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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 01:30 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: "reynolds number" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-11-07

Dang J, Duan X, S Tian (2022)

Wall Effects for Spheroidal Particle in Confined Bingham Plastic Fluids.

ACS omega, 7(43):38717-38727.

The wall effects on the sedimentation motion of a single spheroidal particle in cylindrical tubes filled with Bingham plastic fluid are investigated with the fixed computational domain using the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model in steady-state mode. The CFD model is validated with literature in both bounded and unbounded mediums. The rheological model of the Bingham plastic fluid is regularized with a smoothly varying viscosity. The retardation effects of the tube wall are presented in functions of Reynolds number Re, radius ratio λ (the radius of the tube to the semiaxis of the particle normal to the flow λ = R/r), aspect ratio E (the ratio of the semiaxis of the particle along the flow to r, E = b/r), and Bingham number Bn. The simulation results demonstrate that the drag coefficient C D declines with the rise in Reynolds number. The relative contribution to drag coefficient from the pressure force increases with larger Bingham number comparing with that from the friction force. The formation and size of the recirculation wake is suppressed by the yield stress. While Bn is approaching infinity, the limiting behavior is observed in the location of yield surface and the value of yield-gravity parameter. The values of critical yield-gravity parameter are explicitly given at different values of E, showing independence with Re and λ. For the flow with Bn ≥ 100, the influence of wall can be even ignored while λ is larger than 5.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Rutledge KM (2022)

Sniffing out Stingray Noses: The Functional Morphology of Batoid Olfaction.

Integrative organismal biology (Oxford, England), 4(1):obac043 pii:obac043.

Batoid fishes (rays, skates, sawfishes, and guitarfishes) are macrosmatic, meaning they rely on their sense of smell as one of the primary senses for survival and reproduction. Olfaction is important for long-distance tracking and navigation, predator and prey recognition, and conspecific signaling. However, the mechanisms by which batoids harness odorants is unknown. Without a direct pump-like system, it is hypothesized that batoids irrigate their nostrils via one or a combination of the following: the motion pump, buccopharyngeal pump, pressure (ex. pitot-like mechanism), or a shearing force (ex. viscous entrainment). These mechanisms rely on the size, shape, and position of the nostrils with respect to the head and to each other. Batoids are united as a group by their dorsoventrally compressed body plans, with nostrils on the ventral side of their body. This position presents several challenges for odor capture and likely limits the effectivity of the motion pump. Batoid fishes display an expansive nasal morphology, with inlet nostrils ranging from thin, vertical slits to wide, horizontal ovals to protruding, tube-like funnels, and more. In this paper, a morphometric model is developed to quantify the vast diversity in batoid nose shapes, sizes, and positions on the head in an ecological and functional framework. Specifically, swimming mode, lifestyle, habitat, and diet are examined for correlations with observed nasal morphotypes. Morphometric measurements were taken on all 4 orders present in Batoidea to broadly encompass batoid nasal diversity (Rhinopristiformes 4/5 families; Rajiformes 2/4 families; Torpediniformes 4/4 families; Myliobatiformes 8/11 families). All batoid external nasal diversity was found to be categorized into 5 major morphological groups and were termed: flush nare [circle, comma, intermediate], open nare, and protruding nare. Several morphometric traits remained significant when accounting for shared ancestry, including the position and angle of the nostril on the head, the width of the inlet hole, and the spacing of the nostrils from each other. These measurements were found to be closely correlated and statistically significant with the swimming mode of the animal. This study provides the first crucial step in understanding batoid olfaction, by understanding the diversity of the morphology of the system. Because odor capture is a strictly hydrodynamic process, it may be that factors relating more directly to the fluid dynamics (i.e., swimming mode, velocity, Reynolds number) may be more important in shaping the evolution of the diversity of batoid noses than other ecological factors like habitat and diet.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Saleem T, Powell T, Walker W, et al (2022)

Assessment of flow mechanics in the lower extremity venous system.

Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders pii:S2213-333X(22)00441-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless parameter that describes fluid flow mechanics. Veins are compliant and collapsible vascular conduits that can accommodate large volume changes in response to small pressure changes. However, only sparse information is available about flow parameters such as Re in the venous system.

METHODS: Bilateral duplex examination of 15 healthy volunteers (30 limbs) was performed before and after exercise (4 flights of stairs) in the veins of the lower extremity (left and right sides) and inferior vena cava. These volunteers were determined not to have any signs and symptoms of lower extremity venous disease on the basis of a focused history and physical examination.

RESULTS: Majority of the volunteers were female (73%). Mean age was 37 ± 12.8 years. Re was noted to be highest in the IVC amongst all the veins that were examined [470 (±144) pre-exercise and 589 (±205) post-exercise], p value 0.04. The association between the change in Re (pre-exercise and post-exercise) and the specific vein examined was also found to be significant for right and left external iliac veins, right and left common femoral veins, right and left profunda femoris veins, right and left femoral veins and right common iliac vein. Resistance and velocity maps for the lower extremity venous system were also created. Velocity increased while resistance decreased as we moved up the venous tree towards the right atrium.

CONCLUSION: Re increased for the majority of the lower extremity veins after exercise in the healthy volunteers. However, the critical value for turbulent flow was not reached despite exercise.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Roósz A, Rónaföldi A, Svéda M, et al (2022)

Effect of crucible wall roughness on the laminar/turbulent flow transition of the Ga75In25 alloy stirred by a rotating magnetic field.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18592.

The critical magnetic induction (Bcr) values of a melt flow produced by a rotating magnetic field (RMF), remaining laminar or turbulent, are essential in different solidification processes. In an earlier paper (Metall Res Technol 100: 1043-1061, 2003), we showed that Bcr depends on the crucible radius (R) and frequency of the magnetic field (f). The effect of wall roughness (WR) on Bcr was investigated in this study. Using ten different wall materials, we determined the angular frequency (ω) and Reynolds number (Re) as a function of the magnetic induction (B) and f using two different measuring methods (pressure compensation method, PCM; height measuring method, HMM). The experiments were performed at room temperature; therefore, the Ga75wt%In25wt% alloy was chosen for the experiments. Based on the measured and calculated results, a simple relationship was determined between Bcr and Re*, f, R, and WR, where the constants K1, K2, K3, and K4 depended on the physical properties of the melt and wall material:[Formula: see text].

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Datta R, Russell DR, Tang I, et al (2022)

Time-resolved velocity and ion sound speed measurements from simultaneous bow shock imaging and inductive probe measurements.

The Review of scientific instruments, 93(10):103530.

We present a technique to measure the time-resolved velocity and ion sound speed in magnetized, supersonic high-energy-density plasmas. We place an inductive ("b-dot") probe in a supersonic pulsed-power-driven plasma flow and measure the magnetic field advected by the plasma. As the magnetic Reynolds number is large (RM > 10), the plasma flow advects a magnetic field proportional to the current at the load. This enables us to estimate the flow velocity as a function of time from the delay between the current at the load and the signal at the probe. The supersonic flow also generates a hydrodynamic bow shock around the probe, the structure of which depends on the upstream sonic Mach number. By imaging the shock around the probe with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, we determine the upstream Mach number from the shock Mach angle, which we then use to determine the ion sound speed from the known upstream velocity. We use the sound speed to infer the value of Z̄Te, where Z̄ is the average ionization and Te is the electron temperature. We use this diagnostic to measure the time-resolved velocity and sound speed of a supersonic (MS ∼ 8), super-Alfvénic (MA ∼ 2) aluminum plasma generated during the ablation stage of an exploding wire array on the Magpie generator (1.4 MA, 250 ns). The velocity and Z̄Te measurements agree well with the optical Thompson scattering measurements reported in the literature and with 3D resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations in GORGON.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Qiao Y, Ma Z, Onyango C, et al (2022)

DNA fragmentation in a steady shear flow.

Biomicrofluidics, 16(5):054109 pii:5.0109361.

We have determined the susceptibility of T4 DNA (166 kilobase pairs, kbp) to fragmentation under steady shear in a cone-and-plate rheometer. After shearing for at least 30 min at a shear rate of 6000 s - 1 , corresponding to a Reynolds number of O (10 3) and a Weissenberg number of O (10 3) , 97.9 ± 1.3 % of the sample is broken into a polydisperse mixture with a number-averaged molecular weight of 62.6 ± 3.2 kbp and a polydispersity index of 1.29 ± 0.03 , as measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with a 95% confidence interval). The molecular weight distributions observed here from a shear flow are similar to those produced by a (dominantly extensional) sink flow of DNA and are qualitatively different than the midpoint scission observed in simple extensional flow. Given the inability of shear flow to produce a sharp coil-stretch transition, the data presented here support a model where polymers can be fragmented in flow without complete extension. These results further indicate that DNA fragmentation by shear is unlikely to be a significant issue in microfluidic devices, and anomalous molecular weight observations in experiments are due to DNA processing prior to observation in the device.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Bryan MT (2023)

Assessing the Challenges of Nanotechnology-Driven Targeted Therapies: Development of Magnetically Directed Vectors for Targeted Cancer Therapies and Beyond.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2575:105-123.

Targeted delivery, in which therapeutic agents are preferentially concentrated at the diseased site, has the potential to improve therapeutic outcomes by minimizing off-target interactions in healthy tissue. Both passive and active methods of targeting delivery have been proposed, often with particular emphasis on cancer treatment. Passive methods rely on the overexpression of a biomarker in diseased tissue that can then be used to target the therapy. Active techniques involve physically guiding therapeutic agents toward the target region. Since the motion of magnetic particles can be remotely controlled by external magnetic fields, magnetic technologies have the potential to drive and hold drugs or other cargo at the required therapeutic site, increasing the localized dose while minimizing overall exposure. Directed motion may be generated either by simple magnetic attraction or by causing the particles to perform swimming strokes to produce propulsion. This chapter will compare the different strategies using magnetic nanotechnology to produce directed motion compatible with that required for targeted cargo delivery and magnetically assisted therapies and assess their potential to meet the challenges of operating within the human body.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Beck J, Palmer M, Inman K, et al (2022)

Heat Transfer Enhancement in the Microscale: Optimization of Fluid Flow.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(20): pii:nano12203628.

The focus of this paper is to investigate the effects of the addition of a connector between two serial microchannels. The idea of adding connector at the inlet of microchannels to enhance the random motion of molecules or nanoparticles in low Reynolds numbers was developed in our research group for the first time. It was experimentally determined that the shape of a connector between two microchannels has a significant impact on the enhancement of the random motion of molecules or nanoparticles. Consequently, the heat transfer coefficient is improved inside the second microchannel. The connector is large enough to refresh the memory of the fluid before entering the second channel, causing a higher maximum heat transfer coefficient in the second channel. It was also observed that the heat transfer coefficient can be increased at the end of the channel when the outlet temperature is relatively high. This may be explained by the fact that as temperature increases, the fluid viscosity tends to decrease, which generally drives an increase in the local random motion of base fluid molecules and nanoparticles. This causes an increase in the microchannel heat transfer coefficient. It was found that the addition of nanoparticles significantly modified the impact of the connector on the microchannel heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the effects of changing the Reynolds number and the shape of the connector were investigated through use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. It was found that both factors have an important impact on the variation of velocity and enhancement of random motion of molecules and consequently significantly affect the heat transfer coefficient.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Chang Q, Fu Z, Zhang S, et al (2022)

Experimental Investigation of Reynolds Number and Spring Stiffness Effects on Vortex-Induced Vibration Driven Wind Energy Harvesting Triboelectric Nanogenerator.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(20): pii:nano12203595.

Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) is a process that wind energy converts to the mechanical energy of the bluff body. Enhancing VIV to harvest wind energy is a promising method to power wireless sensor nodes in the Internet of Things. In this work, a VIV-driven square cylinder triboelectric nanogenerator (SC-TENG) is proposed to harvest broadband wind energy. The vibration characteristic and output performance are studied experimentally to investigate the effect of the natural frequency by using five different springs in a wide range of stiffnesses (27 N/m

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Khan MI, Lashin MMA, Khedher NB, et al (2022)

Peristaltic Phenomenon in an Asymmetric Channel Subject to Inclined Magnetic Force and Porous Space.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 9(10): pii:bioengineering9100588.

This research is engaged to explore biological peristaltic transport under the action of an externally applied magnetic field passing through an asymmetric channel which is saturated with porous media. The set of governing partial differential equations for the present peristaltic flow are solved in the absence of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength assumptions. The governing equations are to be solved completely, so that inertial effects can be studied. The numerical simulations and results are obtained by the help of a finite element method based on quadratic six-noded triangular elements equipped with a Galerkin residual procedure. The inertial effects and effects of other pertinent parameters are discussed by plotting graphs based on a finite element (FEM) solution. Trapped bolus is discussed using the graphs of streamlines. The obtained results are also compared with the results given in the literature which are highly convergent. It is concluded that velocity and the number of boluses is enhanced by an increase in Hartmann number and porosity parameter K Increasing inertial forces increase the velocity of flow but increasing values of the porosity parameter lead to a decrease in the pressure gradient. The study elaborates that magnetic field and porosity are useful tools to control the velocity, pressure, and boluses in the peristaltic flow pattern.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Ebrahimi S, M Tahmasebipour (2022)

Numerical Study of a Centrifugal Platform for the Inertial Separation of Circulating Tumor Cells Using Contraction-Expansion Array Microchannels.

Archives of Razi Institute, 77(2):647-660 pii:ARI-77-2.

Label-free inertial separation of the circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has attracted significant attention recently. The present study proposed a centrifugal platform for the inertial separation of the CTCs from the white blood cells. Particle trajectories of the contraction-expansion array (CEA) microchannels were analyzed by the finite element method. Four expansion geometries (i.e., circular, rectangular, trapezoidal, and triangular) were compared to explore their differences in separation possibilities. Different operational and geometrical parameters were investigated to achieve maximum separation efficiency. Results indicated that the trapezoidal CEA microchannel with ten expansions and a 100 µm channel depth had the best separation performance at an angular velocity of 100 rad/s. Reynolds number of 47 was set as the optimum value to apply minimum shear stress on the CTCs leading to 100% efficiency and 95% purity. Furthermore, the proposed system was simulated for whole blood by considering the red blood cells.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Treegosol P, Priyadumkol J, Kamutavanich W, et al (2022)

Experimental investigation of the heat transfer and friction loss of turbulent flow in circular pipe under low-frequency ultrasound propagation along the mainstream flow.

Ultrasonics, 128:106866 pii:S0041-624X(22)00172-X [Epub ahead of print].

The characteristics of the heat transfer and friction loss of turbulent water flow in a circular pipe were investigated experimentally at a constant surface temperature of 45 ℃ for 28 kHz ultrasound propagation along the mainstream flow. Transducers were installed in five rows and three columns in the upstream section of the test pipe, and the number of active transducers was varied (1, 3, and 15) for a Reynolds number range of 10,000-25,000. The results indicated that the ultrasonic effects yielded positive results for both the heat transfer and pressure loss of the pipe flow. Under the influence of 15 ultrasonic transducers, the maximum Nusselt number ratio was 1.57 and the greatest reduction in the friction factor was 21.6 % for a Reynolds number of 10,000. The corresponding maximum thermal performance factor was approximately 1.7. However, the thermal efficiency tended to decrease with an increase in the number of transducers. The maximum thermal efficiency values under ultrasonic waves with 1, 3, and 15 transducers were 5.43, 3.37, and 1.95, respectively. When the change in the friction factor per ultrasonic input power was considered, the most suitable number of ultrasonic transducers was three. Finally, predictive formulas were proposed for the Nusselt number ratio and friction factor ratio under low-frequency ultrasound, with deviations from -5.5 % to 5.4 % and -7.4 % to 7.4 %, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Sharma A, Gunreddy N, Mulamalla AR, et al (2022)

Conductive and convective heat transfer augmentation in flat plate solar collector from energy, economic and environmental perspectives - a comprehensive review.

