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Bibliography on: Mitochondrial Evolution

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2021 at 01:35 Created: 

Mitochondrial Evolution

The endosymbiotic hypothesis for the origin of mitochondria (and chloroplasts) suggests that mitochondria are descended from specialized bacteria (probably purple nonsulfur bacteria) that somehow survived endocytosis by another species of prokaryote or some other cell type, and became incorporated into the cytoplasm.

Created with PubMed® Query: mitochondria AND evolution NOT 26799652[PMID] NOT 33634751[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-09-15

Mallo N, Ovciarikova J, Martins-Duarte ES, et al (2021)

Depletion of a Toxoplasma porin leads to defects in mitochondrial morphology and contacts with the ER.

Journal of cell science pii:272183 [Epub ahead of print].

The Voltage Dependent Anion channel (VDAC) is a ubiquitous channel in the outer membrane of the mitochondrion with multiple roles in protein, metabolite and small molecule transport. In mammalian cells, VDAC, as part of a larger complex including the inositol triphosphate receptor, has been shown to have a role in mediating contacts between the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We identify VDAC of the pathogenic apicomplexan Toxoplasma gondii and demonstrate its importance for parasite growth. We show that VDAC is involved in protein import and metabolite transfer to mitochondria. Further, depletion of VDAC resulted in significant morphological changes of the mitochondrion and ER, suggesting a role in mediating contacts between these organelles in T. gondii.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Oono J, Hatakeyama Y, Yabiku T, et al (2021)

Effects of growth temperature and nitrogen nutrition on expression of C3-C4 intermediate traits in Chenopodium album.

Journal of plant research [Epub ahead of print].

Proto-Kranz plants represent an initial phase in the evolution from C3 to C3-C4 intermediate to C4 plants. The ecological and adaptive aspects of C3-C4 plants would provide an important clue to understand the evolution of C3-C4 plants. We investigated whether growth temperature and nitrogen (N) nutrition influence the expression of C3-C4 traits in Chenopodium album (proto-Kranz) in comparison with Chenopodium quinoa (C3). Plants were grown during 5 weeks at 20 or 30 °C under standard or low N supply levels (referred to as 20SN, 20LN, 30SN, and 30LN). Net photosynthetic rate and leaf N content were higher in 20SN and 30SN plants than in 20LN and 30LN plants of C. album but did not differ among growth conditions in C. quinoa. The CO2 compensation point (Γ) of C. album was lowest in 30LN plants (36 µmol mol-1), highest in 20SN plants (51 µmol mol-1), and intermediate in 20LN and 30SN plants, whereas Γ of C. quinoa did not differ among the growth conditions (51-52 µmol mol-1). The anatomical structure of leaves was not considerably affected by growth conditions in either species. However, ultrastructural observations in C. album showed that the number of mitochondria per mesophyll or bundle sheath (BS) cell was lower in 20LN and 30LN plants than in 20SN and 30SN plants. Immunohistochemical observations revealed that lower accumulation level of P-protein of glycine decarboxylase (GDC-P) in mesophyll mitochondria than in BS mitochondria is the major factor causing the decrease in Γ values in C. album plants grown under low N supply and high temperature. These results suggest that high growth temperature and low N supply lead to the expression of C3-C4 traits (the reduction of Γ) in the proto-Kranz plants of C. album through the regulation of GDC-P expression.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Dey P, Sharma SK, Sarkar I, et al (2021)

Complete mitogenome of endemic plum-headed parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala - characterization and phylogenetic analysis.

PloS one, 16(4):e0241098.

Psittacula cyanocephala is an endemic parakeet from the Indian sub-continent that is widespread in the illegal bird trade. Previous studies on Psittacula parakeets have highlighted taxonomic ambiguities, warranting studies to resolve the issues. Since the mitochondrial genome provides useful information concerning the species evolution and phylogenetics, we sequenced the complete mitogenome of P. cyanocephala using NGS, validated 38.86% of the mitogenome using Sanger Sequencing and compared it with other available whole mitogenomes of Psittacula. The complete mitogenome of the species was 16814 bp in length with 54.08% AT composition. P. cyanocephala mitogenome comprises of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. P. cyanocephala mitogenome organization was consistent with other Psittacula mitogenomes. Comparative codon usage analysis indicated the role of natural selection on Psittacula mitogenomes. Strong purifying selection pressure was observed maximum on nad1 and nad4l genes. The mitochondrial control region of all Psittacula species displayed the ancestral avian CR gene order. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the Psittacula genus as paraphyletic nature, containing at least 4 groups of species within the same genus, suggesting its taxonomic reconsideration. Our results provide useful information for developing forensic tests to control the illegal trade of the species and scientific basis for phylogenetic revision of the genus Psittacula.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Omarjee O, Mathieu AL, Quiniou G, et al (2021)

LACC1 deficiency links juvenile arthritis with autophagy and metabolism in macrophages.

The Journal of experimental medicine, 218(3):.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common chronic rheumatic disease in children, and its etiology remains poorly understood. Here, we explored four families with early-onset arthritis carrying homozygous loss-of-expression mutations in LACC1. To understand the link between LACC1 and inflammation, we performed a functional study of LACC1 in human immune cells. We showed that LACC1 was primarily expressed in macrophages upon mTOR signaling. We found that LACC1 deficiency had no obvious impact on inflammasome activation, type I interferon response, or NF-κB regulation. Using bimolecular fluorescence complementation and biochemical assays, we showed that autophagy-inducing proteins, RACK1 and AMPK, interacted with LACC1. Autophagy blockade in macrophages was associated with LACC1 cleavage and degradation. Moreover, LACC1 deficiency reduced autophagy flux in primary macrophages. This was associated with a defect in the accumulation of lipid droplets and mitochondrial respiration, suggesting that LACC1-dependent autophagy fuels macrophage bioenergetics metabolism. Altogether, LACC1 deficiency defines a novel form of genetically inherited juvenile arthritis associated with impaired autophagy in macrophages.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Ren RC, Yan XW, Zhao YJ, et al (2020)

The novel E-subgroup pentatricopeptide repeat protein DEK55 is responsible for RNA editing at multiple sites and for the splicing of nad1 and nad4 in maize.

BMC plant biology, 20(1):553.

BACKGROUND: Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins compose a large protein family whose members are involved in both RNA processing in organelles and plant growth. Previous reports have shown that E-subgroup PPR proteins are involved in RNA editing. However, the additional functions and roles of the E-subgroup PPR proteins are unknown.

RESULTS: In this study, we developed and identified a new maize kernel mutant with arrested embryo and endosperm development, i.e., defective kernel (dek) 55 (dek55). Genetic and molecular evidence suggested that the defective kernels resulted from a mononucleotide alteration (C to T) at + 449 bp within the open reading frame (ORF) of Zm00001d014471 (hereafter referred to as DEK55). DEK55 encodes an E-subgroup PPR protein within the mitochondria. Molecular analyses showed that the editing percentage of 24 RNA editing sites decreased and that of seven RNA editing sites increased in dek55 kernels, the sites of which were distributed across 14 mitochondrial gene transcripts. Moreover, the splicing efficiency of nad1 introns 1 and 4 and nad4 intron 1 significantly decreased in dek55 compared with the wild type (WT). These results indicate that DEK55 plays a crucial role in RNA editing at multiple sites as well as in the splicing of nad1 and nad4 introns. Mutation in the DEK55 gene led to the dysfunction of mitochondrial complex I. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays showed that DEK55 interacts with two multiple organellar RNA-editing factors (MORFs), i.e., ZmMORF1 (Zm00001d049043) and ZmMORF8 (Zm00001d048291).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that a mutation in the DEK55 gene affects the mitochondrial function essential for maize kernel development. Our results also provide novel insight into the molecular functions of E-subgroup PPR proteins involved in plant organellar RNA processing.

RevDate: 2021-09-07
CmpDate: 2021-09-07

Londoño-Burbano A, RE Reis (2021)

A combined molecular and morphological phylogeny of the Loricariinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae), with emphasis on the Harttiini and Farlowellini.

PloS one, 16(3):e0247747.

We present a combined molecular and morphological phylogenetic analysis of the Loricariinae, with emphasis on the Harttiini (Cteniloricaria, Harttia, and Harttiella) and Farlowellini (Aposturisoma, Farlowella, Lamontichthys, Pterosturisoma, Sturisoma, and Sturisomatichthys). Character sampling comprised seven molecular markers (the mitochondrial Cytb, nd2, 12S and 16S, and the nuclear MyH6, RAG1 and RAG2) and 196 morphological characters. A total of 1,059 specimens, and 159 tissue samples were analized, representing 100 species. A Bayesian Inference analysis was performed using the concatenated data matrix, which is comprised of 6,819 characters. The Loricariinae were found to comprise the tribes (Hartiini (Loricariini, Farlowellini)), the latter two elevated from subtribes. A Maximum Parsimony analysis was also performed using the same data matrix in order to reveal phenotypical synapomorphies to diagnose each clade. Two MP trees were found with a length of 14,704 steps, consistency index of 0.29 and retention index of 0.61, which were summarized in a strict consensus tree. Harttiini includes (Harttiella (Cteniloricaria, Harttia), and Farlowellini includes (Lamontichthys (Pterosturisoma (Sturisoma (Sturisomatichthys, Farlowella)))). Aposturisoma was recovered nested within Farlowella and is synonymyzed to the latter. Sturisoma was corroborated as strictly cis-Andean, while Sturisomatichthys encompasses, besides the valid species already included in the genus, the trans-Andean species once belonging to Sturisoma sensu lato. Identification keys and phylogenetic diagnoses of family-group taxa and genera of both the Harttiini and the Farlowellini are provided.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Li L, Conradson DM, Bharat V, et al (2021)

A mitochondrial membrane-bridging machinery mediates signal transduction of intramitochondrial oxidation.

Nature metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria are the main site for generating reactive oxygen species, which are key players in diverse biological processes. However, the molecular pathways of redox signal transduction from the matrix to the cytosol are poorly defined. Here we report an inside-out redox signal of mitochondria. Cysteine oxidation of MIC60, an inner mitochondrial membrane protein, triggers the formation of disulfide bonds and the physical association of MIC60 with Miro, an outer mitochondrial membrane protein. The oxidative structural change of this membrane-crossing complex ultimately elicits cellular responses that delay mitophagy, impair cellular respiration and cause oxidative stress. Blocking the MIC60-Miro interaction or reducing either protein, genetically or pharmacologically, extends lifespan and health-span of healthy fruit flies, and benefits multiple models of Parkinson's disease and Friedreich's ataxia. Our discovery provides a molecular basis for common treatment strategies against oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Tůmová P, Voleman L, Klingl A, et al (2021)

Inheritance of the reduced mitochondria of Giardia intestinalis is coupled to the flagellar maturation cycle.

BMC biology, 19(1):193.

BACKGROUND: The presence of mitochondria is a distinguishing feature between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. It is currently accepted that the evolutionary origin of mitochondria coincided with the formation of eukaryotes and from that point control of mitochondrial inheritance was required. Yet, the way the mitochondrial presence has been maintained throughout the eukaryotic cell cycle remains a matter of study. Eukaryotes control mitochondrial inheritance mainly due to the presence of the genetic component; still only little is known about the segregation of mitochondria to daughter cells during cell division. Additionally, anaerobic eukaryotic microbes evolved a variety of genomeless mitochondria-related organelles (MROs), which could be theoretically assembled de novo, providing a distinct mechanistic basis for maintenance of stable mitochondrial numbers. Here, we approach this problem by studying the structure and inheritance of the protist Giardia intestinalis MROs known as mitosomes.

RESULTS: We combined 2D stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy and focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM) to show that mitosomes exhibit internal segmentation and conserved asymmetric structure. From a total of about forty mitosomes, a small, privileged population is harnessed to the flagellar apparatus, and their life cycle is coordinated with the maturation cycle of G. intestinalis flagella. The orchestration of mitosomal inheritance with the flagellar maturation cycle is mediated by a microtubular connecting fiber, which physically links the privileged mitosomes to both axonemes of the oldest flagella pair and guarantees faithful segregation of the mitosomes into the daughter cells.

CONCLUSION: Inheritance of privileged Giardia mitosomes is coupled to the flagellar maturation cycle. We propose that the flagellar system controls segregation of mitochondrial organelles also in other members of this supergroup (Metamonada) of eukaryotes and perhaps reflects the original strategy of early eukaryotic cells to maintain this key organelle before mitochondrial fusion-fission dynamics cycle as observed in Metazoa was established.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Moroz LL, DY Romanova (2021)

Selective Advantages of Synapses in Evolution.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:726563.

RevDate: 2021-09-05

Montes de Oca Balderas P (2021)

Mitochondria-plasma membrane interactions and communication.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(21)00966-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondria are known as the powerhouses of eukaryotic cells; however, they perform many other functions besides oxidative phosphorylation, including Ca2+ homeostasis, lipid metabolism, anti-viral response, and apoptosis. Although other hypotheses exist, mitochondria are generally thought as descendants of an α-proteobacteria that adapted to the intracellular environment within an Asgard archeobacteria, that have been studied for decades as an organelle subdued by the eukaryotic cell. Nevertheless, several early electron microscopy observations hinted that some mitochondria establish specific interactions with certain plasma membrane (PM) domains in mammalian cells. Furthermore, recent findings have documented the direct physical and functional interaction of mitochondria and the PM, the organization of distinct complexes, and their communication through vesicular means. In yeast, some molecular players mediating this interaction have been elucidated, but only a few works have studied this interaction in mammalian cells. In addition, mitochondria can be translocated among cells through tunneling nanotubes or by other mechanisms, and free, intact, functional mitochondria have been reported in the blood plasma. Together, these findings challenge the conception of mitochondria as organelles subdued by the eukaryotic cell. This review discusses the evidence of the mitochondria interaction with the PM that has been long disregarded, despite its importance in cell function, pathogenesis, and evolution. It also proposes a scheme of mitochondria-PM interactions with the intent to promote research and knowledge of this emerging pathway that promises to shift the current paradigms of cell biology.

RevDate: 2021-09-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-02

Yang Y, Tong J, Ruan H, et al (2021)

Genetic Diversity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the South and East Regions of Kazakhstan and Northwestern China.

The Korean journal of parasitology, 59(1):103-108.

To date, there is no report on the genetic diversity of ticks in these regions. A total of 370 representative ticks from the south and east regions of Kazakhstan (SERK) and Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR) were selected for molecular comparison. A fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene, ranging from 631 bp to 889 bp, was used to analyze genetic diversity among these ticks. Phylogenetic analyses indicated 7 tick species including Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Haemaphysalis erinacei from the SERK clustered together with conspecific ticks from the XUAR. The network diagram of haplotypes showed that i) Hy. asiaticum from Almaty and Kyzylorda Oblasts together with that from Yuli County of XUAR constituted haplogroup H-2, and the lineage from Chimkent City of South Kazakhstan was newly evolved; and ii) the R. turanicus ticks sampled in Israel, Almaty, South Kazakhstan, Usu City, Ulugqat and Baicheng Counties of XUAR were derivated from an old lineage in Alataw City of XUAR. These findings indicate that: i) Hy. asiaticum, R. turanicus and Ha. erinacei shared genetic similarities between the SERK and XUAR; and ii) Hy. marginatum and D. reticulatus show differences in their evolution.

RevDate: 2021-09-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-02

Song JY, Kim KY, SW Choi (2021)

Occurrence and Molecular Identification of Microcotyle sebastis Isolated from Fish Farms of the Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii.

The Korean journal of parasitology, 59(1):89-95.

Microcotyle sebastis is a gill monogenean ectoparasite that causes serious problems in the mariculture of the Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii. In this study, we isolated the parasite from fish farms along the coasts of Tongyeong, South Korea in 2016, and characterized its infection, morphology and molecular phylogeny. The prevalence of M. sebastis infection during the study period ranged from 46.7% to 96.7%, and the mean intensity was 2.3 to 31.4 ind./fish, indicating that the fish was constantly exposed to parasitic infections throughout the year. Morphological observations under light and scanning electron microscopes of the M. sebastis isolates in this study showed the typical characteristics of the anterior prohaptor and posterior opisthaptor of monogenean parasites. In phylogenetic trees reconstructed using the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA gene and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene (cox1), they consistently clustered together with their congeneric species, and showed the closest phylogenetic relationships to M. caudata and M. kasago in the cox1 tree.

RevDate: 2021-08-31
CmpDate: 2021-08-31

Wong HH, Seet SH, Maier M, et al (2021)

Loss of C2orf69 defines a fatal autoinflammatory syndrome in humans and zebrafish that evokes a glycogen-storage-associated mitochondriopathy.

American journal of human genetics, 108(7):1301-1317.

