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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 May 2024 at 01:53 Created: 

Microbiome

It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-05-23

Olson EG, Dittoe DK, Micciche AC, et al (2024)

Microbiome analyses of poultry feeds: part I. Comparison of five different DNA extraction methods.

Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes [Epub ahead of print].

Given extensive variability in feed composition, the absence of a dedicated DNA extraction kit for poultry feed underscores the need for an optimized extraction technique for reliable downstream sequencing analyses. This study investigates the impact of five DNA extraction techniques: Qiagen QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen), modified Qiagen with Lysing Matrix B (MQ), modified Qiagen with celite purification (MQC), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and 1-Day Direct. Genomic DNA amplification and Illumina MiSeq sequencing were conducted. QIIME2-2021.4 facilitated data analysis, revealing significant diversity and compositional differences influenced by extraction methods. Qiagen exhibited lower evenness and richness compared to other methods. 1-Day Direct and PEG enhanced bacterial diversities by employing bead beating and lysozyme. Despite similar taxonomic resolution, the Qiagen kit provides a rapid, consistent method for assessing poultry feed microbiomes. Modified techniques (MQ and MQC) improve DNA purification, reducing bias in commercial poultry feed samples. PEG and 1-Day Direct methods were effective but may require standardization. Overall, this study underscores the importance of optimized extraction techniques in poultry feed analysis, with potential implications for future standardization of effective methods.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Shen Y, Qian Q, Ding L, et al (2024)

High-throughput single-microbe RNA sequencing reveals adaptive state heterogeneity and host-phage activity associations in human gut microbiome.

Protein & cell pii:7680103 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities such as those residing in the human gut are highly diverse and complex, and many with important implications in health and diseases. The effects and functions of these microbial communities are determined not only by their species compositions and diversities but also by the dynamic intra- and inter-cellular states at the transcriptional level. Powerful and scalable technologies capable of acquiring single-microbe-resolution RNA sequencing information in order to achieve comprehensive understanding of complex microbial communities together with their hosts is therefore utterly needed. Here we report the development and utilization of a droplet-based smRNA-seq (single-microbe RNA sequencing) method capable of identifying large species varieties in human samples, which we name smRandom-seq2. Together with a triple-module computational pipeline designed for the bacteria and bacteriophage sequencing data by smRandom-seq2 in four human gut samples, we established a single-cell level bacterial transcriptional landscape of human gut microbiome, which included 29,742 single microbes and 329 unique species. Distinct adaptive responses states among species in Prevotella and Roseburia genus and intrinsic adaptive strategy heterogeneity in Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens were uncovered. Additionally, we identified hundreds of novel host-phage transcriptional activity associations in the human gut microbiome. Our results indicated the smRandom-seq2 is a high-throughput and high-resolution smRNA-seq technique that is highly adaptable to complex microbial communities in real-word situations and promises new perspectives in the understanding of human microbiomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Li Y, Li XM, Duan HY, et al (2024)

Advances and optimization strategies in bacteriophage therapy for treating inflammatory bowel disease.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1398652.

In the advancement of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) treatment, existing therapeutic methods exhibit limitations; they do not offer a complete cure for IBD and can trigger adverse side effects. Consequently, the exploration of novel therapies and multifaceted treatment strategies provides patients with a broader range of options. Within the framework of IBD, gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in disease onset through diverse mechanisms. Bacteriophages, as natural microbial regulators, demonstrate remarkable specificity by accurately identifying and eliminating specific pathogens, thus holding therapeutic promise. Although clinical trials have affirmed the safety of phage therapy, its efficacy is prone to external influences during storage and transport, which may affect its infectivity and regulatory roles within the microbiota. Improving the stability and precise dosage control of bacteriophages-ensuring robustness in storage and transport, consistent dosing, and targeted delivery to infection sites-is crucial. This review thoroughly explores the latest developments in IBD treatment and its inherent challenges, focusing on the interaction between the microbiota and bacteriophages. It highlights bacteriophages' potential as microbiome modulators in IBD treatment, offering detailed insights into research on bacteriophage encapsulation and targeted delivery mechanisms. Particular attention is paid to the functionality of various carrier systems, especially regarding their protective properties and ability for colon-specific delivery. This review aims to provide a theoretical foundation for using bacteriophages as microbiome modulators in IBD treatment, paving the way for enhanced regulation of the intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Kou Z, Liu K, Qiao Z, et al (2024)

The alterations of oral, airway and intestine microbiota in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1407439.

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates the microbial ecology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intricately associated with the disease's status and severity, and distinct microbial ecological variations exist between COPD and healthy control (HC). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize microbial diversity indices and taxa relative abundance of oral, airway, and intestine microbiota of different stages of COPD and HC to make comparisons.

METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant English articles on the oral, airway, and intestine microbiota in COPD published between 2003 and 8 May 2023. Information on microbial diversity indices and taxa relative abundance of oral, airway, and intestine microbiota was collected for comparison between different stages of COPD and HC.

RESULTS: A total of 20 studies were included in this review, involving a total of 337 HC participants, 511 COPD patients, and 154 AECOPD patients. We observed that no significant differences in alpha diversity between the participant groups, but beta diversity was significantly different in half of the included studies. Compared to HC, Prevotella, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Veillonella of oral microbiota in SCOPD were reduced at the genus level. Most studies supported that Haemophilus, Lactobacillus, and Pseudomonas were increased, but Veillonella, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Porphyromonas, and Atopobium were decreased at the genus level in the airway microbiota of SCOPD. However, the abundance of Haemophilus, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas genera exhibited an increase, whereas Actinomyces and Porphyromonas showed a decrease in the airway microbiota of AECOPD compared to HC. And Lachnospira of intestine microbiota in SCOPD was reduced at the genus level.

CONCLUSION: The majority of published research findings supported that COPD exhibited decreased alpha diversity compared to HC. However, our meta-analysis does not confirm it. In order to further investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of microbiome in the oral-airway- intestine axis of COPD patients, larger-scale and more rigorous studies are needed.

PROSPERO (https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/), identifier CRD42023418726.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Hansen ZA, Schilmiller AL, Guzior DV, et al (2024)

Shifts in the functional capacity and metabolite composition of the gut microbiome during recovery from enteric infection.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1359576.

While enteric pathogens have been widely studied for their roles in causing foodborne infection, their impacts on the gut microbial community have yet to be fully characterized. Previous work has identified notable changes in the gut microbiome related to pathogen invasion, both taxonomically and genetically. Characterization of the metabolic landscape during and after enteric infection, however, has not been explored. Consequently, we investigated the metabolome of paired stools recovered from 60 patients (cases) during and after recovery from enteric bacterial infections (follow-ups). Shotgun metagenomics was applied to predict functional microbial pathways combined with untargeted metametabolomics classified by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. Notably, cases had a greater overall metabolic capacity with significantly higher pathway richness and evenness relative to the follow-ups (p<0.05). Metabolic pathways related to central carbon metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid and fatty acid biosynthesis were more highly represented in cases and distinct signatures for menaquinone production were detected. By contrast, the follow-up samples had a more diverse metabolic landscape with enhanced richness of polar metabolites (p<0.0001) and significantly greater richness, evenness, and overall diversity of nonpolar metabolites (p<0.0001). Although many metabolites could not be annotated with existing databases, a marked increase in certain clusters of metabolites was observed in the follow-up samples when compared to the case samples and vice versa. These findings suggest the importance of key metabolites in gut health and recovery and enhance understanding of metabolic fluctuations during enteric infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Strickland AH, Murray SA, Vinasco J, et al (2024)

Corrigendum: Comparative microbiome analysis of beef cattle, the feedyard environment, and airborne particulate matter as a function of probiotic and antibiotic use, and change in pen environment.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1422959.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2024.1348171.].

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Sheridan M, Chowdhury N, Wellslager B, et al (2024)

Opportunistic pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis targets the LC3B-ceramide complex and mediates lethal mitophagy resistance in oral tumors.

iScience, 27(6):109860.

Mechanisms by which Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) infection enhances oral tumor growth or resistance to cell death remain elusive. Here, we determined that P. gingivalis infection mediates therapeutic resistance via inhibiting lethal mitophagy in cancer cells and tumors. Mechanistically, P. gingivalis targets the LC3B-ceramide complex by associating with LC3B via bacterial major fimbriae (FimA) protein, preventing ceramide-dependent mitophagy in response to various therapeutic agents. Moreover, ceramide-mediated mitophagy is induced by Annexin A2 (ANXA2)-ceramide association involving the E142 residue of ANXA2. Inhibition of ANXA2-ceramide-LC3B complex formation by wild-type P. gingivalis prevented ceramide-dependent mitophagy. Moreover, a FimA-deletion mutant P. gingivalis variant had no inhibitory effects on ceramide-dependent mitophagy. Further, 16S rRNA sequencing of oral tumors indicated that P. gingivalis infection altered the microbiome of the tumor macroenvironment in response to ceramide analog treatment in mice. Thus, these data provide a mechanism describing the pro-survival roles of P. gingivalis in oral tumors.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Kasapoglu M, Yadavalli R, Nawaz S, et al (2024)

The Impact of Microbiome Interventions on the Progression and Severity of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review.

Cureus, 16(5):e60786.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. The dysbiotic gut microbiome likely contributes to IBD pathogenesis. Microbiome-directed therapies such as fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), probiotics, and synbiotics may help induce and maintain remission. This systematic review aimed to determine the efficacy of microbiome interventions compared to standard therapy or placebo for IBD treatment. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Web of Science were searched for randomized controlled trials on microbiome interventions in IBD from inception to October 2023. The risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane tools. Outcomes included disease activity, endoscopy, histology, quality of life, and adverse events. A total of 18 randomized controlled trials were included. Three trials found intensive (i.e., high frequency of administration and/or large volumes of fecal material) multi-donor FMT superior to autologous FMT or glucocorticoids for UC remission induction. Seven placebo-controlled trials demonstrated higher remission rates with FMT, especially intensive protocols, versus control for mild-to-moderate UC. However, a single FMT did not prevent relapses. Seven probiotic trials showed the potential to improve UC activity and maintain remission. One synbiotic trial reported reduced inflammation and symptoms versus placebo. Serious adverse events were rare. Small sample sizes and protocol heterogeneity limited the conclusions. Current evidence indicates the potential benefits of microbiome interventions, particularly intensive multi-donor FMT, for inducing and maintaining remission in UC. Probiotics may also improve outcomes. Adequately powered trials using standardized protocols are still needed to firmly establish efficacy and safety. Microbiome-directed therapies represent a promising approach for improving IBD outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Abdin R, Kaiser M, Del Rosso JQ, et al (2024)

Antiseptic and Antibiotic Stewardship in Dermatologic Surgery: Is Benzoyl Peroxide the Solution?.

The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology, 17(5):24-28.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to review published literature on antibiotic and antiseptic use and resistance, and explore the utility of benzoyl peroxide in this capacity for dermatologic surgery.

METHODS: A literature review was performed to investigate the skin microbiome, guidelines on antibiotic and antiseptic use in dermatologic surgery, and the utility of benzoyl peroxide as an antiseptic.

RESULTS: Antiseptics are commonly used in dermatologic surgery to prepare surgical sites, and antibiotics are also employed by some physicians to prevent post-operative infection despite the potential for antibiotic resistance. Benzoyl peroxide, known for its high threshold for antibiotic resistance, has been successfully used in orthopedic surgery to prevent surgical site infection, especially in sebaceous areas of the skin which house a distinct microbiota.

LIMITATIONS: Limitations to this review include lack of high-quality, adequately powered research and studies which evaluate the clinical impact of anti-septic use, particularly benzoyl peroxide use, in dermatologic surgery.

CONCLUSION: Benzoyl peroxide may be a used as an antiseptic in dermatologic surgery of sebaceous areas to prevent post-operative infections, with a low likelihood of causing microbial resistance.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Lane Starr NM, Al-Rayyan N, Smith JM, et al (2024)

Combined metagenomic- and culture-based approaches to investigate bacterial strain-level associations with medication-controlled mild-moderate atopic dermatitis.

The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. Global, 3(3):100259.

BACKGROUND: The skin microbiome is disrupted in atopic dermatitis (AD). Existing research focuses on moderate to severe, unmedicated disease.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate metagenomic- and culture-based bacterial strain-level differences in mild, medicated AD and the effects these have on human keratinocytes (HKs).

METHODS: Skin swabs from anterior forearms were collected from 20 pediatric participants (11 participants with AD sampled at lesional and nonlesional sites and 9 age- and sex-matched controls). Participants had primarily mild to moderate AD and maintained medication use. Samples were processed for microbial metagenomic sequencing and bacterial isolation. Isolates identified as Staphylococcus aureus were tested for enterotoxin production. HK cultures were treated with cell-free conditioned media from representative Staphylococcus species to measure barrier effects.

RESULTS: Metagenomic sequencing identified significant differences in microbiome composition between AD and control groups. Differences were seen at the species and strain levels for Staphylococci, with S aureus found only in participants with AD and differences in Staphylococcus epidermidis strains between control and AD swabs. These strains showed differences in toxin gene presence, which was confirmed in vitro for S aureus enterotoxins. The strain from the participant with the most severe AD produced enterotoxin B levels more than 100-fold higher than the other strains (P < .001). Strains also displayed differential effects on HK metabolism and barrier function.

CONCLUSIONS: Strain-level differences in toxin genes from Staphylococcus strains may explain varying effects on HK, with S aureus and non-aureus strains negatively affecting viability and barrier function. These differences are likely important in AD pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Adamberg S, K Adamberg (2024)

Prevotella enterotype associates with diets supporting acidic faecal pH and production of propionic acid by microbiota.

Heliyon, 10(10):e31134.

Metabolism of dietary fibres by colon microbiota plays an important role for human health. Personal data from a nutrition study (57 subjects) were analysed to elucidate quantitative associations between the diet, faecal microbiome, organic acid concentrations and pH. Ratios of the predominant acids acetate, butyrate and propionate ranged from 1:0.67:0.27 to 1:0.17:0.36. Pectin-rich diets resulted in higher faecal acetate concentrations. Negative correlation between faecal pH and BSS was observed. Higher faecal pH and lower acid concentrations were related to the higher abundance of amino acid degrading Clostridium, Odoribacter and Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, which are weak carbohydrate fermenting taxa. Propionic acid correlated especially to high abundance of Prevotella and low abundance of proteobacteria. The acetate to propionate ratio of the Prevotella enterotype was about half of that of the Bacteroides enterotype. Based on the results we suggest the measurement of faecal pH and organic acid composition for research and diagnostic purposes.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Ossa-López PA, Ramírez-Chaves HE, Álvarez López ME, et al (2024)

Bacterial community of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and mammals from Arauca, Colombian Orinoquia.

International journal for parasitology. Parasites and wildlife, 24:100943.

Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrates and are relevant worldwide due to the number of bacterial and other pathogens they can transmit. To date, the knowledge about the microorganisms that ticks harbor and transmit to their hosts is incipient. In this study, 24 samples of mammals belonging to four taxonomic orders and ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus from the Orinoco region of Colombia were analyzed to described and compare the bacterial microbiome. Genetic extraction was performed, and the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR. Libraries were created, and those samples with adequate quality indices were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology. Bacterial taxonomic assignment analyses were conducted through Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) and Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs). The results correspond to 16 samples that passed the quality filters, with 3218 OTUs (415 families). Although a considerable number of unknown bacteria was found, Enterobacteriaceae, Beijerinckiaceae, Moraxellaceae, and Burkholderiaceae are the most prevalent families, and the presence of the genera Coxiella, Escherichia-Shigella, Enterobacter, which can harbor pathogenic species was confirmed. In individuals of Amblyomma mixtum found actively feeding on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, bacteria of the genera Escherichia-Shigella and Enterobacter were documented. Similarly, Rhipicephalus microplus found actively feeding on Odocoileus virginianus cariacou shared Escherichia-Shigella. Ralstonia was shared among the blood samples of H. hydrochaeris, while Anaplasma and Eubacterium were shared in blood and liver samples of O. v. cariacou. Shared bacteria between A. mixtum and R. microplus included Bacillus, Coxiella, and Escherichia-Shigella. The results highlight the need of additional studies in other natural regions of Colombia and other American countries where tick-borne diseases have been detected. Likewise, the recorded data are the first at the level of bacterial communities in ticks of the family Ixodidae and provide valuable knowledge for the understanding host-tick and pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Shulman HB, Aronson EL, Dierick D, et al (2024)

Leafcutter ants enhance microbial drought resilience in tropical forest soil.

Environmental microbiology reports, 16(3):e13251.

We conducted a research campaign in a neotropical rainforest in Costa Rica throughout the drought phase of an El-Nino Southern Oscillation event to determine microbial community dynamics and soil C fluxes. Our study included nests of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes, as soil disturbances made by these ecosystem engineers may influence microbial drought response. Drought decreased the diversity of microbes and the abundance of core microbiome taxa, including Verrucomicrobial bacteria and Sordariomycete fungi. Despite initial responses of decreasing diversity and altered composition, 6 months post-drought the microbiomes were similar to pre-drought conditions, demonstrating the resilience of soil microbial communities to drought events. A. cephalotes nests altered fungal composition in the surrounding soil, and reduced both fungal mortality and growth of Acidobacteria post-drought. Drought increased CH4 consumption in soils due to lower soil moisture, and A. cephalotes nests decrease the variability of CH4 emissions in some soil types. CH4 emissions were tracked by the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria and fungal composition. These results characterize the microbiome of tropical soils across both time and space during drought and provide evidence for the importance of leafcutter ant nests in shaping soil microbiomes and enhancing microbial resilience during climatic perturbations.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Ciorba MA, Konnikova L, Hirota SA, et al (2024)

Challenges in IBD Research 2024: Preclinical Human IBD Mechanisms.

Inflammatory bowel diseases, 30(Supplement_2):S5-S18.

Preclinical human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) mechanisms is one of 5 focus areas of the Challenges in IBD Research 2024 document, which also includes environmental triggers, novel technologies, precision medicine, and pragmatic clinical research. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview of current gaps in inflammatory bowel diseases research that relate to preclinical research and deliver actionable approaches to address them with a focus on how these gaps can lead to advancements in IBD interception, remission, and restoration. The document is the result of multidisciplinary input from scientists, clinicians, patients, and funders and represents a valuable resource for patient-centric research prioritization. This preclinical human IBD mechanisms section identifies major research gaps whose investigation will elucidate pathways and mechanisms that can be targeted to address unmet medical needs in IBD. Research gaps were identified in the following areas: genetics, risk alleles, and epigenetics; the microbiome; cell states and interactions; barrier function; IBD complications (specifically fibrosis and stricturing); and extraintestinal manifestations. To address these gaps, we share specific opportunities for investigation for basic and translational scientists and identify priority actions.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Wang X, Ye G, Wang Z, et al (2024)

Dietary Oat β-Glucan Alleviates High-Fat Induced Insulin Resistance through Regulating Circadian Clock and Gut Microbiome.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

SCOPE: High-fat diet induced circadian rhythm disorders (CRD) are associated with metabolic diseases. As the main functional bioactive component in oat, β-glucan (GLU) can improve metabolic disorders, however its regulatory effect on CRD remains unclear. In this research, the effects of GLU on high-fat diet induced insulin resistance and its mechanisms are investigated, especially focusing on circadian rhythm-related process.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice are fed a low fat diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), and HFD supplemented 3% GLU for 13 weeks. The results show that GLU treatment alleviates HFD-induced insulin resistance and intestinal barrier dysfunction in obese mice. The rhythmic expressions of circadian clock genes (Bmal1, Clock, and Cry1) in the colon impaired by HFD diet are also restored by GLU. Further analysis shows that GLU treatment restores the oscillatory nature of gut microbiome, which can enhance glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) secretion via short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mediated activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Meanwhile, GLU consumption significantly relieves colonic inflammation and insulin resistance through modulating HDAC3/NF-κB signaling pathway.

CONCLUSION: GLU can ameliorate insulin resistance due to its regulation of colonic circadian clock and gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Kiryowa HM, Buwembo W, Munabi IG, et al (2024)

A comparison of oral bacteriome isolated from periodontal pockets of participants with or without diabetes mellitus in Uganda: a case control study.

BMC research notes, 17(1):146.

OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus predisposes patients to increased incidence and severe forms of periodontal disease. Currently, information on the bacterial diversity of patients with diabetes mellitus and periodontitis in Uganda is scanty. This study set out to describe the bacteria associated with periodontitis in patients with diabetes mellitus in Uganda, as part of a larger study describing the association between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus.

RESULTS: This was a case control involving 45 samples of gingival crevicular fluid collected from participants with periodontitis, the cases being 26 participants with diabetes mellitus and controls 19 participants without diabetes mellitus. Sequencing using the 16s Oxford nanopore long read protocol was followed by a bioinformatics analysis pipeline for alpha and beta diversity indices in the two groups. Multivariate tests were done to determine the differences in the bacterial composition in the two groups. Of the 739 Operational Taxonomic Units and 500 phyla identified, 37.9% (280/739) were from participants with diabetes mellitus. Analysis of beta diversity revealed a dissimilarity between the two study groups (CAP score = 0) with a significant association noted between periodontitis and the subgingival bacteria (P = 0.001). Diabetes mellitus reduced the quantity and altered the composition of the subgingival microbiome in the study participants.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Guan Y, Li F, Li N, et al (2024)

Decoding Behcet's Uveitis: an In-depth review of pathogenesis and therapeutic advances.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 21(1):133.

Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare but globally distributed vasculitis that primarily affects populations in the Mediterranean and Asian regions. Behcet's uveitis (BU) is a common manifestation of BD, occurring in over two-thirds of the patients. BU is characterized by bilateral, chronic, recurrent, non-granulomatous uveitis in association with complications such as retinal ischemia and atrophy, optic atrophy, macular ischemia, macular edema, and further neovascular complications (vitreous hemorrhage, neovascular glaucoma). Although the etiology and pathogenesis of BU remain unclear, numerous studies reveal that genetic factors (such as HLA-B51), dysregulated immune responses of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, infections (such as streptococcus), and environmental factors (such as GDP) are all involved in its development. Innate immunity, including hyperactivity of neutrophils and γδT cells and elevated NK1/NK2 ratios, has been shown to play an essential role in this disease. Adaptive immune system disturbance, including homeostatic perturbations, Th1, Th17 overaction, and Treg cell dysfunction, is thought to be involved in BU pathogenesis. Treatment of BU requires a tailored approach based on the location, severity of inflammation, and systemic manifestations. The therapy aims to achieve rapid inflammation suppression, preservation of vision, and prevention of recurrence. Systemic corticosteroids combined with other immunosuppressive agents have been widely used to treat BU, and beneficial effects are observed in most patients. Recently, biologics have been shown to be effective in treating refractory BU cases. Novel therapeutic targets for treating BU include the LCK gene, Th17/Treg balance, JAK pathway inhibition, and cytokines such as IL-17 and RORγt. This article summarizes the recent studies on BU, especially in terms of pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria and classification, auxiliary examination, and treatment options. A better understanding of the significance of microbiome composition, genetic basis, and persistent immune mechanisms, as well as advancements in identifying new biomarkers and implementing objective quantitative detection of BU, may greatly contribute to improving the adequate management of BU patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Moreno E, Ciordia S, Fátima SM, et al (2024)

Proteomic snapshot of saliva samples predicts new pathways implicated in SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis.

Clinical proteomics, 21(1):37.

BACKGROUND: Information on the microbiome's human pathways and active members that can affect SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and pathogenesis in the salivary proteome is very scarce. Here, we studied a unique collection of samples harvested from April to June 2020 from unvaccinated patients.

METHODS: We compared 10 infected and hospitalized patients with severe (n = 5) and moderate (n = 5) coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with 10 uninfected individuals, including non-COVID-19 but susceptible individuals (n = 5) and non-COVID-19 and nonsusceptible healthcare workers with repeated high-risk exposures (n = 5).

RESULTS: By performing high-throughput proteomic profiling in saliva samples, we detected 226 unique differentially expressed (DE) human proteins between groups (q-value ≤ 0.05) out of 3376 unambiguously identified proteins (false discovery rate ≤ 1%). Major differences were observed between the non-COVID-19 and nonsusceptible groups. Bioinformatics analysis of DE proteins revealed human proteomic signatures related to inflammatory responses, central cellular processes, and antiviral activity associated with the saliva of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients (p-value ≤ 0.0004). Discriminatory biomarker signatures from human saliva include cystatins, protective molecules present in the oral cavity, calprotectins, involved in cell cycle progression, and histones, related to nucleosome functions. The expression levels of two human proteins related to protein transport in the cytoplasm, DYNC1 (p-value, 0.0021) and MAPRE1 (p-value, 0.047), correlated with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) plasma activity. Finally, the proteomes of microorganisms present in the saliva samples showed 4 main microbial functional features related to ribosome functioning that were overrepresented in the infected group.

CONCLUSION: Our study explores potential candidates involved in pathways implicated in SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, although further studies in larger cohorts will be necessary.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Ismaeil M, Alsharif SM, Saeed AM, et al (2024)

Metagenomic 16S rRNA analysis and predictive functional profiling revealed intrinsic organohalides respiration and bioremediation potential in mangrove sediment.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):176.

BACKGROUND: Mangrove sediment microbes are increasingly attracting scientific attention due to their demonstrated capacity for diverse bioremediation activities, encompassing a wide range of environmental contaminants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The microbial communities of five Avicennia marina mangrove sediment samples collected from Al Rayyis White Head, Red Sea (KSA), were characterized using Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes.

RESULTS: Our study investigated the microbial composition and potential for organohalide bioremediation in five mangrove sediments from the Red Sea. While Proteobacteria dominated four microbiomes, Bacteroidetes dominated the fifth. Given the environmental concerns surrounding organohalides, their bioremediation is crucial. Encouragingly, we identified phylogenetically diverse organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) across all samples, including Dehalogenimonas, Dehalococcoides, Anaeromyxobacter, Desulfuromonas, Geobacter, Desulfomonile, Desulfovibrio, Shewanella and Desulfitobacterium. These bacteria are known for their ability to dechlorinate organohalides through reductive dehalogenation. PICRUSt analysis further supported this potential, predicting the presence of functional biomarkers for organohalide respiration (OHR), including reductive dehalogenases targeting tetrachloroethene (PCE) and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetate in most sediments. Enrichment cultures studies confirmed this prediction, demonstrating PCE dechlorination by the resident microbial community. PICRUSt also revealed a dominance of anaerobic metabolic processes, suggesting the microbiome's adaptation to the oxygen-limited environment of the sediments.

CONCLUSION: This study provided insights into the bacterial community composition of five mangrove sediments from the Red Sea. Notably, diverse OHRB were detected across all samples, which possess the metabolic potential for organohalide bioremediation through reductive dehalogenation pathways. Furthermore, PICRUSt analysis predicted the presence of functional biomarkers for OHR in most sediments, suggesting potential intrinsic OHR activity by the enclosed microbial community.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Özçam M, SV Lynch (2024)

The gut-airway microbiome axis in health and respiratory diseases.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Communication between the gut and remote organs, such as the brain or the cardiovascular system, has been well established and recent studies provide evidence for a potential bidirectional gut-airway axis. Observations from animal and human studies indicate that respiratory insults influence the activity of the gut microbiome and that microbial ligands and metabolic products generated by the gut microbiome shape respiratory immunity. Information exchange between these two large mucosal surface areas regulates microorganism-immune interactions, with significant implications for the clinical and treatment outcomes of a range of respiratory conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer. In this Review, we summarize the most recent data in this field, offering insights into mechanisms of gut-airway crosstalk across spatial and temporal gradients and their relevance for respiratory health.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Subrahmanyam G, Thirupathaiah Y, Vijay N, et al (2024)

Contrasting gut bacteriomes unveiled between wild Antheraea assamensis Helfer (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) and domesticated Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) silkworms.

Molecular biology reports, 51(1):666.

BACKGROUND: Insect gut microbiomes play a fundamental role in various aspects of insect physiology, including digestion, nutrient metabolism, detoxification, immunity, growth and development. The wild Muga silkworm, Antheraea assamensis Helfer holds significant economic importance, as it produces golden silk.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In the current investigation, we deciphered its intricate gut bacteriome through high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Further, to understand bacterial community dynamics among silkworms raised under outdoor environmental conditions, we compared its gut bacteriomes with those of the domesticated mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori L. Most abundant bacterial phyla identified in the gut of A. assamensis were Proteobacteria (78.1%), Bacteroidetes (8.0%) and Firmicutes (6.6%), whereas the most-abundant phyla in B. mori were Firmicutes (49-86%) and Actinobacteria (10-36%). Further, Gammaproteobacteria (57.1%), Alphaproteobacteria (10.47%) and Betaproteobacteria (8.28%) were the dominant bacterial classes found in the gut of A. assamensis. The predominant bacterial families in A. assamensis gut were Enterobacteriaceae (27.7%), Comamonadaceae (9.13%), Pseudomonadaceae (9.08%) Flavobacteriaceae (7.59%) Moraxellaceae (7.38%) Alteromonadaceae (6.8%) and Enterococcaceae (4.46%). In B. mori, the most-abundant bacterial families were Peptostreptococcaceae, Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Bifidobacteriaceae, though all showed great variability among the samples. The core gut bacteriome of A. assamensis consisted of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Variovorax, Myroides, Alteromonas, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Sphingomonas, Brevundimonas, Oleispira, Comamonas, Oleibacter Vagococcus, Aminobacter, Marinobacter, Cupriavidus, Aeromonas, and Bacillus. Comparative gut bacteriome analysis revealed a more complex gut bacterial diversity in wild A. assamensis silkworms than in domesticated B. mori silkworms, which contained a relatively simple gut bacteriome as estimated by OTU richness. Predictive functional profiling of the gut bacteriome suggested that gut bacteria in A. assamensis were associated with a wide range of physiological, nutritional, and metabolic functions, including biodegradation of xenobiotics, lipid, amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and amino acids.

CONCLUSIONS: These results showed great differences in the composition and diversity of gut bacteria between the two silkworm species. Both insect species harbored core bacterial taxa commonly found in insects, but the relative abundance and composition of these taxa varied markedly.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Shishani R, Wang A, Lyo V, et al (2024)

Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy Reduces Gut Luminal Deoxycholic Acid Concentrations in Mice.

Obesity surgery [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery alters bile acid metabolism, which contributes to post-operative improvements in metabolic health. However, the mechanisms by which bariatric surgery alters bile acid metabolism are incompletely defined. In particular, the role of the gut microbiome in the effects of bariatric surgery on bile acid metabolism is incompletely understood. Therefore, we sought to define the changes in gut luminal bile acid composition after vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG).

METHODS: Bile acid profile was determined by UPLC-MS/MS in serum and gut luminal samples from VSG and sham-operated mice. Sham-operated mice were divided into two groups: one was fed ad libitum, while the other was food-restricted to match their body weight to the VSG-operated mice.

RESULTS: VSG decreased gut luminal secondary bile acids, which was driven by a decrease in gut luminal deoxycholic acid concentrations and abundance. However, gut luminal cholic acid (precursor for deoxycholic acid) concentration and abundance did not differ between groups. Therefore, the observed decrease in gut luminal deoxycholic acid abundance after VSG was not due to a reduction in substrate availability.

CONCLUSION: VSG decreased gut luminal deoxycholic acid abundance independently of body weight, which may be driven by a decrease in gut bacterial bile acid metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Le Dréan G, HM Blottière (2024)

Glutamate from the microbiome controls host metabolism.

Nature metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Guo MY, Liu J, Balmes P, et al (2024)

Effects of diet and antibiotics on anastomotic healing: A mouse model study with varied dietary fiber and fat, and pre-operative antibiotics.

American journal of surgery pii:S0002-9610(24)00274-5 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the separate impacts of diet and pre-operative antibiotics on gut microbiome and colonic anastomotic healing using a mouse model.

METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either low-fat-high-fibre (SD) or high-fat-low-fiber (WD) groups for 6 weeks, then further received either pre-operative antibiotics or a control sham before a colonic anastomotic procedure was performed. After 7 days, the anastomosis was assessed and microbiota composition and biodiversity were analyzed in anastomotic tissue and stool.

RESULTS: WD-fed mice had shorter survival (5.2 ​± ​2.3 vs. 6.9 ​± ​2.3 days, p ​= ​0.022), increased weight loss (5.55 ​± ​3.80g vs. 2.65 ​± ​2.36g, p ​= ​0.03), and reduced biodiversity compared to SD-fed mice. Pre-operative antibiotics improved anastomotic healing scores (1.33 ​± ​0.65 vs. 2.08 ​± ​0.79, p ​= ​0.02) and reduced Enterococcus faecalis growth in tissue and stool (p ​= ​0.02, p ​= ​0.02). Improved anastomotic healing correlated with lower Enterococcus abundance (p ​= ​0.04) and higher collagen III and IV levels (p ​= ​0.01, 0.04) in anastomotic tissue.

CONCLUSION: SD promotes enhanced post-operative recovery and increased microbiome biodiversity, while pre-operative antibiotics enhance anastomotic healing by suppressing Enterococcus faecalis growth, mitigating collagen III/IV degradation.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Molina MA, Biswas S, Núñez-Samudio V, et al (2024)

Targeting Megasphaera species to promote cervicovaginal health.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(24)00131-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Maintaining a healthy cervicovaginal microbiome (CVM) is vital for women's wellbeing; it is dependent primarily on Lactobacillus dominance. Microbiome imbalances, driven by Megasphaera species, contribute to infections and disease. Comprehensive research into Megasphaera biology and interventions is crucial for personalized women's healthcare, and additional efforts are required to mitigate the risks posed by cervicovaginal dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Leonard A, Earth Hologenome Initiative Consortium, A Alberdi (2024)

A global initiative for ecological and evolutionary hologenomics.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(24)00074-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The Earth Hologenome Initiative (EHI) is a global collaboration to generate and analyse hologenomic data from wild animals and associated microorganisms using standardised methodologies underpinned by open and inclusive research principles. Initially focused on vertebrates, it aims to re-examine ecological and evolutionary questions by studying host-microbiota interactions from a systemic perspective.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Zhou G, Ye Z, Luo J, et al (2024)

Intestinal microbiota and gene expression alterations in leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) under enteritis.

Fish & shellfish immunology, 150:109644 pii:S1050-4648(24)00289-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Enteritis poses a significant threat to fish farming, characterized by symptoms of intestinal and hepatic inflammation, physiological dysfunction, and dysbiosis. Focused on the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) with an enteritis outbreak on a South China Sea farm, our prior scrutiny did not find any abnormalities in feeding or conventional water quality factors, nor were any specific pathogen infections related to enteritis identified. This study further elucidates their intestinal flora alterations, host responses, and their interactions to uncover the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms and facilitate effective prevention and management strategies. Enteritis-affected fish exhibited substantial differences in intestinal flora compared to control fish (P = 0.001). Notably, norank_f_Alcaligenaceae, which has a negative impact on fish health, predominated in enteritis-affected fish (91.76 %), while the probiotic genus Lactococcus dominated in controls (93.90 %). Additionally, certain genera with pathogenesis potentials like Achromobacter, Sphingomonas, and Streptococcus were more abundant in diseased fish, whereas Enterococcus and Clostridium_sensu_stricto with probiotic potentials were enriched in control fish. At the transcriptomic level, strong inflammatory responses, accompanied by impaired metabolic functions, tissue damage, and iron death signaling activation were observed in the intestines and liver during enteritis. Furthermore, correlation analysis highlighted that potential pathogen groups were positively associated with inflammation and tissue damage genes while presenting negatively correlated with metabolic function-related genes. In conclusion, dysbiosis in the intestinal microbiome, particularly an aberrantly high abundance of Alcaligenaceae with pathogenic potential may be the main trigger for this enteritis outbreak. Alcaligenaceae alongside Achromobacter, Sphingomonas, and Streptococcus emerged as biomarkers for enteritis, whereas some species of Lactococcus, Clostridium_sensu_stricto, and Enterococcus showed promise as probiotics to alleviate enteritis symptoms. These findings enhance our understanding of enteritis pathogenesis, highlight intestinal microbiota shifts in leopard coral grouper, and propose biomarkers for monitoring, probiotic selection, and enteritis management.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Li Q, Zhang C, Zhu M, et al (2024)

W-GA nanodots restore intestinal barrier functions by regulating flora disturbance and relieving excessive oxidative stress to alleviate colitis.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(24)00269-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may arise due to disruption of mucosal barriers as a result of dysregulation of the intestinal flora and excessive oxidative stress. The creation of nanomaterials with only microbiota-regulating effects often leads to inadequate therapeutic outcomes caused by the disruption of a healthy microbial balance and the emergence of tissue harm caused by excessive oxidative stress. This report describes the multifunctional activity of ultrasmall W-GA nanodots, which can precisely regulate the intestinal microbiome by inhibiting the abnormal expansion of Enterobacteriaceae during colitis and alleviating the damage caused by oxidative stress to the reconstructive microflora, ultimately restoring intestinal barrier function. W-GA nanodots have been synthesized through a simple coordination reaction and can be dispersed in various solvents in vitro, demonstrating favorable safety profiles in cells, significant clearance of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS), and increased cell survival in models of oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Through oral or intravenous administration, the W-GA nanodots were shown to be highly safe when tested in vivo, and they effectively reduced colon damage in mice with DSS-induced colitis by restoring the integrity of the intestinal barrier. W-GA nanodots have enabled the integration of microflora reprogramming and RONS clearance, creating a potent therapeutic strategy for treating gut inflammation. Consequently, the development of W-GA nanodots represents a promising strategy for enhancing the formation and preservation of the intestinal barrier to treat IBDs by suppressing the growth of Enterobacteriaceae, a type of facultative anaerobic bacterium, and facilitating the effective removal of RONS. Ultimately, this leads to the restoration of the intestinal barrier's functionality. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: An increasing number of nanoparticles are under development for treating inflammatory bowel disease. Although they can alleviate inflammation symptoms by regulating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and microbiota, their understanding of the mechanism behind microbiota regulation is limited. This study synthesized W-GA nanodots using a straightforward one-pot synthesis method. Simple synthesis holds significant promise for clinical applications, as it encompasses multiple nanoenzyme functions and also exhibits Enterobacteriaceae inhibitory properties.Thus, it contributes to ameliorating the current medical landscape of inflammatory bowel disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Hasaniani N, Mostafa Rahimi S, Akbari M, et al (2024)

The Role of Intestinal Microbiota and Probiotics Supplementation in Multiple Sclerosis Management.

Neuroscience pii:S0306-4522(24)00207-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological autoimmune disorder predominantly afflicting young adults. The etiology of MS is intricate, involving a variety of environmental and genetic factors. Current research increasingly focuses on the substantial contribution of gut microbiota in MS pathogenesis. The commensal microbiota resident within the intestinal milieu assumes a central role within the intricate network recognized as the gut-brain axis (GBA), wielding beneficial impact in neurological and psychological facets. As a result, the modulation of gut microbiota is considered a pivotal aspect in the management of neural disorders, including MS. Recent investigations have unveiled the possibility of using probiotic supplements as a promising strategy for exerting a positive impact on the course of MS. This therapeutic approach operates through several mechanisms, including the reinforcement of gut epithelial integrity, augmentation of the host's resistance against pathogenic microorganisms, and facilitation of mucosal immunomodulatory processes. The present study comprehensively explains the gut microbiome's profound influence on the central nervous system (CNS). It underscores the pivotal role played by probiotics in forming the immune system and modulating neurotransmitter function. Furthermore, the investigation elucidates various instances of probiotic utilization in MS patients, shedding light on the potential therapeutic advantages afforded by this intervention.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Sharma SA, Oladejo SO, Z Kuang (2024)

Chemical interplay between gut microbiota and epigenetics: Implications in circadian biology.

Cell chemical biology pii:S2451-9456(24)00178-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Circadian rhythms are intrinsic molecular mechanisms that synchronize biological functions with the day/night cycle. The mammalian gut is colonized by a myriad of microbes, collectively named the gut microbiota. The microbiota impacts host physiology via metabolites and structural components. A key mechanism is the modulation of host epigenetic pathways, especially histone modifications. An increasing number of studies indicate the role of the microbiota in regulating host circadian rhythms. However, the mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we summarize studies on microbial regulation of host circadian rhythms and epigenetic pathways, highlight recent findings on how the microbiota employs host epigenetic machinery to regulate circadian rhythms, and discuss its impacts on host physiology, particularly immune and metabolic functions. We further describe current challenges and resources that could facilitate research on microbiota-epigenetic-circadian rhythm interactions to advance our knowledge of circadian disorders and possible therapeutic avenues.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Kreuzer K, Birkl-Toeglhofer AM, Haybaeck J, et al (2024)

PROVIT-CLOCK: A Potential Influence of Probiotics and Vitamin B7 Add-On Treatment and Metabolites on Clock Gene Expression in Major Depression.

Neuropsychobiology pii:000538781 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: An increasing body of evidence suggests a strong relationship between gut health and mental state. Lately, a connection between butyrate-producing bacteria and sleep quality has been discussed. The PROVIT study, as a randomized, double-blind, 4-week, multispecies probiotic intervention study, aims at elucidating the potential interconnection between the gut's metabolome and the molecular clock in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD).

METHODS: The aim of the PROVIT-CLOCK study was to analyze changes in core clock gene expression during treatment with probiotic intervention versus placebo in fasting blood and the connection with the serum- and stool-metabolome in patients with MDD (n = 53). In addition to clinical assessments in the PROVIT study, metabolomics analyses with 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (stool and serum) and gene expression (RT-qPCR) analysis of the core clock genes ARNTL, PER3, CLOCK, TIMELESS, NR1D1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of fasting blood were performed.

RESULTS: The gene expression levels of the clock gene CLOCK were significantly altered only in individuals receiving probiotic add-on treatment. TIMELESS and ARNTL gene expression changed significantly over the 4-week intervention period in both groups. Various positive and negative correlations between metabolites in serum/stool and core clock gene expression levels were observed.

CONCLUSION: Changing the gut microbiome by probiotic treatment potentially influences CLOCK gene expression. The preliminary results of the PROVIT-CLOCK study indicate a possible interconnection between the gut microbiome and circadian rhythm potentially orchestrated by metabolites.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Singh J, Vanlallawmzuali , Singh A, et al (2024)

Microbiota-brain axis: Exploring the role of gut microbiota in psychiatric disorders - A comprehensive review.

Asian journal of psychiatry, 97:104068 pii:S1876-2018(24)00161-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Mental illness is a hidden epidemic in modern science that has gradually spread worldwide. According to estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 10% of the world's population suffers from various mental diseases each year. Worldwide, financial and health burdens on society are increasing annually. Therefore, understanding the different factors that can influence mental illness is required to formulate novel and effective treatments and interventions to combat mental illness. Gut microbiota, consisting of diverse microbial communities residing in the gastrointestinal tract, exert profound effects on the central nervous system through the gut-brain axis. The gut-brain axis serves as a conduit for bidirectional communication between the two systems, enabling the gut microbiota to affect emotional and cognitive functions. Dysbiosis, or an imbalance in the gut microbiota, is associated with an increased susceptibility to mental health disorders and psychiatric illnesses. Gut microbiota is one of the most diverse and abundant groups of microbes that have been found to interact with the central nervous system and play important physiological functions in the human gut, thus greatly affecting the development of mental illnesses. The interaction between gut microbiota and mental health-related illnesses is a multifaceted and promising field of study. This review explores the mechanisms by which gut microbiota influences mental health, encompassing the modulation of neurotransmitter production, neuroinflammation, and integrity of the gut barrier. In addition, it emphasizes a thorough understanding of how the gut microbiome affects various psychiatric conditions.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Minj J, Riordan J, Teets C, et al (2024)

Diet-Induced Rodent Obesity Is Prevented and the Fecal Microbiome Is Improved with Elderberry (Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis) Juice Powder.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Anthocyanin-rich edible berries protect against diet-induced obesity in animal models. Prevention is mediated through the bidirectional relationship with the fecal microbiome, and gut-derived phenolic metabolite absorption increases with physical activity, which may influence bioactivity. The objective of this study was to test elderberry juice powder on the development of diet-induced obesity and its influence on the fecal microbiome alone or in combination with physical activity. Male C57BL/6J mice were assigned to one of four treatments, including (1) high-fat diet without wheel access; (2) high-fat diet with unlimited wheel access; (3) high-fat diet supplemented with 10% elderberry juice powder without wheel access; and (4) high-fat diet supplemented with 10% elderberry juice powder with unlimited wheel access. Body weight gain, fat pads, and whole-body fat content in mice fed elderberry juice were significantly less than in mice fed the control diet independent of wheel access. At the end of the study, active mice fed elderberry juice ate significantly more than active mice fed a control diet. There was no difference in the physical activity between active groups. Elderberry juice increasedBifidobacterium, promotedAkkermansia and Anaeroplasma, and prevented the growth of Desulfovibrio. Elderberry juice is a potent inhibitor of diet-induced obesity with action mediated by the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Beattie GA, Bayliss KL, Jacobson DA, et al (2024)

From microbes to microbiomes: Applications for plant health and sustainable agriculture.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Plant-microbe interaction research has had a transformative trajectory, from individual microbial isolate studies to comprehensive analyses of plant microbiomes within the broader phytobiome framework. Acknowledging the indispensable role of plant microbiomes in shaping plant health, agriculture, and ecosystem resilience, we underscore the urgent need for sustainable crop production strategies in the face of contemporary challenges. We discuss how the synergies between advancements in 'omics technologies and artificial intelligence can help advance the profound potential of plant microbiomes. Furthermore, we propose a multifaceted approach encompassing translational considerations, transdisciplinary research initiatives, public-private partnerships, regulatory policy development, and pragmatic expectations for the practical application of plant microbiome knowledge across diverse agricultural landscapes. We advocate for strategic collaboration and intentional transdisciplinary efforts to unlock the benefits offered by plant microbiomes and address pressing global issues in food security. By emphasizing a nuanced understanding of plant microbiome complexities and fostering realistic expectations, we encourage the scientific community to navigate the transformative journey from discoveries in the laboratory to field applications. As companies specializing in agricultural microbes and microbiomes undergo shifts, we highlight the necessity of understanding how to approach sustainable agriculture with site-specific management solutions. While cautioning against over-promising, we underscore the excitement of exploring the many impacts of microbiome-plant interactions. We emphasize the importance of collaborative endeavors with societal partners to accelerate our collective capacity to harness the diverse and yet-to-be-discovered beneficial activities of plant microbiomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Starr K, Montesanto F, Perisho E, et al (2024)

Gut Microbial Composition of Cyprinella lutrensis (Red Shiner) and Notropis stramineus (Sand Shiner): Insights from Wild Fish Populations.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):75.

The gut microbiome is a highly intricate ecosystem that exerts a pivotal influence on the host's physiology. Characterizing fish microbiomes is critical to understanding fish physiology and health, but little is known about the ecology and colonization dynamics of microorganisms inhabiting fish species. In this study, we investigated the bacterial communities of two small-bodied fish species, Cyprinella lutrensis (red shiner) and Notropis stramineus (sand shiner), two fish species where gut microbiomes have not been investigated previously and surrounding waters, collected from rivers in Nebraska, USA. Our study focused on evaluating microbial diversity in small-bodied fish and identifying autochthonous microbes present within these species irrespective of location to better understand bacterial community composition and possible roles of such bacterial species. Our results revealed that both red shiner and sand shiner exhibited gut bacterial communities dominated by typical bacterial phyla found in freshwater fish. The phylum Bacteroidota was minimally abundant in both species and significantly lower in relative abundance compared to the surrounding water microbial community. Furthermore, we found that the gut microbiomes of red shiner and sand shiner differed from the microbial community in the surrounding water, suggesting that these fish species contain host-associated bacterial species that may provide benefits to the host such as nutrient digestion and colonization resistance of environmental pathogens. The fish gut bacterial communities were sensitive to environmental conditions such as turbidity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and total nitrogen. Our findings also show bacterial community differences between fish species; although they shared notable similarities in bacterial taxa at phyla level composition, ASV level analysis of bacterial taxa displayed compositional differences. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the gut bacterial composition of wild, freshwater, small-bodied fish and highlight the influence of intrinsic (host) and environmental factors on shaping the bacterial composition.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Ferrarezi JVS, Owatari MS, Martins MA, et al (2024)

Effects of a multi-strain Bacillus probiotic on the intestinal microbiome, haemato-immunology, and growth performance of Nile tilapia.

Veterinary research communications [Epub ahead of print].

The study evaluated dietary supplementation with a feed additive composed of multi-strain Bacillus for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. In vitro and in vivo assays employing culture-based microbiological methods and metagenomics were performed. Additionally, the study assessed the haemato-immunology, intestinal microbiome, and growth performance of the animals. For this, 30 juvenile Nile tilapia were used in the in vitro assay and 180 (60 + 120) in the in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, we found evidence of adhesion of the probiotic bacteria to the intestinal mucus of fish, corroborated in the 15-day in vivo assay, in which the count of B. licheniformis was significantly higher in fish fed with probiotic when compared to fish of the control group. Furthermore, in the 50-day in vivo trial, a metagenomic analysis provided evidence for the modulation of the intestine microbiome of Nile tilapia by dietary supplementation of the probiotic. In addition, there was an increase in species richness, higher abundance of potentially probiotic autochthonous species and a lower abundance of Aeromonas sp. when the animals were fed the supplemented diet. Finally, no significant differences were observed in growth performance and haemato-immunological analyses, suggesting no harm to fish health when the product was supplemented for 15 and 50 days. The in vitro results indicate that the multi-strain probiotics were able to adhere to the intestinal mucus of Nile tilapia. Additionally, a modulation of the intestinal microbiome was evidenced in the in vivo assay.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Atay R, O Hacioglu (2024)

Determination of microbiota awareness levels in women planning pregnancy.

Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira (1992), 70(5):e20231401.

OBJECTIVE: It was recently discovered that the microbiota has a significant impact on pregnancy, gynecological, and neonatal health. However, studies indicate that people struggle to understand topics, such as microbiota, microbiome, probiotics, and prebiotics, or comprehend them inaccurately or incompletely. Understanding the human microbiota and probiotics that can regulate the microbiota helps women develop daily habits for both healthy nutrition and health protection. The aim of this study was to assess the microbiota awareness levels of women who are planning pregnancy.

METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 417 women who were planning pregnancy. Face-to-face interviews and questionnaires were used to collect research data. A microbiota awareness scale was used as a data collection tool.

RESULTS: The study found a statistically significant difference in the subdimension scores related to microbiota awareness, general information, product knowledge, chronic disease, and probiotic and prebiotic knowledge based on the educational status of the participants. The study concluded that the participants had a confusion about microbiota awareness, general information, product information, chronic disease, and probiotic and prebiotic subdimensions. Furthermore, it was found that the participants had only a partial understanding of the relationship between microbiota and diseases.

CONCLUSION: It is recommended that training programs focusing on the relationship between microbiota and health in women, such as "microbiota and its importance in women's health" and "microbiota and disease relationship," be organized and women would be encouraged to participate in these training programs.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Barker H, MJ Ferraro (2024)

Exploring the versatile roles of the endocannabinoid system and phytocannabinoids in modulating bacterial infections.

Infection and immunity [Epub ahead of print].

The endocannabinoid system (ECS), initially identified for its role in maintaining homeostasis, particularly in regulating brain function, has evolved into a complex orchestrator influencing various physiological processes beyond its original association with the nervous system. Notably, an expanding body of evidence emphasizes the ECS's crucial involvement in regulating immune responses. While the specific role of the ECS in bacterial infections remains under ongoing investigation, compelling indications suggest its active participation in host-pathogen interactions. Incorporating the ECS into the framework of bacterial pathogen infections introduces a layer of complexity to our understanding of its functions. While some studies propose the potential of cannabinoids to modulate bacterial function and immune responses, the outcomes inherently hinge on the specific infection and cannabinoid under consideration. Moreover, the bidirectional relationship between the ECS and the gut microbiota underscores the intricate interplay among diverse physiological processes. The ECS extends its influence far beyond its initial discovery, emerging as a promising therapeutic target across a spectrum of medical conditions, encompassing bacterial infections, dysbiosis, and sepsis. This review comprehensively explores the complex roles of the ECS in the modulation of bacteria, the host's response to bacterial infections, and the dynamics of the microbiome. Special emphasis is placed on the roles of cannabinoid receptor types 1 and 2, whose signaling intricately influences immune cell function in microbe-host interactions.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Burke DJ, Carrino-Kyker SR, Hoke AJ, et al (2024)

Effects of the nematode Litylenchus crenatae subsp. mccannii and beech leaf disease on leaf fungal and bacterial communities on Fagus grandifolia (American beech).

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Beech leaf disease (BLD) is a newly emerging disease in North America that affects American beech (Fagus grandifolia). It is increasingly recognized that BLD is caused by a subspecies of the anguinid nematode Litylenchus crenatae subsp. mccannii (hereafter L. crenatae), which is likely native to East Asia. How nematode infestation of leaves affects the leaf microbiome and whether changes in the microbiome could contribute to BLD symptoms remain uncertain. In this study, we examined bacterial and fungal communities associated with the leaves of F. grandifolia across nine sites in Ohio and Pennsylvania that were either symptomatic or asymptomatic for BLD and used qPCR to measure relative nematode infestation levels. We found significantly higher levels of infestation at sites visibly symptomatic for BLD. Low levels of nematode infestation were also observed at asymptomatic sites, which suggests that nematodes can be present without visible symptoms evident. Bacterial and fungal communities were significantly affected by sampling site and symptomology, but only fungal communities were affected by nematode presence alone. We found many significant indicators of both bacteria and fungi related to symptoms of BLD, with taxa generally occurring in both asymptomatic and symptomatic leaves, suggesting that microbes are not responsible for BLD but could act as opportunistic pathogens. Of particular interest was the fungal genus Erysiphe, which is common in the Fagaceae and is reported to overwinter in buds-a strategy consistent with L. crenatae. The specific role microbes play in opportunistic infection of leaves affected by L. crenatae will require additional study.

IMPORTANCE: Beech leaf disease (BLD) is an emerging threat to American beech (Fagus grandifolia) and has spread quickly throughout the northeastern United States and into southern Canada. This disease leads to disfigurement of leaves and is marked by characteristic dark, interveinal banding, followed by leaf curling and drop in more advanced stages. BLD tends to especially affect understory leaves, which can lead to substantial thinning of the forest understory where F. grandifolia is a dominant tree species. Understanding the cause of BLD is necessary to employ management strategies that protect F. grandifolia and the forests where it is a foundation tree species. Current research has confirmed that the foliar nematode Litylenchus crenatae subsp. mccannii is required for BLD, but whether other organisms are involved is currently unknown. Here, we present a study that investigated leaf-associated fungi and bacteria of F. grandifolia to understand more about how microorganisms may contribute to BLD.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Calma AD, Pavey N, Menon P, et al (2024)

Neuroinflammation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: pathogenic insights and therapeutic implications.

Current opinion in neurology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neuroinflammation appears to be an important pathogenic process in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Dysfunction of central immune pathways, including activation of microglia and astrocytes, and peripherally derived immune cells, initiate noncell autonomous inflammatory mechanisms leading to degeneration. Cell autonomous pathways linked to ALS genetic mutations have been recently identified as contributing mechanism for neurodegeneration. The current review provides insights into the pathogenic importance of central and peripheral inflammatory processes in ALS pathogenesis and appraises their potential as therapeutic targets.

RECENT FINDINGS: ALS is a multistep process mediated by a complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Noncell autonomous inflammatory pathways contribute to neurodegeneration in ALS. Activation of microglia and astrocytes, along with central nervous system infiltration of peripherally derived pro-inflammatory innate (NK-cells/monocytes) and adaptive (cell-mediated/humoral) immune cells, are characteristic of ALS. Dysfunction of regulatory T-cells, elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and dysbiosis of gut microbiome towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype, have been reported as pathogenic mechanisms in ALS.

SUMMARY: Dysregulation of adaptive and innate immunity is pathogenic in ALS, being associated with greater disease burden, more rapid disease course and reduced survival. Strategies aimed at modulating the pro-inflammatory immune components could be of therapeutic utility.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

van den Tweel MM, van der Struijs S, Le Cessie S, et al (2024)

The impact of caesarean scar niche on fertility - a systematic review.

Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 44(1):2349714.

BACKGROUND: The trend of increasing caesarean section (CS) rates brings up questions related to subfertility. Research regarding the influence of CS on assisted reproduction techniques (ART) is conflicting. A potential mechanism behind CS-induced subfertility is intra uterine fluid resulting from a caesarean scar defect or niche. The vaginal microbiome has been repeatedly connected to negative ART outcomes, but it is unknown if the microbiome is changed in relation to a niche.

METHODS: This systematic review describes literature investigating the effect of a niche on live birth rates after assisted reproduction. Furthermore, studies investigating a difference in microbial composition in subfertile persons with a niche compared to no niche are evaluated. Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science were searched on March 2023 for comparative studies on both study questions. Inclusion criteria were i.e., English language, human-only studies, availability of the full article and presence of comparative pregnancy data on a niche. The quality of the included studies and their risk of bias were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for cohort studies. The results were graphically displayed in a forest plot.

RESULTS: Six retrospective cohort studies could be included on fertility outcomes, with a total of 1083 persons with a niche and 3987 without a niche. The overall direction of effect shows a negative impact of a niche on the live birth rate (pooled aOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.48-0.69) with low-grade evidence. Three studies comparing the microbiome between persons with and without a CS could be identified.

CONCLUSION: There is low-grade evidence to conclude that the presence of a niche reduces live birth rates when compared to persons without a niche. The theory that a caesarean has a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes because of dysbiosis promoted by the niche is interesting, but there is no sufficient literature about this.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Li B, Han Y, Fu Z, et al (2024)

The causal relationship between gut microbiota and lymphoma: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1397485.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated a potential link between the gut microbiota and lymphoma. However, the exact causal interplay between the two remains an area of ambiguity.

METHODS: We performed a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to elucidate the causal relationship between gut microbiota and five types of lymphoma. The research drew upon microbiome data from a research project of 14,306 participants and lymphoma data encompassing 324,650 cases. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were meticulously chosen as instrumental variables according to multiple stringent criteria. Five MR methodologies, including the inverse variance weighted approach, were utilized to assess the direct causal impact between the microbial exposures and lymphoma outcomes. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were carried out to robustly scrutinize and validate the potential presence of heterogeneity and pleiotropy, thereby ensuring the reliability and accuracy.

RESULTS: We discerned 38 potential causal associations linking genetic predispositions within the gut microbiome to the development of lymphoma. A few of the more significant results are as follows: Genus Coprobacter (OR = 0.619, 95% CI 0.438-0.873, P = 0.006) demonstrated a potentially protective effect against Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Genus Alistipes (OR = 0.473, 95% CI 0.278-0.807, P = 0.006) was a protective factor for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Genus Ruminococcaceae (OR = 0.541, 95% CI 0.341-0.857, P = 0.009) exhibited suggestive protective effects against follicular lymphoma. Genus LachnospiraceaeUCG001 (OR = 0.354, 95% CI 0.198-0.631, P = 0.0004) showed protective properties against T/NK cell lymphoma. The Q test indicated an absence of heterogeneity, and the MR-Egger test did not show significant horizontal polytropy. Furthermore, the leave-one-out analysis failed to identify any SNP that exerted a substantial influence on the overall results.

CONCLUSION: Our study elucidates a definitive causal link between gut microbiota and lymphoma development, pinpointing specific microbial taxa with potential causative roles in lymphomagenesis, as well as identifying probiotic candidates that may impact disease progression, which provide new ideas for possible therapeutic approaches to lymphoma and clues to the pathogenesis of lymphoma.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Dorst M, Zeevenhooven N, Wilding R, et al (2024)

FAIR compliant database development for human microbiome data samples.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1384809.

INTRODUCTION: Sharing microbiome data among researchers fosters new innovations and reduces cost for research. Practically, this means that the (meta)data will have to be standardized, transparent and readily available for researchers. The microbiome data and associated metadata will then be described with regards to composition and origin, in order to maximize the possibilities for application in various contexts of research. Here, we propose a set of tools and protocols to develop a real-time FAIR (Findable. Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) compliant database for the handling and storage of human microbiome and host-associated data.

METHODS: The conflicts arising from privacy laws with respect to metadata, possible human genome sequences in the metagenome shotgun data and FAIR implementations are discussed. Alternate pathways for achieving compliance in such conflicts are analyzed. Sample traceable and sensitive microbiome data, such as DNA sequences or geolocalized metadata are identified, and the role of the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) data regulations are considered. For the construction of the database, procedures have been realized to make data FAIR compliant, while preserving privacy of the participants providing the data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: An open-source development platform, Supabase, was used to implement the microbiome database. Researchers can deploy this real-time database to access, upload, download and interact with human microbiome data in a FAIR complaint manner. In addition, a large language model (LLM) powered by ChatGPT is developed and deployed to enable knowledge dissemination and non-expert usage of the database.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Deady C, McCarthy FP, Barron A, et al (2024)

An altered gut microbiome in pre-eclampsia: cause or consequence.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1352267.

Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia, are a leading cause of serious and debilitating complications that affect both the mother and the fetus. Despite the occurrence and the health implications of these disorders there is still relatively limited evidence on the molecular underpinnings of the pathophysiology. An area that has come to the fore with regard to its influence on health and disease is the microbiome. While there are several microbiome niches on and within the body, the distal end of the gut harbors the largest of these impacting on many different systems of the body including the central nervous system, the immune system, and the reproductive system. While the role of the microbiome in hypertensive disorders, including pre-eclampsia, has not been fully elucidated some studies have indicated that several of the symptoms of these disorders are linked to an altered gut microbiome. In this review, we examine both pre-eclampsia and microbiome literature to summarize the current knowledge on whether the microbiome drives the symptoms of pre-eclampsia or if the aberrant microbiome is a consequence of this condition. Despite the paucity of studies, obvious gut microbiome changes have been noted in women with pre-eclampsia and the individual symptoms associated with the condition. Yet further research is required to fully elucidate the role of the microbiome and the significance it plays in the development of the symptoms. Regardless of this, the literature highlights the potential for a microbiome targeted intervention such as dietary changes or prebiotic and probiotics to reduce the impact of some aspects of these disorders.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Kaźmierczak-Siedlecka K, Muszyński D, Styburski D, et al (2024)

Untargeted metabolomics in gastric and colorectal cancer patients - preliminary results.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1394038.

INTRODUCTION: Recent years, microbiota-associated aspects have been analysed in multiple disorders regarding cancers. Existing evidence pints that gut microorganisms might take part in tumour origin and therapy efficacy. Nevertheless, to date, data on faecal metabolomics in cancer patients is still strongly limited. Therefore, we aimed to analyse gut untargeted metabolome in gastrointestinal cancer patients (i.e., gastric and colorectal cancer).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: There were 12 patients with either gastric (n=4) or colorectal cancer (n=8) enrolled and 8 analysed (n=4 each). Stool samples were collected prior to anti-cancer treatments. Untargeted metabolomics analyses were conducted by means of mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: A plethora of metabolites in cancer patients we analysed were noted, with higher homogenity in case of gastric cancer patients. We found that the level of Deoxyguanosine,m/z 266.091,[M-H]-, Uridine,m/z 245.075,[M+H]+, Deoxyguanosine,m/z 268.104,[M]+, 3-Indoleacetic acid,m/z 176.07,[M+H]+, Indoxyl,m/z 132.031,[M-H]-, L-Phenylalanine,m/z 164.073,[M-H]-, L-Methionine,m/z 150.058,[M+NH4]+, was significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients and Ethyl hydrogen malonate,m/z 133.031,[M+H]+ in gastric cancer.

CONCLUSION: The overall insights into untargeted metabolomics showed that most often higher levels of analysed metabolites were detected in colorectal cancer patients compared to gastric cancer patients. The link between gut metabolome and both local and distal metastasis might exist, however it requires confirmation in further multi-centre studies regarding larger sample size.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Dinetz E, Zeballos-Palacios C, CA Martinez (2024)

Addressing the Missing Links in Cardiovascular Aging.

Clinical interventions in aging, 19:873-882.

The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of available options to enhance cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the aging population using a systems-biology approach. These include the role of the gut microbiome, the early identification and removal of environmental toxins, and finally age related sex hormones and supplement replacement which all influence aging. Implementing such a comprehensive approach has the potential to facilitate earlier risk assessment, disease prevention, and even improve mortality. Further study in these areas will continue to advance our understanding and refine therapeutic interventions for a healthier cardiovascular aging process.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Ozminkowski S, C Solís-Lemus (2024)

Identifying microbial drivers in biological phenotypes with a Bayesian network regression model.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11039.

In Bayesian Network Regression models, networks are considered the predictors of continuous responses. These models have been successfully used in brain research to identify regions in the brain that are associated with specific human traits, yet their potential to elucidate microbial drivers in biological phenotypes for microbiome research remains unknown. In particular, microbial networks are challenging due to their high dimension and high sparsity compared to brain networks. Furthermore, unlike in brain connectome research, in microbiome research, it is usually expected that the presence of microbes has an effect on the response (main effects), not just the interactions. Here, we develop the first thorough investigation of whether Bayesian Network Regression models are suitable for microbial datasets on a variety of synthetic and real data under diverse biological scenarios. We test whether the Bayesian Network Regression model that accounts only for interaction effects (edges in the network) is able to identify key drivers (microbes) in phenotypic variability. We show that this model is indeed able to identify influential nodes and edges in the microbial networks that drive changes in the phenotype for most biological settings, but we also identify scenarios where this method performs poorly which allows us to provide practical advice for domain scientists aiming to apply these tools to their datasets. BNR models provide a framework for microbiome researchers to identify connections between microbes and measured phenotypes. We allow the use of this statistical model by providing an easy-to-use implementation which is publicly available Julia package at https://github.com/solislemuslab/BayesianNetworkRegression.jl.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Momo Cabrera P, Rachmühl C, Derrien M, et al (2024)

Comparative prebiotic potential of galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides, native inulin, and acacia gum in Kenyan infant gut microbiota during iron supplementation.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae033.

Iron fortification to prevent anemia in African infants increases colonic iron levels, favoring the growth of enteropathogens. The use of prebiotics may be an effective strategy to reduce these detrimental effects. Using the African infant PolyFermS gut model, we compared the effect of the prebiotics short-chain galacto- with long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scGOS/lcFOS) and native inulin, and the emerging prebiotic acacia gum, a branched-polysaccharide-protein complex consisting of arabinose and galactose, during iron supplementation on four Kenyan infant gut microbiota. Iron supplementation did not alter the microbiota but promoted Clostridioides difficile in one microbiota. The prebiotic effect of scGOS/lcFOS and inulin was confirmed during iron supplementation in all investigated Kenyan infant gut microbiota, leading to higher abundance of bifidobacteria, increased production of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and a significant shift in microbiota composition compared to non-supplemented microbiota. The abundance of the pathogens Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens was also inhibited upon addition of the prebiotic fibers. Acacia gum had no effect on any of the microbiota. In conclusion, scGOS/lcFOS and inulin, but not acacia gum, showed a donor-independent strong prebiotic potential in Kenyan infant gut microbiota. This study demonstrates the relevance of comparing fibers in vitro prior to clinical studies.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Lund Håheim AL (2024)

Oral anaerobe bacteria-a common risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality and some forms of cancer?.

Frontiers in oral health, 5:1348946.

This review explores the results of research on oral health concerning cardiovascular diseases and some forms of cancer and is based on results from published systematic reviews and some studies. The research results will have a strong focus on exploring the relationship between different aspects of oral infections. The relationship between oral health parameters, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and certain cancers was examined from different angles, including prospective analyses, in a population-based health study in Oslo from the year 2000 (Oslo II study). A major finding was that low levels of antibodies to the oral anaerobe Tannerella forsythia predict both CVD mortality in men with a history of myocardial infarction and incidence of bladder cancer in a random sample of men in the study. Low levels of antibodies to Treponea denticola predict the incidence of bladder and colon cancer in a random sample of men in the study. Both anaerobe bacteria are part of the so-called red complex of bacteria in chronic periodontitis together with Pophyromonas gingivalis. These three bacteria have different properties and are causal in chronic periodontitis. They migrate into the local tissues by adhering to the oral epithelium, break down soft and hard tissues, and spread via the circulation to organs distant from the mouth. This paper will give an overview of which oral health measures have been explored and associated with different CVD and cancer diagnoses and what scientific literature supports or contravenes our hypothesis. The oral microbiome is described with the most relevant bacteria related to microbiology, serum, autopsies, and associated causes such as alcohol. There will be a mention of the possibilities and limitations of different study designs. There seems to be a causal relationship between oral anaerobe bacteria and systemic diseases regulated by the immune system. This is seen alongside other well-known risk factors, especially for CVD. The prospective finding of a relation to the incidence of certain cancers and CVD is particularly intriguing. However, further research is needed to determine the biological mechanisms underpinning these associations.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Barone GD, Zhou Y, Wang H, et al (2024)

Implications of bacteria‒bacteria interactions within the plant microbiota for plant health and productivity.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B [Epub ahead of print].

Crop production currently relies on the widespread use of agrochemicals to ensure food security. This practice is considered unsustainable, yet has no viable alternative at present. The plant microbiota can fulfil various functions for its host, some of which could be the basis for developing sustainable protection and fertilization strategies for plants without relying on chemicals. To harness such functions, a detailed understanding of plant‒microbe and microbe‒microbe interactions is necessary. Among interactions within the plant microbiota, those between bacteria are the most common ones; they are not only of ecological importance but also essential for maintaining the health and productivity of the host plants. This review focuses on recent literature in this field and highlights various consequences of bacteria‒bacteria interactions under different agricultural settings. In addition, the molecular and genetic backgrounds of bacteria that facilitate such interactions are emphasized. Representative examples of commonly found bacterial metabolites with bioactive properties, as well as their modes of action, are given. Integrating our understanding of various binary interactions into complex models that encompass the entire microbiota will benefit future developments in agriculture and beyond, which could be further facilitated by artificial intelligence-based technologies.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Bacorn M, Subramanian P, Levy S, et al (2024)

Faecal zonulin, calprotectin and the infant microbiome in early life.

Clinical and translational medicine, 14(5):e1695.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Huang Z, Hamblin MR, Q Zhang (2024)

Photobiomodulation in experimental models of Alzheimer's disease: state-of-the-art and translational perspectives.

Alzheimer's research & therapy, 16(1):114.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) poses a significant public health problem, affecting millions of people across the world. Despite decades of research into therapeutic strategies for AD, effective prevention or treatment for this devastating disorder remains elusive. In this review, we discuss the potential of photobiomodulation (PBM) for preventing and alleviating AD-associated pathologies, with a focus on the biological mechanisms underlying this therapy. Future research directions and guidance for clinical practice for this non-invasive and non-pharmacological therapy are also highlighted. The available evidence indicates that different treatment paradigms, including transcranial and systemic PBM, along with the recently proposed remote PBM, all could be promising for AD. PBM exerts diverse biological effects, such as enhancing mitochondrial function, mitigating the neuroinflammation caused by activated glial cells, increasing cerebral perfusion, improving glymphatic drainage, regulating the gut microbiome, boosting myokine production, and modulating the immune system. We suggest that PBM may serve as a powerful therapeutic intervention for AD.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Lorenzini L, Zanella L, Sannia M, et al (2024)

Experimental colitis in young Tg2576 mice accelerates the onset of an Alzheimer's-like clinical phenotype.

Alzheimer's research & therapy, 16(1):116.

Systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation affect the natural course of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as supported by epidemiological and preclinical data, and several epidemiological studies indicate a higher prevalence of AD in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, we explored whether colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in young, presymptomatic/preplaque mice worsens and/or anticipates age-dependent cognitive impairment in Tg2576, a widely used mouse model of AD. We demonstrated that DSS colitis induced in young Tg2576 mice anticipates the onset age of learning and memory deficit in the Morris water maze test. To explore potential mechanisms behind the acceleration of cognitive decline in Tg2576 mice by DSS colitis, we focused on gut microbiota, systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation markers. We observed a Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio change in Tg2576 DSS animals comparable to that of elderly Tg2576 mice, suggesting accelerated microbiota aging in Tg2576 DSS mice, a change not observed in C57BL6 DSS mice. We also observed substantial differences between Tg2576 and WT mice in several inflammation and neuroinflammation-related parameters as early as 3 months of age, well before plaque deposition, a picture which evolved rapidly (between 3 and 5.5 months of age) in contrast to Tg2576 and WT littermates not treated with DSS. In detail, following induction of DSS colitis, WT and Tg2576 mice exhibited contrasting features in the expression level of inflammation-evoked astrocyte-associated genes in the hippocampus. No changes in microglial features occurred in the hippocampus between the experimental groups, whereas a reduced glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactivity was observed in Tg2576 vs. WT mice. This finding may reflect an atrophic, "loss-of-function" profile, further exacerbated by DSS where a decreased of GFAP mRNA expression level was detected. In conclusion, we suggest that as-yet unidentified peripheral mediators evoked by DSS colitis and involving the gut-brain axis emphasize an astrocyte "loss-of-function" profile present in young Tg2576 mice, leading to impaired synaptic morphological and functional integrity as a very early sign of AD.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Li X, Xiang F, Liu T, et al (2024)

Leveraging existing 16S rRNA gene surveys to decipher microbial signatures and dysbiosis in cervical carcinogenesis.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11532.

The presence of dysbiotic cervicovaginal microbiota has been observed to be linked to the persistent development of cervical carcinogenesis mediated by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Nevertheless, the characteristics of the cervical microbiome in individuals diagnosed with cervical cancer (CC) are still not well understood. Comprehensive analysis was conducted by re-analyzing the cervical 16S rRNA sequencing datasets of a total of 507 samples from six previously published studies. We observed significant alpha and beta diversity differences in between CC, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and normal controls (NC), but not between HPV and NC in the combined dataset. Meta-analysis revealed that opportunistic pernicious microbes Streptococcus, Fusobacterium, Pseudomonas and Anaerococcus were enriched in CC, while Lactobacillus was depleted compared to NC. Members of Gardnerella, Sneathia, Pseudomonas, and Fannyhessea have significantly increased relative abundance compared to other bacteria in the CIN group. Five newly identified bacterial genera were found to differentiate CC from NC, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.8947. Moreover, co-occurrence network analysis showed that the most commonly encountered Lactobacillus was strongly negatively correlated with Prevotella. Overall, our study identified a set of potential biomarkers for CC from samples across different geographic regions. Our meta-analysis provided significant insights into the characteristics of dysbiotic cervicovaginal microbiota undergoing CC, which may lead to the development of noninvasive CC diagnostic tools and therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Shen H, Zhang C, Li S, et al (2024)

Prodrug-conjugated tumor-seeking commensals for targeted cancer therapy.

Nature communications, 15(1):4343.

Prodrugs have been explored as an alternative to conventional chemotherapy; however, their target specificity remains limited. The tumor microenvironment harbors a range of microorganisms that potentially serve as tumor-targeting vectors for delivering prodrugs. In this study, we harness bacteria-cancer interactions native to the tumor microbiome to achieve high target specificity for prodrug delivery. We identify an oral commensal strain of Lactobacillus plantarum with an intrinsic cancer-binding mechanism and engineer the strain to enable the surface loading of anticancer prodrugs, with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) as a model cancer. The engineered commensals show specific binding to NPC via OppA-mediated recognition of surface heparan sulfate, and the loaded prodrugs are activated by tumor-associated biosignals to release SN-38, a chemotherapy compound, near NPC. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the prodrug-loaded microbes significantly increase the potency of SN-38 against NPC cell lines, up to 10-fold. In a mouse xenograft model, intravenous injection of the engineered L. plantarum leads to bacterial colonization in NPC tumors and a 67% inhibition in tumor growth, enhancing the efficacy of SN-38 by 54%.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Zhao Y, Deng S, Zhang Z, et al (2024)

Exploring Alashan Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus alashanicus) Diversity: Metagenomic and Transcriptomic Datasets from the Helan Mountains.

Scientific data, 11(1):517.

This study investigates the adaptive strategies of the Alashan Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus alashanicus) in response to habitat changes, as rodents are sensitive indicators of ecosystem changes. Despite its ecological importance, the genome and microbiome of this species have not been thoroughly studied. This research fills this gap by presenting the first comprehensive metagenomic and transcriptomic datasets of the species. Transcriptomic data was collected from five tissue types, including heart, liver, cecum, muscle, and blood, resulting in the assembly of 72,156 unigenes. Metagenomic sequencing identified predominant bacterial groups such as Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Urovircota, and Proteobacteria. Our workflow involved RNA and DNA extraction, library preparation, assembly, and annotation, yielding valuable insights into gene discovery, microbial composition, and further genome and microbial function studies. In conclusion, our findings have significant implications for understanding the adaptive mechanisms of this species in response to environmental changes.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Li J, Wang M, Ma S, et al (2024)

Association of gastrointestinal microbiome and obesity with gestational diabetes mellitus-an updated globally based review of the high-quality literatures.

Nutrition & diabetes, 14(1):31.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this review is to investigate the relationship between gastrointestinal microbiome, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in an objective manner.

METHODS: We conducted a thorough and comprehensive search of the English language literatures published in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from the establishment of the library until 12 December 2023. Our search strategy included both keywords and free words searches, and we strictly applied inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analyses and systematic reviews were prepared.

RESULTS: Six high-quality literature sources were identified for meta-analysis. However, after detailed study and analysis, a certain degree of heterogeneity was found, and the credibility of the combined analysis results was limited. Therefore, descriptive analyses were conducted. The dysbiosis of intestinal microbiome, specifically the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroides, is a significant factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and gestational diabetes. Patients with intestinal dysbiosis and obesity are at a higher risk of developing GDM.

CONCLUSIONS: During pregnancy, gastrointestinal microbiome disorders and obesity may contribute to the development of GDM, with all three factors influencing each other. This finding could aid in the diagnosis and management of patients with GDM through further research on their gastrointestinal microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Clements CS, Pratte ZA, Stewart FJ, et al (2024)

Biodiversity of macroalgae does not differentially suppress coral performance: The other side of a biodiversity issue.

Ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Hundreds of studies now document positive relationships between biodiversity and critical ecosystem processes, but as ecological communities worldwide shift toward new species configurations, less is known regarding how the biodiversity of undesirable species will shape the functioning of ecosystems or foundation species. We manipulated macroalgal species richness in experimental field plots to test whether and how the identity and diversity of competing macroalgae affected the growth, survival, and microbiome of a common coral in Mo'orea, French Polynesia. Compared to controls without algal competitors, coral growth was significantly suppressed across three macroalgal monocultures, a polyculture of the same three macroalgae, and plots containing inert seaweed mimics; coral mortality was limited and did not differ significantly among treatments. One macroalga suppressed coral growth significantly less than the other two, but none differed from the inert mimic in terms of coral suppression. The composition, dispersion, and diversity of coral microbiomes in treatments with live macroalgae or inert plastic mimics did not differ from controls experiencing no competition. Microbiome composition differed between two macroalgal monocultures and a monoculture versus plastic mimics, but no other microbiome differences were observed among macroalgal or mimic treatments. Together, these findings suggest that algal diversity does not alter harmful impacts of macroalgae on coral performance, which could be accounted for by physical structure alone in these field experiments. While enhancing biodiversity is a recognized strategy for promoting desirable species, it would be worrisome if biodiversity also enhanced the negative impacts of undesirable species. We documented no such effects in this investigation.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Chui ESH, Chan AKY, Ng ACK, et al (2024)

Mechanism and clinical implication of gut dysbiosis in degenerative abdominal aortic aneurysm: A systematic review.

Asian journal of surgery pii:S1015-9584(24)00947-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome is the entirety of microorganisms and their genomes residing in the gut, characterised by diversity, stability, and resilience. Disrupted gut microbiome has been implicated in multiple disease entities. The aim of this paper is to summarise the rapidly evolving contemporary evidence of gut dysbiosis on the development and progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), discuss possible mechanisms, and explore potential microbiota-targeted interventions and prognostic markers for AAA. A systematic literature search was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement, using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Ovid, Embase. Search terms of "microbiome" OR "dysbiosis" OR "microorganism"; AND "aneurysm" OR "dilatation" OR "aorta" were used. Study endpoints included effects of microbiota on AAA formation, effects of specific type of bacteria and its metabolite on AAA formation, and pre- or post-treatment by novel small-molecules/inhibitors. From May to August 2023, a total of twelve animal studies and eight human studies were included. Akkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus acidophilus and species from the Bacteroidetes phylum were associated with lower AAA incidence in both animal and human studies, while Proteobacteria phylum, Campylobacter, Fusobacterium and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were found to be in abundance in the AAA group and were associated with larger aneurysms. The diversity of gut microbiota was inversely correlated with AAA diameter. Three important mechanisms were identified: including trimethylamine N-oxide pathway, butyric acid pathway, and aberrant tryptophan metabolism. With our expanding knowledge of the downstream pathogenic mechanisms of gut dysbiosis, novel therapeutics such as short-chain fatty acids and spermidine, as well as prognostic biomarkers such as TMAO have yielded promising preclinical results. In conclusion, there is strong evidence corroborating the role of gut dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of AAA, wherein its therapeutic and prognostic potential deserves further exploration.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Zai X, Cordovez V, Zhu F, et al (2024)

C4 cereal and biofuel crop microbiomes.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(24)00093-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiomes provide multiple life-support functions for plants, including nutrient acquisition and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Considering the importance of C4 cereal and biofuel crops for food security under climate change conditions, more attention has been given recently to C4 plant microbiome assembly and functions. Here, we review the current status of C4 cereal and biofuel crop microbiome research with a focus on beneficial microbial traits for crop growth and health. We highlight the importance of environmental factors and plant genetics in C4 crop microbiome assembly and pinpoint current knowledge gaps. Finally, we discuss the potential of foxtail millet as a C4 model species and outline future perspectives of C4 plant microbiome research.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Liu Y, Y Ma (2024)

Clinical applications of metagenomics next-generation sequencing in infectious diseases.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious diseases are a great threat to human health. Rapid and accurate detection of pathogens is important in the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases. Metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is an unbiased and comprehensive approach for detecting all RNA and DNA in a sample. With the development of sequencing and bioinformatics technologies, mNGS is moving from research to clinical application, which opens a new avenue for pathogen detection. Numerous studies have revealed good potential for the clinical application of mNGS in infectious diseases, especially in difficult-to-detect, rare, and novel pathogens. However, there are several hurdles in the clinical application of mNGS, such as: (1) lack of universal workflow validation and quality assurance; (2) insensitivity to high-host background and low-biomass samples; and (3) lack of standardized instructions for mass data analysis and report interpretation. Therefore, a complete understanding of this new technology will help promote the clinical application of mNGS to infectious diseases. This review briefly introduces the history of next-generation sequencing, mainstream sequencing platforms, and mNGS workflow, and discusses the clinical applications of mNGS to infectious diseases and its advantages and disadvantages.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Gao V, Crawford CV, J Burré (2024)

The Gut-Brain Axis in Parkinson's Disease.

Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine pii:cshperspect.a041618 [Epub ahead of print].

Parkinson's disease (PD) involves both the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS), and their interaction is important for understanding both the clinical manifestations of the disease and the underlying disease pathophysiology. Although the neuroanatomical distribution of pathology strongly suggests that the ENS is involved in disease pathophysiology, there are significant gaps in knowledge about the underlying mechanisms. In this article, we review the clinical presentation and management of gastrointestinal dysfunction in PD. In addition, we discuss the current understanding of disease pathophysiology in the gut, including controversies about early involvement of the gut in disease pathogenesis. We also review current knowledge about gut α-synuclein and the microbiome, discuss experimental models of PD-linked gastrointestinal pathophysiology, and highlight areas for further research. Finally, we discuss opportunities to use the gut-brain axis for the development of biomarkers and disease-modifying treatments.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Xu Z, Wang S, Liu C, et al (2024)

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Male Erectile Dysfunction of Rats.

The world journal of men's health pii:42.e56 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common male sexual dysfunction. Gut microbiota plays an important role in various diseases. To investigate the effects and mechanisms of intestinal flora dysregulation induced by high-fat diet (HFD) on erectile function.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into the normal diet (ND) and HFD groups. After 24 weeks, a measurement of erectile function was performed. We performed 16S rRNA sequencing of stool samples. Then, we established fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) rat models by transplanting fecal microbiota from rats of ND group and HFD group to two new groups of rats respectively. After 24 weeks, erectile function of the rats was evaluated and 16S rRNA sequencing was performed, and serum samples were collected for the untargeted metabolomics detection.

RESULTS: The erectile function of rats and the species diversity of intestinal microbiota in the HFD group was significantly lower, and the characteristics of the intestinal microbiota community structure were also significantly different between the two groups. The erectile function of rats in the HFD-FMT group was significantly lower than that of rats in the ND-FMT group. The characteristics of the intestinal microbiota community structure were significantly different. In the HFD-FMT group, 27 metabolites were significantly different and they were mainly involved in the several inflammation-related pathways.

CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal microbiota disorders induced by HFD can damage the intestinal barrier of rats, change the serum metabolic profile, induce low-grade inflammation and apoptosis in the corpus cavernosum of the penis, and lead to ED.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Guo X, Wang R, Chen R, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota and serum metabolite signatures along the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence: Implications for early detection and intervention.

Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 560:119732 pii:S0009-8981(24)01984-3 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Our study focuses on the microbial and metabolomic profile changes during the adenoma stage, as adenomas can be considered potential precursors to colorectal cancer through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Identifying possible intervention targets at this stage may aid in preventing the progression of colorectal adenoma (CRA) to malignant lesions. Furthermore, we evaluate the efficacy of combined microbial and metabolite biomarkers in detecting CRA.

METHODS: Fecal metagenomic and serum metabolomic analyses were performed for the discovery of alterations of gut microbiome and metabolites in CRA patients (n = 26), Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (n = 19), Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) patients (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 20). Finally, analyzing the associations between gut microbes and metabolites was performed by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve.

RESULTS: Our analysis present that CRA patients differ significantly in gut microflora and serum metabolites compared with healthy controls, especially for Lachnospiraceae and Parasutterella. Its main metabolite, butyric acid, concentrations were raised in CRA patients compared with the healthy controls, indicating its role as a promoter of colorectal tumorigenesis. α-Linolenic acid and lysophosphatidylcholine represented the other healthy metabolite for CRA. Combining five microbial and five metabolite biomarkers, we differentiated CRA from CRC with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) of 0.85 out of this performance vastly superior to the specificity recorded by traditional markers CEA and CA199 in such differentiation of these conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: The study underlines significant microbial and metabolic alterations in CRA with a novel insight into screening and early intervention of its tumorigenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Tan J, Wei N, MM Turcotte (2024)

Trophic interactions in microbiomes influence plant host population size and ecosystem function.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 291(2023):20240612.

Plant microbiomes that comprise diverse microorganisms, including prokaryotes, eukaryotes and viruses, are the key determinants of plant population dynamics and ecosystem function. Despite their importance, little is known about how species interactions (especially trophic interactions) between microbes from different domains modify the importance of microbiomes for plant hosts and ecosystems. Using the common duckweed Lemna minor, we experimentally examined the effects of predation (by bacterivorous protists) and parasitism (by bacteriophages) within microbiomes on plant population size and ecosystem phosphorus removal. Our results revealed that the addition of predators increased plant population size and phosphorus removal, whereas the addition of parasites showed the opposite pattern. The structural equation modelling further pointed out that predation and parasitism affected plant population size and ecosystem function via distinct mechanisms that were both mediated by microbiomes. Our results highlight the importance of understanding microbial trophic interactions for predicting the outcomes and ecosystem impacts of plant-microbiome symbiosis.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Ruan M, Li Y, Ma C, et al (2024)

Treatment of landfill leachate by black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) larvae and the changes of intestinal microbial community.

Journal of environmental management, 360:121193 pii:S0301-4797(24)01179-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) (Hermetia illucens) are commonly used to treat organic waste. This work aims to evaluate the transformation effect, heavy metal migration, and alterations in the gut microbiota of BSFL in addition to treating landfill leachate (LL) with BSFL. We found that BSFL may grow in various landfill leachate concentrations without obvious toxicity and growth inhibition. In addition, the results indicated a significant increase in the content of ammonia nitrogen and the activity of urease and β-glucosidase (β-GC) in LL, increased from 2570.17 mg/L to 5853.67 mg/L, 1859.17 mg/(g·d) to 517,177.98 mg/(g·d), 313.73 μg/(g·h) to 441.91 μg/(g·h) respectively. Conversely, the content of total nitrogen (TN) and total organic carbon (TOC) decreased in LL, decreasing by 31.24% and 29.45% respectively. Heavy metals are accumulated in the leachate by the BSFL to differing degrees, the descending sequence of accumulation is Cd > As > Cu > Cr. As dropped by 26.0%, Cd increased by 22.6%, Cu reduced by 5.23%, and Cr increased by 317.1% in the remaining matrix. The concentration of heavy metals satisfies the organic fertilizers' limit index (NY/T1978). The diversity of intestinal microorganisms in BSFL decreased, from 2819 OTUs to 2338 OTUs, with Providencia and Morganella emerging as the core flora. The gene abundance of nitrogen metabolism in the microbiota increased significantly. The TOC, β-GC, and Copper (Cu) content in BSFL correlated significantly with the gut microbiota. In Summary, this study revealed the treatment effect of BSFL on LL, the migration of heavy metals, and changes in the intestinal microorganisms of BSFL. The content of heavy metals in BSFL was found to be much lower than the upper limit of feed protein raw materials, demonstrating that BSFL is a sustainable method to treat LL.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Qin D, Liu J, Guo W, et al (2024)

Arbutin alleviates intestinal colitis by regulating neutrophil extracellular traps formation and microbiota composition.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 130:155741 pii:S0944-7113(24)00400-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic recurrent intestinal disease lacking effective treatments. β-arbutin, a glycoside extracted from the Arctostaphylos uva-ursi leaves, that can regulate many pathological processes. However, the effects of β-arbutin on UC remain unknown.

PURPOSE: In this study, we investigated the role of β-arbutin in relieving colitis and explored its potential mechanisms in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.

METHODS: In C75BL/6 J mice, DSS was used to induce colitis and concomitantly β-arbutin (50 and 100 mg/kg) was taken orally to evaluate its curative effect by evaluating disease activity index (DAI) score, colon length and histopathology. Alcian blue periodic acid schiff (AB-PAS) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), immunofluorescence (IF) and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling (Tunel) staining were used to assess intestinal barrier function. Flow cytometry, double-IF and western blotting (WB) were performed to verify the regulatory mechanism of β-arbutin on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in vivo and in vitro. NETs depletion experiments were used to demonstrate the role of NETs in UC. Subsequently, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the intestinal microflora of mouse.

RESULTS: Our results showed that β-arbutin can protect mice from DSS-induced colitis characterized by a lower DAI score and intestinal pathological damage. β-arbutin reduced inflammatory factors secretion, notably regulated neutrophil functions, and inhibited NETs formation in an ErK-dependent pathway, contributing to the resistance to colitis as demonstrated by in vivo and in vitro experiments. Meanwhile, remodeled the intestinal flora structure and increased the diversity and richness of intestinal microbiota, especially the abundance of probiotics and butyric acid-producing bacteria. It further promoted the protective effect in the resistance of colitis.

CONCLUSION: β-arbutin promoted the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by inhibiting NETs formation, maintaining mucosal-barrier integrity, and shaping gut-microbiota composition, thereby alleviating DSS-induced colitis. This study provided a scientific basis for the rational use of β-arbutin in preventing colitis and other related diseases.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Lin TY, Wang PY, Lin CY, et al (2024)

Association of the oral microbiome with cognitive function among older adults: NHANES 2011-2012.

The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 28(8):100264 pii:S1279-7707(24)00351-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: An association between the gut microbiome and cognitive function has been demonstrated in prior studies. However, whether the oral microbiome, the second largest microbial habitant in humans, has a role in cognition remains unclear.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Using weighted data from the 2011 to 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the association between oral microbial composition and cognitive function in older adults. The oral microbiome was characterized by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Cognitive status was assessed using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease immediate recall and delayed recall, Animal Fluency Test, and Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Subjective memory changes over 12 months were also assessed. Linear and logistic regression models were conducted to quantify the association of α-diversity with different cognitive measurements controlling for potential confounding variables. Differences in β-diversity were analyzed using permutational analysis of variance.

RESULTS: A total of 605 participants aged 60-69 years were included in the analysis. Oral microbial α-diversity was significantly and positively correlated with DSST (β, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.01-4.84). Participants with higher oral microbial α-diversity were more likely to have better cognitive performance status based on DSST (adjusted odds ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.28-4.30) and were less likely to experience subjective memory changes (adjusted odds ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.74). In addition, β-diversity was statistically significant for the cognitive performance status based on DSST (P = 0.031) and subjective memory changes (P = 0.023).

CONCLUSIONS: Oral microbial composition was associated with executive function and subjective memory changes among older adults among older U.S. adults in a nationally representative population sample. Oral dysbiosis is a potential biomarker or therapeutic target for cognitive decline. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the association between the oral microbiome and cognitive function.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Ji L, Zhang X, Zhou Y, et al (2024)

Clinical vaginal-microecology testing using double-fluorescence staining in patients with high-risk human papillomavirus infection.

Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease, 109(4):116342 pii:S0732-8893(24)00171-8 [Epub ahead of print].

High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection is associated with cervical cancer; imbalanced vaginal microecology may contribute to HPV progression. Currently used methods for clinical vaginal-microecology (CVM) testing are associated with several disadvantages, such as low accuracy and complicated operation. This retrospective study presents a novel testing method to examine vaginal microecology via double-fluorescence staining and explores the relationship between hrHPV and CVM. We analyzed 1242 patients who underwent hrHPV testing at our hospital over a two-month period; of these, 695 also underwent clinical vaginal-microecology testing (CVMT). Patients underwent routine leukorrhea detection (n=322), functional testing (n=277), and our novel double-fluorescence staining-based CVMT approach (n=376). Patients with hrHPV exhibited more epithelial cells, miscellaneous bacteria, and hyphae than those without hrHPV on double-fluorescence staining-based CVMT approach. Double-fluorescence staining was effective in identifying indicators of hrHPV infection and may serve as an auxiliary tool for clinical hrHPV screening.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Maleki-Ravasan N, Ghafari SM, Najafzadeh N, et al (2024)

Characterization of bacteria expectorated during forced salivation of the Phlebotomus papatasi: A neglected component of sand fly infectious inoculums.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 18(5):e0012165.

The infectious inoculum of a sand fly, apart from its metacyclic promastigotes, is composed of factors derived from both the parasite and the vector. Vector-derived factors, including salivary proteins and the gut microbiota, are essential for the establishment and enhancement of infection. However, the type and the number of bacteria egested during salivation is unclear. In the present study, sand flies of Phlebotomus papatasi were gathered from three locations in hyperendemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Isfahan Province, Iran. By using the forced salivation assay and targeting the 16S rRNA barcode gene, egested bacteria were characterized in 99 (44%) out of 224 sand flies. Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods identified the members of Enterobacter cloacae and Spiroplasma species as dominant taxa, respectively. Ten top genera of Spiroplasma, Ralstonia, Acinetobacter, Reyranella, Undibacterium, Bryobacter, Corynebacterium, Cutibacterium, Psychrobacter, and Wolbachia constituted >80% of the saliva microbiome. Phylogenetic analysis displayed the presence of only one bacterial species for the Spiroplasma, Ralstonia, Reyranella, Bryobacter and Wolbachia, two distinct species for Cutibacterium, three for Undibacterium and Psychrobacter, 16 for Acinetobacter, and 27 for Corynebacterium, in the saliva. The abundance of microbes in P. papatasi saliva was determined by incorporating the data on the read counts and the copy number of 16S rRNA gene, about 9,000 bacterial cells, per sand fly. Both microbiological and metagenomic data indicate that bacteria are constant companions of Leishmania, from the intestine of the vector to the vertebrate host. This is the first forced salivation experiment in a sand fly, addressing key questions on infectious bite and competent vectors.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Rethinavelu G, Dharshini RS, Manickam R, et al (2024)

Unveiling the microbial diversity of biofilms on titanium surfaces in full-scale water-cooling plants using metagenomics approach.

Folia microbiologica [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial colonization on the titanium condenser material (TCM) used in the cooling system leads to biofouling and corrosion and influences the water supply. The primary investigation of the titanium condenser was infrequently studied on characterizing biofilm-forming bacterial communities. Different treatment methods like electropotential charge, ultrasonication, and copper coating of titanium condenser material may influence the microbial population over the surface of the titanium condensers. The present study aimed to catalog the primary colonizers and the effect of different treatment methods on the microbial community. CFU (1.7 × 10[9] CFU/mL) and ATP count (< 5000 × 10[-7] relative luminescence units) showed a minimal microbial population in copper-coated surface biofilm as compared with the other treatments. Live and dead cell result also showed consistency with colony count. The biofilm sample on the copper-coated surface showed an increased dead cell count and decreased live cells. In the metagenomic approach, the microbiome coverage was 10.06 Mb in samples derived from copper-coated TCM than in other treated samples (electropotential charge-17.94 Mb; ultrasonication-20.01 Mb), including control (10.18 Mb). Firmicutes preponderate the communities in the biofilm samples, and Proteobacteria stand next in the population in all the treated condenser materials. At the genus level, Lactobacillaceae and Azospirillaceae dominated the biofilm community. The metagenome data suggested that the attached community is different from those biofilm samples based on the environment that influences the bacterial community. The outcome of the present study depicts that copper coating was effective against biofouling and corrosion resistance of titanium condenser material for designing long-term durability.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Ozcan G, Vatansever C, Paerhati E, et al (2024)

The vaginal microbiome composition during pregnancy in a region compromising different ethnic origins.

Archives of gynecology and obstetrics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The vaginal microbiota plays a significant role in pregnancy outcomes and newborn health. Indeed, the composition and diversity of the vaginal microbiota can vary among different ethnic groups. Our study aimed to investigate the composition of the vaginal microbiome throughout the three trimesters of pregnancy and to identify any potential variations or patterns in the Turkish population compromising mixed ethnicities.

METHOD: We conducted a longitudinal study to characterize the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women. The study included a total of 25 participants, and the samples were collected at each trimester: 11-13 weeks, 20-24 weeks and 28-34 weeks gestation.

RESULTS: Lactobacillus species were consistently found to be dominant in the vaginal microbiota throughout all trimesters of pregnancy. Among Lactobacillus species, L. crispatus had the highest abundance in all trimesters (40.6%, 40.8% and 44.4%, respectively). L. iners was the second most prevalent species (28.5%, 31% and 25.04, respectively). Our findings reveal that the dominant composition of the vaginal microbiota aligns with the CST-type I, commonly observed in the European population.

CONCLUSIONS: This suggests that there are shared mechanisms influencing the microbial communities in the vagina, which are likely influenced by factors such as genetics, lifestyle, and cultural behaviors rather than ethnicity alone. The complex interplay of these factors contributes to the establishment and maintenance of the vaginal microbiota during pregnancy. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and their impact on vaginal health across diverse populations is essential for improving pregnancy outcomes. The study was approved by the Koc University Ethical Committee (no:2019.093.IRB2.030) and registered at the clinical trials.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Chaudhary PP, Kaur M, IA Myles (2024)

Does "all disease begin in the gut"? The gut-organ cross talk in the microbiome.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):339.

The human microbiome, a diverse ecosystem of microorganisms within the body, plays pivotal roles in health and disease. This review explores site-specific microbiomes, their role in maintaining health, and strategies for their upkeep, focusing on oral, lung, vaginal, skin, and gut microbiota, and their systemic connections. Understanding the intricate relationships between these microbial communities is crucial for unraveling mechanisms underlying human health. Recent research highlights bidirectional communication between the gut and distant microbiome sites, influencing immune function, metabolism, and disease susceptibility. Alterations in one microbiome can impact others, emphasizing their interconnectedness and collective influence on human physiology. The therapeutic potential of gut microbiota in modulating distant microbiomes offers promising avenues for interventions targeting various disorders. Through interdisciplinary collaboration and technological advancements, we can harness the power of the microbiome to revolutionize healthcare, emphasizing microbiome-centric approaches to promote holistic well-being while identifying areas for future research.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Deng K, Tong X, Chen S, et al (2024)

Exploration of the Changes in Facial Microbiota of Maskne Patients and Healthy Controls Before and After Wearing Masks Using 16 S rRNA Analysis.

Journal of epidemiology and global health [Epub ahead of print].

Whether in the field of medical care, or in people's daily life and health protection, the importance of masks has been paid more and more attention. Acne, the most common complication after wearing masks, which is also called maskne, has been successfully introduced into the common language as a common topic of dermatologist consultations. This study aims to study the changes of microflora in maskne patients and healthy controls before and after wearing masks. In the summer of 2023, we collected a total of 50 samples from 15 maskne patients and 10 healthy controls before and after wearing surgical masks for a long time. 16 S ribosomal DNA sequencing and identification technology with V3-V4 variable region were adopted to explore the microbiome changes caused by mask wearing, analyze the changes in microbial diversity, and make interaction network. LDA effect size analysis was used to identify which bacteria showed significant changes in their relative abundance from phylum to genus. After wearing a mask, the microbiome of the maskne patients changed significantly more than that of the healthy controls, with both α diversity and β diversity lower than those of maskne patients before wearing masks and those of healthy controls after wearing masks. Co-occurrence network analysis showed that compared with other groups, the network of maskne patients after wearing masks for a long time had the lowest connectivity and complexity, but the highest clustering property, while the opposite was true for healthy controls. Many microbes that are potentially beneficial to the skin decreased significantly after wearing a mask. There was almost no difference in healthy controls before and after wearing a mask.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Cinco IR, Napier EG, Rhoades NS, et al (2024)

Immunological and microbial shifts in the aging rhesus macaque lung during nontuberculous mycobacterial infection.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmentally ubiquitous organisms that predominately cause NTM pulmonary disease (NTMPD) in individuals over the age of 65. The incidence of NTMPD has increased in the U.S., exceeding that of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, the mechanisms leading to higher susceptibility and severity of NTMPD with aging are poorly defined in part due to the lack of animal models that accurately recapitulate human disease. Here, we compared bacterial load, microbial communities, and host responses longitudinally between three young (two female and one male) and two aged (two female) rhesus macaques inoculated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) in the right caudal lobe. Unilateral infection resulted in a low bacterial load in both young and aged animals confined to the infected side. Although a robust inflammatory response was only observed in the inoculated lung, immune cell infiltration and antigen-specific T cells were detected in both lungs. Computed tomography, gross pathology, and histopathology revealed increased disease severity and persistence of bacterial DNA in aged animals. Additional analyses showed the translocation of gut and oral-pharyngeal bacterial DNA into the lower respiratory microbiome. Finally, single-cell RNA sequencing revealed a heightened inflammatory response to MAH infection by alveolar macrophages in aged animals. These data are consistent with the model that increased disease severity in the aged is mediated by a dysregulated macrophage response that may be sustained through persistent antigen presence.

IMPORTANCE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are emerging as pathogens of high consequence, as cases of NTM pulmonary disease (NTMPD) have exceeded those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NTMPD can be debilitating, particularly in patients over 65 years of age, as it causes chronic cough and fatigue requiring prolonged treatments with antibiotics. The underlying mechanisms of this increased disease severity with age are poorly understood, hampering the development of therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we use a rhesus macaque model to investigate the impact of age on host-NTM interactions. This work shows that aging is associated with increased disease severity and bacterial persistence in aged rhesus macaques, thus providing a preclinical model to develop and test novel therapeutics and interventions.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Aires T, Cúcio C, Brakel J, et al (2024)

Impact of persistently high sea surface temperatures on the rhizobiomes of Zostera marina in a Baltic Sea benthocosms.

Global change biology, 30(5):e17337.

Persistently high marine temperatures are escalating and threating marine biodiversity. The Baltic Sea, warming faster than other seas, is a good model to study the impact of increasing sea surface temperatures. Zostera marina, a key player in the Baltic ecosystem, faces susceptibility to disturbances, especially under chronic high temperatures. Despite the increasing number of studies on the impact of global warming on seagrasses, little attention has been paid to the role of the holobiont. Using an outdoor benthocosm to replicate near-natural conditions, this study explores the repercussions of persistent warming on the microbiome of Z. marina and its implications for holobiont function. Results show that both seasonal warming and chronic warming, impact Z. marina roots and sediment microbiome. Compared with roots, sediments demonstrate higher diversity and stability throughout the study, but temperature effects manifest earlier in both compartments, possibly linked to premature Z. marina die-offs under chronic warming. Shifts in microbial composition, such as an increase in organic matter-degrading and sulfur-related bacteria, accompany chronic warming. A higher ratio of sulfate-reducing bacteria compared to sulfide oxidizers was found in the warming treatment which may result in the collapse of the seagrasses, due to toxic levels of sulfide. Differentiating predicted pathways for warmest temperatures were related to sulfur and nitrogen cycles, suggest an increase of the microbial metabolism, and possible seagrass protection strategies through the production of isoprene. These structural and compositional variations in the associated microbiome offer early insights into the ecological status of seagrasses. Certain taxa/genes/pathways may serve as markers for specific stresses. Monitoring programs should integrate this aspect to identify early indicators of seagrass health. Understanding microbiome changes under stress is crucial for the use of potential probiotic taxa to mitigate climate change effects. Broader-scale examination of seagrass-microorganism interactions is needed to leverage knowledge on host-microbe interactions in seagrasses.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Li Z (2024)

Editorial: Marine microbial symbioses: host-microbe interaction, holobiont's adaptation to niches and global climate change.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1416897.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Costa Silva A, Pina-Vaz T, Morgado A, et al (2024)

The Role of the Urobiome in Kidney Transplantation: A Systematic Review.

Transplantation direct, 10(6):e1643.

BACKGROUND: The urinary microbiome, also known as the urobiome, was traditionally considered sterile. However, emerging evidence suggests its presence in the urinary tract. Urobiome dysbiosis has been associated with various urologic conditions, making it a topic of interest also in kidney transplantation. This systematic review examines the evidence of urobiome changes in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs).

METHODS: Systematic literature searches in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases.

RESULTS: Of the 770 articles identified, 8 met the inclusion criteria. The urobiome showed reduced diversity in KTRs compared with healthy controls and patients on dialysis. Proteobacteria enrichment was associated with graft stability or spontaneous tolerance in KTRs without immunological events. Kidney interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy were associated with changes in resident urinary microbes and increased pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, KTRs with chronic allograft dysfunction had a higher prevalence of Corynebacterium.

CONCLUSIONS: The review highlights the importance of studying the urobiome in KTRs and its potential impact on transplant outcomes. The field remains largely unexplored, and further research is needed to establish consistent study designs and objectives. Future studies could lead to biomarker discovery, personalized therapies, and improved outcomes and graft survival in KTRs.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Verhoeff MC, Raphael KG, F Lobbezoo (2024)

A personal exploration of oral health in Parkinson's disease through the eyes of a multifaceted authority.

Journal of oral rehabilitation [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parkinson's disease (PD) poses a range of challenges, including oral health issues, that significantly impact the patient's quality of life. Despite growing awareness of PD, oral health receives limited attention. To shed light on this matter, this personal scoping review explores the perspectives of Professor K.G. Raphael, who is both a professional and a PD patient, on various aspects of oral health in PD.

METHODS: Through semi-structured interviews, Prof. Raphael shares her insights on the complexities of oral health as a PD patient to compose an agenda for oral health care, research, and education, for PD patients.

RESULTS: She emphasises the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration and education. Additionally, Prof. Raphael identifies crucial research areas, such as exploring the role of the oral microbiome and assessing the impact of exercise on oral health in PD.

CONCLUSION: This study resulted in agendas to improve oral health care, research and education, advocating for a holistic approach to enhance PD patients' well-being. Despite its limitations, this study highlights the imperative of integrating oral health into the broader management of PD, emphasising interdisciplinary collaboration and patient empowerment.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Shepherd AI, James TJ, Gould AAM, et al (2024)

Impact of nocturnal hypoxia on glycaemic control, appetite, gut microbiota and inflammation in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A single-blind cross-over trial.

The Journal of physiology [Epub ahead of print].

High altitude residents have a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, we examined the effect of repeated overnight normobaric hypoxic exposure on glycaemic control, appetite, gut microbiota and inflammation in adults with T2DM. Thirteen adults with T2DM [glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c): 61.1 ± 14.1 mmol mol[-1]; aged 64.2 ± 9.4 years; four female] completed a single-blind, randomised, sham-controlled, cross-over study for 10 nights, sleeping when exposed to hypoxia (fractional inspired O2 [ F I O 2 ${{F}_{{\mathrm{I}}{{{\mathrm{O}}}_{\mathrm{2}}}}}$ ] = 0.155; ∼2500 m simulated altitude) or normoxic conditions (F I O 2 ${{F}_{{\mathrm{I}}{{{\mathrm{O}}}_{\mathrm{2}}}}}$ = 0.209) in a randomised order. Outcome measures included: fasted plasma [glucose]; [hypoxia inducible factor-1α]; [interleukin-6]; [tumour necrosis factor-α]; [interleukin-10]; [heat shock protein 70]; [butyric acid]; peak plasma [glucose] and insulin sensitivity following a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test; body composition; appetite indices ([leptin], [acyl ghrelin], [peptide YY], [glucagon-like peptide-1]); and gut microbiota diversity and abundance [16S rRNA amplicon sequencing]. During intervention periods, accelerometers measured physical activity, sleep duration and efficiency, whereas continuous glucose monitors were used to assess estimated HbA1c and glucose management indicator and time in target range. Overnight hypoxia was not associated with changes in any outcome measure (P > 0.05 with small effect sizes) except fasting insulin sensitivity and gut microbiota alpha diversity, which exhibited trends (P = 0.10; P = 0.08 respectively) for a medium beneficial effect (d = 0.49; d = 0.59 respectively). Ten nights of overnight moderate hypoxic exposure did not significantly affect glycaemic control, gut microbiome, appetite, or inflammation in adults with T2DM. However, the intervention was well tolerated and a medium effect-size for improved insulin sensitivity and reduced alpha diversity warrants further investigation. KEY POINTS: Living at altitude lowers the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Animal studies suggest that exposure to hypoxia may lead to weight loss and suppressed appetite. In a single-blind, randomised sham-controlled, cross-over trial, we assessed the effects of 10 nights of hypoxia (fractional inspired O2 ∼0.155) on glucose homeostasis, appetite, gut microbiota, inflammatory stress ([interleukin-6]; [tumour necrosis factor-α]; [interleukin-10]) and hypoxic stress ([hypoxia inducible factor 1α]; heat shock protein 70]) in 13 adults with T2DM. Appetite and inflammatory markers were unchanged following hypoxic exposure, but an increased insulin sensitivity and reduced gut microbiota alpha diversity were associated with a medium effect-size and statistical trends, which warrant further investigation using a definitive large randomised controlled trial. Hypoxic exposure may represent a viable therapeutic intervention in people with T2DM and particularly those unable or unwilling to exercise because barriers to uptake and adherence may be lower than for other lifestyle interventions (e.g. diet and exercise).

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Yaqub A, Vojinovic D, Vernooij MW, et al (2024)

Plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO): associations with cognition, neuroimaging, and dementia.

Alzheimer's research & therapy, 16(1):113.

BACKGROUND: The gut-derived metabolite Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and its precursors - betaine, carnitine, choline, and deoxycarnitine - have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but their relation to cognition, neuroimaging markers, and dementia remains uncertain.

METHODS: In the population-based Rotterdam Study, we used multivariable regression models to study the associations between plasma TMAO, its precursors, and cognition in 3,143 participants. Subsequently, we examined their link to structural brain MRI markers in 2,047 participants, with a partial validation in the Leiden Longevity Study (n = 318). Among 2,517 participants, we assessed the risk of incident dementia using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. Following this, we stratified the longitudinal associations by medication use and sex, after which we conducted a sensitivity analysis for individuals with impaired renal function.

RESULTS: Overall, plasma TMAO was not associated with cognition, neuroimaging markers or incident dementia. Instead, higher plasma choline was significantly associated with poor cognition (adjusted mean difference: -0.170 [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.297;-0.043]), brain atrophy and more markers of cerebral small vessel disease, such as white matter hyperintensity volume (0.237 [95% CI: 0.076;0.397]). By contrast, higher carnitine concurred with lower white matter hyperintensity volume (-0.177 [95% CI: -0.343;-0.010]). Only among individuals with impaired renal function, TMAO appeared to increase risk of dementia (hazard ratio (HR): 1.73 [95% CI: 1.16;2.60]). No notable differences were observed in stratified analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: Plasma choline, as opposed to TMAO, was found to be associated with cognitive decline, brain atrophy, and markers of cerebral small vessel disease. These findings illustrate the complexity of relationships between TMAO and its precursors, and emphasize the need for concurrent study to elucidate gut-brain mechanisms.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Yun C, Yan S, Liao B, et al (2024)

The microbial metabolite agmatine acts as an FXR agonist to promote polycystic ovary syndrome in female mice.

Nature metabolism [Epub ahead of print].

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an endocrine disorder afflicting 6-20% of women of reproductive age globally, has been linked to alterations in the gut microbiome. We previously showed that in PCOS, elevation of Bacteroides vulgatus in the gut microbiome was associated with altered bile acid metabolism. Here we show that B. vulgatus also induces a PCOS-like phenotype in female mice via an alternate mechanism independent of bile acids. We find that B. vulgatus contributes to PCOS-like symptoms through its metabolite agmatine, which is derived from arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Mechanistically, agmatine activates the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) pathway to subsequently inhibit glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion by L cells, which leads to insulin resistance and ovarian dysfunction. Critically, the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide and the arginine decarboxylase inhibitor difluoromethylarginine ameliorate ovarian dysfunction in a PCOS-like mouse model. These findings reveal that agmatine-FXR-GLP-1 signalling contributes to ovarian dysfunction, presenting a potential therapeutic target for PCOS management.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Sjövall A, Mustanoja E, Lyyski A, et al (2024)

Microbiome of the External Auditory Canal: Changes After Long-Term Hearing Aid Use.

Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology pii:00129492-990000000-00548 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial changes of long-term hearing aid use culture independently.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

PATIENTS: Fifty long-term hearing aid users and 80 volunteer controls with asymptomatic ears.

INTERVENTION: External auditory canal (EAC) sampling with DNA-free swabs.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Microbial communities in the samples were investigated with amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.

RESULTS: The final analysis contained 48 hearing aid users, 59 controls. Twenty-four samples were excluded because of low sequence count, recent use of antimicrobials and/or corticosteroids, recent cold, or missing health status. The groups showed significant differences in bacterial diversity (beta div., p = 0.011), and hearing aid users showed lower species richness than the control group (alpha div., p < 0.01). The most frequent findings in both groups were Staphylococcus auricularis, Alloiococcus otitis, Cutibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium otitidis, and Staphylococcus unclassified sp. Hearing aid users' samples presented more Corynebacterium tuberculostearicum than the control samples. Common EAC pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa were rare.

CONCLUSION: Long-term hearing aid use lowers bacterial diversity and modulates the EAC microbiome. The changes mostly affect commensals. Lowered diversity may predispose individuals to EAC conditions and needs more research.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Steffani M, Jäger C, Hüser N, et al (2024)

Postoperative prophylactic antibiotic therapy after pancreaticoduodenectomy in bile duct-stented patients reduces postoperative major complications.

Surgery pii:S0039-6060(24)00190-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Pancreaticoduodenectomy can entail a high complication rate, especially in patients who underwent preoperative bile duct drainage through bile duct stenting. Pancreaticoduodenectomy bile duct stenting patients frequently receive prophylactic antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period. However, the exact value and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in pancreaticoduodenectomy bile duct stenting patients remains under-investigated and thus unclear.

METHOD: We conducted a retrospective single-center study of pancreaticoduodenectomy bile duct stenting patients between January 2007 and December 2022. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and pathology data of 370 patients were collected, and intraoperative swab cultures of the bile were obtained from all patients upon transection of the common bile duct. The groups to be investigated were formed on the basis of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Postoperative complications and antibiotic resistance analysis were recorded.

RESULTS: Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in stented patients after pancreaticoduodenectomy significantly reduced major complications (odds ratio: 0.547 [95% confidence interval 0.327-0.915]; P = .02) such as reoperation (P = .041) and readmission to the intensive care unit (P = .037). Patients with Enterococcus faecalis (odds ratio: 1.699 [95% confidence interval 0.978-2.950];P = .048), Enterococcus faecium (odds ratio: 1.808 [95% confidence interval 1.001-3.264]; P = .050), or Citrobacter (odds ratio: 2.211 [95% confidence interval 1.087-4.497]; P = .029) in their bile had a higher probability of developing wound infections. Appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis, according to the bile duct microbiome, significantly reduced the risk of wound infection (odds ratio: 2.239 [95% confidence interval 1.167-4.298]; P = .015).

CONCLUSION: Postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in pancreaticoduodenectomy bile duct stenting patients significantly reduced major complications such as intensive care stay and reoperation. Targeted antibiotic treatment according to the biliary microbiome reduced the incidence of wound infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Baquero F, Pérez-Cobas AE, Aracil-Gisbert S, et al (2024)

Selection versus transmission: Quantitative and organismic biology in antibiotic resistance.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 121:105606 pii:S1567-1348(24)00057-1 [Epub ahead of print].

We aimed to determine the importance of selection (mostly dependent on the anthropogenic use of antimicrobials) and transmission (mostly dependent on hygiene and sanitation) as drivers of the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations. The first obstacle to estimating the relative weight of both independent variables is the lack of detailed quantitative data concerning the number of bacterial cells, potentially either pathogenic or harmless, and bacterial species exposed to antimicrobial action in the microbiotas of specific environments. The second obstacle is the difficulty of considering the relative importance of the transmission and selection exerting their combined effects on antibiotic resistance across eco-biological levels. As a consequence, advances are urgently required in quantitative biology and organismic biology of antimicrobial resistance. The absolute number of humans exposed to antibiotics and the absolute number of potentially pathogenic and commensal bacteria in their microbiomes should influence both the selection and transmission of resistant bacterial populations. The "whole Earth" microbiome, with astonishingly high numbers of bacterial cells and species, which are also exposed to anthropogenic antimicrobials in various biogeographical spaces, shapes the antibiotic resistance landscape. These biogeographical spaces influence various intensities of selection and transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria. While waiting for more precise data, biostatistics analysis and mathematical or computational modeling can provide proxies to compare the influence of selection and transmission in resistant bacteria. In European countries with lower sanitation levels, antibiotic consumption plays a major role in increasing antibiotic resistance; however, this is not the case in countries with high sanitation levels. Although both independent variables are linked, their relative influence on the level of antibiotic resistance varies according to the particular location. Therefore, interventions directed to decrease antibiotic resistance should be designed "a la carte" for specific locations with particular ecological conditions, including sanitation facilities.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Bui G, Torres-Fuentes C, Pusceddu MM, et al (2024)

Milk and Lacticaseibacillus paracasei BL23 effects on intestinal responses in a murine model of colitis.

American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, 326(6):G659-G675.

Probiotic-containing fermented dairy foods have the potential to benefit human health, but the importance of the dairy matrix for efficacy remains unclear. We investigated the capacity of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei BL23 in phosphate-buffered saline (BL23-PBS), BL23-fermented milk (BL23-milk), and milk to modify intestinal and behavioral responses in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, 3% wt/vol) mouse model of colitis. Significant sex-dependent differences were found such that female mice exhibited more severe colitis, greater weight loss, and higher mortality rates. Sex differences were also found for ion transport ex vivo, colonic cytokine and tight junction gene expression, and fecal microbiota composition. Measurements of milk and BL23 effects showed BL23-PBS consumption improved weight recovery in females, whereas milk resulted in better body weight recovery in males. Occludin and Claudin-2 gene transcript levels indicated barrier function was impaired in males, but BL23-milk was still found to improve colonic ion transport in those mice. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory gene expression levels were increased in both male and female mice fed BL23, and to a more variable extent, milk, compared with controls. The female mouse fecal microbiota contained high proportions of Akkermansia (average of 18.1%) at baseline, and females exhibited more changes in gut microbiota composition following BL23 and milk intake. Male fecal microbiota harbored significantly more Parasutterella and less Blautia and Roseburia after DSS treatment, independent of BL23 or milk consumption. These findings show the complex interplay between dietary components and sex-dependent responses in mitigating inflammation in the digestive tract.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Sex-dependent responses to probiotic Lacticaseibacillus paracasei and milk and the potential of the dairy matrix to enhance probiotic protection against colitis in this context have not been previously explored. Female mice were more sensitive than males to colonic injury, and neither treatment effectively alleviated inflammation in both sexes. These sex-dependent responses may result from differences in the higher baseline proportions of Akkermansia in the gut microbiome of female mice.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Welch EK, Dengler KL, Dicarlo-Meacham AM, et al (2024)

Bladder instillations versus onabotulinumtoxinA injection for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: A randomized clinical trial.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology pii:S0002-9378(24)00609-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome is an unpleasant sensation related to the bladder with lower urinary tract symptoms lasting more than six weeks, unrelated to an otherwise identifiable cause. The etiology is likely multifactorial including urothelial abnormalities, neurogenic pain upregulation, and potentially bladder and vaginal microbiome alterations. Despite treatment effectiveness of both bladder instillations and intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection for this condition, a head-to-head comparison has not been performed.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of bladder instillations and intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection for treatment of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

STUDY DESIGN: Patients with O'Leary-Sant (OLS) questionnaire scores of ≥ 6, meeting clinical criteria for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, and desiring procedural management were randomized to bladder instillations or intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection. The primary outcome was the difference in OLS scores at 2 months post-treatment between groups. Secondary outcomes included evaluation of sexual function, physical/mental health status, pain, patient satisfaction, treatment perception, retreatment, and adverse event rates.

RESULTS: 47 patients were analyzed with 22 randomized to bladder instillations and 25 to onabotulinumtoxinA injection. There were no differences in demographic and clinical characteristics between groups. From baseline to 2 months post-treatment, there was a decrease in OLS subscales in all patients (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index (ICSI) -6.3 (CI -8.54, -3.95), p<.0001; Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index (ICPI) -5.9 (CI -8.18, -3.57), p<.0001). At 2 months post-treatment, patients in the onabotulinumtoxinA group had significantly lower OLS scores compared to those in the bladder instillation group (ICSI 6.3 ± 4.5 [onabotulinumtoxinA] versus 9.6 ± 4.2 [instillation], p=.008; ICPI 5.9 ± 5.1 [onabotulinumtoxinA] versus 8.3 ± 4.0 [instillation], p=.048). The difference in OLS scores between groups did not persist at 6-9 months post-treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between baseline and post-treatment time points for the remaining questionnaires. Eight percent of patients who received onabotulinumtoxinA injection experienced urinary retention requiring self-catheterization. Patients who underwent onabotulinumtoxinA injection were significantly less likely to receive retreatment within 6-9 months compared to patients who received bladder instillations (relative risk 13.6; 95% CI, 1.92-96.6; P=.0002). There were no differences between groups regarding patient satisfaction, perception of treatment convenience, or willingness to undergo retreatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Both onabotulinumtoxinA injection and bladder instillations are safe, effective treatments for patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome, with significant clinical improvement demonstrated at 2 months post-treatment. Our findings suggest that intradetrusor onabotulinumtoxinA injection is a more effective procedural treatment for this condition than bladder instillation therapy and associated with decreased rates of retreatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Allam VSRR, Patel VK, De Rubis G, et al (2024)

Exploring the role of the ocular surface in the lung-eye axis: Insights into respiratory disease pathogenesis.

Life sciences, 349:122730 pii:S0024-3205(24)00320-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) represent a significant proportion of global health burden, with a wide spectrum of varying, heterogenic conditions largely affecting the pulmonary system. Recent advances in immunology and respiratory biology have highlighted the systemic impact of these diseases, notably through the elucidation of the lung-eye axis. The current review focusses on understanding the pivotal role of the lung-eye axis in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic respiratory infections and diseases. Existing literature published on the immunological crosstalk between the eye and the lung has been reviewed. The various roles of the ocular microbiome in lung health are also explored, examining the eye as a gateway for respiratory virus transmission, and assessing the impact of environmental irritants on both ocular and respiratory systems. This novel concept emphasizes a bidirectional relationship between respiratory and ocular health, suggesting that respiratory diseases may influence ocular conditions and vice versa, whereby this conception provides a comprehensive framework for understanding the intricate axis connecting both respiratory and ocular health. These aspects underscore the need for an integrative approach in the management of chronic respiratory diseases. Future research should further elucidate the in-depth molecular mechanisms affecting this axis which would pave the path for novel diagnostics and effective therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Park DH, Park OJ, Yoo YJ, et al (2024)

Microbiota association and profiling o 1 fgingival sulci and root canals of teeth with primary or secondary/persistent endodontic infections.

Journal of endodontics pii:S0099-2399(24)00279-6 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Microbiota associated with primary (PEI) and secondary/persistent (SPEI) endodontic infections must be characterized to elucidate pathogenesis in apical periodontitis and bacterial biomarkers identified for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

METHODS: This study analyzed the microbial community profiles of root canals and gingival sulci (sulcus-E) for teeth with PEI (n = 10) or SPEI (n = 10), using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Bacterial samples from gingival sulci (sulcus-C) of healthy contralateral teeth served as controls.

RESULTS: There were 15 phyla, 177 genera, and 340 species identified. The number and diversity of bacteria in root canals did not differ significantly between PEI and SPEI. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla in both groups. At the genus level, Lancefieldella, Bifidobacterium, Stomatobaculum, and Schaalia were enriched in root canals with SPEI. Of significance, Lancefieldella was observed in both root canals and sulcus-E of teeth with SPEI. At the species level, Neisseria macacae, Streptococcus gordonii, Bifidobacterium dentium, Stomatobaculum longum, and Schaalia odontolytica were increased significantly in root canals with SPEI compared to PEI. Oribacterium species, Streptococcus salivarius, Lancefieldella parvula, Prevotella denticola, and Oribacterium asaccharolyticum were more abundant in sulcus-E of teeth with SPEI compared to PEI.

CONCLUSIONS: There were distinctive and differing predominant bacterial species associated with the root canals and gingival sulci between teeth with PEI and SPEI. Specific bacteria identified in sulcus-E and root canals of teeth with SPEI could serve as non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for detecting SPEI.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Li X, Deng J, Long Y, et al (2024)

Focus on brain-lung crosstalk: preventing or treating the pathological vicious circle between the brain and the lung.

Neurochemistry international pii:S0197-0186(24)00095-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, there has been increasing attention to bidirectional information exchange between the brain and lungs. Typical physiological data is communicated by channels like the circulation and sympathetic nervous system. However, communication between the brain and lungs can also occur in pathological conditions. Studies have shown that severe traumatic brain injury(TBI), cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage(SAH), and other brain diseases can lead to lung damage. Conversely, severe lung diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS), pneumonia, and respiratory failure can exacerbate neuroinflammatory responses, aggravate brain damage, deteriorate neurological function, and result in poor prognosis. A brain or lung injury can have adverse effects on another organ through various pathways, including inflammation, immunity, oxidative stress, neurosecretory factors, microbiome and oxygen. Researchers have increasingly concentrated on possible links between the brain and lungs. However, there has been little attention given to how the interaction between the brain and lungs affects the development of brain or lung disorders, which can lead to clinical states that are susceptible to alterations and can directly affect treatment results. This review described the relationships between the brain and lung in both physiological and pathological conditions, detailing the various pathways of communication such as neurological, inflammatory, immunological, endocrine, and microbiological pathways. Meanwhile, this review provides a comprehensive summary of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for diseases related to the brain and lungs. It aims to support clinical endeavors in preventing and treating such ailments and serve as a reference for the development of relevant medications.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Wang E, Yu B, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Low Carbon Loss from Long-Term Manure-Applied Soil during Abrupt Warming Is Realized through Soil and Microbiome Interplay.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Manure application is a global approach for enhancing soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration. However, the response of SOC decomposition in manure-applied soil to abrupt warming, often occurring during diurnal temperature fluctuations, remains poorly understood. We examined the effects of long-term (23 years) continuous application of manure on SOC chemical composition, soil respiration, and microbial communities under temperature shifts (15 vs 25 °C) in the presence of plant residues. Compared to soil without fertilizer, manure application reduced SOC recalcitrance indexes (i.e., aliphaticity and aromaticity) by 17.45 and 21.77%, and also reduced temperature sensitivity (Q10) of native SOC decomposition, plant residue decomposition, and priming effect by 12.98, 15.98, and 52.83%, respectively. The relative abundances of warm-stimulated chemoheterotrophic bacteria and fungi were lower in the manure-applied soil, whereas those of chemoautotrophic Thaumarchaeota were higher. In addition, the microbial network of the manure-applied soil was more interconnected, with more negative connections with the warm-stimulated taxa than soils without fertilizer or with chemical fertilizer applied. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the reduced loss of SOC to abrupt warming by manure application arises from C chemistry modification, less warm-stimulated microorganisms, a more complex microbial community, and the higher CO2 intercepting capability by Thaumarchaeota.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Christensen SM, Srinivas S, McFrederick QS, et al (2024)

Symbiotic bacteria and fungi proliferate in diapause and may enhance overwintering survival in a solitary bee.

The ISME journal pii:7676633 [Epub ahead of print].

Host-microbe interactions underlie the development and fitness of many macroorganisms, including bees. Whereas many social bees benefit from vertically transmitted gut bacteria, current data suggests that solitary bees, which comprise the vast majority of species diversity within bees, lack a highly specialized gut microbiome. Here we examine the composition and abundance of bacteria and fungi throughout the complete life cycle of the ground-nesting solitary bee Anthophora bomboides standfordiana. In contrast to expectations, immature bee stages maintain a distinct core microbiome consisting of Actinobacterial genera (Streptomyces, Nocardiodes) and the fungus Moniliella spathulata. Dormant (diapausing) larval bees hosted the most abundant and distinctive bacteria and fungi, attaining 33 and 52 times their initial copy number, respectively. We tested two adaptive hypotheses regarding microbial functions for diapausing bees. First, using isolated bacteria and fungi, we found that Streptomyces from brood cells inhibited the growth of multiple pathogenic filamentous fungi, suggesting a role in pathogen protection during overwintering, when bees face high pathogen pressure. Second, sugar alcohol composition changed in tandem with major changes in fungal abundance, suggesting links with bee cold tolerance or overwintering biology. We find that A. bomboides hosts a conserved core microbiome that may provide key fitness advantages through larval development and diapause, which raises the question of how this microbiome is maintained and faithfully transmitted between generations. Our results suggest that focus on microbiomes of mature or active insect developmental stages may overlook stage-specific symbionts and microbial fitness contributions during host dormancy.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Rashidi A, Ebadi M, Rehman TU, et al (2024)

Multi-omics analysis of a fecal microbiota transplantation trial identifies novel aspects of acute graft-versus-host disease pathogenesis.

Cancer research communications pii:745421 [Epub ahead of print].

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) is a major complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) associated with gut microbiota disruptions. However, whether therapeutic microbiota modulation prevents aGVHD is unknown. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of third-party fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) administered at the peak of microbiota injury in 100 patients with acute myeloid leukemia receiving induction chemotherapy and alloHCT recipients. Despite improvements in microbiome diversity, expansion of commensals, and shrinkage of potential pathogens, aGVHD occurred more frequently after FMT than placebo. Although this unexpected finding could be explained by clinical differences between the two arms, we asked whether a microbiota explanation might be also present. To this end, we performed multi-omics analysis of pre- and post-intervention gut microbiome and serum metabolome. We found that post-intervention expansion of Faecalibacterium, a commensal genus with gut-protective and anti-inflammatory properties under homeostatic conditions, predicted a higher risk for aGVHD. Faecalibacterium expansion occurred predominantly after FMT and was due to engraftment of unique donor taxa, suggesting that donor Faecalibacterium-derived antigens might have stimulated allogeneic immune cells. Faecalibacterium and ursodeoxycholic acid (an anti-inflammatory secondary bile acid) were negatively correlated, offering an alternative mechanistic explanation. In conclusion, we demonstrate context dependence of microbiota effects where a normally beneficial bacteria may become detrimental in disease. While FMT is a broad, community-level intervention, it may need precision engineering in ecologically complex settings where multiple perturbations (e.g. antibiotics, intestinal damage, alloimmunity) are concurrently in effect.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Zhu Q, Azad MAK, Li R, et al (2024)

Dietary probiotic and synbiotic supplementation starting from maternal gestation improves muscular lipid metabolism in offspring piglets by reshaping colonic microbiota and metabolites.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Probiotics and synbiotics have been intensively used in animal husbandry due to their advantageous roles in animals' health. However, there is a paucity of research on probiotic and synbiotic supplementation from maternal gestation to the postnatal growing phases of offspring piglets. Thus, we assessed the effects of dietary supplementation of these two additives to sows and offspring piglets on skeletal muscle and body metabolism, colonic microbiota composition, and metabolite profiles of offspring piglets. Pregnant Bama mini-pigs and their offspring piglets (after weaning) were fed either a basal diet or a basal diet supplemented with antibiotics, probiotics, or synbiotics. At 65, 95, and 125 days old, eight pigs per group were euthanized and sampled for analyses. Probiotics increased the intramuscular fat content in the psoas major muscle (PMM) at 95 days old, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and n-3 PUFA levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) at 65 days old, C16:1 level in the LDM at 125 days old, and upregulated ATGL, CPT-1, and HSL expressions in the PMM at 65 days old. Synbiotics increased the plasma HDL-C level at 65 days old and TC level at 65 and 125 days old and upregulated the CPT-1 expression in the PMM at 125 days old. In addition, probiotics and synbiotics increased the plasma levels of HDL-C at 65 days old, CHE at 95 days old, and LDL-C at 125 days old, while decreasing the C18:1n9t level in the PMM at 65 days old and the plasma levels of GLU, LDH, and TG at 95 days old. Microbiome analysis showed that probiotic and synbiotic supplementation increased colonic Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Faecalibacterium, Pseudobutyrivibrio, and Turicibacter abundances. However, antibiotic supplementation decreased colonic Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, and Unclassified_Lachnospiraceae abundances. Furthermore, probiotic and synbiotic supplementation was associated with alterations in 8, 7, and 10 differential metabolites at three different age stages. Both microbiome and metabolome analyses showed that the differential metabolic pathways were associated with carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. However, antibiotic supplementation increased the C18:1n9t level in the PMM at 65 days old and xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism at 125 days old. In conclusion, sow-offspring's diets supplemented with these two additives showed conducive effects on meat flavor, nutritional composition of skeletal muscles, and body metabolism, which may be associated with the reshaping of colonic microbiota and metabolites. However, antibiotic supplementation has negative effects on colonic microbiota composition and fatty acid composition in the PMM.

IMPORTANCE: The integral sow-offspring probiotic and synbiotic supplementation improves the meat flavor and the fatty acid composition of the LDM to some extent. Sow-offspring probiotic and synbiotic supplementation increases the colonic beneficial bacteria (including Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Faecalibacterium, Turicibacter, and Pseudobutyrivibrio) and alters the colonic metabolite profiles, such as guanidoacetic acid, beta-sitosterol, inosine, cellobiose, indole, and polyamine. Antibiotic supplementation in sow-offspring's diets decreases several beneficial bacteria (including Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Unclassified_Lachnospiraceae, and Prevotella) and has a favorable effect on improving the fatty acid composition of the LDM to some extent, while presenting the opposite effect on the PMM.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Van Syoc E, Nixon MP, Silverman JD, et al (2024)

Changes in the type 2 diabetes gut mycobiome associate with metformin treatment across populations.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The human gut teems with a diverse ecosystem of microbes, yet non-bacterial portions of that community are overlooked in studies of metabolic diseases firmly linked to gut bacteria. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is associated with compositional shifts in the gut bacterial microbiome and the mycobiome, the fungal portion of the microbiome. However, whether T2D and/or metformin treatment underpins fungal community changes is unresolved. To differentiate these effects, we curated a gut mycobiome cohort spanning 1,000 human samples across five countries and validated our findings in a murine experimental model. We use Bayesian multinomial logistic normal models to show that T2D and metformin both associate with shifts in the relative abundance of distinct gut fungi. T2D is associated with shifts in the Saccharomycetes and Sordariomycetes fungal classes, while the genera Fusarium and Tetrapisipora most consistently associate with metformin treatment. We confirmed the impact of metformin on individual gut fungi by administering metformin to healthy mice. Thus, metformin and T2D account for subtle, but significant and distinct variation in the gut mycobiome across human populations. This work highlights for the first time that metformin can confound associations of gut fungi with T2D and warrants the need to consider pharmaceutical interventions in investigations of linkages between metabolic diseases and gut microbial inhabitants.

IMPORTANCE: This is the largest to-date multi-country cohort characterizing the human gut mycobiome, and the first to investigate potential perturbations in gut fungi from oral pharmaceutical treatment. We demonstrate the reproducible effects of metformin treatment on the human and murine gut mycobiome and highlight a need to consider metformin as a confounding factor in investigations between type 2 diabetes mellitus and the gut microbial ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Gilaberte Y, Piquero-Casals J, Schalka S, et al (2024)

Exploring the impact of solar radiation on skin microbiome to develop improved photoprotection strategies.

Photochemistry and photobiology [Epub ahead of print].

The skin microbiome undergoes constant exposure to solar radiation (SR), with its effects on health well-documented. However, understanding SR's influence on host-associated skin commensals remains nascent. This review surveys existing knowledge on SR's impact on the skin microbiome and proposes innovative sun protection methods that safeguard both skin integrity and microbiome balance. A team of skin photodamage specialists conducted a comprehensive review of 122 articles sourced from PubMed and Research Gateway. Key terms included skin microbiome, photoprotection, photodamage, skin cancer, ultraviolet radiation, solar radiation, skin commensals, skin protection, and pre/probiotics. Experts offered insights into novel sun protection products designed not only to shield the skin but also to mitigate SR's effects on the skin microbiome. Existing literature on SR's influence on the skin microbiome is limited. SR exposure can alter microbiome composition, potentially leading to dysbiosis, compromised skin barrier function, and immune system activation. Current sun protection methods generally overlook microbiome considerations. Tailored sun protection products that prioritize both skin and microbiome health may offer enhanced defense against SR-induced skin conditions. By safeguarding both skin and microbiota, these specialized products could mitigate dysbiosis risks associated with SR exposure, bolstering skin defense mechanisms and reducing the likelihood of SR-mediated skin issues.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Kalluçi E, Preni B, Dhamo X, et al (2024)

A comparative study of supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms applied to human microbiome.

La Clinica terapeutica, 175(3):98-116.

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome, consisting of diverse bacte-rial, fungal, protozoan and viral species, exerts a profound influence on various physiological processes and disease susceptibility. However, the complexity of microbiome data has presented significant challenges in the analysis and interpretation of these intricate datasets, leading to the development of specialized software that employs machine learning algorithms for these aims.

METHODS: In this paper, we analyze raw data taken from 16S rRNA gene sequencing from three studies, including stool samples from healthy control, patients with adenoma, and patients with colorectal cancer. Firstly, we use network-based methods to reduce dimensions of the dataset and consider only the most important features. In addition, we employ supervised machine learning algorithms to make prediction.

RESULTS: Results show that graph-based techniques reduces dimen-sion from 255 up to 78 features with modularity score 0.73 based on different centrality measures. On the other hand, projection methods (non-negative matrix factorization and principal component analysis) reduce dimensions to 7 features. Furthermore, we apply supervised machine learning algorithms on the most important features obtained from centrality measures and on the ones obtained from projection methods, founding that the evaluation metrics have approximately the same scores when applying the algorithms on the entire dataset, on 78 feature and on 7 features.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the efficacy of graph-based and projection methods in the interpretation for 16S rRNA gene sequencing data. Supervised machine learning on refined features from both approaches yields comparable predictive performance, emphasizing specific microbial features-bacteroides, prevotella, fusobacterium, lysinibacillus, blautia, sphingomonas, and faecalibacterium-as key in predicting patient conditions from raw data.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Tang C, Li L, Jin X, et al (2024)

Investigating the Impact of Gut Microbiota on Gout Through Mendelian Randomization.

Orthopedic research and reviews, 16:125-136.

BACKGROUND: The relationship between gout and gut microbiota has attracted significant attention in current research. However, due to the diverse range of gut microbiota, the specific causal effect on gout remains unclear. This study utilizes Mendelian randomization (MR) to investigate the causal relationship between gut microbiota and gout, aiming to elucidate the underlying mechanism of microbiome-mediated gout and provide valuable guidance for clinical prevention and treatment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The largest genome-wide association study meta-analysis conducted by the MiBioGen Consortium (n=18,340) was utilized to perform a two-sample Mendelian randomization investigation on aggregate statistics of intestinal microbiota. Summary statistics for gout were utilized from the data released by EBI. Various methods, including inverse variance weighted, weighted median, weighted model, MR-Egger, and Simple-mode, were employed to assess the causal relationship between gut microbiota and gout. Reverse Mendelian randomization analysis revealed a causal association between bacteria and gout in forward Mendelian randomization analysis. Cochran's Q statistic was used to quantify instrumental variable heterogeneity.

RESULTS: The inverse variance weighted estimation revealed that Rikenellaceae exhibited a slight protective effect on gout, while the presence of Ruminococcaceae UCG_011 is associated with a marginal increase in the risk of gout. According to the reverse Mendelian Randomization results, no significant causal relationship between gout and gut microbiota was observed. No significant heterogeneity of instrumental variables or level pleiotropy was detected.

CONCLUSION: Our MR analysis revealed a potential causal relationship between the development of gout and specific gut microbiota; however, the causal effect was not robust, and further research is warranted to elucidate its underlying mechanism in gout development. Considering the significant association between diet, gut microbiota, and gout, these findings undoubtedly shed light on the mechanisms of microbiota-mediated gout and provide new insights for translational research on managing and standardizing treatment for this condition.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Jiang SQ, Ye SN, Huang YH, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota induced abnormal amino acids and their correlation with diabetic retinopathy.

International journal of ophthalmology, 17(5):883-895.

AIM: To explore the correlation of gut microbiota and the metabolites with the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and provide a novel strategy to elucidate the pathological mechanism of DR.

METHODS: The fecal samples from 32 type 2 diabetes patients with proliferative retinopathy (PDR), 23 with non-proliferative retinopathy (NPDR), 27 without retinopathy (DM), and 29 from the sex-, age- and BMI- matched healthy controls (29 HC) were analyzed by 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Sixty fecal samples from PDR, DM, and HC groups were assayed by untargeted metabolomics. Fecal metabolites were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Associations between gut microbiota and fecal metabolites were analyzed.

RESULTS: A cluster of 2 microbiome and 12 metabolites accompanied with the severity of DR, and the close correlation of the disease progression with PDR-related microbiome and metabolites were found. To be specific, the structure of gut microbiota differed in four groups. Diversity and richness of gut microbiota were significantly lower in PDR and NPDR groups, than those in DM and HC groups. A cluster of microbiome enriched in PDR group, including Pseudomonas, Ruminococcaceae-UCG-002, Ruminococcaceae-UCG-005, Christensenellaceae-R-7, was observed. Functional analysis showed that the glucose and nicotinate degradations were significantly higher in PDR group than those in HC group. Arginine, serine, ornithine, and arachidonic acid were significantly enriched in PDR group, while proline was enriched in HC group. Functional analysis illustrated that arginine biosynthesis, lysine degradation, histidine catabolism, central carbon catabolism in cancer, D-arginine and D-ornithine catabolism were elevated in PDR group. Correlation analysis revealed that Ruminococcaceae-UCG-002 and Christensenellaceae-R-7 were positively associated with L-arginine, ornithine levels in fecal samples.

CONCLUSION: This study elaborates the different microbiota structure in the gut from four groups. The relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae-UCG-002 and Parabacteroides are associated with the severity of DR. Amino acid and fatty acid catabolism is especially disordered in PDR group. This may help provide a novel diagnostic parameter for DR, especially PDR.

RevDate: 2024-05-20

Bostick JW, Connerly TJ, Thron T, et al (2024)

The microbiome shapes immunity in a sex-specific manner in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.07.593011.

INTRODUCTION: Preclinical studies reveal that the microbiome broadly affects immune responses and the deposition and/or clearance of amyloid-beta (Aβ) in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether the microbiome shapes central and peripheral immune profiles in AD models remains unknown.

METHODS: We examined adaptive immune responses in two mouse models containing AD-related genetic predispositions (3xTg and 5xFAD) in the presence or absence of the microbiome.

RESULTS: T and B cells were altered in brain-associated and systemic immune tissues between genetic models and wildtype mice, with earlier signs if inflammation in female mice. Systemic immune responses were modulated by the microbiome and differed by sex. Further, the absence of a microbiome in germ-free mice resulted in reduced cognitive deficits, primarily in female mice.

DISCUSSION: These data reveal sexual dimorphism in early signs of inflammation and the effects of the microbiome, and highlight a previously unrecognized interaction between sex and the microbiome in mouse models of AD.

RESEARCH IN CONTEXT: Systemic review: We reviewed the literature related to Alzheimer's disease (AD), inflammation, and the microbiome using PubMed. We cite several studies that demonstrate the influence of the microbiome on inflammation and cognitive performance in both animal models and humans. However, the mechanisms linking immunity to AD are not well understood. Interpretation: Using two well-established mouse models of AD, we found that the microbiome does not strongly influence the onset of inflammation in brain-draining lymph nodes; rather, it largely modulates systemic immune responses, local cytokine production, and cognitive performance. Notably, the inflammatory state in mice was affected by sex, and this sex effect differed between local and systemic tissues and mice with or without a microbiome. Future directions: Our work identified a sex- and microbiome-mediated effect on inflammation and cognitive performance. Future studies may focus on microbiome-dependent mechanisms that intersect with sex hormone and immune responses to determine peripheral effects on AD outcomes.

HIGHLIGHTS: Adaptive immunity is activated at early ages and differentially by sex in mouse models of AD.Inflammation in 5xFAD mice is characterized by increased IL-17A-producing T cells.Inflammation in 3xTg mice is characterized by increased cytokine responses in males, but attenuated cytokine responses in female mice.Longitudinal immune responses differ between 3xTg mice and 5xFAD mice.Both 3xTg and 5xFAD female mice show improved learning and cognition in the absence of a microbiome.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.

Timelines

ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

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