over the range of 160-180 mg/dL exhibited a pattern of biofilm suppression. However, either above or below this range, the presence of insulin in combination with glucose significantly modulated (increase or decrease) biofilm formation in a microbe-specific pattern. This modulation appears for some organisms to be reflective of the glucose-regulated intrinsic expression of bacterial insulin receptor expression.

CONCLUSION: Insulin at physiologic levels (normal and hyperinsulinemic) in combination with glucose can affect biofilm formation in a concentration-specific and microbe-specific manner. These findings may provide insight into the importance of co-regulation of the insulin/glucose ratio in patient management.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Yang L, Zhang D, Li W, et al (2023)

Biofilm microenvironment triggered self-enhancing photodynamic immunomodulatory microneedle for diabetic wound therapy.

Nature communications, 14(1):7658.

The treatment of diabetic wounds faces enormous challenges due to complex wound environments, such as infected biofilms, excessive inflammation, and impaired angiogenesis. The critical role of the microenvironment in the chronic diabetic wounds has not been addressed for therapeutic development. Herein, we develop a microneedle (MN) bandage functionalized with dopamine-coated hybrid nanoparticles containing selenium and chlorin e6 (SeC@PA), which is capable of the dual-directional regulation of reactive species (RS) generation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), in response to the wound microenvironment. The SeC@PA MN bandage can disrupt barriers in wound coverings for efficient SeC@PA delivery. SeC@PA not only depletes endogenous glutathione (GSH) to enhance the anti-biofilm effect of RS, but also degrades GSH in biofilms through cascade reactions to generate more lethal RS for biofilm eradication. SeC@PA acts as an RS scavenger in wound beds with low GSH levels, exerting an anti-inflammatory effect. SeC@PA also promotes the M2-phenotype polarization of macrophages, accelerating wound healing. This self-enhanced, catabolic and dynamic therapy, activated by the wound microenvironment, provides an approach for treating chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Chang JY, Syauqi TA, Sudesh K, et al (2023)

Insights into biofilm development on polyhydroxyalkanoate biofilm carrier for anoxic azo dye decolourization of acid orange 7.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)01482-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are promising alternatives to non-degradable polymers in various applications. This study explored the use of biologically recovered PHA as a biofilm carrier in a moving bed biofilm reactor for acid orange 7 treatment. The PHA was comprised of 86 ± 1 mol% of 3-hydroxybutyrate and 14 ± 1 mol% of 3-hydroxyhexanoate and was melt-fused at 140 °C into pellets. The net positive surface charge of the PHA biocarrier facilitated attachment of negatively charged activated sludge, promoting biofilm formation. A 236-µm mature biofilm developed after 26 days. The high polysaccharides-to-protein ratio (>1) in the biofilm's extracellular polymeric substances indicated a stable biofilm structure. Four main microbial strains in the biofilm were identified as Leclercia adecarboxylata, Leuconostoc citreum, Bacillus cereus, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, all of which exhibited decolourization abilities. In conclusion, PHA holds promise as an effective biocarrier for biofilm development, offering a sustainable alternative in wastewater treatment applications.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Wang Y, Zhang X, Wu Y, et al (2023)

Improving biomass yields of microalgae biofilm by coculturing two microalgae species via forming biofilms with uniform microstructures and small cell-clusters.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)01480-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Microalgae coculture has the potential to promote microalgae biofilm growth. Herein, three two-species cocultured biofilms were studied by determining biomass yields and detailed microstructure parameters, including porosity, average pore length, average cluster length, etc. It was found that biomass yields could reduce by 21-53 % when biofilm porosities decreased from about 35 % to 20 %; while at similar porosities (∼20 %), biomass yields of cocultured biofilms increased by 37 % when they possessed uniform microstructure and small cell-clusters (pores and clusters of 1 ∼ 10 μm accounted for 96 % and 68 %, respectively). By analyzing morphologies and surface properties of cells, it was found that cells with small size, spherical shape, and reduced surface polymers could hinder the cell-clusters formation, thereby promoting biomass yields. The study would provide new insights into choosing cocultured microalgae species for improving the biomass yield of biofilm via manipulating biofilm microstructures.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Li J, Zhang F, Ma B, et al (2023)

Characterization of simultaneous ammonium and nitrate removal and microbial communities in airlift reactor using 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate as carbon source and biofilm carrier.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)01477-3 [Epub ahead of print].

As a novel trend, solid carbon sources are applied to act as electron donors and biofilm carrier in biological denitrification process. In this study, simultaneous nitrate and ammonium removal process in an airlift sequencing batch reactor using 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate as carbon source and biofilm carrier under intermittent aeration conditions was established to treat effluent of synthetic marine recirculating aquaculture system. The results showed that maximum nitrate and ammonia nitrogen removal rates of 0.45 and 0.09 kg m[-3] d[-1] were achieved. No significant nitrite accumulation was found during 200-day operation, while effluent dissolved organic carbon accumulation and particle size reduction significantly increased. Microbial community analysis and batch tests illuminate that the generated sludge and attached biofilm played important roles in nitrogen removal. This study demonstrates the potential mechanism for the nitrogen removal process mediated by 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate and provide a new idea for the alternative solutions of solid carbon sources.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Upadhyay A, Pal D, A Kumar (2023)

Deciphering Target Protein Cascade in Salmonella typhi Biofilm using Genomic Data Mining, and Protein-protein Interaction.

Current genomics, 24(2):100-109.

BACKGROUND: Salmonella typhi biofilm confers a serious public health issue for lengthy periods and the rise in antibiotic resistance and death rate. Biofilm generation has rendered even the most potent antibiotics ineffective in controlling the illness, and the S. typhi outbreak has turned into a fatal disease typhoid. S. typhi infection has also been connected to other deadly illnesses, such as a gall bladder cancer. The virulence of this disease is due to the interaction of numerous genes and proteins of S. typhi.

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify a cascade of target proteins in S. typhi biofilm condition with the help of genomic data mining and protein-protein interaction analysis.

METHODS: The goal of this study was to notice some important pharmacological targets in S. typhi. using genomic data mining, and protein-protein interaction approaches were used so that new drugs could be developed to combat the disease.

RESULTS: In this study, we identified 15 potential target proteins that are critical for S. typhi biofilm growth and maturation. Three proteins, CsgD, AdrA, and BcsA, were deciphered with their significant role in the synthesis of cellulose, a critical component of biofilm's extracellular matrix. The CsgD protein was also shown to have high interconnectedness and strong interactions with other important target proteins of S. typhi. As a result, it has been concluded that CsgD is involved in a range of activities, including cellulose synthesis, bacterial pathogenicity, quorum sensing, and bacterial virulence.