Environmental science and pollution research international pii:10.1007/s11356-022-23694-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The primary objective of the paper is to identify the effective way to enhance the conductive and convective heat transfer of the FPSC. The performance enhancements of different FPSC components such as absorber plate, absorber tube, and heat transfer fluid are reviewed in detail. The influence of absorber plate configurations, material properties, a center-to-center distance of the absorber tube, plate thickness, coatings, and tube geometry have been assessed to increase the conduction heat transfer. Also, the augmentations of convective heat transfer using different nanofluids in FPSC such as Al2O3/water, CuO/water, CNT/water, TiO2/water, SiO2/water, graphene oxide/water, MgO/water, CeO2/water, WO3/water, ZnO/water, and hybrid nanofluids are evaluated in detail. The performance improvements using both conductive and convective (combined) passive technique have been elaborated. The table representation has been used to describe the activities performed in each paper which include FPSC type, passive technique detail, properties of heat transfer fluid, Reynolds number, heat transfer aspects, pumping power, energy, exergy, environmental aspects, and inference. These data will help the researcher to identify existing activities and the potential gap. This review paper also deals with the suggestions for the research work which can be carried out in the direction of heat transfer from solar flat plate collectors.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Molteno TCA (2022)

Nature's Wind Turbines: The Measured Aerodynamic Efficiency of Spinning Seeds Approaches Theoretical Limits.

Biomimetics (Basel, Switzerland), 7(4): pii:biomimetics7040161.

This paper describe a procedure to measure experimentally the power coefficient, Cp, of winged seeds, and apply this technique to seeds from the Norway maple (Acer platanoides). We measure Cp=56.9±2% at a tip speed ratio of 3.21±0.06. Our results are in agreement with previously published CFD simulations that indicate that these seeds-operating in low-Reynolds number conditions-approach the Betz limit (Cp=59.3%) the maximum possible efficiency for a wind turbine. In addition, this result is not consistent with the recent theoretical work of Okulov & Sørensen, which suggests that a single-bladed turbine with a tip-speed ratio of 3.2 can achieve a power efficiency of no more than 30%.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Tao H, Alawi OA, Hussein OA, et al (2022)

Thermohydraulic analysis of covalent and noncovalent functionalized graphene nanoplatelets in circular tube fitted with turbulators.

Scientific reports, 12(1):17710.

Covalent and non-covalent nanofluids were tested inside a circular tube fitted with twisted tape inserts with 45° and 90° helix angles. Reynolds number was 7000 ≤ Re ≤ 17,000, and thermophysical properties were assessed at 308 K. The physical model was solved numerically via a two-equation eddy-viscosity model (SST k-omega turbulence). GNPs-SDBS@DW and GNPs-COOH@DW nanofluids with concentrations (0.025 wt.%, 0.05 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%) were considered in this study. The twisted pipes' walls were heated under a constant temperature of 330 K. The current study considered six parameters: outlet temperature, heat transfer coefficient, average Nusselt number, friction factor, pressure loss, and performance evaluation criterion. In both cases (45° and 90° helix angles), GNPs-SDBS@DW nanofluids presented higher thermohydraulic performance than GNPs-COOH@DW and increased by increasing the mass fractions such as 1.17 for 0.025 wt.%, 1.19 for 0.05 wt.% and 1.26 for 0.1 wt.%. Meanwhile, in both cases (45° and 90° helix angles), the value of thermohydraulic performance using GNPs-COOH@DW was 1.02 for 0.025 wt.%, 1.05 for 0.05 wt.% and 1.02 for 0.1 wt.%.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Ibanez R, DH Kelley (2022)

A bioinspired apparatus for modeling peristaltic pumping in biophysical flows.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we present a novel, bioinspired experimental apparatus, its construction, data acquisition methodology, and validation for the study of peristaltic flows. The apparatus consists of a series of stepper motor actuators, which deflect a deformable membrane to produce peristaltic flows. We show that this apparatus design has significant advantages over previous designs that have been used to study peristaltic flows by offering a much wider range of modeling capabilities. Comparisons between the capabilities of our apparatus and previous ones show our apparatus spanning a larger range of wavelength λ, wave speed c, amplitude A, and waveform (i.e., the apparatus is not constrained to nondispersive waves or to a sinusoidal shape). This large parameter range makes the apparatus a useful tool for biomimetic experimental modeling, particularly for systems that have complex waveforms, such as peristaltic flows in perivascular vessels, arteries, the cochlea, and the urethra. We provide details on the experimental design and construction for ease of reconstruction to the reader. The apparatus capabilities are validated for a large parameter range by comparing experimental measurements to analytic results from [1] for high Reynolds number (Re > 1), and [2] for low Reynolds number (Re < 1) applications. We show that the apparatus is useful for biophysical peristaltic studies and has potential applications in other types of studies.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Benhanifia K, Redouane F, Lakhdar R, et al (2022)

Investigation of mixing viscoplastic fluid with a modified anchor impeller inside a cylindrical stirred vessel using Casson-Papanastasiou model.

Scientific reports, 12(1):17534.

In process engineering as chemical and biotechnological industry, agitated vessels are commonly used for various applications; mechanical agitation and mixing are performed to enhance heat transfer and improve specific Physico-chemical characteristics inside a heated tank. The research subject of this work is a numerical investigation of the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior of viscoplastic fluid (Casson-Papanastasiou model) in a stirred tank, with introducing a new anchor impeller design by conducting some modifications to the standard anchor impeller shape. Four geometry cases have been presented for achieving the mixing process inside the stirred vessel, CAI; classical anchor impeller, AI1; anchor impeller with added horizontal arm blade, AI2 and AI3 anchor impeller with two and three added arm blades, respectively. The investigation is focused on the effect of inertia and plasticity on the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior (flow pattern, power consumption, and heat transfer) by varying the Reynolds number (Re = 1, 10, 100, 200), Bingham number (Bn = 1, 10, 50), in addition to the effect of geometry design in the overall stirred system parameters. The findings revealed an excellent enhancement of flow pattern and heat transfer in the stirred system relatively to the increase of inertia values. Also, an energy reduction has been remarked and the effect of anchor impeller shape. AI3 geometry design significantly improves the flow pattern and enhances heat transfer by an increased rate of 10.46% over the other cases.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Ji Y, Cao R, Wang C, et al (2022)

Effect of flow regime on mass transfer diffusion and stability of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) in view of interfacial thermodynamic.

Journal of environmental management, 323:116293.

Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) technology has been widely studied as "The Next Generation Wastewater Treatment technology". The effect of hydraulic conditions on the structural stability of AGS has been widely studied. However, the function of flow regime on the AGS stability, especially dissolved oxygen (DO) mass transfer, is still unknown. In this study, we used the Reynolds number (Re) to quantify the flow regime and selected different stages of AGS as experimental subjects. Results showed that the relatively suitable Re (Re = 150) could create lower DO mass transfer limitation (Lc = 27.4 μm) and increase protein (PN) contents and the abundance of hydrophobic functional groups in AGS. At this condition (Re = 150), the interfacial Gibbs free energy of sludge-water (ΔGLSa) was at a lower state (-129.75 ± 2.15 mJ·m-2), which favored the stability of AGS. Principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis indicated that the response of ΔGLSa was affected by Lc, PN, and hydrophobic groups. In addition, results obtained for unstable AGS further verified that suitable Re regulates the structural stability of AGS. This study deepens the understanding of Re as an important hydraulic parameter for structural stability of AGS, which is also of great significance for energy saving of sequential batch reactors (SBRs) with agitation in practical engineering.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Ben-Gida H, R Gurka (2022)

The leading-edge vortex over a swift-like high-aspect-ratio wing with nonlinear swept-back geometry.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

The leading-edge vortex (LEV) is a common flow structure that forms over wings at high angles of attack. Over the years, LEVs were exploited for augmenting the lift of man-made slender delta wings aircraft. However, recent observations suggested that natural flyers with high-aspect-ratio (high-AR) wings, such as the common swift (Apus apus), can also generate LEVs while gliding. We hypothesize that the planform shape and nonlinear sweep (increasing towards the wingtip) enable the formation and control of such LEVs. In this paper, we investigate whether a stationary LEV can form over a nonlinear swept-back high-AR wing inspired by the swift's wing shape and evaluate its characteristics and potential aerodynamic benefit. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in a water flume on a high-AR swept-back wing inspired by the swift wing. Experiments were performed at four spanwise sections and a range of angles of attack for a chord-based Reynolds number of 20,000. Stationary LEV structures were identified across the wingspan by utilizing the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method for angles of attack of 5-15 degrees. The size and circulation of the stationary LEV were found to grow towards the wingtip in a nonlinear manner due to shear layer feeding and spanwise transport of mass and vorticity within the LEV, thus confirming that nonlinear high-AR swept-back wings can generate stationary LEVs. Our results suggest that the common swift can generate stationary LEVs over its swept-back wings to glide slower and at a higher rate of descent, with the LEVs potentially supporting up to 60% of its weight.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Abderrahmane A, Younis O, Al-Khaleel M, et al (2022)

2D MHD Mixed Convection in a Zigzag Trapezoidal Thermal Energy Storage System Using NEPCM.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(19): pii:nano12193270.

In a magnetic field, two-dimensional (2D) mixed convection is investigated within a zigzagged trapezoidal chamber. The lower side of the trapezoidal chamber is irregular, in particular, a zigzagged wall with different zigzag numbers N. The fluid particles move in the room due to the motion of the upper wall, while the porosity-enthalpy approach represents the melting process. The thermal parameters of the fluid are enhanced by what is called a nano-encapsulated phase change material (NEPCM) consisting of polyurethane as the shell and a nonadecane as the core, while water is used as the base fluid. In order to treat the governing equations, the well-known Galerkin finite element method (GFEM) is applied. In addition, the heat transfer (HT) irreversibility and the fluid friction (FF) irreversibility are compared in terms of the average Bejan number. The main results show that the melt band curve behaves parabolically at smaller values of Reynolds number (Re) and larger values of Hartmann number (Ha). Moreover, minimizing the wave number is better in order to obtain a higher heat transfer rate.

RevDate: 2022-10-13

Khan A, Khan MS, Pasha AA, et al (2022)

Hydrodynamic analysis of the magnetic field dependent viscous fluid flow and thermosolutal convection between rotating channels.

Scientific reports, 12(1):17170.

According to research, exposing a person to a magnetic field enhances blood flow and minimizes their risk of suffering a heart attack. Ferrohydrodynamics is the study of fluid motion mechanics that is affected by strong magnetic polarisation forces (FHD). Ferrofluids may transmit heat in a variety of ways by using magnetic fluids. This behaviour is demonstrated by liquid-cooled speakers, which utilise less ferrofluid to prevent heat from reaching the speaker coil. This modification boosts the coil's ability to expand, which enables the loudspeaker to create high-fidelity sound. It is investigated how the fluid dynamics of spinning, squeezing plates are affected by thermosolutal convection and a magnetic field dependent (MFD) viscosity. Standard differential equations are used to represent the equations of the modified form of Navier Stokes, Maxwell's, and thermosolutal convection. The magnetic field, modified velocity field equations, and thermosolutal convection equations all yield suitable answers. Additionally computed and thoroughly detailed are the MHD torque and fluid pressure that are imparted to the top plate. To create a technique with quick and certain convergence, the resulting equations for uniform plates are solved using the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) with appropriate starting estimates and auxiliary parameters. The validity and reliability of the HAM outcomes are shown by comparing the HAM solutions with the BVP4c numerical solver programme. It has been found that a magnetic Reynolds number lowers the temperature of the fluid as well as the tangential and axial components of the velocity field. Additionally, when the fluid's MFD viscosity rises, the axial and azimuthal components of the magnetic field behave in opposition to one another. This study has applications in the development of new aircraft take-off gear, magnetorheological airbags for automobiles, heating and cooling systems, bio-prosthetics, and biosensor systems.

RevDate: 2022-10-11

Tang P, Chen L, Zhang W, et al (2022)

Bioclogging alleviation for constructed wetland based on the interaction among biofilm growth and hydrodynamics.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Bioclogging is the most crucial operation problem of the constructed wetlands, which reduce its removal efficiency and life span. A strategy through properly increasing hydraulic loading is proposed in this study to alleviate the bioclogging for CWs. The two-dimensional porous media flow cell (2D PMFC) test indicated that a quadratic correlation was found between local biofilms growth rate and the near-wall Reynolds number (r > 0.765, p < 0.05). The biofilm growth rate declined with the flowrate when Re exceeded about 6.0. It was also found that the higher flowrate (6 mL/min) lead to the homogeneous biofilm and velocity distribution in the PMFC. The column test indicated that the highest hydraulic loading (9.2 cm/h) produced the smallest decrease in hydraulic conductivity, which was 80 times more than that of low hydraulic load (3.0 cm/h) at the end (40 days) of experiment. Moreover, the relatively homogenized distribution of biofilm was found along the column with the highest hydraulic loading, which confirmed that the proper increase in hydraulic loading can alleviate bioclogging.

RevDate: 2022-10-10

Li H, MRA Nabawy (2022)

Capturing wake capture: a 2D numerical investigation into wing-wake interaction aerodynamics.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

A wing generating lift leaves behind a region of disturbed air in the form of a wake. For a hovering insect, the wings must return through the wake produced by the previous half-stroke and this can have significant effects on the aerodynamic performance. This paper numerically investigates 2D wings interacting with their own wake at Reynolds numbers of 102and 103, enabling an improved understanding of the underlying physics of the 'wake capture' aerodynamic mechanism of insect flight. We adopt a simple kinematic motion pattern comprised of a translational stroke motion followed by a complete stop to expose wake interaction effects. Representative stroke distance to chord ratios between 1.5 and 6.0 are considered, enabling different leading-edge vortex attachment states. We also allow pitching rotation towards the end of stroke, leading to wake intercepting angles of 135º, 90º, and 45º, analogous to delayed, symmetric, and advanced pitching rotations of insect wings. It is shown that both vortex suction and jet flow impingement mechanisms can lead to either positive or negative effects depending on the leading-edge vortex attachment state, and that stroke distances resulting in a detached/attached leading-edge vortex lead to beneficial/detrimental wake interaction lift. Pitching rotation at the end of the stroke motion is found to induce a strong rotational trailing-edge vortex. For advanced pitching, this rotational trailing-edge vortex serves to enable either a stronger flow impingement effect leading to positive wake interaction lift if the leading-edge vortex is detached, or a less favourable vortex suction effect leading to negative wake interaction lift if the leading-edge vortex is closely attached. The higher Reynolds number led to faster development of the wake vortices, but the primary wake interaction mechanisms remained the same for both Reynolds numbers.

RevDate: 2022-10-06

Usman , Memon AA, Alghamdi M, et al (2022)

A forced convection of water aluminum oxide nanofluid flow and heat transfer study for a three dimensional annular with inner rotated cylinder.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16735.

The article examines a water alumina nanofluid and heat transfer through the three-dimensional annular. The annular is constructed by the two concentric cylinders in which the inner cylinder can rotate along the tangential direction at a constant speed. A slip boundary condition will be imposed to vanish the viscous effect in the vicinity of the outer cylinder wall. Moreover, the rotating cylinder is kept at a hot temperature, and the outer one is at a cold temperature. A three-dimensional incompressible Navier Stokes and energy equations were carried in cylindrical coordinates. The simulation was observed using the emerging computational tool of COMSOL Multiphysics 5.6, which implements Least Square Galerkin's scheme of finite element method. The parametric study will be done by altering the speed of rotation of the inner cylinder from 1 to 4, volume fraction from 0.001 to 0.9, and the aspect ratio from 0.4 to 0.6 for a fixed Reynolds number of 35,000. The results will be displayed with graphs and tables for average values of the Nusselt number, the percentage change in the temperature, and the skin friction at the middle plan. It was found that the average Nusselt number at the middle of the annular increases before the volume fraction of 0.2 and then decreases for all values of the volume fraction for a fixed rotation of the inner cylinder. The average percentage change relative to the inner cylinder's hot temperature decreases with the volume fraction increase for the fixed rotation. Also, it was found that the quantity of nanoparticles in the domain is improving the average skin friction in the middle of the channel, and it can be reduced by improving the rotation of the inner cylinder by about 10-23% strictly depending upon the aspect ratio for a particular case.

RevDate: 2022-10-05

Shoukat G, Idrees H, Sajid M, et al (2022)

Numerical analysis of permeate flux in reverse osmosis by varying strand geometry.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16636.

In regions with limited potable water availability, membrane desalination is being employed to filter water using a pressure-driven approach. Because of the high energy consumption required to produce the pressure differential needed for this method, researchers have been trying different geometric designs of spacer filaments to enhance the amount of permeate flux in terms of energy utilization. The purpose of spacer filaments is to support membranes structurally and induce turbulent mixing in spiral wound membrane desalination. In this paper, the improvement of mass transfer in desalination driven by reverse osmosis has been studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) with the introduction of spiral wound membranes that are lined with spacer filaments in a zig-zag formation having alternating diameters for strands. The fluid flow characteristics for a 2-dimensional geometric model were resolved using the open-source program OpenFOAM by changing the Reynolds number to just before the inception of instabilities. Ratios of alternate strand diameters were also varied between one and two. Based on a detailed analysis of velocity contours, pressure distribution, wall shear stresses, and steady-state vortex systems, the research findings offer guidance for employing alternating strand design in zig-zag formation for optimum mass transfer and minimal pressure drop when accounting for concentration polarization.

