Viewport Size Code:
Login | Create New Account


About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot

About | Classical Genetics | Timelines | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Dec 2019 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-12-04

Raj G, Shadab M, Deka S, et al (2019)

Seed interior microbiome of rice genotypes indigenous to three agroecosystems of Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot.

BMC genomics, 20(1):924 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-6334-5.

BACKGROUND: Seeds of plants are a confirmation of their next generation and come associated with a unique microbia community. Vertical transmission of this microbiota signifies the importance of these organisms for a healthy seedling and thus a healthier next generation for both symbionts. Seed endophytic bacterial community composition is guided by plant genotype and many environmental factors. In north-east India, within a narrow geographical region, several indigenous rice genotypes are cultivated across broad agroecosystems having standing water in fields ranging from 0-2 m during their peak growth stage. Here we tried to trap the effect of rice genotypes and agroecosystems where they are cultivated on the rice seed microbiota. We used culturable and metagenomics approaches to explore the seed endophytic bacterial diversity of seven rice genotypes (8 replicate hills) grown across three agroecosystems.

RESULTS: From seven growth media, 16 different species of culturable EB were isolated. A predictive metabolic pathway analysis of the EB showed the presence of many plant growth promoting traits such as siroheme synthesis, nitrate reduction, phosphate acquisition, etc. Vitamin B12 biosynthesis restricted to bacteria and archaea; pathways were also detected in the EB of two landraces. Analysis of 522,134 filtered metagenomic sequencing reads obtained from seed samples (n=56) gave 4061 OTUs. Alpha diversity indices showed significant differences in observed OTU richness (P≤0.05) across genotypes. Significant differences were also found between the individual hills of a rice genotype. PCoA analysis exhibited three separate clusters and revealed the clusters separated based on genotype, while agroecosystem showed a minimal effect on the variation of seed microbiota (adonis, R2=0.07, P=0.024). Interestingly, animal gut resident bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Faecalibacterium, Lactobacillus, etc. were found in abundance as members of the seed microbiota.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our study demonstrates, indigenous rice genotypes of north-east India have a unique blend of endophytic bacteria in their mature seeds. While there are notable variations among plants of the same genotype, we found similarities among genotypes cultivated in completely different environmental conditions. The beta diversity variations across the seven rice genotypes were significantly shaped by their genotype rather than their agroecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Chen H, Bai X, Li Y, et al (2019)

Source identification of antibiotic resistance genes in a peri-urban river using novel crAssphage marker genes and metagenomic signatures.

Water research, 167:115098.

Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern, and environment is regarded as an important reservoir and dissemination route for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). To prevent and control ARG pollution, it is essential to correctly disentangle source-sink relationship of ARGs in the environment. However, accurately apportioning sources of ARGs is still a big challenge due to the complex interaction of multiple sources and contaminants in the environment with changing dynamics. In this study, we addressed this problem and focused on identifying the potential sources of ARGs in a peri-urban river by jointly utilizing two novel microbial source tracking methods. To attain the objective, sediment/water samples were collected from the peri-urban river and four ARG-associated ecotypes including effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs), STP influent, chicken manures and pig manures. The high-throughput profilings of ARGs and microbial taxa in the river sediments and the four ecotypes were comprehensively characterized in combination of shotgun sequencing and metagenomic assembly analysis. CrAssphage, a recently-discovered DNA bacteriophage, was employed to track the impact of human fecal pollution on ARGs in the river sediments. Further, SourceTracker, a machine-learning classification tool, was used for quantifying the contributions of potential sources to ARGs in the river sediments based on the metagenomic signatures of ARGs and microbial taxa. In total, 888 ARG subtypes belonging to 29 ARG types were detected across all samples, including mcr-1 and a range of carbapenemases types. Statistical analyses suggested different ecotypes generally had distinct profiles of both ARGs and microbial taxa, while the ARG compositions were significantly correlated with the microbial community. Source tracking with crAssphage showed the presence of ARGs in the river sediments might be largely impacted by the extent of human fecal pollution, which was also confirmed by the analyses of SourceTracker that the discharge from STPs was the largest contributor of ARGs (81.6-92.1%) and microbes (49.3-68.1%) in the river sediments. Results of the study can help us to better understand the characterization of ARGs in the peri-urban ecosystem and to design effective prevention and control strategies for reducing ARG dissemination.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Sims TT, Colbert LE, Zheng J, et al (2019)

Gut microbial diversity and genus-level differences identified in cervical cancer patients versus healthy controls.

Gynecologic oncology, 155(2):237-244.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize variation in the gut microbiome of women with locally advanced cervical cancer and compare it to healthy controls.

METHODS: We characterized the 16S rDNA fecal microbiome in 42 cervical cancer patients and 46 healthy female controls. Shannon diversity index (SDI) was used to evaluate alpha (within sample) diversity. Beta (between sample) diversity was examined using principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) of unweighted Unifrac distances. Relative abundance of microbial taxa was compared between samples using Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe).

RESULTS: Within cervical cancer patients, bacterial alpha diversity was positively correlated with age (p = 0.22) but exhibited an inverse relationship in control subjects (p < 0.01). Alpha diversity was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients as compared to controls (p < 0.05), though stratification by age suggested this relationship was restricted to older women (>50 years; p < 0.01). Beta diversity (unweighted Unifrac; p < 0.01) also significantly differed between cervical cancer patients and controls. Based on age- and race-adjusted LEfSe analysis, multiple taxa significantly differed between cervical cancer patients and controls. Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Dialister were significantly enriched in cervical cancer patients, while Bacteroides, Alistipes and members of the Lachnospiracea family were significantly enriched in healthy subjects.

CONCLUSION: Our study suggests differences in gut microbiota diversity and composition between cervical cancer patients and controls. Associations within the gut microbiome by age may reflect etiologic/clinical differences. These findings provide rationale for further study of the gut microbiome in cervical cancer.

RevDate: 2019-12-03
CmpDate: 2019-12-03

Teigen LM, Geng Z, Sadowsky MJ, et al (2019)

Dietary Factors in Sulfur Metabolism and Pathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis.

Nutrients, 11(4): pii:nu11040931.

The biogeography of inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) suggests a proximal to distal concentration gradient of a toxin. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered one such toxin candidate, and dietary sulfur along with the abundance of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were considered the primary determinants of H2S production and clinical course of UC. The metabolic milieu in the lumen of the colon, however, is the result of a multitude of factors beyond dietary sulfur intake and SRB abundance. Here we present an updated formulation of the H2S toxin hypothesis for UC pathogenesis, which strives to incorporate the interdependency of diet composition and the metabolic activity of the entire colon microbial community. Specifically, we suggest that the increasing severity of inflammation along the proximal-to-distal axis in UC is due to the dilution of beneficial factors, concentration of toxic factors, and changing detoxification capacity of the host, all of which are intimately linked to the nutrient flow from the diet.

RevDate: 2019-12-02
CmpDate: 2019-12-02

Xu H, Li X, Zheng X, et al (2018)

Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Associated With Changes in the Oral Microbiome and Urinary Metabolomics Profile: A Pilot Study.

Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 14(9):1559-1567.

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Several cross-sectional studies have reported associations between oral diseases and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there have been no reports regarding the structure and composition of the oral microbiota with simultaneous evaluation of potential associations with perturbed metabolic profiles in pediatric OSA.

METHODS: An integrated approach, combining metagenomics based on high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metabolomics based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry, was used to evaluate the oral microbiome and the urinary metabolome.

RESULTS: 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that the oral microbiome composition was significantly perturbed in pediatric OSA compared with normal controls, especially with regard to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Moreover, metabolomics profiling indicated that 57 metabolites, 5 of which were metabolites related to the microflora of the digestive tract, were differentially present in the urine of pediatric patients with OSA and controls. Co-inertia and correlation analyses revealed that several oral microbiome changes were correlated with urinary metabolite perturbations in pediatric OSA. However, this correlation relationship does not imply causality.

CONCLUSIONS: High-throughput sequencing revealed that the oral microbiome composition and function were significantly altered in pediatric OSA. Further studies are needed to confirm and determine the mechanisms underlying these findings.

RevDate: 2019-11-29
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

De Jode A, David R, Haguenauer A, et al (2019)

From seascape ecology to population genomics and back. Spatial and ecological differentiation among cryptic species of the red algae Lithophyllum stictiforme/L. cabiochiae, main bioconstructors of coralligenous habitats.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 137:104-113.

Ecosystem engineering species alter the physical structure of their environment and can create or modify habitats, having a massive impact on local biodiversity. Coralligenous reefs are highly diverse habitats endemic to the Mediterranean Sea built by calcareous benthic organisms among which Crustose Coralline Algae are the main engineering species. We analyzed the diversity of Lithophyllum stictiforme or L. cabiochiae in coralligenous habitats combining a multiple barcode and a population genomics approach with seascape features. Population genomics allowed disentangling pure spatial effects from environmental effects. We found that these taxa form a complex of eight highly divergent cryptic species that are easily identifiable using classic barcode markers (psbA, LSU, COI). Three factors have a significant effect on the relative abundances of these cryptic species: the location along the French Mediterranean coast, depth and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR). The analysis of around 5000 SNPs for the most abundant species revealed genetic differentiation among localities in the Bay of Marseille but no differentiation between depths within locality. Thus, the effect of depth and PAR on cryptic species communities is not a consequence of restricted connectivity but rather due to differential settlement or survival among cryptic species. This differential is more likely driven by irradiance levels rather than by pressure or temperature. Both the genetic and species diversity patterns are congruent with the main patterns of currents in the Bay. Ecological differentiation among these engineering cryptic species, sensitive to ocean warming and acidification, could have important consequences on the diversity and structure of the coralligenous communities.

RevDate: 2019-11-29
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Wei Y, Shi M, Zhen M, et al (2019)

Comparison of Subgingival and Buccal Mucosa Microbiome in Chronic and Aggressive Periodontitis: A Pilot Study.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:53.

Periodontal microorganisms not only colonize subgingival pockets, but also are detected on various mucous membranes in patients with periodontitis. The object of this pilot study was, using the next-generation sequencing of 16S RNA gene, to characterize the microbiota in two oral habitats (buccal mucosas and subgingival pockets) in patients with different forms of periodontitis. Thirty-two buccal swab samples and 113 subgingival samples were obtained from eleven subjects with chronic periodontitis (ChP), twelve subjects with aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and nine periodontally healthy individuals (HP). Using Miseq Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene, we found that the subgingival and buccal mucosa microbiome of ChP and AgP patients both differed from HP. Meanwhile, Veillonella, Treponema, Filifactor, Fretibacterium, Peptostreptococcaceae_[XI][G-6], Peptostreptococcaceae_[XI][G-5], Bacteroidetes_[G-5], Bacteroidetes_[G-3], Peptostreptococcaceae_[XI][G-4], Peptostreptococcaceae_[XI][G-2] significantly increased both in buccal and subgingival plaque samples in periodontitis subjects (ChP and AgP) compared with HP. Moreover, the results based on the Unweighted UniFrac distance showed that buccal and subgingival plaque samples from the same individuals show higher community divergence than same habitats from different subject samples. This study demonstrated that the microbiome of buccal mucosa can be influenced by periodontitis. However, subgingival and buccal mucosa microbiome seem to be characterized by species-specific colonization patterns. This pilot study provides a glimpse at the changes of subgingival and buccal mucosa associated with periodontitis from a holistic view. Further studies should be taken to illuminate the interplay between these detected changes and periodontitis development.

RevDate: 2019-11-29
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Tribble GD, Angelov N, Weltman R, et al (2019)

Frequency of Tongue Cleaning Impacts the Human Tongue Microbiome Composition and Enterosalivary Circulation of Nitrate.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:39.

The oral microbiome has the potential to provide an important symbiotic function in human blood pressure physiology by contributing to the generation of nitric oxide (NO), an essential cardiovascular signaling molecule. NO is produced by the human body via conversion of arginine to NO by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) but eNOS activity varies by subject. Oral microbial communities are proposed to supplement host NO production by reducing dietary nitrate to nitrite via bacterial nitrate reductases. Unreduced dietary nitrate is delivered to the oral cavity in saliva, a physiological process termed the enterosalivary circulation of nitrate. Previous studies demonstrated that disruption of enterosalivary circulation via use of oral antiseptics resulted in increases in systolic blood pressure. These previous studies did not include detailed information on the oral health of enrolled subjects. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and analysis, we determined whether introduction of chlorhexidine antiseptic mouthwash for 1 week was associated with changes in tongue bacterial communities and resting systolic blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals with documented oral hygiene behaviors and free of oral disease. Tongue cleaning frequency was a predictor of chlorhexidine-induced changes in systolic blood pressure and tongue microbiome composition. Twice-daily chlorhexidine usage was associated with a significant increase in systolic blood pressure after 1 week of use and recovery from use resulted in an enrichment in nitrate-reducing bacteria on the tongue. Individuals with relatively high levels of bacterial nitrite reductases had lower resting systolic blood pressure. These results further support the concept of a symbiotic oral microbiome contributing to human health via the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. These data suggest that management of the tongue microbiome by regular cleaning together with adequate dietary intake of nitrate provide an opportunity for the improvement of resting systolic blood pressure.

RevDate: 2019-11-29
CmpDate: 2019-11-29

Nearing JT, Connors J, Whitehouse S, et al (2019)

Infectious Complications Are Associated With Alterations in the Gut Microbiome in Pediatric Patients With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:28.

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer. Fortunately, survival rates exceed 90%, however, infectious complications remain a significant issue that can cause reductions in the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Recently, numerous studies have linked shifts in the gut microbiome composition to infection events in various hematological malignances including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These studies have been limited to observing broad taxonomic changes using 16S rRNA gene profiling, while missing possible differences within microbial functions encoded by individual species. In this study we present the first combined 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic shotgun sequencing study on the gut microbiome of an independent pediatric ALL cohort during treatment. In this study we found distinctive differences in alpha diversity and beta diversity in samples from patients with infectious complications in the first 6 months of therapy. We were also able to find specific species and functional pathways that were significantly different in relative abundance between samples that came from patients with infectious complications. Finally, machine learning models based on patient metadata and bacterial species were able to classify samples with high accuracy (84.09%), with bacterial species being the most important classifying features. This study strengthens our understanding of the association between infection and pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment and warrants further investigation in the future.

RevDate: 2019-11-28
CmpDate: 2019-11-28

Zhou J, Tang L, Shen CL, et al (2018)

Green tea polyphenols modify gut-microbiota dependent metabolisms of energy, bile constituents and micronutrients in female Sprague-Dawley rats.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 61:68-81.

Our recent metagenomics analysis has uncovered remarkable modifying effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on gut-microbiota community structure and energy conversion related gene orthologs in rats. How these genomic changes could further influence host health is still unclear. In this work, the alterations of gut-microbiota dependent metabolites were studied in the GTP-treated rats. Six groups of female SD rats (n=12/group) were administered drinking water containing 0%, 0.5%, and 1.5% GTP (wt/vol). Their gut contents were collected at 3 and 6 months and were analyzed via high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS). GC-MS based metabolomics analysis captured 2668 feature, and 57 metabolites were imputatively from top 200 differential features identified via NIST fragmentation database. A group of key metabolites were quantitated using standard calibration methods. Compared with control, the elevated components in the GTP-treated groups include niacin (8.61-fold), 3-phenyllactic acid (2.20-fold), galactose (3.13-fold), mannose (2.05-fold), pentadecanoic acid (2.15-fold), lactic acid (2.70-fold), and proline (2.15-fold); the reduced components include cholesterol (0.29-fold), cholic acid (0.62-fold), deoxycholic acid (0.41-fold), trehalose (0.14-fold), glucose (0.46-fold), fructose (0.12-fold), and alanine (0.61-fold). These results were in line with the genomic alterations of gut-microbiome previously discovered by metagenomics analysis. The alterations of these metabolites suggested the reduction of calorific carbohydrates, elevation of vitamin production, decreases of bile constituents, and modified metabolic pattern of amino acids in the GTP-treated animals. Changes in gut-microbiota associated metabolism may be a major contributor to the anti-obesity function of GTP.

RevDate: 2019-11-27
CmpDate: 2019-11-27

Ward LM, Idei A, Nakagawa M, et al (2019)

Geochemical and Metagenomic Characterization of Jinata Onsen, a Proterozoic-Analog Hot Spring, Reveals Novel Microbial Diversity including Iron-Tolerant Phototrophs and Thermophilic Lithotrophs.

Microbes and environments, 34(3):278-292.

Hydrothermal systems, including terrestrial hot springs, contain diverse geochemical conditions that vary over short spatial scales due to progressive interactions between reducing hydrothermal fluids, the oxygenated atmosphere, and, in some cases, seawater. At Jinata Onsen on Shikinejima Island, Japan, an intertidal, anoxic, iron-rich hot spring mixes with the oxygenated atmosphere and seawater over short spatial scales, creating diverse chemical potentials and redox pairs over a distance of ~10 m. We characterized geochemical conditions along the outflow of Jinata Onsen as well as the microbial communities present in biofilms, mats, and mineral crusts along its traverse using 16S rRNA gene amplicon and genome-resolved shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Microbial communities significantly changed downstream as temperatures and dissolved iron concentrations decreased and dissolved oxygen increased. Biomass was more limited near the spring source than downstream, and primary productivity appeared to be fueled by the oxidation of ferrous iron and molecular hydrogen by members of Zetaproteobacteria and Aquificae. The microbial community downstream was dominated by oxygenic Cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are abundant and active even at ferrous iron concentrations of ~150 μM, which challenges the idea that iron toxicity limited cyanobacterial expansion in Precambrian oceans. Several novel lineages of Bacteria are also present at Jinata Onsen, including previously uncharacterized members of the phyla Chloroflexi and Calditrichaeota, positioning Jinata Onsen as a valuable site for the future characterization of these clades.

RevDate: 2019-11-27
CmpDate: 2019-11-27

Lucek K, Gompert Z, P Nosil (2019)

The role of structural genomic variants in population differentiation and ecotype formation in Timema cristinae walking sticks.

Molecular ecology, 28(6):1224-1237.

Theory predicts that structural genomic variants such as inversions can promote adaptive diversification and speciation. Despite increasing empirical evidence that adaptive divergence can be triggered by one or a few large inversions, the degree to which widespread genomic regions under divergent selection are associated with structural variants remains unclear. Here we test for an association between structural variants and genomic regions that underlie parallel host-plant-associated ecotype formation in Timema cristinae stick insects. Using mate-pair resequencing of 20 new whole genomes we find that moderately sized structural variants such as inversions, deletions and duplications are widespread across the genome, being retained as standing variation within and among populations. Using 160 previously published, standard-orientation whole genome sequences we find little to no evidence that the DNA sequences within inversions exhibit accentuated differentiation between ecotypes. In contrast, a formerly described large region of reduced recombination that harbours genes controlling colour-pattern exhibits evidence for accentuated differentiation between ecotypes, which is consistent with differences in the frequency of colour-pattern morphs between host-associated ecotypes. Our results suggest that some types of structural variants (e.g., large inversions) are more likely to underlie adaptive divergence than others, and that structural variants are not required for subtle yet genome-wide genetic differentiation with gene flow.

RevDate: 2019-11-26

Jonge PA, Meijenfeldt FABV, Rooijen LEV, et al (2019)

Evolution of BACON Domain Tandem Repeats in crAssphage and Novel Gut Bacteriophage Lineages.

Viruses, 11(12): pii:v11121085.

The human gut contains an expanse of largely unstudied bacteriophages. Among the most common are crAss-like phages, which were predicted to infect Bacteriodetes hosts. CrAssphage, the first crAss-like phage to be discovered, contains a protein encoding a Bacteroides-associated carbohydrate-binding often N-terminal (BACON) domain tandem repeat. Because protein domain tandem repeats are often hotspots of evolution, BACON domains may provide insight into the evolution of crAss-like phages. Here, we studied the biodiversity and evolution of BACON domains in bacteriophages by analysing over 2 million viral contigs. We found a high biodiversity of BACON in seven gut phage lineages, including five known crAss-like phage lineages and two novel gut phage lineages that are distantly related to crAss-like phages. In three BACON-containing phage lineages, we found that BACON domain tandem repeats were associated with phage tail proteins, suggestive of a possible role of these repeats in host binding. In contrast, individual BACON domains that did not occur in tandem were not found in the proximity of tail proteins. In two lineages, tail-associated BACON domain tandem repeats evolved largely through horizontal transfer of separate domains. In the third lineage that includes the prototypical crAssphage, the tandem repeats arose from several sequential domain duplications, resulting in a characteristic tandem array that is distinct from bacterial BACON domains. We conclude that phage tail-associated BACON domain tandem repeats have evolved in at least two independent cases in gut bacteriophages, including in the widespread gut phage crAssphage.

RevDate: 2019-11-26
CmpDate: 2019-11-26

Das P, Marcišauskas S, Ji B, et al (2019)

Metagenomic analysis of bile salt biotransformation in the human gut microbiome.

BMC genomics, 20(1):517 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5899-3.

BACKGROUND: In the biochemical milieu of human colon, bile acids act as signaling mediators between the host and its gut microbiota. Biotransformation of primary to secondary bile acids have been known to be involved in the immune regulation of human physiology. Several 16S amplicon-based studies with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) subjects were found to have an association with the level of fecal bile acids. However, a detailed investigation of all the bile salt biotransformation genes in the gut microbiome of healthy and IBD subjects has not been performed.

RESULTS: Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of the bile salt biotransformation genes and their distribution at the phyla level. Based on the analysis of shotgun metagenomes, we found that the IBD subjects harbored a significantly lower abundance of these genes compared to the healthy controls. Majority of these genes originated from Firmicutes in comparison to other phyla. From metabolomics data, we found that the IBD subjects were measured with a significantly low level of secondary bile acids and high levels of primary bile acids compared to that of the healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Our bioinformatics-driven approach of identifying bile salt biotransformation genes predicts the bile salt biotransformation potential in the gut microbiota of IBD subjects. The functional level of dysbiosis likely contributes to the variation in the bile acid pool. This study sets the stage to envisage potential solutions to modulate the gut microbiome with the objective to restore the bile acid pool in the gut.

RevDate: 2019-11-26
CmpDate: 2019-11-26

De Cesare A, Faria do Valle Ì, Sala C, et al (2019)

Effect of a low protein diet on chicken ceca microbiome and productive performances.

Poultry science, 98(9):3963-3976.

The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of supplementation of a low protein diet on ceca microbiome and productive performances of broiler chickens. A total of 1,170 one-day-old male chicks (Ross 308) were divided in 2 diet groups and reared in the same conditions up to 42 D. Birds belonging to the control group were fed a basal diet. Birds belonging to the low protein group the basal diet with a reduced level of crude protein (-7%). Cecum contents from randomly selected birds were collected at 14 and 42 D within each diet group, submitted to DNA extraction and then tested by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Abundances of species belonging to Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were mainly affected by the diet as well as interaction between diet and time, while species belonging to Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria changed mainly according to the age of the birds. At family level, Lactobacillaceae significantly decreased in the low protein group up to 14 D. However, at the end of the rearing period the same family was significantly higher in the low protein group. The most abundant functional genes, represented by cystine desulfurase, alpha-galactosidase, and serine hydroxymethyltransferase, displayed comparable abundances in both diet groups, although significative differences were identified for less abundant functional genes at both sampling times. Birds fed control and low protein diets showed similar productive performances. However, in the finisher phase, feed conversion rate was significantly better in chickens fed the low protein diet. Overall, this study showed that a reduced intake of crude protein in broilers increases the abundance of Lactobacillaceae in the ceca over time and this seems to be linked to a better feed conversion rate between 36 and 42 D. A reduced intake of crude protein in chicken production can help to improve exploitation of edible resources, while reducing the emission of nitrogen pollutants in the environment.

RevDate: 2019-11-26
CmpDate: 2019-11-26

Pasolli E, Asnicar F, Manara S, et al (2019)

Extensive Unexplored Human Microbiome Diversity Revealed by Over 150,000 Genomes from Metagenomes Spanning Age, Geography, and Lifestyle.

Cell, 176(3):649-662.e20.

The body-wide human microbiome plays a role in health, but its full diversity remains uncharacterized, particularly outside of the gut and in international populations. We leveraged 9,428 metagenomes to reconstruct 154,723 microbial genomes (45% of high quality) spanning body sites, ages, countries, and lifestyles. We recapitulated 4,930 species-level genome bins (SGBs), 77% without genomes in public repositories (unknown SGBs [uSGBs]). uSGBs are prevalent (in 93% of well-assembled samples), expand underrepresented phyla, and are enriched in non-Westernized populations (40% of the total SGBs). We annotated 2.85 M genes in SGBs, many associated with conditions including infant development (94,000) or Westernization (106,000). SGBs and uSGBs permit deeper microbiome analyses and increase the average mappability of metagenomic reads from 67.76% to 87.51% in the gut (median 94.26%) and 65.14% to 82.34% in the mouth. We thus identify thousands of microbial genomes from yet-to-be-named species, expand the pangenomes of human-associated microbes, and allow better exploitation of metagenomic technologies.

RevDate: 2019-11-26
CmpDate: 2019-11-26

Minty M, Canceill T, Lê S, et al (2018)

Oral health and microbiota status in professional rugby players: A case-control study.

Journal of dentistry, 79:53-60.

OBJECTIVE: Elite athletes are prone to develop oral diseases, which could increase the risk for injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral health and the composition of oral microbiota of elite rugby players compared to the general population.

METHODS: We set up a case-control study by screening 24 professional rugby players (PRG) and 22 control patients (CG) for dental and gingival examinations and performed a taxonomic analysis and a predicted functional analysis of oral microbiota.

RESULTS: The Decay, Missing and Filled (DMF) teeth index (5.54 ± 6.18 versus 2.14 ± 3.01; p = 0.01) and the frequency of gingivitis (58,33% versus 13.63%) were significantly increased in PRG compared to CG. PRG were characterized by a dysbiotic oral microbiota (Shannon Index: 3.32 ± 0.62 in PRG versus 3.79 ± 0.68 in CG; p = 0.03) with an increase of Streptococcus (58.43 ± 16.84 versus 42.60 ± 17.45; p = 0.005), the main genus implicated in caries. Predicted metagenomics of oral microbiota in rugby players was suggestive of a cariogenic metagenome favourable to the development of caries.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that the oral health of PRG was poorer than the general population. PRG are characterized by a dysbiotic oral microbiota with an increase of the relative abundance of Streptococcus genus, positively correlated to the weight and negatively correlated to the diversity of oral microbiota.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dental screening should be included in the medical follow-up of professional rugby players as a part of their health management. New strategies such as using probiotics like Lactobacillus could help to control the dysbiosis of oral microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Nnadozie CF, ON Odume (2019)

Freshwater environments as reservoirs of antibiotic resistant bacteria and their role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 254(Pt B):113067.

Freshwater environments are susceptible to possible contamination by residual antibiotics that are released through different sources, such as agricultural runoffs, sewage discharges and leaching from nearby farms. Freshwater environment can thus become reservoirs where an antibiotic impact microorganisms, and is an important public health concern. Degradation and dilution processes are fundamental for predicting the actual risk of antibiotic resistance dissemination from freshwater reservoirs. This study reviews major approaches for detecting and quantifying antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARBs) and genes (ARGs) in freshwater and their prevalence in these environments. Finally, the role of dilution, degradation, transmission and the persistence and fate of ARB/ARG in these environments are also reviewed. Culture-based single strain approaches and molecular techniques that include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and metagenomics are techniques for quantifying ARB and ARGs in freshwater environments. The level of ARBs is extremely high in most of the river systems (up to 98% of the total detected bacteria), followed by lakes (up to 77% of the total detected bacteria), compared to dam, pond, and spring (<1%). Of most concern is the occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus (VRE), which cause highly epidemic infections. Dilution and natural degradation do not completely eradicate ARBs and ARGs in the freshwater environment. Even if the ARBs in freshwater are effectively inactivated by sunlight, their ARG-containing DNA can still be intact and capable of transferring resistance to non-resistant strains. Antibiotic resistance persists and is preserved in freshwater bodies polluted with high concentrations of antibiotics. Direct transmission of indigenous freshwater ARBs to humans as well as their transitory insertion in the microbiota can occur. These findings are disturbing especially for people that rely on freshwater resources for drinking, crop irrigation, and food in form of fish.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Sonthiphand P, Ruangroengkulrith S, Mhuantong W, et al (2019)

Metagenomic insights into microbial diversity in a groundwater basin impacted by a variety of anthropogenic activities.

Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(26):26765-26781.

Microbial communities in groundwater are diverse and each may respond differently to environmental change. The goal of this study was to investigate the diversity, abundance, and dynamics of microbial communities in impacted groundwater and correlate them to the corresponding land use and groundwater geochemistry, using an Illumina MiSeq platform targeting the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. The resulting MiSeq sequencing revealed the co-occurrence patterns of both abundant and rare microbial taxa within an impacted groundwater basin. Proteobacteria were the most common groundwater-associated bacterial phylum, mainly composed of the classes Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria. The phyla detected at less abundances were the Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, OD1, and Nitrospirae. The members of detected groundwater microorganisms involved in natural biogeochemical processes such as nitrification, anammox, methane oxidation, sulfate reduction, and arsenic transformation. Some of the detected microorganisms were able to perform anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants. The resulting PCA indicates that major land usage within the sampling area seemed to be significantly linked to the groundwater microbial distributions. The distinct microbial pattern was observed in the groundwater collected from a landfill area. This study suggests that the combinations of anthropogenic and natural effects possibly led to a unique pattern of microbial diversity across different locations at the impacted groundwater basin.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Zhao S, Lieberman TD, Poyet M, et al (2019)

Adaptive Evolution within Gut Microbiomes of Healthy People.

Cell host & microbe, 25(5):656-667.e8.

Natural selection shapes bacterial evolution in all environments. However, the extent to which commensal bacteria diversify and adapt within the human gut remains unclear. Here, we combine culture-based population genomics and metagenomics to investigate the within-microbiome evolution of Bacteroides fragilis. We find that intra-individual B. fragilis populations contain substantial de novo nucleotide and mobile element diversity, preserving years of within-person history. This history reveals multiple signatures of within-person adaptation, including parallel evolution in sixteen genes. Many of these genes are implicated in cell-envelope biosynthesis and polysaccharide utilization. Tracking evolutionary trajectories using near-daily metagenomic sampling, we find evidence for years-long coexistence in one subject despite adaptive dynamics. We used public metagenomes to investigate one adaptive mutation common in our cohort and found that it emerges frequently in Western, but not Chinese, microbiomes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that B. fragilis adapts within individual microbiomes, pointing to factors that promote long-term gut colonization.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Kalan LR, Meisel JS, Loesche MA, et al (2019)

Strain- and Species-Level Variation in the Microbiome of Diabetic Wounds Is Associated with Clinical Outcomes and Therapeutic Efficacy.

Cell host & microbe, 25(5):641-655.e5.

Chronic wounds are a major complication of diabetes associated with high morbidity and health care expenditures. To investigate the role of colonizing microbiota in diabetic wound healing, clinical outcomes, and response to interventions, we conducted a longitudinal, prospective study of patients with neuropathic diabetic foot ulcers (DFU). Metagenomic shotgun sequencing revealed that strain-level variation of Staphylococcus aureus and genetic signatures of biofilm formation were associated with poor outcomes. Cultured wound isolates of S. aureus elicited differential phenotypes in mouse models that corresponded with patient outcomes, while wound "bystanders" such as Corynebacterium striatum and Alcaligenes faecalis, typically considered commensals or contaminants, also significantly impacted wound severity and healing. Antibiotic resistance genes were widespread, and debridement, rather than antibiotic treatment, significantly shifted the DFU microbiota in patients with more favorable outcomes. These findings suggest that the DFU microbiota may be a marker for clinical outcomes and response to therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Parvathi A, Jasna V, Aswathy VK, et al (2019)

Microbial diversity in a coastal environment with co-existing upwelling and mud-banks along the south west coast of India.

Molecular biology reports, 46(3):3113-3127.

Upwelling and mud banks are two prominent oceanographic features in the coastal waters along the south west coast of India during the southwest monsoon (MON) season. The present study investigates the microbial diversity in the coastal environments of Alappuzha, India, where upwelling and mud banks co-exist. Water samples were collected from three stations, M1, M2, and M3, on a weekly basis to estimate the physico-chemical parameters and microbial abundance (MA). Presence of cold waters (< 26 °C) with high nitrate (6-8 µM) and low dissolved oxygen (5 µM) in the sub surface waters during monsoon (M) confirmed the presence of upwelling at all the three stations. Simultaneously, presence of unusually calm waters was seen at M2 alone during M indicating the formation of mud banks. The microbial diversity was determined from three stations, with distinct oceanographic conditions (M1: coastal reference station with only upwelling, M2: mud banks + upwelling, and M3: offshore reference station with only upwelling). The water samples were collected during two seasons, pre-monsoon (April) and M (July) and analysed using 16S rRNA-based Illumina high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. Proteobacteria was the most dominant phyla, followed by Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia in order, with variations in their relative abundance spatially and seasonally. Though the MA increased during M at all the stations, the relative abundance of most of the bacterial phyla except Proteobacteria decreased during M season. Interestingly, most of the sequences at M2 during mud banks were unclassified at the class level indicating the presence of unique microbial populations in this station. Prediction of metabolic activity revealed ammonia oxidation, nitrite reduction, sulphate reduction, xylan degradation, dehalogenation, chitin degradation, etc. as important functions. The metabolic activity throws light on the role of microbes in this environment thereby providing a system-scale perspective of microbial community interactions.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Ammon UV, Wood SA, Laroche O, et al (2018)

Combining morpho-taxonomy and metabarcoding enhances the detection of non-indigenous marine pests in biofouling communities.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16290.

Marine infrastructure can favor the spread of non-indigenous marine biofouling species by providing a suitable habitat for them to proliferate. Cryptic organisms or those in early life stages can be difficult to distinguish by conventional morphological taxonomy. Molecular tools, such as metabarcoding, may improve their detection. In this study, the ability of morpho-taxonomy and metabarcoding (18S rRNA and COI) using three reference databases (PR2, BOLD and NCBI) to characterize biodiversity and detect non-indigenous species (NIS) in biofouling was compared on 60 passive samplers deployed over summer and winter in a New Zealand marina. Highest resolution of metazoan taxa was identified using 18S rRNA assigned to PR2. There were higher assignment rates to NCBI reference sequences, but poorer taxonomic identification. Using all methods, 48 potential NIS were identified. Metabarcoding detected the largest proportion of those NIS: 77% via 18S rRNA/PR2 and NCBI and 35% via COI/BOLD and NCBI. Morpho-taxonomy detected an additional 14% of all identified NIS comprising mainly of bryozoan taxa. The data highlight several on-going challenges, including: differential marker resolution, primer biases, incomplete sequence reference databases, and variations in bioinformatic pipelines. Combining morpho-taxonomy and molecular analysis methods will likely enhance the detection of NIS from complex biofouling.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Rubin BER, Kautz S, Wray BD, et al (2019)

Dietary specialization in mutualistic acacia-ants affects relative abundance but not identity of host-associated bacteria.

Molecular ecology, 28(4):900-916.

Acacia-ant mutualists in the genus Pseudomyrmex nest obligately in acacia plants and, as we show through stable isotope analysis, feed at a remarkably low trophic level. Insects with diets such as these sometimes depend on bacterial symbionts for nutritional enrichment. We, therefore, examine the bacterial communities associated with acacia-ants in order to determine whether they host bacterial partners likely to contribute to their nutrition. Despite large differences in trophic position, acacia-ants and related species with generalized diets do not host distinct bacterial taxa. However, we find that a small number of previously undescribed bacterial taxa do differ in relative abundance between acacia-ants and generalists, including several Acetobacteraceae and Nocardiaceae lineages related to common insect associates. Comparisons with an herbivorous generalist, a parasite that feeds on acacias and a mutualistic species with a generalized diet show that trophic level is likely responsible for these small differences in bacterial community structure. While we did not experimentally test for a nutritional benefit to hosts of these bacterial lineages, metagenomic analysis reveals a Bartonella relative with an intact nitrogen-recycling pathway widespread across Pseudomyrmex mutualists and generalists. This taxon may be contributing to nitrogen enrichment of its ant hosts through urease activity and, concordant with an obligately host-associated lifestyle, appears to be experiencing genomewide relaxed selection. The lack of distinctiveness in bacterial communities across trophic level in this group of ants shows a remarkable ability to adjust to varied diets, possibly with assistance from these diverse ant-specific bacterial lineages.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Kawai K, Kamochi R, Oiki S, et al (2018)

Probiotics in human gut microbiota can degrade host glycosaminoglycans.

Scientific reports, 8(1):10674.

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) (e.g. heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronan) show various significant physiological functions as a major component of extracellular matrix in animals. Some bacteria target GAGs for adhesion and/or infection to host cells, although no probiotics have been known to degrade GAGs. Here, we show GAG degradation by probiotics from human gut microbiota and their adhesion to human intestinal cells through a GAG. GAG-degrading bacteria were isolated from human faeces and identified as Enterococcus faecium, and some typical probiotics such as Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Enterococcus faecalis were also found to degrade heparin. GAG-degrading lactobacilli and enterococci including the isolated E. faecium possessed a genetic cluster encoding GAG-degrading/metabolising enzymes in the bacterial genome. KduI and KduD enzymes encoded in the GAG cluster of L. rhamnosus functioned as 4-deoxy-l-threo-5-hexosulose-uronate ketol-isomerase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-gluconate dehydrogenase, respectively, both of which were crucial for GAG metabolism. GAG-degrading L. rhamnosus and E. faecium attached to human intestinal Caco-2 cells via heparin. Some species of Bacteroides, considered to be the next generation probiotics, degraded chondroitin sulfate C and hyaluronan, and genes coding for the Bacteroides GAG-degrading enzyme were frequently detected from human gut microbiota. This is the first report on GAG-degrading probiotics in human gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-11-25
CmpDate: 2019-11-25

Ghosh S, AP Das (2018)

Metagenomic insights into the microbial diversity in manganese-contaminated mine tailings and their role in biogeochemical cycling of manganese.

Scientific reports, 8(1):8257.

To extend the knowledge on the microbial diversity of manganese rich environments, we performed a clone library based study using metagenomic approach. Pyrosequencing based analysis of 16S rRNA genes were carried out on an Illumina platform to gain insights into the bacterial community inhabiting in a manganese mining site and the taxonomic profiles were correlated with the inherent capacities of these strains to solubilise manganese. The application of shot gun sequencing in this study yielded results which revealed the highest prevalence of Proteobacteria (42.47%), followed by Actinobacteria (23.99%) in the area of study. Cluster of orthologous group (COG) functional category has 85,066 predicted functions. Out of which 11% are involved in metabolism of amino acid, 9% are involved in production and conversion of energy while Keto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) functional category has 107,388 predicted functions, out of which 55% are involved in cellular metabolism, 15% are environmental and information processing and 12% are genetic information processing in nature. The isolated microbial consortia demonstrated visible growth in presence of high concentrations of Mn. Solubilisation studies resulted in 86% of manganese recovery after 20 days. The result presented in this study has important implications in understanding the microbial diversity in manganese contaminated mine tailings and their role in natural geochemical cycling of Mn.

RevDate: 2019-11-22
CmpDate: 2019-11-22

Emmanuel SA, Sul WJ, Seong HJ, et al (2019)

Metagenomic analysis of relationships between the denitrification process and carbon metabolism in a bioaugmented full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 35(10):149 pii:10.1007/s11274-019-2716-8.

The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between the denitrification process and carbon metabolism in a full-scale tannery wastewater treatment plant bioaugmented with the microbial consortium BM-S-1. The metagenomic analysis of the microbial community showed that Brachymonas denitrificans, a known denitrifier, was present at a high level in the treatment stages of buffering (B), primary aeration (PA), and sludge digestion (SD). The occurrences of the amino acid-degrading enzymes alpha ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) and tryptophan synthase were highly correlated with the presence of denitrification genes, such as napA, narG, nosZ and norB. The occurrence of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) was also highly paralleled with the occurrence of denitrification genes such as napA, narG, and norZ. The denitrification genes (nosZ, narG, napA, norB and nrfA) and amino acid degradation enzymes (tryptophan synthase, α-KGDH and pyridoxal phosphate dependent enzymes) were observed at high levels in B. This indicates that degradation of amino acids and denitrification of nitrate may potentially occur in B. The high concentrations of the fatty acid degradation enzyme groups (enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and β-ketothiolase) were observed together with the denitrification genes, such as napA, narG and nosZ. Phospholipase/carboxylesterase, enoyl-CoA hydratase/isomerase, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, phenylacetate degradation enzyme and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase 2 were also dominant in B. All these results clearly indicate that the denitrification pathways are potentially linked to the degradation pathways of amino acids and fatty acids whose degradation products go through the TCA cycle, generating the NADH that is used as electron donors for denitrification.

RevDate: 2019-11-21
CmpDate: 2019-11-21

Yue SJ, Liu J, Wang AT, et al (2019)

Berberine alleviates insulin resistance by reducing peripheral branched-chain amino acids.

American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism, 316(1):E73-E85.

Increased circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance (IR). However, evidence relating berberine (BBR), gut microbiota, BCAAs, and IR is limited. Here, we showed that BBR could effectively rectify steatohepatitis and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. BBR reorganized gut microbiota populations under both the normal chow diet (NCD) and HFD. Particularly, BBR noticeably decreased the relative abundance of BCAA-producing bacteria, including order Clostridiales; families Streptococcaceae, Clostridiaceae, and Prevotellaceae; and genera Streptococcus and Prevotella. Compared with the HFD group, predictive metagenomics indicated a reduction in the proportion of gut microbiota genes involved in BCAA biosynthesis but the enrichment genes for BCAA degradation and transport by BBR treatment. Accordingly, the elevated serum BCAAs of HFD group were significantly decreased by BBR. Furthermore, the Western blotting results implied that BBR could promote the BCAA catabolism in the liver and epididymal white adipose tissues of HFD-fed mice by activation of the multienzyme branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), whereas by inhibition of the phosphorylation state of BCKDHA (E1α subunit) and branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase kinase (BCKDK). The ex vivo assay further confirmed that BBR could increase BCAA catabolism in both AML12 hepatocytes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Finally, data from healthy subjects and diabetics confirmed that BBR could improve glycemic control and modulate circulating BCAAs. Together, our findings clarified BBR improving IR associated not only with gut microbiota alteration in BCAA biosynthesis but also with BCAA catabolism in liver and adipose tissues.

RevDate: 2019-11-20
CmpDate: 2019-11-20

Astudillo-de la Vega H, Alonso-Luna O, Ali-Pérez J, et al (2019)

Oncobiome at the Forefront of a Novel Molecular Mechanism to Understand the Microbiome and Cancer.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1168:147-156.

The microbiome comprises all the genetic material within a microbiota, that represents tenfold higher than that of our cells. The microbiota it includes a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, and archaea, and this ecosystem is personalized in any body space of every individual. Balanced microbial communities can positively contribute to training the immune system and maintaining immune homeostasis. Dysbiosis is a change in the normal microbiome composition that can initiate chronic inflammation, epithelial barrier breaches, and overgrowth of harmful bacteria. The next-generation sequencing methods have revolutionized the study of the microbiome. Bioinformatic tools to manage large volumes of new information, it became possible to assess species diversity and measure dynamic fluctuations in microbial communities. The burden of infections that are associated to human cancer is increasing but is underappreciated by the cancer research community. The rich content in microbes of normal and tumoral tissue reflect could be defining diverse physiological or pathological states. Genomic research has emerged a new focus on the interplay between the human microbiome and carcinogenesis and has been termed the 'oncobiome'. The interactions among the microbiota in all epithelium, induce changes in the host immune interactions and can be a cause of cancer. Microbes have been shown to have systemic effects on the host that influence the efficacy of anticancer drugs. Metagenomics allows to investigate the composition of microbial community. Metatranscriptome analysis applies RNA sequencing to microbial samples to determine which species are present. Cancer can be caused by changes in the microbiome. The roles of individual microbial species in cancer progression have been identified long ago for various tissue types. The identification of microbiomes of drug resistance in the treatment of cancer patients has been the subject of numerous microbiome studies. The complexity of cancer genetic alterations becomes irrelevant in certain cancers to explain the origin, the cause or the oncogenic maintenance by the oncogene addiction theory.

RevDate: 2019-11-20
CmpDate: 2019-11-20

Fujimoto M, Carey DE, Zitomer DH, et al (2019)

Syntroph diversity and abundance in anaerobic digestion revealed through a comparative core microbiome approach.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 103(15):6353-6367.

Anaerobic digestion is an important biotechnology treatment process for conversion of waste to energy. In this study, a comparative core microbiome approach, i.e., determining taxa that are shared in functioning digesters but not shared in non-functioning digesters, was used to determine microbial taxa that could play key roles for effective anaerobic digestion. Anaerobic digester functions were impaired by adding the broad-spectrum antimicrobial triclosan (TCS) or triclocarban (TCC) at different concentrations, and the core microbiomes in both functioning and non-functioning anaerobic digesters were compared. Digesters treated with high (2500 mg/kg) or medium (450 mg/kg) TCS and high (850 mg/kg) TCC concentrations lost their function, i.e., methane production decreased, effluent volatile fatty acid concentrations increased, and pH decreased. Changes in microbial community diversity and compositions were assessed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Microbial richness decreased significantly in non-functioning digesters (p < 0.001). Microbial community compositions in non-functioning digesters significantly differed from those in functioning digesters (p = 0.001, ANOSIM). Microbes identified as potentially key taxa included previously known fatty acid-degrading syntrophs and amino acid-degrading syntrophs. A diverse group of syntrophs detected in this study had low relative abundance in functioning digesters, suggesting the importance of rare microbes in anaerobic digester operation. The comparative microbiome approach used in this study can be applied to other microbial systems where a community-driven biological phenomena can be observed directly.

RevDate: 2019-11-19

Geesink P, Wegner CE, Probst AJ, et al (2019)

Genome-inferred spatio-temporal resolution of an uncultivated Roizmanbacterium reveals its ecological preferences in groundwater.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Subsurface ecosystems like groundwater harbor diverse microbial communities, including small-sized, putatively symbiotic organisms of the Candidate Phyla Radiation, yet little is known about their ecological preferences and potential microbial partners. Here, we investigated a member of the superphylum Microgenomates (Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133) from oligotrophic groundwater using mini-metagenomics and monitored its spatio-temporal distribution using 16S rRNA gene analyses. A Roizmanbacteria-specific quantitative PCR assay allowed us to track its abundance over the course of one year within eight groundwater wells along a 5.4 km hillslope transect, where Roizmanbacteria reached maximum relative abundances of 2.3 %. In-depth genomic analyses suggested that Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133 is a lactic acid fermenter, potentially able to utilize a range of complex carbon substrates, including cellulose We hypothesize that it attaches to host cells using a trimeric autotransporter adhesin and inhibits their cell wall biosynthesis using a toxin-antitoxin system. Network analyses based on correlating Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133 abundances with amplicon sequencing derived microbial community profiles suggested one potential host organism, classified as a member of the class Thermodesulfovibrionia (Nitrospirae). By providing lactate as an electron donor Cand. Roizmanbacterium ADI133 potentially mediates the transfer of carbon to other microorganisms and thereby is an important connector in the microbial community. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-19

Cuscó A, Catozzi C, Viñes J, et al (2018)

Microbiota profiling with long amplicons using Nanopore sequencing: full-length 16S rRNA gene and the 16S-ITS-23S of the rrn operon.

F1000Research, 7:1755.

Background: Profiling the microbiome of low-biomass samples is challenging for metagenomics since these samples are prone to contain DNA from other sources (e.g. host or environment). The usual approach is sequencing short regions of the 16S rRNA gene, which fails to assign taxonomy to genus and species level. To achieve an increased taxonomic resolution, we aim to develop long-amplicon PCR-based approaches using Nanopore sequencing. We assessed two different genetic markers: the full-length 16S rRNA (~1,500 bp) and the 16S-ITS-23S region from the rrn operon (4,300 bp). Methods: We sequenced a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, two mock communities and two pools of low-biomass samples (dog skin). Nanopore sequencing was performed on MinION™ using the 1D PCR barcoding kit. Sequences were pre-processed, and data were analyzed using EPI2ME or Minimap2 with rrn database. Consensus sequences of the 16S-ITS-23S genetic marker were obtained using canu. Results: The full-length 16S rRNA and the 16S-ITS-23S region of the rrn operon were used to retrieve the microbiota composition of the samples at the genus and species level. For the Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolate, the amplicons were assigned to the correct bacterial species in ~98% of the cases with the16S-ITS-23S genetic marker, and in ~68%, with the 16S rRNA gene when using EPI2ME. Using mock communities, we found that the full-length 16S rRNA gene represented better the abundances of a microbial community; whereas, 16S-ITS-23S obtained better resolution at the species level. Finally, we characterized low-biomass skin microbiota samples and detected species with an environmental origin. Conclusions: Both full-length 16S rRNA and the 16S-ITS-23S of the rrn operon retrieved the microbiota composition of simple and complex microbial communities, even from the low-biomass samples such as dog skin. For an increased resolution at the species level, targeting the 16S-ITS-23S of the rrn operon would be the best choice.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-19

Zhang F, Zhang W, Qian DK, et al (2019)

Synergetic alginate conversion by a microbial consortium of hydrolytic bacteria and methanogens.

Water research, 163:114892.

Sludge, of which alginate-like biomaterial is a major organic component, is an increasing environmental problem. Thus, efficient anaerobic degradation of alginate provides a new method for sludge utilization. In this study, anaerobic alginate hydrolytic bacteria (AHB) were proposed to enrich with methanogens synergetically to reduce the inhibition of intermediate metabolites. The COD of produced methane reached 80.7 ± 1.9% (n = 4) of initial alginate COD. After considering the microbial growth (8%-18% of COD), a good COD balance indicated that alginate was fully consumed and the main final metabolites were methane and CO2. Methanogenesis could promote alginate conversion by AHB. The enriched bacteria for alginate degradation in this study were different from that of former known AHB. The metabolic pathway of alginate degradation was revealed by metagenomics, in which oligo-alginate lyase was detected in twelve bacteria, and typical carbon metabolic pathways to convert alginate to methane were identified. More studies of bacterial isolation and biofuel production are still needed in the future.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-19

Qian W, Ao W, Jia C, et al (2019)

Bacterial colonisation of reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of Tarim red deer (Cervus elaphus yarkandensis).

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 112(9):1283-1296.

The rumen microbiome contributes greatly to the degradation of plant fibres to volatile fatty acids and microbial products, affecting the health and productivity of ruminants. In this study, we investigated the dynamics of colonisation by bacterial communities attached to reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of Tarim red deer, a native species distributed in the desert of the Tarim Basin. The reed and cottonseed hull samples incubated in nylon bags for 1, 6, 12, and 48 h were collected and used to examine the bacterial communities by next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Prevotella1 and Rikenellaceae RC9 were the most abundant taxa in both the reed and cottonseed hull groups at various times, indicating a key role of these organisms in rumen fermentation in Tarim red deer. The relative abundances of cellulolytic bacteria, such as members of Fibrobacter, Treponema 2, Ruminococcaceae NK4A214 and Succiniclasticum increased, while that of the genus Prevotella 1 decreased, with increasing incubation time in both reeds and cottonseed hulls. Moreover, the temporal changes in bacterial diversity between reeds and cottonseed hulls were different, as demonstrated by the variations in the taxa Ruminococcaceae UCG 010 and Papillibacter in the reed group and Sphaerochaeta and Erysipelotrichaceae UCG 004 in the cottonseed hull group; the abundances of these bacteria first decreased and then increased. In conclusion, our results reveal the dynamics of bacterial colonisation of reeds and cottonseed hulls in the rumen of Tarim red deer.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-19

Theis KR, Romero R, Winters AD, et al (2019)

Does the human placenta delivered at term have a microbiota? Results of cultivation, quantitative real-time PCR, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and metagenomics.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 220(3):267.e1-267.e39.

BACKGROUND: The human placenta has been traditionally viewed as sterile, and microbial invasion of this organ has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Yet, recent studies that utilized sequencing techniques reported that the human placenta at term contains a unique microbiota. These conclusions are largely based on the results derived from the sequencing of placental samples. However, such an approach carries the risk of capturing background-contaminating DNA (from DNA extraction kits, polymerase chain reaction reagents, and laboratory environments) when low microbial biomass samples are studied.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the human placenta delivered at term in patients without labor who undergo cesarean delivery harbors a resident microbiota ("the assemblage of microorganisms present in a defined niche or environment").

STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study included placentas from 29 women who had a cesarean delivery without labor at term. The study also included technical controls to account for potential background-contaminating DNA, inclusive in DNA extraction kits, polymerase chain reaction reagents, and laboratory environments. Bacterial profiles of placental tissues and background technical controls were characterized and compared with the use of bacterial culture, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, and metagenomic surveys.

RESULTS: (1) Twenty-eight of 29 placental tissues had a negative culture for microorganisms. The microorganisms retrieved by culture from the remaining sample were likely contaminants because corresponding 16S ribosomal RNA genes were not detected in the same sample. (2) Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction did not indicate greater abundances of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes in placental tissues than in technical controls. Therefore, there was no evidence of the presence of microorganisms above background contamination from reagents in the placentas. (3) 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing did not reveal consistent differences in the composition or structure of bacterial profiles between placental samples and background technical controls. (4) Most of the bacterial sequences obtained from metagenomic surveys of placental tissues were from cyanobacteria, aquatic bacteria, or plant pathogens, which are microbes unlikely to populate the human placenta. Coprobacillus, which constituted 30.5% of the bacterial sequences obtained through metagenomic sequencing of placental samples, was not identified in any of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene surveys of these samples. These observations cast doubt as to whether this organism is really present in the placenta of patients at term not in labor.

CONCLUSION: With the use of multiple modes of microbiologic inquiry, a resident microbiota could not be identified in human placentas delivered at term from women without labor. A consistently significant difference in the abundance and/or presence of a microbiota between placental tissue and background technical controls could not be found. All cultures of placental tissue, except 1, did not yield bacteria. Incorporating technical controls for potential sources of background-contaminating DNA for studies of low microbial biomass samples, such as the placenta, is necessary to derive reliable conclusions.

RevDate: 2019-11-19
CmpDate: 2019-11-19

Shi Z, Fultz RS, Engevik MA, et al (2019)

Distinct roles of histamine H1- and H2-receptor signaling pathways in inflammation-associated colonic tumorigenesis.

American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, 316(1):G205-G216.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a well-known risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer. Prior studies have demonstrated that microbial histamine can ameliorate intestinal inflammation in mice. We tested the hypothesis whether microbe-derived luminal histamine suppresses inflammation-associated colon cancer in Apcmin/+ mice. Mice were colonized with the human-derived Lactobacillus reuteri. Chronic inflammation was induced by repeated cycles of low-dose dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice that were given histamine-producing L. reuteri via oral gavage developed fewer colonic tumors, despite the presence of a complex mouse gut microbiome. We further demonstrated that administration of a histamine H1-receptor (H1R) antagonist suppressed tumorigenesis, while administration of histamine H2-receptor (H2R) antagonist significantly increased both tumor number and size. The bimodal functions of histamine include protumorigenic effects through H1R and antitumorigenic effects via H2R, and these results were supported by gene expression profiling studies on tumor specimens of patients with colorectal cancer. Greater ratios of gene expression of H2R (HRH2) vs. H1R (HRH1) were correlated with improved overall survival outcomes in patients with colorectal cancer. Additionally, activation of H2R suppressed phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inhibited chemokine gene expression induced by H1R activation in colorectal cancer cells. Moreover, the combination of a H1R antagonist and a H2R agonist yielded potent suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced MAPK signaling in macrophages. Given the impact on intestinal epithelial and immune cells, simultaneous modulation of H1R and H2R signaling pathways may be a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Histamine-producing Lactobacillus reuteri can suppress development of inflammation-associated colon cancer in an established mouse model. The net effects of histamine may depend on the relative activity of H1R and H2R signaling pathways in the intestinal mucosa. Our findings suggest that treatment with H1R or H2R antagonists could yield opposite effects. However, by harnessing the ability to block H1R signaling while stimulating H2R signaling, novel strategies for suppression of intestinal inflammation and colorectal neoplasia could be developed.

RevDate: 2019-11-18
CmpDate: 2019-11-18

Saito K, Koido S, Odamaki T, et al (2019)

Metagenomic analyses of the gut microbiota associated with colorectal adenoma.

PloS one, 14(2):e0212406 pii:PONE-D-18-30416.

Recent studies have suggested an association between certain members of the Fusobacterium genus, especially F. nucleatum, and the progression of advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC). We assessed such an association of the gut microbiota in Japanese patients with colorectal adenoma (CRA) or intramucosal CRC using colonoscopy aspirates. We analyzed samples from 81 Japanese patients, including 47 CRA and 24 intramucosal CRC patients, and 10 healthy subjects. Metagenomic analysis of the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was performed. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) method was used to examine microbial dysbiosis, revealing significant differences in bacterial abundances between the healthy controls and CRA or intramucosal CRC patients. In particular, F. varium was statistically more abundant in patients with CRA and intramucosal CRC than in healthy subjects. Here, we present the metagenomic profile of CRA and intramucosal CRC and demonstrate that F. varium is at least partially involved in the pathogenesis of CRA and intramucosal CRC.

RevDate: 2019-11-17

Khan MS, Koizumi N, JL Olds (2019)

Biofixation of atmospheric nitrogen in the context of world staple crop production: Policy perspectives.

The Science of the total environment, 701:134945 pii:S0048-9697(19)34937-X [Epub ahead of print].

The extensive use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers implicates a paradox: while fertilizers ensure the supply of a large amount of food, they cause negative environmental externalities, including reduced biodiversity, and eutrophic streams and lakes. Moreover, such fertilizers may also result in a major public health hazard: increased antibiotic resistance. This article discusses the critical implications of perturbations in N cycle caused by excessive use of fertilizers and resulting policy implications as they relate to ecosystem services. While there are solutions such as cover crops, these solutions are expensive and inconvenient for farmers. We advocate the use of biological fixation (BF) for staple crops-microbiome mediated natural supply of fixed N. This would involve engineering a microbiome that can be grown cheaply and at industrial scale. Fertilizers resulting from such innovation are termed as "biofertilizers" in this article. Following a qualitative cost-benefit analysis broken down by key stakeholders and a quick exploration of policy frameworks as they relate to the advancement of biofertilizers, we propose a practical pathway of where and how research investments should be directed to make such a solution feasible. We make five policy recommendations for decision-makers to facilitate a successful trajectory for this solution: (1) Future agricultural science should seek to understand how BF might be employed as a practical and efficient strategy. This effort would require that industry and the government partner to establish a pre-competitive research laboratory equipped with the latest state-of-the-art technologies that conduct metagenomic experiments to reveal signature microbiomes and form novel symbiotic connections. (2) To have a smooth ride in the market, ag-bio companies should: (i) create awareness among farmers; (ii) impart skills to farmers in testing and using biofertilizers, and (iii) conduct extensive field tests and more research in studying the scalability potential of such fertilizers. (3)The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and state governments should provide research and development (R&D) tax credits to biotech companies specifically geared towards R&D investments aimed at increasing the viability of BF and microbiome engineering. (4) To control agricultural pollution in the biosphere, federal governments should consider passing a Clean Agriculture Act (CAA), including a specific clause that regulate the use of chemical fertilizers. (5) Governments and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) should coordinate Biological Advanced Research in Agriculture (BARA)-a global agricultural innovation initiative for investments and research in biological fixation and ethical, legal, and social implications of such innovation. While biological fixation will be central in BARA, we envision it to conduct research around other agricultural innovations as well, such as increasing photosynthetic efficiency.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Bohra V, Dafale NA, HJ Purohit (2019)

Understanding the alteration in rumen microbiome and CAZymes profile with diet and host through comparative metagenomic approach.

Archives of microbiology, 201(10):1385-1397.

Rumen microbial community harbors a distinct genetic reservoir of potent carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZyme) that functions efficiently for the deconstruction of plant biomass. Based on this premise, metagenomics approach was applied to characterize the rumen microbial community and identify carbohydrate-active genes of Bos taurus (cow) and Bubalus bubalis (buffalo) fed on green or dry roughage. Metadata was generated from the samples: green roughage-fed cow (NDC_GR), buffalo (NDB_GR) and dry roughage-fed cow (NDC_DR), buffalo (NDB_DR). Phylogenetic analysis revealed the dominance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Fibrobacter in all the four samples, covering 90-96% of the total bacterial population. On finer resolution, higher abundance of bacterial genera Fibrobacter, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Prevotella and Ruminococcus involved in plant biomass hydrolysis was observed in NDB_DR. Functional annotation using dbCAN annotation algorithm identified 28.13%, 8.08% 10.93% and 12.53% of the total contigs as putatively carbohydrate-active against NDC_GR, NDB_GR, NDC_DR and NDB_DR, respectively. Additional profiling of CAZymes revealed an over representation and diversity of putative glycoside hydrolases (GHs) in the animals fed on dry roughage with substantial enrichments of genes encoding GHs from families GH2, GH3, GH13 and GH43. GHs of families GH45, GH12, GH113, GH128, GH54 and GH27 were observed exclusively in NDB_DR metagenome. A higher abundance of cellulases, hemicellulases, debranching and oligosaccharide hydrolyzing enzymes was revealed in NDB_DR metagenome. Accordingly, it can be concluded that buffalo rumen microbiome are more efficient in plant biomass hydrolysis. The present study provides a deep understanding of the shifts in microbial community and plant polysaccharide deconstructing capabilities of rumen microbiome in response to changes in the feed type and host animal. Activity-specific microbial consortia procured from these animals can be used further for efficient plant biomass hydrolysis. The study also establishes the utility of rumen microbiome as a unique resource for mining diverse lignocellulolytic enzymes.

RevDate: 2019-11-15
CmpDate: 2019-11-15

Zhang W, Watanabe HK, Ding W, et al (2019)

Gut Microbial Divergence between Two Populations of the Hadal Amphipod Hirondellea gigas.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 85(1): pii:AEM.02032-18.

Hadal environments sustain diverse microorganisms. A few studies have investigated hadal microbial communities consisting of free-living or particle-associated bacteria and archaea. However, animal-associated microbial communities in hadal environments remain largely unexplored, and comparative analyses of animal gut microbiota between two isolated hadal environments have never been done so far. In the present study, 228 Gb of gut metagenomes of the giant amphipod Hirondellea gigas from two hadal trenches, the Mariana Trench and Japan Trench, were sequenced and analyzed. Taxonomic analysis identified 49 microbial genera commonly shared by the gut microbiota of the two H. gigas populations. However, the results of statistical analysis, in congruency with the alpha and beta diversity analyses, revealed significant differences in gut microbial composition across the two trenches. Abundance variation of Psychromonas, Propionibacterium, and Pseudoalteromonas species was observed. Microbial cooccurrence was demonstrated for microbes that were overrepresented in the Mariana trench. Comparison of functional potential showed that the percentage of carbohydrate metabolic genes among the total microbial genes was significantly higher in the guts of H. gigas specimens from the Mariana Trench. Integrating carbon input information and geological characters of the two hadal trenches, we propose that the differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as environmental variations and microbial interactions.IMPORTANCE The taxonomic composition and functional potential of animal gut microbiota in deep-sea environments remain largely unknown. Here, by performing comparative metagenomics, we suggest that the gut microbial compositions of two Hirondellea gigas populations from the Mariana Trench and the Japan Trench have undergone significant divergence. Through analyses of functional potentials and microbe-microbe correlations, our findings shed light on the contributions of animal gut microbiota to host adaptation to hadal environments.

RevDate: 2019-11-13
CmpDate: 2019-11-13

Llacsa LX, Solis-Castro RL, Mialhe E, et al (2019)

Metagenomic Analysis of the Bacterial and Fungal Community Associated to the Rhizosphere of Tabebuia chrysantha and T. billbergii.

Current microbiology, 76(9):1073-1080.

The rhizosphere of plants contains a diversity of microorganisms, some of which play an important role in the growth and development of the host plant. In this work, the diversity of fungi and bacteria associated to the rhizosphere of Tabebuia chrysantha and T. billbergii plants was analyzed. The molecular identification was performed by sequencing the ITS and 16S rDNA for fungi and bacteria, respectively. The analysis of the rDNA sequences of the rhizosphere of T. billergii showed that for domain Eukaria, the most abundant phyla were Glomeromycota (56%) and Ascomycota (39%), and for domain Bacteria, the phylum Firmicutes (19.17%) was the most abundant followed by Actinobacteria (14.90%) and Proteobacteria (8.94%). In the rhizosphere of T. chrysantha the most abundant phylum of Eukaria was Ascomycota (98%), and for Bacteria the most representative phyla were Proteobacteria (18.61%) and Actinobacteria (11.93%). A diversity of genera and species of fungi and bacteria was observed, to be more significant in T. chrysantha than T. billbergii. The taxonomic assignment of metagenomic sequences revealed a homology associated with genomic sequences of 546 bacteria and 147 fungi in T. chrysantha and 154 bacteria and 122 fungi in T. billbergii.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Scheiman J, Luber JM, Chavkin TA, et al (2019)

Meta-omics analysis of elite athletes identifies a performance-enhancing microbe that functions via lactate metabolism.

Nature medicine, 25(7):1104-1109.

The human gut microbiome is linked to many states of human health and disease1. The metabolic repertoire of the gut microbiome is vast, but the health implications of these bacterial pathways are poorly understood. In this study, we identify a link between members of the genus Veillonella and exercise performance. We observed an increase in Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon and isolated a strain of Veillonella atypica from stool samples. Inoculation of this strain into mice significantly increased exhaustive treadmill run time. Veillonella utilize lactate as their sole carbon source, which prompted us to perform a shotgun metagenomic analysis in a cohort of elite athletes, finding that every gene in a major pathway metabolizing lactate to propionate is at higher relative abundance postexercise. Using 13C3-labeled lactate in mice, we demonstrate that serum lactate crosses the epithelial barrier into the lumen of the gut. We also show that intrarectal instillation of propionate is sufficient to reproduce the increased treadmill run time performance observed with V. atypica gavage. Taken together, these studies reveal that V. atypica improves run time via its metabolic conversion of exercise-induced lactate into propionate, thereby identifying a natural, microbiome-encoded enzymatic process that enhances athletic performance.

RevDate: 2019-11-14
CmpDate: 2019-11-14

Mangifesta M, Mancabelli L, Milani C, et al (2018)

Mucosal microbiota of intestinal polyps reveals putative biomarkers of colorectal cancer.

Scientific reports, 8(1):13974.

The human intestine retains a complex microbial ecosystem, which performs crucial functions that impact on host health. Several studies have indicated that intestinal dysbiosis may impact on the establishment of life-threatening intestinal diseases such as colorectal cancer. An adenomatous polyp is the result of abnormal tissue growth, which is benign but is considered to be associated with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer, based on its grade of dysplasia. Development of diagnostic tools that are based on surveying the gut microbiota and are aimed at early detection of colorectal cancer represent highly desirable target. For this purpose, we performed a pilot study in which we applied a metataxonomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach to unveil the composition of microbial communities of intestinal polyps. Moreover, we performed a meta-analysis involving the reconstructed microbiota composition of adenomatous polyps and publicly available metagenomics datasets of colorectal cancer. These analyses allowed the identification of microbial taxa such as Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides and Romboutsia, which appear to be depleted in cancerogenic mucosa as well as in adenomatous polyps, thus representing novel microbial biomarkers associated with early tumor formation. Furthermore, an absolute quantification of Fusubacterium nucleatum in polyps further compounded the important role of this microorganism as a valuable putative microbial biomarker for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Doan T, Hinterwirth A, Worden L, et al (2019)

Gut microbiome alteration in MORDOR I: a community-randomized trial of mass azithromycin distribution.

Nature medicine, 25(9):1370-1376.

The MORDOR I trial1, conducted in Niger, Malawi and Tanzania, demonstrated that mass azithromycin distribution to preschool children reduced childhood mortality1. However, the large but simple trial design precluded determination of the mechanisms involved. Here we examined the gut microbiome of preschool children from 30 Nigerien communities randomized to either biannual azithromycin or placebo. Gut microbiome γ-diversity was not significantly altered (P = 0.08), but the relative abundances of two Campylobacter species, along with another 33 gut bacteria, were significantly reduced in children treated with azithromycin at the 24-month follow-up. Metagenomic analysis revealed functional differences in gut bacteria between treatment groups. Resistome analysis showed an increase in macrolide resistance gene expression in gut microbiota in communities treated with azithromycin (P = 0.004). These results suggest that prolonged mass azithromycin distribution to reduce childhood mortality reduces certain gut bacteria, including known pathogens, while selecting for antibiotic resistance.

RevDate: 2019-11-12
CmpDate: 2019-11-12

Hooper R, Brealey JC, van der Valk T, et al (2019)

Host-derived population genomics data provides insights into bacterial and diatom composition of the killer whale skin.

Molecular ecology, 28(2):484-502.

Recent exploration into the interactions and relationship between hosts and their microbiota has revealed a connection between many aspects of the host's biology, health and associated micro-organisms. Whereas amplicon sequencing has traditionally been used to characterize the microbiome, the increasing number of published population genomics data sets offers an underexploited opportunity to study microbial profiles from the host shotgun sequencing data. Here, we use sequence data originally generated from killer whale Orcinus orca skin biopsies for population genomics, to characterize the skin microbiome and investigate how host social and geographical factors influence the microbial community composition. Having identified 845 microbial taxa from 2.4 million reads that did not map to the killer whale reference genome, we found that both ecotypic and geographical factors influence community composition of killer whale skin microbiomes. Furthermore, we uncovered key taxa that drive the microbiome community composition and showed that they are embedded in unique networks, one of which is tentatively linked to diatom presence and poor skin condition. Community composition differed between Antarctic killer whales with and without diatom coverage, suggesting that the previously reported episodic migrations of Antarctic killer whales to warmer waters associated with skin turnover may control the effects of potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Tenacibaculum dicentrarchi. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of microbiome studies from host shotgun sequencing data and highlights the importance of metagenomics in understanding the relationship between host and microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2019-11-11
CmpDate: 2019-11-11

Toivonen L, Hasegawa K, Waris M, et al (2019)

Early nasal microbiota and acute respiratory infections during the first years of life.

Thorax, 74(6):592-599.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence shows that airway microbiota may modulate local immune responses, thereby contributing to the susceptibility and severity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs). However, there are little data on the longitudinal relationships between airway microbiota and susceptibility to ARIs in children.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association of early nasal microbiota and the subsequent risk of ARIs during the first years of life.

METHODS: In this prospective population-based birth-cohort study in Finland, we followed 839 healthy infants for ARIs from birth to age 24 months. Nasal microbiota was tested using 16S rRNA gene sequencing at age 2 months. We applied an unsupervised clustering approach to identify early nasal microbiota profiles, and examined the association of profiles with the rate of ARIs during age 2-24 months.

RESULTS: We identified five nasal microbiota profiles dominated by Moraxella, Streptococcus, Dolosigranulum, Staphylococcus and Corynebacteriaceae, respectively. Incidence rate of ARIs was highest in children with an early Moraxella-dominant profile and lowest in those with a Corynebacteriaceae-dominant profile (738 vs 552/100 children years; unadjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR), 1.34; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.54; p < 0.001). After adjusting for nine potential confounders, the Moraxella-dominant profile-ARI association persisted (adjusted IRR (aIRR), 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.37; p = 0.01). Similarly, the incidence rate of lower respiratory tract infections (a subset of all ARIs) was significantly higher in children with an early Moraxella-dominant profile (aIRR, 2.79; 95% CI 1.04 to 8.09; p = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: Moraxella-dominant nasal microbiota profile in early infancy was associated with an increased rate of ARIs during the first 2 years of life.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Ji BW, Sheth RU, Dixit PD, et al (2019)

Quantifying spatiotemporal variability and noise in absolute microbiota abundances using replicate sampling.

Nature methods, 16(8):731-736.

Metagenomic sequencing has enabled detailed investigation of diverse microbial communities, but understanding their spatiotemporal variability remains an important challenge. Here, we present decomposition of variance using replicate sampling (DIVERS), a method based on replicate sampling and spike-in sequencing. The method quantifies the contributions of temporal dynamics, spatial sampling variability, and technical noise to the variances and covariances of absolute bacterial abundances. We applied DIVERS to investigate a high-resolution time series of the human gut microbiome and a spatial survey of a soil bacterial community in Manhattan's Central Park. Our analysis showed that in the gut, technical noise dominated the abundance variability for nearly half of the detected taxa. DIVERS also revealed substantial spatial heterogeneity of gut microbiota, and high temporal covariances of taxa within the Bacteroidetes phylum. In the soil community, spatial variability primarily contributed to abundance fluctuations at short time scales (weeks), while temporal variability dominated at longer time scales (several months).

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Thomas AM, N Segata (2019)

Multiple levels of the unknown in microbiome research.

BMC biology, 17(1):48 pii:10.1186/s12915-019-0667-z.

Metagenomics allows exploration of aspects of a microbial community that were inaccessible by cultivation-based approaches targeting single microbes. Many new microbial taxa and genes have been discovered using metagenomics, but different kinds of "unknowns" still remain in a microbiome experiment. We discuss here whether and how it is possible to deal with them.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

De Filippis F, Pasolli E, Tett A, et al (2019)

Distinct Genetic and Functional Traits of Human Intestinal Prevotella copri Strains Are Associated with Different Habitual Diets.

Cell host & microbe, 25(3):444-453.e3.

The role of intestinal Prevotella species in human health is controversial, with both positive and negative associations. Strain-level diversity may contribute to discrepancies in genus and species associations with health and disease. We dissected the gut metagenomes of Italians with varying dietary habits, investigating the presence of distinct Prevotella copri strains. Fiber-rich diets were linked to P. copri types with enhanced potential for carbohydrate catabolism. P. copri strains associated with an omnivore diet had a higher prevalence of the leuB gene-involved in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis-a risk factor for glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. These P. copri pangenomes were compared to existing cohorts, providing evidence of distinct gene repertoires characterizing different P. copri populations, with drug metabolism and complex carbohydrate degradation significantly associated with Western and non-Western individuals, respectively. Strain-level P. copri diversity in gut microbiomes is affected by diet and should be considered when examining host-microbe associations.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2019-11-08

Chen T, Liu AB, Sun S, et al (2019)

Green Tea Polyphenols Modify the Gut Microbiome in db/db Mice as Co-Abundance Groups Correlating with the Blood Glucose Lowering Effect.

Molecular nutrition & food research, 63(8):e1801064.

SCOPE: The effects of green tea polyphenols, Polyphenon E (PPE), and black tea polyphenols, theaflavins (TFs), on gut microbiota and development of diabetes in db/db mice are investigated and compared.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Supplementation of PPE (0.1%) in the diet of female db/db mice for 7 weeks decreases fasting blood glucose levels and mesenteric fat while increasing the serum level of insulin, possibly through protection against β-cell damage. However, TFs are less or not effective. Microbiome analysis through 16S rRNA gene sequencing shows that PPE and TFs treatments significantly alter the bacterial community structure in the cecum and colon, but not in the ileum. The key bacterial phylotypes responding to the treatments are then clustered into 11 co-abundance groups (CAGs). CAGs 6 and 7, significantly increased by PPE but not by TFs, are negatively associated with blood glucose levels. The operational taxonomic units in these CAGs are from two different phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. CAG 10, decreased by PPE and TFs, is positively associated with blood glucose levels.

CONCLUSION: Gut microbiota respond to tea polyphenol treatments as CAGs instead of taxa. Some of the CAGs associated with the blood glucose lowering effect are enriched by PPE, but not TFs.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Yang Y, Pan J, Zhou Z, et al (2020)

Complex microbial nitrogen-cycling networks in three distinct anammox-inoculated wastewater treatment systems.

Water research, 168:115142.

Microbial nitrogen removal mediated by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) are cost-effective, yet it is time-consuming to accumulate the slow-growing anammox bacteria in conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Inoculation of anammox enriched pellets is an effective way to establish anammox and achieve shortcut nitrogen removal in full-scale WWTPs. However, little is known about the complex microbial nitrogen-cycling networks in these anammox-inoculated WWTPs. Here, we applied metagenomic and metatranscriptomic tools to study the microbial nitrogen removal in three conventional WWTPs, which have been inoculated exogenous anammox pellets, representing partial-nitrification anammox (PNA) and nitrification-denitrification nitrogen removal processes. In the PNA system of Bali (BL), ammonia was partially oxidized by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas and the oxidized nitrite and the remaining ammonium were directly converted to N2 by anammox bacteria Ca. Brocadia and Ca. Kuenenia. In the nitrification-denitrification system of Wenshan (WS), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) Thaumarchaeota unexpectedly dominated the nitrifying community in the presence of AOB Nitrosomonas. Meanwhile, the biomass yield of Ca. Brocadia was likely inhibited by the high biodegradable organic compound input and limited by substrate competitions from AOA, AOB, complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox) Nitrospira, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) Nitrospira, and heterotrophic denitrifiers. Unexpectedly, comammox Nitrospira was the predominant nitrifier in the presence of AOB Nitrosomonas in the organic carbon-rich nitrification-denitrification system of Linkou (LK). These results clearly showed that distinct active groups were working in concert for an effective nitrogen removal in different WWTPs. This study confirmed the feasibility of anammox application in ammonium-rich systems by direct inoculation of the exogenous anammox pellets and improved our understanding of microbial nitrogen cycling in anammox-driven conventional WWTPs from both physiochemical and omics perspectives.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Bertrand D, Shaw J, Kalathiyappan M, et al (2019)

Hybrid metagenomic assembly enables high-resolution analysis of resistance determinants and mobile elements in human microbiomes.

Nature biotechnology, 37(8):937-944.

Characterization of microbiomes has been enabled by high-throughput metagenomic sequencing. However, existing methods are not designed to combine reads from short- and long-read technologies. We present a hybrid metagenomic assembler named OPERA-MS that integrates assembly-based metagenome clustering with repeat-aware, exact scaffolding to accurately assemble complex communities. Evaluation using defined in vitro and virtual gut microbiomes revealed that OPERA-MS assembles metagenomes with greater base pair accuracy than long-read (>5×; Canu), higher contiguity than short-read (~10× NGA50; MEGAHIT, IDBA-UD, metaSPAdes) and fewer assembly errors than non-metagenomic hybrid assemblers (2×; hybridSPAdes). OPERA-MS provides strain-resolved assembly in the presence of multiple genomes of the same species, high-quality reference genomes for rare species (<1%) with ~9× long-read coverage and near-complete genomes with higher coverage. We used OPERA-MS to assemble 28 gut metagenomes of antibiotic-treated patients, and showed that the inclusion of long nanopore reads produces more contiguous assemblies (200× improvement over short-read assemblies), including more than 80 closed plasmid or phage sequences and a new 263 kbp jumbo phage. High-quality hybrid assemblies enable an exquisitely detailed view of the gut resistome in human patients.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Sheth RU, Li M, Jiang W, et al (2019)

Spatial metagenomic characterization of microbial biogeography in the gut.

Nature biotechnology, 37(8):877-883.

Spatial structuring is important for the maintenance of natural ecological systems1,2. Many microbial communities, including the gut microbiome, display intricate spatial organization3-9. Mapping the biogeography of bacteria can shed light on interactions that underlie community functions10-12, but existing methods cannot accommodate the hundreds of species that are found in natural microbiomes13-17. Here we describe metagenomic plot sampling by sequencing (MaPS-seq), a culture-independent method to characterize the spatial organization of a microbiome at micrometer-scale resolution. Intact microbiome samples are immobilized in a gel matrix and cryofractured into particles. Neighboring microbial taxa in the particles are then identified by droplet-based encapsulation, barcoded 16S rRNA amplification and deep sequencing. Analysis of three regions of the mouse intestine revealed heterogeneous microbial distributions with positive and negative co-associations between specific taxa. We identified robust associations between Bacteroidales taxa in all gut compartments and showed that phylogenetically clustered local regions of bacteria were associated with a dietary perturbation. Spatial metagenomics could be used to study microbial biogeography in complex habitats.

RevDate: 2019-11-07
CmpDate: 2019-11-07

Tran HT, Wang HC, Hsu TW, et al (2019)

Revegetation on abandoned salt ponds relieves the seasonal fluctuation of soil microbiomes.

BMC genomics, 20(1):478 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5875-y.

BACKGROUND: Salt pond restoration aims to recover the environmental damages that accumulated over the long history of salt production. Of the restoration strategies, phytoremediation that utilizes salt-tolerant plants and soil microorganisms to reduce the salt concentrations is believed to be environmentally-friendly. However, little is known about the change of bacterial community during salt pond restoration in the context of phytoremediation. In the present study, we used 16S metagenomics to compare seasonal changes of bacterial communities between the revegetated and barren salterns at Sicao, Taiwan.

RESULTS: In both saltern types, Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes were predominant at the phylum level. In the revegetated salterns, the soil microbiomes displayed high species diversities and underwent a stepwise transition across seasons. In the barren salterns, the soil microbiomes fluctuated greatly, indicating that mangroves tended to stabilize the soil microorganism communities over the succession. Bacteria in the order Halanaerobiaceae and archaea in the family Halobacteriaceae that were adapted to high salinity exclusively occurred in the barren salterns. Among the 441 persistent operational taxonomic units detected in the revegetated salterns, 387 (87.5%) were present as transient species in the barren salterns. Only 32 persistent bacteria were exclusively detected in the revegetated salterns. Possibly, salt-tolerant plants provided shelters for those new colonizers.

CONCLUSIONS: The collective data indicate that revegetation tended to stabilize the microbiome across seasons and enriched the microbial diversity in the salterns, especially species of Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

LaPierre N, Mangul S, Alser M, et al (2019)

MiCoP: microbial community profiling method for detecting viral and fungal organisms in metagenomic samples.

BMC genomics, 20(Suppl 5):423 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5699-9.

BACKGROUND: High throughput sequencing has spurred the development of metagenomics, which involves the direct analysis of microbial communities in various environments such as soil, ocean water, and the human body. Many existing methods based on marker genes or k-mers have limited sensitivity or are too computationally demanding for many users. Additionally, most work in metagenomics has focused on bacteria and archaea, neglecting to study other key microbes such as viruses and eukaryotes.

RESULTS: Here we present a method, MiCoP (Microbiome Community Profiling), that uses fast-mapping of reads to build a comprehensive reference database of full genomes from viruses and eukaryotes to achieve maximum read usage and enable the analysis of the virome and eukaryome in each sample. We demonstrate that mapping of metagenomic reads is feasible for the smaller viral and eukaryotic reference databases. We show that our method is accurate on simulated and mock community data and identifies many more viral and fungal species than previously-reported results on real data from the Human Microbiome Project.

CONCLUSIONS: MiCoP is a mapping-based method that proves more effective than existing methods at abundance profiling of viruses and eukaryotes in metagenomic samples. MiCoP can be used to detect the full diversity of these communities. The code, data, and documentation are publicly available on GitHub at: .

RevDate: 2019-11-05
CmpDate: 2019-11-05

Marón CF, Kohl KD, Chirife A, et al (2019)

Symbiotic microbes and potential pathogens in the intestine of dead southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves.

Anaerobe, 57:107-114.

Between 2003 and 2017, at least 706 southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) calves died at the Península Valdés calving ground in Argentina. Pathogenic microbes are often suggested to be the cause of stranding events in cetaceans; however, to date there is no evidence supporting bacterial infections as a leading cause of right whale calf deaths in Argentina. We used high-throughput sequencing and culture methods to characterize the bacterial communities and to detect potential pathogens from the intestine of stranded calves. We analyzed small and large intestinal contents from 44 dead calves that stranded at Península Valdés from 2005 to 2010 and found 108 bacterial genera, most identified as Firmicutes or Bacteroidetes, and 9 genera that have been previously implicated in diseases of marine mammals. Only one operational taxonomic unit was present in all samples and identified as Clostridium perfringens type A. PCR results showed that all C. perfringens isolates (n = 38) were positive for alpha, 50% for beta 2 (n = 19) and 47% for enterotoxin (CPE) genes (n = 18). The latter is associated with food-poisoning and gastrointestinal diseases in humans and possibly other animals. The prevalence of the cpe gene found in the Valdés' calves is unusually high compared with other mammals. However, insufficient histologic evidence of gastrointestinal inflammation or necrosis (the latter possibly masked by autolysis) in the gut of stranded calves, and absence of enterotoxin detection precludes conclusions about the role of C. perfringens in calf deaths. Further work is required to determine whether C. perfringens or other pathogens detected in this study are causative agents of calf deaths at Península Valdés.

RevDate: 2019-11-06
CmpDate: 2019-11-06

Bushman FD (2019)

De-Discovery of the Placenta Microbiome.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 220(3):213-214.

RevDate: 2019-11-04

Heinrichs L, Aytur SA, JP Bucci (2019)

Whole metagenomic sequencing to characterize the sediment microbial community within the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary and preliminary biosynthetic gene cluster screening of Streptomyces scabrisporus.

Marine genomics pii:S1874-7787(19)30169-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the marine sediment microbial community structure is of increasing importance to microbiologists since little is known of the diverse taxonomy that exists within this environment. Quantifying microbial species distribution patterns within marine sanctuaries is necessary to address conservation requirements. The objectives of this study were to characterize the relative abundance and biodiversity of metagenome samples of the sediment microbial community in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS). Related to the need for a comprehensive assessment of the microbial habitat within marine sanctuaries is the increased threat of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, coupled with multi-resistant bacterial strains. This has necessitated a renewed search for bioactive compounds in marine benthic habitat. An additional aim was to initiate quantification of biosynthetic gene clusters in species that have potential for natural product and drug discovery relevant to human health. Surficial sediment from 18 samples was collected in the summer and fall of 2017 from three benthic sites in the SBNMS. Microbial DNA was extracted from samples, and sequencing libraries were prepared for taxonomic analysis. Whole metagenome sequencing (WMGS) in combination with a bioinformatics pipeline was employed to delineate the taxa of bacteria present in each sample. Among all sampling sites, biodiversity was higher for summer compared to fall for class (p = 0.0013; F = 4.5) and genus (p = 0.0219; F = 4.4). Actinobacteria was the fifth most abundant class in both seasons (7.81%). Streptomyces was observed to be the fourth most abundant genus in both seasons with significantly higher prevalence in summer compared to fall samples. In summer, site 3 had the highest percentage of Streptomyces (1.71%) compared to sites 2 (1.62%) and 1 (1.37%). The results enabled preliminary quantification of the sequenced hits from the SBNMS sites with the highest potential for harboring secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters for Streptomyces scabrisporus strain (NF3) genomic regions. This study is one of the first to use a whole metagenomics approach to characterize sediment microbial biodiversity in partnership with the SBNMS and demonstrates the potential for future ecological and biomedical research.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Zhang C, Xu B, Lu T, et al (2019)

Metagenomic Analysis of the Fecal Microbiomes of Wild Asian Elephants Reveals Microflora and Enzymes that Mainly Digest Hemicellulose.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 29(8):1255-1265.

To investigate the diversity of gastrointestinal microflora and lignocellulose-degrading enzymes in wild Asian elephants, three of these animals living in the same group were selected for study from the Wild Elephant Valley in the Xishuangbanna Nature Reserve of Yunnan Province, China. Fresh fecal samples from the three wild Asian elephants were analyzed by metagenomic sequencing to study the diversity of their gastrointestinal microbes and cellulolytic enzymes. There were a high abundance of Firmicutes and a higher abundance of hemicellulose-degrading hydrolases than cellulose-degrading hydrolases in the wild Asian elephants. Furthermore, there were a high abundance and a rich diversity of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) obtained from the gene set annotation of the three samples, with the majority of them showing low identity with the CAZy database entry. About half of the CAZymes had no species source at the phylum or genus level. These indicated that the wild Asian elephants might possess greater ability to digest hemicellulose than cellulose to provide energy, and moreover, the gastrointestinal tracts of these pachyderms might be a potential source of novel efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. Therefore, the exploitation and utilization of these enzyme resources could help us to alleviate the current energy crisis and ensure food security.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Watts MP, Spurr LP, Lê Cao KA, et al (2019)

Genome-resolved metagenomics of an autotrophic thiocyanate-remediating microbial bioreactor consortium.

Water research, 158:106-117.

Industrial thiocyanate (SCN-) waste streams from gold mining and coal coking have polluted environments worldwide. Modern SCN- bioremediation involves use of complex engineered heterotrophic microbiomes; little attention has been given to the ability of a simple environmental autotrophic microbiome to biodegrade SCN-. Here we present results from a bioreactor experiment inoculated with SCN- -loaded mine tailings, incubated autotrophically, and subjected to a range of environmentally relevant conditions. Genome-resolved metagenomics revealed that SCN- hydrolase-encoding, sulphur-oxidizing autotrophic bacteria mediated SCN- degradation. These microbes supported metabolically-dependent non-SCN--degrading sulphur-oxidizing autotrophs and non-sulphur oxidizing heterotrophs, and "niche" microbiomes developed spatially (planktonic versus sessile) and temporally (across changing environmental parameters). Bioreactor microbiome structures changed significantly with increasing temperature, shifting from Thiobacilli to a novel SCN- hydrolase-encoding gammaproteobacteria. Transformation of carbonyl sulphide (COS), a key intermediate in global biogeochemical sulphur cycling, was mediated by plasmid-hosted CS2 and COS hydrolase genes associated with Thiobacillus, revealing a potential for horizontal transfer of this function. Our work shows that simple native autotrophic microbiomes from mine tailings can be employed for SCN- bioremediation, thus improving the recycling of ore processing waters and reducing the hydrological footprint of mining.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Wood JR, Díaz FP, Latorre C, et al (2018)

Plant pathogen responses to Late Pleistocene and Holocene climate change in the central Atacama Desert, Chile.

Scientific reports, 8(1):17208.

Future climate change has the potential to alter the distribution and prevalence of plant pathogens, which may have significant implications for both agricultural crops and natural plant communities. However, there are few long-term datasets against which modelled predictions of pathogen responses to climate change can be tested. Here, we use 18S metabarcoding of 28 rodent middens (solidified deposits of rodent coprolites and nesting material) from the Central Atacama, spanning the last ca. 49 ka, to provide the first long-term late Quaternary record of change in plant pathogen communities in response to changing climate. Plant pathogen richness was significantly greater in middens deposited during the Central Andean Pluvial Event (CAPE); a period of increased precipitation between 17.5-8.5 ka. Moreover, the occurrence frequency of Pucciniaceae (rust fungi) was significantly greater during the CAPE, and the highest relative abundances for five additional potentially pathogenic taxa also occurred during this period. The results demonstrate the promising potential for ancient DNA analysis of late Quaternary samples to reveal insights into how plant pathogens responded to past climatic and environmental change, which could help predict how pathogens may responded to future change.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2019-11-04

Inoue T, Nakayama J, Moriya K, et al (2018)

Gut Dysbiosis Associated With Hepatitis C Virus Infection.

Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, 67(6):869-877.

Background: Little is known about the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection on gut microbiota and the relationship between alteration of gut microbiota and chronic hepatitis C (CHC) progression. We performed a comparative study of gut microbiota composition between CHC patients and healthy individuals.

Methods: Fecal samples from 166 CHC patients were compared with those from 23 healthy individuals; the gut microbiota community was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. CHC patients were diagnosed with persistently normal serum alanine aminotransferase without evidence of liver cirrhosis (LC) (PNALT, n = 18), chronic hepatitis (CH, n = 84), LC (n = 40), and hepatocellular carcinoma in LC (n = 24).

Results: Compared with healthy individuals, bacterial diversity was lower in persons with HCV infection, with a decrease in the order Clostridiales and an increase in Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Microbiota dysbiosis already appeared in the PNALT stage with the transient increase in Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities showed an increase in the urease gene mainly encoded by viridans streptococci during CHC progression, consistent with a significantly higher fecal pH in CH and LC patients than in healthy individuals or those in the PNALT stage.

Conclusions: HCV infection is associated with gut dysbiosis, even in patients with mild liver disease. Additionally, overgrowth of viridans streptococci can account for hyperammonemia in CH and LC. Further studies would help to propose a novel treatment strategy because the gut microbiome can be therapeutically altered, potentially reducing the complications of chronic liver disease.

RevDate: 2019-10-31

Arribas P, Andújar C, Moraza ML, et al (2019)

Mitochondrial metagenomics reveals the ancient origin and phylodiversity of soil mites and provides a phylogeny of the Acari.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:5610533 [Epub ahead of print].

High-throughput DNA methods hold great promise for phylogenetic analysis of lineages that are difficult to study with conventional molecular and morphological approaches. The mites (Acari), and in particular the highly diverse soil-dwelling lineages, are among the least known branches of the metazoan Tree-of-Life. We extracted numerous minute mites from soils in an area of mixed forest and grassland in southern Iberia. Selected specimens representing the full morphological diversity were shotgun sequenced in bulk, followed by genome assembly of short reads from the mixture, which produced >100 mitochondrial genomes representing diverse acarine lineages. Phylogenetic analyses in combination with taxonomically limited mitogenomes available publicly resulted in plausible trees defining basal relationships of the Acari. Several critical nodes were supported by ancestral-state reconstructions of mitochondrial gene rearrangements. Molecular calibration placed the minimum age for the common ancestor of the superorder Acariformes, which includes most soil-dwelling mites, to the Cambrian-Ordovician (likely within 455-552 Mya), while the origin of the superorder Parasitiformes was placed later in the Carboniferous-Permian. Most family-level taxa within the Acariformes were dated to the Jurassic and Triassic. The ancient origin of Acariformes and the early diversification of major extant lineages linked to the soil are consistent with a pioneering role for mites in building the earliest terrestrial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Han L, Cai L, Zhang H, et al (2019)

Development of antibiotic resistance genes in soils with ten successive treatments of chlortetracycline and ciprofloxacin.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 253:152-160.

Antibiotic contamination caused by the long-term use of organic manure (OM) in greenhouse agricultural soils poses potential detrimental effects to the soil environment. By applying OM containing chlortetracycline (CTC) and/or ciprofloxacin (CIP) ten times in soil under laboratory conditions, we investigated the dissipation and accumulation characteristics of CTC and CIP in the soil, the changes in the microbial pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT), and the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the soil microbiome. The dissipation of CTC was rapid while CIP was accumulated in repeatedly treated soils; further, CIP could inhibit the dissipation of CTC. Meanwhile, the PICT to CTC and/or CIP significantly increased up to 15.0-fold after ten successive treatments compared to that in the first treatment. As the treatment frequency increased, significant upward trends in the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes tetA(G), tetX2, tetX, tetG, tetA(33), tetA, tetW, and tetA(P), fluoroquinolone resistance gene qnrA6, and multiple resistance gene mexF were revealed by both metagenomic and qPCR analyses. The findings demonstrated that repeated treatments with CTC and/or CIP can alter the dissipation rate, promote an increase in PICT to CTC and/or CIP, and increase the ARGs abundance in steps.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 2019-10-31

Moore SG, Ericsson AC, Behura SK, et al (2019)

Concurrent and long-term associations between the endometrial microbiota and endometrial transcriptome in postpartum dairy cows.

BMC genomics, 20(1):405 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5797-8.

BACKGROUND: Fertility in dairy cows depends on ovarian cyclicity and on uterine involution. Ovarian cyclicity and uterine involution are delayed when there is uterine dysbiosis (overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria). Fertility in dairy cows may involve a mechanism through which the uterine microbiota affects ovarian cyclicity as well as the transcriptome of the endometrium within the involuting uterus. The hypothesis was that the transcriptome of the endometrium in postpartum cows would be associated with the cyclicity status of the cow as well as the microbiota during uterine involution. The endometrium of first lactation dairy cows was sampled at 1, 5, and 9 weeks postpartum. All cows were allowed to return to cyclicity without intervention until week 5 and treated with an ovulation synchronization protocol so that sampling at week 9 was on day 13 of the estrous cycle. The endometrial microbiota was measured by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and principal component analysis. The endometrial transcriptome was measured by mRNA sequencing, differential gene expression analysis, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis.

RESULTS: The endometrial microbiota changed from week 1 to week 5 but the week 5 and week 9 microbiota were similar. The endometrial transcriptome differed for cows that were either cycling or not cycling at week 5 and cyclicity status depended in part on the endometrial microbiota. Compared with cows cycling at week 5, there were large changes in the transcriptome of cows that progressed from non-cycling at week 5 to cycling at week 9. There was evidence for concurrent and longer-term associations between the endometrial microbiota and transcriptome. The week 1 endometrial microbiota had the greatest effect on the subsequent endometrial transcriptome and this effect was greatest at week 5 and diminished by week 9.

CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative response of the endometrial transcriptome to the microbiota represented the combination of past microbial exposure and current microbial exposure. The endometrial transcriptome in postpartum cows, therefore, depended on the immediate and longer-term effects of the uterine microbiota that acted directly on the uterus. There may also be an indirect mechanism through which the microbiome affects the transcriptome through the restoration of ovarian cyclicity postpartum.

RevDate: 2019-10-30
CmpDate: 2019-10-30

Guo MY, Hou CJ, Bian MH, et al (2019)

Characterization of microbial community profiles associated with quality of Chinese strong-aromatic liquor through metagenomics.

Journal of applied microbiology, 127(3):750-762.

AIMS: Microorganisms in fermentation pits (FPs) play key roles for Chinese-strong-aromatic-liquor (CSAL) production. However, the microbial community in the FPs is still poorly understood. Here, the aim of this study was to reveal the diversity and potential functions of microbiota in FPs.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Sequencing-by-synthesis-based metagenomic sequencing and annotation results revealed that the microbiota of FPs was primarily composed of Firmicutes (54·6%), Euryarchaeota (15·3%), Bacteroidetes (10·1%), Gammaproteobacteria (5·8%), Opisthokonta (5·7%) and Unclassified_Bacteria (2·3%). And 133 genera were identified as the dominant genera of this fermentative food. Lactobacillus, Sedimentibacter, Syntrophomonas, Methanoculleus, Methanobacterium, Bacillus, Clostridium, Galactomyces, Candida, Pichia, Penicillium and Aspergillus were defined as active populations for biosynthesizing the characteristic volatile compounds of CSAL. The study also revealed that the microbial community structures changed significantly with different cellar ages and over different geographical regions. (i) The presence of Bacteroidetes was the most distinctive feature that characterized the different FPs ages. (ii) Distinct contents of Gammaproteobacteria and Euryarchaeota were observed at different positions in the FPs. (iii) Euryarchaeota markedly contributed to the generation of the character of the liquors with distinct geographical associations.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the changes of microbial communities determined the different quality characteristics of CSAL.

This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the FPs microbial composition and shows a new microbial resource for biotechnological applications.

RevDate: 2019-10-29
CmpDate: 2019-10-29

More KD, Giosan L, Grice K, et al (2019)

Holocene paleodepositional changes reflected in the sedimentary microbiome of the Black Sea.

Geobiology, 17(4):436-448.

Subsurface microbial communities are generally thought to be structured through in situ environmental conditions such as the availability of electron acceptors and donors and porosity, but recent studies suggest that the vertical distribution of a subset of subseafloor microbial taxa, which were present at the time of deposition, were selected by the paleodepositional environment. However, additional highly resolved temporal records of subsurface microbiomes and paired paleoenvironmental reconstructions are needed to justify this claim. Here, we performed a highly resolved shotgun metagenomics survey to study the taxonomic and functional diversity of the subsurface microbiome in Holocene sediments underlying the permanently stratified and anoxic Black Sea. Obligate aerobic bacteria made the largest contribution to the observed shifts in microbial communities associated with known Holocene climate stages and transitions. This suggests that the aerobic fraction of the subseafloor microbiome was seeded from the water column and did not undergo post-depositional selection. In contrast, obligate and facultative anaerobic bacteria showed the most significant response to the establishment of modern-day environmental conditions 5.2 ka ago that led to a major shift in planktonic communities and in the type of sequestered organic matter available for microbial degradation. No significant shift in the subseafloor microbiome was observed as a result of environmental changes that occurred shortly after the marine reconnection, 9 ka ago. This supports the general view that the marine reconnection was a gradual process. We conclude that a high-resolution analysis of downcore changes in the subseafloor microbiome can provide detailed insights into paleoenvironmental conditions and biogeochemical processes that occurred at the time of deposition.

RevDate: 2019-10-29
CmpDate: 2019-10-29

Zeng J, Pan Y, Yang J, et al (2019)

Metagenomic insights into the distribution of antibiotic resistome between the gut-associated environments and the pristine environments.

Environment international, 126:346-354.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment are promoted by anthropogenic activities, which cause potential risks to human health. However, large-scale quantitative data on antibiotic resistome from the pristine and anthropogenic environments remains largely unexplored. Here, we used metagenome-wide analysis to investigate the share and divergence in ARG profiles and their potential bacterial hosts between the pristine and gut-associated environments. We found that the abundance of total ARGs in gut-associated environments was significantly higher than the pristine environments (P < 0.001). The mcr-1 and tetX, the genes resistant to the last resort antibiotics (colistin and tigecycline, respectively), were in high abundance (4.57 copies/Gb and 3.39 copies/Gb, respectively) in gut-associated environments, suggesting the ARG pollution caused by anthropogenic antibiotics. Metagenomic assembly-based host-tracking analysis identified Escherichia, Bacteroides, and Clostridium as the predominant bacterial hosts of ARGs in gut-associated environments, while Alteromonas, Vibrio, and Proteobacteria as the predominant bacterial hosts of ARGs in pristine environments. We first described the broad diversity of ARG hosts in different environments using metagenome-wide analysis. Our results revealed the heterogeneous distribution of ARGs and their hosts among different microbial niches in gut-associated environments and the pristine environments.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Lloyd MM, MH Pespeni (2018)

Microbiome shifts with onset and progression of Sea Star Wasting Disease revealed through time course sampling.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16476.

The recent outbreak of Sea Star Wasting Disease (SSWD) is one of the largest marine epizootics in history, but the host-associated microbial community changes specific to disease progression have not been characterized. Here, we sampled the microbiomes of ochre sea stars, Pisaster ochraceus, through time as animals stayed healthy or became sick and died with SSWD. We found community-wide differences in the microbiomes of sick and healthy sea stars, changes in microbial community composition through disease progression, and a decrease in species richness of the microbiome in late stages of SSWD. Known beneficial taxa (Pseudoalteromonas spp.) decreased in abundance at symptom onset and through disease progression, while known pathogenic (Tenacibaculum spp.) and putatively opportunistic bacteria (Polaribacter spp. and Phaeobacter spp.) increased in abundance in early and late disease stages. Functional profiling revealed microbes more abundant in healthy animals performed functions that inhibit growth of other microbes, including pathogen detection, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and degradation of xenobiotics. Changes in microbial composition with disease onset and progression suggest that a microbial imbalance of the host could lead to SSWD or be a consequence of infection by another pathogen. This work highlights the importance of the microbiome in SSWD and also suggests that a healthy microbiome may help confer resistance to SSWD.

RevDate: 2019-10-29
CmpDate: 2019-10-29

Cuer CA, Rodrigues RAR, Balieiro FC, et al (2018)

Short-term effect of Eucalyptus plantations on soil microbial communities and soil-atmosphere methane and nitrous oxide exchange.

Scientific reports, 8(1):15133.

Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a significant environmental problem resulting from microbially-mediated nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) cycling. This study aimed to investigate the impact of Eucalyptus plantations on the structure and function of a soil microbial community, and how resulting alterations may be linked to GHG fluxes. We sampled and monitored two adjacent Eucalyptus plantations-a recently logged site that harbored new seedlings and an adult plantation-and compared them to a site hosting native vegetation. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR amplifications of key nitrogen and methane cycle genes to characterize microbial structure and functional gene abundance and compared our data with soil parameters and GHG fluxes. Both microbial community attributes were significantly affected by land use and logging of Eucalyptus plantations. The genes nosZ and archaeal amoA were significantly more abundant in native forest than in either young or old Eucalyptus plantations. Statistical analyses suggest that land use type has a greater impact on microbial community structure and functional gene abundance than Eucalyptus rotation. There was no correlation between GHG fluxes and shifts in microbial community, suggesting that microbial community structure and functional gene abundance are not the main drivers of GHG fluxes in this system.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Bracewell-Milnes T, Saso S, Nikolaou D, et al (2018)

Investigating the effect of an abnormal cervico-vaginal and endometrial microbiome on assisted reproductive technologies: A systematic review.

American journal of reproductive immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989), 80(5):e13037.

The female reproductive tract has an active microbiome, and it is suggested that these microbes could influence the outcome of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). This systematic review aimed to assess the vaginal/uterine microbiome, specifically with regard to improving the outcome of ART. English peer-reviewed journals were searched for studies investigating the vaginal/uterine micriobiome and female reproductive tract, using PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-six studies were included, 19 studying the vaginal and seven investigating the uterine microbiome. Studies using culture-based technologies found an abnormal vaginal microbiome AVM was not associated with ART outcome. However, studies using sequence-based technologies found an abnormal vaginal microbiome had a negative effect on ART. An abnormal uterine microbiome impacted ART outcome in all of the studies which used culture-based methods and the most extensive of the two studies using metagenomic sequencing. This review has revealed a lack of translational data relating an abnormal vaginal/uterine microbiome to ART outcomes, with inconsistencies between the results of the different studies. Therefore the nature of the relationship between the vaginal/uterine microbiome and fertility remains unknown. As we better characterize this relationship using modern metagenomic techniques, the potential to manipulate the female reproductive tract microbiome to improve ART could be a reality.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Shin JH, Eom H, Song WJ, et al (2018)

Integrative metagenomic and biochemical studies on rifamycin ADP-ribosyltransferases discovered in the sediment microbiome.

Scientific reports, 8(1):12143.

Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing threat to human health. The environmental microbiome is a rich reservoir of resistomes, offering opportunities to discover new antibiotic resistance genes. Here we demonstrate an integrative approach of utilizing gene sequence and protein structural information to characterize unidentified genes that are responsible for the resistance to the action of rifamycin antibiotic rifampin, a first-line antimicrobial agent to treat tuberculosis. Biochemical characterization of four environmental metagenomic proteins indicates that they are adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferases and effective in the development of resistance to FDA-approved rifamycins. Our analysis suggests that even a single residue with low sequence conservation plays an important role in regulating the degrees of antibiotic resistance. In addition to advancing our understanding of antibiotic resistomes, this work demonstrates the importance of an integrative approach to discover new metagenomic genes and decipher their biochemical functions.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Stefanni S, Stanković D, Borme D, et al (2018)

Multi-marker metabarcoding approach to study mesozooplankton at basin scale.

Scientific reports, 8(1):12085.

Zooplankton plays a pivotal role in marine ecosystems and the characterisation of its biodiversity still represents a challenge for marine ecologists. In this study, mesozooplankton composition from 46 samples collected in summer along the western Adriatic Sea, was retrieved by DNA metabarcoding analysis. For the first time, the highly variable fragments of the mtDNA COI and the V9 region of 18S rRNA genes were used in a combined matrix to compile an inventory of mesozooplankton at basin scale. The number of sequences retrieved after quality filtering were 824,148 and 223,273 for COI and 18S (V9), respectively. The taxonomical assignment against reference sequences, using 95% (for COI) and 97% (for 18S) similarity thresholds, recovered 234 taxa. NMDS plots and cluster analysis divided coastal from offshore samples and the most representative species of these clusters were distributed according to the dominant surface current pattern of the Adriatic for the summer period. For selected sampling sites, mesozooplankton species were also identified under a stereo microscope providing insights on the strength and weakness of the two approaches. In addition, DNA metabarcoding was shown to be helpful for the monitoring of non-indigenous marine metazoans and spawning areas of commercial fish species. We defined pros and cons of applying this approach at basin scale and the benefits of combining the datasets from two genetic markers.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Jenkins TP, Peachey LE, Ajami NJ, et al (2018)

Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with quantitative and qualitative modifications of the mammalian intestinal microbiota.

Scientific reports, 8(1):12072.

In spite of the extensive contribution of intestinal pathology to the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis, little is known of the impact of schistosome infection on the composition of the gut microbiota of its mammalian host. Here, we characterised the fluctuations in the composition of the gut microbial flora of the small and large intestine, as well as the changes in abundance of individual microbial species, of mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni with the goal of identifying microbial taxa with potential roles in the pathophysiology of infection and disease. Bioinformatic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA gene data revealed an overall reduction in gut microbial alpha diversity, alongside a significant increase in microbial beta diversity characterised by expanded populations of Akkermansia muciniphila (phylum Verrucomicrobia) and lactobacilli, in the gut microbiota of S. mansoni-infected mice when compared to uninfected control animals. These data support a role of the mammalian gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of hepato-intestinal schistosomiasis and serves as a foundation for the design of mechanistic studies to unravel the complex relationships amongst parasitic helminths, gut microbiota, pathophysiology of infection and host immunity.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Hart EH, Creevey CJ, Hitch T, et al (2018)

Meta-proteomics of rumen microbiota indicates niche compartmentalisation and functional dominance in a limited number of metabolic pathways between abundant bacteria.

Scientific reports, 8(1):10504.

The rumen is a complex ecosystem. It is the primary site for microbial fermentation of ingested feed allowing conversion of a low nutritional feed source into high quality meat and milk products. However, digestive inefficiencies lead to production of high amounts of environmental pollutants; methane and nitrogenous waste. These inefficiencies could be overcome by development of forages which better match the requirements of the rumen microbial population. Although challenging, the application of meta-proteomics has potential for a more complete understanding of the rumen ecosystem than sequencing approaches alone. Here, we have implemented a meta-proteomic approach to determine the association between taxonomies of microbial sources of the most abundant proteins in the rumens of forage-fed dairy cows, with taxonomic abundances typical of those previously described by metagenomics. Reproducible proteome profiles were generated from rumen samples. The most highly abundant taxonomic phyla in the proteome were Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, which corresponded with the most abundant taxonomic phyla determined from 16S rRNA studies. Meta-proteome data indicated differentiation between metabolic pathways of the most abundant phyla, which is in agreement with the concept of diversified niches within the rumen microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

Iebba V, Guerrieri F, Di Gregorio V, et al (2018)

Combining amplicon sequencing and metabolomics in cirrhotic patients highlights distinctive microbiota features involved in bacterial translocation, systemic inflammation and hepatic encephalopathy.

Scientific reports, 8(1):8210.

In liver cirrhosis (LC), impaired intestinal functions lead to dysbiosis and possible bacterial translocation (BT). Bacteria or their byproducts within the bloodstream can thus play a role in systemic inflammation and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). We combined 16S sequencing, NMR metabolomics and network analysis to describe the interrelationships of members of the microbiota in LC biopsies, faeces, peripheral/portal blood and faecal metabolites with clinical parameters. LC faeces and biopsies showed marked dysbiosis with a heightened proportion of Enterobacteriaceae. Our approach showed impaired faecal bacterial metabolism of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and carbon/methane sources in LC, along with an enhanced stress-related response. Sixteen species, mainly belonging to the Proteobacteria phylum, were shared between LC peripheral and portal blood and were functionally linked to iron metabolism. Faecal Enterobacteriaceae and trimethylamine were positively correlated with blood proinflammatory cytokines, while Ruminococcaceae and SCFAs played a protective role. Within the peripheral blood and faeces, certain species (Stenotrophomonas pavanii, Methylobacterium extorquens) and metabolites (methanol, threonine) were positively related to HE. Cirrhotic patients thus harbour a 'functional dysbiosis' in the faeces and peripheral/portal blood, with specific keystone species and metabolites related to clinical markers of systemic inflammation and HE.

RevDate: 2019-10-29
CmpDate: 2019-10-29

Meale SJ, Auffret MD, Watson M, et al (2018)

Fat accretion measurements strengthen the relationship between feed conversion efficiency and Nitrogen isotopic discrimination while rumen microbial genes contribute little.

Scientific reports, 8(1):3854.

The use of biomarkers for feed conversion efficiency (FCE), such as Nitrogen isotopic discrimination (Δ15N), facilitates easier measurement and may be useful in breeding strategies. However, we need to better understand the relationship between FCE and Δ15N, particularly the effects of differences in the composition of liveweight gain and rumen N metabolism. Alongside measurements of FCE and Δ15N, we estimated changes in body composition and used dietary treatments with and without nitrates, and rumen metagenomics to explore these effects. Nitrate fed steers had reduced FCE and higher Δ15N in plasma compared to steers offered non-nitrate containing diets. The negative relationship between FCE and Δ15N was strengthened with the inclusion of fat depth change at the 3rd lumbar vertebrae, but not with average daily gain. We identified 1,700 microbial genes with a relative abundance >0.01% of which, 26 were associated with Δ15N. These genes explained 69% of variation in Δ15N and showed clustering in two distinct functional networks. However, there was no clear relationship between their relative abundances and Δ15N, suggesting that rumen microbial genes contribute little to Δ15N. Conversely, we show that changes in the composition of gain (fat accretion) provide additional strength to the relationship between FCE and Δ15N.

RevDate: 2019-10-28
CmpDate: 2019-10-28

De Filippis F, Parente E, D Ercolini (2018)

Recent Past, Present, and Future of the Food Microbiome.

Annual review of food science and technology, 9:589-608.

Sequencing technologies have deeply changed our approach to the study of food microbial communities. This review describes recent exploitations of high-throughput sequencing applications to improve our knowledge of food microbial consortia. In the past 10 years, target amplicon sequencing has become routinely used in many food microbiology laboratories, providing a detailed picture of food-associated microbiota. Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches are still underexploited in food microbial ecology, despite their potential to uncover the functionality of complex communities. In a near future, sequencing technologies will surely advance our understanding of how to effectively use the invaluable microbial resources to improve food quality and safety.

RevDate: 2019-10-25

Epp Schmidt DJ, Kotze DJ, Hornung E, et al (2019)

Metagenomics Reveals Bacterial and Archaeal Adaptation to Urban Land-Use: N Catabolism, Methanogenesis, and Nutrient Acquisition.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:2330.

Urbanization results in the systemic conversion of land-use, driving habitat and biodiversity loss. The "urban convergence hypothesis" posits that urbanization represents a merging of habitat characteristics, in turn driving physiological and functional responses within the biotic community. To test this hypothesis, we sampled five cities (Baltimore, MD, United States; Helsinki and Lahti, Finland; Budapest, Hungary; Potchefstroom, South Africa) across four different biomes. Within each city, we sampled four land-use categories that represented a gradient of increasing disturbance and management (from least intervention to highest disturbance: reference, remnant, turf/lawn, and ruderal). Previously, we used amplicon sequencing that targeted bacteria/archaea (16S rRNA) and fungi (ITS) and reported convergence in the archaeal community. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing and QPCR of functional genes to the same soil DNA extracts to test convergence in microbial function. Our results suggest that urban land-use drives changes in gene abundance related to both the soil N and C metabolism. Our updated analysis found taxonomic convergence in both the archaeal and bacterial community (16S amplicon data). Convergence of the archaea was driven by increased abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea and genes for ammonia oxidation (QPCR and shotgun metagenomics). The proliferation of ammonia-oxidizers under turf and ruderal land-use likely also contributes to the previously documented convergence of soil mineral N pools. We also found a higher relative abundance of methanogens (amplicon sequencing), a higher relative abundance of gene sequences putatively identified as Ni-Fe hydrogenase and nickel uptake (shotgun metagenomics) under urban land-use; and a convergence of gene sequences putatively identified as contributing to the nickel transport function under urban turf sites. High levels of disturbance lead to a higher relative abundance of gene sequences putatively identified as multiple antibiotic resistance protein marA and multidrug efflux pump mexD, but did not lead to an overall convergence in antibiotic resistance gene sequences.

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Zhu Z, Ren J, Michail S, et al (2019)

MicroPro: using metagenomic unmapped reads to provide insights into human microbiota and disease associations.

Genome biology, 20(1):154 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1773-5.

We develop a metagenomic data analysis pipeline, MicroPro, that takes into account all reads from known and unknown microbial organisms and associates viruses with complex diseases. We utilize MicroPro to analyze four metagenomic datasets relating to colorectal cancer, type 2 diabetes, and liver cirrhosis and show that including reads from unknown organisms significantly increases the prediction accuracy of the disease status for three of the four datasets. We identify new microbial organisms associated with these diseases and show viruses play important prediction roles in colorectal cancer and liver cirrhosis, but not in type 2 diabetes. MicroPro is freely available at .

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Bickhart DM, Watson M, Koren S, et al (2019)

Assignment of virus and antimicrobial resistance genes to microbial hosts in a complex microbial community by combined long-read assembly and proximity ligation.

Genome biology, 20(1):153 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1760-x.

We describe a method that adds long-read sequencing to a mix of technologies used to assemble a highly complex cattle rumen microbial community, and provide a comparison to short read-based methods. Long-read alignments and Hi-C linkage between contigs support the identification of 188 novel virus-host associations and the determination of phage life cycle states in the rumen microbial community. The long-read assembly also identifies 94 antimicrobial resistance genes, compared to only seven alleles in the short-read assembly. We demonstrate novel techniques that work synergistically to improve characterization of biological features in a highly complex rumen microbial community.

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Dilthey AT, Jain C, Koren S, et al (2019)

Strain-level metagenomic assignment and compositional estimation for long reads with MetaMaps.

Nature communications, 10(1):3066 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10934-2.

Metagenomic sequence classification should be fast, accurate and information-rich. Emerging long-read sequencing technologies promise to improve the balance between these factors but most existing methods were designed for short reads. MetaMaps is a new method, specifically developed for long reads, capable of mapping a long-read metagenome to a comprehensive RefSeq database with >12,000 genomes in <16 GB or RAM on a laptop computer. Integrating approximate mapping with probabilistic scoring and EM-based estimation of sample composition, MetaMaps achieves >94% accuracy for species-level read assignment and r2 > 0.97 for the estimation of sample composition on both simulated and real data when the sample genomes or close relatives are present in the classification database. To address novel species and genera, which are comparatively harder to predict, MetaMaps outputs mapping locations and qualities for all classified reads, enabling functional studies (e.g. gene presence/absence) and detection of incongruities between sample and reference genomes.

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Wankhade UD, Zhong Y, Kang P, et al (2018)

Maternal High-Fat Diet Programs Offspring Liver Steatosis in a Sexually Dimorphic Manner in Association with Changes in Gut Microbial Ecology in Mice.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16502.

The contributions of maternal diet and obesity in shaping offspring microbiome remain unclear. Here we employed a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity via high-fat diet feeding (HFD, 45% fat calories) for 12 wk prior to conception on offspring gut microbial ecology. Male and female offspring were provided access to control or HFD from weaning until 17 wk of age. Maternal HFD-associated programming was sexually dimorphic, with male offspring from HFD dams showing hyper-responsive weight gain to postnatal HFD. Likewise, microbiome analysis of offspring cecal contents showed differences in α-diversity, β-diversity and higher Firmicutes in male compared to female mice. Weight gain in offspring was significantly associated with abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae families and Adlercreutzia, Coprococcus and Lactococcus genera. Sex differences in metagenomic pathways relating to lipid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis and immune response were also observed. HFD-fed male offspring from HFD dams also showed worse hepatic pathology, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, altered expression of bile acid regulators (Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1 and Cyp39a1) and serum bile acid concentrations. These findings suggest that maternal HFD alters gut microbiota composition and weight gain of offspring in a sexually dimorphic manner, coincident with fatty liver and a pro-inflammatory state in male offspring.

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Jasna V, Parvathi A, A Dash (2018)

Genetic and functional diversity of double-stranded DNA viruses in a tropical monsoonal estuary, India.

Scientific reports, 8(1):16036.

The present study illustrates the genetic diversity of four uncultured viral communities from the surface waters of Cochin Estuary (CE), India. Viral diversity inferred using Illumina HiSeq paired-end sequencing using a linker-amplified shotgun library (LASL) revealed different double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral communities. The water samples were collected from four stations PR1, PR2, PR3, and PR4, during the pre-monsoon (PRM) season. Analysis of virus families indicated that the Myoviridae was the most common viral community in the CE followed by Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. There were significant (p < 0.05) spatial variations in the relative abundance of dominant families in response to the salinity regimes. The relative abundance of Myoviridae and Podoviridae were high in the euryhaline region and Siphoviridae in the mesohaline region of the estuary. The predominant phage type in CE was phages that infected Synechococcus. The viral proteins were found to be involved in major functional activities such as ATP binding, DNA binding, and DNA replication. The study highlights the genetic diversity of dsDNA viral communities and their functional protein predictions from a highly productive estuarine system. Further, the metavirome data generated in this study will enhance the repertoire of publicly available dataset and advance our understanding of estuarine viral ecology.

RevDate: 2019-10-25
CmpDate: 2019-10-25

Crampon M, Bodilis J, F Portet-Koltalo (2018)

Linking initial soil bacterial diversity and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation potential.

Journal of hazardous materials, 359:500-509.

The aim of this study was to understand the role of indigenous soil microbial communities on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to determine whether PAHs degradation potential in soils may be evaluated by analysis of bacterial diversity and potential metabolisms using a metagenomics approach. Five different soils were artificially contaminated with seven selected PAHs and the most abundant bacterial taxa were assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene, and linking them to PAH biodegradation efficiencies. A PICRUSt approach was then led to estimate the degradation potentials by metagenomics inference. Although the role of bacteria in PAHs degradation is not directly established here, the presence of a large number of bacteria belonging to the Betaproteobacteria class correlated to a higher degradation of LMW PAHs. A link with specific bacterial taxa was more difficult to establish concerning HMW PAHs, which seemed to require more complex mechanisms as shown by PICRUSt.

RevDate: 2019-10-24
CmpDate: 2019-10-24

Günther B, Knebelsberger T, Neumann H, et al (2018)

Metabarcoding of marine environmental DNA based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes.

Scientific reports, 8(1):14822.

We establish the new approach of environmental DNA (eDNA) analyses for the North Sea. Our study uses a multigene approach, including the mitochondrial cytochrome-c-oxidase subunit I (COI) gene for analyzing species composition and the nuclear hypervariable region V8 of 18S rDNA for analyzing supraspecific biodiversity. A new minibarcode primer (124 bp) was created on the basis of a metazoan COI barcode library with 506 species and tested in silico, in vitro, and in situ. We applied high throughput sequencing to filtrates of 23 near-bottom water samples taken at three seasons from 14 stations. The set of COI primers allowed amplification of mitochondrial minibarcodes for diverse metazoan phyla and the differentiation at the species level for more than 99% of the specimens in the dataset. Our results revealed that the number of sequences is not consistent with proportions in the given DNA mixture. Altogether, environmental sequences could be assigned to 114 species and to 12 metazoan phyla. A spatial distribution of taxa recovered by eDNA was congruent with known distributions. Finally, the successful detection of species and biodiversity depends on a comprehensive sequence reference database. Our study offers a powerful tool for future biodiversity research, including the detection of nonnative species.

RevDate: 2019-10-24
CmpDate: 2019-10-24

Mann AE, Sabin S, Ziesemer K, et al (2018)

Differential preservation of endogenous human and microbial DNA in dental calculus and dentin.

Scientific reports, 8(1):9822.

Dental calculus (calcified dental plaque) is prevalent in archaeological skeletal collections and is a rich source of oral microbiome and host-derived ancient biomolecules. Recently, it has been proposed that dental calculus may provide a more robust environment for DNA preservation than other skeletal remains, but this has not been systematically tested. In this study, shotgun-sequenced data from paired dental calculus and dentin samples from 48 globally distributed individuals are compared using a metagenomic approach. Overall, we find DNA from dental calculus is consistently more abundant and less contaminated than DNA from dentin. The majority of DNA in dental calculus is microbial and originates from the oral microbiome; however, a small but consistent proportion of DNA (mean 0.08 ± 0.08%, range 0.007-0.47%) derives from the host genome. Host DNA content within dentin is variable (mean 13.70 ± 18.62%, range 0.003-70.14%), and for a subset of dentin samples (15.21%), oral bacteria contribute > 20% of total DNA. Human DNA in dental calculus is highly fragmented, and is consistently shorter than both microbial DNA in dental calculus and human DNA in paired dentin samples. Finally, we find that microbial DNA fragmentation patterns are associated with guanine-cytosine (GC) content, but not aspects of cellular structure.

RevDate: 2019-10-24
CmpDate: 2019-10-24

Bielinska K, Radkowski M, Grochowska M, et al (2018)

High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 54:33-39.

OBJECTIVE: A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level.

METHODS: Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis.

RESULTS: The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition.

CONCLUSIONS: High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis.

RevDate: 2019-10-23
CmpDate: 2019-10-23

Haney MM, Ericsson AC, TE Lever (2018)

Effects of Intraoperative Vagal Nerve Stimulation on the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in a Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Comparative medicine, 68(6):452-460.

The gastrointestinal microbiota (GM) plays a fundamental role in health and disease and contributes to the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal system and brain. The direct line of communication between these organ systems is through the vagus nerve. Therefore, vagal nerve stimulation (VNS), a commonly used technique for multiple disorders, has potential to modulate the enteric microbiota, enabling investigation and possibly treatment of numerous neurologic disorders in which the microbiota has been linked with disease. Here we investigate the effect of VNS in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). B6SJL-Tg(SOD1*G93A)dl 1Gur (SOD1dl) and wildtype mice underwent ventral neck surgery to access the vagus nerve. During surgery, the experimental group received 1 h of VNS, whereas the sham group underwent 1 h of sham treatment. The third (control) group did not undergo any surgical manipulation. Fecal samples were collected before surgery and at 8 d after the initial collection. Microbial DNA was sequenced to determine the GM profiles at both time points. GM profiles did not differ between genotypes at either the initial or end point. In addition, VNS did not alter GM populations, according to the parameters chosen in this study, indicating that this short intraoperative treatment is safe and has no lasting effects on the GM. Future studies are warranted to determine whether different stimulation parameters or chronic use of VNS affect GM profiles.

RevDate: 2019-10-23
CmpDate: 2019-10-23

Kushugulova A, Forslund SK, Costea PI, et al (2018)

Metagenomic analysis of gut microbial communities from a Central Asian population.

BMJ open, 8(7):e021682.

OBJECTIVE: Changes in the gut microbiota are increasingly recognised to be involved in many diseases. This ecosystem is known to be shaped by many factors, including climate, geography, host nutrition, lifestyle and medication. Thus, knowledge of varying populations with different habits is important for a better understanding of the microbiome.

DESIGN: We therefore conducted a metagenomic analysis of intestinal microbiota from Kazakh donors, recruiting 84 subjects, including male and female healthy subjects and metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients aged 25-75 years, from the Kazakh administrative centre, Astana. We characterise and describe these microbiomes, the first deep-sequencing cohort from Central Asia, in comparison with a global dataset (832 individuals from five countries on three continents), and explore correlations between microbiota, clinical and laboratory parameters as well as with nutritional data from Food Frequency Questionnaires.

RESULTS: We observe that Kazakh microbiomes are relatively different from both European and East Asian counterparts, though similar to other Central Asian microbiomes, with the most striking difference being significantly more samples falling within the Prevotella-rich enterotype, potentially reflecting regional diet and lifestyle. We show that this enterotype designation remains stable within an individual over time in 82% of cases. We further observe gut microbiome features that distinguish MetS patients from controls (eg, significantly reduced Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, Bifidobacteria and Subdoligranulum, alongside increased Prevotella), though these overlap little with previously published reports and thus may reflect idiosyncrasies of the present cohort.

CONCLUSION: Taken together, this exploratory study describes gut microbiome data from an understudied population, providing a starting point for further comparative work on biogeography and research on widespread diseases.


RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-21

Parente E, De Filippis F, Ercolini D, et al (2019)

Advancing integration of data on food microbiome studies: FoodMicrobionet 3.1, a major upgrade of the FoodMicrobionet database.

International journal of food microbiology, 305:108249.

We present a new version of FoodMicrobionet, a database for the exploration of food bacterial communities. The database, available as an app built with the Shiny package of R, includes data from 44 studies and 2234 samples (food or food environment), covering dairy, meat, fruit and vegetables, cereal based and ready-to-eat foods. The interactive interface allows exploration of data, access to external resources (on line versions of the studies, sequence data on SRA, taxonomic databases), filtering samples on the basis of a number of criteria, aggregation of samples and bacterial taxa and export of data in a variety of formats. FoodMicrobionet is the largest collection of data on food bacterial communities and, due to the structure of sample metadata, largely derived from the European Food Safety Agency FoodEx2 classification, makes comparison and re-analysis of data from published and unpublished studies easy. Data exported from FoodMicrobionet can be readily used for graphical and statistical meta-analyses using open-source software (Gephi, Cytoscape, CoNet, and R packages and apps, such as phyloseq and Shiny-Phyloseq) thus providing scientists, risk assessors and industry with a wealth of information on the structure of food biomes.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-21

Malla MA, Dubey A, Kumar A, et al (2018)

Exploring the Human Microbiome: The Potential Future Role of Next-Generation Sequencing in Disease Diagnosis and Treatment.

Frontiers in immunology, 9:2868.

The interaction between the human microbiome and immune system has an effect on several human metabolic functions and impacts our well-being. Additionally, the interaction between humans and microbes can also play a key role in determining the wellness or disease status of the human body. Dysbiosis is related to a plethora of diseases, including skin, inflammatory, metabolic, and neurological disorders. A better understanding of the host-microbe interaction is essential for determining the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of these ailments. The significance of the microbiome on host health has led to the emergence of new therapeutic approaches focused on the prescribed manipulation of the host microbiome, either by removing harmful taxa or reinstating missing beneficial taxa and the functional roles they perform. Culturing large numbers of microbial taxa in the laboratory is problematic at best, if not impossible. Consequently, this makes it very difficult to comprehensively catalog the individual members comprising a specific microbiome, as well as understanding how microbial communities function and influence host-pathogen interactions. Recent advances in sequencing technologies and computational tools have allowed an increasing number of metagenomic studies to be performed. These studies have provided key insights into the human microbiome and a host of other microbial communities in other environments. In the present review, the role of the microbiome as a therapeutic agent and its significance in human health and disease is discussed. Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies for surveying host-microbe interactions are also discussed. Additionally, the correlation between the composition of the microbiome and infectious diseases as described in previously reported studies is covered as well. Lastly, recent advances in state-of-the-art bioinformatics software, workflows, and applications for analysing metagenomic data are summarized.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-22

Dutta A, Dutta Gupta S, Gupta A, et al (2018)

Exploration of deep terrestrial subsurface microbiome in Late Cretaceous Deccan traps and underlying Archean basement, India.

Scientific reports, 8(1):17459.

Scientific deep drilling at Koyna, western India provides a unique opportunity to explore microbial life within deep biosphere hosted by ~65 Myr old Deccan basalt and Archaean granitic basement. Characteristic low organic carbon content, mafic/felsic nature but distinct trend in sulfate and nitrate concentrations demarcates the basaltic and granitic zones as distinct ecological habitats. Quantitative PCR indicates a depth independent distribution of microorganisms predominated by bacteria. Abundance of dsrB and mcrA genes are relatively higher (at least one order of magnitude) in basalt compared to granite. Bacterial communities are dominated by Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, whereas Euryarchaeota is the major archaeal group. Strong correlation among the abundance of autotrophic and heterotrophic taxa is noted. Bacteria known for nitrite, sulfur and hydrogen oxidation represent the autotrophs. Fermentative, nitrate/sulfate reducing and methane metabolising microorganisms represent the heterotrophs. Lack of shared operational taxonomic units and distinct clustering of major taxa indicate possible community isolation. Shotgun metagenomics corroborate that chemolithoautotrophic assimilation of carbon coupled with fermentation and anaerobic respiration drive this deep biosphere. This first report on the geomicrobiology of the subsurface of Deccan traps provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand microbial composition and function in the terrestrial, igneous rock-hosted, deep biosphere.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-22

Goldsmith DB, Kellogg CA, Morrison CL, et al (2018)

Comparison of microbiomes of cold-water corals Primnoa pacifica and Primnoa resedaeformis, with possible link between microbiome composition and host genotype.

Scientific reports, 8(1):12383.

Cold-water corals provide critical habitats for a multitude of marine species, but are understudied relative to tropical corals. Primnoa pacifica is a cold-water coral prevalent throughout Alaskan waters, while another species in the genus, Primnoa resedaeformis, is widely distributed in the Atlantic Ocean. This study examined the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene after amplifying and pyrosequencing bacterial DNA from samples of these species. Key differences between the two species' microbiomes included a robust presence of bacteria belonging to the Chlamydiales order in most of the P. pacifica samples, whereas no more than 2% of any microbial community from P. resedaeformis comprised these bacteria. Microbiomes of P. resedaeformis exhibited higher diversity than those of P. pacifica, and the two species largely clustered separately in a principal coordinate analysis. Comparison of P. resedaeformis microbiomes from samples collected in two submarine canyons revealed a significant difference between locations. This finding mirrored significant genetic differences among the P. resedaeformis from the two canyons based upon population genetic analysis of microsatellite loci. This study presents the first report of microbiomes associated with these two coral species.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-21

Imchen M, Kumavath R, Barh D, et al (2018)

Comparative mangrove metagenome reveals global prevalence of heavy metals and antibiotic resistome across different ecosystems.

Scientific reports, 8(1):11187.

The mangrove ecosystem harbors a complex microbial community that plays crucial role in biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we analyzed mangrove sediments from India using de novo whole metagenome next generation sequencing (NGS) and compared their taxonomic and functional community structures to mangrove metagenomics samples from Brazil and Saudi Arabia. The most abundant phyla in the mangroves of all three countries was Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. A total of 1,942 genes were found to be common across all the mangrove sediments from each of the three countries. The mangrove resistome consistently showed high resistance to fluoroquinolone and acriflavine. A comparative study of the mangrove resistome with other ecosystems shows a higher frequency of heavy metal resistance in mangrove and terrestrial samples. Ocean samples had a higher abundance of drug resistance genes with fluoroquinolone and methicillin resistance genes being as high as 28.178% ± 3.619 and 10.776% ± 1.823. Genes involved in cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance were higher in the mangrove (23.495% ± 4.701) and terrestrial (27.479% ± 4.605) ecosystems. Our comparative analysis of samples collected from a variety of habitats shows that genes involved in resistance to both heavy metals and antibiotics are ubiquitous, irrespective of the ecosystem examined.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-21

Buendía E, Zakzuk J, San-Juan-Vergara H, et al (2018)

Gut microbiota components are associated with fixed airway obstruction in asthmatic patients living in the tropics.

Scientific reports, 8(1):9582.

Microbiome composition has been associated to several inflammatory diseases, including asthma. There are few studies exploring the relationships of gut microbiota with airway obstruction pheonotypes in adult asthma, especially those living in the tropics. We sought to evaluate the relationships of gut microbiota with the airway obstruction and other variables of interest in asthmatic patients living in the tropics according to three phenotypes: No Airway Obstruction (NAO), Reversible Airway Obstruction (RAO) or Fixed Airway Obstruction (FAO). We found that Streptococcaceae:Streptococcus and Enterobacteriaceae:Escherichia-Shigella consistently discriminated asthmatic individuals suffering FAO from NAO or RAO, plus Veillonellaceae:Megasphaera when comparing FAO and RAO (p < 0.05; FDR < 0.05). In the FAO, the network showing the genus relations was less complex and interconnected. Several Rumminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiales were enriched in patients with low specific IgE levels to mites and Ascaris. All patients shared a common exposure framework; control medication usage and smoking habit were uncommon and equally distributed between them. In conclusion, in this tropical asthmatic population, components of human gut microbiota are associated with the presence of a FAO phenotype and lower specific IgE response to mites and Ascaris.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-22

Lagier JC, Dubourg G, Million M, et al (2018)

Culturing the human microbiota and culturomics.

Nature reviews. Microbiology, 16:540-550 pii:10.1038/s41579-018-0041-0.

The gut microbiota has an important role in the maintenance of human health and in disease pathogenesis. This importance was realized through the advent of omics technologies and their application to improve our knowledge of the gut microbial ecosystem. In particular, the use of metagenomics has revealed the diversity of the gut microbiota, but it has also highlighted that the majority of bacteria in the gut remain uncultured. Culturomics was developed to culture and identify unknown bacteria that inhabit the human gut as a part of the rebirth of culture techniques in microbiology. Consisting of multiple culture conditions combined with the rapid identification of bacteria, the culturomic approach has enabled the culture of hundreds of new microorganisms that are associated with humans, providing exciting new perspectives on host-bacteria relationships. In this Review, we discuss why and how culturomics was developed. We describe how culturomics has extended our understanding of bacterial diversity and then explore how culturomics can be applied to the study of the human microbiota and the potential implications for human health.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-22

Bengtsson-Palme J, Richardson RT, Meola M, et al (2018)

Metaxa2 Database Builder: enabling taxonomic identification from metagenomic or metabarcoding data using any genetic marker.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 34(23):4027-4033.

Motivation: Correct taxonomic identification of DNA sequences is central to studies of biodiversity using both shotgun metagenomic and metabarcoding approaches. However, no genetic marker gives sufficient performance across all the biological kingdoms, hampering studies of taxonomic diversity in many groups of organisms. This has led to the adoption of a range of genetic markers for DNA metabarcoding. While many taxonomic classification software tools can be re-trained on these genetic markers, they are often designed with assumptions that impair their utility on genes other than the SSU and LSU rRNA. Here, we present an update to Metaxa2 that enables the use of any genetic marker for taxonomic classification of metagenome and amplicon sequence data.

Results: We evaluated the Metaxa2 Database Builder on 11 commonly used barcoding regions and found that while there are wide differences in performance between different genetic markers, our software performs satisfactorily provided that the input taxonomy and sequence data are of high quality.

Freely available on the web as part of the Metaxa2 package at

Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-10-22
CmpDate: 2019-10-21

Penington JS, Penno MAS, Ngui KM, et al (2018)

Influence of fecal collection conditions and 16S rRNA gene sequencing at two centers on human gut microbiota analysis.

Scientific reports, 8(1):4386.

To optimise fecal sampling for reproducible analysis of the gut microbiome, we compared different methods of sample collection and sequencing of 16S rRNA genes at two centers. Samples collected from six individuals on three consecutive days were placed in commercial collection tubes (OMNIgeneGut OMR-200) or in sterile screw-top tubes in a home fridge or home freezer for 6-24 h, before transfer and storage at -80 °C. Replicate samples were shipped to centers in Australia and the USA for DNA extraction and sequencing by their respective PCR protocols, and analysed with the same bioinformatic pipeline. Variation in gut microbiome was dominated by differences between individuals. Minor differences in the abundance of taxa were found between collection-processing methods and day of collection, and between the two centers. We conclude that collection with storage and transport at 4 °C within 24 h is adequate for 16S rRNA analysis of the gut microbiome. Other factors including differences in PCR and sequencing methods account for relatively minor variation compared to differences between individuals.