CONCLUSION: All identified targets in this study possess hydrophobic properties, and their cellular localization offered proof of a potent therapeutic target. Overall results of this study, drug target shortage in S. typhi is also spotlighted, and we believe that obtained result could be useful for the design and development of some potent anti-salmonella agents for typhoid fever in the future.

RevDate: 2023-11-23

Wang Z, Chen R, Xia F, et al (2023)

ProQ binding to small RNA RyfA promotes virulence and biofilm formation in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli.

Veterinary research, 54(1):109.

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is a notable subpathotype of the nonhuman extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Recognized as an extraintestinal foodborne pathogen, the zoonotic potential of APEC/ExPEC allows for cross-host transmission via APEC-contaminated poultry meat and eggs. ProQ, an RNA binding protein, is evolutionarily conserved in E. coli. However, its regulatory roles in the biofilm formation and virulence of APEC/ExPEC have not been explored. In this study, proQ deletion in the APEC strain FY26 significantly compromised its biofilm-forming ability. Furthermore, animal tests and cellular infection experiments showed that ProQ depletion significantly attenuated APEC virulence, thereby diminishing its capacity for bloodstream infection and effective adherence to and persistence within host cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed a decrease in the transcription level of the small RNA (sRNA) RyfA in the mutant FY26ΔproQ, suggesting a direct interaction between the sRNA RyfA and ProQ. This interaction might indicate that sRNA RyfA is a novel ProQ-associated sRNA. Moreover, the direct binding of ProQ to the sRNA RyfA was crucial for APEC biofilm formation, pathogenicity, adhesion, and intracellular survival. In conclusion, our findings provide detailed insight into the interaction between ProQ and sRNA RyfA and deepen our understanding of the regulatory elements that dictate APEC virulence and biofilm development. Such insights are instrumental in developing strategies to counteract APEC colonization within hosts and impede APEC biofilm establishment on food surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Hof C, Khan MF, CD Murphy (2023)

Endogenous production of 2-phenylethanol by Cunninghamella echinulata inhibits biofilm growth of the fungus.

Fungal biology, 127(10-11):1384-1388.

The filamentous fungus Cunninghamella echinulata is a model of mammalian xenobiotic metabolism. Under certain conditions it grows as a biofilm, which is a natural form of immobilisation and enables the fungus to catalyse repeated biotransformations. Putative signalling molecules produced by other Cunninghamella spp., such as 3-hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, do not affect the biofilm growth of C. echinulata, suggesting that it employs a different molecule to regulate biofilm growth. In this paper we report that 2-phenylethanol is produced in higher concentrations in planktonic cultures of C. echinulata than when the fungus is grown as a biofilm. We demonstrate that exogenously added 2-phenylethanol inhibits biofilm growth of C. echinulata but has no effect on planktonic growth. Furthermore, we show that addition of 2-phenylethanol to established C. echinulata biofilm causes detachment. Therefore, we conclude that this molecule is produced by the fungus to regulate biofilm growth.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Yan H, Wen P, Tian S, et al (2023)

Enhancing biofilm penetration and antibiofilm efficacy with protein nanocarriers against pathogenic biofilms.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)05199-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Nanocarriers play an important role in enhancing the efficacy of antibiotics against biofilms by improving their penetration and prolonging retention in pathogenic biofilms. Herein, the multifunctional nanocarriers including nanospheres (NS) and nanotubes (NT) with a high biocompatibility and biodegradability were prepared through self-assembly of partially hydrolyzed α-lactalbumin. The effects of these two different shaped nanocarriers on the delivery of antibiotics for biofilm treatment were examined by conducting in vitro antibiofilm experiment and in vivo infected wound model. The strong affinity of NS and NT for the bacterial surface allows antibiotics to be concentrated in the bacteria. Notably, the high permeability of NT into biofilms facilitates deeper penetration and the easier diffusion of loaded antibiotics within the biofilm. Furthermore, the acidic biofilm environment triggers the release of antibiotics from the NT, resulting in the accumulation of high local antibiotic concentrations. Therefore, NT could efficiently clean and inhibit the biofilm formation while also destroying the mature biofilms. In a S. aureus infected wound animal model, treatment with antibiotic-loaded NT demonstrated accelerated healing of S. aureus infected wounds when compared to free antibiotic treatment. These findings indicate that NT nanocarrier strategy is promising for treating bacterial biofilm infections, offering the potential for lower antibiotics dosages and preventing the overuse of antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Li P, Pan J, Dong Y, et al (2023)

Microenvironment responsive charge-switchable nanoparticles act on biofilm eradication and virulence inhibition for chronic lung infection treatment.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society pii:S0168-3659(23)00749-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic pulmonary infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common lung disease with high mortality, posing severe threats to public health. Highly resistant biofilm and intrinsic resistance make P. aeruginosa hard to eradicate, while powerful virulence system of P. aeruginosa may give rise to the recurrence of infection and eventual failure of antibiotic therapy. To address these issues, infection-microenvironment responsive nanoparticles functioning on biofilm eradication and virulence inhibition were simply prepared by electrostatic complexation between dimethylmaleic anhydride (DA) modified negatively charged coating and epsilon-poly(l-lysine) derived cationic nanoparticles loaded with azithromycin (AZI) (DA-AZI NPs). Charge reversal responsive to acidic condition enabled DA-AZI NPs to successively penetrate through both mucus and biofilms, followed by targeting to P. aeruginosa and permeabilizing its outer/inner membrane. Then in situ released AZI, which was induced by the lipase-triggered NPs dissociation, could easily enter into bacteria to take effects. DA-AZI NPs exhibited enhanced eradication activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms with a decrease of >99.999% of bacterial colonies, as well as remarkable inhibitory effects on the production of virulence factors and bacteria re-adhesion & biofilm re-formation. In a chronic pulmonary infection model, nebulization of DA-AZI NPs into infected mice resulted in prolonged retention and increased accumulation of the NPs in the infected sites of the lungs. Moreover, they significantly reduced the burden of P. aeruginosa, effectively alleviating lung tissue damages and inflammation. Overall, the proposed DA-AZI NPs highlight an innovative strategy for treating chronic pulmonary infection.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Zhong H, Jiang C, He X, et al (2023)

Simultaneous change of microworld and biofilm formation in constructed wetlands filled with biochar.

Journal of environmental management, 349:119583 pii:S0301-4797(23)02371-X [Epub ahead of print].