RevDate: 2022-10-04

Pinto Costa R, Nwotchouang BST, Yao J, et al (2022)

Impact of Blood Rheology On Transition to Turbulence and Wall Vibration Downstream of a Stenosis.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1147234 [Epub ahead of print].

Previous experimental flow studies have demonstrated a delay (~20%) in transition to turbulence for whole blood compared to a Newtonian analog fluid in both a straight pipe and eccentric stenosis model with ridged walls. The impact of wall compliance on the transition to turbulence of blood compared to Newtonian analog and on wall vibration is unknown. The present study employed flexible walls downstream of an eccentric stenosis model and examined the wall vibration during the transition to turbulence with whole blood and a Newtonian analog. Measurements of tube wall vibration velocity (WVV) were used as an indicator of the turbulence level within the flexible tube. WVV was measured at 5, 10, and 15 diameters downstream of the stenosis using a laser Doppler vibrometer at Reynolds numbers 0, 200, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, 600, 650, 700, and 750. The root mean squares (RMS) of the measured WVV were utilized as an indirect measure of fluid velocity fluctuations present at that location, and hence, an indicator of transition to turbulence. WVV RMS was near-constant until approximately Reynolds number 400. It increased monotonically with Reynolds number for both whole blood and the Newtonian fluid. No differences in the transition to turbulence were observed between whole blood and the Newtonian fluid, as the WVV RMS curves were remarkably similar in shape. This result suggests that rheology had minimal impact on the WVV downstream of a stenosis for transition to turbulence since the fluids had a similar level of vibration.

RevDate: 2022-10-01

Moon J, Kang G, Im B, et al (2022)

Flapping and powering characteristics of a flexible piezoelectric nanogenerator at Reynolds number range simulating ocean current.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16465.

For effective ocean energy harvesting, it is necessary to understand the coupled motion of the piezoelectric nanogenerator (PENG) and ocean currents. Herein, we experimentally investigate power performance of the PENG in the perspective of the fluid-structure interaction considering ocean conditions with the Reynolds number (Re) values ranging from 1 to 141,489. A piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride micromesh was constructed via electrohydrodynamic (EHD) jet printing technique to produce the β-phase dominantly that is desirable for powering performance. Water channel was set to generate water flow to vibrate the flexible PENG. By plotting the Re values as a function of nondimensional bending rigidity (KB) and the structure-to-fluid mass ratio (M*), we could find neutral curves dividing the stable and flapping regimes. Analyzing the flow velocities between the vortex and surroundings via a particle image velocimetry, the larger displacement of the PENG in the chaotic flapping regime than that in the flapping regime was attributed to the sharp pressure gradient. By correlating M*, Re, KB, and the PENG performance, we conclude that there is critical KB that generate chaotic flapping motion for effective powering. We believe this study contributes to the establishment of a design methodology for the flexible PENG harvesting of ocean currents.

RevDate: 2022-09-28

Ismael AM, Eldabe NT, Abou Zeid MY, et al (2022)

Thermal micropolar and couple stresses effects on peristaltic flow of biviscosity nanofluid through a porous medium.

Scientific reports, 12(1):16180.

The main aim of the current study is to analyze couple stresses effects on MHD peristaltic transport of a micropolar non-Newtonian nanofluid. The fluid flows through a porous media between two horizontal co-axial tubes. The effects of radiation, chemical reaction, viscous and ohmic dissipation are considered. The inner tube is solid and uniform, while the outer tube has a sinusoidal wave traveling down its wall. The governing equations have been simplified using low-Reynolds number and long wave-length approximations, thus a semi-analytical solutions have been obtained using the homotopy perturbation method. Numerical results for the behaviors of the axial velocity, microrotation velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration with the physical parameters are depicted graphically through a set of graphs. Furthermore, the values of the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt and nano Sherwood numbers are computed and presented graphically through some draws. Moreover, the trapping phenomenon is discussed throughout a set of figures. The present study is very important in many medical applications, as the gastric juice motion in the small intestine when an endoscope is inserted through it. Further, gold nanoparticles are utilized in the remedy of cancer tumor.

RevDate: 2022-09-24

Anonymous (2022)

Correction to: Trends in Stroke Kinematics, Reynolds Number, and Swimming Mode in Shrimp-Like Organisms.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6713982 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-09-26

Wang Y, Gilson EP, Ebrahimi F, et al (2022)

Observation of Axisymmetric Standard Magnetorotational Instability in the Laboratory.

Physical review letters, 129(11):115001.

We report the first direct evidence for the axisymmetric standard magnetorotational instability (SMRI) from a combined experimental and numerical study of a magnetized liquid-metal shear flow in a Taylor-Couette cell with independently rotating and electrically conducting end caps. When a uniform vertical magnetic field B_{i} is applied along the rotation axis, the measured radial magnetic field B_{r} on the inner cylinder increases linearly with a small magnetic Reynolds number Rm due to the magnetization of the residue Ekman circulation. Onset of the axisymmetric SMRI is identified from the nonlinear increase of B_{r} beyond a critical Rm in both experiments and nonlinear numerical simulations. The axisymmetric SMRI exists only at sufficiently large Rm and intermediate B_{i}, a feature consistent with theoretical predictions. Our simulations further show that the axisymmetric SMRI causes the velocity and magnetic fields to contribute an outward flux of axial angular momentum in the bulk region, just as it should in accretion disks.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Bernad SI, Socoliuc V, Susan-Resiga D, et al (2022)

Magnetoresponsive Functionalized Nanocomposite Aggregation Kinetics and Chain Formation at the Targeted Site during Magnetic Targeting.

Pharmaceutics, 14(9): pii:pharmaceutics14091923.

Drug therapy for vascular disease has been promoted to inhibit angiogenesis in atherosclerotic plaques and prevent restenosis following surgical intervention. This paper investigates the arterial depositions and distribution of PEG-functionalized magnetic nanocomposite clusters (PEG_MNCs) following local delivery in a stented artery model in a uniform magnetic field produced by a regionally positioned external permanent magnet; also, the PEG_MNCs aggregation or chain formation in and around the implanted stent. The central concept is to employ one external permanent magnet system, which produces enough magnetic field to magnetize and guide the magnetic nanoclusters in the stented artery region. At room temperature (25 °C), optical microscopy of the suspension model's aggregation process was carried out in the external magnetic field. According to the optical microscopy pictures, the PEG_MNC particles form long linear aggregates due to dipolar magnetic interactions when there is an external magnetic field. During magnetic particle targeting, 20 mL of the model suspensions are injected (at a constant flow rate of 39.6 mL/min for the period of 30 s) by the syringe pump in the mean flow (flow velocity is Um = 0.25 m/s, corresponding to the Reynolds number of Re = 232) into the stented artery model. The PEG_MNC clusters are attracted by the magnetic forces (generated by the permanent external magnet) and captured around the stent struts and the bottom artery wall before and inside the implanted stent. The colloidal interaction among the MNC clusters was investigated by calculating the electrostatic repulsion, van der Waals and magnetic dipole-dipole energies. The current work offers essential details about PEG_MNCs aggregation and chain structure development in the presence of an external magnetic field and the process underlying this structure formation.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Mostefa T, Eddine AD, Tayeb NT, et al (2022)

Kinematic Properties of a Twisted Double Planetary Chaotic Mixer: A Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation.

Micromachines, 13(9): pii:mi13091545.

In this study, a numerical investigation based on the CFD method is carried out to study the unsteady laminar flow of Newtonian fluid with a high viscosity in a three-dimensional simulation of a twisted double planetary mixer, which is composed of two agitating rods inside a moving tank. The considered stirring protocol is a "Continuous sine squared motion" by using the dynamic mesh model and user-defined functions (UDFs)to define the velocity profiles. The chaotic advection is obtained in our active mixers by the temporal modulation of rotational velocities of the moving walls in order to enhance the mixing of the fluid for a low Reynolds number and a high Peclet number. For this goal, we applied the Poincaré section and Lyapunov exponent as reliable mathematic tools for checking mixing quality by tracking a number of massless particles inside the fluid domain. Additionally, we investigated the development of fluid kinematics proprieties, such as vorticity, helicity, strain rate and elongation rate, at various time periods in order to view the impact of temporal modulation on the flow properties. The results of the mentioned simulation showed that it is possible to obtain a chaotic advection after a relatively short time, which can deeply enhance mixing fluid efficiency.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Ahmed MF, Zaib A, Ali F, et al (2022)

Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion (CCDD) on Sutterby Nanofluid with Irreversibility Analysis and Motile Microbes Due to a RIGA Plate.

Micromachines, 13(9): pii:mi13091497.

In this article, a Riga plate is exhibited with an electric magnetization actuator consisting of permanent magnets and electrodes assembled alternatively. This Riga plate creates an electric and magnetic field, where a transverse Lorentz force is generated that contributes to the flow along the plate. A new study field has been created by Sutterby nanofluid flows down the Riga plate, which is crucial to the creation of several industrial advancements, including thermal nuclear reactors, flow metres, and nuclear reactor design. This article addresses the second law analysis of MHD Sutter by nanofluid over a stretching sheet with the Riga plate. The Cattaneo-Christov Double Diffusion heat and mass flux have been created to examine the behaviour of relaxation time. The bioconvection of motile microorganisms and chemical reactions are taken into consideration. Similarity transformations are used to make the governing equations non-dimensional ordinary differential equations (ODE's) that are subsequently solved through an efficient and powerful analytic technique, the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effect of pertained variables on velocity, temperature, concentration, and motile microorganism distributions are elaborated through the plot in detail. Further, the velocity distribution enhances and reduces for greater value Deborah number and Reynold number for the two cases of pseudoplastic and dilatant flow. Microorganism distribution decreases with the augmented magnitude of Peclet number (Pe), Bioconvection Lewis number (Lb), and microorganism concentration difference number (ϖ). The entropy production distribution is increased for the greater estimations of the Reynolds number (ReL) and Brinkman parameter (Br). Two sets of graphical outputs are presented for the Sutterby fluid parameter. Finally, for the justification of these outcomes, tables of comparison are made with various variables.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Juraeva M, DJ Kang (2022)

Mixing Performance of the Modified Tesla Micromixer with Tip Clearance.

Micromachines, 13(9): pii:mi13091375.

A passive micromixer based on the modified Tesla mixing unit was designed by embedding tip clearance above the wedge-shape divider, and its mixing performance was simulated over a wider range of the Reynolds numbers from 0.1 to 80. The mixing performance was evaluated in terms of the degree of mixing (DOM) at the outlet and the required pressure load between inlet and outlet. The height of tip clearance was varied from 40 μm to 80 μm, corresponding to 25% to 33% of the micromixer depth. The numerical results show that the mixing enhancement by the tip clearance is noticeable over a wide range of the Reynolds numbers Re < 50. The height of tip clearance is optimized in terms of the DOM, and the optimum value is roughly h = 60 μm. It corresponds to 33% of the present micromixer depth. The mixing enhancement in the molecular diffusion regime of mixing, Re ≤ 1, is obtained by drag and connection of the interface in the two sub-streams of each Tesla mixing unit. It appears as a wider interface in the tip clearance zone. In the intermediate range of the Reynolds number, 1 < Re ≤ 50, the mixing enhancement is attributed to the interaction of the flow through the tip clearance and the secondary flow in the vortex zone of each Tesla mixing unit. When the Reynolds number is larger than about 50, vortices are formed at various locations and drive the mixing in the modified Tesla micromixer. For the Reynolds number of Re = 80, a pair of vortices is formed around the inlet and outlet of each Tesla mixing unit, and it plays a role as a governing mechanism in the convection-dominant regime of mixing. This vortex pattern is little affected as long as the tip clearance remains smaller than about h = 70 μm. The DOM at the outlet is little enhanced by the presence of tip clearance for the Reynolds numbers Re ≥ 50. The tip clearance contributes to reducing the required pressure load for the same value of the DOM.

RevDate: 2022-09-23

Yokoyama F, Nakajima M, S Ichikawa (2022)

Analysis of Calcium Sulfate Scaling Phenomena on Reverse Osmosis Membranes by Scaling-Based Flux Model.

Membranes, 12(9): pii:membranes12090894.

In this study, the behavior of permeate flux decline due to scale precipitation of calcium sulfate on reverse osmosis membranes was investigated. The proposed scaling-based flux model is able to explain that permeate fluxes attributed to three mechanisms of scale precipitation-cake formation, surface blockage, and mixed crystallization-converge to the same newly defined scaling-based critical flux. In addition, a scaling index is defined, which determines whether scale precipitates on the membrane. The experimental results were analyzed based on this index. The mass-transfer coefficients of flat membrane cells used in the experiments were measured and, although the coefficients differed, they could be summarized in the same form as the Leveque equation. Considering the results of the scale precipitation experiments, where the operating conditions of pressure, solute concentration, temperature, and Reynolds number were varied, the convergent values of the permeate fluxes are explained by the scaling-based critical fluxes and the scale precipitation zones by the scaling indexes.

RevDate: 2022-09-19

Shakeel MR, EMA Mokheimer (2022)

Numerical Study of Stratified Flames Using Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Modeling.

ACS omega, 7(36):31822-31833.

Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes technique was used to develop a validated numerical model for stratified flames. The validation was carried out with the experimental data of the non-swirl flames of the Cambridge dual annulus swirl burner. The RNG k-ε turbulence model along with the SG-35 skeletal chemical mechanism was found to give a good prediction of scalar and vector quantities while resulting in the reduction of computational time by 99.75% in comparison with that required for large eddy simulation techniques used in the literature. The effect of stratification at a constant input power, global equivalence ratio, and Reynolds number was examined. At stratification ratios (SRs = ϕin/ϕout) 1 and 2, intense burning, marked by the higher OH concentration, was observed close to the bluff body. Beyond SR = 2, the region of intense burning shifts downstream away from the bluff body. This is a result of the high equivalence ratio in the inner annulus, which is beyond the rich flammability limit of methane-air flames, and as a result, the primary flame region is shifted downstream after the mixtures from inner and outer annulus have mixed properly to produce a mixture with the equivalence ratio in the flammability limit. The maximum temperature was found to increase by 24.1% when the SR is increased from 1 to 2 and the combustion efficiency was found to significantly improve by 267%. The highest maximum temperature of 2249 K is observed for the mildly stratified flame at SR = 2. Beyond SR = 2, the maximum temperature decreases, while the combustion efficiency increases slightly.

RevDate: 2022-09-20

Kotnurkar AS, VT Talawar (2022)

Influence of thermal jump and inclined magnetic field on peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid with silver nanoparticle in the eccentric annulus.

Heliyon, 8(9):e10543.

This study investigates the impacts of thermal jump and inclined magnetic field on the peristaltic transport of Jeffrey fluid containing silver nanoparticles in the eccentric annuls under the long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumption. In medical studies, the impact of thermal jumps and slanted magnetic fields on public health is of interest. Peristaltic motion's ability to transmit heat and create a magnetic field has several uses in biomedical and bioengineering. The non-Newtonian Jeffrey fluid with silver nanoparticles is considered in the space between two cylindrical tubes that are eccentrically aligned. The homotopic perturbation method is semi-analytical for modeling and nonlinear partial differential equations (HPM). Analytical solutions for velocity, pressure gradient, and pressure rise were found. To show how physical parameters affect temperature, velocity, concentration, frictional force, and pressure rise of inner and outer tubes were plotted. A comparison of the present method with the exact solution for temperature and nanoparticle concentration profile is shown graphically. The present analysis of analytical solution approaches to the exact solution. The most significant thing in the current investigation is that the Hartmann number and thermophoresis number make the velocity profile decline. Jeffrey fluid parameter and magnetic field angle make the velocity rise. The nanofluid's temperature rises as a result of the thermal jump. In addition, the Jeffrey nanofluid has a higher momentum and temperature than the Jeffrey fluid. This analysis can better evaluate the syringe's injection speed and fluid flow features during cancer treatment, artery blockage removal, and reduced bleeding throughout the surgery.

RevDate: 2022-09-17

Akram J, Akbar NS, D Tripathi (2022)

Blood-based graphene oxide nanofluid flow through capillary in the presence of electromagnetic fields: A Sutterby fluid model.