Human C2orf69 is an evolutionarily conserved gene whose function is unknown. Here, we report eight unrelated families from which 20 children presented with a fatal syndrome consisting of severe autoinflammation and progredient leukoencephalopathy with recurrent seizures; 12 of these subjects, whose DNA was available, segregated homozygous loss-of-function C2orf69 variants. C2ORF69 bears homology to esterase enzymes, and orthologs can be found in most eukaryotic genomes, including that of unicellular phytoplankton. We found that endogenous C2ORF69 (1) is loosely bound to mitochondria, (2) affects mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative respiration in cultured neurons, and (3) controls the levels of the glycogen branching enzyme 1 (GBE1) consistent with a glycogen-storage-associated mitochondriopathy. We show that CRISPR-Cas9-mediated inactivation of zebrafish C2orf69 results in lethality by 8 months of age due to spontaneous epileptic seizures, which is preceded by persistent brain inflammation. Collectively, our results delineate an autoinflammatory Mendelian disorder of C2orf69 deficiency that disrupts the development/homeostasis of the immune and central nervous systems.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Mahapatra K, Banerjee S, De S, et al (2021)

An Insight Into the Mechanism of Plant Organelle Genome Maintenance and Implications of Organelle Genome in Crop Improvement: An Update.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:671698.

Besides the nuclear genome, plants possess two small extra chromosomal genomes in mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively, which contribute a small fraction of the organelles' proteome. Both mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA have originated endosymbiotically and most of their prokaryotic genes were either lost or transferred to the nuclear genome through endosymbiotic gene transfer during the course of evolution. Due to their immobile nature, plant nuclear and organellar genomes face continuous threat from diverse exogenous agents as well as some reactive by-products or intermediates released from various endogenous metabolic pathways. These factors eventually affect the overall plant growth and development and finally productivity. The detailed mechanism of DNA damage response and repair following accumulation of various forms of DNA lesions, including single and double-strand breaks (SSBs and DSBs) have been well documented for the nuclear genome and now it has been extended to the organelles also. Recently, it has been shown that both mitochondria and chloroplast possess a counterpart of most of the nuclear DNA damage repair pathways and share remarkable similarities with different damage repair proteins present in the nucleus. Among various repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) is crucial for the repair as well as the evolution of organellar genomes. Along with the repair pathways, various other factors, such as the MSH1 and WHIRLY family proteins, WHY1, WHY2, and WHY3 are also known to be involved in maintaining low mutation rates and structural integrity of mitochondrial and chloroplast genome. SOG1, the central regulator in DNA damage response in plants, has also been found to mediate endoreduplication and cell-cycle progression through chloroplast to nucleus retrograde signaling in response to chloroplast genome instability. Various proteins associated with the maintenance of genome stability are targeted to both nuclear and organellar compartments, establishing communication between organelles as well as organelles and nucleus. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of DNA damage repair and inter compartmental crosstalk mechanism in various sub-cellular organelles following induction of DNA damage and identification of key components of such signaling cascades may eventually be translated into strategies for crop improvement under abiotic and genotoxic stress conditions. This review mainly highlights the current understanding as well as the importance of different aspects of organelle genome maintenance mechanisms in higher plants.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Rolland C, Andreani J, Sahmi-Bounsiar D, et al (2021)

Clandestinovirus: A Giant Virus With Chromatin Proteins and a Potential to Manipulate the Cell Cycle of Its Host Vermamoeba vermiformis.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:715608.

For several decades, the vast world of DNA viruses has been expanding constantly. Various discoveries in this field have broadened our knowledge and revealed that DNA viruses encode many functional features, which were once thought to be exclusive to cellular life. Here, we report the isolation of a giant virus named "clandestinovirus," grown on the amoebal host Vermamoeba vermiformis. This virus was discovered in a mixed co-culture associated with another giant virus, Faustovirus ST1. Clandestinovirus possesses a linear dsDNA genome of 581,987 base pairs containing 617 genes. Phylogenetically, clandestinovirus is most closely related to Acanthamoeba castellanii medusavirus and was considered a member of the proposed Medusaviridae family. However, clandestinovirus genome is 65% larger than that of medusavirus, emphasizing the considerable genome size variation within this virus family. Functional annotation of the clandestinovirus genes suggests that the virus encodes four core histones. Furthermore, clandestinovirus appears to orchestrate the cell cycle and mitochondrial activities of the infected host by virtue of encoding a panel of protein kinases and phosphatases, and a suite of functionally diverse mitochondrial protein homologs, respectively. Collectively, these observations illuminate a strategy employed by clandestinovirus to optimize the intracellular environment for efficient virus propagation.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Satoh T (2021)

Bird evolution by insulin resistance.

Trends in endocrinology and metabolism: TEM pii:S1043-2760(21)00173-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Drift of oxygen concentrations in the atmosphere was one of the main drivers of the evolution of vertebrates. The drop in oxygen concentrations at the Permian-Triassic (PT) boundary may have been the biggest challenge to vertebrates. This hypoxic condition forced theropods to lose certain genes to maximize their efficiency of oxygen usage. Recent studies show that omentin and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) are missing in the bird genome. Since these gene products play essential roles in maintaining insulin sensitivity, this loss forced theropods to become insulin resistant. Insulin resistance may have been the key to allowing theropods to become hyperathletic under hypoxic conditions and to outcompete mammals during the Triassic period. A second challenge was the gradual increase in oxygen concentrations during the late Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary periods when reactive oxygen species (ROS) leakage from mitochondria became a problem. Since the simplest solution was the expansion of body size, some theropods became bigger to reduce ROS leakage per volume. Another solution was the development of a constitutively active countermeasure against ROS. A recent study shows that Neoaves have constitutively active nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) due to deletion of the C-terminal part of the KEAP1 protein, thus allowing Neoaves to express antioxidant enzymes to overcome ROS leakage.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Kwak Y (2021)

An Update on Trichoderma Mitogenomes: Complete De Novo Mitochondrial Genome of the Fungal Biocontrol Agent Trichoderma harzianum (Hypocreales, Sordariomycetes), an Ex-Neotype Strain CBS 226.95, and Tracing the Evolutionary Divergences of Mitogenomes in Trichoderma.

Microorganisms, 9(8): pii:microorganisms9081564.

Members of the genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales), widely used as biofungicides, biofertilizers, and as model fungi for the industrial production of CAZymes, have actively been studied for the applications of their biological functions. Recently, the study of the nuclear genomes of Trichoderma has expanded in the directions of adaptation and evolution to gain a better understanding of their ecological traits. However, Trichoderma's mitochondria have received much less attention despite mitochondria being the most necessary element for sustaining cell life. In this study, a mitogenome of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum CBS 226.95 was assembled de novo. A 27,632 bp circular DNA molecule was revealed with specific features, such as the intronless of all core PCGs, one homing endonuclease, and a putative overlapping tRNA, on a closer phylogenetic relationship with T. reesei among hypocrealean fungi. Interestingly, the mitogenome of T. harzianum CBS 226.95 was predicted to have evolved earlier than those of other Trichoderma species and also assumed with a selection pressure in the cox3. Considering the bioavailability, both for the ex-neotype strain of the T. harzianum species complex and the most globally representative commercial fungal biocontrol agent, our results on the T. harzianum CBS 226.95 mitogenome provide crucial information which will be helpful criteria in future studies on Trichoderma.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Stewart DT, Robicheau BM, Youssef N, et al (2021)

Expanding the Search for Sperm Transmission Elements in the Mitochondrial Genomes of Bivalve Mollusks.

Genes, 12(8): pii:genes12081211.

Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in bivalve mollusks is one of the most notable departures from the paradigm of strict maternal inheritance of mtDNA among metazoans. Recently, work on the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis suggested that a nucleotide motif in the control region of this species, known as the sperm transmission element (STE), helps protect male-transmitted mitochondria from destruction during spermatogenesis. Subsequent studies found similar, yet divergent, STE motifs in other marine mussels. Here, we extend the in silico search for mtDNA signatures resembling known STEs. This search is carried out for the large unassigned regions of 157 complete mitochondrial genomes from within the Mytiloida, Veneroida, Unionoida, and Ostreoida bivalve orders. Based on a sliding window approach, we present evidence that there are additional putative STE signatures in the large unassigned regions of several marine clams and freshwater mussels with DUI. We discuss the implications of this finding for interpreting the origin of doubly uniparental inheritance in ancestral bivalve mollusks, as well as potential future in vitro and in silico studies that could further refine our understanding of the early evolution of this unusual system of mtDNA inheritance.

RevDate: 2021-08-26

Petrů M, Dohnálek V, Füssy Z, et al (2021)

Fates of Sec, Tat and YidC translocases in mitochondria and other eukaryotic compartments.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6358141 [Epub ahead of print].

Formation of mitochondria by the conversion of a bacterial endosymbiont was a key moment in the evolution of eukaryotes. It was made possible by outsourcing the endosymbiont's genetic control to the host nucleus, while developing the import machinery for proteins synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes. The original protein export machines of the nascent organelle remained to be re-purposed or were completely abandoned. This review follows the evolutionary fates of three prokaryotic inner membrane translocases Sec, Tat and YidC. Homologues of all three translocases can still be found in current mitochondria, but with different importance for mitochondrial function. While the mitochondrial YidC homologue, Oxa1, became an omnipresent independent insertase, the other two remained only sporadically present in mitochondria. Only a single substrate is known for the mitochondrial Tat and no function has yet been assigned for the mitochondrial Sec. Finally, this review compares these ancestral mitochondrial proteins with their paralogues operating in the plastids and the endomembrane system.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Cooper LN (2021)

Metabolism: Evolution of dolphin sperm endurance.

Current biology : CB, 31(16):R1006-R1008.

Mammalian sperm have long been known to use energy derived from the metabolism of sugars and fatty acids. A new study shows that sperm of dolphins and their relatives lost functionality of the glycolysis pathway and are fueled only by energy-rich fatty acids that are metabolized by extra-large mitochondria, giving them exceptional endurance.

RevDate: 2021-08-24
CmpDate: 2021-08-24

Fujino K, Horie M, Kojima S, et al (2021)

A Human Endogenous Bornavirus-Like Nucleoprotein Encodes a Mitochondrial Protein Associated with Cell Viability.

Journal of virology, 95(14):e0203020.

Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are sequences in animal genomes that originated from ancient retrovirus infections; they provide genetic novelty in hosts by being coopted as functional genes or elements during evolution. Recently, we demonstrated that endogenous elements from not only from retroviruses but also nonretroviral RNA viruses are a possible source of functional genes in host animals. The remnants of ancient bornavirus infections, called endogenous bornavirus-like elements (EBLs), are present in the genomes of a wide variety of vertebrate species, and some express functional products in host cells. Previous studies have predicted that the human EBL locus derived from bornavirus nucleoprotein, termed hsEBLN-2, expresses mRNA encoding a protein, suggesting that hsEBLN-2 has acquired a cellular function during evolution. However, the detailed function of the hsEBLN-2-derived product remains to be elucidated. In this study, we show that the hsEBLN-2-derived protein E2 acts as a mitochondrial protein that interacts with mitochondrial host factors associated with apoptosis, such as HAX-1. We also demonstrate that knockdown of hsEBLN-2-derived RNA increased the levels of PARP and caspase-3 cleavage and markedly decreased cell viability. In contrast, overexpression of E2 enhanced cell viability, as well as the intracellular stability of HAX-1, under stress conditions. Our results suggest that hsEBLN-2 has been coopted as a host gene, the product of which is involved in cell viability by interacting with mitochondrial proteins. IMPORTANCE Our genomes contain molecular fossils of ancient viruses, called endogenous virus elements (EVEs). Mounting evidence suggests that EVEs derived from nonretroviral RNA viruses have acquired functions in host cells during evolution. Previous studies have revealed that a locus encoding a bornavirus-derived EVE, hsEBLN-2, which was generated approximately 43 million years ago in a human ancestor, may be linked to the development of some tumors. However, the function of hsEBLN-2 has not been determined. In this study, we found that the E2 protein, an expression product of hsEBLN-2, interacts with apoptosis-related host proteins as a mitochondrial protein and affects cell viability. This study suggests that nonretroviral RNA viral EVEs have been coopted by hosts with more diverse functions than previously thought, showing a pivotal role for RNA virus infection in evolution.

RevDate: 2021-08-24
CmpDate: 2021-08-24

Edwards DM, Røyrvik EC, Chustecki JM, et al (2021)

Avoiding organelle mutational meltdown across eukaryotes with or without a germline bottleneck.

PLoS biology, 19(4):e3001153.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and plastid DNA (ptDNA) encode vital bioenergetic apparatus, and mutations in these organelle DNA (oDNA) molecules can be devastating. In the germline of several animals, a genetic "bottleneck" increases cell-to-cell variance in mtDNA heteroplasmy, allowing purifying selection to act to maintain low proportions of mutant mtDNA. However, most eukaryotes do not sequester a germline early in development, and even the animal bottleneck remains poorly understood. How then do eukaryotic organelles avoid Muller's ratchet-the gradual buildup of deleterious oDNA mutations? Here, we construct a comprehensive and predictive genetic model, quantitatively describing how different mechanisms segregate and decrease oDNA damage across eukaryotes. We apply this comprehensive theory to characterise the animal bottleneck with recent single-cell observations in diverse mouse models. Further, we show that gene conversion is a particularly powerful mechanism to increase beneficial cell-to-cell variance without depleting oDNA copy number, explaining the benefit of observed oDNA recombination in diverse organisms which do not sequester animal-like germlines (for example, sponges, corals, fungi, and plants). Genomic, transcriptomic, and structural datasets across eukaryotes support this mechanism for generating beneficial variance without a germline bottleneck. This framework explains puzzling oDNA differences across taxa, suggesting how Muller's ratchet is avoided in different eukaryotes.

RevDate: 2021-08-24
CmpDate: 2021-08-24

Dumoulin B, Ufer C, Kuhn H, et al (2021)

Expression Regulation, Protein Chemistry and Functional Biology of the Guanine-Rich Sequence Binding Factor 1 (GRSF1).

Journal of molecular biology, 433(13):166922.

In eukaryotic cells RNA-binding proteins have been implicated in virtually all post-transcriptional mechanisms of gene expression regulation. Based on the structural features of their RNA binding domains these proteins have been divided into several subfamilies. The presence of at least two RNA recognition motifs defines the group of heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H/F and one of its members is the guanine-rich sequence binding factor 1 (GRSF1). GRSF1 was first described 25 years ago and is widely distributed in eukaryotic cells. It is present in the nucleus, the cytoplasm and in mitochondria and has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes (embryogenesis, erythropoiesis, redox homeostasis, RNA metabolism) but also in the pathogenesis of various diseases. This review summarizes our current understanding on GRSF1 biology, critically discusses the literature reports and gives an outlook of future developments in the field.

RevDate: 2021-08-22

M Lyra G, Iha C, Grassa CJ, et al (2021)

Phylogenomics, divergence time estimation and trait evolution provide a new look into the Gracilariales (Rhodophyta).

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(21)00227-X [Epub ahead of print].

Gracilariales is a highly diverse, widely distributed clade of red algae (Rhodophyta). Aside from their ecological importance, species of Gracilariales provide important sources of agarans and possess bioactive compounds with medicinal and pharmaceutical use. Recent phylogenetic analyses from a small number of genes have greatly advanced our knowledge of evolutionary relationships in this clade, yet several key nodes were not especially well resolved. We assembled a phylogenomic data set containing 79 nuclear genes, 195 plastid genes, and 24 mitochondrial genes from species representing all three major Gracilariales lineages, including: Melanthalia, Gracilariopsis, and Gracilaria sensu lato. This data set leads to a fully-resolved phylogeny of Gracilariales, which is highly-consistent across genomic compartments. In agreement with previous findings, Melanthalia obtusata was sister to a clade including Gracilaria s.l. and Gracilariopsis, which were each resolved as well-supported clades. Our results also clarified the long-standing uncertainty about relationships in Gracilaria s.l., not resolved in single and multi-genes approaches. We further characterized the divergence time, organellar genome architecture, and morphological trait evolution in Gracilarales to better facilitate its taxonomic treatment. Gracilariopsis and Gracilaria s.l. are comparable taxonomic ranks, based on the overlapping time range of their divergence. The genomic structure of plastid and mitochondria is highly conserved within each clade but differs slightly among these clades in gene contents. For example, the plastid gene petP is lost in Gracilaria s.l. and the mitochondrial gene trnH is in different positions in the genome of Gracilariopsis and Gracilaria s.l. Our analyses of ancestral character evolution provide evidence that the main characters used to delimitate genera in Gracilariales, such as spermatangia type and features of the cystocarp's anatomy, overlap in subclades of Gracilaria s.l. We discuss the taxonomy of Gracilariales in light of these results and propose an objective and practical classification, which is in agreement with the criteria of monophyly, exclusive characters, predictability and nomenclatural stability.

RevDate: 2021-08-21

Jakovlić I, Zou H, Chen JH, et al (2021)

Slow crabs - fast genomes: locomotory capacity predicts skew magnitude in crustacean mitogenomes.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Base composition skews (G-C/G+C) of mitochondrial genomes are believed to be primarily driven by mutational pressure, which is positively correlated with metabolic rate. In marine animals, metabolic rate is also positively correlated with locomotory capacity. Given the central role of mitochondria in energy metabolism, we hypothesised that selection for locomotory capacity should be positively correlated with the strength of purifying selection (dN/dS), and thus be negatively correlated with the skew magnitude. Therefore, these two models assume diametrically opposite associations between the metabolic rate and skew magnitude: positive correlation in the prevailing paradigm, and negative in our working hypothesis. We examined correlations between the skew magnitude, metabolic rate, locomotory capacity, and several other variables previously associated with mitochondrial evolution on 287 crustacean mitogenomes. Weakly locomotory taxa had higher skew magnitude and ω (dN/dS) values, but not the gene order rearrangement rate. Skew and ω magnitudes were correlated. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that three competing variables, body size, gene order rearrangement rate, and effective population size, had negligible impacts on the skew magnitude. In most crustacean lineages selection for locomotory capacity appears to be the primary factor determining the skew magnitude. Contrary to the prevailing paradigm, this implies that adaptive selection outweighs nonadaptive selection (mutation pressure) in crustaceans. However, we found indications that effective population size (nonadaptive factor) may outweigh the impact of locomotory capacity in sessile crustaceans (Thecostraca). In conclusion, skew magnitude is a product of the interplay between adaptive and nonadaptive factors, the balance of which varies among lineages.