As the regulator of constructed wetlands (CWs), biochar is often used to enhance pollutant removal and reduce greenhouse gas emission. Biochar is proved to have certain effects on microbial populations, but its effect on the aggregation of microbial flocs and the formation of biofilms in the CWs has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the above topics were studied in this paper by adding a certain proportion of biochar in aerated subsurface flow constructed wetlands. The results indicated that after adding biochar in the CWs, pollutant removal was enhanced and the removal rate of NH4[+]-N was increased from 80.76% to 99.43%. The proportion of hydrophobic components in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) was reduced by adding biochar from 0.0044 to 0.0038, and the affinity of EPS on CH3-SAM was reduced from 5.736 L/g to 2.496 L/g. The weakened hydrophobic and the reduced affinity of EPS caused the initial attachment of microorganisms to be inhibited. The relative abundance of Chloroflexi was decreased after adding biochar, reducing the dense structural skeleton of biofilm aggregates. Correspondingly, the abundance of Bacteroidetes was increased, promoting EPS degradation. Biochar addition helped to increase the proportion of catalytic active proteins in extracellular proteins and decrease the proportion of binding active proteins, hindering the combination of extracellular proteins and macromolecules to form microbial aggregates. Additionally, the proportions of three extracellular protein structures promoting microbial aggregation, including aggregated chain, β-sheet, and 3-turn helix, were decreased to 23.83%, 38.37% and 7.76%, respectively, while the proportions of random coil and antiparallel β-sheet that inhibited microbial aggregation were increased to 14.11% and 8.11%, respectively. An interesting conclusion from the experimental results is that biochar not only can enhance pollutants removal, but also has the potential of alleviating biological clogging in CWs, which is of great significance to realize the sustainable operation and improve the life cycle of CWs.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Basnet A, Tamang B, Shrestha MR, et al (2023)

Assessment of four in vitro phenotypic biofilm detection methods in relation to antimicrobial resistance in aerobic clinical bacterial isolates.

PloS one, 18(11):e0294646 pii:PONE-D-23-02752.

INTRODUCTION: The lack of standardized methods for detecting biofilms continues to pose a challenge to microbiological diagnostics since biofilm-mediated infections induce persistent and recurrent infections in humans that often defy treatment with common antibiotics. This study aimed to evaluate diagnostic parameters of four in vitro phenotypic biofilm detection assays in relation to antimicrobial resistance in aerobic clinical bacterial isolates.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, bacterial strains from clinical samples were isolated and identified following the standard microbiological guidelines. The antibiotic resistance profile was assessed through the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Biofilm formation was detected by gold standard tissue culture plate method (TCPM), tube method (TM), Congo red agar (CRA), and modified Congo red agar (MCRA). Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 17.0, with a significant association considered at p<0.05.

RESULT: Among the total isolates (n = 226), TCPM detected 140 (61.95%) biofilm producers, with CoNS (9/9) (p<0.001) as the predominant biofilm former. When compared to TCPM, TM (n = 119) (p<0.001) showed 90.8% sensitivity and 70.1% specificity, CRA (n = 88) (p = 0.123) showed 68.2% sensitivity and 42% specificity, and MCRA (n = 86) (p = 0.442) showed 65.1% sensitivity and 40% specificity. Juxtaposed to CRA, colonies formed on MCRA developed more intense black pigmentation from 24 to 96 hours. There were 77 multi-drug-resistant (MDR)-biofilm formers and 39 extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-biofilm formers, with 100% resistance to ampicillin and ceftazidime, respectively.

CONCLUSION: It is suggested that TM be used for biofilm detection, after TCPM. Unlike MCRA, black pigmentation in colonies formed on CRA declined with time. MDR- and XDR-biofilm formers were frequent among the clinical isolates.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

He J, Qi P, Zhang D, et al (2023)

Determination of sulfide in complex biofilm matrices using silver-coated, 4-mercaptobenzonitrile-modified gold nanoparticles, encapsulated in ZIF-8 as surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobe.

Mikrochimica acta, 190(12):475.

A surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobe has been developed for sulfide detection and applied to complex bacterial biofilms. The nanoprobe, Au@4-MBN@Ag@ZIF-8, comprised a gold core modified with 4-mercaptobenzonitrile (4-MBN) as signaling source, a layer of silver shell as the sulfide sensitization material, and a zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as surface barrier. ZIF-8, with its high surface area and mesoporous structure, was applied to preconcentrate sulfide around the nanoprobe with its excellent adsorption capacity. Besides, the external wrapping of ZIF-8 can not only prevent the interference of biomolecules, such as proteins, with the Au@4-MBN@Ag assay but also enhance the detection specificity through the sulfide cleavage function towards ZIF-8. These properties are critical for the application of this nanoprobe to complex environmental scenarios. In the presence of sulfide, it was first enriched through adsorption by the outer ZIF-8 layer, then destroyed the barrier layer, and subsequently reacted with the Ag shell, leading to changes in the Raman signal. Through this rational design, the Au@4-MBN@Ag@ZIF-8 nanoprobe exhibited excellent detection sensitivity, with a sulfide detection limit in the nanomolar range and strong linearity in the concentration range 50 nM to 500 μM. Furthermore, the proposed Au@4-MBN@Ag@ZIF-8 nanoprobe was effectively utilized for sulfide detection in intricate biofilm matrices, demonstrating its robust selectivity and reproducibility.

RevDate: 2023-11-21

Liu Y, Tang S, Yan Q, et al (2023)

Effectiveness and associated mechanisms of a combination of biofilm attached cultivation and mixotrophy in promoting microalgal biomass.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)01505-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The effectiveness and associated mechanisms of the biofilm attached cultivation (BAC) under mixotrophy in promoting algal proliferation were investigated. Commercially valuable unicellular microalga Chromochloris zofingiensis was first used in BAC. Compared with suspended cultivation, the results unequivocally demonstrated the growth benefits of C. zofingiensis cells under BAC with high biomass productivity of 8.53 g m[-2] d[-1]. The physiological and transcriptomic data revealed that the augmented biomass yield was attributable to larger cell size, higher accumulation of chemical substances, significantly upregulated carbon fixation pathway, and greater energy supply efficiency. Here, BAC acts as a "cage" was proposed. Specifically, cells allocate less energy toward mobility, directing a higher share toward growth and production due to their immobilized lifestyle. These findings provide novel insights for optimizing cultivation strategies for commercially valuable algal species and offer a novel perspective from microalgae physiological on understanding higher biomass yield in BAC.

RevDate: 2023-11-21

Xiao WN, Nunn GM, Fufeng AB, et al (2023)

Exploring Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato biofilm-like aggregate formation in susceptible and PTI-responding Arabidopsis thaliana.

Molecular plant pathology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilm-like aggregates have been observed in plants, but their role in pathogenicity is underinvestigated. In the present study, we observed that extracellular DNA and polysaccharides colocalized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) aggregates in Arabidopsis leaves, suggesting that Pst aggregates are biofilms. GFP-expressing Pst, Pst ΔalgU ΔmucAB (Pst algU mutant), and Pst ΔalgD ΔalgU ΔmucAB (Pst algU algD mutant) were examined to explore the roles of (1) alginate, a potential biofilm component; (2) Pst AlgU, thought to regulate alginate biosynthesis and some type III secretion system effector genes; and (3) intercellular salicylic acid (SA) accumulation during pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Pst formed extensive aggregates in susceptible plants, whereas aggregate numbers and size were reduced in Pst algU and Pst algD algU mutants, and both multiplied poorly in planta, suggesting that aggregate formation contributes to Pst success in planta. However, in SA-deficient sid2-2 plants, Pst algD algU mutant multiplication and aggregate formation were partially restored, suggesting plant-produced SA contributes to suppression of Pst aggregate formation. Pst algD algU mutants formed fewer and smaller aggregates than Pst algU mutants, suggesting both AlgU and AlgD contribute to Pst aggregate formation. Col-0 plants accumulated low levels of SA in response to Pst and both mutants (Pst algU and Pst algD algU), suggesting the regulatory functions of AlgU are not involved in suppressing SA-mediated plant defence. Plant PTI was associated with highly reduced Pst aggregate formation and accumulation of intercellular SA in flg22-induced PTI-responding wild-type Col-0, but not in PTI-incompetent fls2, suggesting intercellular SA accumulation by Arabidopsis contributes to suppression of Pst biofilm-like aggregate formation during PTI.

RevDate: 2023-11-21

Hernández-Cuellar E, Tsuchiya K, Valle-Ríos R, et al (2023)

Differences in Biofilm Formation by Methicillin-Resistant and Methicillin-Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Strains.

Diseases (Basel, Switzerland), 11(4): pii:diseases11040160.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen involved in community- and hospital-acquired infections. Its biofilm formation ability predisposes it to device-related infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains are associated with more serious infections and higher mortality rates and are more complex in terms of antibiotic resistance. It is still controversial whether MRSA are indeed more virulent than methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) strains. A difference in biofilm formation by both types of bacteria has been suggested, but how only the presence of the SCCmec cassette or mecA influences this phenotype remains unclear. In this review, we have searched for literature studying the difference in biofilm formation by MRSA and MSSA. We highlighted the relevance of the icaADBC operon in the PIA-dependent biofilms generated by MSSA under osmotic stress conditions, and the role of extracellular DNA and surface proteins in the PIA-independent biofilms generated by MRSA. We described the prominent role of surface proteins with the LPXTG motif and hydrolases for the release of extracellular DNA in the MRSA biofilm formation. Finally, we explained the main regulatory systems in S. aureus involved in virulence and biofilm formation, such as the SarA and Agr systems. As most of the studies were in vitro using inert surfaces, it will be necessary in the future to focus on biofilm formation on extracellular matrix components and its relevance in the pathogenesis of infection by both types of strains using in vivo animal models.

RevDate: 2023-11-21

Dergham Y, Le Coq D, Nicolas P, et al (2023)

Direct comparison of spatial transcriptional heterogeneity across diverse Bacillus subtilis biofilm communities.

Nature communications, 14(1):7546.

Bacillus subtilis can form various types of spatially organised communities on surfaces, such as colonies, pellicles and submerged biofilms. These communities share similarities and differences, and phenotypic heterogeneity has been reported for each type of community. Here, we studied spatial transcriptional heterogeneity across the three types of surface-associated communities. Using RNA-seq analysis of different regions or populations for each community type, we identified genes that are specifically expressed within each selected population. We constructed fluorescent transcriptional fusions for 17 of these genes, and observed their expression in submerged biofilms using time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). We found mosaic expression patterns for some genes; in particular, we observed spatially segregated cells displaying opposite regulation of carbon metabolism genes (gapA and gapB), indicative of distinct glycolytic or gluconeogenic regimes coexisting in the same biofilm region. Overall, our study provides a direct comparison of spatial transcriptional heterogeneity, at different scales, for the three main models of B. subtilis surface-associated communities.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

El-Telbany M, Lin CY, Abdelaziz MN, et al (2023)

Potential application of phage vB_EfKS5 to control Enterococcus faecalis and its biofilm in food.

AMB Express, 13(1):130.

Contaminated food with antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus spp. could be the vehicle for transmitting Enterococcus to humans and accordingly cause a public health problem. The accumulation of biogenic amines produced by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in food may have cytological effects. Bacteriophages (phage in short) are natural antimicrobial agents and can be used alone or in combination with other food preservatives to reduce food microbial contaminants. The aim of this study was to isolate a novel phage against E. faecalis and determine its host range to evaluate its potential application. Bacteriophage, vB_EfKS5, with a broad host range, was isolated to control the growth of E. faecalis. The vB_EfKS5 genome is 59,246 bp in length and has a GC content of 39.7%. The computational analysis of phage vB_EfKS5 genome confirmed that it does not contain any lysogenic, toxic, or virulent genes. Phage vB_EfKS5 exhibited lytic activity against most E. faecalis isolates with different multiplicities of infections and it infected 75.5% (22/29) of E. faecalis isolates and 42.3% (3/7) of E. faecium isolates. It was also able to destroy the biofilm formed by E. faecalis with different MOIs. Phage vB_EfKS5 alone or in combination with nisin could control the growth of E. faecalis in broth and milk. Based on its high productivity, stability, short latent period, and large burst size, phage vB_EfKS5 has a high potential for applications both in food and medical applications.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Malani M, Thodikayil AT, Saha S, et al (2024)

Carboxylated nanofibrillated cellulose empowers moxifloxacin to overcome Staphylococcus aureus biofilm in bacterial keratitis.

Carbohydrate polymers, 324:121558.

Bacterial keratitis is one of the vision-threatening ocular diseases that is increasing at an alarming rate due to antimicrobial resistance. One of the primary causes of antimicrobial resistance could be biofilm formation, which alters the mechanism and physiology of the microorganisms. Even a potent drug fails to inhibit biofilm due to the extracellular polysaccharide matrix surrounding the bacteria, inhibiting the permeation of drugs. Therefore, we aimed to develop carboxylated nanocellulose fibers loaded with moxifloxacin (Mox-cNFC) as a novel drug delivery system to treat bacterial corneal infection. Nanocellulose fibers were fabricated using a two-step method involving citric acid hydrolysis followed by TEMPO oxidation to introduce carboxylated groups (1.12 mmol/g). The Mox-cNFC particles showed controlled drug release till 40 h through diffusion. In vitro biofilm inhibition studies showed the particle's ability to disrupt the biofilm matrix and enhance the drug penetration to achieve optimal concentrations that inhibit the persister cells (without increasing minimum inhibitory concentration), thereby reducing the bacterial drug-resistant property. In vivo studies revealed the therapeutic potential of Mox-cNFC to treat Staphylococcus aureus-induced bacterial keratitis with once-a-day treatment, unlike neat moxifloxacin. Mox-cNFC could improve patient compliance by reducing the frequency of instillation and a controlled drug release to prevent toxicity.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

He R, Wei P, Odiba AS, et al (2024)

Amino sugars influence Aspergillus fumigatus cell wall polysaccharide biosynthesis, and biofilm formation through interfering galactosaminogalactan deacetylation.

Carbohydrate polymers, 324:121511.

Aspergillus fumigatus is a ubiquitous fungal pathogen responsible for a significant number of deaths annually due to invasive aspergillosis infection. While the utilization of diverse carbon sources, including amino sugars, has been explored in other fungi, its impact on A. fumigatus remains uncharted territory. In this study, we investigated A. fumigatus responses to glucose (Glc), glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) as carbon sources. GlcN inhibited growth, reduced sporulation and delayed germination, while GlcNAc had no such effects. Both amino sugars induced alterations in cell wall composition, leading to a reduction in glucan and galactomannan levels while increasing chitin and mannan content, rendering A. fumigatus susceptible to cell wall stress and osmotic stress. GlcN repressed biofilm formation via downregulation of galactosaminogalactan (GAG) cluster genes, notably agd3, which encodes a GAG-specific deacetylase. Moreover, GlcN increased biofilm susceptibility to echinocandins, suggesting its potential for enhancing the effectiveness of antifungal treatments. This study sheds light on the multifaceted effects of amino sugars on A. fumigatus, encompassing growth, cell wall biosynthesis, and biofilm formation, offering promising avenues for innovative aspergillosis treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Yu M, Wang L, Feng P, et al (2023)

Treatment of mixed wastewater by vertical rotating microalgae-bacteria symbiotic biofilm reactor.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)01485-2 [Epub ahead of print].

A novel vertical rotating microalgae-bacteria symbiotic biofilm reactor was built to treat the mixed wastewater containing municipal and soybean soaking wastewater. The reactor was operated in both sequential batch and semi-continuous modes. Under the sequential batch operation mode, the maximum removal rates for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP), and Ammonia Nitrogen (NH4[+]-N) of the mixed wastewater were 95.6 %, 96.1 %, 97.6 %, and 100 %, respectively. During the semi-continuous operation, the water discharge indices decreased gradually and eventually stabilized. At stabilization, the removal rates of COD, TN, and NH4[+]-N achieved 98 %, 95 %, and 99.9 %, respectively. The maximum biomass productivity of the biofilm was 2.69 g·m[-2]·d[-1]. Additionally, the carbohydrate, protein and lipid comprised approximately 22 %, 51 % and 10 % of the dry weight of Chlorella. This study demonstrates the great potential of the microalgae-bacteria symbiotic biofilm system to treat food and domestic wastewater while harvesting microalgal biomass.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Byeon CH, Kinney T, Saricayir H, et al (2023)

Tapping into the native Pseudomonas bacterial biofilm structure by high-resolution multidimensional solid-state NMR.

Journal of magnetic resonance (San Diego, Calif. : 1997), 357:107587 pii:S1090-7807(23)00222-7 [Epub ahead of print].

We present a multidimensional magic-angle spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR (ssNMR) study to characterize native Pseudomonas fluorescens colony biofilms at natural abundance without isotope-labelling. By using a high-resolution INEPT-based 2D [1]H-[13]C ssNMR spectrum and thorough peak deconvolution at the 1D ssNMR spectra, approximately 80/134 (in 1D/2D) distinct biofilm chemical sites were identified. We compared CP and INEPT [13]C ssNMR spectra to differentiate signals originating from the mobile and rigid fractions of the biofilm, and qualitatively determined dynamical changes by comparing CP buildup behaviors. Protein and polysaccharide signals were differentiated and identified by utilizing FapC protein signals as a template, a biofilm forming functional amyloid from Pseudomonas. We identified several biofilm polysaccharide species such as glucose, mannan, galactose, heptose, rhamnan, fucose and N-acylated mannuronic acid by using [1]H and [13]C chemical shifts obtained from the 2D spectrum. To our knowledge, this study marks the first high-resolution multidimensional ssNMR characterization of a native bacterial biofilm. Our experimental pipeline can be readily applied to other in vitro biofilm model systems and natural biofilms and holds the promise of making a substantial impact on biofilm research, fostering new ideas and breakthroughs to aid in the development of strategic approaches to combat infections caused by biofilm-forming bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Gupta A, Luong JHT, A Gedanken (2023)

Zirconium-Coated β-Cyclodextrin Nanomaterials for Biofilm Eradication.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Under alkaline treatment, zirconyl chloride (ZrOCl2.8H2O) became a zirconia gel and formed a stable complex with beta-cyclodextrin (βCD). This complex was highly active in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation via H2O2 decomposition. Its surface with numerous hydroxyl groups acts as an ionic sponge to capture the charged reaction intermediates, including superoxide (O2[-•]) and the hydroxyl radical ([•]OH). ROS, especially [•]OH radicals, are harmful to living microorganisms because of their kinetic instability, high oxidation potential, and chemical nonselectivity. Therefore, [•]OH radicals can engage in fast reactions with virtually any adjacent biomolecule. With H2O2, the complex with cationic and hydrophobic moieties interacted with the anionic bacterial membrane of two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) strains. The Zr-βCD-H2O2 also eradicated more than 99% of the biofilm of these four pathogens. Considering the difficult acquisition of resistance to the oxidation of [•]OH, the results suggested that this βCD-based nanomaterial might be a promising agent to target both drug-resistant pathogens with no cytotoxicity and exceptional antimicrobial activity.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Qiao Z, Guo X, Wang T, et al (2023)

Effects of Sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Bacteriocin BM173 on Listeria Monocytogenes Biofilm Formation.

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

Listeria monocytogenes is a significant foodborne pathogen that can form biofilms on various food processing surfaces, thereby enhancing resistance to disinfectants and exacerbating harm to human health. Previous studies have indicated that bacteriocin BM173 exhibits antibacterial and antibiofilm activities. In the current study, our aim was to assess the inhibitory mode of action of sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs, 1/32 × MIC and 1/16 × MIC) of BM173 on the biofilm formation L. monocytogenes. Crystal violet staining assay revealed that SICs of BM173 significantly inhibit L. monocytogenes biofilm formation. Furthermore, the results of swimming motility assay, plate count, ruthenium red staining, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that SICs of BM173 could effectively reduce the movement, cell adhesion, and exopolysaccharide (EPS) production of L. monocytogenes, thereby inhibiting biofilm formation. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses further demonstrated that SICs of BM173 down-regulated the expression of biofilm-associated genes, including those encoding adhesion, virulence factors, and quorum sensing. Additionally, SICs of BM173 effectively reduced the biofilm formation of L. monocytogenes on the surfaces of three food-grade materials (glass, stainless steel, and silicone) at 4 and 25 °C. These outcomes suggest that BM173 holds great potential for development as a promising food preservative for application in the food industry.