Pumping devices with the electrokinetics phenomena are important in many microscale transport phenomena in physiology. This study presents a theoretical and numerical investigation on the peristaltic pumping of non-Newtonian Sutterby nanofluid through capillary in presence of electromagnetohydrodynamics. Here blood (Sutterby fluid) is taken as a base fluid and nanofluid is prepared by the suspension of graphene oxide nanoparticles in blood. Graphene oxide is extremely useful in the medical domain for drug delivery and cancer treatment. The modified Buongiorno model for nanofluids and Poisson-Boltzmann ionic distribution is adopted for the formulation of the present problem. Constitutive flow equations are linearized by the implementation of approximations of low Reynolds number, large wavelength, and the Debye-Hückel linearization. The numerical solution of reduced coupled and nonlinear set of equations is computed through Mathematica and graphical illustration is presented. Further, the impacts of buoyancy forces, thermal radiation, and mixed convection are also studied. It is revealed in this investigation that the inclusion of a large number of nanoparticles alters the flow characteristics significantly and boosts the heat transfer mechanism. Moreover, the pumping power of the peristaltic pump can be enhanced by the reduction in the width of the electric double layer which can be done by altering the electrolyte concentration.

RevDate: 2022-09-20
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

Serafini F, Battista F, Gualtieri P, et al (2022)

Drag Reduction in Turbulent Wall-Bounded Flows of Realistic Polymer Solutions.

Physical review letters, 129(10):104502.

Suspensions of DNA macromolecules (0.8 wppm, 60 kbp), modeled as finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbells coupled to the Newtonian fluid, show drag reduction up to 27% at friction Reynolds number 180, saturating at the previously unachieved Weissenberg number ≃10^{4}. At a large Weissenberg number, the drag reduction is entirely induced by the fully stretched polymers, as confirmed by the extensional viscosity field. The polymer extension is strongly non-Gaussian, in contrast to the assumptions of classical viscoelastic models.

RevDate: 2022-09-16

Parfenyev V (2022)

Profile of a two-dimensional vortex condensate beyond the universal limit.

Physical review. E, 106(2-2):025102.

It is well known that an inverse turbulent cascade in a finite (2π×2π) two-dimensional periodic domain leads to the emergence of a system-sized coherent vortex dipole. We report a numerical hyperviscous study of the spatial vorticity profile inside one of the vortices. The exciting force was shortly correlated in time, random in space, and had a correlation length l_{f}=2π/k_{f} with k_{f} ranging from 100 to 12.5. Previously, it was found that in the asymptotic limit of small-scale forcing, the vorticity exhibits the power-law behavior Ω(r)=(3ε/α)^{1/2}r^{-1}, where r is the distance to the vortex center, α is the bottom friction coefficient, and ε is the inverse energy flux. Now we show that for a spatially homogeneous forcing with finite k_{f} the vorticity profile becomes steeper, with the difference increasing with the pumping scale but decreasing with the Reynolds number at the forcing scale. Qualitatively, this behavior is related to a decrease in the effective pumping of the coherent vortex with distance from its center. To support this statement, we perform an additional simulation with spatially localized forcing, in which the effective pumping of the coherent vortex, on the contrary, increases with r, and show that in this case the vorticity profile can be flatter than the asymptotic limit.

RevDate: 2022-09-16

Koyano Y, H Kitahata (2022)

Anomalous diffusion and transport by a reciprocal convective flow.

Physical review. E, 106(2-1):024102.

Under low-Reynolds-number conditions, dynamics of convection and diffusion are usually considered separately because their dominant spatial and temporal scales are different, but cooperative effects of convection and diffusion can cause diffusion enhancement [Koyano et al., Phys. Rev. E 102, 033109 (2020)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.102.033109]. In this paper, such cooperative effects are investigated in detail. Numerical simulations based on the convection-diffusion equation revealed that anisotropic diffusion and net shift as well as diffusion enhancement occur under a reciprocal flow. Such anomalous diffusion and transport are theoretically derived by the analyses of the Langevin dynamics.

RevDate: 2022-09-16

Agrawal V, D Mitra (2022)

Chaos and irreversibility of a flexible filament in periodically driven Stokes flow.

Physical review. E, 106(2-2):025103.

The flow of Newtonian fluid at low Reynolds number is, in general, regular and time-reversible due to absence of nonlinear effects. For example, if the fluid is sheared by its boundary motion that is subsequently reversed, then all the fluid elements return to their initial positions. Consequently, mixing in microchannels happens solely due to molecular diffusion and is very slow. Here, we show, numerically, that the introduction of a single, freely floating, flexible filament in a time-periodic linear shear flow can break reversibility and give rise to chaos due to elastic nonlinearities, if the bending rigidity of the filament is within a carefully chosen range. Within this range, not only the shape of the filament is spatiotemporally chaotic, but also the flow is an efficient mixer. Overall, we find five dynamical phases: the shape of a stiff filament is time-invariant-either straight or buckled; it undergoes a period-two bifurcation as the filament is made softer; becomes spatiotemporally chaotic for even softer filaments but, surprisingly, the chaos is suppressed if bending rigidity is decreased further.

RevDate: 2022-09-13

Bohm S, Phi HB, Moriyama A, et al (2022)

Highly efficient passive Tesla valves for microfluidic applications.

Microsystems & nanoengineering, 8:97.

A multistage optimization method is developed yielding Tesla valves that are efficient even at low flow rates, characteristic, e.g., for almost all microfluidic systems, where passive valves have intrinsic advantages over active ones. We report on optimized structures that show a diodicity of up to 1.8 already at flow rates of 20 μl s- 1 corresponding to a Reynolds number of 36. Centerpiece of the design is a topological optimization based on the finite element method. It is set-up to yield easy-to-fabricate valve structures with a small footprint that can be directly used in microfluidic systems. Our numerical two-dimensional optimization takes into account the finite height of the channel approximately by means of a so-called shallow-channel approximation. Based on the three-dimensionally extruded optimized designs, various test structures were fabricated using standard, widely available microsystem manufacturing techniques. The manufacturing process is described in detail since it can be used for the production of similar cost-effective microfluidic systems. For the experimentally fabricated chips, the efficiency of the different valve designs, i.e., the diodicity defined as the ratio of the measured pressure drops in backward and forward flow directions, respectively, is measured and compared to theoretical predictions obtained from full 3D calculations of the Tesla valves. Good agreement is found. In addition to the direct measurement of the diodicities, the flow profiles in the fabricated test structures are determined using a two-dimensional microscopic particle image velocimetry (μPIV) method. Again, a reasonable good agreement of the measured flow profiles with simulated predictions is observed.

RevDate: 2022-09-09

Xiao X, Li G, Liu T, et al (2022)

Experimental Study of the Jetting Behavior of High-Viscosity Nanosilver Inks in Inkjet-Based 3D Printing.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(17): pii:nano12173076.

Inkjet printing of high-viscosity (up to 105 mPa·s) nanosilver inks is an interesting emerging technology to achieve the 3D fully printed fabrication of electronic products. The highly viscous force of the ink makes it impossible to achieve droplet ejection with the traditional piezoelectric-driven drop-on-demand inkjet method. In this study, a pneumatic needle jetting valve is adopted to provide sufficient driving force. A large number of high-viscosity inkjet printing tests are carried out, and the jetting behavior is recorded with a high-speed camera. Different jetting states are determined according to the recorded images, and the causes of their formation are revealed. Additionally, the effects of the operating pressure, preload angle, and fluid pressure on jetting states are elucidated. Furthermore, the jetting phase diagram is obtained with the characterization of the Reynolds number and the printable region is clarified. This provides a better understanding of high-viscosity inkjet printing and will promote the application of high-viscosity inkjet printing in 3D fully printed electronic products.

RevDate: 2022-09-06

Zhao D, Bittner B, Clifton G, et al (2022)

Walking is like slithering: A unifying, data-driven view of locomotion.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(37):e2113222119.

Legged movement is ubiquitous in nature and of increasing interest for robotics. Most legged animals routinely encounter foot slipping, yet detailed modeling of multiple contacts with slipping exceeds current simulation capacity. Here we present a principle that unifies multilegged walking (including that involving slipping) with slithering and Stokesian (low Reynolds number) swimming. We generated data-driven principally kinematic models of locomotion for walking in low-slip animals (Argentine ant, 4.7% slip ratio of slipping to total motion) and for high-slip robotic systems (BigANT hexapod, slip ratio 12 to 22%; Multipod robots ranging from 6 to 12 legs, slip ratio 40 to 100%). We found that principally kinematic models could explain much of the variability in body velocity and turning rate using body shape and could predict walking behaviors outside the training data. Most remarkably, walking was principally kinematic irrespective of leg number, foot slipping, and turning rate. We find that grounded walking, with or without slipping, is governed by principally kinematic equations of motion, functionally similar to frictional swimming and slithering. Geometric mechanics thus leads to a unified model for swimming, slithering, and walking. Such commonality may shed light on the evolutionary origins of animal locomotion control and offer new approaches for robotic locomotion and motion planning.

RevDate: 2022-09-02

Hasegawa M, Chen YC, H Sakaue (2022)

Drag reduction study of a microfiber-coated cylinder.

Scientific reports, 12(1):15022.

Drag reduction for a bluff body is imperative in a time of increasing awareness of the environmental impact and sustainability of air travel. Microfiber coating has demonstrated its ability to reduce drag on a bluff body. This was done by applying strips of the coating to a cylinder. To widen the application range of the microfiber coating, a fully microfiber-coated cylinder is studied as it has no directionality relative to incoming flow. It is hypothesized that a large coating coverage will cause a reduction in drag dependent on the Reynolds number Re. The fully microfiber-coated cylinder is studied in a wind tunnel and the drag coefficient is determined at a range of Re in the subcritical-flow regime. It is found that the drag coefficient of the microfiber-coated cylinder is a function of Re, and the critical Reynolds number, where the maximum drag reduction occurs, is lower for a microfiber-coated cylinder compared to that of a conventional smooth-surface cylinder.

RevDate: 2022-09-01

Bearden KP, Padilla VE, Taubert L, et al (2022)

Calibration and performance characterization of a Mach 5 Ludwieg tube.

The Review of scientific instruments, 93(8):085104.

Calibration, commissioning, and design features of a new Mach 5 Ludwieg Tube wind tunnel at the University of Arizona are discussed. Mach number uniformity and free-stream noise levels are measured using a Pitot rake at a range of unit Reynolds numbers and at multiple spanwise and streamwise positions. The wind tunnel is shown to have a free-stream Mach number of 4.82 with maximum variance less than 0.8% (and less than 0.5% at most streamwise positions). The average free-stream acoustic noise level in the core (based on Pitot pressure) is shown to be less than 1.2% at an intermediate Reynolds number with some regions dropping locally below 1.0%. The core flow region is measured to be 282.4 mm (11.1 in.) in diameter at the nozzle exit.

RevDate: 2022-08-31

Luo Y, Xiao Q, Zhu Q, et al (2022)

Thrust and torque production of a squid-inspired swimmer with a bent nozzle for thrust vectoring.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

A three-dimensional pulsed-jet propulsion model consisting of a flexible body and a steerable bent nozzle in tethered mode is presented and studied numerically. By prescribing the body deformation and nozzle angle, we examine the flow evolution and propulsive/turning performance via thrust vectoring. Our results show that the vortex ring is no longer axis-symmetric when the jet is ejected at an angle with the incoming flow. A torque peak is observed during jetting, which is mainly sourced from the suction force (negative pressure) at the lower part of the internal nozzle surface when the flow is directed downward through an acute angle. After this crest, the torque is dominated by the positive pressure at the upper part of the internal nozzle surface, especially at a relatively low jet-based Reynolds number (О(102)). The torque production increases with a larger nozzle bent angle as expected. Meanwhile, the thrust production remains almost unchanged, showing little trade-off between thrust and torque production which demonstrates the advantage of thrust vectoring via a bent nozzle. By decoupling the thrust at the internal and outer surfaces considering special characteristics of force generation by pulsed-jet propulsion, we find that variations in Reynolds number mostly affect the viscous friction at the outer surfaces. The influence of the maximum stroke ratio is also studied. Results show that both the time-averaged thrust and the torque decrease at a larger stroke ratio.

RevDate: 2022-08-31

Werwinski S, Wharton JA, Nie M, et al (2022)

Monitoring Aerobic Marine Bacterial Biofilms on Gold Electrode Surfaces and the Influence of Nitric Oxide Attachment Control.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Detection of aerobic marine bacterial biofilms using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has been done to monitor the interfacial response of Pseudoalteromonas sp. NCIMB 2021 attachment and growth in order to identify characteristic events on a 0.2 mm diameter gold electrode surface. Uniquely, the applicability of surface charge density has been proven to be valuable in determining biofilm attachment and cell enumeration over a 72 h duration on a gold surface within a modified continuous culture flow cell (a controlled low laminar flow regime with Reynolds number ≈ 1). In addition, biofilm dispersal has been evaluated using 500 nM sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor (nitric oxide is important for the regulation of several diverse biological processes). Ex situ confocal microscopy studies have been performed to confirm biofilm coverage and morphology, plus the determination and quantification of the nitric oxide biofilm dispersal effects. Overall, the capability of the sensor to electrochemically detect the presence of initial bacterial biofilm formation and extent has been established and shown to have potential for real-time biofilm monitoring.

RevDate: 2022-08-29

Khan M, Sarfraz M, Mehmood S, et al (2022)

Irreversibility process analysis for SiO2-MoS2/water-based flow over a rotating and stretching cylinder.

Journal of applied biomaterials & functional materials, 20:22808000221120329.

Entropy is the measure of the amount of energy in any physical system that is not accessible for the useful work, which causes a decrease in a system's thermodynamic efficiency. The idea of entropy generation analysis plays a vital role in characterizing the evolution of thermal processes and minimizing the impending loss of available mechanical power in thermo-fluid systems from an analytical perspective. It has a wide range of applications in biological, information, and engineering systems, such as transportation, telecommunication, and rate processes. The analysis of the entropy generation of axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic hybrid nanofluid (SiO2-MoS2)/water flow induced by rotating and stretching cylinder in the presence of heat radiation, ohmic heating, and the magnetic field is focus of this study. Thermal energy transport of hybrid nanofluids is performed by applying the Maxwell model. Heat transport is carried out by using convective boundary condition. The dimensionless ordinary differential equations are acquired by similarity transformations. The numerical solution for these differential equations is obtained by the bvp4c program in MATLAB. A comparison between nanofluid and hybrid nanofluid is made for flow field, temperature, and entropy generation. Comparison of nanofluid flow with hybrid nanofluid flow exhibits a higher rate of heat transmission, while entropy generation exhibits the opposite behavior. It is observed that the flow and heat distribution increase as the solid volume fraction's value grows. An increase in entropy is indicated by augmentation in the Brinkman number and temperature ratio parameter, but the Bejan number shows a declining trend. Furthermore, outcomes of the Nusselt number for hybrid nanofluid and nanofluid are calculated for various parameters. It is noticed that the Nusselt number is reduced for enlarging the magnetic field and Eckert number. The axial and azimuthal wall stress parameters are declined by augmenting the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2022-08-29

Saeed A, Shah RA, Khan MS, et al (2022)

Theoretical analysis of unsteady squeezing nanofluid flow with physical properties.

Mathematical biosciences and engineering : MBE, 19(10):10176-10191.

Theoretical analysis of physical characteristics of unsteady, squeezing nanofluid flow is studied. The flow of nanofluid between two plates that placed parallel in a rotating system by keeping the variable physical properties: viscosity and thermal conductivity. It is analyzed by using Navier Stokes Equation, Energy Equation and Concentration equation. The prominent equations are transformed by virtue of suitable similarity transformation. Nanofluid model includes the important effects of Thermophoresis and Brownian motion. For analysis graphical results are drawn for verity parameters of our interest i.e., Injection parameter, Squeezing number, Prandtle number and Schmidt number are investigated for the Velocity field, Temperature variation and Concentration profile numerically. The findings underline that the parameter of skin friction increases when the Squeezing Reynolds number, Injection parameter and Prandtle number increases. However, it shows inverse relationship with Schmidt number and Rotation parameter. Furthermore, direct relationship of Nusselt number with injection parameter and Reynolds number is observed while its relation with Schmidt number, Rotation parameter, Brownian parameter and Thermophoretic parameter shows an opposite trend. The results are thus obtained through Parametric Continuation Method (PCM) which is further validated through BVP4c. Moreover, the results are tabulated and set forth for comparison of findings through PCM and BVP4c which shows that the obtained results correspond to each other.

RevDate: 2022-08-27

Marfoglio S, Kovarovic B, Fiorella DJ, et al (2022)

A novel angiographic method to estimate arterial blood flow rates using contrast reflux: Effect of injection parameters.

