Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2021 at 01:30 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: "reynolds number" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-09-10

Pinto Costa R, Simplice Talla Nwotchouang B, Yao J, et al (2021)

Transition to Turbulence Downstream of a Stenosis for Whole Blood and a Newtonian Analog Under Steady Flow Conditions.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1119455 [Epub ahead of print].

Blood, a multiphase fluid comprised of plasma, blood cells, and platelets, is known to exhibit a shear-thinning behavior at low shear rates and near-Newtonian behavior at higher shear rates. However, less is known about the impact of its multiphase nature on the transition to turbulence. In this study, we experimentally determined the critical Reynolds number at which the flow began to transition to turbulence downstream of an eccentric stenosis for whole porcine blood and a Newtonian blood analog (water-glycerin mixture). Velocity profiles for both fluids were measured under steady-state flow conditions using an ultrasound Doppler probe placed 12 diameters downstream of an eccentric stenosis. Velocity was recorded at 21 locations along the diameter at 11 different flow rates. Normalized turbulent kinetic energy was used to determine the critical Reynolds number for each fluid. Blood rheology was measured before and after each experiment. Tests were conducted on five samples of each fluid inside a temperature-controlled in-vitro flow system. The viscosity at shear rate 1000 s 1 was used to define the Reynolds number for each fluid. The mean critical Reynolds numbers for blood and water-glycerin were 470 ± 27.5 and 395 ± 10, respectively, indicating a ~19% delay in transition to turbulence for whole blood compared to the Newtonian fluid. This finding is consistent with a previous report for steady flow in a straight pipe, suggesting some aspect of blood rheology may serve to suppress, or at least delay, the onset of turbulence in vivo.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Bu X, Zhou S, Sun M, et al (2021)

Exploring the Relationships between Gas Dispersion Parameters and Differential Pressure Fluctuations in a Column Flotation.

ACS omega, 6(34):21900-21908.

Flotation separation, which is the most important mineral beneficiation technique, is dependent on gas dispersion (hydrodynamic conditions). Thus, many investigations have focused on the precise determination of hydrodynamic conditions such as Reynolds number of the bubbles, bubble velocity, and bubble diameter. However, few studies have examined their relationships with pressure fluctuations in a column flotation. This study introduced the differential pressure fluctuations as an actual variable that could be considered to determine the collection zone's hydrodynamic conditions in a cyclonic microbubble flotation column. In general, the outcomes indicated that superficial gas velocity had the most substantial relationship with the differential pressure fluctuations among other flotation factors (such as pump speed, superficial gas velocity, superficial water velocity, and frother dosage). Furthermore, a high coefficient of determination (R 2 > 0.77) for the equation generated to assess the relationships demonstrated that differential pressure fluctuations could be used as a promising tool to determine the hydrodynamic parameters' characteristics in the flotation columns.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Aghamiri H, Niknejadi M, D Toghraie (2021)

Analysis of the forced convection of two-phase Ferro-nanofluid flow in a completely porous microchannel containing rotating cylinders.

Scientific reports, 11(1):17811.

In the present work, the forced convection of nanofluid flow in a microchannel containing rotating cylinders is investigated in different geometries. The heat flux applied to the microchannel wall is 10,000 W m-2. The effects of Reynolds number, the volume fraction of nanoparticles, and the porosity percentage of the porous medium are investigated on the flow fields, temperature, and heat transfer rate. Reynolds number values vary from Re = 250-1000, non-dimensional rotational velocities 1 and 2, respectively, and volume fraction of nanoparticles 0-2%. The results show that increasing the velocity of rotating cylinders increases the heat transfer; also, increasing the Reynolds number and volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the heat transfer, pressure drop, and Cf,ave. By comparing the porosity percentages with each other, it is concluded that due to the greater contact of the nanofluid with the porous medium and the creation of higher velocity gradients, the porosity percentage is 45% and the values of are 90% higher than the porosity percentage. Comparing porosity percentages with each other, at porosity percentage 90% is greater than at porosity percentage 45%. On the other hand, increasing the Reynolds number reduces the entropy generation due to heat transfer and increases the entropy generation due to friction. Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles increases the entropy generations due to heat transfer and friction.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Mandell JG, Loke YH, Mass PN, et al (2021)

Altered hemodynamics by 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance predict exercise intolerance in repaired coarctation of the aorta: an in vitro study.

Journal of cardiovascular magnetic resonance : official journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 23(1):99.

BACKGROUND: Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is associated with decreased exercise capacity despite successful repair. Altered flow patterns have been identified due to abnormal aortic arch geometry. Our previous work demonstrated aorta size mismatch to be associated with exercise intolerance in this population. In this study, we studied aortic flow patterns during simulations of exercise in repaired CoA using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) using aortic replicas connected to an in vitro flow pump and correlated findings with exercise stress test results to identify biomarkers of exercise intolerance.

METHODS: Patients with CoA repair were retrospectively analyzed after CMR and exercise stress test. Each aorta was manually segmented and 3D printed. Pressure gradient measurements from ascending aorta (AAo) to descending aorta (DAo) and 4D flow CMR were performed during simulations of rest and exercise using a mock circulatory flow loop. Changes in wall shear stress (WSS) and secondary flow formation (vorticity and helicity) from rest to exercise were quantified, as well as estimated DAo Reynolds number. Parameters were correlated with percent predicted peak oxygen consumption (VO2max) and aorta size mismatch (DAAo/DDAo).

RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified (VO2max 47 to 126% predicted). Pressure gradient did not correlate with VO2max at rest or exercise. VO2max correlated positively with the change in peak vorticity (R = 0.55, p = 0.03), peak helicity (R = 0.54, p = 0.04), peak WSS in the AAo (R = 0.68, p = 0.005) and negatively with peak WSS in the DAo (R = - 0.57, p = 0.03) from rest to exercise. DAAo/DDAo correlated strongly with change in vorticity (R = - 0.38, p = 0.01), helicity (R = - 0.66, p = 0.007), and WSS in the AAo (R = - 0.73, p = 0.002) and DAo (R = 0.58, p = 0.02). Estimated DAo Reynolds number negatively correlated with VO2max for exercise (R = - 0.59, p = 0.02), but not rest (R = - 0.28, p = 0.31). Visualization of streamline patterns demonstrated more secondary flow formation in aortic arches with better exercise capacity, larger DAo, and lower Reynolds number.

CONCLUSIONS: There are important associations between secondary flow characteristics and exercise capacity in repaired CoA that are not captured by traditional pressure gradient, likely due to increased turbulence and inefficient flow. These 4D flow CMR parameters are a target of investigation to identify optimal aortic arch geometry and improve long term clinical outcomes after CoA repair.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Simonis S, Haussmann M, Kronberg L, et al (2021)

Linear and brute force stability of orthogonal moment multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods applied to homogeneous isotropic turbulence.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 379(2208):20200405.

Multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) based on orthogonal moments exhibit lattice Mach number dependent instabilities in diffusive scaling. The present work renders an explicit formulation of stability sets for orthogonal moment MRT LBM. The stability sets are defined via the spectral radius of linearized amplification matrices of the MRT collision operator with variable relaxation frequencies. Numerical investigations are carried out for the three-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex benchmark at Reynolds number 1600. Extensive brute force computations of specific relaxation frequency ranges for the full test case are opposed to the von Neumann stability set prediction. Based on that, we prove numerically that a scan over the full wave space, including scaled mean flow variations, is required to draw conclusions on the overall stability of LBM in turbulent flow simulations. Furthermore, the von Neumann results show that a grid dependence is hardly possible to include in the notion of linear stability for LBM. Lastly, via brute force stability investigations based on empirical data from a total number of 22 696 simulations, the existence of a deterministic influence of the grid resolution is deduced. This article is part of the theme issue 'Progress in mesoscale methods for fluid dynamics simulation'.

RevDate: 2021-08-29

Ali A, Jana RN, S Das (2021)

Significance of entropy generation and heat source: the case of peristaltic blood flow through a ciliated tube conveying Cu-Ag nanoparticles using Phan-Thien-Tanner model.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology [Epub ahead of print].

The present speculative investigation is concentrated to analyze the entropy generation and heat transfer phenomena in ciliary induced peristalsis of blood with the suspension of hybrid nanoparticles in a tube with heat source impact. The blood is assumed to contain copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). The ciliary inner wall of the tube has been considered with small hair-like structures. The Phan-Thien-Tanner (PTT) fluid model is employed to describe the non-Newtonian rheological characteristics of blood. The conservative equations are normalized and simplified by utilizing scaling analysis with the assumption of low Reynolds number and large wavelength approximations. The analytical inspection exposes that the total entropy generation gets a decrement for mounting values of cilia length, while reversed impact is detected for an increment in heat source parameter. Hybrid nano-blood exhibits a greater total entropy number than mono nano-blood. This research study may be beneficial to medical experts and researchers in the field of embryology. Cysts in the ciliated fallopian tube, where embryos develop, are removed by using nanoparticles (nano-drug delivery).

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Parveen N, Awais M, Awan SE, et al (2021)

Entropy Generation Analysis and Radiated Heat Transfer in MHD (Al2O3-Cu/Water) Hybrid Nanofluid Flow.

Micromachines, 12(8): pii:mi12080887.

This research concerns the heat transfer and entropy generation analysis in the MHD axisymmetric flow of Al2O3-Cu/H2O hybrid nanofluid. The magnetic induction effect is considered for large magnetic Reynolds number. The influences of thermal radiations, viscous dissipation and convective temperature conditions over flow are studied. The problem is modeled using boundary layer theory, Maxwell's equations and Fourier's conduction law along with defined physical factors. Similarity transformations are utilized for model simplification which is analytically solved with the homotopy analysis method. The h-curves up to 20th order for solutions establishes the stability and convergence of the adopted computational method. Rheological impacts of involved parameters on flow variables and entropy generation number are demonstrated via graphs and tables. The study reveals that entropy in system of hybrid nanofluid affected by magnetic induction declines for β while it enhances for Bi, R and λ. Moreover, heat transfer rate elevates for large Bi with convective conditions at surface.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Ahammad NA, Badruddin IA, Kamangar S, et al (2021)

Heat Transfer and Entropy in a Vertical Porous Plate Subjected to Suction Velocity and MHD.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(8): pii:e23081069.

This article presents an investigation of heat transfer in a porous medium adjacent to a vertical plate. The porous medium is subjected to a magnetohydrodynamic effect and suction velocity. The governing equations are nondepersonalized and converted into ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are solved with the help of the finite difference method. The impact of various parameters, such as the Prandtl number, Grashof number, permeability parameter, radiation parameter, Eckert number, viscous dissipation parameter, and magnetic parameter, on fluid flow characteristics inside the porous medium is discussed. Entropy generation in the medium is analyzed with respect to various parameters, including the Brinkman number and Reynolds number. It is noted that the velocity profile decreases in magnitude with respect to the Prandtl number, but increases with the radiation parameter. The Eckert number has a marginal effect on the velocity profile. An increased radiation effect leads to a reduced thermal gradient at the hot surface.

RevDate: 2021-08-26

Kedzierski MA (2016)

Diesel Adsorption to Polyvinyl Chloride and Iron During Contaminated Water Flow and Flushing Tests.

Journal of research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, 121:314-341 pii:jres.121.014.

This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of aqueous diesel contamination and decontamination of a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) surface and an iron (Fe) surface. A test apparatus designed for the purpose of studying adsorption of diesel from a flowing dilute diesel/water mixture was used to measure the mass of diesel adsorbed per unit surface area (the excess surface density) and the bulk concentration of the diesel in the flow using a fluorescence based measurement technique. Both bulk composition and the excess surface density measurements were achieved via a traverse of the fluorescent measurement probe perpendicular to the test surface. The diesel adsorption to each test surface was examined for three different Reynolds numbers between zero and 7000. Measurements for a given condition were made over a period of approximately 200 h for a diesel mass fraction of approximately 0.15 % in tap water. For a Reynolds number of approximately 7000, the largest excess layer thickness was approximately 4.4 μm, which was measured on a PVC surface. Averaging over all contaminating flow rates and exposure times, the excess layer thickness on the PVC surface was approximately 2.0 μm. Reynolds number had little or no effect on the accumulation of diesel on an iron surface, which was approximately 0.71 μm. The adsorbed diesel on the PVC and iron surfaces was removed by flushing with tap water. Models to predict excess layer thickness during flushing and contamination were developed. The models predict flushing times to within 7 h and predict the influence of pipe surface on contamination level.

RevDate: 2021-08-25

Gu R, JM Lehn (2021)

Constitutional Dynamic Selection at Low Reynolds Number in a Triple Dynamic System: Covalent Dynamic Adaptation Driven by Double Supramolecular Self-Assembly.

Journal of the American Chemical Society [Epub ahead of print].

A triple dynamic complex system has been designed, implementing a dynamic covalent process coupled to two supramolecular self-assembly steps. To this end, two dynamic covalent libraries (DCLs), DCL-1 and DCL-2, have been established on the basis of dynamic covalent C═C/C═N organo-metathesis between two Knoevenagel derivatives and two imines. Each DCL contains a barbituric acid-based Knoevenagel constituent that may undergo a sequential double self-organization process involving first the formation of hydrogen-bonded hexameric supramolecular macrocycles that subsequently undergo stacking to generate a supramolecular polymer SP yielding a viscous gel state. Both DCLs display selective self-organization-driven amplification of the constituent that leads to the SP. Dissociation of the SP on heating causes reversible randomization of the constituent distributions of the DCLs as a function of temperature. Furthermore, diverse distribution patterns of DCL-2 were induced by modulation of temperature and solvent composition. The present dynamic systems display remarkable self-organization-driven constitutional adaption and tunable composition by coupling between dynamic covalent component selection and two-stage supramolecular organization. In more general terms, they reveal dynamic adaptation by component selection in low Reynolds number conditions of living systems where frictional effects dominate inertial behavior.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Herrera-Amaya A, Seber EK, Murphy DW, et al (2021)

Spatiotemporal Asymmetry in Metachronal Rowing at Intermediate Reynolds Numbers.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6354788 [Epub ahead of print].

In drag-based swimming, individual propulsors operating at low Reynolds numbers (where viscous forces dominate over inertial forces) must execute a spatially asymmetric stroke to produce net fluid displacement. Temporal asymmetry (that is, differing duration between the power vs. recovery stroke) does not affect the overall generated thrust in this time-reversible regime. Metachronal rowing, in which multiple appendages beat sequentially, is used by a wide variety of organisms from low to intermediate Reynolds numbers. At the upper end of this range, inertia becomes important, and increasing temporal asymmetry can be an effective way to increase thrust. However, the combined effects of spatial and temporal asymmetry are not fully understood in the context of metachronal rowing. To explore the role of spatiotemporal asymmetry in metachronal rowing, we combine laboratory experiments and reduced-order analytical modeling. We measure beat kinematics and generated flows in two species of lobate ctenophores across a range of body sizes, from 7 mm to 40 mm in length. We observe characteristically different flows in ctenophores of differing body size and Reynolds number, and a general decrease in spatial asymmetry and increase in temporal asymmetry with increasing Reynolds number. We also construct a one-dimensional mathematical model consisting of a row of oscillating flat plates whose flow-normal areas change with time, and use it to explore the propulsive forces generated across a range of Reynolds numbers and kinematic parameters. The model results show that while both types of asymmetry increase force production, they have different effects in different regions of the parameter space. These results may have strong biological implications, as temporal asymmetry can be actively controlled while spatial asymmetry is likely to be partially or entirely driven by passive fluid-structure interaction.

RevDate: 2021-08-15

Pattnaik PK, Abbas MA, Mishra S, et al (2021)

Free convective flow of Hamilton-Crosser model gold-water nanofluid through a channel with permeable moving walls.

Combinatorial chemistry & high throughput screening pii:CCHTS-EPUB-117335 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The present manuscript analyses the influence of buoyant forces of a conducting time-dependent nanofluid flow through porous moving walls. The medium is also filled with porous materials. In addition to that, uniform heat source and absorption parameters are considered that affect the nanofluid model.

INTRODUCTION: The model is based on the thermophysical properties of Hamilton-Crosser's nanofluid model, in which a gold nanoparticle is submerged into the base fluid water. Before simulation is obtained by a numerical method, suitable transformation is used to convert nonlinear coupled PDEs to ODEs.

METHOD: Runge-Kutta fourth-order scheme is applied successfully for the first-order ODEs in conjunction with the shooting technique.

RESULT: Computations for the coefficients of rate constants are presented through graphs, along with the behavior of several physical parameters augmented the flow phenomena.

CONCLUSION: The present investigation may be compatible with the applications of biotechnology. It is seen that, inclusion of volume concentration the fluid velocity enhances near the middle layer of the channel and retards near the permeable walls. Also, augmented values of the Reynolds number and both cooling and heating of the wall increases the rate of shear stress.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Luo Y, Wright M, Xiao Q, et al (2021)

Fluid-structure interaction analysis on motion control of a self-propelled flexible plate near a rigid body utilizing PD control.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Inspired by a previous experimental study of fish swimming near a cylinder, we numerically investigate the swimming and station-holding behavior of a flexible plate ahead of a circular cylinder whose motion is controlled by a proportional-derivative (PD) controller. Specifically, the deformation of this two-dimensional plate is actuated by a periodically varying external force applied on the body surface, which mimics the fish muscle force to produce propulsive thrust. The actuation force amplitude is dynamically adjusted by a feedback controller to instruct the plate to swim the desired distance from an initial position to a target location and then hold the station there. Instead of directly using the instantaneous position signal, an average speed measured over one force actuation period is proposed with the inclusion of instantaneous position information to form the tracking error for the PD control. Our results show that the motion control of swimming and station holding has been achieved by this simple but effective feedback control without large overshoot when approaching the target at different flow conditions and actuation force formulas. Although the swimming distance remains the same, a plate whose initial position is closer to the cylinder requires less energy expenditure to swim to the target location and hold the station there. This is because the low-pressure zone near the trailing edge of the plate is reduced in size, which provides drag reduction, contributing to reduced swimming energy. A higher Reynolds number also leads to energy savings. Under the same control strategy, the swimming performance is more affected by the force-frequency while the phase shift of the actuation force has a less significant impact.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Lin P, Liu X, Xiong N, et al (2021)

Numerical study on the influence of wall temperature gradient on aerodynamic characteristics of low aspect ratio flying wing configuration.