RevDate: 2021-08-21

Jenkins EC, O'Connell MJ, Manfredi G, et al (2021)

Doxycycline promotes proteasome fitness in the central nervous system.

Scientific reports, 11(1):17003.

Several studies reported that mitochondrial stress induces cytosolic proteostasis in yeast and C. elegans. Notably, inhibition of mitochondrial translation with doxcycyline decreases the toxicity of β-amyloid aggregates, in a C. elegans. However, how mitochondrial stress activates cytosolic proteostasis remains unclear. Further whether doxycycline has this effect in mammals and in disease relevant tissues also remains unclear. We show here that doxycycline treatment in mice drastically reduces the accumulation of proteins destined for degradation by the proteasome in a CNS region-specific manner. This effect is associated with the activation of the ERα axis of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), in both males and females. However, sexually dimorphic mechanisms of proteasome activation were observed. Doxycycline also activates the proteasome in fission yeast, where ERα is not expressed. Rather, the ancient ERα-coactivator Mms19 regulates this response in yeast. Our results suggest that the UPRmt initiates a conserved mitochondria-to-cytosol stress signal, resulting in proteasome activation, and that this signal has adapted during evolution, in a sex and tissue specific-manner. Therefore, while our results support the use of doxycycline in the prevention of proteopathic diseases, they also indicate that sex is an important variable to consider in the design of future clinical trials using doxycycline.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Karia P, Yoshioka K, W Moeder (2021)

Multiple phosphorylation events of the mitochondrial membrane protein, TTM1, regulate cell death during senescence.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

The role of mitochondria in programmed cell death (PCD) during animal growth and development is well documented, but much less is known for plants. We previously showed that the Arabidopsis thaliana triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) proteins TTM1 and TTM2 are tail-anchored proteins that localize in the mitochondrial outer membrane and participate in PCD during senescence and immunity, respectively. Here, we show that TTM1 is specifically involved in senescence induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Moreover, phosphorylation of TTM1 by multiple mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) regulates its function and turnover. A combination of proteomics and in vitro kinase assays revealed three major phosphorylation sites of TTM1 (Ser10, Ser437, and Ser490). Ser437, which is phosphorylated upon perception of senescence cues such as ABA and prolonged darkness, is phosphorylated by the MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK4, and Ser437 phosphorylation is essential for TTM1 function in senescence. These MPKs, together with three additional MAP kinases (MPK1, MPK7, and MPK6), also phosphorylate Ser10 and Ser490, marking TTM1 for protein turnover, which likely prevents uncontrolled cell death. Taken together, our results show that multiple MPKs regulate the function and turnover of the mitochondrial protein TTM1 during senescence-associated cell death, revealing a novel link between mitochondria and PCD.

RevDate: 2021-08-19
CmpDate: 2021-08-19

Pilgrim J, Siozios S, Baylis M, et al (2021)

Cardinium symbiosis as a potential confounder of mtDNA based phylogeographic inference in Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of veterinary viruses.

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Culicoides imicola (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is an important Afrotropical and Palearctic vector of disease, transmitting viruses of animal health and economic significance including African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses. Maternally inherited symbiotic bacteria (endosymbionts) of arthropods can alter the frequency of COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) mitochondrial haplotypes (mitotypes) in a population, masking the true patterns of host movement and gene flow. Thus, this study aimed to assess the mtDNA structure of C. imicola in relation to infection with Candidatus Cardinum hertigii (Bacteroides), a common endosymbiont of Culicoides spp.

METHODS: Using haplotype network analysis, COI Sanger sequences from Cardinium-infected and -uninfected C. imicola individuals were first compared in a population from South Africa. The network was then extended to include mitotypes from a geographic range where Cardinium infection has previously been investigated.

RESULTS: The mitotype network of the South African population demonstrated the presence of two broad mitotype groups. All Cardinium-infected specimens fell into one group (Fisher's exact test, P = 0.00071) demonstrating a linkage disequilibrium between endosymbiont and mitochondria. Furthermore, by extending this haplotype network to include other C. imicola populations from the Mediterranean basin, we revealed mitotype variation between the Eastern and Western Mediterranean basins (EMB and WMB) mirrored Cardinium-infection heterogeneity.

CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that the linkage disequilibrium of Cardinium and mitochondria reflects endosymbiont gene flow within the Mediterranean basin but may not assist in elucidating host gene flow. Subsequently, we urge caution on the single usage of the COI marker to determine population structure and movement in C. imicola and instead suggest the complementary utilisation of additional molecular markers.

RevDate: 2021-08-18
CmpDate: 2021-08-18

Xu XD, Guan JY, Zhang ZY, et al (2021)

Novel tRNA gene rearrangements in the mitochondrial genomes of praying mantises (Mantodea: Mantidae): Translocation, duplication and pseudogenization.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 185:403-411.

Gene rearrangements have been found in several mitochondrial genomes of Mantodea, located in the gene blocks CR-I-Q-M-ND2, COX1-K-D-ATP8 and ND3-A-R-N-S-E-F-ND5. We have sequenced one mitogenome of Amelidae (Yersinia mexicana) and six mitogenomes of Mantidae to discuss the mitochondrial gene rearrangement and the phylogenetic relationship within Mantidae. These mitogenomes showed rearrangements of tRNA genes except for Asiadodis yunnanensis and Hierodula zhangi. These novel gene rearrangements of Mantidae were primarily concentrated in the region of CR-I-Q-M-ND2, including gene translocation, duplication and pseudogenization. For the occurrences of these rearrangements, the tandem duplication-random loss (TDRL) model and slipped-strand mispairing model were suitable to explain. Large non-coding regions (LNCRs) located in the region of CR-I-Q-M-ND2 were detected in most Mantidae species, whereas some LNCRs had high similarity to the control region (CR). Both BI and ML phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyly of Mantidae and the paraphyly of Mantinae. The phylogenetic results with the gene order and the location of NCRs acted as forceful evidence that specific gene rearrangements and special LNCRs may be synapomorphies for several groups of mantises.

RevDate: 2021-08-18
CmpDate: 2021-08-18

Mirahmadi H, Behravan M, Raz A, et al (2021)

Genotyping of the Echinococcus granulosus in Paraffin-Embedded Human Tissue Samples from Iran.

Acta parasitologica, 66(2):535-542.

PURPOSE: Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) is a medically important disease that is caused by the metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus. Human hydatid is considered an endemic disease in specific regions of Iran. The goal of the present study was to determine the genetic diversity of E. granulosus from the paraffin-embedded human tissue samples which were collected from the endemic regions of Iran.

METHODS: Fifty-five formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded hydatid cysts (FFPE) of humans, which had been removed surgically, were obtained from the South Khorasan and Sistan and Baluchistan provinces. These regions are related to the East and Southeast regions of Iran, respectively. The cox1 and nad1 genes from mitochondria were amplified from the extracted DNA and sequenced. The sequences were edited using the BioEdit software. Furthermore, phylogenetic and genetic diversity analyses were performed.

RESULTS: Sequencing of the cox1 and nad1 genes from the 44 CE samples was done successfully. Genetic analysis revealed that 38 (86.3%) and 6 (13.6%) of the isolates were G1- and G6-genotypes, respectively. In general, eight and six haplotypes were identified by cox1 and nad1 genes analysis, respectively. For G1 strains, the haplotype diversity index was higher for the cox1 gene (0.6 ± 0.07) in comparison with the nad1 gene (0.4 ± 0.09).

CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study showed that the sheep strain (G1) and the less important camel strain (G6) play the main roles in the transmission cycle of CE in the East and Southeast regions of Iran. Therefore, these results could be useful for managing the hydatid disease control programs in the studied and other similar areas.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Bettinazzi S, Milani L, Blier PU, et al (2021)

Bioenergetic consequences of sex-specific mitochondrial DNA evolution.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288(1957):20211585.

Doubly uniparental inheritance (DUI) represents a notable exception to the general rule of strict maternal inheritance (SMI) of mitochondria in metazoans. This system entails the coexistence of two mitochondrial lineages (F- and M-type) transmitted separately through oocytes and sperm, thence providing an unprecedented opportunity for the mitochondrial genome to evolve adaptively for male functions. In this study, we explored the impact of a sex-specific mitochondrial evolution upon gamete bioenergetics of DUI and SMI bivalve species, comparing the activity of key enzymes of glycolysis, fermentation, fatty acid metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidant metabolism. Our findings suggest reorganized bioenergetic pathways in DUI gametes compared to SMI gametes. This generally results in a decreased enzymatic capacity in DUI sperm with respect to DUI oocytes, a limitation especially prominent at the terminus of the electron transport system. This bioenergetic remodelling fits a reproductive strategy that does not require high energy input and could potentially link with the preservation of the paternally transmitted mitochondrial genome in DUI species. Whether this phenotype may derive from positive or relaxed selection acting on DUI sperm is still uncertain.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Muthye V, DV Lavrov (2021)

Multiple losses of MSH1, gain of mtMutS, and other changes in the MutS family of DNA repair proteins in animals.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6353608 [Epub ahead of print].

MutS is a key component of the Mismatch Repair (MMR) pathway. Members of the MutS protein family are present in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and viruses. Six MutS homologues (MSH1-6) have been identified in yeast, of which three function in nuclear MMR, while MSH1 functions in mitochondrial DNA repair. MSH proteins are believed to be well conserved in animals, except for MSH1-which is thought to be lost. Two intriguing exceptions to this general picture have been found, both in the class Anthozoa within phylum Cnidaria. First, an orthologue of the yeast-MSH1 was reported in one hexacoral species. Second, a MutS homologue (mtMutS) has been found in the mitochondrial genome of all octocorals. To understand the origin and potential functional implications of these exceptions, we investigated the evolution of the MutS family both in Cnidaria and in animals in general. Our study confirmed the acquisition of octocoral mtMutS by a horizontal gene transfer from a giant virus. Surprisingly, we identified MSH1 in all hexacorals and several sponges and placozoans. By contrast, MSH1 orthologues were lacking in other cnidarians, ctenophores, and bilaterian animals. Furthermore, while we identified MSH2 and MSH6 in nearly all animals, MSH4, MSH5, and, especially, MSH3 were missing in multiple species. Overall, our analysis revealed a dynamic evolution of the MutS family in animals, with multiple losses of MSH1, MSH3, some losses of MSH4 and MSH5, and a gain of the octocoral mtMutS. We propose that octocoral mtMutS functionally replaced MSH1 that was present in the common ancestor of Anthozoa.

RevDate: 2021-08-17
CmpDate: 2021-08-17

Morrow JL, M Riegler (2021)

Genome analyses of four Wolbachia strains and associated mitochondria of Rhagoletis cerasi expose cumulative modularity of cytoplasmic incompatibility factors and cytoplasmic hitchhiking across host populations.

BMC genomics, 22(1):616.

BACKGROUND: The endosymbiont Wolbachia can manipulate arthropod reproduction and invade host populations by inducing cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). Some host species are coinfected with multiple Wolbachia strains which may have sequentially invaded host populations by expressing different types of modular CI factor (cif) genes. The tephritid fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi is a model for CI and Wolbachia population dynamics. It is associated with at least four Wolbachia strains in various combinations, with demonstrated (wCer2, wCer4), predicted (wCer1) or unknown (wCer5) CI phenotypes.

RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled the draft genomes of the Wolbachia strains wCer1, wCer4 and wCer5, and compared these with the previously sequenced genome of wCer2 which currently invades R. cerasi populations. We found complete cif gene pairs in all strains: four pairs in wCer2 (three Type I; one Type V), two pairs in wCer1 (both Type I) and wCer4 (one Type I; one Type V), and one pair in wCer5 (Type IV). Wolbachia genome variant analyses across geographically and genetically distant host populations revealed the largest diversity of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in wCer5, followed by wCer1 and then wCer2, indicative of their different lengths of host associations. Furthermore, mitogenome analyses of the Wolbachia genome-sequenced individuals in combination with SNP data from six European countries revealed polymorphic mitogenome sites that displayed reduced diversity in individuals infected with wCer2 compared to those without.

CONCLUSIONS: Coinfections with Wolbachia are common in arthropods and affect options for Wolbachia-based management strategies of pest and vector species already infected by Wolbachia. Our analyses of Wolbachia genomes of a host naturally coinfected by several strains unravelled signatures of the evolutionary dynamics in both Wolbachia and host mitochondrial genomes as a consequence of repeated invasions. Invasion of already infected populations by new Wolbachia strains requires new sets of functionally different cif genes and thereby may select for a cumulative modularity of cif gene diversity in invading strains. Furthermore, we demonstrated at the mitogenomic scale that repeated CI-driven Wolbachia invasions of hosts result in reduced mitochondrial diversity and hitchhiking effects. Already resident Wolbachia strains may experience similar cytoplasmic hitchhiking effects caused by the invading Wolbachia strain.

RevDate: 2021-08-17
CmpDate: 2021-08-17

Uddin A, Mazumder TH, Barbhuiya PA, et al (2020)

Similarities and dissimilarities of codon usage in mitochondrial ATP genes among fishes, aves, and mammals.

IUBMB life, 72(5):899-914.

In this study, we used bioinformatic approach to analyze the compositional features and codon usage bias (CUB) of ATP6 and ATP8 genes among three groups, namely, fishes, aves, and mammals which thrive in three different habitats as no work was reported yet. The coding sequences of these genes were retrieved from the National Center for Biotechnology Information to explore the similarities and dissimilarities of codon usage of each gene among these groups. Low values of synonymous codon usage order in fishes, aves, and mammals for ATP6 and ATP8 genes suggested that the CUB of ATP6 and ATP8 genes was low. In ATP6 gene, overall GC contents in fishes, aves and mammals were (mean ± SD) 44.09 ± 3.10, 46.65 ± 1.90, and 39.41 ± 2.89%, respectively, whereas in ATP8 gene, the overall GC contents were 42.76 ± 4.38, 44.16 ± 2.43, and 34.19 ± 3.82% in fishes, aves, and mammals, that is, both genes were found to be AT rich. In ATP6 gene, the codon AGC was overrepresented in fishes but under-represented in aves and mammals, whereas in ATP8 gene, the codon GCC was overrepresented in fishes but underrepresented in aves and mammals. The pattern of codon usage was different in these genes and varied among groups as evident from correspondence analysis. The slope of the regression line in neutrality plot was lower than 0.5, which revealed that the role of natural selection was higher than mutation pressure in shaping the CUB in ATP6 and ATP8 genes.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Kowalczyk A, Gbadamosi O, Kolor K, et al (2021)

Evolutionary rate covariation identifies SLC30A9 (ZnT9) as a mitochondrial zinc transporter.

The Biochemical journal pii:229560 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advances in genome sequencing have led to the identification of new ion and metabolite transporters, many of which have not been characterized. Due to the variety of subcellular localizations, cargo and transport mechanisms, such characterization is a daunting task, and predictive approaches focused on the functional context of transporters are very much needed. Here we present a case for identifying a transporter localization using evolutionary rate covariation (ERC), a computational approach based on pairwise correlations of amino acid sequence evolutionary rates across the mammalian phylogeny. As a case study, we find that poorly characterized transporter SLC30A9 (ZnT9) coevolves with several components of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation chain, suggesting mitochondrial localization. We confirmed this computational finding experimentally using recombinant human SLC30A9. SLC30A9 loss caused zinc mishandling in the mitochondria, suggesting that under normal conditions it acts as a zinc exporter. We therefore propose that ERC can be used to predict the functional context of novel transporters and other poorly characterized proteins.

RevDate: 2021-08-16
CmpDate: 2021-08-16

Schäffer AA, McVeigh R, Robbertse B, et al (2021)

Ribovore: ribosomal RNA sequence analysis for GenBank submissions and database curation.

BMC bioinformatics, 22(1):400.

BACKGROUND: The DNA sequences encoding ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs) are commonly used as markers to identify species, including in metagenomics samples that may combine many organismal communities. The 16S small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene is typically used to identify bacterial and archaeal species. The nuclear 18S SSU rRNA gene, and 28S large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene have been used as DNA barcodes and for phylogenetic studies in different eukaryote taxonomic groups. Because of their popularity, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) receives a disproportionate number of rRNA sequence submissions and BLAST queries. These sequences vary in quality, length, origin (nuclear, mitochondria, plastid), and organism source and can represent any region of the ribosomal cistron.