RevDate: 2023-11-19

Vercauteren M, Lambert S, Hoogerwerf E, et al (2023)

Microplastic-specific biofilm growth determines the vertical transport of plastics in freshwater.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)07027-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the sinking behavior of microplastics in freshwater is essential for assessing their environmental impact, guiding research efforts, and formulating effective policies to mitigate plastic pollution. Sinking behavior is a complex process driven by plastic density, environmental factors and particle characteristics. Moreover, the growth of biological entities on the plastic surface can affect the total density of the microplastics and thus influence the sinking behavior. Yet, our understanding of these processes in freshwater is still limited. Our research thus focused on studying biofilm growth on microplastics in freshwater. Therefore, we evaluated biofilm growth on five different polymer types (both microplastic particles and plates) which were incubated in freshwater for 63 days in a controlled laboratory setting. Biofilm growth (mass-based) was used to compare biofilm growth between polymer types, surface roughness and study the changes over time. Understanding the temporal aspect of biofilm growth enabled us to refine calculations on the predicted effect of biofilm growth on the settling behavior in freshwater. The results showed that biofilm formation is polymer-specific but also affected by surface roughness, with a rougher surface promoting biofilm growth. For PET and PS, biofilm tended to grow exponentially during 63 days of incubation. Based on our calculations, biofilm growth did affect the sinking behavior differently based on the polymer type, size and density. Rivers can function as sinks for some particles such as large PET particles. Nevertheless, for others, the likelihood of settling within river systems appears limited, thereby increasing the probability of their transit to estuarine or oceanic environments under hydrometeorological influences. While the complexity of biofilm dynamics on plastic surfaces is not fully understood, our findings help to elucidate the effect of biofilms on the vertical behavior of microplastics in freshwater systems hereby offering knowledge to interpret observed patterns in environmental plastic concentrations.

RevDate: 2023-11-20
CmpDate: 2023-11-20

Cheng J, Gan G, Zheng S, et al (2023)

Biofilm heterogeneity-adaptive photoredox catalysis enables red light-triggered nitric oxide release for combating drug-resistant infections.

Nature communications, 14(1):7510.

The formation of biofilms is closely associated with persistent and chronic infections, and physiological heterogeneity such as pH and oxygen gradients renders biofilms highly resistant to conventional antibiotics. To date, effectively treating biofilm infections remains a significant challenge. Herein, we report the fabrication of micellar nanoparticles adapted to heterogeneous biofilm microenvironments, enabling nitric oxide (NO) release through two distinct photoredox catalysis mechanisms. The key design feature involves the use of tertiary amine (TA) moieties, which function as sacrificial agents to avoid the quenching of photocatalysts under normoxic and neutral pH conditions and proton acceptors at acidic pH to allow deep biofilm penetration. This biofilm-adaptive NO-releasing platform shows excellent antibiofilm activity against ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) biofilms both in vitro and in a mouse skin infection model, providing a strategy for combating biofilm heterogeneity and biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-18

Alasiri A, Soltane R, Taha MN, et al (2023)

Bakuchiol inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa's quorum sensing-dependent biofilm formation by selectively inhibiting its transcriptional activator protein LasR.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)04924-3 [Epub ahead of print].

In the present study, we characterized Bakuchiol (Bak) as a new potent quorum sensing (QS) inhibitor against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. Upon extensive in vitro investigations, Bak was found to suppress the P. aeruginosa biofilm formation (75.5 % inhibition) and its associated virulence factor e.g., pyocyanin and rhamnolipids (% of inhibition = 71.5 % and 66.9 %, respectively). Upon LuxR-type receptors assay, Bak was found to selectively inhibit P. aeruginosa's LasR in a dose-dependent manner. Further in-depth molecular investigations (e.g., sedimentation velocity and thermal shift assays) revealed that Bak destabilized LasR upon binding and disrupted its functioning quaternary structure (i.e., the functioning dimeric form). The subsequent modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations explained in more molecular detail how Bak interacts with LasR and how it can induce its dimeric form disruption. In conclusion, our study identified Bak as a potent and specific LasR antagonist that should be widely used as a chemical probe of QS in P. aeruginosa, offering new insights into LasR antagonism processes. The new findings shed light on the cryptic world of LuxR-type QS in this important opportunistic pathogen.

RevDate: 2023-11-18

Azzam A, Shawky RM, TS El-Mahdy (2023)

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone induce morphological alterations and PIA-independent biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

The exposure of bacteria to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics is of biological significance since it can occur in vivo under many circumstances, including low-dose treatment, poor adherence to a regimen, poor drug penetration, drug-drug interactions, and antibiotic resistance of the pathogen. In this study, we investigated the effects of subinhibitory concentrations of four antibiotics: ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and norfloxacin, which are commonly used in clinical settings and on cell morphology and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus as one of the leading causes of nosocomial and biofilm-associated infections. Nine clinical S. aureus biofilm-producing isolates and two known biofilm-producing reference strains, S. aureus ATCC 29213 and S. aureus ATCC 6538, were used in this study. Sub-MICs of beta-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin and ceftriaxone) significantly induced biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC 29213 and S. aureus ATCC 6538 and in six clinical isolates out of the nine selected isolates when compared with the antibiotic-free control group (P < 0.05), with an approximately 2- to 2.5-fold increase. Gentamicin and norfloxacin induced biofilms in S. aureus ATCC 29213 and S. aureus ATCC 6538, while gentamicin and norfloxacin induced biofilms only in three and two of the nine tested isolates, respectively (P < 0.05). The chemical nature of the biofilm matrix produced by half the MIC of ceftriaxone in the six isolates that showed increased biofilm was all non-polysaccharide in composition (PIA-independent). Gene expression of biofilm-encoding genes atl and sarA in biofilms of the two tested strains (S. aureus ATCC 6538) and clinical strain (S. aureus 16) showed a significant upregulation after exposure to half MIC of ceftriaxone. Additionally, the bacterial cell morphological changes in planktonic cells caused by half MIC of ceftriaxone were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, which demonstrated a significant cell enlargement when compared with the antibiotic-free control (P < 0.05), and some deformed cells were also noticed. In S. aureus clinical isolates, sub-MICs of ampicillin, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and norfloxacin may stimulate substantial production of biofilm, which could have important clinical significance and make infection treatment challenges. Further, in vivo research is needed to fully comprehend how sub-MIC of antibiotics can affect biofilm formation in clinical settings. Additionally, more research is required to reveal the clinical implications of the morphological alterations in S. aureus brought on by exposure to ceftriaxone at concentrations below its MIC.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Kumar A, Saha SK, Banerjee P, et al (2023)

Antibiotic-Induced Biofilm Formations in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains KPW.1-S1 and HRW.1-S3 are Associated with Increased Production of eDNA and Exoproteins, Increased ROS Generation, and Increased Cell Surface Hydrophobicity.

Current microbiology, 81(1):11.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a medically important opportunistic pathogen due to its intrinsic ability to form biofilms on different surfaces as one of the defense mechanisms for survival. The fact that it can form biofilms on various medical implants makes it more harmful clinically. Although various antibiotics are used to treat Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, studies have shown that sub-MIC levels of antibiotics could induce Pseudomonas biofilm formation. The present study thus explored the effect of the aminoglycoside antibiotic gentamicin on the biofilm dynamics of two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains KPW.1-S1 and HRW.1-S3. Biofilm formation was found to be increased in the presence of increased concentrations of gentamicin. Confocal, scanning electron microscopy, and other biochemical tests deduced that biofilm-forming components exoproteins, eDNA, and exolipids as exopolymeric substances in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were increased in the presence of gentamicin. An increase in reactive oxygen species generation along with increased cell surface hydrophobicity was also seen for both strains when treated with gentamicin. The observed increase in the adherence of the cells accompanied by the increase in the components of exopolymeric substances may have largely contributed to the increased biofilm production by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains under the stress of the antibiotic treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Perez-Alba E, Flores-Treviño S, Villarreal-Salazar V, et al (2023)

Planktonic and Biofilm states of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bone and joint infections and the in vitro effect of orally available antibiotics.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7425650 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To demonstrate the in vitro activity of orally available antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bone or orthopedic implant materials. The biofilm eradication of the combination of three antibiotics was also assessed.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Clinical isolates from orthopedic infection samples were collected, and S. aureus isolates were classified according to their biofilm production and composition. Almost all S. aureus isolates (n=36, 97.3%) produced biofilm and the major biofilm components were polysaccharides. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined in planktonic (minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC]) and biofilm cells (minimal biofilm eradication concentration [MBEC]) using the MBEC Calgary Device. Overall, the MBEC ranged higher than the MIC. When combined at borderline susceptible concentrations, moxifloxacin-rifampin and doxycycline-rifampin were both able to eradicate biofilms in a third of the strains whereas the doxycycline-moxifloxacin combination proved ineffective at eradicating biofilm, inhibiting it only in three strains.

CONCLUSIONS: We propose rifampin in combination with moxifloxacin or doxycycline for the design of clinical trials of bone and/or orthopedic device infection without proper debridement or material retention.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Rohatgi N, Ganapathy D, P Sathishkumar (2023)

Eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm using quercetin-mediated copper oxide nanoparticles incorporated electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibrous scaffold.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00486-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that form biofilms in chronic wounds and is difficult to treat with standard treatment methods. In the present study, flavonoid quercetin-mediated CuONPs (Que-CuONPs) were successfully synthesized and incorporated in the electrospun polycaprolactone (Que-CuONPs-PCL) nanofibrous membrane to eradicate the burn wound infection causing P. aeruginosa biofilm. The fabricated scaffold Que-CuONPs-PCL was characterized using HR-SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR. The synthesized Que-CuONPs appeared as spherical in shape with the average size of 36 nm. The crystallite size of the synthesized CuONPs was calculated as 23 nm. Antibacterial activity shows that the ZOI and MIC of Que-CuONPs against P. aeruginosa was found to be 20 mm and 5 μg/mL, respectively. Antibiofilm assay indicates the pre-formed P. aeruginosa biofilm was completely eradicated by Que-CuONPs at 8-MIC. The Que-CuONPs-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds exhibits less cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast (L929) cells. Finally, this study highlights the fabricated Que-CuONPs-PCL nanofibrous scaffolds exhibits excellent antibiofilm effect against P. aeruginosa biofilm with a great biocompatibility.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Cui M, Li S, Ma X, et al (2023)

Sustainable Janus lignin-based polyurethane biofoams with robust antibacterial activity and long-term biofilm resistance.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)04987-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Conventional antibiotic therapies have been becoming less efficient due to increasingly, and sometimes fully, antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, sometimes known as "superbacteria" or "superbugs." Thus, novel antibacterial materials to effectively inhibit or kill bacteria are crucial for humanity. As a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have been the most widely commercialized of biomedical materials. However, long-term use of significant amounts of Ag NPs can be potentially harmful to human health through a condition known as argyria, in addition to being toxic to many environmental systems. It is, thus, highly necessary to reduce the amount of Ag NPs employed in medical treatments while also ensuring maintenance of antimicrobial properties, in addition to reducing the overall cost of treatment for humanitarian utilization. For this purpose, naturally sourced antimicrobial polylysine (PL) is used to partially replace Ag NPs within the materials composition. Accordingly, a series of PL, Ag NPs, and lignin-based polyurethane (LPU) composite biofoams (LPU-PL-Ag) were prepared. These proposed composite biofoams, containing at most only 2 % PL and 0.03 % Ag NPs, significantly inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria within 1 h and caused irreversibly destructive bactericidal effects. Additionally, with a layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the surface, PDMS-LPU-PL(2 %)-Ag(0.03 %) can effectively prevent bacterial adhesion with a clearance rate of about 70 % for both bacterial biofilms within three days and a growth rate of more than 80 % for mouse fibroblasts NIH 3 T3. These lignin-based polyurethane biofoam dressings, with shorter antiseptic sterilization times and broad-spectrum antibacterial effects, are extremely advantageous for infected wound treatment and healing in clinical use.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Mitsuwan W, Intongead S, Saengsawang P, et al (2023)

Occurrence of multidrug resistance associated with extended-spectrum β‑lactamase and the biofilm forming ability of Escherichia coli in environmental swine husbandry.

Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases, 103:102093 pii:S0147-9571(23)00151-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production and biofilm formation are mechanisms employed by Escherichia coli to resist beta-lactam antibiotics. Thus, we aimed to examine antibiotic resistance associated with ESBL production and biofilm formation in E. coli isolates from swine farms in Southern Thailand. In total, 159 E. coli isolates were obtained, with 44 isolates identified as ESBL producers, originating from feces (18.87 %) and wastewater (8.80 %) samples. All ESBL-producing strains exhibited resistance to ampicillin (100 %), followed by the cephalosporin group (97.73 %) and tetracycline (84.09 %). Multidrug resistance was observed in 17 isolates (38.63 %). Among the isolates from feces samples, the blaGES gene was the most prevalent, detected in 90 % of the samples, followed by blaCTX-M9 (86.67 %) and blaCTX-M1 (66.67 %), respectively. In the bacteria isolated from wastewater, both blaGES and blaCTX-M9 genes were the predominant resistance genes, detected in 100 % of the isolates, followed by blaCTX-M1 (64.29 %) and blaTEM (50 %), respectively. Strong biofilm formation was observed in 11 isolates (36.67 %) from feces and 4 isolates (25.57 %) from wastewater samples. Notably, nearly 100 % of ESBL-producing strains isolated from feces tested positive for both pgaA and pgaC genes, which play a role in intracellular adhesion and biofilm production. These findings contribute to the understanding and potential control of ESBL-producing E. coli, and the dissemination of antibiotic resistance and biofilm-related genes in swine farms.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Song Z, Hao S, Zhang L, et al (2023)

High-rate nitrogen removal by partial nitritation/anammox with a single-stage membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

Journal of environmental management, 349:119581 pii:S0301-4797(23)02369-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) coupled partial nitritation/anammox (PN/A) system was established for high-rate nitrogen removal. Results showed that the nitrogen removal efficiency of 90.34% was finally obtained when influent ammonia increased from 150 mg L[-1] to 300 mg L[-1]. Based on the fluorescence spectroscopy technology, the raised hydrophobicity tryptophan in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) promoted biofilm formation and bacteria aggregation. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed that the relative abundance of AOB and AnAOB was also enhanced by ammonia (Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Brocadia increased by 6.02 % and 10.06 % in biofilm, respectively), which further facilitated nitrogen removal efficiency. Furthermore, the key functional genes involved in partial nitritation and anammox, especially hao and nirK, up-regulated by 1.31 and 1.26 times, respectively, accelerating the electron generation and consumption. Therefore, raising influent ammonia content intensified microbial electron transfer behavior and high-rate nitrogen metabolism.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Roese KHC, Torlone C, Cooper LA, et al (2023)

Pyrogallol impairs staphylococcal biofilm formation via induction of bacterial oxidative stress.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7424973 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To examine the effect of the phenolic compound pyrogallol on staphylococcal biofilm formation.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In crystal violet biofilm assays, pyrogallol reduced biofilm formation in S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, S. epidermidis NRRL-B41021, S. aureus USA300 and S. aureus Newman, without significantly impairing bacterial viability. Pyrogallol-mediated impairment of biofilm formation was likely due to induction of bacterial oxidative stress, as its effect was greater in catalase-deficient versus WT S. aureus, and biofilm production was rescued by exogenous catalase. The effect of pyrogallol on staphylococcal biofilm formation mirrored that of the known oxidant hydrogen peroxide, which also reduced biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSIONS: Pyrogallol reduces biofilm formation in S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a mechanism involving induction of bacterial oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Ruiz MJ, Sirini NE, Stegmayer MÁ, et al (2023)

Inhibitor activity of lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP5 on thermotolerant campylobacter with different biofilm-forming capacities.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7424977 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To evaluate the biofilm-forming capacity of thermotolerant Campylobacter (TC) strains from poultry production and to analyse the inhibitory capacity of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP5 against TC on different materials.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Biofilm-forming capacity by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli was analysed by cell adhesion in polystyrene plates. TC were classified as non-biofilm-forming (NBF, 1.3%), weak biofilm-forming (WBF, 68.4%), moderate biofilm-forming (MBF, 27.6%), and strong biofilm-forming (SBF, 2.7%). The inhibitory capacity of L. plantarum LP5 against TC was tested on stainless-steel, nylon, aluminium, and glass disks (treated group) and compared with biofilm-forming TC (control group). L. plantarum LP5 was inoculated, and then TC. Biofilm was removed in both experimental groups and TC and LP5 bacterial counts were performed. The L. plantarum LP5 presence reduced the formation of TC biofilm (P < 0.001). The material type and strain category influenced biofilm formation, with stainless-steel and the SBF strain being the material and TC having the highest adhesion (P < 0.001). L. plantarum LP5 formed similar biofilm on all materials (P = 0.823).

CONCLUSIONS: This trial showed very promising results; L. plantarum LP5 could be incorporated as a bio-protector of TC on different surfaces.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Zhou Y, Huang J, Wang G, et al (2023)

Polymyxin B sulfate inhalable microparticles with high-lectin-affinity sugar carriers for efficient treatment of biofilm-associated pulmonary infections.

Science bulletin pii:S2095-9273(23)00758-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Pulmonary infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria have become a significant threat to human health. Bacterial biofilms exacerbate the persistence and recurrence of pulmonary infections, hindering the accessibility and effectiveness of antibiotics. In this study, a dry powder inhalation (DPI) consisting of polymyxin B sulfate (PMBS) inhalable microparticles and high-lectin-affinity (HLA) sugar (i.e., raffinose) carriers was developed for treating pulmonary infections and targeting bacterial lectins essential for biofilm growth. The formulated PMBS-HLA DPIs exhibited particle sizes of approximately 3 μm, and surface roughness varied according to the drug-to-carrier ratio. Formulation F5 (PMBS: raffinose = 10:90) demonstrated the highest fine particle fraction (FPF) value (64.86%), signifying its substantially enhanced aerosol performance, potentially attributable to moderate roughness and smallest mass median aerodynamic particle size. The efficacy of PMBS-HLA DPIs in inhibiting biofilm formation and eradicating mature biofilms was significantly improved with the addition of raffinose, suggesting the effectiveness of lectin-binding strategy for combating bacterial biofilm-associated infections. In rat models with acute and chronic pulmonary infections, F5 demonstrated superior bacterial killing and amelioration of inflammatory responses compared to spray-dried PMBS (F0). In conclusion, our HLA carrier-based formulation presents considerable potential for the efficient treatment of multidrug-resistant bacterial biofilm-associated pulmonary infections.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Xia FW, Guo BW, Zhao Y, et al (2023)

Type I Photosensitizer Targeting Glycans: Overcoming Biofilm Resistance by Inhibiting The Two-Component System, Quorum Sensing, And Multidrug Efflux.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Stubborn biofilm infections pose serious threats to human health due to the persistence, recurrence, and dramatically magnified antibiotic resistance. Photodynamic therapy has emerged as a promising approach to combat biofilm. Nevertheless, how to inhibit the bacterial signal transduction system and the efflux pump to conquer biofilm recurrence and resistance remains a challenging and unaddressed issue. Herein, we developed a boric acid-functionalized lipophilic cationic type I photosensitizer, ACR-DMP, which efficiently generates •OH to overcome the hypoxic microenvironment and photodynamically eradicates methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and biofilms. Furthermore, it not only alters membrane potential homeostasis and osmotic pressure balance due to its strong binding ability with plasma membrane but also inhibits quorum sensing (QS) and the two-component system (TCS), reduces virulence factors, and regulates the activity of the drug efflux pump attributed to the glycans targeting ability, helping to prevent biofilm recurrence and conquer biofilm resistance. In vivo, ACR-DMP successfully obliterates MRSA biofilms attached to implanted medical catheters, alleviates inflammation, and promotes vascularization, thereby combating infections and accelerating wound healing. This work not only provides an efficient strategy to combat stubborn biofilm infections and bacterial multidrug resistance but also offers systematic guidance for the rational design of next-generation advanced antimicrobial materials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.


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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )