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(no entry for this year)
R. A. Fisher publishes Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, a formal analysis of the mathematics of selection.
Themistocles Zammit publishes Prehistoric Malta: The Tarxien Temples about excavations showing fossil sea urchins in Bronze Age temples.
(no entry for this year)
C. Stern, and independently H. B. Creighton and B. McClintock, provide the cytological proof of crossing over.
The highly influential paleobotanist Sir Albert Charles Seward rejects the biologic interpretation of Cryptozoon fossils (stromatolites). This rejection will become known among paleontologists as "Seward's folly."
"Flowers and Trees", the first full-color cartoon, is made in Technicolor by Disney.
Kodak introduces the first 8 mm amateur motion picture film, cameras, and projectors.
A Harvard expedition to Australia collects Kronosaurus queenslandicus, a 135-million-year-old marine reptile fossil with a 9- foot skull and banana-sized teeth. Researchers excavate the fossil from a limestone quarry with the aid of explosives.
Fossil diggers discover a 25-million-year-old toothed, dwarf whale in Australia. Seven years later it will be named Mammalodon. More than 70 years later, it will be described as a "bottom-feeding mud-sucker."
Adolf Hitler is appointed German Chancellor; later the same year he is granted dictatorial powers. Events are in motion that will lead to World War II — the greatest military struggle of all time.
Robert Broom publishes The Coming of Man: Was it Accident or Design? arguing that evolution is really driven by spiritual agencies, some with conflicting priorities, and that mankind is the ultimate aim of all evolution.
Barbara McClintock demonstrates in maize that a single exchange within the inversion loop of a paracentric inversion heterozygote generates an acentric and a dicentric chromatid.
T. S. Painter initiates cytogenetic studies on the salivary gland chromosomes of Drosophila.
In Herndon vs Georgia, the United States Supreme Court sets aside the death sentence of black communist Angelo Herndon, who was convicted under a pre-Civil War slave insurrection statute for passing out leaflets in Atlanta.
IBM 405 Alphabetical Accounting Machine introduced
The 135 film cartridge is introduced, making 35 mm easy to use for still photography.
With funding from Sinclair Oil, Barnum Brown begins excavating in Wyoming's Howe Quarry. His finds will lead to the green dinosaur logo for Sinclair's gas stations. Many of them will simply be named "Dino."
Becky Sharp, the first feature film made in the full-color "three-strip" version of Technicolor, is released.
Introduction of Kodachrome multi-layered color reversal film (16 mm only; 8 mm and 35 mm follow in 1936, sheet film in 1938).
C. B. Bridges publishes the salivary gland chromosome maps for Drosophila melanogaster.
G. W. Beadle and B. Ephrussi and A. Kuhn and A. Butenandt work out the biochemical genetics of eye-pigment synthesis in Drosophila and Ephestia, respectively.
J. B. S. Haldane is the first to calculate the spontaneous mutation frequency of a human gene.
M. Baudouin describes more than 80 fossil sea urchins drilled for use as jewelry, some worked as long as 35,000 years ago.
Track star Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Berlin Olympics between August 3 and August 9.
At Cambridge Alan Turing invented the principle of the modern computer
Konrad Zuse Files For Patent
Agfacolor Neu (English: New Agfacolor) color reversal film for home movies and slides.
Introduction by IHAGEE of the Ihagee Kine Exakta 1, the first 35 mm SLR (Single Lens Reflex) camera.
German troops occupy the Rhineland in defiance of the treaties of Locarno and Versailles.
A. H. Sturtevant and T. Dobzhansky publish the first account of the use of inversions in constructing a chromosomal phylogenetic tree.
Robert Broom finds the first skull of an adult australopithecine near Johannesburg.
Alan Turing Defines the Universal Machine
ILLIAC IV Designer Slotnick is born
The AtanasoffBerry Computer first conceived
T. Dobzhansky publishes Genetics and the Origin of Species — a milestone in evolutionary genetics.
Zuse Z1 built by Konrad Zuse
Fishermen find a coelacanth, a fish long believed to be extinct, off the coast of South Africa. Margaret Courtney-Latimer, a curator at the East London Museum in South Africa, keeps the fish preserved long enough for its identity to be confirmed by ichthyologist J.L.B. Smith.
September 1, Germany invades Poland; Britain and France declare war on Germany on September 3. Soviet troops invade Poland. World War II begins.
September 1, George C. Marshall is sworn in as Chief of Staff of the US Army. After the war, Churchill refers to Marshall (the only military leader to serve through the entirety of WW II) as the Architect of Victory for his crucial role in ensuring the defeat of the Axis Powers.
Hewlett Packard Founded
Agfacolor negative and positive 35 mm color film stock for professional motion picture use (not for making paper prints).
The View-Master 3-D viewer and its "reels" of seven small stereoscopic image pairs on Kodachrome film are introduced.
E. L. Ellis and M. Delbrück perform studies on coliphage growth that mark the beginning of modem phage work. They devise the "one-step growth" experiment, which demonstrates that after the phage adsorbs onto the bacterium, it replicates within the bacterium during the "latent period," and finally the progeny are released in a "burst."
About 200 worked ivory fragments, roughly 32,000 years old, are found in the Hohlenstein-Stadel Cave in Germany. Three decades later, the pieces will be reassembled as statue of a lion-headed man.
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