RESULTS: To improve the timely verification of quality, origin and loci boundaries, we developed Ribovore, a software package for sequence analysis of rRNA sequences. The ribotyper and ribosensor programs are used to validate incoming sequences of bacterial and archaeal SSU rRNA. The ribodbmaker program is used to create high-quality datasets of rRNAs from different taxonomic groups. Key algorithmic steps include comparing candidate sequences against rRNA sequence profile hidden Markov models (HMMs) and covariance models of rRNA sequence and secondary-structure conservation, as well as other tests. Nine freely available blastn rRNA databases created and maintained with Ribovore are used for checking incoming GenBank submissions and used by the blastn browser interface at NCBI. Since 2018, Ribovore has been used to analyze more than 50 million prokaryotic SSU rRNA sequences submitted to GenBank, and to select at least 10,435 fungal rRNA RefSeq records from type material of 8350 taxa.

CONCLUSION: Ribovore combines single-sequence and profile-based methods to improve GenBank processing and analysis of rRNA sequences. It is a standalone, portable, and extensible software package for the alignment, classification and validation of rRNA sequences. Researchers planning on submitting SSU rRNA sequences to GenBank are encouraged to download and use Ribovore to analyze their sequences prior to submission to determine which sequences are likely to be automatically accepted into GenBank.

RevDate: 2021-08-16
CmpDate: 2021-08-16

Kimball RT, Guido M, Hosner PA, et al (2021)

When good mitochondria go bad: Cyto-nuclear discordance in landfowl (Aves: Galliformes).

Gene, 801:145841.

Mitochondrial sequences were among the first molecular data collected for phylogenetic studies and they are plentiful in DNA sequence archives. However, the future value of mitogenomic data in phylogenetics is uncertain, because its phylogenetic signal sometimes conflicts with that of the nuclear genome. A thorough understanding of the causes and prevalence of cyto-nuclear discordance would aid in reconciling different results owing to sequence data type, and provide a framework for interpreting megaphylogenies when taxa which lack substantial nuclear data are placed using mitochondrial data. Here, we examine the prevalence and possible causes of cyto-nuclear discordance in the landfowl (Aves: Galliformes), leveraging 47 new mitogenomes assembled from off-target reads recovered as part of a target-capture study. We evaluated two hypotheses, that cyto-nuclear discordance is "genuine" and a result of biological processes such as incomplete lineage sorting or introgression, and that cyto-nuclear discordance is an artifact of inaccurate mitochondrial tree estimation (the "inaccurate estimation" hypothesis). We identified seven well-supported topological differences between the mitogenomic tree and trees based on nuclear data. These well-supported topological differences were robust to model selection. An examination of sites suggests these differences were driven by small number of sites, particularly from third-codon positions, suggesting that they were not confounded by convergent directional selection. Hence, the hypothesis of genuine discordance was supported.

RevDate: 2021-08-14

Calderon RH, Å Strand (2021)

How retrograde signaling is intertwined with the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes.

Current opinion in plant biology, 63:102093 pii:S1369-5266(21)00093-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Chloroplasts and mitochondria evolved from free-living prokaryotic organisms that entered the eukaryotic cell through endosymbiosis. The gradual conversion from endosymbiont to organelle during the course of evolution was accompanied by the development of a communication system between the host and the endosymbiont, referred to as retrograde signaling or organelle-to-nucleus signaling. In higher plants, plastid-to-nucleus signaling involves multiple signaling pathways necessary to coordinate plastid function and cellular responses to developmental and environmental stimuli. Phylogenetic reconstructions using sequence information from evolutionarily diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes have begun to provide information about how retrograde signaling pathways were adopted and modified in different lineages over time. A tight communication system was likely a major facilitator of plants conquest of the land because it would have enabled the algal ancestors of land plants to better allocate their cellular resources in response to high light and desiccation, the major stressor for streptophyte algae in a terrestrial habitat. In this review, we aim to give an evolutionary perspective on plastid-to-nucleus signaling.

RevDate: 2021-08-13

Scott GR, AC Dalziel (2021)

Physiological insight into the evolution of complex phenotypes: aerobic performance and the O2 transport pathway of vertebrates.

The Journal of experimental biology, 224(16):.

Evolutionary physiology strives to understand how the function and integration of physiological systems influence the way in which organisms evolve. Studies of the O2 transport pathway - the integrated physiological system that transports O2 from the environment to mitochondria - are well suited to this endeavour. We consider the mechanistic underpinnings across the O2 pathway for the evolution of aerobic capacity, focusing on studies of artificial selection and naturally selected divergence among wild populations of mammals and fish. We show that evolved changes in aerobic capacity do not require concerted changes across the O2 pathway and can arise quickly from changes in one or a subset of pathway steps. Population divergence in aerobic capacity can be associated with the evolution of plasticity in response to environmental variation or activity. In some cases, initial evolutionary divergence of aerobic capacity arose exclusively from increased capacities for O2 diffusion and/or utilization in active O2-consuming tissues (muscle), which may often constitute first steps in adaptation. However, continued selection leading to greater divergence in aerobic capacity is often associated with increased capacities for circulatory and pulmonary O2 transport. Increases in tissue O2 diffusing capacity may augment the adaptive benefit of increasing circulatory O2 transport owing to their interactive influence on tissue O2 extraction. Theoretical modelling of the O2 pathway suggests that O2 pathway steps with a disproportionately large influence over aerobic capacity have been more likely to evolve, but more work is needed to appreciate the extent to which such physiological principles can predict evolutionary outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-08-13

Aboouf MA, Armbruster J, Thiersch M, et al (2021)

Myoglobin, expressed in brown adipose tissue of mice, regulates the content and activity of mitochondria and lipid droplets.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular and cell biology of lipids pii:S1388-1981(21)00154-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The identification of novel physiological regulators that stimulate energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in substrate catalysis is of utmost importance to understand and treat metabolic diseases. Myoglobin (MB), known to store or transport oxygen in heart and skeletal muscles, has recently been found to bind fatty acids with physiological constants in its oxygenated form (i.e., MBO2). Here, we investigated the in vivo effect of MB expression on BAT activity. In particular, we studied mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism as essential determinants of energy expenditure in this tissue. We show in a MB-null (MBko) mouse model that MB expression in BAT impacts on the activity of brown adipocytes in a twofold manner: i) by elevating mitochondrial density plus maximal respiration capacity, and through that, by stimulating BAT oxidative metabolism along with the organelles` uncoupled respiration; and ii) by influencing the free fatty acids pool towards a palmitate-enriched composition and shifting the lipid droplet (LD) equilibrium towards higher counts of smaller droplets. These metabolic changes were accompanied by the up-regulated expression of thermogenesis markers UCP1, CIDEA, CIDEC, PGC1-α and PPAR-α in the BAT of MB wildtype (MBwt) mice. Along with the emergence of the "browning" BAT morphology, MBwt mice exhibited a leaner phenotype when compared to MBko littermates at 20 weeks of age. Our data shed novel insights into MB's role in linking oxygen and lipid-based thermogenic metabolism. The findings suggest potential new strategies of targeting the MB pathway to treat metabolic disorders related to diminishing energy expenditure.

RevDate: 2021-08-12
CmpDate: 2021-08-12

Srivastava PN, Narwal SK, S Mishra (2021)

Mitochondrial apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease Apn1 is not critical for the completion of the Plasmodium berghei life cycle.

DNA repair, 101:103078.

Mitochondrion is an essential organelle in malaria parasite and its DNA must be maintained for optimal function during its complex life cycle. Base excision repair is one of the major pathways by which this is achieved. Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonucleases are important components of this pathway as they create a nick at the 5'-phosphodiester bond in the AP site and generate free 5'-phosphate and 3'-hydroxyl groups. Two class II AP endonucleases (Apn1 and Ape1) have been annotated in the Plasmodium berghei genome. Using reverse genetic approaches, we provide direct evidence that Apn1 is exclusively localized to the mitochondria of P. berghei. Surprisingly, our gene deletion study revealed a completely dispensable role of Apn1 for the entirety of the P. berghei life cycle. Apn1- parasites were found to successfully grow in the blood. They were transmitted normally to the mosquito midguts and salivary glands. Sporozoites obtained from the salivary glands were infective and achieved similar patency as WT. Our results help emphasize the non-availability of this enzyme as a plausible drug target. We also emphasize the importance of genetic validation of antimalarial drug targets before furthering them down the drug discovery pipeline.

RevDate: 2021-08-12
CmpDate: 2021-08-12

Deng J, Xie XL, Wang DF, et al (2020)

Paternal Origins and Migratory Episodes of Domestic Sheep.

Current biology : CB, 30(20):4085-4095.e6.

The domestication and subsequent global dispersal of livestock are crucial events in human history, but the migratory episodes during the history of livestock remain poorly documented [1-3]. Here, we first developed a set of 493 novel ovine SNPs of the male-specific region of Y chromosome (MSY) by genome mapping. We then conducted a comprehensive genomic analysis of Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA, and whole-genome sequence variations in a large number of 595 rams representing 118 domestic populations across the world. We detected four different paternal lineages of domestic sheep and resolved, at the global level, their paternal origins and differentiation. In Northern European breeds, several of which have retained primitive traits (e.g., a small body size and short or thin tails), and fat-tailed sheep, we found an overrepresentation of MSY lineages y-HC and y-HB, respectively. Using an approximate Bayesian computation approach, we reconstruct the demographic expansions associated with the segregation of primitive and fat-tailed phenotypes. These results together with archaeological evidence and historical data suggested the first expansion of early domestic hair sheep and the later expansion of fat-tailed sheep occurred ∼11,800-9,000 years BP and ∼5,300-1,700 years BP, respectively. These findings provide important insights into the history of migration and pastoralism of sheep across the Old World, which was associated with different breeding goals during the Neolithic agricultural revolution.

RevDate: 2021-08-10
CmpDate: 2021-08-10

Bit A, Thakur M, Singh SK, et al (2021)

Assembling mitogenome of Himalayan Black Bear (U. t. laniger) from low depth reads and its application in drawing phylogenetic inferences.

Scientific reports, 11(1):730.

The complete mitogenome of Himalayan black bear (Ursus thibetanus laniger) from Indian Himalayan region was assembled following the modified approach of mitochondrial baiting and mapping using the next-generation sequencing reads. The complete mitogenome was of 16,556 bp long, consisted of 37 genes that contained 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and 1 control region. The complete base composition was 31.33% A, 15.24% G, 25.45%C, and 27.98%T and gene arrangement was similar to the other sub-species of Asiatic black bear. The relative synonymous codon usage analysis revealed the maximum abundance of Isoleucine, Tyrosine, Leucine and Threonine. The assembled mitogenome of U. t. laniger exhibited 99% similarity with the mitogenomes of Himalayan black bear available from Nepal and Tibetan Plateau-Himalaya region. The findings of the present study has proven low depth sequencing data, adequate and highly efficient in rapid recovering the mitochondrial genome by overcoming the conventional strategies of obtaining long-range PCR and subsequently drawing phylogenetic inferences.

RevDate: 2021-08-09
CmpDate: 2021-08-09

Wallace R (2020)

On the Variety of Cognitive Temperatures and Their Symmetry-Breaking Dynamics.

Acta biotheoretica, 68(4):421-439.

The asymptotic limit theorems of information and control theories permit exploration of a surprising number of temperature-like measures and symmetry-breaking dynamics associated with cognition. Each of several markedly different perspectives produces a distinct temperature-analog, capturing a rich and highly-punctuated behavioral landscape across the complex, hierarchical cognitive phenomena that characterize life at every scale and level of organization. Theories of cognition may be confronted by canonical conundrums similar to those plaguing the study of consciousness and its regulation. In short, there may be a spectrum of interacting cognitive 'temperatures' for organisms, social structures, institutions, information processing machines, and their composite entities, that varies across different systems, and between similar systems having undergone different individual developmental trajectories. The complexities of cognitive failure-leading to a vast array of pathologies-may be far stranger than generally recognized.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Cooper ID, Brookler KH, Kyriakidou Y, et al (2021)

Metabolic Phenotypes and Step by Step Evolution of Type 2 Diabetes: A New Paradigm.

Biomedicines, 9(7):.

Unlike bolus insulin secretion mechanisms, basal insulin secretion is poorly understood. It is essential to elucidate these mechanisms in non-hyperinsulinaemia healthy persons. This establishes a baseline for investigation into pathologies where these processes are dysregulated, such as in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cardiovascular disease (CVD), certain cancers and dementias. Chronic hyperinsulinaemia enforces glucose fueling, depleting the NAD+ dependent antioxidant activity that increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS). Consequently, beta-cell mitochondria increase uncoupling protein expression, which decreases the mitochondrial ATP surge generation capacity, impairing bolus mediated insulin exocytosis. Excessive ROS increases the Drp1:Mfn2 ratio, increasing mitochondrial fission, which increases mtROS; endoplasmic reticulum-stress and impaired calcium homeostasis ensues. Healthy individuals in habitual ketosis have significantly lower glucagon and insulin levels than T2DM individuals. As beta-hydroxybutyrate rises, hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis supply extra-hepatic glucose needs, and osteocalcin synthesis/release increases. We propose insulin's primary role is regulating beta-hydroxybutyrate synthesis, while the role of bone regulates glucose uptake sensitivity via osteocalcin. Osteocalcin regulates the alpha-cell glucagon secretory profile via glucagon-like peptide-1 and serotonin, and beta-hydroxybutyrate synthesis via regulating basal insulin levels. Establishing metabolic phenotypes aids in resolving basal insulin secretion regulation, enabling elucidation of the pathological changes that occur and progress into chronic diseases associated with ageing.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Prieto-Carrasco R, Silva-Palacios A, Rojas-Morales P, et al (2021)

Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction for 28 Days in Rats Is Not Associated with Changes in Cardiac Function or Alterations in Mitochondrial Function.

Biology, 10(7):.

Our work evaluated cardiac function and mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in hearts from male Wistar rats subjected to the UUO model during 28 days of progression. We measured markers of kidney damage and inflammation in plasma and renal fibrosis by histological analysis and Western blot. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and proteins involved in cardiac damage by Western blot. Oxygen consumption and transmembrane potential were monitored in cardiac mitochondria using high-resolution respirometry. We also determined the activity of ATP synthase and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and catalase. Our results show that, although renal dysfunction is established in animals subjected to ureteral obstruction, cardiac function is maintained along with mitochondrial function and antioxidant enzymes activity after 28 days of injury evolution. Our results suggest that renocardiac syndrome might develop but belatedly in obstruction-induced renal damage, opening the opportunity for treatment to prevent this condition.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Gabaldón T (2021)

Origin and Early Evolution of the Eukaryotic Cell.

Annual review of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The origin of eukaryotes has been defined as the major evolutionary transition since the origin of life itself. Most hallmark traits of eukaryotes, such as their intricate intracellular organization, can be traced back to a putative common ancestor that predated the broad diversity of extant eukaryotes. However, little is known about the nature and relative order of events that occurred in the path from preexisting prokaryotes to this already sophisticated ancestor. The origin of mitochondria from the endosymbiosis of an alphaproteobacterium is one of the few robustly established events to which most hypotheses on the origin of eukaryotes are anchored, but the debate is still open regarding the time of this acquisition, the nature of the host, and the ecological and metabolic interactions between the symbiotic partners. After the acquisition of mitochondria, eukaryotes underwent a fast radiation into several major clades whose phylogenetic relationships have been largely elusive. Recent progress in the comparative analyses of a growing number of genomes is shedding light on the early events of eukaryotic evolution as well as on the root and branching patterns of the tree of eukaryotes. Here I discuss current knowledge and debates on the origin and early evolution of eukaryotes. I focus particularly on how phylogenomic analyses have challenged some of the early assumptions about eukaryotic evolution, including the widespread idea that mitochondrial symbiosis in an archaeal host was the earliest event in eukaryogenesis. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Zhang Q, Wang Z, Zhang W, et al (2021)

The memory of neuronal mitochondrial stress is inherited transgenerationally via elevated mitochondrial DNA levels.

Nature cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

The memory of stresses experienced by parents can be passed on to descendants as a forecast of the challenges to come. Here, we discovered that the neuronal mitochondrial perturbation-induced systemic mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) in Caenorhabditis elegans can be transmitted to offspring over multiple generations. The transgenerational activation of UPRmt is mediated by maternal inheritance of elevated levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which causes the proteostasis stress within mitochondria. Furthermore, results from intercrossing studies using wild C. elegans strains further support that maternal inheritance of higher levels of mtDNA can induce the UPRmt in descendants. The mitokine Wnt signalling pathway is required for the transmission of elevated mtDNA levels across generations, thereby conferring lifespan extension and stress resistance to offspring. Collectively, our results reveal that the nervous system can transmit stress signals across generations by increasing mtDNA in the germline, enabling descendants to better cope with anticipated challenges.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Fernandes Gyorfy M, Miller ER, Conover JL, et al (2021)

Nuclear-cytoplasmic balance: whole genome duplications induce elevated organellar genome copy number.

The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

The plant genome is partitioned across three distinct subcellular compartments: the nucleus, mitochondria, and plastids. Successful coordination of gene expression among these organellar genomes and the nuclear genome is critical for plant function and fitness. Whole genome duplication events (WGDs) in the nucleus have played a major role in the diversification of land plants and are expected to perturb the relative copy number (stoichiometry) of nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid genomes. Thus, elucidating the mechanisms whereby plant cells respond to the cytonuclear stoichiometric imbalance that follow WGDs represents an important yet underexplored question in understanding the evolutionary consequences of genome doubling. We used droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) to investigate the relationship between nuclear and organellar genome copy numbers in allopolyploids and their diploid progenitors in both wheat and Arabidopsis. Polyploids exhibit elevated organellar genome copy numbers per cell, largely preserving the cytonuclear stoichiometry observed in diploids despite the change in nuclear genome copy number. To investigate the timescale over which cytonuclear stoichiometry may respond to WGD, we also estimated organellar genome copy number in Arabidopsis synthetic autopolyploids and in a haploid-induced diploid line. We observed corresponding changes in organellar genome copy number in these laboratory-generated lines, indicating that at least some of the cellular response to cytonuclear stoichiometric imbalance is immediate following WGD. We conclude that increases in organellar genome copy numbers represent a common response to polyploidization, suggesting that maintenance of cytonuclear stoichiometry is an important component in establishing polyploid lineages.

RevDate: 2021-08-05

Colnaghi M, Pomiankowski A, N Lane (2021)

The need for high-quality oocyte mitochondria at extreme ploidy dictates mammalian germline development.

eLife, 10: pii:69344.

Selection against deleterious mitochondrial mutations is facilitated by germline processes, lowering the risk of genetic diseases. How selection works is disputed: experimental data are conflicting and previous modeling work has not clarified the issues; here, we develop computational and evolutionary models that compare the outcome of selection at the level of individuals, cells and mitochondria. Using realistic de novo mutation rates and germline development parameters from mouse and humans, the evolutionary model predicts the observed prevalence of mitochondrial mutations and diseases in human populations. We show the importance of organelle-level selection, seen in the selective pooling of mitochondria into the Balbiani body, in achieving high-quality mitochondria at extreme ploidy in mature oocytes. Alternative mechanisms debated in the literature, bottlenecks and follicular atresia, are unlikely to account for the clinical data, because neither process effectively eliminates mitochondrial mutations under realistic conditions. Our findings explain the major features of female germline architecture, notably the longstanding paradox of over-proliferation of primordial germ cells followed by massive loss. The near-universality of these processes across animal taxa makes sense in light of the need to maintain mitochondrial quality at extreme ploidy in mature oocytes, in the absence of sex and recombination.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Xu X, Ma A, Li T, et al (2021)

Genetic and Functional Characterization of Novel Brown-Like Adipocytes Around the Lamprey Brain.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:674939.

During the process of vertebrate evolution, many thermogenic organs and mechanisms have appeared. Mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat through the uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria, acts as a natural defense against hypothermia and inhibits the development of obesity. Although the existence, cellular origin and molecular identity of BAT in humans have been well studied, the genetic and functional characteristics of BAT from lampreys remain unknown. Here, we identified and characterized a novel, naturally existing brown-like adipocytes at the lamprey brain periphery. Similar to human BAT, the lamprey brain periphery contains brown-like adipocytes that maintain the same morphology as human brown adipocytes, containing multilocular lipid droplets and high mitochondrion numbers. Furthermore, we found that brown-like adipocytes in the periphery of lamprey brains responded to thermogenic reagent treatment and cold exposure and that lamprey UCP2 promoted precursor adipocyte differentiation. Molecular mapping by RNA-sequencing showed that inflammation in brown-like adipocytes treated with LPS and 25HC was enhanced compared to controls. The results of this study provide new evidence for human BAT research and demonstrate the multilocular adipose cell functions of lampreys, including: (1) providing material energy and protecting structure, (2) generating additional heat and contributing to adaptation to low-temperature environments, and (3) resisting external pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-07-15

Cheung NJ, John Peter AT, B Kornmann (2021)

Leri: A web-server for identifying protein functional networks from evolutionary couplings.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 19:3556-3563.

Information on the co-evolution of amino acid pairs in a protein can be used for endeavors such as protein engineering, mutation design, and structure prediction. Here we report a method that captures significant determinants of proteins using estimated co-evolution information to identify networks of residues, termed "residue communities", relevant to protein function. On the benchmark dataset (67 proteins with both catalytic and allosteric residues), the Pearson's correlation between the identified residues in the communities at functional sites is 0.53, and it is higher than 0.8 by taking account of conserved residues derived from the method. On the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure complex, the results indicate three distinguishable residue communities that are relevant to functional roles in the protein family, suggesting that the residue communities could be general evolutionary signatures in proteins. Based on the method, we provide a webserver for the scientific community to explore the signatures in protein families, which establishes a powerful tool to analyze residue-level profiling for the discovery of functional sites and biological pathway identification. This web-server is freely available for non-commercial users at https://kornmann.bioch.ox.ac.uk/leri/services/ecs.html, neither login nor e-mail required.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Husnik F, Tashyreva D, Boscaro V, et al (2021)

Bacterial and archaeal symbioses with protists.

Current biology : CB, 31(13):R862-R877.

Most of the genetic, cellular, and biochemical diversity of life rests within single-celled organisms - the prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) and microbial eukaryotes (protists). Very close interactions, or symbioses, between protists and prokaryotes are ubiquitous, ecologically significant, and date back at least two billion years ago to the origin of mitochondria. However, most of our knowledge about the evolution and functions of eukaryotic symbioses comes from the study of animal hosts, which represent only a small subset of eukaryotic diversity. Here, we take a broad view of bacterial and archaeal symbioses with protist hosts, focusing on their evolution, ecology, and cell biology, and also explore what functions (if any) the symbionts provide to their hosts. With the immense diversity of protist symbioses starting to come into focus, we can now begin to see how these systems will impact symbiosis theory more broadly.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Igloi GL (2021)

The Evolutionary Fate of Mitochondrial Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Amitochondrial Organisms.

Journal of molecular evolution, 89(7):484-493.

During the endosymbiotic evolution of mitochondria, the genes for aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases were transferred to the ancestral nucleus. A further reduction of mitochondrial function resulted in mitochondrion-related organisms (MRO) with a loss of the organelle genome. The fate of the now redundant ancestral mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase genes is uncertain. The derived protein sequence for arginyl-tRNA synthetase from thirty mitosomal organisms have been classified as originating from the ancestral nuclear or mitochondrial gene and compared to the identity element at position 20 of the cognate tRNA that distinguishes the two enzyme forms. The evolutionary choice between loss and retention of the ancestral mitochondrial gene for arginyl-tRNA synthetase reflects the coevolution of arginyl-tRNA synthetase and tRNA identity elements.

RevDate: 2021-08-07
CmpDate: 2021-07-15

Anselmetti Y, El-Mabrouk N, Lafond M, et al (2021)

Gene tree and species tree reconciliation with endosymbiotic gene transfer.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 37(Suppl_1):i120-i132.

MOTIVATION: It is largely established that all extant mitochondria originated from a unique endosymbiotic event integrating an α-proteobacterial genome into an eukaryotic cell. Subsequently, eukaryote evolution has been marked by episodes of gene transfer, mainly from the mitochondria to the nucleus, resulting in a significant reduction of the mitochondrial genome, eventually completely disappearing in some lineages. However, in other lineages such as in land plants, a high variability in gene repertoire distribution, including genes encoded in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genome, is an indication of an ongoing process of Endosymbiotic Gene Transfer (EGT). Understanding how both nuclear and mitochondrial genomes have been shaped by gene loss, duplication and transfer is expected to shed light on a number of open questions regarding the evolution of eukaryotes, including rooting of the eukaryotic tree.

RESULTS: We address the problem of inferring the evolution of a gene family through duplication, loss and EGT events, the latter considered as a special case of horizontal gene transfer occurring between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes of the same species (in one direction or the other). We consider both EGT events resulting in maintaining (EGTcopy) or removing (EGTcut) the gene copy in the source genome. We present a linear-time algorithm for computing the DLE (Duplication, Loss and EGT) distance, as well as an optimal reconciled tree, for the unitary cost, and a dynamic programming algorithm allowing to output all optimal reconciliations for an arbitrary cost of operations. We illustrate the application of our EndoRex software and analyze different costs settings parameters on a plant dataset and discuss the resulting reconciled trees.

EndoRex implementation and supporting data are available on the GitHub repository via https://github.com/AEVO-lab/EndoRex.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Mori MP, Penjweini R, Knutson JR, et al (2021)

Mitochondria and oxygen homeostasis.

The FEBS journal [Epub ahead of print].

Molecular oxygen possesses a dual nature due to its highly reactive free radical property: it is capable of oxidizing metabolic substrates to generate cellular energy, but can also serve as a substrate for genotoxic reactive oxygen species generation. As a labile substance upon which aerobic life depends, the mechanisms for handling cellular oxygen have been fine-tuned and orchestrated in evolution. Protection from atmospheric oxygen toxicity as originally posited by the Endosymbiotic Theory of the Mitochondrion is likely to be one basic principle underlying oxygen homeostasis. We briefly review the literature on oxygen homeostasis both in vitro and in vivo with a focus on the role of the mitochondrion where the majority of cellular oxygen is consumed. The insights gleaned from these basic mechanisms are likely to be important for understanding disease pathogenesis and developing strategies for maintaining health.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-07-16

Li T, Fang Z, He Q, et al (2021)

Characterizing the Xenoma of Vairimorpha necatrix Provides Insights Into the Most Efficient Mode of Microsporidian Proliferation.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:699239.

Microsporidia are a group of obligated intracellular parasites that can infect nearly all vertebrates and invertebrates, including humans and economic animals. Microsporidian Vairimorpha necatrix is a natural pathogen of multiple insects and can massively proliferate by making tumor-like xenoma in host tissue. However, little is known about the subcellular structures of this xenoma and the proliferation features of the pathogens inside. Here, we characterized the V. necatrix xenoma produced in muscle cells of silkworm midgut. In result, the whitish xenoma was initially observed on the 12th day post infection on the outer surface of the midgut and later became larger and numerous. The observation by scanning electronic microscopy showed that the xenoma is mostly elliptical and spindle with dense pathogen-containing protrusions and spores on the surface, which were likely shedding off the xenoma through exocytosis and could be an infection source of other tissues. Demonstrated with transmission electron microscopy and fluorescent staining, the xenoma was enveloped by a monolayer membrane, and full of vesicle structures, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum around parasites in development, suggesting that high level of energy and nutrients were produced to support the massive proliferation of the parasites. Multiple hypertrophic nuclei were found in one single xenoma, indicating that the cyst was probably formed by fusion of multiple muscle cells. Observed by fluorescence in situ hybridization, pathogens in the xenoma were in merongony, sporogony, and octosporogony, and mature stages. And mature spores were pushed to the center while vegetative pathogens were in the surface layer of the xenoma. The V. necatrix meront usually contained two to three nuclei, and sporont contained two nuclei and was wrapped by a thick membrane with high electron density. The V. necatrix sporogony produces two types of spores, the ordinary dikaryotic spore and unicellular octospores, the latter of which were smaller in size and packed in a sporophorous vesicle. In summary, V. necatrix xenoma is a specialized cyst likely formed by fusion of multiple muscle cells and provides high concentration of energy and nutrients with increased number of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum for the massive proliferation of pathogens inside.

RevDate: 2021-07-03

Sheng L, Zhou T, Shi Z, et al (2021)

The complete mitochondrial genome of Trictenotoma davidi Deyrolle, 1875 (Coleoptera: Trictenotomidae).

Mitochondrial DNA. Part B, Resources, 6(7):2026-2027.

Trictenotoma davidi Deyrolle, 1875 is a beetle of the Trictenotomidae family. The length of the complete mitochondria genome of T. davidi was 15,910 bp with 24.1% GC content, including 39.9% A, 15.1% C, 9.0% G, and 36.0% T. The genome encoded 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that T. davidi was closely related to Vincenzellus ruficollis. This study provided useful genetic information for the evolution of T. davidi and Trictenotomidae insects.

RevDate: 2021-07-03

Degli Esposti M, Moya-Beltrán A, Quatrini R, et al (2021)

Respiratory Heme A-Containing Oxidases Originated in the Ancestors of Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:664216.

Respiration is a major trait shaping the biology of many environments. Cytochrome oxidase containing heme A (COX) is a common terminal oxidase in aerobic bacteria and is the only one in mammalian mitochondria. The synthesis of heme A is catalyzed by heme A synthase (CtaA/Cox15), an enzyme that most likely coevolved with COX. The evolutionary origin of COX in bacteria has remained unknown. Using extensive sequence and phylogenetic analysis, we show that the ancestral type of heme A synthases is present in iron-oxidizing Proteobacteria such as Acidithiobacillus spp. These bacteria also contain a deep branching form of the major COX subunit (COX1) and an ancestral variant of CtaG, a protein that is specifically required for COX biogenesis. Our work thus suggests that the ancestors of extant iron-oxidizers were the first to evolve COX. Consistent with this conclusion, acidophilic iron-oxidizing prokaryotes lived on emerged land around the time for which there is the earliest geochemical evidence of aerobic respiration on earth. Hence, ecological niches of iron oxidation have apparently promoted the evolution of aerobic respiration.

RevDate: 2021-07-03

García-Casas P, Alvarez-Illera P, Gómez-Orte E, et al (2021)

The Mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger Inhibitor CGP37157 Preserves Muscle Structure and Function to Increase Lifespan and Healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:695687.

We have reported recently that the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibitor CGP37157 extends lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans by a mechanism involving mitochondria, the TOR pathway and the insulin/IGF1 pathway. Here we show that CGP37157 significantly improved the evolution with age of the sarcomeric regular structure, delaying development of sarcopenia in C. elegans body wall muscle and increasing the average and maximum speed of the worms. Similarly, CGP37157 favored the maintenance of a regular mitochondrial structure during aging. We have also investigated further the mechanism of the effect of CGP37157 by studying its effect in mutants of aak-1;aak-2/AMP-activated kinase, sir-2.1/sirtuin, rsks-1/S6 kinase and daf-16/FOXO. We found that this compound was still effective increasing lifespan in all these mutants, indicating that these pathways are not involved in the effect. We have then monitored pharynx cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ signalling and our results suggest that CGP37157 is probably inhibiting not only the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, but also Ca2+ entry through the plasma membrane. Finally, a transcriptomic study detected that CGP37157 induced changes in lipid metabolism enzymes and a four-fold increase in the expression of ncx-6, one of the C. elegans mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchangers. In summary, CGP37157 increases both lifespan and healthspan by a mechanism involving changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis. Thus, Ca2+ signalling could be a promising target to act on aging.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-07-16

Richtová J, Sheiner L, Gruber A, et al (2021)

Using Diatom and Apicomplexan Models to Study the Heme Pathway of Chromera velia.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(12):.

Heme biosynthesis is essential for almost all living organisms. Despite its conserved function, the pathway's enzymes can be located in a remarkable diversity of cellular compartments in different organisms. This location does not always reflect their evolutionary origins, as might be expected from the history of their acquisition through endosymbiosis. Instead, the final subcellular localization of the enzyme reflects multiple factors, including evolutionary origin, demand for the product, availability of the substrate, and mechanism of pathway regulation. The biosynthesis of heme in the apicomonad Chromera velia follows a chimeric pathway combining heme elements from the ancient algal symbiont and the host. Computational analyses using different algorithms predict complex targeting patterns, placing enzymes in the mitochondrion, plastid, endoplasmic reticulum, or the cytoplasm. We employed heterologous reporter gene expression in the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to experimentally test these predictions. 5-aminolevulinate synthase was located in the mitochondria in both transfection systems. In T. gondii, the two 5-aminolevulinate dehydratases were located in the cytosol, uroporphyrinogen synthase in the mitochondrion, and the two ferrochelatases in the plastid. In P. tricornutum, all remaining enzymes, from ALA-dehydratase to ferrochelatase, were placed either in the endoplasmic reticulum or in the periplastidial space.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Purnomo GA, Mitchell KJ, O'Connor S, et al (2021)

Mitogenomes Reveal Two Major Influxes of Papuan Ancestry across Wallacea Following the Last Glacial Maximum and Austronesian Contact.

Genes, 12(7):.

The tropical archipelago of Wallacea contains thousands of individual islands interspersed between mainland Asia and Near Oceania, and marks the location of a series of ancient oceanic voyages leading to the peopling of Sahul-i.e., the former continent that joined Australia and New Guinea at a time of lowered sea level-by 50,000 years ago. Despite the apparent deep antiquity of human presence in Wallacea, prior population history research in this region has been hampered by patchy archaeological and genetic records and is largely concentrated upon more recent history that follows the arrival of Austronesian seafarers ~3000-4000 years ago (3-4 ka). To shed light on the deeper history of Wallacea and its connections with New Guinea and Australia, we performed phylogeographic analyses on 656 whole mitogenomes from these three regions, including 186 new samples from eight Wallacean islands and three West Papuan populations. Our results point to a surprisingly dynamic population history in Wallacea, marked by two periods of extensive demographic change concentrated around the Last Glacial Maximum ~15 ka and post-Austronesian contact ~3 ka. These changes appear to have greatly diminished genetic signals informative about the original peopling of Sahul, and have important implications for our current understanding of the population history of the region.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Amine AAA, Liao CW, Hsu PC, et al (2021)

Experimental evolution improves mitochondrial genome quality control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and extends its replicative lifespan.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(21)00821-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The mitochondrion is an ancient endosymbiotic organelle that performs many essential functions in eukaryotic cells.1-3 Mitochondrial impairment often results in physiological defects or diseases.2-8 Since most mitochondrial genes have been copied into the nuclear genome during evolution,9 the regulatory and interaction mechanisms between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are very complex. Multiple mechanisms, including antioxidant, DNA repair, mitophagy, and mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, have been shown to monitor the quality and quantity of mitochondria.10-12 Nonetheless, it remains unclear if these pathways can be further modified to enhance mitochondrial stability. Previously, experimental evolution has been used to adapt cells to novel growth conditions. By analyzing the resulting evolved populations, insights have been gained into the underlying molecular mechanisms.13 Here, we experimentally evolved yeast cells under conditions that selected for efficient respiration while continuously assaulting the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) with ethidium bromide (EtBr). We found that the ability to maintain functional mtDNA was enhanced in most of the evolved lines when challenged with mtDNA-damaging reagents. We identified mutations of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase NDE1 in most of the evolved lines, but other pathways are also involved. Finally, we show that cells displaying enhanced mtDNA retention also exhibit a prolonged replicative lifespan. Our work reveals potential evolutionary trajectories by which cells can maintain functional mitochondria in response to mtDNA stress, as well as the physiological implications of such adaptations.

RevDate: 2021-07-01

Yang M, Dong D, X Li (2021)

The complete mitogenome of Phymorhynchus sp. (Neogastropoda, Conoidea, Raphitomidae) provides insights into the deep-sea adaptive evolution of Conoidea.

Ecology and evolution, 11(12):7518-7531.

The deep-sea environment is characterized by darkness, hypoxia, and high hydrostatic pressure. Mitochondria play a vital role in energy metabolism; thus, they may endure the selection process during the adaptive evolution of deep-sea organisms. In the present study, the mitogenome of Phymorhynchus sp. from the Haima methane seep was completely assembled and characterized. This mitogenome is 16,681 bp in length and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. The gene order and orientation were identical to those of most sequenced conoidean gastropods. Some special elements, such as tandem repeat sequences and AT-rich sequences, which are involved in the regulation of the replication and transcription of the mitogenome, were observed in the control region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Conoidea is divided into two separate clades with high nodal support. Positive selection analysis revealed evidence of adaptive changes in the mitogenomes of deep-sea conoidean gastropods. Eight residues located in atp6, cox1, cytb, nad1, nad4, and nad5 were determined to have undergone positive selection. This study explores the adaptive evolution of deep-sea conoidean gastropods and provides valuable clues at the mitochondrial level regarding the exceptional adaptive ability of organisms in deep-sea environments.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Lin C, Tang D, Gao X, et al (2021)

Molecular characterization, dynamic transcription, and potential function of KIF3A/KIF3B during spermiogenesis in Opsariichthys bidens.

Gene, 798:145795.

Spermiogenesis is the final phase of spermatogenesis, wherein the spermatids differentiate into mature spermatozoa via complex morphological transformation. In this process, kinesin plays an important role. Here, we observed the morphological transformation of spermatids and analyzed the characterization, dynamic transcription, and potential function of kinesin KIF3A/KIF3B during spermiogenesis in Chinese hook snout carp (Opsariichthys bidens). We found that the full-length cDNAs of O. bidens kif3a and kif3b were 2544 and 2806 bp in length comprising 119 bp and 259 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR), 313 bp and 222 bp 3' UTR, and 2112 bp and 2325 bp open reading frame encoding 703 and 774 amino acids, respectively. Ob-KIF3A/KIF3B proteins have three domains, namely N-terminal head, coiled-coil stalk, and C-terminal tail, and exhibit high similarity with homologous proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates. Ob-kif3a/kif3b mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all tissues examined, with the highest expression in the brain and stage-IV testis. Immunofluorescence results showed that Ob-KIF3A was co-localized with tubulin and the mitochondria. Particularly, in early spermatids, Ob-KIF3A, tubulin, and the mitochondrial signals were evenly distributed in the cytoplasm, whereas in middle spermatids, they were distributed around the nucleus. In the late stage, the signals were concentrated on one side of the nucleus, where the tail is formed, whereas in mature sperms, they were detected in the midpiece and flagellum. These results indicate that Ob-KIF3A/KIF3B may participate in nuclear reshaping, flagellum formation, and mitochondrial aggregation in the midpiece during spermiogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Iwata R, P Vanderhaeghen (2021)

Regulatory roles of mitochondria and metabolism in neurogenesis.

Current opinion in neurobiology, 69:231-240 pii:S0959-4388(21)00057-X [Epub ahead of print].

Neural stem cells (NSCs) undergo massive molecular and cellular changes during neuronal differentiation. These include mitochondria and metabolism remodelling, which were thought to be mostly permissive cues, but recent work indicates that they are causally linked to neurogenesis. Striking remodelling of mitochondria occurs right after mitosis of NSCs, which influences the postmitotic daughter cells towards self-renewal or differentiation. The transitioning to neuronal fate requires metabolic rewiring including increased oxidative phosphorylation activity, which drives transcriptional and epigenetic effects to influence cell fate. Mitochondria metabolic pathways also contribute in an essential way to the regulation of NSC proliferation and self-renewal. The influence of mitochondria and metabolism on neurogenesis is conserved from fly to human systems, but also displays striking differences linked to cell context or species. These new findings have important implications for our understanding of neurodevelopmental diseases and possibly human brain evolution.

RevDate: 2021-07-10
CmpDate: 2021-07-05

Evers F, Cabrera-Orefice A, Elurbe DM, et al (2021)

Composition and stage dynamics of mitochondrial complexes in Plasmodium falciparum.

Nature communications, 12(1):3820.

Our current understanding of mitochondrial functioning is largely restricted to traditional model organisms, which only represent a fraction of eukaryotic diversity. The unusual mitochondrion of malaria parasites is a validated drug target but remains poorly understood. Here, we apply complexome profiling to map the inventory of protein complexes across the pathogenic asexual blood stages and the transmissible gametocyte stages of Plasmodium falciparum. We identify remarkably divergent composition and clade-specific additions of all respiratory chain complexes. Furthermore, we show that respiratory chain complex components and linked metabolic pathways are up to 40-fold more prevalent in gametocytes, while glycolytic enzymes are substantially reduced. Underlining this functional switch, we find that cristae are exclusively present in gametocytes. Leveraging these divergent properties and stage dynamics for drug development presents an attractive opportunity to discover novel classes of antimalarials and increase our repertoire of gametocytocidal drugs.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Dymek AM, Pecio A, RP Piprek (2021)

Diversity of Balbiani body formation in internally and externally fertilizing representatives of Osteoglossiformes (Teleostei: Osteoglossomorpha).

Journal of morphology, 282(9):1313-1329.

During the early stages of oogenesis, the Balbiani body is formed in the primary oocytes. It consists of the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and numerous mitochondria aggregated with germ plasm, but its form may differ among animals. Hypothetically, during oogenesis oocytes become adapted to future development in two different environments depending on internal or external fertilization. We aimed to investigate, using light and transmission electron microscopy, the development of the Balbiani body during oogenesis in representatives of Osteoglossiformes, one of the most basal Teleostei groups. We analyzed the structure of oogonia and primary oocytes in the internally fertilizing butterflyfish Pantodon buchholzi and the externally fertilizing Osteoglossum bicirrhosum and Arapaima gigas to compare formation of the Balbiani body in relation to modes of fertilization. We demonstrated that the presence of the germ plasm as well as the fusion and fission of mitochondria are the conserved features of the Bb. However, each species exhibited also some peculiar features, including the presence of three types of ooplasm with different electron density and mitochondria-associated membranes in P. buchholzi; annulate lamellae, complexes of the Golgi apparatus, ER network, and lysosome-like bodies in O. bicirrhosum; as well as karmellae and whorls formed by the lamellae of the ER in A. gigas. Moreover, the form of the germ plasm observed in close contact with mitochondria differed between osteoglossiforms, with a "net-like" structure in P. buchholzi, the presence of numerous strings in O. bicirrhosum, and irregular accumulations in A. gigas. These unique features indicate that the extreme diversity of gamete structure observed so far only in the spermatozoa of osteoglossiforms is also characteristic for oocyte development in these basal teleosts. Possible reason of this variability is a period of about 150 million years of independent evolution of the lineages.

RevDate: 2021-07-07
CmpDate: 2021-07-07

Jin L, Tang Q, Hu S, et al (2021)

A pig BodyMap transcriptome reveals diverse tissue physiologies and evolutionary dynamics of transcription.

Nature communications, 12(1):3715.

A comprehensive transcriptomic survey of pigs can provide a mechanistic understanding of tissue specialization processes underlying economically valuable traits and accelerate their use as a biomedical model. Here we characterize four transcript types (lncRNAs, TUCPs, miRNAs, and circRNAs) and protein-coding genes in 31 adult pig tissues and two cell lines. We uncover the transcriptomic variability among 47 skeletal muscles, and six adipose depots linked to their different origins, metabolism, cell composition, physical activity, and mitochondrial pathways. We perform comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of seven tissues from pigs and nine other vertebrates to reveal that evolutionary divergence in transcription potentially contributes to lineage-specific biology. Long-range promoter-enhancer interaction analysis in subcutaneous adipose tissues across species suggests evolutionarily stable transcription patterns likely attributable to redundant enhancers buffering gene expression patterns against perturbations, thereby conferring robustness during speciation. This study can facilitate adoption of the pig as a biomedical model for human biology and disease and uncovers the molecular bases of valuable traits.

RevDate: 2021-06-19

Gažová I, Lefevre L, Bush SJ, et al (2021)

CRISPR-Cas9 Editing of Human Histone Deubiquitinase Gene USP16 in Human Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line THP-1.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9:679544.

USP16 is a histone deubiquitinase which facilitates G2/M transition during the cell cycle, regulates DNA damage repair and contributes to inducible gene expression. We mutated the USP16 gene in a high differentiation clone of the acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 using the CRISPR-Cas9 system and generated four homozygous knockout clones. All were able to proliferate and to differentiate in response to phorbol ester (PMA) treatment. One line was highly proliferative prior to PMA treatment and shut down proliferation upon differentiation, like wild type. Three clones showed sustained expression of the progenitor cell marker MYB, indicating that differentiation had not completely blocked proliferation in these clones. Network analysis of transcriptomic differences among wild type, heterozygotes and homozygotes showed clusters of genes that were up- or down-regulated after differentiation in all cell lines. Prior to PMA treatment, the homozygous clones had lower levels than wild type of genes relating to metabolism and mitochondria, including SRPRB, encoding an interaction partner of USP16. There was also apparent loss of interferon signaling. In contrast, a number of genes were up-regulated in the homozygous cells compared to wild type at baseline, including other deubiquitinases (USP12, BAP1, and MYSM1). However, three homozygotes failed to fully induce USP3 during differentiation. Other network clusters showed effects prior to or after differentiation in the homozygous clones. Thus the removal of USP16 affected the transcriptome of the cells, although all these lines were able to survive, which suggests that the functions attributed to USP16 may be redundant. Our analysis indicates that the leukemic line can adapt to the extreme selection pressure applied by the loss of USP16, and the harsh conditions of the gene editing and selection protocol, through different compensatory pathways. Similar selection pressures occur during the evolution of a cancer in vivo, and our results can be seen as a case study in leukemic cell adaptation. USP16 has been considered a target for cancer chemotherapy, but our results suggest that treatment would select for escape mutants that are resistant to USP16 inhibitors.

RevDate: 2021-07-24

Cadena LR, Gahura O, Panicucci B, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial Contact Site and Cristae Organization System and F1FO-ATP Synthase Crosstalk Is a Fundamental Property of Mitochondrial Cristae.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Mitochondrial cristae are polymorphic invaginations of the inner membrane that are the fabric of cellular respiration. Both the mitochondrial contact site and cristae organization system (MICOS) and the F1FO-ATP synthase are vital for sculpting cristae by opposing membrane-bending forces. While MICOS promotes negative curvature at crista junctions, dimeric F1FO-ATP synthase is crucial for positive curvature at crista rims. Crosstalk between these two complexes has been observed in baker's yeast, the model organism of the Opisthokonta supergroup. Here, we report that this property is conserved in Trypanosoma brucei, a member of the Discoba clade that separated from the Opisthokonta ∼2 billion years ago. Specifically, one of the paralogs of the core MICOS subunit Mic10 interacts with dimeric F1FO-ATP synthase, whereas the other core Mic60 subunit has a counteractive effect on F1FO-ATP synthase oligomerization. This is evocative of the nature of MICOS-F1FO-ATP synthase crosstalk in yeast, which is remarkable given the diversification that these two complexes have undergone during almost 2 eons of independent evolution. Furthermore, we identified a highly diverged, putative homolog of subunit e, which is essential for the stability of F1FO-ATP synthase dimers in yeast. Just like subunit e, it is preferentially associated with dimers and interacts with Mic10, and its silencing results in severe defects to cristae and the disintegration of F1FO-ATP synthase dimers. Our findings indicate that crosstalk between MICOS and dimeric F1FO-ATP synthase is a fundamental property impacting crista shape throughout eukaryotes. IMPORTANCE Mitochondria have undergone profound diversification in separate lineages that have radiated since the last common ancestor of eukaryotes some eons ago. Most eukaryotes are unicellular protists, including etiological agents of infectious diseases, like Trypanosoma brucei. Thus, the study of a broad range of protists can reveal fundamental features shared by all eukaryotes and lineage-specific innovations. Here, we report that two different protein complexes, MICOS and F1FO-ATP synthase, known to affect mitochondrial architecture, undergo crosstalk in T. brucei, just as in baker's yeast. This is remarkable considering that these complexes have otherwise undergone many changes during their almost 2 billion years of independent evolution. Thus, this crosstalk is a fundamental property needed to maintain proper mitochondrial structure even if the constituent players considerably diverged.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Hoshino Y, EA Gaucher (2021)

Evolution of bacterial steroid biosynthesis and its impact on eukaryogenesis.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(25):.

Steroids are components of the eukaryotic cellular membrane and have indispensable roles in the process of eukaryotic endocytosis by regulating membrane fluidity and permeability. In particular, steroids may have been a structural prerequisite for the acquisition of mitochondria via endocytosis during eukaryogenesis. While eukaryotes are inferred to have evolved from an archaeal lineage, there is little similarity between the eukaryotic and archaeal cellular membranes. As such, the evolution of eukaryotic cellular membranes has limited our understanding of eukaryogenesis. Despite evolving from archaea, the eukaryotic cellular membrane is essentially a fatty acid bacterial-type membrane, which implies a substantial bacterial contribution to the evolution of the eukaryotic cellular membrane. Here, we address the evolution of steroid biosynthesis in eukaryotes by combining ancestral sequence reconstruction and comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of steroid biosynthesis genes. Contrary to the traditional assumption that eukaryotic steroid biosynthesis evolved within eukaryotes, most steroid biosynthesis genes are inferred to be derived from bacteria. In particular, aerobic deltaproteobacteria (myxobacteria) seem to have mediated the transfer of key genes for steroid biosynthesis to eukaryotes. Analyses of resurrected steroid biosynthesis enzymes suggest that the steroid biosynthesis pathway in early eukaryotes may have been similar to the pathway seen in modern plants and algae. These resurrected proteins also experimentally demonstrate that molecular oxygen was required to establish the modern eukaryotic cellular membrane during eukaryogenesis. Our study provides unique insight into relationships between early eukaryotes and other bacteria in addition to the well-known endosymbiosis with alphaproteobacteria.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

Mixão V, Hegedűsová E, Saus E, et al (2021)

Genome analysis of Candida subhashii reveals its hybrid nature and dual mitochondrial genome conformations.

DNA research : an international journal for rapid publication of reports on genes and genomes, 28(3):.

Candida subhashii belongs to the CUG-Ser clade, a group of phylogenetically closely related yeast species that includes some human opportunistic pathogens, such as Candida albicans. Despite being present in the environment, C. subhashii was initially described as the causative agent of a case of peritonitis. Considering the relevance of whole-genome sequencing and analysis for our understanding of genome evolution and pathogenicity, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of C. subhashii type strain. Our results show that C. subhashii presents a highly heterozygous genome and other signatures that point to a hybrid ancestry. The presence of functional pathways for assimilation of hydroxyaromatic compounds goes in line with the affiliation of this yeast with soil microbial communities involved in lignin decomposition. Furthermore, we observed that different clones of this strain may present circular or linear mitochondrial DNA. Re-sequencing and comparison of strains with differential mitochondrial genome topology revealed five candidate genes potentially associated with this conformational change: MSK1, SSZ1, ALG5, MRPL9 and OYE32.

RevDate: 2021-06-21

Manoj KM, NM Bazhin (2021)

The murburn precepts for aerobic respiration and redox homeostasis.

Progress in biophysics and molecular biology pii:S0079-6107(21)00060-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Murburn concept is a new perspective to metabolism which posits that certain redox enzymes/proteins mediate catalysis outside their active site, via diffusible reactive oxygen species (DROS, usually deemed as toxic wastes). We have recently questioned the proton-centric chemiosmotic rotary ATP synthesis (CRAS) explanation for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (mOxPhos) and proposed an oxygen-centric murburn model in lieu. Herein, the chemical equations and thermodynamic foundations for this new model of mOxPhos are detailed. Standard transformed Gibbs free energy values of respiratory reactions are calculated to address the spontaneity, control, and efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Unlike the deterministic/multi-molecular and 'irreducibly complex' CRAS model, the stochastic/bimolecular and parsimonious murburn reactions afford a more viable precept for the variable and non-integral stoichiometry, higher yield for NADH than FADH2, and origin/evolution of oxygen-centric cellular life. Also, we present tangible DROS-based explanations for the multiple roles of various reaction components, HCN > H2S order of cellular toxicity in aerobes, and explain why oxygen inhibits anaerobes. We highlight the thermodynamic significance of proton deficiency in NADH/mitochondria and link the 'oxygen → DROS → water' metabolic pathway to the macroscopic physiologies of ATP-synthesis, trans-membrane potential, thermogenesis, and homeostasis. We also provide arguments for the extension of the murburn bioenergetics model to life under anoxic and extreme/unique habitats. In the context of mOxPhos, our findings imply that DROS should be seen as an essential requisite for life, and not merely as pathophysiological manifestations.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Capitanio G, Papa F, S Papa (2021)

The allosteric protein interactions in the proton-motive function of mammalian redox enzymes of the respiratory chain.

Biochimie, 189:1-12 pii:S0300-9084(21)00145-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Insight into mammalian respiratory complexes defines the role of allosteric protein interactions in their proton-motive activity. In cytochrome c oxidase (CxIV) conformational change of subunit I, caused by O2 binding to heme a32+-CuB+ and reduction, and stereochemical transitions coupled to oxidation/reduction of heme a and CuA, combined with electrostatic effects, determine the proton pumping activity. In ubiquinone-cytochrome c oxidoreductase (CxIII) conformational movement of Fe-S protein between cytochromes b and c1 is the key element of the proton-motive activity. In NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (CxI) ubiquinone binding and reduction result in conformational changes of subunits in the quinone reaction structure which initiate proton pumping.

RevDate: 2021-06-18
CmpDate: 2021-06-18

Mazzocca A, S Fais (2021)

New hypotheses for cancer generation and progression.

Medical hypotheses, 152:110614.

Since Nixon famously declared war on cancer in 1971, trillions of dollars have been spent on cancer research but the life expectancy for most forms of cancer is still poor. There are many reasons for the partial success of cancer translational research. One of these can be the predominance of certain paradigms that potentially narrowed the vision in interpreting cancer. The main paradigm to explain carcinogenesis is based on DNA mutations, which is well interpreted by the somatic mutation theory (SMT). However, a different theory claims that cancer is instead a tissue disease as proposed by the Tissue Organization Field Theory (TOFT). Here, we propose new hypotheses to explain the origin and pathogenesis of cancer. In this perspective, the systemic-evolutionary theory of cancer (SETOC) is discussed as well as how the microenvironment affects the adaptation of transformed cells and the reversion to a unicellular-like or embryo-like phenotype.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Wang S, H Luo (2021)

Dating Alphaproteobacteria evolution with eukaryotic fossils.

Nature communications, 12(1):3324.

Elucidating the timescale of the evolution of Alphaproteobacteria, one of the most prevalent microbial lineages in marine and terrestrial ecosystems, is key to testing hypotheses on their co-evolution with eukaryotic hosts and Earth's systems, which, however, is largely limited by the scarcity of bacterial fossils. Here, we incorporate eukaryotic fossils to date the divergence times of Alphaproteobacteria, based on the mitochondrial endosymbiosis that mitochondria evolved from an alphaproteobacterial lineage. We estimate that Alphaproteobacteria arose ~1900 million years (Ma) ago, followed by rapid divergence of their major clades. We show that the origin of Rickettsiales, an order of obligate intracellular bacteria whose hosts are mostly animals, predates the emergence of animals for ~700 Ma but coincides with that of eukaryotes. This, together with reconstruction of ancestral hosts, strongly suggests that early Rickettsiales lineages had established previously underappreciated interactions with unicellular eukaryotes. Moreover, the mitochondria-based approach displays higher robustness to uncertainties in calibrations compared with the traditional strategy using cyanobacterial fossils. Further, our analyses imply the potential of dating the (bacterial) tree of life based on endosymbiosis events, and suggest that previous applications using divergence times of the modern hosts of symbiotic bacteria to date bacterial evolution might need to be revisited.

RevDate: 2021-06-27

Cramer ERA, Garcia-Del-Rey E, Johannessen LE, et al (2021)

Longer Sperm Swim More Slowly in the Canary Islands Chiffchaff.

Cells, 10(6):.

Sperm swimming performance affects male fertilization success, particularly in species with high sperm competition. Understanding how sperm morphology impacts swimming performance is therefore important. Sperm swimming speed is hypothesized to increase with total sperm length, relative flagellum length (with the flagellum generating forward thrust), and relative midpiece length (as the midpiece contains the mitochondria). We tested these hypotheses and tested for divergence in sperm traits in five island populations of Canary Islands chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis). We confirmed incipient mitochondrial DNA differentiation between Gran Canaria and the other islands. Sperm swimming speed correlated negatively with total sperm length, did not correlate with relative flagellum length, and correlated negatively with relative midpiece length (for Gran Canaria only). The proportion of motile cells increased with relative flagellum length on Gran Canaria only. Sperm morphology was similar across islands. We thus add to a growing number of studies on passerine birds that do not support sperm morphology-swimming speed hypotheses. We suggest that the swimming mechanics of passerine sperm are sufficiently different from mammalian sperm that predictions from mammalian hydrodynamic models should no longer be applied for this taxon. While both sperm morphology and sperm swimming speed are likely under selection in passerines, the relationship between them requires further elucidation.

RevDate: 2021-06-21
CmpDate: 2021-06-21

Dür A, Huber N, W Parson (2021)

Fine-Tuning Phylogenetic Alignment and Haplogrouping of mtDNA Sequences.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(11):.

In this paper, we present a new algorithm for alignment and haplogroup estimation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences. Based on 26,011 vetted full mitogenome sequences, we refined the 5435 original haplogroup motifs of Phylotree Build 17 without changing the haplogroup nomenclature. We adapted 430 motifs (about 8%) and added 966 motifs for yet undetermined subclades. In summary, this led to an 18% increase of haplogroup defining motifs for full mitogenomes and a 30% increase for the mtDNA control region that is of interest for a variety of scientific disciplines, such as medical, population and forensic genetics. The new algorithm is implemented in the EMPOP mtDNA database and is freely accessible.

RevDate: 2021-06-24
CmpDate: 2021-06-24

Ai D, Peng L, Qin D, et al (2021)

Characterization of Three Complete Mitogenomes of Flatidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) and Compositional Heterogeneity Analysis in the Planthoppers' Mitochondrial Phylogenomics.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(11):.

Although sequences of mitogenomes have been widely used for investigating phylogenetic relationship, population genetics, and biogeography in many members of Fulgoroidea, only one complete mitogenome of a member of Flatidae has been sequenced. Here, the complete mitogenomes of Cerynia lineola, Cromna sinensis, and Zecheuna tonkinensis are sequenced. The gene arrangements of the three new mitogenomes are consistent with ancestral insect mitogenomes. The strategy of using mitogenomes in phylogenetics remains in dispute due to the heterogeneity in base composition and the possible variation in evolutionary rates. In this study, we found compositional heterogeneity and variable evolutionary rates among planthopper mitogenomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on site-homogeneous models showed that the families (Delphacidae and Derbidae) with high values of Ka/Ks and A + T content tended to fall together at a basal position on the trees. Using a site-heterogeneous mixture CAT + GTR model implemented in PhyloBayes yielded almost the same topology. Our results recovered the monophyly of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we apply the heterogeneous mixture model to the planthoppers' phylogenetic analysis for the first time. Our study is based on a large sample and provides a methodological reference for future phylogenetic studies of Fulgoroidea.

RevDate: 2021-06-17
CmpDate: 2021-06-17

Di Gregorio E, Miolo G, Saorin A, et al (2021)

From Metabolism to Genetics and Vice Versa: The Rising Role of Oncometabolites in Cancer Development and Therapy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(11):.

Over the last decades, the study of cancer metabolism has returned to the forefront of cancer research and challenged the role of genetics in the understanding of cancer development. One of the major impulses of this new trend came from the discovery of oncometabolites, metabolic intermediates whose abnormal cellular accumulation triggers oncogenic signalling and tumorigenesis. These findings have led to reconsideration and support for the long-forgotten hypothesis of Warburg of altered metabolism as oncogenic driver of cancer and started a novel paradigm whereby mitochondrial metabolites play a pivotal role in malignant transformation. In this review, we describe the evolution of the cancer metabolism research from a historical perspective up to the oncometabolites discovery that spawned the new vision of cancer as a metabolic disease. The oncometabolites' mechanisms of cellular transformation and their contribution to the development of new targeted cancer therapies together with their drawbacks are further reviewed and discussed.

RevDate: 2021-06-05

Yamaguchi K, Kitamura S, Furutake Y, et al (2021)

Acquired Evolution of Mitochondrial Metabolism Regulated by HNF1B in Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers, 13(10):.

Clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary exhibits a unique morphology and clinically malignant behavior. The eosinophilic cytoplasm includes abundant glycogen. Although the growth is slow, the prognosis is poor owing to resistance to conventional chemotherapies. CCC often arises in endometriotic cysts and is accompanied by endometriosis. Based on these characteristics, three clinical questions are considered: why does ovarian cancer, especially CCC and endometrioid carcinoma, frequently occur in endometriotic cysts, why do distinct histological subtypes (CCC and endometrioid carcinoma) arise in the endometriotic cyst, and why does ovarian CCC possess unique characteristics? Mutations in AT-rich interacting domain-containing protein 1A and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-Bisphosphate 3-Kinase Catalytic Subunit alpha genes may contribute to the carcinogenesis of ovarian CCC, whereas hepatocyte nuclear factor-1-beta (HNF1B) plays crucial roles in sculpting the unique characteristics of ovarian CCC through metabolic alterations. HNF1B increases glutathione synthesis, activates anaerobic glycolysis called the Warburg effect, and suppresses mitochondria. These metabolic changes may be induced in stressful environments. Life has evolved to utilize and control energy; eukaryotes require mitochondria to transform oxygen reduction into useful energy. Because mitochondrial function is suppressed in ovarian CCC, these cancer cells probably acquired further metabolic evolution during the carcinogenic process in order to survive stressful environments.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Lyu D, Msimbira LA, Nazari M, et al (2021)

The Coevolution of Plants and Microbes Underpins Sustainable Agriculture.

Microorganisms, 9(5):.

Terrestrial plants evolution occurred in the presence of microbes, the phytomicrobiome. The rhizosphere microbial community is the most abundant and diverse subset of the phytomicrobiome and can include both beneficial and parasitic/pathogenic microbes. Prokaryotes of the phytomicrobiome have evolved relationships with plants that range from non-dependent interactions to dependent endosymbionts. The most extreme endosymbiotic examples are the chloroplasts and mitochondria, which have become organelles and integral parts of the plant, leading to some similarity in DNA sequence between plant tissues and cyanobacteria, the prokaryotic symbiont of ancestral plants. Microbes were associated with the precursors of land plants, green algae, and helped algae transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. In the terrestrial setting the phytomicrobiome contributes to plant growth and development by (1) establishing symbiotic relationships between plant growth-promoting microbes, including rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, (2) conferring biotic stress resistance by producing antibiotic compounds, and (3) secreting microbe-to-plant signal compounds, such as phytohormones or their analogues, that regulate aspects of plant physiology, including stress resistance. As plants have evolved, they recruited microbes to assist in the adaptation to available growing environments. Microbes serve themselves by promoting plant growth, which in turn provides microbes with nutrition (root exudates, a source of reduced carbon) and a desirable habitat (the rhizosphere or within plant tissues). The outcome of this coevolution is the diverse and metabolically rich microbial community that now exists in the rhizosphere of terrestrial plants. The holobiont, the unit made up of the phytomicrobiome and the plant host, results from this wide range of coevolved relationships. We are just beginning to appreciate the many ways in which this complex and subtle coevolution acts in agricultural systems.

RevDate: 2021-07-24

Siscar-Lewin S, Gabaldón T, Aldejohann AM, et al (2021)

Transient Mitochondria Dysfunction Confers Fungal Cross-Resistance against Phagocytic Killing and Fluconazole.

mBio, 12(3):e0112821.

Loss or inactivation of antivirulence genes is an adaptive strategy in pathogen evolution. Candida glabrata is an important opportunistic pathogen related to baker's yeast, with the ability to both quickly increase its intrinsic high level of azole resistance and persist within phagocytes. During C. glabrata's evolution as a pathogen, the mitochondrial DNA polymerase CgMip1 has been under positive selection. We show that CgMIP1 deletion not only triggers loss of mitochondrial function and a petite phenotype, but increases C. glabrata's azole and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resistance and, importantly, its survival in phagocytes. The same phenotype is induced by fluconazole and by exposure to macrophages, conferring a cross-resistance between antifungals and immune cells, and can be found in clinical isolates despite a slow growth of petite strains. This suggests that petite constitutes a bet-hedging strategy of C. glabrata and, potentially, a relevant cause of azole resistance. Mitochondrial function may therefore be considered a potential antivirulence factor. IMPORTANCE Candida glabrata is an opportunistic pathogen whose incidence has been increasing in the last 40 years. It has risen to become the most prominent non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species to cause candidemia, constituting about one-third of isolates in the United States, and steadily increasing in European countries and in Australia. Despite its clinical importance, C. glabrata's pathogenicity strategies remain poorly understood. Our research shows that loss of mitochondrial function and the resulting petite phenotype is advantageous for C. glabrata to cope with infection-related stressors, such as antifungals and host immune defenses. The (cross-)resistance against both these factors may have major implications in the clinical outcome of infections with this major fungal pathogen.

RevDate: 2021-06-11
CmpDate: 2021-06-11

Awadi A, Ben Slimen H, Schaschl H, et al (2021)

Positive selection on two mitochondrial coding genes and adaptation signals in hares (genus Lepus) from China.

BMC ecology and evolution, 21(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Animal mitochondria play a central role in energy production in the cells through the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway. Recent studies of selection on different mitochondrial OXPHOS genes have revealed the adaptive implications of amino acid changes in these subunits. In hares, climatic variation and/or introgression were suggested to be at the origin of such adaptation. Here we looked for evidence of positive selection in three mitochondrial OXPHOS genes, using tests of selection, protein structure modelling and effects of amino acid substitutions on the protein function and stability. We also used statistical models to test for climate and introgression effects on sites under positive selection.

RESULTS: Our results revealed seven sites under positive selection in ND4 and three sites in Cytb. However, no sites under positive selection were observed in the COX1 gene. All three subunits presented a high number of codons under negative selection. Sites under positive selection were mapped on the tridimensional structure of the predicted models for the respective mitochondrial subunit. Of the ten amino acid replacements inferred to have evolved under positive selection for both subunits, six were located in the transmembrane domain. On the other hand, three codons were identified as sites lining proton translocation channels. Furthermore, four codons were identified as destabilizing with a significant variation of Δ vibrational entropy energy between wild and mutant type. Moreover, our PROVEAN analysis suggested that among all positively selected sites two fixed amino acid replacements altered the protein functioning. Our statistical models indicated significant effects of climate on the presence of ND4 and Cytb protein variants, but no effect by trans-specific mitochondrial DNA introgression, which is not uncommon in a number of hare species.

CONCLUSIONS: Positive selection was observed in several codons in two OXPHOS genes. We found that substitutions in the positively selected codons have structural and functional impacts on the encoded proteins. Our results are concordantly suggesting that adaptations have strongly affected the evolution of mtDNA of hare species with potential effects on the protein function. Environmental/climatic changes appear to be a major trigger of this adaptation, whereas trans-specific introgressive hybridization seems to play no major role for the occurrence of protein variants.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Burskaia V, Artyushin I, Potapova NA, et al (2021)

Convergent Adaptation in Mitochondria of Phylogenetically Distant Birds: Does it Exist?.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(7):.

In a wide range of taxa, proteins encoded by mitochondrial genomes are involved in adaptation to lifestyle that requires oxygen starvation or elevation of metabolism rate. It remains poorly understood to what extent adaptation to similar conditions is associated with parallel changes in these proteins. We search for a genetic signal of parallel or convergent evolution in recurrent molecular adaptation to high altitude, migration, diving, wintering, unusual flight abilities, or loss of flight in mitochondrial genomes of birds. Developing on previous work, we design an approach for the detection of recurrent coincident changes in genotype and phenotype, indicative of an association between the two. We describe a number of candidate sites involved in recurrent adaptation in ND genes. However, we find that the majority of convergence events can be explained by random coincidences without invoking adaptation.

RevDate: 2021-06-08
CmpDate: 2021-06-08

Chowrasia S, Nishad J, Pandey R, et al (2021)

Oryza coarctata is a triploid plant with initial events of C4 photosynthesis evolution.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology, 308:110878.

Oryza coarctata is an obligate halophyte of wild species of rice which thrives well under high saline as well as submerged conditions. We report here for the first time that O. coarctata is triploid (2n = 3x = 36), though it was previously known as tetraploid (2n = 4x = 48). The chromosome number of O. coarctata was determined from mitotic plates of root tips and ploidy level was determined by flow cytometer, where it was found to be triploid (2n = 3x = 36). In addition, this species was found to possess several unique anatomical features in leaves such as presence of Kranz-anatomy, increased vein density and higher ratio of bundle sheath to mesophyll cell area as compared to rice variety (IR-29). Ultra-structure of leaf showed the presence of bundle sheath cells with significant number of chloroplasts and mitochondria which were arranged centrifugally. Chloroplasts lack grana in bundle sheath cell whereas, mesophyll cell contain well-developed grana. These anatomical and ultra structural characteristics indicate that this plant is in initial stage of evolving towards C4 photosynthesis due to high selection pressure which might help it to survive in wide range of ecological conditions i.e. from submerged saline to non-saline terrestrial condition.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Zhu D, Liu Z, Li Y, et al (2021)

Delivery of manganese carbonyl to the tumor microenvironment using Tumor-Derived exosomes for cancer gas therapy and low dose radiotherapy.

Biomaterials, 274:120894.

The development of novel radiosensitizer with high selectivity and controllability is highly desirable. CO gas could cause damage to mitochondria and thus enhance RT effect. Controlled delivery of CO in tumor is important both to achieve high-efficiency of CO gas therapy and to decrease the risk of CO poisoning. In this study, manganese carbonyl (MnCO) loaded exosome nano-vesicles (MMV) to overcome this conundrum for tumor therapy is developed. After administration, MMV showed its admirable performance in active tumor-targeting, mitochondria damage and radiosensitization therapy. These MMV nanoparticles were able to facilitate robust CO evolution and consequent ROS generation in response to X-ray irradiation both in vitro and in vivo. Significantly, MMV could facilitate a 90% inhibition effect of tumor growth under very low dose (only 2Gy) RT, which is better than high dose (6Gy) radiotherapy. Overall, this study highlights a novel and practical approach to enhancing the efficacy of tumor RT, underscoring the value of future research in the field of CO medicine.

RevDate: 2021-06-30
CmpDate: 2021-06-30

Zheng Y, Ye Z, Liu Z, et al (2021)

Nitroso-Caged Rhodamine: A Superior Green Light-Activatable Fluorophore for Single-Molecule Localization Super-Resolution Imaging.

Analytical chemistry, 93(22):7833-7842.

The evolution of super-resolution imaging techniques, especially single-molecule localization microscopy, demands the engineering of switchable fluorophores with labeling functionality. Yet, the switching of these fluorophores depends on the exterior conditions of UV light and enhancing buffers, which is bioincompatible for living-cell applications. Herein, to surpass these limitations, a nitroso-caging strategy is employed to cage rhodamines into leuco forms, which for the first time, is discovered to uncage highly bright zwitterions by green light. Further, clickable construction grants the specificity and versatility for labeling various components in living cells. The simultaneous photoactivation and excitation of these novel probes allow for single-laser super-resolution imaging without any harmful additives. Super-resolution imaging of microtubules in fixed cells or mitochondria and the distribution of glycans and H2B proteins in living cells are achieved at a molecular scale with robust integrity. We envision that our nitroso-caging probes would set a platform for the development of future visible-activatable probes.

RevDate: 2021-08-05

Stephens TG, Gabr A, Calatrava V, et al (2021)

Why is primary endosymbiosis so rare?.

The New phytologist, 231(5):1693-1699.

Endosymbiosis is a relationship between two organisms wherein one cell resides inside the other. This affiliation, when stable and beneficial for the 'host' cell, can result in massive genetic innovation with the foremost examples being the evolution of eukaryotic organelles, the mitochondria and plastids. Despite its critical evolutionary role, there is limited knowledge about how endosymbiosis is initially established and how host-endosymbiont biology is integrated. Here, we explore this issue, using as our model the rhizarian amoeba Paulinella, which represents an independent case of primary plastid origin that occurred c. 120 million yr ago. We propose the 'chassis and engine' model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding primary plastid endosymbiosis, potentially explaining why it is so rare.

RevDate: 2021-05-24

Kamrad S, Rodríguez-López M, Dey S, et al (2021)

Recombination and biased segregation of mitochondrial genomes during crossing and meiosis of different Schizosaccharomyces pombe strains.

microPublication biology, 2021:.

During meiosis, tethering of parental mitochondria to opposite cell poles inhibits the mixing of mitochondria with different genomes and ensures uniparental inheritance in thestandard laboratory strain of fission yeast. We here investigate mitochondrial inheritance in crosses between natural isolates using tetrad dissection and next-generation sequencing. We find that colonies grown from single spores can sometimes carry a mix of mitochondrial genotypes, that mitochondrial genomes can recombine during meiosis, that in some cases tetrads do not follow the 2:2 segregation pattern, and that certain crosses may feature a weak bias towards one of the parents. Together, these findings paint a more nuanced picture of mitochondrial inheritance in the wild.

RevDate: 2021-05-31
CmpDate: 2021-05-31

Horváthová L, Žárský V, Pánek T, et al (2021)

Analysis of diverse eukaryotes suggests the existence of an ancestral mitochondrial apparatus derived from the bacterial type II secretion system.

Nature communications, 12(1):2947.

The type 2 secretion system (T2SS) is present in some Gram-negative eubacteria and used to secrete proteins across the outer membrane. Here we report that certain representative heteroloboseans, jakobids, malawimonads and hemimastigotes unexpectedly possess homologues of core T2SS components. We show that at least some of them are present in mitochondria, and their behaviour in biochemical assays is consistent with the presence of a mitochondrial T2SS-derived system (miT2SS). We additionally identified 23 protein families co-occurring with miT2SS in eukaryotes. Seven of these proteins could be directly linked to the core miT2SS by functional data and/or sequence features, whereas others may represent different parts of a broader functional pathway, possibly also involving the peroxisome. Its distribution in eukaryotes and phylogenetic evidence together indicate that the miT2SS-centred pathway is an ancestral eukaryotic trait. Our findings thus have direct implications for the functional properties of the early mitochondrion.

RevDate: 2021-05-23
CmpDate: 2021-05-21

Porter TM, M Hajibabaei (2021)

Profile hidden Markov model sequence analysis can help remove putative pseudogenes from DNA barcoding and metabarcoding datasets.

BMC bioinformatics, 22(1):256.

BACKGROUND: Pseudogenes are non-functional copies of protein coding genes that typically follow a different molecular evolutionary path as compared to functional genes. The inclusion of pseudogene sequences in DNA barcoding and metabarcoding analysis can lead to misleading results. None of the most widely used bioinformatic pipelines used to process marker gene (metabarcode) high throughput sequencing data specifically accounts for the presence of pseudogenes in protein-coding marker genes. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to screen for nuclear mitochondrial DNA segments (nuMTs) in large COI datasets. We do this by: (1) describing gene and nuMT characteristics from an artificial COI barcode dataset, (2) show the impact of two different pseudogene removal methods on perturbed community datasets with simulated nuMTs, and (3) incorporate a pseudogene filtering step in a bioinformatic pipeline that can be used to process Illumina paired-end COI metabarcode sequences. Open reading frame length and sequence bit scores from hidden Markov model (HMM) profile analysis were used to detect pseudogenes.

RESULTS: Our simulations showed that it was more difficult to identify nuMTs from shorter amplicon sequences such as those typically used in metabarcoding compared with full length DNA barcodes that are used in the construction of barcode libraries. It was also more difficult to identify nuMTs in datasets where there is a high percentage of nuMTs. Existing bioinformatic pipelines used to process metabarcode sequences already remove some nuMTs, especially in the rare sequence removal step, but the addition of a pseudogene filtering step can remove up to 5% of sequences even when other filtering steps are in place.

CONCLUSIONS: Open reading frame length filtering alone or combined with hidden Markov model profile analysis can be used to effectively screen out apparent pseudogenes from large datasets. There is more to learn from COI nuMTs such as their frequency in DNA barcoding and metabarcoding studies, their taxonomic distribution, and evolution. Thus, we encourage the submission of verified COI nuMTs to public databases to facilitate future studies.

RevDate: 2021-05-19

Phua SY, De Smet B, Remacle C, et al (2021)

Reactive Oxygen Species and Organellar Signaling.

Journal of experimental botany pii:6278282 [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of photosynthesis and its associated metabolic pathways has been crucial to the successful establishment of plants, but has also challenged plant cells in the form of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Intriguingly, multiple forms of ROS are generated in virtually every plant cell compartment through diverse pathways. As a result, a sophisticated network of ROS detoxification and signaling that is simultaneously tailored to individual organelles and safeguards the entire cell is necessary. Here we take an organelle-centric view on the principal sources and sinks of ROS across the plant cell and give insights into the ROS-induced organelle-to-nucleus retrograde signaling pathways needed for operational readjustments during environmental stresses.

RevDate: 2021-06-21

Speijer D (2021)

Zombie ideas about early endosymbiosis: Which entry mechanisms gave us the "endo" in different endosymbionts?.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 43(7):e2100069.

Recently, a review regarding the mechanics and evolution of mitochondrial fission appeared in Nature. Surprisingly, it stated authoritatively that the mitochondrial outer membrane, in contrast with the inner membrane of bacterial descent, was acquired from the host, presumably during uptake. However, it has been known for quite some time that this membrane was also derived from the Gram-negative, alpha-proteobacterium related precursor of present-day mitochondria. The zombie idea of the host membrane still surrounding the endosymbiont is not only wrong, but more importantly, might hamper the proper conception of possible scenarios of eukaryogenesis. Why? Because it steers the imagination not only with regard to possible uptake mechanisms, but also regarding what went on before. Here I critically discuss both the evidence for the continuity of the bacterial outer membrane, the reasons for the persistence of the erroneous host membrane hypothesis and the wider implications of these misconceptions for the ideas regarding events occurring during the first steps towards the evolution of the eukaryotes and later major eukaryotic differentiations. I will also highlight some of the latest insights regarding different instances of endosymbiont evolution.

RevDate: 2021-05-22

Hirakawa Y, Senda M, Fukuda K, et al (2021)

Characterization of a novel type of carbonic anhydrase that acts without metal cofactors.

BMC biology, 19(1):105.

BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are universal metalloenzymes that catalyze the reversible conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) and bicarbonate (HCO3-). They are involved in various biological processes, including pH control, respiration, and photosynthesis. To date, eight evolutionarily unrelated classes of CA families (α, β, γ, δ, ζ, η, θ, and ι) have been identified. All are characterized by an active site accommodating the binding of a metal cofactor, which is assumed to play a central role in catalysis. This feature is thought to be the result of convergent evolution.

RESULTS: Here, we report that a previously uncharacterized protein group, named "COG4337," constitutes metal-independent CAs from the newly discovered ι-class. Genes coding for COG4337 proteins are found in various bacteria and photosynthetic eukaryotic algae. Biochemical assays demonstrated that recombinant COG4337 proteins from a cyanobacterium (Anabaena sp. PCC7120) and a chlorarachniophyte alga (Bigelowiella natans) accelerated CO2 hydration. Unexpectedly, these proteins exhibited their activity under metal-free conditions. Based on X-ray crystallography and point mutation analysis, we identified a metal-free active site within the cone-shaped α+β barrel structure. Furthermore, subcellular localization experiments revealed that COG4337 proteins are targeted into plastids and mitochondria of B. natans, implicating their involvement in CO2 metabolism in these organelles.

CONCLUSIONS: COG4337 proteins shared a short sequence motif and overall structure with ι-class CAs, whereas they were characterized by metal independence, unlike any known CAs. Therefore, COG4337 proteins could be treated as a variant type of ι-class CAs. Our findings suggested that this novel type of ι-CAs can function even in metal-poor environments (e.g., the open ocean) without competition with other metalloproteins for trace metals. Considering the widespread prevalence of ι-CAs across microalgae, this class of CAs may play a role in the global carbon cycle.

RevDate: 2021-05-21

Záhonová K, Lax G, Sinha SD, et al (2021)

Single-cell genomics unveils a canonical origin of the diverse mitochondrial genomes of euglenozoans.

BMC biology, 19(1):103.

BACKGROUND: The supergroup Euglenozoa unites heterotrophic flagellates from three major clades, kinetoplastids, diplonemids, and euglenids, each of which exhibits extremely divergent mitochondrial characteristics. Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of euglenids comprise multiple linear chromosomes carrying single genes, whereas mitochondrial chromosomes are circular non-catenated in diplonemids, but circular and catenated in kinetoplastids. In diplonemids and kinetoplastids, mitochondrial mRNAs require extensive and diverse editing and/or trans-splicing to produce mature transcripts. All known euglenozoan mtDNAs exhibit extremely short mitochondrial small (rns) and large (rnl) subunit rRNA genes, and absence of tRNA genes. How these features evolved from an ancestral bacteria-like circular mitochondrial genome remains unanswered.

RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled 20 euglenozoan single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs). In our phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses, three SAGs were placed within kinetoplastids, 14 within diplonemids, one (EU2) within euglenids, and two SAGs with nearly identical small subunit rRNA gene (18S) sequences (EU17/18) branched as either a basal lineage of euglenids, or as a sister to all euglenozoans. Near-complete mitochondrial genomes were identified in EU2 and EU17/18. Surprisingly, both EU2 and EU17/18 mitochondrial contigs contained multiple genes and one tRNA gene. Furthermore, EU17/18 mtDNA possessed several features unique among euglenozoans including full-length rns and rnl genes, six mitoribosomal genes, and nad11, all likely on a single chromosome.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that EU17/18 is an early-branching euglenozoan with numerous ancestral mitochondrial features. Collectively these data contribute to untangling the early evolution of euglenozoan mitochondria.

RevDate: 2021-07-06
CmpDate: 2021-07-06

Moreno-Carmona M, Cameron SL, CF Prada Quiroga (2021)

How are the mitochondrial genomes reorganized in Hexapoda? Differential evolution and the first report of convergences within Hexapoda.

Gene, 791:145719.

The evolution of the Hexapoda mitochondrial genome has been the focus of several genetic and evolutionary studies over the last decades. However, they have concentrated on certain taxonomic orders of economic or health importance. The recent increase of mitochondrial genomes sequencing of diverse taxonomic orders generates an important opportunity to clarify the evolution of this group of organisms. However, there is no comparative study that investigates the evolution of the Hexapoda mitochondrial genome. In order to verify the level of rearrangement and the mitochondrial genome evolution, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of the Hexapoda mitochondrial genome available in the NCBI database. Using a combination of bioinformatics methods to carefully examine the mitochondrial gene rearrangements in 1198 Hexapoda species belonging to 32 taxonomic orders, we determined that there is a great variation in the rate of rearrangement by gene and by taxonomic order. A higher rate of genetic reassortment is observed in Phthiraptera, Thysanoptera, Protura, and Hymenoptera; compared to other taxonomic orders. Twenty-four events of convergence in the genetic order between different taxonomic orders were determined, most of them not previously reported; which proves the great evolutionary dynamics within Hexapoda.

RevDate: 2021-07-06
CmpDate: 2021-07-06

Lim LWK, Chung HH, Lau MML, et al (2021)

Improving the phylogenetic resolution of Malaysian and Javan mahseer (Cyprinidae), Tor tambroides and Tor tambra: Whole mitogenomes sequencing, phylogeny and potential mitogenome markers.

Gene, 791:145708.

The true mahseer (Tor spp.) is one of the highest valued fish in the world due to its high nutritional value and great unique taste. Nevertheless, its morphological characterization and single mitochondrial gene phylogeny in the past had yet to resolve the ambiguity in its taxonomical classification. In this study, we sequenced and assembled 11 complete mahseer mitogenomes collected from Java of Indonesia, Pahang and Terengganu of Peninsular Malaysia as well as Sarawak of East Malaysia. The mitogenome evolutionary relationships among closely related Tor spp. samples were investigated based on maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree construction. Compared to the commonly used COX1 gene fragment, the complete COX1, Cytb, ND2, ND4 and ND5 genes appear to be better phylogenetic markers for genetic differentiation at the population level. In addition, a total of six population-specific mitolineage haplotypes were identified among the mahseer samples analyzed, which this offers hints towards its taxonomical landscape.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Dellière S, Hamane S, Aissaoui N, et al (2021)

Increased sensitivity of a new commercial reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in respiratory specimens.

Medical mycology, 59(8):845-848.

Optimal sensitivity to detect low Pneumocystis loads is of importance to take individual and collective measures to avoid evolution towards Pneumocystis pneumonia and outbreaks in immunocompromised patients. This study compares two qPCR procedures, a new automated RTqPCR using the GeneLEAD VIII extractor/thermocycler (GLVIII; ∼2.2 h workflow) and a previously validated in-house qPCR assays (IH; ∼5 h workflow) both targeting mtSSU and mtLSU for detecting P. jirovecii in 213 respiratory samples. GLVIII was found to be more sensitive than IH, detecting eight more specimens. Bland-Altman analysis between the two procedures showed a Cq bias of 1.17 ± 0.07 in favor of GLVIII.

LAY SUMMARY: The fungus Pneumocystis needs to be detected early in respiratory samples to prevent pneumonia in immunocompromised hosts. We evaluated a new commercial RTqPCR on 213 respiratory samples to detect Pneumocystis and found it more sensitive and faster than our routine sensitive in-house qPCR assay.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

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In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

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Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

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When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

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With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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