Medical physics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Contrast reflux, which is the retrograde movement of contrast against flow direction, is commonly observed during angiography. Despite a vast body of literature on angiography, the hemodynamic factors affecting contrast reflux have not been studied. Numerous methods have been developed to extract flow from angiography, but the reliability of these methods is not yet sufficient to be of routine clinical use.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of baseline blood flow rates and injection conditions on the extent of contrast reflux. To estimate arterial flow rates based on measurement of contrast reflux length.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Iodinated contrast was injected into an idealized tube as well as a physiologically accurate model of the cervico-cerebral vasculature. A total of 194 high-speed angiograms were acquired under varying 'blood' flow rates and injection conditions (catheter size, injection rate, injection time). The length of contrast reflux was compared to the input variables and to dimensionless fluid dynamics parameters at the catheter-tip. Arterial blood flow rates were estimated using contrast reflux length as well as a traditional transit-time method and compared to measured flow rates.

RESULTS: Contrast reflux lengths were significantly affected by contrast injection rate (p<0.0001), baseline blood flow rate (p = 0.0004), and catheter size (p = 0.04), but not by contrast injection time (p = 0.4). Reflux lengths were found to be correlated to dimensionless fluid dynamics parameters by an exponential function (R2 = 0.6 to 0.99). When considering the entire dataset in unison, flow estimation errors with the reflux-length method (39±33%) were significantly higher (p = 0.003) than the transit-time method (33±36%). However, when sub-grouped by catheter, the error with the reflux-length method was substantially reduced and was significantly lower (14±14%, p<0.0001) than the transit-time method.

CONCLUSION: Results show correlations between contrast reflux length and baseline hemodynamic parameters that have not been reported previously. Clinically relevant blood flow rate estimation is feasible by simple measurement of reflux length. In vivo and clinical studies are required to confirm these correlations and to refine the methodology of estimating blood flow by reflux. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-08-26

Shi R, Lin J, H Yang (2022)

Particle Distribution and Heat Transfer of SiO2/Water Nanofluid in the Turbulent Tube Flow.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(16): pii:nano12162803.

In order to clarify the effect of particle coagulation on the heat transfer properties, the governing equations of nanofluid together with the equation for nanoparticles in the SiO2/water nanofluid flowing through a turbulent tube are solved numerically in the range of Reynolds number 3000 ≤ Re ≤ 16,000 and particle volume fraction 0.005 ≤ φ ≤ 0.04. Some results are validated by comparing with the experimental results. The effect of particle convection, diffusion, and coagulation on the pressure drop ∆P, particle distribution, and heat transfer of nanofluid are analyzed. The main innovation is that it gives the effect of particle coagulation on the pressure drop, particle distribution, and heat transfer. The results showed that ∆P increases with the increase in Re and φ. When inlet velocity is small, the increase in ∆P caused by adding particles is relatively large, and ∆P increases most obviously compared with the case of pure water when the inlet velocity is 0.589 m/s and φ is 0.004. Particle number concentration M0 decreases along the flow direction, and M0 near the wall is decreased to the original 2% and decreased by about 90% in the central area. M0 increases with increasing Re but with decreasing φ, and basically presents a uniform distribution in the core area of the tube. The geometric mean diameter of particle GMD increases with increasing φ, but with decreasing Re. GMD is the minimum in the inlet area, and gradually increases along the flow direction. The geometric standard deviation of particle diameter GSD increases sharply at the inlet and decreases in the inlet area, remains almost unchanged in the whole tube, and finally decreases rapidly again at the outlet. The effects of Re and φ on the variation in GSD along the flow direction are insignificant. The values of convective heat transfer coefficient h and Nusselt number Nu are larger for nanofluids than that for pure water. h and Nu increase with the increase in Re and φ. Interestingly, the variation in φ from 0.005 to 0.04 has little effect on h and Nu.

RevDate: 2022-08-26

Akram S, Athar M, Saeed K, et al (2022)

Impact of Partial Slip on Double Diffusion Convection of Sisko Nanofluids in Asymmetric Channel with Peristaltic Propulsion and Inclined Magnetic Field.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(16): pii:nano12162736.

The current article discusses the outcomes of the double diffusion convection of peristaltic transport in Sisko nanofluids along an asymmetric channel having an inclined magnetic field. Consideration is given to the Sisko fluid model, which can forecast both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid properties. Lubricating greases are the best examples of Sisko fluids. Experimental research shows that most realistic fluids, including human blood, paint, dirt, and other substances, correspond to Sisko's proposed definition of viscosity. Mathematical modelling is considered to explain the flow behavior. The simpler non-linear PEDs are deduced by using an elongated wavelength and a minimal Reynolds number. The expression is also numerically calculated. The impacts of the physical variables on the quantities of flow are plotted graphically as well as numerically. The results reveal that there is a remarkable increase in the concentration, temperature, and nanoparticle fraction with the rise in the Dufour and thermophoresis variables.

RevDate: 2022-08-24

Canli E, Kucuksariyildiz H, K Carman (2022)

Impact assessment of new generation high-speed agricultural tractor aerodynamics on transportation fuel consumption and related phenomena.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

New generation agricultural tractors contribute to transportation by increased travel speeds. There is not any available aerodynamic data on the authentic agricultural tractor form. On-road transportation by tractors is between 8 and 30% of their operational time. In this work, two agricultural tractors are modelled via computational fluid dynamics for nine different speeds to determine aerodynamic resistances. Constant speed travel scenarios are analyzed. Corresponding speeds are 5 and 10 to 80 km/h with 10 km/h increments. Reynolds number changes between 1.6 × 105 and 2.98 × 106. The characteristic lengths are taken as the square root of the streamwise projected area of the tractor geometries. Aerodynamic forces exerted on the tractors change between 3 and 746 N. The calculated drag coefficients are found as independent from Reynolds number and are 0.6 and 0.78 for the two different types of driver compartments. The approximated aerodynamic related fuel consumptions for 1-h changes between 0.002 and 8.28 lt/s which correspond to 0.001 to 5.76 kg/s carbon emission. A potential improvement in decreasing aerodynamic resistance about 20% is discussed by spatial data. Since the conducted work is being regarded as the first instance in the literature, it is estimated that several consecutive reports will be triggered.

RevDate: 2022-08-23

Nan K, Shi Y, Zhao T, et al (2022)

Mixing and Flow Transition in an Optimized Electrokinetic Turbulent Micromixer.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Micromixer is a key element in a lab on a chip for broad applications in the analysis and measurement of chemistry and engineering. Previous investigations reported that electrokinetic (EK) turbulence could be realized in a "Y" type micromixer with a cross-sectional dimension of 100 μm order. Although the ultrafast turbulent mixing can be generated at a bulk flow Reynolds number on the order of unity, the micromixer has not been optimized. In this investigation, we systematically investigated the influence of electric field intensity, AC frequency, electric conductivity ratio, and channel width at the entrance on the mixing effect and transition electric Rayleigh number in the "Y" type electrokinetic turbulent micromixer. It is found that the optimal mixing is realized in a 350 μm wide micromixer, under 100 kHz and 1.14 × 105 V/m AC electric field, with an electric conductivity ratio of 1:3000. Under these conditions, a degree of mixedness of 0.93 can be achieved at 84 μm from the entrance and 100 ms. A further investigation of the critical electric field and the critical electric Rayleigh number indicates that the most unstable condition of EK flow instability is inconsistent with that of the optimal mixing in EK turbulence. To predict the evolution of EK flow under high Raσ and guide the design of EK turbulent micromixers, it is necessary to apply a computational turbulence model instead of linear instability analysis.

RevDate: 2022-08-22

Mondal T, Hnaien N, Ajmi M, et al (2022)

CFD Investigation of Thermal Characteristics for a Dual Jet with a Parallel Co-flow.

ACS omega, 7(32):27864-27875.

A combined turbulent wall jet and offset jet (also known as the dual jet) with and without the presence of a parallel co-flow stream is studied. The standard k-ω turbulence model is used to predict the turbulent flow. The study focuses on the effects of the co-flow velocity (CFV) on the heat-transfer characteristics of the dual jet flow with the bottom wall maintained at a constant wall temperature. The CFV is varied up to 40% of the jet inlet velocity, and the height of the offset jet is varied from 5 to 11 times the jet width with the inlet Reynolds number taken as 15,000. The heat-transfer results reveal that the local Nusselt number (Nu x) along the bottom wall exhibits a peak at the immediate downstream of the nozzle exit, followed by a continuous decay in the rest of the converging region before showing a small rise for a short streamwise distance in the merging region. Further downstream, in the combined region, Nu x gradually decreases with the downstream distance. Except the merging region, no influence of co-flow is observed in the other two flow zones (converging and combined regions). In the merging region, for a given offset ratio (OR), Nu x remains nearly constant for a certain axial distance, and it decreases as the CFV increases. As a result of the increase in the CFV, the average Nusselt number decreases, indicating a reduction in overall convective heat transfer for higher values of the CFV. A regression analysis among the average Nusselt number (), CFV, and OR results in a correlation function in the form of within the range OR = 5-11 and CFV = 0-40%.

RevDate: 2022-08-15

Wüthrich D, Shi R, H Chanson (2022)

Hydraulic jumps with low inflow Froude numbers: air-water surface patterns and transverse distributions of two-phase flow properties.

Environmental fluid mechanics (Dordrecht, Netherlands : 2001), 22(4):789-818.

Abstract: Hydraulic jumps are commonly employed as energy dissipators to guarantee long-term operation of hydraulic structures. A comprehensive and in-depth understanding of their main features is therefore fundamental. In this context, the current study focused on hydraulic jumps with low Froude numbers, i.e. Fr1 = 2.1 and 2.4, at relatively high Reynolds number: Re ~2 × 105. Experimental tests employed a combination of dual-tip phase-detection probes and ultra-high-speed video camera to provide a comprehensive characterisation of the main air-water flow properties of the hydraulic jump, including surface flow features, void fraction, bubble count rate and interfacial velocities. The current research also focused on the transverse distributions of air-water flow properties, i.e. across the channel width, with the results revealing lower values of void fraction and bubble count rate next to the sidewalls compared to the channel centreline data. Such a spatial variability in the transverse direction questions whether data near the side walls may be truly representative of the behaviour in the bulk of the flow, raising the issue of sidewall effects in image-based techniques. Overall, these findings provide new information to both researchers and practitioners for a better understanding of the physical processes inside the hydraulic jump with low Froude numbers, leading to an optimised design of hydraulic structures.

Article Highlights: Experimental investigation of air-water flow properties in hydraulic jumps with low Froude numbersDetailed description of the main air-water surface features on the breaking rollerTransversal distribution of the air-water flow properties across the channel width and comparison between centreline and sidewall.

RevDate: 2022-08-12

Mohanty RK, Setia N, Khurana G, et al (2022)

High precision compact numerical approximation in exponential form for the system of 2D quasilinear elliptic BVPs on a discrete irrational region.

MethodsX, 9:101790 pii:S2215-0161(22)00170-4.

This article presents a new approximation of order four in exponential form for two-dimensional (2D) quasilinear partial differential equation (PDE) of elliptic form with solution domain being irrational. It is further extended for application to a system of quasilinear elliptic PDEs with Dirichlet boundary conditions (DBCs). The main highlights of the method framed in this article are as under:•It uses a 9-point stencil with unequal mesh to approach the solution. The error analysis is discussed to authenticate the order of convergence of the proposed numerical approximation.•Various validating problems, for instance the Burgers' equation, Poisson equation in cylindrical coordinates, Navier-Stokes (NS) equations in rectangular and cylindrical coordinates are solved using the proposed techniques to depict their stability. The proposed approximation produces solution free of oscillations for large values of Reynolds Number in the vicinity of a singularity.•The results of the proposed method are superior in comparison to the existing methods of [49] and [56].

RevDate: 2022-08-12

Togun H, Homod RZ, Yaseen ZM, et al (2022)

Efficient Heat Transfer Augmentation in Channels with Semicircle Ribs and Hybrid Al2O3-Cu/Water Nanofluids.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(15): pii:nano12152720.

Global technological advancements drive daily energy consumption, generating additional carbon-induced climate challenges. Modifying process parameters, optimizing design, and employing high-performance working fluids are among the techniques offered by researchers for improving the thermal efficiency of heating and cooling systems. This study investigates the heat transfer enhancement of hybrid "Al2O3-Cu/water" nanofluids flowing in a two-dimensional channel with semicircle ribs. The novelty of this research is in employing semicircle ribs combined with hybrid nanofluids in turbulent flow regimes. A computer modeling approach using a finite volume approach with k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model was used in these simulations. Six cases with varying rib step heights and pitch gaps, with Re numbers ranging from 10,000 to 25,000, were explored for various volume concentrations of hybrid nanofluids Al2O3-Cu/water (0.33%, 0.75%, 1%, and 2%). The simulation results showed that the presence of ribs enhanced the heat transfer in the passage. The Nusselt number increased when the solid volume fraction of "Al2O3-Cu/water" hybrid nanofluids and the Re number increased. The Nu number reached its maximum value at a 2 percent solid volume fraction for a Reynolds number of 25,000. The local pressure coefficient also improved as the Re number and volume concentration of "Al2O3-Cu/water" hybrid nanofluids increased. The creation of recirculation zones after and before each rib was observed in the velocity and temperature contours. A higher number of ribs was also shown to result in a larger number of recirculation zones, increasing the thermal performance.

RevDate: 2022-08-04

Bhattacharjee A, Jabbarzadeh M, Kararsız G, et al (2022)

Bacteria-Inspired Magnetically Actuated Rod-Like Soft Robot in Viscous Fluids.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

This paper seeks to design, develop, and explore the locomotive dynamics and morphological adaptability of a bacteria-inspired rod-like soft robot propelled in highly viscous Newtonian fluids. The soft robots were fabricated as tapered, hollow rod-like soft scaffolds by applying a robust and economic molding technique to a polyacrylamide-based hydrogel polymer. Cylindrical micro-magnets were embedded in both ends of the soft scaffolds, which allowed bending (deformation) and actuation under a uniform rotating magnetic field. We demonstrated that the tapered rod-like soft robot in viscous Newtonian fluids could perform two types of propulsion; boundary rolling was displayed when the soft robot was located near a boundary, and swimming was displayed far away from the boundary. In addition, we performed numerical simulations to understand the swimming propulsion along the rotating axis and the way in which this propulsion is affected by the soft robot's design, rotation frequency, and fluid viscosity. Our results suggested that a simple geometrical asymmetry would enable the rod-like soft robot to perform propulsion in the low Reynolds number (Re<< 1) regime; these promising results provide essential insights into the improvements that must be made to integrate the soft robots into minimally invasivein vivoapplications.

RevDate: 2022-08-02

Xiao L, Liu Q, W Huang (2022)

Experimental research and analysis on the resistance characteristics of simulated ore bin in water.

Scientific reports, 12(1):13211.

In order to research the variation law of the longitudinal resistance coefficient of the ore bin in the marine mining system under different length-diameter ratio, external shape, additional weight and Reynolds number, a set of experimental system for testing the resistance coefficient was designed and built independently. By analyzing the experimental results, it can be seen that under the same conditions, the resistance coefficient decreases gradually with the increase of Reynolds number and finally fluctuates around a certain value. Increasing the excitation displacement will reduce the overall resistance coefficient of the ore bin. The smaller the length-diameter ratio is, the larger the corresponding force value when the vibration acceleration of the ore bin is 0, and the larger the overall resistance coefficient is. The resistance coefficient of the cylindrical section is greater than that of the rectangular shape. In order to reduce the longitudinal vibration and the transverse towing offset, the shape of the ore bin should be cylindrical in actual design and production. At low Reynolds number, the increase of added weight will increase the resistance coefficient, while at high Reynolds number, the change of added weight will not cause the change of resistance coefficient.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Ram D, Bhandari DS, Tripathi D, et al (2022)

Propagation of H1N1 virus through saliva movement in oesophagus: a mathematical model.

European physical journal plus, 137(7):866.

H1N1 (Swine flu) is caused by the influenza A virus which belongs to the Orthomyxoviridae family. Influenza A is very harmful to the elderly, and people with chronic respiratory disease and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is essential to analyse the behaviour of virus transmission through the saliva movement in oesophagus. A mathematical paradigm is developed to study the saliva movement under the applications of transverse magnetic field. Jeffrey fluid model is considered for saliva to show the viscoelastic nature. The flow nature is considered creeping and assumptions of long wavelength and low Reynolds number are adopted for analytical solutions. The Basset-Boussinesq-Oseen equation is employed to understand the propagation of H1N1 virus through saliva under the effect of applicable forces such as gravity, virtual mass, basset force, and drag forces. The suitable data for saliva, oesophagus and H1N1 virus are taken from the existing literature for simulation of the results using MATLAB software. From the graphical results, it is observed that the susceptibility to viral infections is less because the magnetic field reduces the motion of the virus particle. Further, the chances of infections in males are more as compared to females and children due to variation in viscosity of saliva. Such findings provide an understanding of the mechanics of the virus floating through the saliva (viscoelastic fluids) in the oesophagus.

RevDate: 2022-08-01

Strazzullo M, Girfoglio M, Ballarin F, et al (2022)

Consistency of the full and reduced order models for evolve-filter-relax regularization of convection-dominated, marginally-resolved flows.

International journal for numerical methods in engineering, 123(14):3148-3178.

Numerical stabilization is often used to eliminate (alleviate) the spurious oscillations generally produced by full order models (FOMs) in under-resolved or marginally-resolved simulations of convection-dominated flows. In this article, we investigate the role of numerical stabilization in reduced order models (ROMs) of marginally-resolved, convection-dominated incompressible flows. Specifically, we investigate the FOM-ROM consistency, that is, whether the numerical stabilization is beneficial both at the FOM and the ROM level. As a numerical stabilization strategy, we focus on the evolve-filter-relax (EFR) regularization algorithm, which centers around spatial filtering. To investigate the FOM-ROM consistency, we consider two ROM strategies: (i) the EFR-noEFR, in which the EFR stabilization is used at the FOM level, but not at the ROM level; and (ii) the EFR-EFR, in which the EFR stabilization is used both at the FOM and at the ROM level. We compare the EFR-noEFR with the EFR-EFR in the numerical simulation of a 2D incompressible flow past a circular cylinder in the convection-dominated, marginally-resolved regime. We also perform model reduction with respect to both time and Reynolds number. Our numerical investigation shows that the EFR-EFR is more accurate than the EFR-noEFR, which suggests that FOM-ROM consistency is beneficial in convection-dominated, marginally-resolved flows.

RevDate: 2022-07-29

Wang X, Shih HY, N Goldenfeld (2022)

Stochastic Model for Quasi-One-Dimensional Transitional Turbulence with Streamwise Shear Interactions.

Physical review letters, 129(3):034501.

The transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows is typically subcritical, with a poorly understood interplay between spatial fluctuations, pattern formation, and stochasticity near the critical Reynolds number. Here, we present a spatially extended stochastic minimal model for the energy budget in transitional pipe flow, which successfully recapitulates the way localized patches of turbulence (puffs) decay, split, and grow, respectively, as the Reynolds number increases through the laminar-turbulent transition. Our approach takes into account the flow geometry, as we demonstrate by extending the model to quasi-one-dimensional Taylor-Couette flow, reproducing the observed directed percolation pattern of turbulent patches in space and time.

RevDate: 2022-07-28

Godeau AL, Leoni M, Comelles J, et al (2022)

3D single cell migration driven by temporal correlation between oscillating force dipoles.

eLife, 11: pii:71032 [Epub ahead of print].

Directional cell locomotion requires symmetry breaking between the front and rear of the cell. In some cells, symmetry breaking manifests itself in a directional flow of actin from the front to the rear of the cell. Many cells, especially in physiological 3D matrices do not show such coherent actin dynamics and present seemingly competing protrusion/retraction dynamics at their front and back. How symmetry breaking manifests itself for such cells is therefore elusive. We take inspiration from the scallop theorem proposed by Purcell for micro-swimmers in Newtonian fluids: self-propelled objects undergoing persistent motion at low Reynolds number must follow a cycle of shape changes that breaks temporal symmetry. We report similar observations for cells crawling in 3D. We quantified cell motion using a combination of 3D live cell imaging, visualization of the matrix displacement and a minimal model with multipolar expansion. We show that our cells embedded in a 3D matrix form myosin-driven force dipoles at both sides of the nucleus, that locally and periodically pinch the matrix. The existence of a phase shift between the two dipoles is required for directed cell motion which manifests itself as cycles with finite area in the dipole-quadrupole diagram, a formal equivalence to the Purcell cycle. We confirm this mechanism by triggering local dipolar contractions with a laser. This leads to directed motion. Our study reveals that these cells control their motility by synchronizing dipolar forces distributed at front and back. This result opens new strategies to externally control cell motion as well as for the design of micro-crawlers.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Zhang JD, Sung HJ, WX Huang (2022)

Hydrodynamic interaction of dorsal fin and caudal fin in tuna swimming.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Tuna, which are known for high-performance swimming, possess a large crescent dorsal fin (DF) and caudal fin (CF) that differ from those of other fishes. The hydrodynamic interaction between the DF and CF in tuna, which are represented by two tandem threedimensional (3D) flapping plates, is numerically explored in the present study. Hydrodynamic properties and wake structures of the models with and without a DF are compared to investigate the effects of the DF. The thrust on the CF is substantially enhanced by the DF, whereas the force on the DF is not affected by the CF. The constructive interaction between the leading-edge vortex (LEV) on the CF and the vortices shed from the dorsal fin (DFVs) is identified from 3D wake topology and twodimensional vorticity distributions. The circulation of spanwise vorticity quantitatively reveals that the LEV on the CF is strengthened by the same-signed DFV. The effect of the flapping phase of the CF is examined. The DF-CF interaction is sensitive to the flapping phase at a short spacing, whereas a long spacing between the two fins enables a robust constructive interaction in tuna swimming. A systematic study is carried out to explore the effects of the Strouhal number (St) and the Reynolds number (Re) on the interaction of the fins. The enhancement of thrust due to the DF is diminished at St = 0.63, whereas the Re does not substantially influence the DF-CF constructive interaction.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Mane NS, Puri DB, Mane S, et al (2022)

Separation of motile human sperms in a T-shaped sealed microchannel.

Biomedical engineering letters, 12(3):331-342 pii:229.

Microfluidic methods act as an effective motile sperm separation technique used in infertility treatments. This work presents a standalone microfluidic device to separate motile sperm cells from non-motile sperm cells and debris. The separation mechanism is based on the centrifugal force acting on sperms and the ability of progressive motile sperms to swim upstream. The separation of motile sperm is carried out using a simple T-shaped microchannel which constitutes three reservoirs: one inlet and two outlets. Herein, one of the outlets is kept sealed. The sealed channel leads to a high-velocity gradient and a rheotaxis zone at the T junction resulting in the separation of motile sperms. Separated sperms are isolated in a sealed channel with a low Reynolds number flow so that sperms cannot have a net displacement, which ensures that the sperms do not re-enter the fluid flow. CFD simulation is conducted to study the flow fields inside the channel and experimental investigation is carried to observe the separation behaviour of sperms. The reported device provides 100% sperm separation efficiency and ensures the entrapment of sperm cells for a longer period. A modified colorimetric nitroblue tetrazolium test conducted on separated sperm cells shows that there is only a marginal increase in superoxide (O2 -) production, proving normal sperm integrity. This device offers an effective and safe alternative to conventional sperm sorting methods.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13534-022-00229-9.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Ghachem K, Selimefendigil F, Alshammari BM, et al (2022)

Coupled Effects of Using Magnetic Field, Rotation and Wavy Porous Layer on the Forced Convection of Hybrid Nanoliquid Flow over 3D-Backward Facing Step.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(14): pii:nano12142466.

In the present study, the effects of using a corrugated porous layer on the forced convection of a hybrid nanofluid flow over a 3D backward facing step are analyzed under the coupled effects of magnetic field and surface rotation. The thermal analysis is conducted for different values of the Reynolds number (Re between 100 and 500), the rotational Reynolds number (Rew between 0 and 2000), the Hartmann number (Ha between 0 and 15), the permeability of the porous layer (the Darcy number, Da between 10-5 and 10-2) and the amplitude (ax between 0.01 ap and 0.7 ap) and wave number (N between 1 and 16) of the porous layer corrugation. When rotations are activated, the average Nusselt number (Nu) and pressure coefficient values rise, while the increment of the latter is less. The increment in the average Nu is higher for the case with a higher permeability of the layer. When the corrugation amplitude and wave number are increased, favorable impacts of the average Nu are observed, but at the same time pressure coefficients are increased. Successful thermal performance estimations are made by using a neural-based modeling approach with a four input-two output system.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Minea AA, El-Maghlany WM, EZ Massoud (2022)

Heat Transfer Analysis of Nanocolloids Based on Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Dispersed in PEG 400.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 12(14): pii:nano12142344.

Cooling and heating are extremely important in many industrial applications, while the thermal performance of these processes generally depends on many factors, such as fluid flow rate, inlet temperature, and many more. Hence, tremendous efforts are dedicated to the investigation of several parameters to reach an efficient cooling or heating process. The interest in adding nanoparticles in regular heat transfer fluids delivered new fluids to the market, the nanofluids. In this paper, a new nanoparticle-enhanced fluid based on polyethylene glycol with ZnO nanoparticles is considered and its hydrothermal performance is investigated for HVAC applications. The thermophysical properties of PEG 400-ZnO and their variation with temperature at different nanoparticle loading are previously determined on experimental bases and here implemented in a numerical application. The numerical results are completed at Reynolds number from 200 to 2000, while the nanoparticle concentration varies from 0.5 to 5%. Results are discussed in terms of Nusselt number, friction factor, and dimensionless pressure drop ratio at different temperatures and ZnO loading in the PEG 400 base fluid. Additionally, the evaluation performance criteria (EC) are calculated and discussed. Concluding, the newly developed fluid enhances the heat transfer up to 16% with a 13% pressure drop penalty, while the performance evaluation criteria are enhanced. Plus, several correlations are developed for both Nusselt number and friction factor as a function of relevant operating conditions.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Wang Y, Yin Z, Bao F, et al (2022)

CFD-DEM Coupling Model for Deposition Process Analysis of Ultrafine Particles in a Micro Impinging Flow Field.

Micromachines, 13(7): pii:mi13071110.

Gas with ultrafine particle impaction on a solid surface is a unique case of curvilinear motion that can be widely used for the devices of surface coatings or instruments for particle size measurement. In this work, the Eulerian-Lagrangian method was applied to calculate the motion of microparticles in a micro impinging flow field with consideration of the interactions between particle to particle, particle to wall, and particle to fluid. The coupling computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with the discrete element method (DEM) was employed to investigate the different deposition patterns of microparticles. The vortex structure and two types of particle deposits ("halo" and "ring") have been discussed. The particle deposition characteristics are affected both by the flow Reynolds number (Re) and Stokes number (stk). Moreover, two particle deposition patterns have been categorized in terms of Re and stk. Finally, the characteristics and mechanism of particle deposits have been analyzed using the particle inertia, the process of impinging (particle rebound or no rebound), vortical structures, and the kinetic energy conversion in two-phase flow, etc.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Zhou Y, Dai L, N Jiao (2022)

Review of Bubble Applications in Microrobotics: Propulsion, Manipulation, and Assembly.

Micromachines, 13(7): pii:mi13071068.

In recent years, microbubbles have been widely used in the field of microrobots due to their unique properties. Microbubbles can be easily produced and used as power sources or tools of microrobots, and the bubbles can even serve as microrobots themselves. As a power source, bubbles can propel microrobots to swim in liquid under low-Reynolds-number conditions. As a manipulation tool, microbubbles can act as the micromanipulators of microrobots, allowing them to operate upon particles, cells, and organisms. As a microrobot, microbubbles can operate and assemble complex microparts in two- or three-dimensional spaces. This review provides a comprehensive overview of bubble applications in microrobotics including propulsion, micromanipulation, and microassembly. First, we introduce the diverse bubble generation and control methods. Then, we review and discuss how bubbles can play a role in microrobotics via three functions: propulsion, manipulation, and assembly. Finally, by highlighting the advantages and current challenges of this progress, we discuss the prospects of microbubbles in microrobotics.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Juraeva M, DJ Kang (2022)

Mixing Enhancement of a Passive Micromixer with Submerged Structures.

Micromachines, 13(7): pii:mi13071050.

A passive micromixer combined with two different mixing units was designed by submerging planar structures, and its mixing performance was simulated over a wider range of the Reynolds numbers from 0.1 to 80. The two submerged structures are a Norman window and rectangular baffles. The mixing performance was evaluated in terms of the degree of mixing (DOM) at the outlet and the required pressure load between inlet and outlet. The amount of submergence was varied from 30 μm to 70 μm, corresponding to 25% to 58% of the micromixer depth. The enhancement of mixing performance is noticeable over a wide range of the Reynolds numbers. When the Reynolds number is 10, the DOM is improved by 182% from that of no submergence case, and the required pressure load is reduced by 44%. The amount of submergence is shown to be optimized in terms of the DOM, and the optimum value is about 40 μm. This corresponds to a third of the micromixer depth. The effects of the submerged structure are most significant in the mixing regime of convection dominance from Re = 5 to 80. In a circular passage along the Norman window, one of the two Dean vortices burst into the submerged space, promoting mixing in the cross-flow direction. The submerged baffles in the semi-circular mixing units generate a vortex behind the baffles that contributes to the mixing enhancement as well as reducing the required pressure load.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Vatsa A, Alam T, Siddiqui MIH, et al (2022)

Performance of Microchannel Heat Sink Made of Silicon Material with the Two-Sided Wedge.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 15(14): pii:ma15144740.

New designs of the microchannel with a two-sided wedge shape at the base were studied numerically. Five different wedge angles ranging from 3° to 15° were incorporated into the microchannel design. Simulation of this novel microchannel was carried out using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Three-dimensional models of the microchannel heat sink were created, discretized, and based on Navier-Stokes and energy equations; laminar numerical solutions were obtained for heat transfer and pressure drop. Flow characteristics of water as coolant in a microchannel were studied. It was observed that numerical results are in good agreement with experimental results. It was found that the Nusselt number and friction factor are significantly varied with the increase in Reynolds number. The Nusselt number varies in the following ranges of 5.963-8.521, 5.986-8.550, 6.009-8.568, 6.040-8.609, and 6.078-8.644 at 3°, 6°, 9°, 12°, and 15°, respectively. The microchannel with a wedge angle of 15° was found to be better in terms of Nusselt number and thermo-hydraulic performance. The enhancement in the Nusselt number is found as 1.017-1.036 for a wedge angle of 15°; however, friction factors do not show the perceptible values at distinct values of wedge angle. Moreover, the thermo-hydraulic performance parameters (THPP) were evaluated and found to be maximum in the range of 1.027-1.045 for a wedge angle of 15°. However, minimum THPP was found in the range of 1.005-1.0185 for a wedge angle of 3°.

RevDate: 2022-07-27

Qi T, Lin J, Z Ouyang (2022)

Hydrodynamic Behavior of Self-Propelled Particles in a Simple Shear Flow.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 24(7): pii:e24070854.

The hydrodynamic properties of a squirmer type of self-propelled particle in a simple shear flow are investigated using the immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method in the range of swimming Reynolds number 0.05 ≤ Res ≤ 2.0, flow Reynolds number 40 ≤ Rep ≤ 160, blocking rate 0.2 ≤ κ ≤ 0.5. Some results are validated by comparing with available other results. The effects of Res, Rep and κ on the hydrodynamic properties of squirmer are discussed. The results show that there exist four distinct motion modes for the squirmer, i.e., horizontal mode, attractive oscillation mode, oscillation mode, and chaotic mode. Increasing Res causes the motion mode of the squirmer to change from a constant tumbling near the centerline to a stable horizontal mode, even an oscillatory or appealing oscillatory mode near the wall. Increasing the swimming intensity of squirmer under the definite Res will induce the squirmer to make periodic and stable motion at a specific distance from the wall. Increasing Rep will cause the squirmer to change from a stable swimming state to a spiral motion or continuous rotation. Increasing κ will strengthen the wall's attraction to the squirmer. Increasing swimming intensity of squirmer will modify the strength and direction of the wall's attraction to the squirmer if κ remains constant.

RevDate: 2022-07-26

Punyaratabandhu N, Dechadilok P, Triampo W, et al (2022)

Hydrodynamic Model for Renal Microvascular Filtration: Effects of Physiological and Hemodynamic Changes on Glomerular Size-selectivity.

Microcirculation (New York, N.Y. : 1994) [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The first step in renal urine formation is ultrafiltration across the glomerular barrier. The change in its nanostructure has been associated with nephrotic syndromes. Effects of physiological and hemodynamic factor alterations associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN) on glomerular permselectivity are examined through a mathematical model employing low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamics and hindered transport theory.

METHODS: Glomerular capillaries are represented as networks of cylindrical tubes with multilayered walls. Glomerular basement membrane (GBM) is a fibrous medium with bimodal fiber sizes. Epithelial slit fiber spacing follows a lognormal distribution based on reported electron micrographs with the highest resolution. Endothelial fenestrae are filled with fibers the size of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Effects of fiber-macromolecule steric and hydrodynamic interactions are included. Focusing on diabetic nephropathy, the physiological and hemodynamic factors employed in the computation are those reported for healthy humans and patients with early-but-overt diabetic nephropathy. The macromolecule concentration is obtained as a finite element solution of the convection-diffusion equation.

RESULTS: Computed sieving coefficients averaged along the capillary length agree well with ficoll sieving coefficients from studies in humans for most solute radii. GBM thickening and the loss of the slit diaphragm hardly affect glomerular permselectivity. GAG volume fraction reduction in the endothelial fenestrae, however, significantly increases macromolecule filtration. Increased renal plasma flow rate (RPF), glomerular hypertension and reduction of lumen osmotic pressure cause a slight sieving coefficient decrease. These effects are amplified by an increased macromolecule size.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that glomerular hypertension and the reduction in the oncotic pressure decreases glomerular macromolecule filtration. Reduction of RPF and changes in the glomerular barrier structure associated with DN, however, increase the solute sieving. Damage to GAGs caused by hyperglycemia is likely to be the most prominent factor affecting glomerular size-selectivity.

RevDate: 2022-07-25

Skotnicka-Siepsiak A (2022)

Pressure distribution on a flat plate in the context of the phenomenon of the Coanda effect hysteresis.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12687.

As a result of the Coanda effect, a symmetrical free jet will flow as an asymmetrical wall jet. At the same time, at the obstacle along which the flow is observed, the wall jet generates pressure distribution. In this study, the obstacle located at the diffuser outlet is a flat plate with a variable inclination angle. The article presents results of the study on pressure distributions on a flat plate with a variable angle of inclination. In the experiment, the Reynolds number ranged from 16,192 to 42,240. A fixed geometry diffuser (Witoszyński nozzle) with a height of 0.60 m, width of 0.02 m and outlet velocity of 11.33-29.57 m/s was used. A plate with a length of 1.00 m and a variable inclination angle was installed at the diffuser outlet. What is new, however, is that the presented results of the experimental research include the influence of the Coanda effect hysteresis on the pressure distribution on the plate. The article shows how pressure distributions change on the plate depending on whether the initial angle of inclination was 0° and was increased gradually in the course of the experiment until a detachment of the jet flowing from the plate was observed, or the initial angle of inclination was close to 90° in the primal state and as the angle of the plate inclination was decreased, the jet flowing towards the plate reached the state of attachment to the plate surface. The study demonstrated that for a turbulent jet, pressure distribution on a flat plate is determined not only by the plate's inclination angle, but also by the direction of its rotation.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Hatte S, R Pitchumani (2022)

Novel nonwetting solid-infused surfaces for superior fouling mitigation.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 627:308-319 pii:S0021-9797(22)01145-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Fouling is a ubiquitous issue in several environmental and energy applications. Here we introduce novel nonwetting solid-infused surfaces (SIS) with superior anti-fouling characteristics that are durable than conventional nonwetting surfaces in a dynamic flow environment. A systematic study is presented to elucidate the fouling mitigation performance of SIS in comparison to lubricant-infused surface (LIS) and conventional smooth surface. Copper tubes with SIS, LIS or smooth inner walls are fabricated and subjected to accelerated calcium sulfate fouling in a flow fouling experimental setup. Fouling on the various surface types is quantified in terms of asymptotic fouling resistance, and the fundamental morphological differences in the interactions of the foulant and the various surface types are analyzed. Based on a systematic sweep of the parameter combinations using design of experiments and Taguchi analysis, an analytical dependence of asymptotic fouling resistance on the governing parameters namely, Reynolds number, foulant concentration and temperature is derived. The analytical model is shown to predict the asymptotic fouling resistance to within 20% accuracy with a 95% confidence. In addition, for the first time, the effects of shear durability on the fouling mitigation performance of LIS vis-à-vis SIS are studied. It is shown that the novel nonwetting SIS offers a robust option for superior fouling mitigation over LIS in the long run.

RevDate: 2022-07-21

Pumm AK, Engelen W, Kopperger E, et al (2022)

A DNA origami rotary ratchet motor.

Nature, 607(7919):492-498.

To impart directionality to the motions of a molecular mechanism, one must overcome the random thermal forces that are ubiquitous on such small scales and in liquid solution at ambient temperature. In equilibrium without energy supply, directional motion cannot be sustained without violating the laws of thermodynamics. Under conditions away from thermodynamic equilibrium, directional motion may be achieved within the framework of Brownian ratchets, which are diffusive mechanisms that have broken inversion symmetry1-5. Ratcheting is thought to underpin the function of many natural biological motors, such as the F1F0-ATPase6-8, and it has been demonstrated experimentally in synthetic microscale systems (for example, to our knowledge, first in ref. 3) and also in artificial molecular motors created by organic chemical synthesis9-12. DNA nanotechnology13 has yielded a variety of nanoscale mechanisms, including pivots, hinges, crank sliders and rotary systems14-17, which can adopt different configurations, for example, triggered by strand-displacement reactions18,19 or by changing environmental parameters such as pH, ionic strength, temperature, external fields and by coupling their motions to those of natural motor proteins20-26. This previous work and considering low-Reynolds-number dynamics and inherent stochasticity27,28 led us to develop a nanoscale rotary motor built from DNA origami that is driven by ratcheting and whose mechanical capabilities approach those of biological motors such as F1F0-ATPase.

RevDate: 2022-07-21
CmpDate: 2022-07-21

Shahzad H, Wang X, Ghaffari A, et al (2022)

Fluid structure interaction study of non-Newtonian Casson fluid in a bifurcated channel having stenosis with elastic walls.

Scientific reports, 12(1):12219.

Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) gained a huge attention of scientists and researchers due to its applications in biomedical and mechanical engineering. One of the most important applications of FSI is to study the elastic wall behavior of stenotic arteries. Blood is the suspension of various cells characterized by shear thinning, yield stress, and viscoelastic qualities that can be assessed by using non-Newtonian models. In this study we explored non-Newtonian, incompressible Casson fluid flow in a bifurcated artery with a stenosis. The two-dimensional Casson model is used to study the hemodynamics of the flow. The walls of the artery are supposed to be elastic and the stenosis region is constructed in both walls. Suitable scales are used to transform the nonlinear differential equations into a dimensionless form. The problem is formulated and discretized using Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach. The finite element method (FEM) technique is used to solve the system of equations, together with appropriate boundary conditions. The analysis is carried out for the Bingham number, Hartmann number, and Reynolds number. The graphical results of pressure field, velocity profile, and load on the walls are assessed and used to study the influence of hemodynamic effects on stenotic arteries, bifurcation region, and elastic walls. This study shows that there is an increase in wall shear stresses (WSS) with increasing values of Bingham number and Hartmann number. Also, for different values of the Bingham number, the load on the upper wall is computed against the Hartmann number. The result indicate that load at the walls increases as the values of Bingham number and Hartmann number increase.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Bandak D, Goldenfeld N, Mailybaev AA, et al (2022)

Dissipation-range fluid turbulence and thermal noise.

Physical review. E, 105(6-2):065113.

We revisit the issue of whether thermal fluctuations are relevant for incompressible fluid turbulence and estimate the scale at which they become important. As anticipated by Betchov in a prescient series of works more than six decades ago, this scale is about equal to the Kolmogorov length, even though that is several orders of magnitude above the mean free path. This result implies that the deterministic version of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation is inadequate to describe the dissipation range of turbulence in molecular fluids. Within this range, the fluctuating hydrodynamics equation of Landau and Lifschitz is more appropriate. In particular, our analysis implies that both the exponentially decaying energy spectrum and the far-dissipation-range intermittency predicted by Kraichnan for deterministic Navier-Stokes will be generally replaced by Gaussian thermal equipartition at scales just below the Kolmogorov length. Stochastic shell model simulations at high Reynolds numbers verify our theoretical predictions and reveal furthermore that inertial-range intermittency can propagate deep into the dissipation range, leading to large fluctuations in the equipartition length scale. We explain the failure of previous scaling arguments for the validity of deterministic Navier-Stokes equations at any Reynolds number and we provide a mathematical interpretation and physical justification of the fluctuating Navier-Stokes equation as an "effective field theory" valid below some high-wave-number cutoff Λ, rather than as a continuum stochastic partial differential equation. At Reynolds number around a million, comparable to that in Earth's atmospheric boundary layer, the strongest turbulent excitations observed in our simulation penetrate down to a length scale of about eight microns, still two orders of magnitude greater than the mean free path of air. However, for longer observation times or for higher Reynolds numbers, more extreme turbulent events could lead to a local breakdown of fluctuating hydrodynamics.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Margazoglou G, Biferale L, Cencini M, et al (2022)

Nonequilibrium ensembles for the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations.

Physical review. E, 105(6-2):065110.

At the molecular level fluid motions are, by first principles, described by time reversible laws. On the other hand, the coarse grained macroscopic evolution is suitably described by the Navier-Stokes equations, which are inherently irreversible, due to the dissipation term. Here, a reversible version of three-dimensional Navier-Stokes is studied, by introducing a fluctuating viscosity constructed in such a way that enstrophy is conserved, along the lines of the paradigm of microcanonical versus canonical treatment in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Through systematic simulations we attack two important questions: (a) What are the conditions that must be satisfied in order to have a statistical equivalence between the two nonequilibrium ensembles? (b) What is the empirical distribution of the fluctuating viscosity observed by changing the Reynolds number and the number of modes used in the discretization of the evolution equation? The latter point is important also to establish regularity conditions for the reversible equations. We find that the probability to observe negative values of the fluctuating viscosity becomes very quickly extremely small when increasing the effective Reynolds number of the flow in the fully resolved hydrodynamical regime, at difference from what was observed previously.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Choudhury A, A Samanta (2022)

Linear stability of a falling film over a heated slippery plane.

Physical review. E, 105(6-2):065112.

A detailed parametric study on the linear stability analysis of a three-dimensional thin liquid film flowing down a uniformly heated slippery inclined plane is carried out for disturbances of arbitrary wavenumbers, where the liquid film satisfies Newton's law of cooling at the film surface. A coupled system of boundary value problems is formulated in terms of the amplitudes of perturbation normal velocity and perturbation temperature, respectively. Analytical solution of the boundary value problems demonstrates the existence of three dominant modes, the so-called H mode, S mode, and P mode, where the S mode and P mode emerge due to the thermocapillary effect. It is found that the onset of instabilities for the H mode, S mode, and P mode reduces in the presence of wall slip and leads to a destabilizing influence. Numerical solution based on the Chebyshev spectral collocation method unveils that the finite wavenumber H-mode instability can be stabilized, but the S-mode instability and the finite wavenumber P-mode instability can be destabilized by increasing the value of the Marangoni number. On the other hand, the Biot number shows a dual role in the H-mode and S-mode instabilities. But the P-mode instability can be made stable with the increasing value of the Biot number and the decreasing values of the Marangoni number and the Prandtl number. Furthermore, the H-mode and S-mode instabilities become weaker, but the P-mode instability becomes stronger, with the increasing value of the spanwise wavenumber. In addition, the shear mode emerges in the numerical simulation when the Reynolds number is large, which can be destabilized slightly with the increasing value of the Marangoni number; however, it can be stabilized with the increasing value of the slip length and introducing the spanwise wavenumber to the infinitesimal perturbation.

RevDate: 2022-07-20

Ishimoto K, Moreau C, K Yasuda (2022)

Self-organized swimming with odd elasticity.

Physical review. E, 105(6-1):064603.

We theoretically investigate self-oscillating waves of an active material, which were recently introduced as a nonsymmetric part of the elastic moduli, termed odd elasticity. Using Purcell's three-link swimmer model, we reveal that an odd-elastic filament at low Reynolds number can swim in a self-organized manner and that the time-periodic dynamics are characterized by a stable limit cycle generated by elastohydrodynamic interactions. Also, we consider a noisy shape gait and derive a swimming formula for a general elastic material in the Stokes regime with its elasticity modulus being represented by a nonsymmetric matrix, demonstrating that the odd elasticity produces biased net locomotion from random noise.

RevDate: 2022-07-12

Zhao X, Zuo H, G Jia (2022)

Effects of the continuous pulsation regeneration on the soot combustion in diesel particulate filter for heavy-duty truck.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)02144-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Continuous pulsation regeneration combustion of soot is employed for sine and cosine simulation study. Data showed that pressure uniformity of sine condition is better than that of cosine condition with the maximum pressure difference of 4353.5 Pa under the same simulation boundary conditions. The maximum regeneration temperature under cosine pressure is 46.12 K which is higher than that in sine form. Regeneration combustion reaction zone tends to be more stable laminar flow and Reynolds number of sine condition is 435.23 less than that of under cosine condition. The maximum Stanton number of cosine pressure condition is 3.67 and that of sine pressure condition is 5.15, which investigates heat transfer capacity of the sine pressure condition is better than that of the pressure of cosine form. The regeneration efficiency of inlet gradually increased from the minimum regeneration efficiency 74.18%-88.45% of sine and cosine. The soot under both pressure forms has achieved complete regeneration and the regeneration efficiency has exceeded 88% of porous medium filter body section. The soot regeneration combustion efficiency of the porous media filter section and outlet section is more sufficient under sine condition and the heat carried by the fluid can maintain the soot regeneration.

RevDate: 2022-07-11

Sun R, Chen P, Li L, et al (2022)

Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Behavior of Transformer Oil Jet Flame.

ACS omega, 7(26):22969-22976.

Transformer oil jet fire is one of the most dangerous types of fires in substations. The combustion behavior of transformer oil jet fire produces uncontrollable hazards to personnel and equipment and even triggers a domino effect. However, the jet fire combustion behavior of such materials as transformer oil has not been revealed before. Investigation of the combustion behavior of transformer oil jet fire has positive implications for the prevention and control of substation fires. In this paper, KI25X transformer oil was used as fuel. A series of transformer oil jet fire experiments were conducted with variable orifice diameters (5, 10, and 15 mm) with heat release rates ranging from 200 to 659.2 kW. The results showed that the entrainment coefficient of transformer oil jet fire was greater than that of pure gas phase jet fire. The entrainment coefficient of transformer oil jet fire was 0.029. Using dimensionless theory, it was proposed that the imaginary point source was proportional to the 0.317 power of Froude number. Based on the point source model, a dimensional analysis model with Reynolds number was developed. The radiation fraction of transformer oil jet fire was proportional to the -0.133 power of Reynolds number. This study played an important role in improving the jet combustion behavior of transformer oil.

RevDate: 2022-07-05

Jamshed W, Safdar R, Rehman Z, et al (2022)

Computational technique of thermal comparative examination of Cu and Au nanoparticles suspended in sodium alginate as Sutterby nanofluid via extending PTSC surface.

Journal of applied biomaterials & functional materials, 20:22808000221104004.

Current research underscores entropy investigation in an infiltrating mode of Sutterby nanofluid (SNF) stream past a dramatically expanding flat plate that highlights Parabolic Trough Solar Collector (PTSC). Satisfactory likeness factors are utilized to change halfway differential conditions (PDEs) to nonlinear conventional differential conditions (ODEs) along with relating limit requirements. A productive Keller-box system is locked in to achieve approximated arrangement of decreased conventional differential conditions. In the review, two sorts of nanofluids including Copper-sodium alginate (Cu-SA) and Gold-sodium alginate (Au-SA) are dissected. Results are graphically plotted as well as talked about in actual viewpoints. As indicated by key discoveries, an improvement in Brinkmann, as well as Reynolds number, brings about expanding the general framework entropy. Sutterby nanofluid boundary improves heat rate in PTSC. Additionally, Copper-sodium alginate nanofluid is detected as a superior thermal conductor than Gold-sodium alginate nanofluid. Further to that, the reported breakthroughs are beneficial to updating extremely bright lighting bulbs, heating and cooling machinery, fiber required to generate light, power production, numerous boilers, and other similar technologies.

RevDate: 2022-06-30

Saro-Cortes V, Cui Y, Dufficy T, et al (2022)

An Adaptable Flying Fish Robotic Model for Aero- and Hydrodynamic Experimentation.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6623665 [Epub ahead of print].

Flying fishes (family Exocoetidae) are known for achieving multi-modal locomotion through air and water. Previous work on understanding this animal's aerodynamic and hydrodynamic nature has been based on observations, numerical simulations, or experiments on preserved dead fish, and has focused primarily on flying pectoral fins. The first half of this paper details the design and validation of a modular flying fish inspired robotic model organism (RMO). The second half delves into a parametric aerodynamic study of flying fish pelvic fins, which to date have not been studied in-depth. Using wind tunnel experiments at a Reynolds number of 30,000, we investigated the effect of the pelvic fin geometric parameters on aerodynamic efficiency and longitudinal stability. The pelvic fin parameters investigated in this study include the pelvic fin pitch angle and its location along the body. Results show that the aerodynamic efficiency is maximized for pelvic fins located directly behind the pectoral fins and is higher for more positive pitch angles. In contrast, pitching stability is neither achievable for positive pitching angles nor pelvic fins located directly below the pectoral fin. Thus, there is a clear a trade-off between stability and lift generation, and an optimal pelvic fin configuration depends on the flying fish locomotion stage, be it gliding, taxiing, or taking off. The results garnered from the RMO experiments are insightful for understanding the physics principles governing flying fish locomotion and designing flying fish inspired aerial-aquatic vehicles.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Wu YK, Liu YP, M Sun (2022)

Aerodynamics of two parallel bristled wings in low Reynolds number flow.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10928.

Most of the smallest flying insects use bristled wings. It was observed that during the second half of their upstroke, the left and right wings become parallel and close to each other at the back, and move upward at zero angle of attack. In this period, the wings may produce drag (negative vertical force) and side forces which tend to push two wings apart. Here we study the aerodynamic forces and flows of two simplified bristled wings experiencing such a motion, compared with the case of membrane wings (flat-plate wings), to see if there is any advantage in using the bristled wings. The method of computational fluid dynamics is used in the study. The results are as follows. In the motion of two bristled wings, the drag acting on each wing is 40% smaller than the case of a single bristled wing conducting the same motion, and only a very small side force is produced. But in the case of the flat-plate wings, although there is similar drag reduction, the side force on each wing is larger than that of the bristled wing by an order of magnitude (the underlying physical reason is discussed in the paper). Thus, if the smallest insects use membrane wings, their flight muscles need to overcome large side forces in order to maintain the intended motion for less negative lift, whereas using bristled wings do not have this problem. Therefore, the adoption of bristled wings can be beneficial during upward movement of the wings near the end of the upstroke, which may be one reason why most of the smallest insects adopt them.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Huang X, Wang Y, Wang L, et al (2022)

Effect of Structural Optimization of Scrubbing Cooling Rings on Vertical Falling Film Flow Characteristics.

ACS omega, 7(24):21291-21305.

In order to study the influence of the structural optimization of the scrubbing cooling ring in the scrubbing cooling chamber on the flow characteristics of the vertical falling film, the flow characteristics of the turbulent falling film in the rising section of the development region at different internal platform heights of the scrubbing cooling ring and a high Reynolds number were studied by FLUENT software. First, the correctness of the model was verified by the maximum error of simulation and experimental results of no more than 9.836%. Then, the distribution of liquid film thickness (δ), velocity (V), and turbulence intensity (I z) at 0° of the tube in the axial direction x = 0-500 mm were calculated and obtained when the platform height (H) was 0-30 mm and the liquid film Reynolds number (Re l) = 1.1541 × 104-3.4623 × 104. The results showed that δ in the entrance region increased sharply due to the "jet" effect with solid wall constraints formed by the structure of the water inlet pipe and the scrubbing cooling ring. On the contrary, the liquid film in the fully developed region showed a stable fluctuation trend due to the weakening of the "jet" effect. When H = 30 mm, the change of δ was relatively stable and the change of I z was small, indicating that this platform height is conducive to the stable and uniform distribution of the liquid film. In addition, when Re l < 1.1541 × 104, the liquid film was unstable due to the low flow rate and insufficient cohesion of the liquid film, but V increased slightly. In addition, with the increase of Re l, δ did not change significantly along the axial direction, that is, the Plateau-Rayleigh hindered the growth of δ. Finally, the empirical formula for δ applicable to Re l = 1.1541 × 104-3.4623 × 104 at the axial fixed position was fitted for the first time.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Ducos S, Pugliese S, Demolliens M, et al (2022)

Ontogeny of swimming performance of hatchery-reared post-larvae and juvenile fish: a case of two threatened Mediterranean species.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Swimming performance is a well-established key physiological parameter of fish that is highly linked to their fitness in the wild. In the context of fish restocking or restauration purposes, it therefore appears crucial to study this specific behaviour. Here, we investigated intra and interspecies differences in the swimming performance of hatchery-reared post-larvae and juveniles belonging to two Mediterranean candidate threatened species, the common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae), and the brown meagre, Sciaena umbra (Sciaenidae), with body sizes ranging from 8 to 37 mm TL (from 24 to 58 days post-hatch). The swimming abilities were estimated through the calculation of their critical swimming speed (Ucrit), their relative Ucrit and their Reynolds number (Re). Two different patterns were observed between D. dentex and S. umbra, showing a different effect of ontogeny on the performance of both species. The relative Ucrit of S. umbra decreased linearly through ontogeny, whereas the relative Ucrit and Ucrit of D. dentex increased linearly through the range of sizes tested. The ontogenetic change in Ucrit of S. umbra occurred in two stages: a first stage of sharp improvement and a second stage of a slow decrease in performance. Both stages were separated by a breakpoint that coincided with the appearance of a refusal to swim behaviour that occurred shortly after the end of metamorphosis and can potentially be associated with the establishment of this species sedentary behaviour. The swimming performance of both species showed ontogenetic differences. Sciaena umbra had the highest relative performance when its body sizes were the smallest, whereas D. dentex showed the highest relative performance as its largest body sizes. These results will be linked to future research on both of these species concerning their escape, exploratory and predatory behaviours, and for restocking purposes to draw a more realistic overview of hatchery-reared juvenile performance. Knowledge of both species' behavioural and swimming performance through ontogeny is important to consider when using hatchery-reared fish juveniles for restocking, as size-at-release can have a large impact on fish survival and thus on restocking success. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Zhang S, Ahmad F, Khan A, et al (2022)

Performance improvement and thermodynamic assessment of microchannel heat sink with different types of ribs and cones.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10802.

The present study aims to investigate the performance of microchannel heat sink via numerical simulations, based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. The heat transfer and flow characteristics of rectangular microchannel heat sinks have been improved by adding six different types of surface enhancers. The cross-sections include rectangular, triangular, and hexagonal-shaped ribs and cones. The cones have been created from the same cross-sections of ribs by drafting them at an angle of 45° orthogonal to the base, which is expected to decrease the pressure drop, dramatically. The performance of ribs and cones has been evaluated using different parameters such as friction factor, wall shear stress, entropy generation rate, augmentation entropy generation number, thermal resistance, and transport efficiency of thermal energy. The results of the present study revealed that the novel effect of coning at an angle of 45° reduces frictional losses (Maximum pressure drop reduced is 85%), however; a compromise on thermal behavior has been shown (Maximum Nusselt number reduced is 25%). Similarly, the application of coning has caused a significant reduction in wall shear stress and friction factor which can lead to reducing the pumping power requirements. Moreover, triangular ribs have more ability to transfer thermal energy than rectangular and hexagonal ribs. Furthermore, it has been examined in the present study that the trend of total entropy generation rate for triangular ribs decreases up to Re = 400 and then increases onwards which means that thermal losses are more significant than frictional losses at lower Reynolds number. However, frictional losses dominate over thermal losses at higher Reynolds numbers, where vortex generation takes place, especially in triangular ribs.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Buaria D, KR Sreenivasan (2022)

Scaling of Acceleration Statistics in High Reynolds Number Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 128(23):234502.

The scaling of acceleration statistics in turbulence is examined by combining data from the literature with new data from well-resolved direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence, significantly extending the Reynolds number range. The acceleration variance at higher Reynolds numbers departs from previous predictions based on multifractal models, which characterize Lagrangian intermittency as an extension of Eulerian intermittency. The disagreement is even more prominent for higher-order moments of the acceleration. Instead, starting from a known exact relation, we relate the scaling of acceleration variance to that of Eulerian fourth-order velocity gradient and velocity increment statistics. This prediction is in excellent agreement with the variance data. Our Letter highlights the need for models that consider Lagrangian intermittency independent of the Eulerian counterpart.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Chen D, J Lin (2022)

Steady State of Motion of Two Particles in Poiseuille Flow of Power-Law Fluid.

Polymers, 14(12): pii:polym14122368.

The steady state of motion of two particles in Poiseuille flow of power-law fluid is numerically studied using the lattice Boltzmann method in the range of Reynolds number 20 ≤ Re ≤ 60, diameter ratio of two particles 0.125 ≤ β ≤ 2.4, and power-law index of the fluid 0.4 ≤ n ≤ 1.2. Some results are validated by comparing with other available results. The effects of Re, β, and n on the steady state of motion of two particles are discussed. The results show that, for two particles of the same diameter, the particle spacing l in the steady state is independent of n. In shear-thinning fluid, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly, finally approaching a constant for different Re. In shear-thickening fluid, although l tends to be stable in the end, the values of l after stabilization are different. For two particles of different sizes, l does not always reach a stable state, and whether it reaches a stable state depends on n. When the small particle is downstream, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly in shear-thickening fluid, but increases rapidly at first and then decreases slowly, finally approaching a constant in a shear-thinning fluid. In shear-thinning fluid, the larger n is, the smaller l is. In shear-thickening fluid, β has no effect on l in steady-state. When the large particle is downstream, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly in shear-thinning fluid but increases rapidly at first and then decreases in a shear-thickening fluid. The effect of n on l in the steady state is obvious. In shear-thinning fluid, l increases rapidly at first and then slowly, the larger Re is, the smaller l is. In shear- thickening fluid, l will reach a stable state.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Bui CM, Ho AT, XB Nguyen (2022)

Flow Behaviors of Polymer Solution in a Lid-Driven Cavity.

Polymers, 14(12): pii:polym14122330.

In this work, a numerical study of polymer flow behaviors in a lid-driven cavity, which is inspired by the coating process, at a broad range of Oldroyd numbers (0≤Od≤50), is carried out. The Reynolds number is height-based and kept at Re=0.001. The fluid investigated is of Carbopol gel possessing yield stress and shear-thinning properties. To express rheological characteristics, the Herschel-Bulkley model cooperated with Papanastasiou's regularization scheme is utilized. Results show that the polymer flow characteristics, i.e., velocity, viscosity, and vortex distributions, are considerably influenced by viscoplastic behaviors. Additionally, there exist solid-like regions which can be of either moving rigid or static dead types in the flow patterns; they become greater and tend to merge together to construct larger ones when Od increases. Furthermore, various polymer flow aspects in different cavity configurations are discussed and analyzed; the cavity width/aspect ratio and skewed angle are found to have significant impacts on the vortex structures and the formation of solid-like regions. Moreover, results for the critical aspect ratio at which the static dead zone is broken into two parts and the characteristic height of this zone are also reported in detail.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Saghir MZ, MM Rahman (2022)

Thermo-Hydraulic Performance of Pin-Fins in Wavy and Straight Configurations.

Micromachines, 13(6): pii:mi13060954.

Pin-fins configurations have been investigated recently for different engineering applications and, in particular, for a cooling turbine. In the present study, we investigated the performance of three different pin-fins configurations: pin-fins forming a wavy mini-channel, pin-fins forming a straight mini-channel, and a mini-channel without pin-fins considering water as the working fluid. The full Navier-Stokes equations and the energy equation are solved numerically using the finite element technique. Different flow rates are studied, represented by the Reynolds number in the laminar flow regime. The thermo-hydraulic performance of the three configurations is determined by examining the Nusselt number, the pressure drop, and the performance evaluation criterion. Results revealed that pin-fins forming a wavy mini-channel exhibited the highest Nusselt number, the lowest pressure drop, and the highest performance evaluation criterion. This finding is valid for any Reynolds number under investigation.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Tayeb NT, Hossain S, Khan AH, et al (2022)

Evaluation of Hydrodynamic and Thermal Behaviour of Non-Newtonian-Nanofluid Mixing in a Chaotic Micromixer.

Micromachines, 13(6): pii:mi13060933.

Three-dimensional numerical investigations of a novel passive micromixer were carried out to analyze the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of Nano-Non-Newtonian fluids. Mass and heat transfer characteristics of two heated fluids have been investigated to understand the quantitative and qualitative fluid faction distributions with temperature homogenization. The effect of fluid behavior and different Al2O3 nanoparticles concentrations on the pressure drop and thermal mixing performances were studied for different Reynolds number (from 0.1 to 25). The performance improvement simulation was conducted in intervals of various Nanoparticles concentrations (φ = 0 to 5%) with Power-law index (n) using CFD. The proposed micromixer displayed a mixing energy cost of 50-60 comparable to that achieved for a recent micromixer (2021y) in terms of fluid homogenization. The analysis exhibited that for high nanofluid concentrations, having a strong chaotic flow enhances significantly the hydrodynamic and thermal performances for all Reynolds numbers. The visualization of vortex core region of mass fraction and path lines presents that the proposed design exhibits a rapid thermal mixing rate that tends to 0.99%, and a mass fraction mixing rate of more than 0.93% with very low pressure losses, thus the proposed micromixer can be utilized to enhance homogenization in different Nano-Non-Newtonian mechanism with minimum energy.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Abd-Alla AM, Abo-Dahab SM, Thabet EN, et al (2022)

Peristaltic pump with heat and mass transfer of a fractional second grade fluid through porous medium inside a tube.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10608.

In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this MRI is used for the diagnosis of the brain. The dynamic of these particles occurs under the action of the peristaltic waves generated on the flexible walls of the brain. Studying such fluid flow of a Fractional Second-Grade under this action is therefore useful in treating tissues of cancer. This paper deals with a theoretical investigation of the interaction of heat and mass transfer in the peristaltic flow of a magnetic field fractional second-grade fluid through a tube, under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long-wavelength. The analytical solution to a problem is obtained by using Caputo's definition. The effect of different physical parameters, the material constant, magnetic field, and fractional parameter on the temperature, concentration, axial velocity, pressure gradient, pressure rise, friction forces, and coefficient of heat and mass transfer are discussed with particular emphasis. The computed results are presented in graphical form. It is because the nature of heat and mass transfer coefficient is oscillatory which is following the physical expectation due to the oscillatory nature of the tube wall. It is perceived that with an increase in Hartmann number, the velocity decreases. A suitable comparison has been made with the prior results in the literature as a limiting case of the considered problem.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Zubairova US, Kravtsova AY, Romashchenko AV, et al (2022)

Particle-Based Imaging Tools Revealing Water Flows in Maize Nodal Vascular Plexus.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 11(12): pii:plants11121533.

In plants, water flows are the major driving force behind growth and play a crucial role in the life cycle. To study hydrodynamics, methods based on tracking small particles inside water flows attend a special place. Thanks to these tools, it is possible to obtain information about the dynamics of the spatial distribution of the flux characteristics. In this paper, using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we show that gadolinium chelate, used as an MRI contrast agent, marks the structural characteristics of the xylem bundles of maize stem nodes and internodes. Supplementing MRI data, the high-precision visualization of xylem vessels by laser scanning microscopy was used to reveal the structural and dimensional characteristics of the stem vascular system. In addition, we propose the concept of using prototype "Y-type xylem vascular connection" as a model of the elementary connection of vessels within the vascular system. A Reynolds number could match the microchannel model with the real xylem vessels.

RevDate: 2022-06-16
CmpDate: 2022-06-16

Martin AR, WH Finlay (2022)

Empirical Deposition Correlations.

Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery, 35(3):109-120.

Traditionally, empirical correlations for predicting respiratory tract deposition of inhaled aerosols have been developed using limited available in vivo data. More recently, advances in medical image segmentation and additive manufacturing processes have allowed researchers to conduct extensive in vitro deposition experiments in realistic replicas of the upper and central branching airways. This work has led to a collection of empirical equations for predicting regional aerosol deposition, especially in the upper, nasal and oral airways. The present section reviews empirical correlations based on both in vivo and in vitro data, which may be used to predict total and regional deposition. Equations are presented for predicting total respiratory deposition fraction, mouth-throat fraction, nasal, and nose-throat fractions for a large variety of aerosol sizes, subject age groups, and breathing maneuvers. Use of these correlations to estimate total lung deposition is also described.

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In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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