Scientific reports, 11(1):16295.

With the aim for a low-aspect-ratio flying wing configuration, this study explores the influence of wall temperature gradient on the laminar and turbulent boundary layers of aircraft surface and determines the effect on the transition Reynolds number and wall friction drag. A four-equation turbulence model with transition mode is used to numerically simulate the flow around the model. The variation of wall friction coefficient, transition Reynolds number, and turbulent boundary layer flow with wall temperature are emphatically investigated. Results show that when the wall temperature increases from 288 to 500 K, the boundary layer transition Reynolds number for the wing section increased by approximately 28% and the surface friction drags decreases by approximately 10.7%. The hot wall enhances the viscous effects of the laminar temperature boundary layer, reduces the Reynolds shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy, and increases the flow stability. However, the velocity gradient and shear stress in the bottom of the turbulent boundary layer decreases, which leads to reduced friction shear stress on the wall surface. Therefore, for the low-aspect-ratio flying wing model, the hot wall can delay the boundary layer transition and reduce the friction drag coefficient in the turbulent region.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Xia WF, Hafeez MU, Khan MI, et al (2021)

Entropy optimized dissipative flow of hybrid nanofluid in the presence of non-linear thermal radiation and Joule heating.

Scientific reports, 11(1):16067.

Present article reads three dimensional flow analysis of incompressible viscous hybrid nanofluid in a rotating frame. Ethylene glycol is used as a base liquid while nanoparticles are of copper and silver. Fluid is bounded between two parallel surfaces in which the lower surface stretches linearly. Fluid is conducting hence uniform magnetic field is applied. Effects of non-linear thermal radiation, Joule heating and viscous dissipation are entertained. Interesting quantities namely surface drag force and Nusselt number are discussed. Rate of entropy generation is examined. Bvp4c numerical scheme is used for the solution of transformed O.D.Es. Results regarding various flow parameters are obtained via bvp4c technique in MATLAB Software version 2019, and displayed through different plots. Our obtained results presents that velocity field decreases with respect to higher values of magnetic parameter, Reynolds number and rotation parameter. It is also observed that the temperature field boots subject to radiation parameter. Results are compared with Ishak et al. (Nonlinear Anal R World Appl 10:2909-2913, 2009) and found very good agreement with them. This agreement shows that the results are 99.99% match with each other.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Alihosseini Y, Azaddel MR, Moslemi S, et al (2021)

Effect of liquid cooling on PCR performance with the parametric study of cross-section shapes of microchannels.

Scientific reports, 11(1):16072.

In recent years, PCR-based methods as a rapid and high accurate technique in the industry and medical fields have been expanded rapidly. Where we are faced with the COVID-19 pandemic, the necessity of a rapid diagnosis has felt more than ever. In the current interdisciplinary study, we have proposed, developed, and characterized a state-of-the-art liquid cooling design to accelerate the PCR procedure. A numerical simulation approach is utilized to evaluate 15 different cross-sections of the microchannel heat sink and select the best shape to achieve this goal. Also, crucial heat sink parameters are characterized, e.g., heat transfer coefficient, pressure drop, performance evaluation criteria, and fluid flow. The achieved result showed that the circular cross-section is the most efficient shape for the microchannel heat sink, which has a maximum heat transfer enhancement of 25% compared to the square shape at the Reynolds number of 1150. In the next phase of the study, the circular cross-section microchannel is located below the PCR device to evaluate the cooling rate of the PCR. Also, the results demonstrate that it takes 16.5 s to cool saliva samples in the PCR well, which saves up to 157.5 s for the whole amplification procedure compared to the conventional air fans. Another advantage of using the microchannel heat sink is that it takes up a little space compared to other common cooling methods.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Costantini M, Henne U, Klein C, et al (2021)

Skin-Friction-Based Identification of the Critical Lines in a Transonic, High Reynolds Number Flow via Temperature-Sensitive Paint.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(15): pii:s21155106.

In this contribution, three methodologies based on temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) data were further developed and applied for the optical determination of the critical locations of flow separation and reattachment in compressible, high Reynolds number flows. The methodologies rely on skin-friction extraction approaches developed for low-speed flows, which were adapted in this work to study flow separation and reattachment in the presence of shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction. In a first approach, skin-friction topological maps were obtained from time-averaged surface temperature distributions, thus enabling the identification of the critical lines as converging and diverging skin-friction lines. In the other two approaches, the critical lines were identified from the maps of the propagation celerity of temperature perturbations, which were determined from time-resolved TSP data. The experiments were conducted at a freestream Mach number of 0.72 and a chord Reynolds number of 9.7 million in the Transonic Wind Tunnel Göttingen on a VA-2 supercritical airfoil model, which was equipped with two exchangeable TSP modules specifically designed for transonic, high Reynolds number tests. The separation and reattachment lines identified via the three different TSP-based approaches were shown to be in mutual agreement, and were also found to be in agreement with reference experimental and numerical data.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Diaz K, Robinson TL, Ozkan Aydin Y, et al (2021)

A minimal robophysical model of quadriflagellate self-propulsion.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Locomotion at the microscale is remarkably sophisticated. Microorganisms have evolved diverse strategies to move within highly viscous environments, using deformable, propulsion-generating appendages such as cilia and flagella to drive helical or undulatory motion. In single-celled algae, these appendages can be arranged in different ways around an approximately $10~\mu$m long cell body, and coordinated in distinct temporal patterns. Inspired by the observation that some quadriflagellates (bearing four flagella) have an outwardly similar morphology and flagellar beat pattern, yet swim at different speeds, this study seeks to determine whether variations in swimming performance could arise solely from differences in swimming gait. Robotics approaches are particularly suited to such investigations, where the phase relationships between appendages can be readily manipulated. Here, we developed autonomous, algae-inspired robophysical models that can self-propel in a viscous fluid. These macroscopic robots (length and width = $8.5$ cm, height = $2$ cm) have four independently actuated `flagella' (length = $13$ cm) that oscillate under low-Reynolds number conditions (Re $\sim{\cal O}(10^{-1})$). We tested the swimming performance of these robot models with appendages arranged two distinct configurations, and coordinated in three distinct gaits. The gaits, namely the pronk, the trot, and the gallop, correspond to gaits adopted by distinct microalgal species. When the appendages are inserted perpendicularly around a central `body', the robot achieved a net performance of $0.15-0.63$ body lengths per cycle, with the trot gait being the fastest. Robotic swimming performance was found to be comparable to that of the algal microswimmers across all gaits.By creating a minimal robot that can successfully reproduce cilia-inspired drag-based swimming, our work paves the way for the design of next-generation devices that have the capacity to autonomously navigate aqueous environments.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Li L, Chen Q, Sui G, et al (2021)

A Three-Dimensional Micromixer Using Oblique Embedded Ridges.

Micromachines, 12(7):.

A micromixer is one of the most significant components in a microfluidic system. A three-dimensional micromixer was developed with advantages of high efficiency, simple fabrication, easy integration, and ease of mass production. The designed principle is based on the concepts of splitting-recombination and chaotic advection. A numerical model of this micromixer was established to characterize the mixing performance for different parameters. A critical Reynolds number (Re) was obtained from the simulation results. When the Re number is smaller than the critical value, the fluid mixing is mainly dependent on the mechanism of splitting-recombination, therefore, the length of the channel capable of complete mixing (complete mixing length) increases as the Re number increases. When the Re number is larger than the critical value, the fluid mixing is dominated by chaotic advection, and the complete mixing length decreases as the Re number increases. For normal fluids, a complete mixing length of 500 µm can be achieved at a very small Re number of 0.007 and increases to 2400 µm as the Re number increases to the critical value of 4.7. As the Re number keep increasing and passes the critical Re number, the complete mixing length continues to descend to 650 µm at the Re number of 66.7. For hard-to-mix fluids (generally referring to fluids with high viscosity and low diffusion coefficient, which are difficult to mix), even though no evidence of strong chaotic advection is presented in the simulation, the micromixer can still achieve a complete mixing length of 2550 µm. The mixing performance of the micromixer was also verified by experiments. The experimental results showed a consistent trend with the numerical simulation results, which both climb upward when the Re number is around 0.007 (flow rate of 0.03 μm/min) to around 10 (flow rate of 50 μm/min), then descend when the Re number is around 13.3 (flow rate of 60 µm/min).

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Nichka VS, Nikonenko VV, L Bazinet (2021)

Fouling Mitigation by Optimizing Flow Rate and Pulsed Electric Field during Bipolar Membrane Electroacidification of Caseinate Solution.

Membranes, 11(7):.

The efficiency of separation processes using ion exchange membranes (IEMs), especially in the food industry, is significantly limited by the fouling phenomenon, which is the process of the attachment and growth of certain species on the surface and inside the membrane. Pulsed electric field (PEF) mode, which consists in the application of constant current density pulses during a fixed time (Ton) alternated with pause lapses (Toff), has a positive antifouling impact. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of three different relatively high flow rates of feed solution (corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 187, 374 and 560) and various pulse-pause ratios of PEF current regime on protein fouling kinetics during electrodialysis with bipolar membranes (EDBM) of a model caseinate solution. Four different pulse/pause regimes (with Ton/Toff ratios equal to 10 s/10 s, 10 s/20 s, 10 s/33 s and 10 s/50 s) during electrodialysis (ED) treatment were evaluated at a current density of 5 mA/cm2. It was found that increasing the pause duration and caseinate solution flow rate had a positive impact on the minimization of protein fouling occurring on the cationic surface of the bipolar membrane (BPM) during the EDBM. Both a long pause and high flow rate contribute to a more effective decrease in the concentration of protons and caseinate anions at the BPM surface: a very good membrane performance was achieved with 50 s of pause duration of PEF and a flow rate corresponding to Re = 374. A further increase in PEF pause duration (above 50 s) or flow rate (above Re = 374) did not lead to a significant decrease in the amount of fouling.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Ferroni C, Bracconi M, Ambrosetti M, et al (2021)

A Fundamental Investigation of Gas/Solid Heat and Mass Transfer in Structured Catalysts Based on Periodic Open Cellular Structures (POCS).

Industrial & engineering chemistry research, 60(29):10522-10538.

In this work, we investigate the gas-solid heat and mass transfer in catalytically activated periodic open cellular structures, which are considered a promising solution for intensification of catalytic processes limited by external transport, aiming at the derivation of suitable correlations. Computational fluid dynamics is employed to investigate the Tetrakaidekahedral and Diamond lattice structures. The influence of the morphological features and flow conditions on the external transport properties is assessed. The strut diameter is an adequate characteristic length for the formulation of heat and mass transfer correlations; accordingly, a power-law dependence of the Sherwood number to the Reynolds number between 0.33 and 0.67 was found according to the flow regimes in the range 1-128 of the Reynolds number. An additional -1.5-order dependence on the porosity is found. The formulated correlations are in good agreement with the simulation results and allow for the accurate evaluation of the external transfer coefficients for POCS.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Liu K, Allahyari M, Salinas J, et al (2021)

Investigation of theoretical scaling laws using large eddy simulations for airborne spreading of viral contagion from sneezing and coughing.

Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994), 33(6):063318.

Using a set of large eddy point-particle simulations, we explore the fluid dynamics of an ejected puff resulting from a cough/sneeze. The ejection contains over 61 000 potentially virus-laden droplets at an injection Reynolds number of about 46 000, comparable to an actual cough/sneeze. We observe that global puff properties, such as centroid, puff volume, momentum, and buoyancy vary little across realizations. Other properties, such as maximum extent, shape, and edge velocity of the puff, may exhibit substantial variation. In many realizations, a portion of the puff splits off and advances along a random direction, while keeping airborne droplet nuclei afloat. This peeled-off portion provides a mechanism for virus-laden droplets to travel over large distances in a short amount of time. We also observe that the vast majority of droplets remain suspended within the puff after all liquid has evaporated. The main objectives of the study are to (i) evaluate assumptions of Balachandar's et al. theory [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 132, 103439 (2020)], which include buoyancy effects, shape of the puff, and droplet evaporation rate, (ii) obtain values of closure parameters, which include location and time of the virtual origin, and puff entrainment and drag coefficients, and (iii) evaluate the accuracy of the theory in predicting the shape, size, and location of the puff, as well as droplet number density long after ejection. The theory adequately predicts global puff properties including size, velocity, and distance traveled, the largest size of droplets that exit the puff due to settling, and the droplet size distribution within the puff long after ejection.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

Singh RK, Mahato LK, DK Mandal (2021)

Airflow-Assisted Impact of Drops of Various Viscosities: The Role of Viscous Dissipation, Normal Imposed Pressure, and Shear Flow of Air.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

The role of liquid viscosity on the spreading for an airflow-assisted impact of drops on a surface is investigated. The spreading diameter is found to increase with the Reynolds number of the airflow (Reair) for a given viscosity and impact Weber number (We) compared to the still air. The increment is higher at a low We for viscous drops, whereas the effect of Reair dominates at the intermediate We as the viscosity decreases. Two extra forces, the normal imposed pressure and shear force of air, act on the drop and influence the spreading along with the viscous dissipation. The drop's curvature decreases depending on the viscosity and impact velocity while spreading. Large-scale eddies near the drop-surface region are observed due to the separation of the incident airflow. The formation of eddies signifies low-pressure zones, which extract the trapped air, causing the spreading diameter of the viscous drop to increase at a low We. With the increase in the We, the lamella thickness of low-viscosity drops decreases and is pushed out by the air shear causing the spreading factor to increase. The boundary layer thickness is estimated using the energy balance method to predict the maximum spreading factor. The prediction compares well with the experimental one for higher viscosities. The accuracy improves when the effect of low pressure is incorporated. To confirm, the experimental spreading is compared with that obtained from three existing models, and one, which considers the influence, is observed to provide a better prediction.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Sharifi A, Gendernalik A, Garrity D, et al (2021)

Valveless pumping behavior of the simulated embryonic heart tube as a function of contractile patterns and myocardial stiffness.

Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology pii:10.1007/s10237-021-01489-7 [Epub ahead of print].

During development, the heart begins pumping as a valveless multilayered tube capable of driving blood flow throughout the embryonic vasculature. The mechanical properties and how they interface with pumping function are not well-defined at this stage. Here, we evaluate pumping patterns using a fluid-structure interaction computational model, combined with experimental data and an energetic analysis to investigate myocardial mechanical properties. Through this work, we propose that a myocardium modeled as a Neo-Hookean material with a material constant on the order of 10 kPa is necessary for the heart tube to function with an optimal pressure and cardiac output.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Akram S, Athar M, Saeed K, et al (2021)

Crossbreed impact of double-diffusivity convection on peristaltic pumping of magneto Sisko nanofluids in non-uniform inclined channel: A bio-nanoengineering model.

Science progress, 104(3):368504211033677.

The consequences of double-diffusivity convection on the peristaltic transport of Sisko nanofluids in the non-uniform inclined channel and induced magnetic field are discussed in this article. The mathematical modeling of Sisko nanofluids with induced magnetic field and double-diffusivity convection is given. To simplify PDEs that are highly nonlinear in nature, the low but finite Reynolds number, and long wavelength estimation are used. The Numerical solution is calculated for the non-linear PDEs. The exact solution of concentration, temperature and nanoparticle are obtained. The effect of various physical parameters of flow quantities is shown in numerical and graphical data. The outcomes show that as the thermophoresis and Dufour parameters are raised, the profiles of temperature, concentration, and nanoparticle fraction all significantly increase.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Kasoju VT, Moen DS, Ford MP, et al (2021)

Interspecific variation in bristle number on forewings of tiny insects does not influence clap-and-fling aerodynamics.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:271001 [Epub ahead of print].

Miniature insects must overcome significant viscous resistance in order to fly. They typically possess wings with long bristles on the fringes and use clap-and-fling mechanism to augment lift. These unique solutions to the extreme conditions of flight at tiny sizes (< 2 mm body length) suggest that natural selection has optimized wing design for better aerodynamic performance. However, species vary in wingspan, number of bristles (n), and bristle gap (G) to diameter (D) ratio (G/D). How this variation relates to body length (BL) and its effects on aerodynamics remain unknown. We measured forewing images of 38 species of thrips and 21 species of fairyflies. Our phylogenetic comparative analyses showed that n and wingspan scaled positively and similarly with body length across both groups, whereas G/D decreased with BL, with a sharper decline in thrips. We next measured aerodynamic forces and visualized flow on physical models of bristled wings performing clap-and-fling kinematics at chord-based Reynolds number of 10 using a dynamically scaled robotic platform. We examined the effects of dimensional (G, D, wingspan) and non-dimensional (n, G/D) geometric variables on dimensionless lift and drag. We found that: (a) increasing G reduced drag more than decreasing D; (b) changing n had minimal impact on lift generation; and (c) varying G/D minimally affected aerodynamic forces. These aerodynamic results suggest little pressure to functionally optimize n and G/D. Combined with the scaling relationships between wing variables and BL, much wing variation in tiny flying insects might be best explained by underlying shared growth factors.

RevDate: 2021-08-01

Dvoriashyna M, E Lauga (2021)

Hydrodynamics and direction change of tumbling bacteria.

PloS one, 16(7):e0254551.

The bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) swims in viscous fluids by rotating several helical flagellar filaments, which are gathered in a bundle behind the cell during 'runs' wherein the cell moves steadily forward. In between runs, the cell undergoes quick 'tumble' events, during which at least one flagellum reverses its rotation direction and separates from the bundle, resulting in erratic motion in place and a random reorientation of the cell. Alternating between runs and tumbles allows cells to sample space by stochastically changing their propulsion direction after each tumble. The change of direction during a tumble is not uniformly distributed but is skewed towards smaller angles with an average of about 62°-68°, as first measured by Berg and Brown (1972). Here we develop a theoretical approach to model the angular distribution of swimming E. coli cells during tumbles. We first use past experimental imaging results to construct a kinematic description of the dynamics of the flagellar filaments during a tumble. We then employ low-Reynolds number hydrodynamics to compute the consequences of the kinematic model on the force and torque balance of the cell and to deduce the overall change in orientation. The results of our model are in good agreement with experimental observations. We find that the main change of direction occurs during the 'bundling' part of the process wherein, at the end of a tumble, the dispersed flagellar filaments are brought back together in the helical bundle, which we confirm using a simplified forced-sphere model.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Ishak MS, Alsabery AI, Hashim I, et al (2021)

Entropy production and mixed convection within trapezoidal cavity having nanofluids and localised solid cylinder.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14700.

The entropy production and mixed convection within a trapezoidal nanofluid-filled cavity having a localised solid cylinder is numerically examined using the finite element technique. The top horizontal surface moving at a uniform velocity is kept at a cold temperature, while the bottom horizontal surface is thermally activated. The remaining surfaces are maintained adiabatic. Water-based nanofluids ([Formula: see text] nanoparticles) are used in this study, and the Boussinesq approximation applies. The influence of the Reynolds number, Richardson number, nanoparticles volume fraction, dimensionless radius and location of the solid cylinder on the streamlines, isotherms and isentropic are examined. The results show that the solid cylinder's size and location are significant control parameters for optimising the heat transfer and the Bejan number inside the trapezoidal cavity. Furthermore, the maximum average Nusselt numbers are obtained for high R values, where the average Nusselt number is increased by 30% when R is raised from 0 to 0.25.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Gurovich AN, Rodriguez L, F Morales-Acuna (2021)

There are no differences in brachial artery endothelial shear stress and blood flow patterns between males and females during exercise.

Clinical physiology and functional imaging [Epub ahead of print].

Premenopausal females have a lower cardiovascular risk than males. Sex differences on exercise-induced endothelial shear stress (ESS) and blood flow patterns may explain part of this risk reduction. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the differences in brachial artery exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns between males and females. Thirty subjects (13 females) were recruited to perform a three-workload steady-state exercise test based on blood lactate levels (i.e. <2.0, 2.0-4.0, >4.0 mmol/l). ESS and blood flow patterns were estimated at rest and during each workload using Womersley's approximation and Reynolds number, respectively. Both males and females showed an exercise intensity-dependent increase in antegrade and retrograde ESS. There was no significant sex effect or interaction for antegrade ESS (F(1, 30) = 0.715, p = 0.405 and F(1·672, 60) = 1.511, p = 0.232, respectively) or retrograde ESS (F(1, 30) = 0.794, p = 0.380 and F(1·810, 60) = 1.022, p = 0.361, respectively). Additionally, antegrade blood flow was turbulent during all bouts of exercise while retrograde blood flow became disturbed at moderate and high exercise intensities in both groups. There are no differences in exercise-induced ESS and blood flow patterns between males and females when the exercise load is equivalent. This suggests that the vascular benefits of exercise training are similar in both sexes from a haemodynamic standpoint.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Gul H, Ramzan M, Chung JD, et al (2021)

Multiple slips impact in the MHD hybrid nanofluid flow with Cattaneo-Christov heat flux and autocatalytic chemical reaction.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14625.

The present study deliberates the nanofluid flow containing multi and single-walled carbon nanotubes submerged into Ethylene glycol in a Darcy-Forchheimer permeable media over a stretching cylinder with multiple slips. The innovation of the envisaged mathematical model is enriched by considering the impacts of non-uniform source/sink and modified Fourier law in the energy equation and autocatalytic chemical reaction in the concentration equation. Entropy optimization analysis of the mathematical model is also performed in the present problem. Pertinent transformations procedure is implemented for the conversion of the non-linear system to the ordinary differential equations. The succor of the Shooting technique combined with the bvp4c MATLAB software is utilized for the solution of a highly nonlinear system of equations. The impacts of the leading parameters versus engaged fields are inspected through graphical sketches. The outcomes show that a strong magnetic field strengthens the temperature profile and decays the velocity profile. Also, the fluid velocity is lessened for growing estimates of the parameter of slip. Additionally, it is detected that entropy number augmented for higher thermal relaxation parameter and Reynolds number. To substantiate the existing mathematical model, a comparison table is also added. An excellent correlation is achieved here.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Wang H, Enders A, Preuss JA, et al (2021)

3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14584.

3D printing of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices enables rapid prototyping of robust and complex structures. In this work, we designed and fabricated a 3D printed lab-on-a-chip device for fiber-based dual beam optical manipulation. The final 3D printed chip offers three key features, such as (1) an optimized fiber channel design for precise alignment of optical fibers, (2) an optically clear window to visualize the trapping region, and (3) a sample channel which facilitates hydrodynamic focusing of samples. A square zig-zag structure incorporated in the sample channel increases the number of particles at the trapping site and focuses the cells and particles during experiments when operating the chip at low Reynolds number. To evaluate the performance of the device for optical manipulation, we implemented on-chip, fiber-based optical trapping of different-sized microscopic particles and performed trap stiffness measurements. In addition, optical stretching of MCF-7 cells was successfully accomplished for the purpose of studying the effects of a cytochalasin metabolite, pyrichalasin H, on cell elasticity. We observed distinct changes in the deformability of single cells treated with pyrichalasin H compared to untreated cells. These results demonstrate that 3D printed microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices offer a cost-effective and customizable platform for applications in optical manipulation.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Dubey A, B V, Bég OA, et al (2021)

Finite element computation of magneto-hemodynamic flow and heat transfer in a bifurcated artery with saccular aneurysm using the Carreau-Yasuda biorheological model.

Microvascular research, 138:104221 pii:S0026-2862(21)00091-1 [Epub ahead of print].

"Existing computational fluid dynamics studies of blood flows have demonstrated that the lower wall stress and higher oscillatory shear index might be the cause of acceleration in atherogenesis of vascular walls in hemodynamics. To prevent the chances of aneurysm wall rupture in the saccular aneurysm at distal aortic bifurcation, clinical biomagnetic studies have shown that extra-corporeal magnetic fields can be deployed to regulate the blood flow. Motivated by these developments, in the current study a finite element computational fluid dynamics simulation has been conducted of unsteady two-dimensional non-Newtonian magneto-hemodynamic heat transfer in electrically conducting blood flow in a bifurcated artery featuring a saccular aneurysm. The fluid flow is assumed to be pulsatile, non-Newtonian and incompressible. The Carreau-Yasuda model is adopted for blood to mimic non-Newtonian characteristics. The transformed equations with appropriate boundary conditions are solved numerically by employing the finite element method with the variational approach in the FreeFEM++ code. Hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics are elucidated in detail for the effects of key non-dimensional parameters i.e. Reynolds number (Re = 14, 21, 100, 200), Prandtl number (Pr = 14, 21) and magnetic body force parameter (Hartmann number) (M = 0.6, 1.2, 1.5) at the aneurysm and throughout the arterial domain. The influence of vessel geometry on blood flow characteristics i.e. velocity, pressure and temperature fields are also visualized through instantaneous contour patterns. It is found that an increase in the magnetic parameter reduces the pressure but increases the skin-friction coefficient in the domain. The temperature decreases at the parent artery (inlet) and both the distant and prior artery with the increment in the Prandtl number. A higher Reynolds number also causes a reduction in velocity as well as in pressure. The blood flow shows different characteristic contours with time variation at the aneurysm as well as in the arterial segment. The novelty of the current research is therefore to present a combined approach amalgamating the Carreau-Yasuda model, heat transfer and magnetohydrodynamics with complex geometric features in realistic arterial hemodynamics with extensive visualization and interpretation, in order to generalize and extend previous studies. In previous studies these features have been considered separately and not simultaneously as in the current study. The present simulations reveal some novel features of biomagnetic hemodynamics in bifurcated arterial transport featuring a saccular aneurysm which are envisaged to be of relevance in furnishing improved characterization of the rheological biomagnetic hemodynamics of realistic aneurysmic bifurcations in clinical assessment, diagnosis and magnetic-assisted treatment of cardiovascular disease."

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Han E, Zhu L, Shaevitz JW, et al (2021)

Low-Reynolds-number, biflagellated Quincke swimmers with multiple forms of motion.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(29):.

In the limit of zero Reynolds number (Re), swimmers propel themselves exploiting a series of nonreciprocal body motions. For an artificial swimmer, a proper selection of the power source is required to drive its motion, in cooperation with its geometric and mechanical properties. Although various external fields (magnetic, acoustic, optical, etc.) have been introduced, electric fields are rarely utilized to actuate such swimmers experimentally in unbounded space. Here we use uniform and static electric fields to demonstrate locomotion of a biflagellated sphere at low Re via Quincke rotation. These Quincke swimmers exhibit three different forms of motion, including a self-oscillatory state due to elastohydrodynamic-electrohydrodynamic interactions. Each form of motion follows a distinct trajectory in space. Our experiments and numerical results demonstrate a method to generate, and potentially control, the locomotion of artificial flagellated swimmers.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Zhang B, Leishangthem P, Ding Y, et al (2021)

An effective and efficient model of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions for active suspensions of bacteria.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(28):.

Near-field hydrodynamic interactions in active fluids are essential to determine many important emergent behaviors observed, but have not been successfully modeled so far. In this work, we propose an effective model capturing the essence of the near-field hydrodynamic interactions through a tensorial coefficient of resistance, validated numerically by a pedagogic model system consisting of an Escherichia coli bacterium and a passive sphere. In a critical test case that studies the scattering angle of the bacterium-sphere pair dynamics, we prove that the near-field hydrodynamics can make a qualitative difference even for this simple two-body system: Calculations based on the proposed model reveal a region in parameter space where the bacterium is trapped by the passive sphere, a phenomenon that is regularly observed in experiments but cannot be explained by any existing model. In the end, we demonstrate that our model also leads to efficient simulation of active fluids with tens of thousands of bacteria, sufficiently large for investigations of many emergent behaviors.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Charakopoulos A, Karakasidis T, I Sarris (2021)

Analysis of magnetohydrodynamic channel flow through complex network analysis.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 31(4):043123.

Velocity time series of hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent flow are analyzed by means of complex network analysis in order to understand the mechanism of fluid patterns modification due to the external magnetic field. Direct numerical simulations of two cases are used, one for the plane hydrodynamic turbulent channel flow at the low Reynolds number of 180, based on the friction velocity, and the corresponding MHD flow with an external streamwise magnetic field with a magnetic interaction number of 0.1. By applying the visibility graph algorithm, we first transformed the time series into networks and then we evaluated the network topological properties. Results show that the proposed network analysis is not only able to identify and detect dynamical transitions in the system's behavior that identifies three distinct fluid areas in accordance with turbulent flow theory but also can quantify the effect of the magnetic field on the time series transitions. Moreover, we find that the topological measures of networks without a magnetic field and as compared to the one with a magnetic field are statistically different within a 95% confidence interval. These results provide a way to discriminate and characterize the influence of the magnetic field on the turbulent flows.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Tang TQ, Hsu SY, Dahiya A, et al (2021)

Numerical modeling of pulsatile blood flow through a mini-oxygenator in artificial lungs.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 208:106241 pii:S0169-2607(21)00315-1 [Epub ahead of print].

While previous in vitro studies showed divergent results concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on oxygen advection in oxygenators, no study was done to investigate the uncertainty affected by blood flow dynamics. The aim of this study is to utilize a computational fluid dynamics model to clarify the debate concerning the influence of pulsatile blood flow on the oxygen transport. The computer model is based on a validated 2D finite volume approach that predicts oxygen transfer in pulsatile blood flow passing through a 300-micron hollow-fiber membrane bundle with a length of 254 mm, a building block for an artificial lung device. In this study, the flow parameters include the steady Reynolds number (Re = 2, 5, 10 and 20), Womersley parameter (Wo = 0.29, 0.38 and 0.53) and sinusoidal amplitude (A = 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). Specifically, the computer model is extended to verify, for the first time, the previously measured O2 transport that was observed to be hindered by pulsating flow in the Biolung, developed by Michigan Critical Care Consultants. A comprehensive analysis is carried out on computed profiles and fields of oxygen partial pressure (PO2) and oxygen saturation (SO2) as a function of Re, Wo and A. Based on the present results, we observe the positive and negative effects of pulsatile flow on PO2 at different blood flow rates. Besides, the SO2 variation is not much influenced by the pulsatile flow conditions investigated. While being consistent with a recent experimental study, the computed O2 volume flow rate is found to be increased at high blood flow rates operated with low frequency and high amplitude. Furthermore, the present study qualitatively explains that divergent outcomes reported in previous in vitro experimental studies could be owing to the different blood flow rates adopted. Finally, the contour analysis reveals how the spatial distributions of PO2 and SO2 vary over time.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Meng X, Ghaffar A, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Very low Reynolds number causes a monotonic force enhancement trend for a three-dimensional hovering wing in ground effect.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics, 16(5):.

This research reports the numerical results of the ground effect trend for a three-dimensional flapping insect wing at a very low Reynolds number (Re = 10). It demonstrates that the ground effect trend at this Re has a 'single force regime,' i.e. the forces only enhance as the ground distance decreases. This phenomenon is unlike the widely expected non-monotonic trend publicized in previous studies for higher Reynolds numbers, that shows 'three force regimes,' i.e. the forces reduce, recover, and also enhance as the ground distance decreases. The force trend in the ground effect correlates to a similar trend in wing-wake interaction or the downwash strength on the wing's head. At very low Re (10), the very large viscosity causes diffused vortices and less advected vortex wake, while at relatively high Re, the vortices are easily separated from the wing and then advected downwards. This different development of the vortex wake caused different force trends for the flapping wing in the ground effect. Furthermore, by examining only the first stroke when there is no vortex wake, we found that the 'ramming effect' enhances the forces on the wing. This effect increases the pressure of the lower wing surface due to the squeezed air between the wing and the ground. The 'ramming effect', combined with the reduced downwash (or wing-wake interaction) effect, causes the force enhancement of the wing near the ground's vicinity. It is further comprehended that the trend is dependent on Re. As the Re is increased, the trend becomes non-monotonic. The effect of varying angles of attack, flapping amplitude and wing planform at very low Re does not change this trend. This ground effect might help insects by enhancing their lift while they hover above the surface. This finding might prove beneficial for developing micro air vehicles.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Iyer KP, Bewley GP, Biferale L, et al (2021)

Oscillations Modulating Power Law Exponents in Isotropic Turbulence: Comparison of Experiments with Simulations.

Physical review letters, 126(25):254501.

Inertial-range features of turbulence are investigated using data from experimental measurements of grid turbulence and direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence simulated in a periodic box, both at the Taylor-scale Reynolds number R_{λ}∼1000. In particular, oscillations modulating the power-law scaling in the inertial range are examined for structure functions up to sixth-order moments. The oscillations in exponent ratios decrease with increasing sample size in simulations, although in experiments they survive at a low value of 4 parts in 1000 even after massive averaging. The two datasets are consistent in their intermittent character but differ in small but observable respects. Neither the scaling exponents themselves nor all the viscous effects are consistently reproduced by existing models of intermittency.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Gojon R, Jardin T, H Parisot-Dupuis (2021)

Experimental investigation of low Reynolds number rotor noise.

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 149(6):3813.

In this paper, an experimental characterisation of low Reynolds number rotors is performed in an anechoic room. Two commercially available two-bladed rotors as well as four three-dimensional (3D)-printed rotors with different numbers of blades (from two to five) are tested. The latter have canonical geometry, with an NACA0012 blade section profile, extruded in the radial direction with constant chord and constant 10° pitch. The experimental setup and the 3D printing strategy are first validated using results from the literature for the commercially available rotors. For all the tested rotors, four noise characteristics are analysed: the overall sound pressure level (OASPL), the amplitude of the blade passing frequency (BPF), and the amplitude of its first harmonic and the high-frequency broadband noise. For all the rotors, an increase in all noise characteristics is observed with the rotational speed (rpm) for all directivity angles. Moreover, an interesting change of pattern is observed for the amplitudes of the BPF and of its first harmonic, with, in the vicinity of the rotor plane, a minimum value for low rpm and/or high number of blades, and a maximum value for high rpm and/or low number of blades. This change in directivity leads to a similar change of directivity of the OASPL. For the broadband noise, a dipole-like pattern is obtained with a minimum value at θ=-10°, i.e., aligned with the trailing edge and thus indicating the generation of trailing edge noise. Finally, scaling laws that characterise the amplitude of the different noise components with respect to the rpm are proposed.

RevDate: 2021-07-09

Mazharmanesh S, Stallard J, Medina A, et al (2021)

Effects of uniform vertical inflow perturbations on the performance of flapping wings.

Royal Society open science, 8(6):210471.

Flapping wings have attracted significant interest for use in miniature unmanned flying vehicles. Although numerous studies have investigated the performance of flapping wings under quiescent conditions, effects of freestream disturbances on their performance remain under-explored. In this study, we experimentally investigated the effects of uniform vertical inflows on flapping wings using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈ 3600. The overall lift and drag produced by a flapping wing were measured by varying the magnitude of inflow perturbation from J Vert = -1 (downward inflow) to J Vert = 1 (upward inflow), where J Vert is the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. The interaction between flapping wing and downward-oriented inflows resulted in a steady linear reduction in mean lift and drag coefficients, C ¯ L and C ¯ D , with increasing inflow magnitude. While a steady linear increase in C ¯ L and C ¯ D was noted for upward-oriented inflows between 0 < J Vert < 0.3 and J Vert > 0.7, a significant unsteady wing-wake interaction occurred when 0.3 ≤ J Vert < 0.7, which caused large variations in instantaneous forces over the wing and led to a reduction in mean performance. These findings highlight asymmetrical effects of vertically oriented perturbations on the performance of flapping wings and pave the way for development of suitable control strategies.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Connolly S, Newport D, K McGourty (2021)

Cell specific variation in viability in suspension in in vitro Poiseuille flow conditions.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13997.

The influence of Poiseuille flow on cell viability has applications in the areas of cancer metastasis, lab-on-a-chip devices and flow cytometry. Indeed, retaining cell viability is important in the emerging field of adoptive cell therapy, as cells need to be returned to patients' bodies, while the viability of other cells, which are perhaps less accustomed to suspension in a fluidic environment, is important to retain in flow cytometers and other such devices. Despite this, it is unclear how Poiseuille flow affects cell viability. Following on from previous studies which investigated the viability and inertial positions of circulating breast cancer cells in identical flow conditions, this study investigated the influence that varying flow rate, and the corresponding Reynolds number has on the viability of a range of different circulating cells in laminar pipe flow including primary T-cells, primary fibroblasts and neuroblastoma cells. It was found that Reynolds numbers as high as 9.13 had no effect on T-cells while the viabilities of neuroblastoma cells and intestinal fibroblasts were significantly reduced in comparison. This indicates that in vitro flow devices need to be tailored to cell-specific flow regimes.

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Shanbrom C, Balisacan J, Wilkens G, et al (2021)

Geometric Methods for Efficient Planar Swimming of Copepod Nauplii.

Micromachines, 12(6):.

Copepod nauplii are larval crustaceans with important ecological functions. Due to their small size, they experience an environment of low Reynolds number within their aquatic habitat. Here we provide a mathematical model of a swimming copepod nauplius with two legs moving in a plane. This model allows for both rotation and two-dimensional displacement by the periodic deformation of the swimmer's body. The system is studied from the framework of optimal control theory, with a simple cost function designed to approximate the mechanical energy expended by the copepod. We find that this model is sufficiently realistic to recreate behavior similar to those of observed copepod nauplii, yet much of the mathematical analysis is tractable. In particular, we show that the system is controllable, but there exist singular configurations where the degree of non-holonomy is non-generic. We also partially characterize the abnormal extremals and provide explicit examples of families of abnormal curves. Finally, we numerically simulate normal extremals and observe some interesting and surprising phenomena.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-07-16

Ali A, Bukhari Z, Umar M, et al (2021)

Cu and Cu-SWCNT Nanoparticles' Suspension in Pulsatile Casson Fluid Flow via Darcy-Forchheimer Porous Channel with Compliant Walls: A Prospective Model for Blood Flow in Stenosed Arteries.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(12):.

The use of experimental relations to approximate the efficient thermophysical properties of a nanofluid (NF) with Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and hybrid nanofluid (HNF) with Cu-SWCNT NPs and subsequently model the two-dimensional pulsatile Casson fluid flow under the impact of the magnetic field and thermal radiation is a novelty of the current study. Heat and mass transfer analysis of the pulsatile flow of non-Newtonian Casson HNF via a Darcy-Forchheimer porous channel with compliant walls is presented. Such a problem offers a prospective model to study the blood flow via stenosed arteries. A finite-difference flow solver is used to numerically solve the system obtained using the vorticity stream function formulation on the time-dependent governing equations. The behavior of Cu-based NF and Cu-SWCNT-based HNF on the wall shear stress (WSS), velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are analyzed graphically. The influence of the Casson parameter, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, Darcy number, Soret number, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, and Peclet number on the flow profiles are analyzed. Furthermore, the influence of the flow parameters on the non-dimensional numbers such as the skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number is also discussed. These quantities escalate as the Reynolds number is enhanced and reduce by escalating the porosity parameter. The Peclet number shows a high impact on the microorganism's density in a blood NF. The HNF has been shown to have superior thermal properties to the traditional one. These results could help in devising hydraulic treatments for blood flow in highly stenosed arteries, biomechanical system design, and industrial plants in which flow pulsation is essential.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Ju Y, Zhu T, Mashayekhi R, et al (2021)

Evaluation of Multiple Semi-Twisted Tape Inserts in a Heat Exchanger Pipe Using Al2O3 Nanofluid.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 11(6):.

The hydrothermal performance of multiple semi-twisted tape inserts inside a heat exchanger pipe is numerically examined in three-dimensions. This study aims to find the optimum case for having the highest heat transfer enhancement with the lowest friction factor using nanofluid (Al2O3/water). A performance evaluation criterion (PEC) is defined to characterize the performance based on both friction factor and heat transfer. It was found that increasing the number of semi-twisted tapes increases the number of swirl flow streams and leads to an enhancement in the local Nusselt number as well as the friction factor. The average Nusselt number increases from 15.13 to 28.42 and the average friction factor enhances from 0.022 to 0.052 by increasing the number of the semi-twisted tapes from 0 to 4 for the Reynolds number of 1000 for the base fluid. By using four semi-twisted tapes, the average Nusselt number increases from 12.5 to 28.5, while the friction factor reduces from 0.155 to 0.052 when the Reynolds number increases from 250 to 1000 for the base fluid. For the Reynolds number of 1000, the increase in nanofluid concentration from 0 to 3% improves the average Nusselt number and friction factor by 6.41% and 2.29%, respectively. The highest PEC is equal to 1.66 and belongs to the Reynolds number of 750 using four semi-twisted tape inserts with 3% nanoparticles. This work offers instructions to model an advanced design of twisted tape integrated with tubes using multiple semi-twisted tapes, which helps to provide a higher amount of energy demand for solar applications.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Elsafy KM, MZ Saghir (2021)

Forced Convection in Wavy Microchannels Porous Media Using TiO2 and Al2O3-Cu Nanoparticles in Water Base Fluids: Numerical Results.

Micromachines, 12(6): pii:mi12060654.

In the present work, an attempt is made to investigate the performance of three fluids with forced convection in a wavy channel. The fluids are water, a nanofluid of 1% TiO2 in a water solution and a hybrid fluid which consists of 1% Al2O3-Cu nanoparticles in a water solution. The wavy channel has a porous insert with a permeability of 10 PPI, 20 PPI and 40 PPI, respectively. Since Reynolds number is less than 1000, the flow is assumed laminar, Newtonian and steady state. Results revealed that wavy channel provides a better heat enhancement than a straight channel of the same dimension. Porous material increases heat extraction at the expenses of the pressure drop. The nanofluid of 1% TiO2 in water provided the highest performance evaluation criteria.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-07-16

Ahmed S, J Perez-Mercader (2021)

Autonomous Low-Reynolds-Number Soft Robots with Structurally Encoded Motion and Their Thermodynamic Efficiency.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 37(27):8148-8156.

Soft low-Reynolds-number robotics hold the potential to significantly impact numerous fields including drug delivery, sensing, and diagnostics. Realizing this potential is predicated upon the ability to design soft robots tailored to their intended function. In this work, we identify the effect of different geometric and symmetry parameters on the motion of soft, autonomous robots that operate in the low-Reynolds-number regime and use organic fuel. The ability to power low-Reynolds-number soft robots using an organic fuel would provide a new avenue for their potential use in biomedical applications, as is the use of a polymeric biocompatible material as is done here. We introduce a simple and cost-effective 3D-printer-assisted method to fabricate robots of different shapes that is scalable and widely applicable for a variety of materials. The efficiency of chemical energy to mechanical energy conversion is measured in soft low-Reynolds-number robots for the first time, and their mechanism of motion is assessed. Motion is a result of a periodic and oscillatory change in the charge state of the gel. This work lays the groundwork for the structure-function design of soft, chemically operated, and autonomous low-Reynolds-number robots.

RevDate: 2021-06-29

Yang F, Zeng YH, WX Huai (2021)

A new model for settling velocity of non-spherical particles.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The settlement of non-spherical particles, such as propagules of plants and natural sediments, is commonly observed in riverine ecosystems. The settling process is influenced by both particle properties (size, density, and shape) and fluid properties (density and viscosity). Therefore, the drag law of non-spherical particles is a function of both particle Reynolds number and particle shape. Herein, a total of 828 settling data are collected from the literatures, which cover a wide range of particle Reynolds number (0.008-10000). To characterize the influence of particle shapes, sphericity is adopted as the general shape factor, which varies from 0.421 to 1.0. By comparing the measured drag with the standard drag curve of spheres, we modify the spherical drag law with three shape-dependent functions to develop a new drag law for non-spherical particles. Combined with an iterative procedure, a new model is thus obtained to predict the settling velocity of non-spherical particles of various shapes and materials. Further applications in hydrochorous propagule dispersal and sediment transport are projected based on deeper understanding of the settling process.

RevDate: 2021-06-21

Hill JL, Hsu PS, Jiang N, et al (2021)

Hypersonic N2 boundary layer flow velocity profile measurements using FLEET.

Applied optics, 60(15):C38-C46.

Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used in the boundary layer of an ogive-cylinder model in a Mach-6 Ludwieg tube. One-dimensional velocity profiles were extracted from the FLEET signal in laminar boundary layers from pure N2 flows at unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.4×106/m to3.9×106/m. The effects of model tip bluntness and the unit Reynolds number on the velocity profiles were investigated. The challenges and strategies of applying FLEET for direct boundary layer velocity measurement are discussed. The potential of utilizing FLEET velocimetry for understanding the dynamics of laminar and turbulent boundary layers in hypersonic flows is demonstrated.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Mazharmanesh S, Stallard J, Medina A, et al (2021)

Performance of passively pitching flapping wings in the presence of vertical inflows.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics, 16(5):.

The successful implementation of passively pitching flapping wings strongly depends on their ability to operate efficiently in wind disturbances. In this study, we experimentally investigated the interaction between a uniform vertical inflow perturbation and a passive-pitching flapping wing using a Reynolds-scaled apparatus operating in water at Reynolds number ≈3600. A parametric study was performed by systematically varying the Cauchy number (Ch) of the wings from 0.09 to 11.52. The overall lift and drag, and pitch angle of the wing were measured by varying the magnitude of perturbation fromJVert= -0.6 (downward inflow) toJVert= 0.6 (upward inflow) at eachCh, whereJVertis the ratio of the inflow velocity to the wing's velocity. We found that the lift and drag had remarkably different characteristics in response to bothChandJVert. Across allCh, while mean lift tended to increase as the inflow perturbation varied from -0.6 to 0.6, drag was significantly less sensitive to the perturbation. However effect of the vertical inflow on drag was dependent onCh, where it tended to vary from an increasing to a decreasing trend asChwas changed from 0.09 to 11.52. The differences in the lift and drag with perturbation magnitude could be attributed to the reorientation of the net force over the wing as a result of the interaction with the perturbation. These results highlight the complex interactions between passively pitching flapping wings and freestream perturbations and will guide the design of miniature flying crafts with such architectures.

RevDate: 2021-06-17

Li H, Tian B, He Z, et al (2021)

Growth mechanism of interfacial fluid-mixing width induced by successive nonlinear wave interactions.

Physical review. E, 103(5-1):053109.

Interfacial fluid mixing induced by successive waves, such as shock, rarefaction, and compression waves, plays a fundamental role in engineering applications, e.g., inertial confinement fusion, and in natural phenomena, e.g., supernova explosion. These waves bring nonuniform, unsteady external forces into the mixing zone, which leads to a complex mixing process. The growth rate of the mixing width is analyzed by decomposing the turbulent flow field into the averaged field and the fluctuating counterpart. The growth rate is thus divided into three parts: (i) the stretching or compression (S(C)) effect induced by the averaged-velocity difference between two ends of the mixing zone, (ii) the penetration effect induced by the fluctuations which represent the penetration of the two species into each other, and (iii) the diffusive effect, which is induced by the molecular diffusion and is negligible in high-Reynolds-number flows at Schmidt number of order unity. The penetration effect is further divided into the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) effect, which is induced by fluctuations that were deposited by earlier wave interactions, and the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) effect, which is caused by the fluctuations that arise in an overall acceleration of the mixing zone. During the passage of the rarefaction waves, the mixing zone is stretched, while during the passage of the compression waves or shock waves, the mixing zone is compressed. To illustrate these effects, a physical model of RM mixing with reshock is used. By combining the S(C), RM, and RT effects, the entire evolution of mixing width is restructured, which agrees well with numerical simulations for problems with a wide range of density ratios.

RevDate: 2021-07-14
CmpDate: 2021-07-14

Ahookhosh K, Saidi M, Mohammadpourfard M, et al (2021)

Flow Structure and Particle Deposition Analyses for Optimization of a Pressurized Metered Dose Inhaler (pMDI) in a Model of Tracheobronchial Airway.

European journal of pharmaceutical sciences : official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences, 164:105911.

Inhalation therapy plays an important role in management or treatment of respiratory diseases such asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs). For decades, pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) have been the most popular and prescribed drug delivery devices for inhalation therapy. The main objectives of the present computational work are to study flow structure inside a pMDI, as well as transport and deposition of micron-sized particles in a model of human tracheobronchial airways and their dependence on inhalation air flow rate and characteristic pMDI parameters. The upper airway geometry, which includes the extrathoracic region, trachea, and bronchial airways up to the fourth generation in some branches, was constructed based on computed tomography (CT) images of an adult healthy female. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was employed using the k-ω model with low-Reynolds number (LRN) corrections to accomplish the objectives. The deposition results of the present study were verified with the in vitro deposition data of our previous investigation on pulmonary drug delivery using a hollow replica of the same airway geometry as used for CFD modeling. It was found that the flow structure inside the pMDI and extrathoracic region strongly depends on inhalation flow rate and geometry of the inhaler. In addition, regional aerosol deposition patterns were investigated at four inhalation flow rates between 30 and 120 L/min and for 60 L/min yielding highest deposition fractions of 24.4% and 3.1% for the extrathoracic region (EX) and the trachea, respectively. It was also revealed that particle deposition was larger in the right branches of the bronchial airways (right lung) than the left branches (left lung) for all of the considered cases. Also, optimization of spray characteristics showed that the optimum values for initial spray velocity, spray cone angle and spray duration were 100 m/s, 10° and 0.1 sec, respectively. Moreover, spray cone angle, more than any other of the investigated pMDI parameters can change the deposition pattern of inhaled particles in the airway model. In conclusion, the present investigation provides a validated CFD model for particle deposition and new insights into the relevance of flow structure for deposition of pMDI-emitted pharmaceutical aerosols in the upper respiratory tract.

RevDate: 2021-06-18

Shah Z, Jafaryar M, Sheikholeslami M, et al (2021)

Heat transfer intensification of nanomaterial with involve of swirl flow device concerning entropy generation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):12504.

The thermal features of hybrid nano-powder turbulent motion through a pipe employing helical turbulator is numerically simulated via Finite Volume Method (FVM). The hybrid nanofluid (MWCNTs + Fe3O4 + H2O) is obtained by uniformly dispersing MWCNTs + Fe3O4 nanomaterials in H2O. The characteristics features of thermal energy transfer of hybrid nanofluid are investigated by varying the pitch ratio (P) of the helical turbulator and Reynolds number (Re) of the fluid. The outputs of the study are depicted in terms of contour plots of temperature, velocity, frictional irreversibility Sgen,f, and thermal irreversibility Sgen,th. The variation of Sgen,f, and Sgen,th with changing P and Re are also displayed by 3D plots. It is found that making the fluid more turbulent by increasing Re, the temperature of the fluid drops whereas the fluid velocity augments. The frictional irreversibility enhances, whereas the thermal irreversibility drops with the increasing turbulent motion. The decreasing P causes to drop the temperature of the higher turbulent fluid flow, while opposite effect is observed for smaller Re. The decreasing P causes to enhance the fluid mixing and thus augments the fluid velocity. Sgen,f and Sgen,th both augment with decreasing P. The comparison of current outputs with the older article shows an acceptable accuracy. The results of the present investigation will be useful in modelling of efficient thermal energy transfer systems.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Tian G, Zhu Y, Feng X, et al (2021)

Investigation of the Turbulent Boundary Layer Structure over a Sparsely Spaced Biomimetic Spine-Covered Protrusion Surface.

ACS omega, 6(22):14220-14229.

Multiperspective particle image velocimetry was used to investigate the turbulent boundary layer structure over biomimetic spine-covered protrusion (BSCP) samples inspired by dorsal skin of pufferfish. The comparison of BSCP samples of two sparse "k-type" arrangements (aligned and staggered) with roughness height k + = 5-7 (nearly hydraulically smooth) and smooth case were manufactured in bulk Reynolds number Re b = 37,091, 44,510. The negative value of the roughness function ΔU + shows a downward shift of the mean velocity profile of BSCP samples, which shows a drag reduction effect. The results of turbulent statistics present strong fluctuation over the aligned case in the streamwise direction, while little influence is observed in the wall-normal and spanwise direction, which promotes turbulence stability. The same phenomenon was found based on the probability density function of fluctuation velocity that the suppression of turbulent flow is better over the staggered case. It is obvious that the shear stress induced is governed by the streamwise fluctuations. Furthermore, the Q-criterion and the λci-criterion improved with vorticity ω were introduced for vortex identification, which indicates less prograde vortex population and weaker swirling strength over BSCP samples than over the smooth one. Finally, the spatial coherent structure appeared similar and more orderly over the staggered case in the streamwise and wall-normal direction based on the analysis of two-point correlations R uu. These results provide further guidance to reveal the mechanism of drag reduction on the BSCP surface.

RevDate: 2021-06-13

Velho Rodrigues MF, Lisicki M, E Lauga (2021)

The bank of swimming organisms at the micron scale (BOSO-Micro).

PloS one, 16(6):e0252291.

Unicellular microscopic organisms living in aqueous environments outnumber all other creatures on Earth. A large proportion of them are able to self-propel in fluids with a vast diversity of swimming gaits and motility patterns. In this paper we present a biophysical survey of the available experimental data produced to date on the characteristics of motile behaviour in unicellular microswimmers. We assemble from the available literature empirical data on the motility of four broad categories of organisms: bacteria (and archaea), flagellated eukaryotes, spermatozoa and ciliates. Whenever possible, we gather the following biological, morphological, kinematic and dynamical parameters: species, geometry and size of the organisms, swimming speeds, actuation frequencies, actuation amplitudes, number of flagella and properties of the surrounding fluid. We then organise the data using the established fluid mechanics principles for propulsion at low Reynolds number. Specifically, we use theoretical biophysical models for the locomotion of cells within the same taxonomic groups of organisms as a means of rationalising the raw material we have assembled, while demonstrating the variability for organisms of different species within the same group. The material gathered in our work is an attempt to summarise the available experimental data in the field, providing a convenient and practical reference point for future studies.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Amani M, Amani P, Bahiraei M, et al (2021)

Latest developments in nanofluid flow and heat transfer between parallel surfaces: A critical review.

Advances in colloid and interface science, 294:102450 pii:S0001-8686(21)00091-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The enhancement of heat transfer between parallel surfaces, including parallel plates, parallel disks, and two concentric pipes, is vital because of their wide applications ranging from lubrication systems to water purification processes. Various techniques can be utilized to enhance heat transfer in such systems. Adding nanoparticles to the conventional working fluids is an effective solution that could remarkably enhance the heat transfer rate. No published review article focuses on the recent advances in nanofluid flow between parallel surfaces; therefore, the present paper aims to review the latest experimental and numerical studies on the flow and heat transfer of nanofluids (mixtures of nanoparticles and conventional working fluids) in such configurations. For the performance analysis of thermal systems composed of parallel surfaces and operating with nanofluids, it is necessary to know the physical phenomena and parameters that influence the flow and heat transfer characteristics in these systems. Significant results obtained from this review indicate that, in most cases, the heat transfer rate between parallel surfaces is enhanced with an increase in the Rayleigh number, the Reynolds number, the magnetic number, and Brownian motion. On the other hand, an increase in thermophoresis parameter, as well as flow parameters, including the Eckert number, buoyancy ratio, Hartmann number, and Lewis number, leads to heat transfer rate reduction.

RevDate: 2021-06-17

Das S, Pal TK, Jana RN, et al (2021)

Significance of Hall currents on hybrid nano-blood flow through an inclined artery having mild stenosis: Homotopy perturbation approach.

Microvascular research, 137:104192.

The rheological perspective of blood flow with the suspension of metallic or non-metallic nanoparticles through arteries having cardiovascular diseases is getting more attention due to momentous applications in obstructed hemodynamics, nano-hemodynamics, nano-pharmacology, blood purification system, treatment of hemodynamic ailments, etc. Motivated by the novel significance and research in this direction, a mathematical hemodynamics model is developed to mimic the hemodynamic features of blood flow under the concentration of hybrid nanoparticles through an inclined artery with mild stenosis in the existence of dominating electromagnetic field force, Hall currents, heat source, and porous substance. Copper (Cu) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles are submerged into the blood to form hybrid nano-blood suspension (Cu-CuO/blood). The attribute of the medium porosity on the blood flow is featured by Darcy's law. The mathematical equations describing the flow are formulated and simplified under mild stenosis and small Reynolds number assumptions. To determine the analytical solution of the resulting nonlinear momentum equation, the homotopy perturbation method (HPM) is employed. Several figures are graphed to assess the hemodynamical contributions of various intricate physical parameters on blood flow phenomena through the inclined stenosed artery. Significant outcomes from graphical elucidation envisage that the hemodynamic resistance to the blood flow is reduced due to the dispersion of more hybrid nanoparticles in the blood. The hemodynamic resistance (impedance) increases approximately two times by dispersing 0.11% hybrid nanoparticles in the blood flow. The temperature of Cu-CuO/blood is found to be lower in comparison to Cu-blood and pure blood. Intensification of Hall parameter attenuates the wall shear stress at the arterial wall. The trapping phenomena are also outlined via streamline plots which exemplify the blood flow pattern in the stenosed artery under the variation of the emerging parameters. As anticipated, the addition of a large number of hybrid nanoparticles significantly modulates the blood flow pattern in the stenotic region. The novel feature of this model is the impressive impact of Hall currents on hybrid nanoparticle doped blood flow through the stenosed artery. There is another piece of significance is that HPM is the most suitable method to handle the nonlinear momentum equation under the aforementioned flow constraints. Outcomes of this simulation may be valuable for advanced study and research in biomedical engineering, bio-nanofluid mechanics, nano-pharmacodynamics.

RevDate: 2021-06-06

Usman AH, Khan NS, Humphries UW, et al (2021)

Computational optimization for the deposition of bioconvection thin Oldroyd-B nanofluid with entropy generation.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11641.

The behavior of an Oldroyd-B nanoliquid film sprayed on a stretching cylinder is investigated. The system also contains gyrotactic microorganisms with heat and mass transfer flow. Similarity transformations are used to make the governing equations non-dimensional ordinary differential equations and subsequently are solved through an efficient and powerful analytic technique namely homotopy analysis method (HAM). The roles of all dimensionless profiles and spray rate have been investigated. Velocity decreases with the magnetic field strength and Oldroyd-B nanofluid parameter. Temperature is increased with increasing the Brownian motion parameter while it is decreased with the increasing values of Prandtl and Reynolds numbers. Nanoparticle's concentration is enhanced with the higher values of Reynolds number and activation energy parameter. Gyrotactic microorganism density increases with bioconvection Rayleigh number while it decreases with Peclet number. The film size naturally increases with the spray rate in a nonlinear way. A close agreement is achieved by comparing the present results with the published results.

RevDate: 2021-07-20
CmpDate: 2021-06-03

Kadiri VM, Günther JP, Kottapalli SN, et al (2021)

Light- and magnetically actuated FePt microswimmers.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 44(6):74.

Externally controlled microswimmers offer prospects for transport in biological research and medical applications. This requires biocompatibility of the swimmers and the possibility to tailor their propulsion mechanisms to the respective low Reynolds number environment. Here, we incorporate low amounts of the biocompatible alloy of iron and platinum (FePt) in its [Formula: see text] phase in microstructures by a versatile one-step physical vapor deposition process. We show that the hard magnetic properties of [Formula: see text] FePt are beneficial for the propulsion of helical micropropellers with rotating magnetic fields. Finally, we find that the FePt coatings are catalytically active and also make for Janus microswimmers that can be light-actuated and magnetically guided.

RevDate: 2021-06-04

Choe YW, Sim SB, YM Choo (2021)

New Equation for Predicting Pipe Friction Coefficients Using the Statistical Based Entropy Concepts.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(5): pii:e23050611.

In general, this new equation is significant for designing and operating a pipeline to predict flow discharge. In order to predict the flow discharge, accurate determination of the flow loss due to pipe friction is very important. However, existing pipe friction coefficient equations have difficulties in obtaining key variables or those only applicable to pipes with specific conditions. Thus, this study develops a new equation for predicting pipe friction coefficients using statistically based entropy concepts, which are currently being used in various fields. The parameters in the proposed equation can be easily obtained and are easy to estimate. Existing formulas for calculating pipe friction coefficient requires the friction head loss and Reynolds number. Unlike existing formulas, the proposed equation only requires pipe specifications, entropy value and average velocity. The developed equation can predict the friction coefficient by using the well-known entropy, the mean velocity and the pipe specifications. The comparison results with the Nikuradse's experimental data show that the R2 and RMSE values were 0.998 and 0.000366 in smooth pipe, and 0.979 to 0.994 or 0.000399 to 0.000436 in rough pipe, and the discrepancy ratio analysis results show that the accuracy of both results in smooth and rough pipes is very close to zero. The proposed equation will enable the easier estimation of flow rates.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Zhou T, Chen B, H Liu (2021)

Study of the Performance of a Novel Radiator with Three Inlets and One Outlet Based on Topology Optimization.

Micromachines, 12(6): pii:mi12060594.

In recent years, in order to obtain a radiator with strong heat exchange capacity, researchers have proposed a lot of heat exchangers to improve heat exchange capacity significantly. However, the cooling abilities of heat exchangers designed by traditional design methods is limited even if the geometric parameters are optimized at the same time. However, using topology optimization to design heat exchangers can overcome this design limitation. Furthermore, researchers have used topology optimization theory to designed one-to-one and many-to-many inlet and outlet heat exchangers because it can effectively increase the heat dissipation rate. In particular, it can further decrease the hot-spot temperature for many-to-many inlet and outlet heat exchangers. Therefore, this article proposes novel heat exchangers with three inlets and one outlet designed by topology optimization to decrease the fluid temperature at the outlet. Subsequently, the effect of the channel depth on the heat exchanger design is also studied. The results show that the type of exchanger varies with the channel depth, and there exists a critical depth value for obtaining the minimum substrate temperature difference. Then, the flow and heat transfer performance of the heat exchangers are numerically investigated. The numerical results show that the heat exchanger derived by topology optimization with the minimum temperature difference as the goal (Model-2) is the best design for flow and heat transfer performance compared to other heat sink designs, including the heat exchanger derived by topology optimization having the average temperature as the goal (Model-1) and conventional straight channels (Model-3). The temperature difference of Model-1 can be reduced by 37.5%, and that of Model-2 can be decreased by 62.5% compared to Model-3. Compared with Model-3, the thermal resistance of Model-1 can be reduced by 21.86%, while that of Model-2 can be decreased by 47.99%. At room temperature, we carried out the forced convention experimental test for Model-2 to measure its physical parameters (temperature, pressure drop) to verify the numerical results. The error of the average wall temperature between experimental results and simulation results is within 2.6 K, while that of the fluid temperature between the experimental and simulation results is within 1.4 K, and the maximum deviation of the measured Nu and simulated Nu was less than 5%. This indicated that the numerical results agreed well with the experimental results.

RevDate: 2021-06-05

Gu B, Adjiman CS, XY Xu (2021)

Correlations for Concentration Polarization and Pressure Drop in Spacer-Filled RO Membrane Modules Based on CFD Simulations.

Membranes, 11(5):.

Empirical correlations for mass transfer coefficient and friction factor are often used in process models for reverse osmosis (RO) membrane systems. These usually involve four dimensionless groups, namely Reynolds number (Re), Sherwood number (Sh), friction factor (f), and Schmidt number (Sc), with the associated coefficients and exponents being obtained by fitting to experimental data. However, the range of geometric and operating conditions covered by the experiments is often limited. In this study, new dimensionless correlations for concentration polarization (CP) modulus and friction factor are presented, which are obtained by dimensional analysis and using simulation data from computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Two-dimensional CFD simulations are performed on three configurations of spacer-filled channels with 76 combinations of operating and geometric conditions for each configuration, covering a broad range of conditions encountered in RO membrane systems. Results obtained with the new correlations are compared with those from existing correlations in the literature. There is good consistency in the predicted CP with mean discrepancies less than 6%, but larger discrepancies for pressure gradient are found among the various friction factor correlations. Furthermore, the new correlations are implemented in a process model with six spiral wound modules in series and the predicted recovery, pressure drop, and specific energy consumption are compared with a reference case obtained by ROSA (Reverse Osmosis System Analysis, The Dow Chemical Company). Differences in predicted recovery and pressure drop are up to 5% and 83%, respectively, highlighting the need for careful selection of correlations when using predictive models in process design. Compared to existing mass transfer correlations, a distinct advantage of our correlations for CP modulus is that they can be directly used to estimate the impact of permeate flux on CP at a membrane surface without having to resort to the film theory.

RevDate: 2021-06-04

Pang M, Zhang T, Guo Y, et al (2021)

Re-crushing process and non-Darcian seepage characteristics of broken coal medium in coal mine water inrush.

Scientific reports, 11(1):11380.

The initiation process of the mine water inrush accident, the essence of this process is the sudden change of the seepage state of the broken coal medium under pressure and the instability of the skeleton. In order to study the re-crushing mechanism and seepage characteristics of the broken coal medium under load, a set of three-axis seepage system was designed independently. Using the steady-state infiltration method, multiple flow factors under different particle size combinations and different stress conditions of the broken coal medium were obtained. The results of the study indicate: in one hand, the reduction of the porosity of the broken coal medium will cause the flow channel to be rebuilt, and the sudden change of flow rate will directly lead to the non-Darcian flow behavior. The early stage of compaction mainly affects the permeability k value, and the later stage of compaction mainly affects the non-Darcian β value; On the other hand, the seepage throat in the broken coal medium may have a sharp increase in its flow rate, leading to a sudden change in the flow pattern. The critical Reynolds number is also used to determine whether non-Darcian flow is formed, and its value in the water inrush system is about 40-133; at the same time, the non-Darcian flow in the broken coal medium conforms to the Forchheimer-type flow law. By analyzing the dependence relationship between factors, a seepage factor representation algebraic relationship suitable for Forchheimer type non-Darcian flow of broken coal medium is given, which can be used as a calculation basis in the prevention and treatment of mine water inrush accidents.

RevDate: 2021-05-31

Agarwal JR, Torres CF, S Shah (2021)

Development of Dimensionless Parameters and Groups of Heat and Mass Transfer to Predict Wax Deposition in Crude Oil Pipelines.

ACS omega, 6(16):10578-10591.

A new methodology has been developed for analyzing heat and mass transfer to predict wax deposition in crude oil pipelines using the law of the wall dimensionless parameters. A set of physically meaningful dimensionless groups and parameters has laid a strong foundation behind the proposed methodology. The paper presents a discussion regarding the development of scale-up correlations from laboratory scale to field scale, considering the combination of both analytical groups and empirical correlations. Data from previous literature studies were employed for determining realistic values for the developed parameters and scale-up correlations. The utilization of new dimensionless scale-up parameters indicated that the wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is independent of the Reynolds number and the inner diameter of the pipeline. It further indicates that wax deposition in crude oil pipelines is mainly dependent on the heat transfer process and not on the shear reduction process. The dimensionless technique developed here can be utilized for determining the optimum pipe size and pigging frequencies to reduce and mitigate the effect of the wax deposition process.

RevDate: 2021-05-29

Ford MP, A Santhanakrishnan (2021)

Closer appendage spacing augments metachronal swimming speed by promoting tip vortex interactions.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6288460 [Epub ahead of print].

Numerous species of aquatic invertebrates, including crustaceans, swim by oscillating multiple closely spaced appendages. The coordinated, out-of-phase motion of these appendages, known as "metachronal paddling", has been well-established to improve swimming performance relative to synchronous paddling. Invertebrates employing this propulsion strategy cover a wide range of body sizes and shapes, but the ratio of appendage spacing (G) to the appendage length (L) has been reported to lie in a comparatively narrow range of 0.2 < G/L ≤ 0.65. The functional role of G/L on metachronal swimming performance is unknown. We hypothesized that for a given Reynolds number and stroke amplitude, hydrodynamic interactions promoted by metachronal stroke kinematics with small G/L can increase forward swimming speed. We used a dynamically scaled self-propelling robot to comparatively examine swimming performance and wake development of metachronal and synchronous paddling under varying G/L, phase lag, and stroke amplitude. G/L was varied from 0.4 to 1.5, with the expectation that when G/L is large, there should be no performance difference between metachronal and synchronous paddling due to a lack of interaction between vortices that form on the appendages. Metachronal stroking at non-zero phase lag with G/L in the biological range produced faster swimming speeds than synchronous stroking. As G/L increased and as stroke amplitude decreased, the influence of phase lag on the swimming speed of the robot was reduced. For smaller G/L, vortex interactions between adjacent appendages generated a horizontally-oriented wake and increased momentum fluxes relative to larger G/L, which contributed to increasing swimming speed. We find that while metachronal motion augments swimming performance for closely spaced appendages (G/L < 1), moderately spaced appendages (1.0 ≤ G/L ≤ 1.5) can benefit from metachronal motion only when the stroke amplitude is large.

RevDate: 2021-05-29

Shankar BM, IS Shivakumara (2021)

Benchmark solution for the stability of plane Couette flow with net throughflow.

Scientific reports, 11(1):10901.

This paper investigates the stability of an incompressible viscous fluid flow between relatively moving horizontal parallel plates in the presence of a uniform vertical throughflow. A linear stability analysis has been performed by employing the method of normal modes and the resulting stability equation is solved numerically using the Chebyshev collocation method. Contrary to the stability of plane Couette flow (PCF) to small disturbances for all values of the Reynolds number in the absence of vertical throughflow, it is found that PCF becomes unstable owing to the change in the sign of growth rate depending on the magnitude of throughflow. The critical Reynolds number triggering the instability is computed for different values of throughflow dependent Reynolds number and it is shown that throughflow instills both stabilizing and destabilizing effect on the base flow. It is seen that the direction of throughflow has no influence on the stability of fluid flow. A comparative study between plane Poiseuille flow and PCF has also been carried out and the similarities and differences are highlighted.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Kasoju VT, A Santhanakrishnan (2021)

Pausing after clap reduces power required to fling wings apart at low Reynolds number.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics, 16(5):.

The smallest flying insects, such as thrips (body length < 2 mm), are challenged with needing to move in air at a chord-based Reynolds number (Rec) of the order of 10. Pronounced viscous dissipation at such a low Recrequires considerable energetic expenditure for tiny insects to stay aloft. Thrips flap their densely bristled wings at large stroke amplitudes, bringing both wings in close proximity to each other at the end of upstroke ('clap') and moving their wings apart at the start of downstroke ('fling'). From high-speed videos of free take-off flights of thrips, we observed that their forewings remain clapped for approximately 10% of the wingbeat cycle before the start of downstroke (fling stroke). We sought to examine if there are aerodynamic advantages associated with pausing wing motion after upstroke (clap stroke) and before downstroke (fling stroke) at Rec= 10. A dynamically scaled robotic clap and fling platform was used to measure lift and drag forces generated by physical models of solid (non-bristled) and bristled wings in single wing and wing pair configurations, for pause times ranging between 0% to 41% of the cycle. For solid and bristled wing pairs, pausing before the start of downstroke (fling stroke) dissipated vorticity generated at the end of upstroke (clap stroke). This resulted in a decrease in the drag coefficient averaged across downstroke (fling stroke) and in turn reduced power requirements. Also, increasing the pause time resulted in a larger decrease in the dimensionless power coefficient for the wing-pair configurations compared to the single-wing configurations. Our findings show that wing-wing interaction observed in the clap and fling motion of tiny insect wings is necessary to realize the aerodynamic benefits of pausing before fling, by reducing the power required to clap and fling for a small compromise in lift.

RevDate: 2021-05-25

Wanzheng A, Z Pengfei (2021)

Correction and laboratory investigation for energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate.

Science progress, 104(2):368504211018571.

A lot of studies have shown that the hydraulic characteristics of orifice plate are mainly controlled by its contraction ratio, but the thickness of square-edged orifice plate also has many impacts on energy loss characteristics. The primary objective of this study was to investigated the effects of square-edged orifice plate thickness on energy loss characteristics. In this paper, the effects of square-edged orifice plate thickness on energy loss characteristics are investigated by numerical simulation using CFD. Orifice plate discharge tunnel is axial symmetric, two dimensional numerical simulations of orifice plate discharge tunnel flow was used. The equation (9) for calculating energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater considering the influence of thickness is proposed. The results of the present research demonstrate that energy loss coefficient decreases with increase of the orifice plate thickness. The results of model experiment are consistence with the results calculated by using rectified equation in present paper. The CFD simulations and Model experiment for the flow through an orifice plate are carried out. For square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater, the relative orifice plate thickness T/D has remarkable impacts on its energy loss coefficient ξ. The Traditional equation (8) is corrected by numerical results. The equation (9) for calculating energy loss coefficient of square-edged orifice plate energy dissipater considering the influence of thickness is proposed and this equation is available in the condition of d/D = 0.4-0.8, T/D = 0.05-0.25, and Re > 105(Re is Reynolds number). Comparing with the physical model experimental data, the relative errors of equation (9) is smaller than 15%.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Murayama Y, Nakata T, H Liu (2021)

Flexible Flaps Inspired by Avian Feathers Can Enhance Aerodynamic Robustness in low Reynolds Number Airfoils.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 9:612182.

Unlike rigid rotors of drones, bird wings are composed of flexible feathers that can passively deform while achieving remarkable aerodynamic robustness in response to wind gusts. In this study, we conduct an experimental study on the effects of the flexible flaps inspired by the covert of bird wings on aerodynamic characteristics of fixed-wings in disturbances. Through force measurements and flow visualization in a low-speed wind tunnel, it is found that the flexible flaps can suppress the large-scale vortex shedding and hence reduce the fluctuations of aerodynamic forces in a disturbed flow behind an oscillating plate. Our results demonstrate that the stiffness of the flaps strongly affects the aerodynamic performance, and the force fluctuations are observed to be reduced when the deformation synchronizes with the strong vortex generation. The results point out that the simple attachment of the flexible flaps on the upper surface of the wing is an effective method, providing a novel biomimetic design to improve the aerodynamic robustness of small-scale drones with fixed-wings operating in unpredictable aerial environments.

RevDate: 2021-05-27

Chassagne F, Barbour MC, Chivukula VK, et al (2021)

The effect of Dean, Reynolds, and Womersley number on the flow in a spherical cavity on a curved round pipe. Part 1. Fluid mechanics in the cavity as a canonical flow representing intracranial aneurysms.

Journal of fluid mechanics, 915:.

Flow in side-wall cerebral aneurysms can be ideally modelled as the combination of flow over a spherical cavity and flow in a curved circular pipe, two canonical flows. Flow in a curved pipe is known to depend on the Dean number De, combining the effects of Reynolds number, Re, and of the curvature along the pipe centreline, κ. Pulsatility in the flow introduces a dependency on the Womersley number Wo. Using stereo PIV measurements, this study investigated the effect of these three key non-dimensional parameters, by modifying pipe curvature (De), flow-rate (Re), and pulsatility frequency (Wo), on the flow patterns in a spherical cavity. A single counter-rotating vortex was observed in the cavity for all values of pipe curvature κ and Re, for both steady and pulsatile inflow conditions. Increasing the pipe curvature impacted both the flow patterns in the pipe and the cavity, by shifting the velocity profile towards the cavity opening and increasing the flow rate into the cavity. The circulation in the cavity was found to collapse well with only the Dean number, for both steady and pulsatile inflows. For pulsatile inflow, the counter-rotating vortex was unstable and the location of its centre over time was impacted by the curvature of the pipe, as well as the Re and the Wo in the freestream. The circulation in the cavity was higher for steady inflow than for the equivalent average Reynolds and Dean number pulsatile inflow, with very limited impact of the Womersley in the range studied.

RevDate: 2021-05-20

Aljabair S, Ekaid AL, Ibrahim SH, et al (2021)

Mixed convection in sinusoidal lid driven cavity with non-uniform temperature distribution on the wall utilizing nanofluid.

Heliyon, 7(5):e06907.

Mixed convection heat transfer of Cu-water nanofluid in an arc cavity with non-uniform heating has been numerically studied. The top flat moving wall is isothermally cooled at Tc and moved with a constant velocity. While the heated arc stationary wall of the cavity is maintained at a hot temperature Th. FORTRAN code is used to solve the mass, momentum, and energy equations in dimensionless form with suitable boundary conditions. In this study, the Reynolds number changed from 1 to 2000, and the Rayleigh number changed from 0 to 107. Also, the range of nanoparticles volume fraction extends from ϕ = 0 to 0.07. Stream vorticity method selected for the discretization of flow and energy equations. The present results are compared with the previous results for the validation part, where the results found a good agreement with the others works. The isotherms are regulated near the arc-shape wall causing a steep temperature gradient at these regions and the local and average heat transfer rate increases with increased volume fraction or Reynolds number or Rayleigh number. Finally, Correlation equations of the average Nusselt number from numerical results are presented.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Fouxon I, Feinberg J, M Mond (2021)

Linear and nonlinear hydromagnetic stability in laminar and turbulent flows.

Physical review. E, 103(4-1):043104.

We consider the evolution of arbitrarily large perturbations of a prescribed pure hydrodynamical flow of an electrically conducting fluid. We study whether the flow perturbations as well as the generated magnetic fields decay or grow with time and constitute a dynamo process. For that purpose we derive a generalized Reynolds-Orr equation for the sum of the kinetic energy of the hydrodynamic perturbation and the magnetic energy. The flow is confined in a finite volume so the normal component of the velocity at the boundary is zero. The tangential component is left arbitrary in contrast with previous works. For the magnetic field we mostly employ the classical boundary conditions where the field extends in the whole space. We establish critical values of hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers below which arbitrarily large initial perturbations of the hydrodynamic flow decay. This involves generalization of the Rayleigh-Faber-Krahn inequality for the smallest eigenvalue of an elliptic operator. For high Reynolds number turbulence we provide an estimate of critical magnetic Reynolds number below which arbitrarily large fluctuations of the magnetic field decay.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Gissinger JR, Zinchenko AZ, RH Davis (2021)

Internal circulation and mixing within tight-squeezing deformable droplets.

Physical review. E, 103(4-1):043106.

The internal flow and mixing properties inside deformable droplets, after reaching the steady state within two types of passive droplet traps, are visualized and analyzed as dynamical systems. The first droplet trap (constriction) is formed by three spheres arranged in an equilateral triangle, while the second consists of two parallel spherocylinders (capsules). The systems are assumed to be embedded in a uniform far-field flow at low Reynolds number, and the steady shapes and interfacial velocities on the drops are generated using the boundary-integral method. The internal velocity field is recovered by solving the internal Dirichlet problem, also via a desingularized boundary-integral method. Calculation of 2D streamlines within planes of symmetry reveals the internal equilibria of the flow. The type of each equilibrium is classified in 3D and their interactions probed using passive tracers and their Poincaré maps. For the two-capsule droplet, saddle points located on orthogonal symmetry planes influence the regular flow within the drop. For the three-sphere droplet, large regions of chaos are observed, embedded with simple periodic orbits. Flow is visualized via passive dyes, using material lines and surfaces. In 2D, solely the interface between two passive interior fluids is advected using an adaptive number of linked tracer particles. The reduction in dimension decreases the number of required tracer points, and also resolves arbitrarily thin filaments, in contrast to backward cell-mapping methods. In 3D, the advection of a material surface, bounded by the droplet interface, is enabled using an adaptive mesh scheme. Off-lattice 3D contour advection allows for highly resolved visualizations of the internal flow and quantification of the associated degree of mixing. Analysis of the time-dependent growth of material surfaces and 3D mixing numbers suggests the three-sphere droplet exhibits superior mixing properties compared to the two-capsule droplet.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Brahmachary S, Natarajan G, Kulkarni V, et al (2021)

Role of solution reconstruction in hypersonic viscous computations using a sharp interface immersed boundary method.

Physical review. E, 103(4-1):043302.

This work discusses the development of a sharp interface immersed boundary (IB) method for viscous compressible flows and its assessment for accurate computations of wall shear and heat fluxes in hypersonic flows. The IB method is implemented in an unstructured Cartesian finite-volume (FV) framework and resolves the geometric interface sharply on the nonconformal mesh through direct imposition of boundary conditions employing a local reconstruction approach. The efficacy of the IB-FV solver is investigated for canonical high-speed viscous flows over a range of Mach numbers. The numerical results indicate that the surface pressure and shear stress distributions are computed with reasonable accuracy, whereas surface heat fluxes for aerodynamically blunt configurations are underpredicted. Employing a set of carefully designed experiments and simple diagnostic tools, we probe the possible causes for the underprediction in heat flux. We show that there exist two sources of error-one due to grid resolution and the other due to solution reconstruction, with the latter being more prominent and responsible for the observed underprediction in heat fluxes. Studies reveal that the heat flux estimates are sensitive to the choice of temperature reconstruction and linear interpolations could lead to poor estimates of heat flux. Our investigations conclusively point out the fact that existing polynomial-based reconstruction approaches for sharp interface IB techniques are not necessarily adequate for heat transfer predictions in high Reynolds number hypersonic flows.

RevDate: 2021-06-02
CmpDate: 2021-05-24

Nguyen QM, Abouezzi J, L Ristroph (2021)

Early turbulence and pulsatile flows enhance diodicity of Tesla's macrofluidic valve.

Nature communications, 12(1):2884.

Microfluidics has enabled a revolution in the manipulation of small volumes of fluids. Controlling flows at larger scales and faster rates, or macrofluidics, has broad applications but involves the unique complexities of inertial flow physics. We show how such effects are exploited in a device proposed by Nikola Tesla that acts as a diode or valve whose asymmetric internal geometry leads to direction-dependent fluidic resistance. Systematic tests for steady forcing conditions reveal that diodicity turns on abruptly at Reynolds number [Formula: see text] and is accompanied by nonlinear pressure-flux scaling and flow instabilities, suggesting a laminar-to-turbulent transition that is triggered at unusually low [Formula: see text]. To assess performance for unsteady forcing, we devise a circuit that functions as an AC-to-DC converter, rectifier, or pump in which diodes transform imposed oscillations into directed flow. Our results confirm Tesla's conjecture that diodic performance is boosted for pulsatile flows. The connections between diodicity, early turbulence and pulsatility uncovered here can inform applications in fluidic mixing and pumping.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Chen X, Zhang Y, J Wang (2021)

Simulation analysis of mixing in passive microchannel with fractal obstacles based on Murray's law.

Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

In this paper, we designed fractal obstacles according to Murray's law and set them in a microchannel. We study the influence of the numbers of fractal obstacles, channel widths, branch widths, and the distance between fractal obstacles on mixing efficiency. The optimized micromixer has a high mixing efficiency of more than 90% at all velocities. This paper focuses on the analysis of the variation of mixing efficiency and pressure drop in the range of Reynolds number (Re) 0.1-150. The simulation results show that when the fluid velocity is low, the mixing efficiency of the fluids is mainly improved by molecular diffusion, when the fluid velocity is high, the microchannel with fractal obstacles can promote chaotic convection of the fluids and improve the mixing efficiency. The fractal structure based on Murray's law can be widely used in the design of passive micromixer.

RevDate: 2021-07-05
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Su J, Chen X, Zhu Y, et al (2021)

Machine learning assisted fast prediction of inertial lift in microchannels.

Lab on a chip, 21(13):2544-2556.

Inertial effect has been extensively used in manipulating both engineered particles and biocolloids in microfluidic platforms. The design of inertial microfluidic devices largely relies on precise prediction of particle migration that is determined by the inertial lift acting on the particle. In spite of being the only means to accurately obtain the lift forces, direct numerical simulation (DNS) often consumes high computational cost and even becomes impractical when applied to microchannels with complex geometries. Herein, we proposed a fast numerical algorithm in conjunction with machine learning techniques for the analysis and design of inertial microfluidic devices. A database of inertial lift forces was first generated by conducting DNS over a wide range of operating parameters in straight microchannels with three types of cross-sectional shapes, including rectangular, triangular and semicircular shapes. A machine learning assisted model was then developed to gain the inertial lift distribution, by simply specifying the cross-sectional shape, Reynolds number and particle blockage ratio. The resultant inertial lift was integrated into the Lagrangian tracking method to quickly predict the particle trajectories in two types of microchannels in practical devices and yield good agreement with experimental observations. Our database and the associated codes allow researchers to expedite the development of the inertial microfluidic devices for particle manipulation.

RevDate: 2021-05-17

Garayev K, DW Murphy (2021)

Metachronal swimming of mantis shrimp: kinematics and interpleopod vortex interactions.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6276570 [Epub ahead of print].

Mantis shrimp swim via metachronal rowing, a pattern in which the pleopods (swimming limbs) stroke sequentially, starting with the last pair and followed by anterior neighbors. A similar swimming pattern is used at various sizes, Reynolds numbers, and advance ratios by diverse organisms including ciliates, ctenophores, copepods, krill, and lobsters. Understanding this type of locomotion is important because it is widespread and may inspire the design of underwater vehicles where efficiency, robustness, and maneuverability are desired. However, detailed measurements of the flow around free-swimming, metachronally rowing organisms are scarce, especially for organisms swimming in a high Reynolds number regime (Re ≥ 104). In this study, we present time-resolved, planar PIV measurements of a swimming peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus). Simultaneous kinematics measurements of the animal, which had body and pleopod lengths of 114 mm and 20 mm, respectively, reveal mean swimming speeds of 0.2-1.9 m s - 1 and pleopod beat frequencies of 3.6-13 Hz, corresponding to advance ratios of 0.75-1.84 and body-based Reynolds numbers of 23,000-217,000. Further, the animal's stroke is not purely metachronal, with a long phase lag between initiation of the first and fifth pleopod power strokes. Flow measurements in the sagittal plane show that each stroking pleopod pair creates a posteriorly moving tip vortex which evades destruction by the recovery strokes of other pleopod pairs. The vortex created by the anteriormost pleopod pair is the strongest and, owing to the animal's high advance ratio, is intercepted by the power stroke of the posteriormost pleopod pair. The vortex strength increases as a result of this interaction, which may increase swimming speed or efficiency. A relationship for vortex interception by the posterior pleopod is proposed that relates the phase lag between the interacting pleopods to the beat frequency, distance between those pleopods, and speed of the vortex relative to the animal. We describe this interaction with a novel parameter called the interpleopod vortex phase matching Strouhal number StIVPM which is equal to the phase lag between interacting pleopods. This new nondimensional parameter may be useful in predicting the conditions where a constructive interaction may occur in other species or in physical models. Finally, we relate the advance ratio to the Reynolds number ratio, the ratio between the body-based Reynolds number and the pleopod-based Reynolds number. The importance of these parameters in promoting the interpleopod vortex interactions identified here, in dynamically scaled experiments, and in wake signatures behind schooling metachronal swimmers is discussed.

RevDate: 2021-05-16

Mehboudi A, J Yeom (2021)

A passive Stokes flow rectifier for Newtonian fluids.

Scientific reports, 11(1):10182.

Non-linear effects of the Navier-Stokes equations disappear under the Stokes regime of Newtonian fluid flows disallowing a flow rectification behavior. Here we show that passive flow rectification of Newtonian fluids is obtainable under the Stokes regime of both compressible and incompressible flows by introducing nonlinearity into the otherwise linear Stokes equations. Asymmetric flow resistances arise in shallow nozzle/diffuser microchannels with deformable ceiling, in which the fluid flow is governed by a non-linear coupled fluid-solid mechanics equation. The proposed model captures the unequal deflection profile of the deformable ceiling depending on the flow direction under the identical applied pressure, permitting a larger flow rate in the nozzle configuration. Ultra-low aspect ratio microchannels sealed by a flexible membrane have been fabricated to demonstrate passive flow rectification for low-Reynolds-number flows (0.001 < Re < 10) of common Newtonian fluids such as water, methanol, and isopropyl alcohol. The proposed rectification mechanism is also extended to compressible flows, leading to the first demonstration of rectifying equilibrium gas flows under the Stokes flow regime. While the maximum rectification ratio experimentally obtained in this work is limited to 1.41, a higher value up to 1.76 can be achieved by optimizing the width profile of the asymmetric microchannels.

RevDate: 2021-05-15

Kazemi A, Castillo L, OM Curet (2021)

Mangrove roots model suggest an optimal porosity to prevent erosion.

Scientific reports, 11(1):9969.

Mangrove swamps are extremely productive ecosystems providing many ecological services in coastal regions. The hydrodynamic interactions of mangrove roots and water flow have been proposed as a key element to mitigate erosion. Several studies reveal that precise prediction of the morphological evolution of coastal areas, in the face of global warming and the consequent sea-level rise, requires an understanding of interactions between root porosity (the fraction of the volume of void space over the total volume), water flows, and sediment transport. Water flows around the mangrove prop roots create a complex energetic process that mixes up sediments and generates a depositional region posterior to the roots. In this work, we investigated the boundary layer behind permeable arrays of cylinders (patch) that represent the mangrove roots to explore the impact of patch porosity on the onset of sediment transport. The flow measurements were performed in a vertical plane along the water depth downstream of the mangrove root models. A high-resolution Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used in a flume to observe the impact of porosity on the mean flow, velocity derivatives, skin friction coefficient, and production of turbulent kinetic energy for Reynolds number of 2500 (based on patch diameter length-scale). Here, we proposed a predictive model for critical velocity for incipient motion that takes into account the mangrove roots porosity and the near-bed turbulence effect. It is found that the patch with the [Formula: see text] porosity, has the maximum critical velocity over which the sediment transport initiates. We found the optimum porosity has the minimum sediment erosion and creates negative vorticity sources near the bed that increases the critical velocity. This signifies an optimum porosity for the onset of sediment transport consistent with the porosity of mangroves in nature. The phenomenological model is elucidated based on an analysis of the vorticity evolution equation for viscous incompressible flows. For the optimum porous patch, a sink of vorticity was formed which yielded to lower the near-bed turbulence and vorticity. The minimum velocity fluctuations were sufficient to initiate the boundary layer transition, however, the viscous dissipation dominated the turbulence production to obstruct the sediment transport. This work identified the pivotal role of mangrove root porosity in sediment transport in terms of velocity and its derivatives in wall-bounded flows. Our work also provides insight into the sediment transport and erosion processes that govern the evolution of the shapes of shorelines.

RevDate: 2021-05-06

Vasilopoulos K, Lekakis I, Sarris IE, et al (2021)

Large eddy simulation of dispersion of hazardous materials released from a fire accident around a cubical building.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The turbulent smoke dispersion from a pool fire around a cubical building is studied using large eddy simulation at a high Reynolds number, corresponding to existing experimental measurements both in laboratory and field test scales. Emphasis of this work is on the smoke dispersion due to two different fuel pool fire accident scenarios, initiated behind the building. For the setup of fire in the first case, crude oil was used with a heat release rate of 7.8 MW, and in the second, diesel oil with a heat release rate of 13.5 MW. It is found that in both fire scenarios, the downstream extent of the toxic zone is approximately the same. This is explained in terms of the fact that the smoke concentration and dispersion are influenced mainly by the convective buoyant forces and the strong turbulence mixing processes within the wake zone of the building. It is suggested that wind is the dominating factor in these accident scenarios, which represent the conditions resulting in the highest toxicity levels.

RevDate: 2021-05-09

Asai T, S Hong (2021)

Aerodynamics of the newly approved football for the English Premier League 2020-21 season.

Scientific reports, 11(1):9578.

Footballs are typically constructed with 32 panels. Recently, the number of panels has been successively reduced to 14, 8, and 6 panels, and official balls have been adopted with complex panel shapes and aerodynamics that differ from those of 32-panel balls. The official ball for the 2020-21 season of the English Premier League comprises just four panels with a complex panel shape and surface groove design; however, its aerodynamics have not yet been clarified. This study aims to clarify the aerodynamic characteristics (drag, side force, lift force, their deviations, and critical Reynolds number) of the new 4-panel ball (Flight 2020, Nike) in comparison to a 6-panel ball (Tsubasa 2020, Adidas) and conventional 32-panel ball (Pelada 2020, Molten) using a wind tunnel test, surface design measurement, and a simple 2D flight simulation. The results showed that Flight 2020 has greater surface roughness and smaller critical Reynolds number than Pelada 2020 and Tsubasa 2020, resulting to its marginally greater drag force in the supercritical region, and slightly smaller fluctuations of the side and lift forces. Furthermore, Flight with a symmetrical orientation exhibits a significantly higher drag coefficient in the supercritical region, suggesting its greater air resistance during flight under this condition.

RevDate: 2021-07-14
CmpDate: 2021-07-14

Sharan P, Nsamela A, Lesher-Pérez SC, et al (2021)

Microfluidics for Microswimmers: Engineering Novel Swimmers and Constructing Swimming Lanes on the Microscale, a Tutorial Review.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 17(26):e2007403.

This paper provides an updated review of recent advances in microfluidics applied to artificial and biohybrid microswimmers. Sharing the common regime of low Reynolds number, the two fields have been brought together to take advantage of the fluid characteristics at the microscale, benefitting microswimmer research multifold. First, microfluidics offer simple and relatively low-cost devices for high-fidelity production of microswimmers made of organic and inorganic materials in a variety of shapes and sizes. Microscale confinement and the corresponding fluid properties have demonstrated differential microswimmer behaviors in microchannels or in the presence of various types of physical or chemical stimuli. Custom environments to study these behaviors have been designed in large part with the help of microfluidics. Evaluating microswimmers in increasingly complex lab environments such as microfluidic systems can ensure more effective implementation for in-field applications. The benefits of microfluidics for the fabrication and evaluation of microswimmers are balanced by the potential use of microswimmers for sample manipulation and processing in microfluidic systems, a large obstacle in diagnostic and other testing platforms. In this review various ways in which these two complementary technology fields will enhance microswimmer development and implementation in various fields are introduced.

RevDate: 2021-05-22

Hartl B, Hübl M, Kahl G, et al (2021)

Microswimmers learning chemotaxis with genetic algorithms.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(19):.

Various microorganisms and some mammalian cells are able to swim in viscous fluids by performing nonreciprocal body deformations, such as rotating attached flagella or by distorting their entire body. In order to perform chemotaxis (i.e., to move toward and to stay at high concentrations of nutrients), they adapt their swimming gaits in a nontrivial manner. Here, we propose a computational model, which features autonomous shape adaptation of microswimmers moving in one dimension toward high field concentrations. As an internal decision-making machinery, we use artificial neural networks, which control the motion of the microswimmer. We present two methods to measure chemical gradients, spatial and temporal sensing, as known for swimming mammalian cells and bacteria, respectively. Using the genetic algorithm NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies, surprisingly simple neural networks evolve. These networks control the shape deformations of the microswimmers and allow them to navigate in static and complex time-dependent chemical environments. By introducing noisy signal transmission in the neural network, the well-known biased run-and-tumble motion emerges. Our work demonstrates that the evolution of a simple and interpretable internal decision-making machinery coupled to the environment allows navigation in diverse chemical landscapes. These findings are of relevance for intracellular biochemical sensing mechanisms of single cells or for the simple nervous system of small multicellular organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans.

RevDate: 2021-05-22

Wang S, Liu Z, Wu S, et al (2021)

Microalgae separation by inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation.

Electrophoresis [Epub ahead of print].

To improve the accuracy and efficiency of ships' ballast water detection, the separation of microalgae according to size is significant. In this article, a method to separate microalgae based on inertia-enhanced pinched flow fractionation (iPFF) was reported. The method utilized the inertial lift force induced by flow to separate microalgae according to size continuously. The experimental results show that, as the Reynolds number increases, the separation effect becomes better at first, but then stays unchanged. The best separation effect can be obtained when the Reynolds number is 12.3. In addition, with the increase of the flow rate ratio between sheath fluid and microalgae mixture, the separation effect becomes better and the best separation effect can be obtained when the flow rate ratio reaches 10. In this case, the recovery rate of Tetraselmis sp. is about 90%, and the purity is about 86%; the recovery rate of Chlorella sp. is as high as 99%, and the purity is about 99%. After that, the separation effect keeps getting better but very slowly. In general, this study provides a simple method for the separation of microalgae with different sizes, and lays a foundation for the accurate detection of microalgae in the ballast water.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Rao Y, Li L, Wang S, et al (2021)

Numerical Simulation Study on Flow Laws and Heat Transfer of Gas Hydrate in the Spiral Flow Pipeline with Long Twisted Band.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(4): pii:e23040489.

The natural gas hydrate plugging problems in the mixed pipeline are becoming more and more serious. The hydrate plugging has gradually become an important problem to ensure the safety of pipeline operation. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of natural gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline have been studied. The DPM model (discrete phase model) was used to simulate the motion of solid particles, which was used to simulate the complex spiral flow characteristics of hydrate in the pipeline with a long twisted band. The deposition and heat transfer characteristics of gas hydrate particles in the spiral flow pipeline were studied. The velocity distribution, pressure drop distribution, heat transfer characteristics, and particle settling characteristics in the pipeline were investigated. The numerical results showed that compared with the straight flow without a long twisted band, two obvious eddies are formed in the flow field with a long twisted band, and the velocities are maximum at the center of the vortices. Along the direction of the pipeline, the two vortices move toward the pipe wall from near the twisted band, which can effectively carry the hydrate particles deposited on the wall. With the same Reynolds number, the twisted rate was greater, the spiral strength was weaker, the tangential velocity was smaller, and the pressure drop was smaller. Therefore, the pressure loss can be reduced as much as possible with effect of the spiral flow. In a straight light flow, the Nusselt number is in a parabolic shape with the opening downwards. At the center of the pipe, the Nusselt number gradually decreased toward the pipe wall at the maximum, and at the near wall, the attenuation gradient of the Nu number was large. For spiral flow, the curve presented by the Nusselt number was a trough at the center of the pipe and a peak at 1/2 of the pipe diameter. With the reduction of twist rate, the Nusselt number becomes larger. Therefore, the spiral flow can make the temperature distribution more even and prevent the large temperature difference, resulting in the mass formation of hydrate particles in the pipeline wall. Spiral flow has a good carrying effect. Under the same condition, the spiral flow carried hydrate particles at a distance about 3-4 times farther than that of the straight flow.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Yuan S, Jiang B, Peng T, et al (2021)

An Investigation of Flow Patterns and Mixing Characteristics in a Cross-Shaped Micromixer within the Laminar Regime.

Micromachines, 12(4):.

A fast mixing is critical for subsequent practical development of microfluidic devices, which are often used for assays in the detection of reagents and samples. The present work sets up computational fluid dynamics simulations to explore the flow characteristic and mixing mechanism of fluids in cross-shaped mixers within the laminar regime. First, the effects of increasing an operating parameter on local mixing quality along the microchannels are investigated. It is found that sufficient diffusion cannot occur even though the concentration gradient is large at a high Reynolds number. Meanwhile, a method for calculating local mixing efficiency is also characterized. The mixing efficiency varies exponentially with the flow distance. Second, in order to optimize the cross-shaped mixer, the effects of design parameters, namely aspect ratio, mixing angle and blockage, on mixing quality are captured and the visualization of velocity and concentration distribution are demonstrated. The results show that the aspect ratio and the blockage play an important role in accelerating the mixing process. They can improve the mixing efficiency by increasing the mass transfer area and enhancing the chaotic advection, respectively. In contrast, the inflow angle that affects dispersion length is not an effective parameter. Besides, the surface roughness, which makes the disturbance of fluid flow by roughness more obvious, is considered. Three types of rough elements bring benefits for enhancing mixing quality due to the convection induced by the lateral velocity.

RevDate: 2021-05-27

Ansari A, Kavousi S, Helfer F, et al (2021)

An Improved Modelling Approach for the Comprehensive Study of Direct Contact Membrane Distillation.

Membranes, 11(5):.

Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) is a promising and feasible technology for water desalination. Most of the models used to simulate DCMD are one-dimensional and/or use a linear function of vapour pressure which relies on experimentally determined parameters. In this study, the model of DCMD using Nusselt correlations was improved by coupling the continuity, momentum, and energy equations to better capture the downstream alteration of flow field properties. A logarithmic function of vapour pressure, which is independent from experiments, was used. This allowed us to analyse DCMD with different membrane properties. The results of our developed model were in good agreement with the DCMD experimental results, with less than 7% deviation. System performance metrics, including water flux, temperature, and concentration polarisation coefficient and thermal efficiency, were analysed by varying inlet feed and permeate temperature, inlet velocity, inlet feed concentration, channel length. In addition, twenty-two commercial membranes were analysed to obtain a real vision on the influence of membrane characteristics on system performance metrics. The results showed that the feed temperature had the most significant effect on water flux and thermal efficiency. The increased feed temperature enhanced the water flux and thermal efficiency; however, it caused more concentration and temperature polarisation. On the other hand, the increased inlet velocity was found to provide increased water flux and reduced temperature and concertation polarisation as well. It was also found that the membrane properties, especially thickness and porosity, can affect the DCMD performance significantly. A two-fold increase of feed temperature increased the water flux and thermal efficiency, 10-fold and 27%, respectively; however, it caused an increase in temperature and concertation polarisation, at 48% and 34%, respectively. By increasing Reynolds number from 80 to 1600, the water flux, CPC, and TPC enhanced by 2.3-fold, 2%, and 21%, respectively. The increased feed concentration from 0 to 250 [g/L] caused a 26% reduction in water flux. To capture the downstream alteration of flow properties, it was shown that the ratio of inlet value to outlet value of system performance metrics decreased significantly throughout the module. Therefore, improvement over the conventional model is undeniable, as the new model can assist in achieving optimal operation conditions.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Yuan C, Zhang H, Li X, et al (2021)

Numerical Investigation of T-Shaped Microfluidic Oscillator with Viscoelastic Fluid.

Micromachines, 12(5):.

Oscillatory flow has many applications in micro-scaled devices. The methods of realizing microfluidic oscillators reported so far are typically based on the impinging-jet and Coanda effect, which usually require the flow Reynolds number to be at least at the order of unity. Another approach is to introduce elastomeric membrane into the microfluidic units; however, the manufacturing process is relatively complex, and the membrane will become soft after long-time operation, which leads to deviation from the design condition. From the perspective of the core requirement of a microfluidic circuit, i.e., nonlinearity, the oscillatory microfluidic flow can be realized via the nonlinear characteristics of viscoelastic fluid flow. In this paper, the flow characteristics of viscoelastic fluid (Boger-type) in a T-shaped channel and its modified structures are studied by two-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS). The main results obtained from the DNS study are as follows: (1) Both Weissenberg (Wi) number and viscosity ratio need to be within a certain range to achieve a periodic oscillating performance; (2) With the presence of the dynamic evolution of the pair of vortices in the upstream near the intersection, the oscillation intensity increases as the elasticity-dominated area in the junction enlarges; (3) Considering the simplicity of the T-type channel as a potential oscillator, the improved structure should have a groove carved toward the entrance near the upper wall. The maximum oscillation intensity measured by the standard deviation of flow rate at outlet is increased by 129% compared with that of the original standard T-shaped channel under the same condition. To sum up, with Wi number and viscosity ratio within a certain range, the regular periodic oscillation characteristics of Oldroyd-B type viscoelastic fluid flow in standard T-shaped and its modified channels can be obtained. This structure can serve as a passive microfluidic oscillator with great potential value at an extremely low Reynolds number, which has the advantages of simplicity, no moving parts and fan-out of two.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Abbasnezhad N, Kebdani M, Shirinbayan M, et al (2021)

Development of a Model Based on Physical Mechanisms for the Explanation of Drug Release: Application to Diclofenac Release from Polyurethane Films.

Polymers, 13(8):.

In this study, we present a method for prediction of the drug-release profile based on the physical mechanisms that can intervene in drug release from a drug-carrier. The application presented here incorporates the effects of drug concentration and Reynolds number defining the circulating flow in the testing vein. The experimental data used relate to the release of diclofenac from samples of non-degradable polyurethane subjected to static and continuous flow. This case includes simultaneously three mechanisms: burst-release, diffusion and osmotic pressure, identified beforehand here as being able to contribute to the drug liberation. For this purpose, authors coded the Sequential Quadratic Programming Algorithm to solve the problem of non-linear optimization. The experimental data used to develop the mathematical model obtained from release studies carried out in water solution at 37 °C, for three concentrations of diclofenac and two water flow rates. We discuss the contribution of mechanisms and kinetics by considering two aforementioned parameters and, following that, we obtain the specific-model and compare the calculated results with the experimental results for the reserved cases. The results showed that drug percentage mostly affect the burst release, however flow rate has affected the osmotic release. In addition, release kinetics of all the mechanisms have increased by increasing the values of two considered parameters.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Wang R, Duan R, H Jia (2021)

Experimental Validation of Falling Liquid Film Models: Velocity Assumption and Velocity Field Comparison.

Polymers, 13(8):.

This publication focuses on the experimental validation of film models by comparing constructed and experimental velocity fields based on model and elementary experimental data. The film experiment covers Kapitza numbers Ka = 278.8 and Ka = 4538.6, a Reynolds number range of 1.6-52, and disturbance frequencies of 0, 2, 5, and 7 Hz. Compared to previous publications, the applied methodology has boundary identification procedures that are more refined and provide additional adaptive particle image velocimetry (PIV) method access to synthetic particle images. The experimental method was validated with a comparison with experimental particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence (PIV/PLIF) results, Nusselt's theoretical prediction, and experimental particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) results of flat steady cases, and a good continuity equation reproduction of transient cases proves the method's fidelity. The velocity fields are reconstructed based on different film flow model velocity profile assumptions such as experimental film thickness, flow rates, and their derivatives, providing a validation method of film model by comparison between reconstructed velocity experimental data and experimental velocity data. The comparison results show that the first-order weighted residual model (WRM) and regularized model (RM) are very similar, although they may fail to predict the velocity field in rapidly changing zones such as the front of the main hump and the first capillary wave troughs.

RevDate: 2021-05-02

Rasool G, Shafiq A, Alqarni MS, et al (2021)

Numerical Scrutinization of Darcy-Forchheimer Relation in Convective Magnetohydrodynamic Nanofluid Flow Bounded by Nonlinear Stretching Surface in the Perspective of Heat and Mass Transfer.

Micromachines, 12(4):.

The aim of this research is mainly concerned with the numerical examination of Darcy-Forchheimer relation in convective magnetohydrodynamic nanofluid flow bounded by non-linear stretching sheet. A visco-elastic and strictly incompressible liquid saturates the designated porous medium under the direct influence of the Darcy-Forchheimer model and convective boundary. The magnetic effect is taken uniformly normal to the flow direction. However, the model is bounded to a tiny magnetic Reynolds number for practical applications. Boundary layer formulations are taken into consideration. The so-formulated leading problems are converted into highly nonlinear ordinary problems using effectively modified transformations. The numerical scheme is applied to solve the governing problems. The outcomes stipulate that thermal layer receives significant modification in the incremental direction for augmented values of thermal radiation parameter Rd. Elevation in thermal Biot number γ1 apparently results a significant rise in thermal layer and associated boundary layer thickness. The solute Biot number is found to be an enhancing factor the concentration profile. Besides the three main profiles, the contour and density graphs are sketched for both the linear and non-linear cases. Furthermore, skin friction jumps for larger porosity and larger Forchheimer number. Both the heat and mass flux numbers receive a reduction for augmented values of the Forchheimer number. Heat flux enhances, while mass flux reduces, the strong effect of thermal Biot number. The considered problem could be helpful in any several industrial and engineering procedures, such as rolling, polymeric extrusion, continuously stretching done in plastic thin films, crystal growth, fiber production, and metallic extrusion, etc.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Sasaki K, Okue T, Nakai T, et al (2021)

Lateral Growth of Uniformly Thin Gold Nanosheets Facilitated by Two-Dimensional Precursor Supply.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids, 37(19):5872-5877.

The nanosheets of highly symmetric materials with a face-centered cubic lattice such as gold have been synthesized by adsorbing the precursors on a flat surface, whose chemical specificity induces the anisotropy of growth rates. We have succeeded in the fabrication of gold nanosheets in a hydrophilic space inside highly separated bilayers, which work as two-dimensional hydrophilic reactors, in a hyperswollen lamellar liquid crystalline phase of an amphiphile solution. One of the physical properties, amphiphilicity, confines the ingredients therein. The nanosheets can only grow in the in-plane direction due to the inhibition of the out-of-plane growth rather than the anisotropy of growth rates probably. Thus, the synthesis can be accelerated; the particles can be completed within 15 min. As not relying on chemical specificity, silver nanosheets could also be synthesized in the same way. The suspension of gold and silver nanosheets without any amphiphiles could be obtained, and the solvent is replaceable. We found that the width of the obtained gold nanosheets is proportional to the Reynolds number of the solution because the area of the bilayer in the hyperswollen lamellar phase depends on shear stress. This implies that the areas of gold nanosheets depend on the areas of the bilayers, and it can be controlled by changing the Reynolds number. This method could be widely used to continuously obtain large-area nanosheets of various materials in a roll-to-roll manufacturing process.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Heyland A, Roszell J, Chau J, et al (2021)

Mass transfer and flow characterization of novel algae-based nutrient removal system.

Biotechnology for biofuels, 14(1):104.

BACKGROUND: Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are an essential component of sustainable inland seafood production. Still, nutrient removal from these systems can result in substantial environmental problems, or present a major cost factor with few added value options. In this study, an innovative and energy-efficient algae based nutrient removal system (NRS) was developed that has the potential to generate revenue through algal commercialization. We optimized mass transfer in our NRS design using novel aeration and mixing technology, using air lift pumps and developed an original membrane cartridge for the continuous operation of nutrient removal and algae production. Specifically, we designed, manufactured and tested a 60-L NRS prototype. Based on specific airlift mixing conditions as well as concentration gradients, we assessed NRS nutrient removal capacity. We then examined the effects of different internal bioreactor geometries and radial orientations on the mixing efficiency.

RESULTS: Using the start-up dynamic method, the overall mass transfer coefficient was found to be in the range of 0.00164-0.0074 [Formula: see text], depending on flow parameters and we confirmed a scaling relationship of mass transfer across concentration gradients. We found the optimal Reynolds number to be 500 for optimal mass transfer, as higher Reynolds numbers resulted in a relatively reduced increase of mass transfer. This relationship between mass transfer and Reynolds number is critical to assess scalability of our system. Our results demonstrate an even distribution of dissolved oxygen levels across the reactor core, demonstrating adequate mixing by the airlift pump, a critical consideration for optimal algal growth. Distribution of dissolved gases in the reactor was further assessed using flow visualization in order to relate the bubble distribution to the mass transfer capabilities of the reactor. We run a successful proof of principle trial using the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta to assess mass transfer of nutrients across the membrane and biomass production.

CONCLUSIONS: Manipulation of the concentration gradient across the membrane demonstrates a more prominent role of airlift mixing at higher concentration gradients. Specifically, the mass transfer rate increased threefold when the concentration gradient was increased 2.5-fold. We found that we can grow algae in the reactor chamber at rates comparable to those of other production systems and that the membrane scaffolds effectively remove nutrients form the wastewater. Our findings provide support for scalability of the design and support the use of this novel NRS for nutrient removal in aquaculture and potentially other applications.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Song Z, Tong J, Pfleging W, et al (2021)

A review: Learning from the flight of beetles.

Computers in biology and medicine, 133:104397.

Some Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) can fly at a low Reynolds number with their deployable hind wings, which directly enables a low body weight-a good bioinspiration strategy for miniaturization of micro-air vehicles (MAVs). The hind wing is a significant part of the body and has a folding/unfolding mechanism whose unique function benefits from different structures and materials. This review summarizes the actions, factors, and mechanisms of beetle flight and bioinspired MAVs with deployable wings. The elytron controlled by muscles is the protected part for the folded hind wing and influences flight performance. The resilin, the storage material for elasticity, is located in the folding parts. The hind wings' folding/unfolding mechanism and flight performance can be influenced by vein structures of hollow, solid and wrinkled veins, the hemolymph that flows in hollow veins and its hydraulic mechanism, and various mechanical properties of veins. The action of beetle flight includes flapping flight, hovering, gliding, and landing. The hind wing is passively deformed through force and hemolymph, and the attack angle of the hind wing and the nanomechanics of the veins, muscles and mass body determine the flight performance. Based these factors, bioinspired MAVs with a new deployable wing structure and new materials will be designed to be much more effective and miniaturized. The new fuels and energy supply are significant aspects of MAVs.

RevDate: 2021-04-23

Sadeq AM, Ahmed SF, AK Sleiti (2021)

Dataset for transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) fuel.

Data in brief, 36:106956 pii:S2352-3409(21)00240-7.

A fan-stirred combustion vessel is used to study the premixed turbulent combustion of diesel, Gas to Liquids (GTL) and 50/50 diesel-GTL and to generate these datasets. A numerical simulation approach is implemented for modelling the premixed combustion of the three fuels under different thermodynamics and turbulence initial conditions, using Zimont Turbulent Flame Speed Closure (Zimont TFC) model. Different parameters are obtained from these simulation runs such as turbulent eddy viscosity (µ), turbulent kinetic energy (k), Damkohler number (Da), Reynolds number (ReT) and turbulent flame speed (St). The raw, filtered and pre-processed data are imported from ANSYS Fluent and then listed on filtered tables for the ease of accessibility. These datasets can be then used to perform research in different related areas such as chemical kinetic mechanisms, ignition delay time, flame ignition mechanisms and flame extinction and diffusion. Also, they can be employed to further understand trends, patterns, and anomalies in data. In addition, they can be compared with other numerical models to establish a robust knowledge about the modelling of premixed turbulent combustion. For more information and discussion of the dataset creation, the reader is directed to the full-length article, "Abdellatif M. Sadeq, Samer F. Ahmed, Ahmad K. Sleiti, Transient 3D simulations of turbulent premixed flames of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel in a fan-stirred combustion vessel, Fuel, Volume 291, 2021, 120,184, ISSN 0016 2361," [1].

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Lamont EI, RB Emlet (2021)

Swimming kinematics of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus glandula.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6237900 [Epub ahead of print].

Larvae of barnacles typically pass through naupliar and cyprid planktonic stages before settlement and metamorphosis. As the final larval stage, cyprids swim much faster than nauplii and in turbulent fluid environments with high shears as they seek habitat. Cyprids swim with six pairs of reciprocating thoracic appendages and use two anterior antennules during settlement. Our understanding of how thoracic appendages generate movement is limited due to short stroke intervals (∼5 ms) that impede observations of the shape and trajectory of appendages. Here, we used high speed videography to observe both free-swimming and tethered cyprids of the intertidal acorn barnacle Balanus glandula to produce a comprehensive description of thoracic appendage swimming kinematics. Cyprids used a drag-based method of swimming: their six pairs of thoracic appendages moved through metachronal power strokes and synchronous recovery strokes similar to the thoracopod motions in calanoid copepods during escape swimming. During the power stroke, plumose setae on each appendage pair spread laterally into a high surface area and high drag paddle composed of a meshwork of fused setules. This interconnected setal array collapsed into a low surface area and low drag shape during the recovery stroke. These effective swimming appendages allowed cyprids to move upwards at an average speed of 1.4 cm s-1 (about 25 body lengths s-1) with an average beat frequency of 16 beats s-1, and reach an instantaneous velocity of up to 6 cm s-1. Beat frequency of the thoracic appendages was significantly associated with speed, with higher beat frequencies indicating faster swimming speed. At their average speed, cyprids moved at the intermediate Reynolds number of ∼10, in which both viscous and inertial forces affected movement. Cyprids could alter swimming direction by sweeping the posterior-most appendage pair to one side and beating the remaining thoracic appendages synchronously through the power stroke with greater motion on the outside of their turn. These results greatly enhance our understanding both of cyprid motility and how small planktonic organisms can use swimming appendages with fused setule arrays to reach high swimming speeds and affect directional changes.

RevDate: 2021-05-27
CmpDate: 2021-05-27

Si XA, Talaat M, Su WC, et al (2021)

Inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled respiratory aerosols in the human respiratory tract with locally remodeled conducting lungs.

Inhalation toxicology, 33(4):143-159.

Objective: Respiratory diseases are often accompanied by alterations to airway morphology. However, inhalation dosimetry data in remodeled airways are scarce due to the challenges in reconstructing diseased respiratory morphologies. This study aims to study the airway remodeling effects on the inhalation dosimetry of nasally inhaled nanoparticles in a nose-lung geometry that extends to G9 (ninth generation).Materials and methods: Statistical shape modeling was used to develop four diseased lung models with varying levels of bronchiolar dilation/constriction in the left-lower (LL) lobe (i.e. M1-M4). Respiratory airflow and particle deposition were simulated using a low Reynolds number k-ω turbulence model and a Lagrangian tracking approach.Results: Significant discrepancies were observed in the flow partitions between the left and right lungs, as well as between the lower and upper lobes of the left lung, which changed by 10-fold between the most dilated and constricted models.Much lower doses were predicted on the surface of the constricted LL bronchioles G4-G9, as well as into the peripheral airways beyond G9 of the LL lung. However, the LL lobar remodeling had little effect on the dosimetry in the nasopharynx, as well as on the total dosimetry in the nose-lung geometry (up to G9).Conclusion: It is suggested that airway remodeling may pose a higher viral infection risk to the host by redistributing the inhaled viruses to healthy lung lobes. Airway remodeling effects should also be considered in the treatment planning of inhalation therapies, not only because of the dosimetry variation from altered lung morphology but also its evolution as the disease progresses.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Trkulja CL, Jungholm O, Davidson M, et al (2021)

Rational antibody design for undruggable targets using kinetically controlled biomolecular probes.

Science advances, 7(16):.

Several important drug targets, e.g., ion channels and G protein-coupled receptors, are extremely difficult to approach with current antibody technologies. To address these targets classes, we explored kinetically controlled proteases as structural dynamics-sensitive druggability probes in native-state and disease-relevant proteins. By using low-Reynolds number flows, such that a single or a few protease incisions are made, we could identify antibody binding sites (epitopes) that were translated into short-sequence antigens for antibody production. We obtained molecular-level information of the epitope-paratope region and could produce high-affinity antibodies with programmed pharmacological function against difficult-to-drug targets. We demonstrate the first stimulus-selective monoclonal antibodies targeting the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel, a clinically validated pain target widely considered undruggable with antibodies, and apoptosis-inducing antibodies selectively mediating cytotoxicity in KRAS-mutated cells. It is our hope that this platform will widen the scope of antibody therapeutics for the benefit of patients.

RevDate: 2021-04-19

Fouxon I, Feinberg J, Käpylä P, et al (2021)

Reynolds number dependence of Lyapunov exponents of turbulence and fluid particles.

Physical review. E, 103(3-1):033110.

The Navier-Stokes equations generate an infinite set of generalized Lyapunov exponents defined by different ways of measuring the distance between exponentially diverging perturbed and unperturbed solutions. This set is demonstrated to be similar, yet different, from the generalized Lyapunov exponent that provides moments of distance between two fluid particles below the Kolmogorov scale. We derive rigorous upper bounds on dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of the fluid particles that demonstrate the exponent's decay with Reynolds number Re in accord with previous studies. In contrast, terms of cumulant series for exponents of the moments have power-law growth with Re. We demonstrate as an application that the growth of small fluctuations of magnetic field in ideal conducting turbulence is hyperintermittent, being exponential in both time and Reynolds number. We resolve the existing contradiction between the theory, that predicts slow decrease of dimensionless Lyapunov exponent of turbulence with Re, and observations exhibiting quite fast growth. We demonstrate that it is highly plausible that a pointwise limit for the growth of small perturbations of the Navier-Stokes equations exists.

RevDate: 2021-05-07

Waringer J, Vitecek S, Martini J, et al (2021)

Hydraulic niche utilization by larvae of the three Drusinae clades (Insecta: Trichoptera).

Biologia, 76(5):1465-1473.

Hydraulic niche descriptors of final instar larvae of nine Drusus species (Trichoptera) were studied in small, spring-fed, first-order headwaters located in the Mühlviertel (Upper Austria), Koralpe (Carinthia, Austria), and in the Austrian and Italian Alps. The species investigated covered all three clades of Drusinae: the shredder clade (Drusus franzi, D. alpinus), the grazer clade (D. biguttatus, D. chauvinianus, D. dudor, D. monticola), and the filtering carnivore clade (D. chrysotus, D. katagelastos, D. muelleri). Flow velocity was measured at front center of 68 larvae, head upstream, on the top of mineral substrate particles at water depths of 10-30 mm, using a tripod-stabilized Micro propeller meter (propeller diameter = 10 mm). Each data series consisted of a sampled measurement lasting 30 s (measuring interval = 1 s). In total, 2040 single velocity measurements were taken. Instantaneous flow velocities and drag at the sites of the 68 larvae varied from 0 to 0.93 m s-1 and 0 to 8346 *10-6 N, respectively. Flow velocities and drag between the three clades were highly significantly different (p < 0.001); mean velocity (± 95% confidence limits) for the three clades were 0.09 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the shredder, 0.25 ± 0.00 m s-1 for the grazer, and 0.31 ± 0.01ms-1 for the filtering carnivore clade; the corresponding data for drag were (85 ± 18)*10-6 N, (422 ± 61)*10-6 N and (1125 ± 83)*10-6 N, respectively. Adhesive friction ranged from (41.07 ± 53.03)*10-6 N in D. franzi to (255.24 ± 216.87)*10-6 N in D. chrysotus. Except in D. franzi and D. dudor adhesive friction was always well below drag force, indicating that submerged weight alone was not sufficient to stabilize the larvae in their hydraulic environment. Reynolds numbers varied between 0 in D. franzi and D. alpinus, and 12,634 in D. katagelastos, with 7% of the total in the laminar (R < 500), 30%in the transitional (R = 500-2000), and 61%in the fully turbulent stage (R > 2000). Froude numbers (Fr) varied from 0 to 2.97. The two Drusus species of the shredder clade and three out of four species of the grazer clade were exposed to subcritical Fr < 1, one species of the grazer clade and two out of three species of the filtering clade to supercritical Froude numbers >1.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )