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Bibliography on: Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:04 Created: 


It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-11-09

Connolly G, Clark CM, Campbell RE, et al (2022)

Poultry Consumption and Human Health: How Much Is Really Known? A Systematically Searched Scoping Review and Research Perspective.

Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) pii:6815720 [Epub ahead of print].

This scoping review was conducted to systematically search and chronicle scientific literature pertinent to poultry intake and human health. The protocol (uploaded to Open Science Framework, was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews guidelines. Articles with observational and experimental research, narrative and systematic reviews, and meta-analyses were included. Among 13,141 articles identified, 525 met inclusion criteria. Among these 525 articles, 212 focused on cancer morbidity and mortality; 41 on cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality; 52 on CVD risk factors; 32 on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) morbidity and mortality; 33 on T2DM risk factors; and 42 on body weight and body composition. An "Other" category (181 articles) included nutrient status, psychological well-being/mental health, cognition, microbiome, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, skin disorders, and fertility, among others. Among the 525 included articles, 366 were observational, 64 were experimental, and 76 were reviews and meta-analyses. Eighty-three percent of articles focused on adults or older adults. A paucity of research exists to support poultry as health-promoting foods, with most research only indirectly assessing poultry intake compared with other foods of interest (e.g., red meats or plant-based protein foods). No randomized controlled trials and only 1% of OBS assessed the influence of processed poultry intake on human health. In the future, the relative health effects of consuming poultry will be compared with a widening array of traditional and new protein-rich food products, necessitating the need for research to assess poultry as foods of choice. Science and health professionals, the poultry industry, and the public will benefit from new observational and experimental research to address cutting-edge scientific, public policy, and consumer topics pertinent to poultry intake and human health.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Denk D, Petrocelli V, Conche C, et al (2022)

Expansion of T memory stem cells with superior anti-tumor immunity by Urolithin A-induced mitophagy.

Immunity, 55(11):2059-2073.e8.

T memory stem cells (TSCM) display increased self-renewal and prolonged survival capabilities, thus preventing T cell exhaustion and promoting effective anti-tumor T cell responses. TSCM cells can be expanded by Urolithin A (UA), which is produced by the commensal gut microbiome from foods rich in ellagitannins and is known to improve mitochondrial health. Oral UA administration to tumor-bearing mice conferred strong anti-tumor CD8+ T cell immunity, whereas ex vivo UA pre-treated T cells displayed improved anti-tumor function upon adoptive cell transfer. UA-induced TSCM formation depended on Pink1-mediated mitophagy triggering cytosolic release of the mitochondrial phosphatase Pgam5. Cytosolic Pgam5 dephosphorylated β-catenin, which drove Wnt signaling and compensatory mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively, we unravel a critical signaling pathway linking mitophagy to TSCM formation and suggest that the well-tolerated metabolic compound UA represents an attractive option to improve immune therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Ramai D, Salati M, Pomati G, et al (2022)

Antibiotics, the microbiome and gastrointestinal cancers: A causal interference?.

Current opinion in pharmacology, 67:102315 pii:S1471-4892(22)00142-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Our understanding of the gut microbiota has significantly evolved over the last two decades. Advances in the analysis of the gut microbiome continues to reveal complex microbial communities and discoveries about their role in health and diseases, including cancer development, are continuously growing. In addition, research has demonstrated that the use of antibiotics can modulate the gut microbiota composition negatively and influence cancer treatment outcomes, suggesting that antibiotics should be avoided if possible. In this article, we review the role of the gut microbiota in the formation of GI cancers. We show that specific bacterial populations can positively or negatively affect cancer formation with specific attention given to gastric and colorectal cancer. We also review the role of microbial-targeted therapies on cancer treatment outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Chen J, Zhang P, Zhao Y, et al (2022)

Nitroreductase-instructed supramolecular assemblies for microbiome regulation to enhance colorectal cancer treatments.

Science advances, 8(45):eadd2789.

The development of human microbiome has collectively correlated the sophisticated interactions between Fusobacterium nucleatum and colorectal cancers (CRCs). However, the treatment of CRC via disruption of gastrointestinal flora remains less explored. Aiming at the up-regulated activity of nitroreductase in F. nucleatum-infected tumors, here, we developed the nitroreductase-instructed supramolecular self-assembly. The designed assembly precursors underwent enzymatic transformation to form assemblies, which agglutinated F. nucleatum and eradicated the targeted bacteria. These assemblies with anti-F. nucleatum activity could further alleviate the bacteria-induced drug resistance effect, thus sensitizing CRC cells against chemo-drugs. Eventually, in mice bearing F. nucleatum-infected CRC, the local introduction of nitroreductase-instructed assemblies could efficiently inhibit the tumor growth. Overall, this study incorporated nitroreductase to broaden the toolbox of enzyme-instructed supramolecular self-assembly. The local introduction of nitroreductase-instructed assemblies could target F. nucleatum to eliminate its contribution to CRC drug resistance and ameliorate chemotherapy outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Zhao C, Kelly K, Jabbur ML, et al (2022)

Host circadian behaviors exert only weak selective pressure on the gut microbiome under stable conditions but are critical for recovery from antibiotic treatment.

PLoS biology, 20(11):e3001865 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-22-00791.

The circadian rhythms of hosts dictate an approximately 24 h transformation in the environment experienced by their gut microbiome. The consequences of this cyclic environment on the intestinal microbiota are barely understood and are likely to have medical ramifications. Can daily rhythmicity in the gut act as a selective pressure that shapes the microbial community? Moreover, given that several bacterial species have been reported to exhibit circadian rhythms themselves, we test here whether a rhythmic environment is a selective pressure that favors clock-harboring bacteria that can anticipate and prepare for consistent daily changes in the environment. We observed that the daily rhythmicity of the mouse gut environment is a stabilizing influence that facilitates microbiotal recovery from antibiotic perturbation. The composition of the microbiome recovers to pretreatment conditions when exposed to consistent daily rhythmicity, whereas in hosts whose feeding and activity patterns are temporally disrupted, microbiotal recovery is incomplete and allows potentially unhealthy opportunists to exploit the temporal disarray. Unexpectedly, we found that in the absence of antibiotic perturbation, the gut microbiome is stable to rhythmic versus disrupted feeding and activity patterns. Comparison of our results with those of other studies reveals an intriguing correlation that a stable microbiome may be resilient to one perturbation alone (e.g., disruption of the daily timing of host behavior and feeding), but not to multiple perturbations in combination. However, after a perturbation of the stable microbiome, a regular daily pattern of host behavior/feeding appears to be essential for the microbiome to recover to the original steady state. Given the inconsistency of daily rhythms in modern human life (e.g., shiftwork, social jet-lag, irregular eating habits), these results emphasize the importance of consistent daily rhythmicity to optimal health not only directly to the host, but also indirectly by preserving the host's microbiome in the face of perturbations.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Coyte KZ, Stevenson C, Knight CG, et al (2022)

Horizontal gene transfer and ecological interactions jointly control microbiome stability.

PLoS biology, 20(11):e3001847 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-22-01344 [Epub ahead of print].

Genes encoding resistance to stressors, such as antibiotics or environmental pollutants, are widespread across microbiomes, often encoded on mobile genetic elements. Yet, despite their prevalence, the impact of resistance genes and their mobility upon the dynamics of microbial communities remains largely unknown. Here we develop eco-evolutionary theory to explore how resistance genes alter the stability of diverse microbiomes in response to stressors. We show that adding resistance genes to a microbiome typically increases its overall stability, particularly for genes on mobile genetic elements with high transfer rates that efficiently spread resistance throughout the community. However, the impact of resistance genes upon the stability of individual taxa varies dramatically depending upon the identity of individual taxa, the mobility of the resistance gene, and the network of ecological interactions within the community. Nonmobile resistance genes can benefit susceptible taxa in cooperative communities yet damage those in competitive communities. Moreover, while the transfer of mobile resistance genes generally increases the stability of previously susceptible recipient taxa to perturbation, it can decrease the stability of the originally resistant donor taxon. We confirmed key theoretical predictions experimentally using competitive soil microcosm communities. Here the stability of a susceptible microbial community to perturbation was increased by adding mobile resistance genes encoded on conjugative plasmids but was decreased when these same genes were encoded on the chromosome. Together, these findings highlight the importance of the interplay between ecological interactions and horizontal gene transfer in driving the eco-evolutionary dynamics of diverse microbiomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Peng BY, Sun Y, Xiao S, et al (2022)

Influence of Polymer Size on Polystyrene Biodegradation in Mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): Responses of Depolymerization Pattern, Gut Microbiome, and Metabolome to Polymers with Low to Ultrahigh Molecular Weight.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Biodegradation of polystyrene (PS) in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor lavae) has been identified with commercial PS foams. However, there is currently limited understanding of the influence of molecular weight (MW) on insect-mediated plastic biodegradation and the corresponding responses of mealworms. In this study, we provided the results of PS biodegradation, gut microbiome, and metabolome by feeding mealworms with high-purity PS microplastics with a wide variety of MW. Over 24 days, mealworms (50 individuals) fed with 0.20 g of PS showed decreasing removal of 74.1 ± 1.7, 64.1 ± 1.6, 64.4 ± 4.0, 73.5 ± 0.9, 60.6 ± 2.6, and 39.7 ± 4.3% for PS polymers with respective weight-average molecular weights (Mw) of 6.70, 29.17, 88.63, 192.9, 612.2, and 1346 kDa. The mealworms degraded most PS polymers via broad depolymerization but ultrahigh-MW PS via limited-extent depolymerization. The gut microbiome was strongly associated with biodegradation, but that with low- and medium-MW PS was significantly distinct from that with ultrahigh-MW PS. Metabolomic analysis indicated that PS biodegradation reprogrammed the metabolome and caused intestinal dysbiosis depending on MW. Our findings demonstrate that mealworms alter their gut microbiome and intestinal metabolic pathways in response to in vivo biodegradation of PS polymers of various MWs.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Weber DA, Weber M, Meedt E, et al (2022)

Reg3α levels at day of allogeneic stem cell transplantation predict outcome and correlate with early antibiotic use.

Blood advances pii:487037 [Epub ahead of print].

The intestinal microbiome diversity plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute gastrointestinal (GI) Graft-versus-Host Disease (aGvHD) and influences the outcome of patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). We analyzed clinical data and blood samples taken pre-conditioning and on the day of allogeneic SCT from 587 patients from seven German centers of the Mount Sinai Acute GvHD International Consortium (MAGIC), dividing them into a single-center test cohort (n=371) and a multicenter validation cohort (n=216). Reg3α serum concentration of day 0 correlated with clinical data as well as urinary 3-Indoxylsulfate and Clostridiales group XIVa, indicators of intestinal microbiome diversity. High Reg3α concentration at day 0 of allogeneic SCT was associated with higher 1-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) in both cohorts (p<0.001). Cox regression analysis revealed high Reg3α at day 0 as an independent prognostic factor for 1-year TRM (HR=2.9, 95%CI=1.8-4.8, p<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed an independent correlation of high Reg3α concentrations at day 0 and early systemic antibiotic treatment (OR=3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.8, p<0.001). Urinary 3-Indoxylsulfate (p=0.04) and Clostridiales group XIVa (p=0.004) were lower in patients with high Reg3α day 0 concentrations than in low Reg3α patients. In contrast, Reg3α concentrations prior to conditioning therapy correlated with neither TRM nor disease or treatment-related parameters. Reg3α, a known biomarker of acute GI GvHD correlates with intestinal dysbiosis induced by early antibiotic treatment in the period of pretransplant conditioning. Serum concentrations of Reg3α measured on the day of graft infusion are predictive of the risk for TRM of allogenic SCT recipients.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Shao X, Chen Y, Zhang L, et al (2022)

Effect of 30% Supramolecular Salicylic Acid Peel on Skin Microbiota and Inflammation in Patients with Moderate-to-Severe Acne Vulgaris.

Dermatology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Thirty-percent supramolecular salicylic acid (SSA), a modified salicylic acid preparation, is a safe and effective treatment for moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris (AV). However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the role of 30% SSA peels on skin microbiota and inflammation in patients with moderate-to-severe AV.

METHODS: A total of 28 patients were enrolled and received 30% SSA peels biweekly for 2 months. The Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) score, skin water content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), pH, and sebum levels were assessed. Skin microbial samples and perilesional skin biopsies were obtained at the onset and 2 weeks after treatment completion. Samples were characterized using a high-throughput sequencing approach targeting a portion of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene.

RESULTS: After treatment, patients showed a significant improvement in their GAGS score and skin barrier indicators (P < 0.05). The GAGS score was positively associated with both the sebum concentration (R = 0.3, P = 0.027) and pH (R = 0.39, P = 0.003). Increased expression of caveolin-1 and decreased expression of interleukin (IL)-1a, IL-6, IL-17, transforming growth factor beta, and toll-like receptor 2 were observed in the skin tissue after treatment. The richness and evenness of the cutaneous microbiome decreased after treatment and the Staphylococcus proportion decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas the Propionibacterium proportion tended to decrease (P = 0.066).

CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of analyses of the skin barrier and microbiota, we speculate that the 30% SSA peel may have a therapeutic effect in patients with moderate-to-severe AV by improving the skin microenvironment and modulating the skin microbiome, thus reducing local inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Liang M, Zhang J, Yang Y, et al (2022)

Nattokinase enhances the preventive effects of Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(1):8.

Nattokinase with excellent anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-hypertension properties has been used in the development of several healthcare products in many countries. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) with anti-inflammatory effect is commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. To determine whether nattokinase could enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EcN in colitis, a recombinant E. coli Nissle 1917 strain (EcNnatto) with nattokinase-expressing ability was successfully constructed, and the protective effect of the engineered strain on mice with experimental chronic colitis was investigated. Although both EcN and EcNnatto strains substantially alleviated the clinical symptoms and pathological abnormalities in colitis mice by regulating gut flora and maintaining intestinal barrier function, the EcNnatto strain was found to perform better than the control strain, based on a further increase in colon length and a downregulation in pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α). Nattokinase expressed in EcN attenuated DSS-induced epithelial damage and restored the mucosal integrity by upregulating the levels of tight junction proteins, including ZO-1 and occludin. The expression level of Lgr5, a marker of intestinal stem cells, was also increased. Moreover, constitutively expressed nattokinase in EcN reversed the gut microbial richness and diversity in colitis mice. Based on our findings, nattokinase could strengthen the capacity of EcN to treat intestinal inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Ayilara MS, Adeleke BS, OO Babalola (2022)

Correction to: Bioprospecting and Challenges of Plant Microbiome Research for Sustainable Agriculture, a Review on Soybean Endophytic Bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Li S, Guo J, Liu R, et al (2022)

Predominance of Escherichia-Shigella in Gut Microbiome and Its Potential Correlation with Elevated Level of Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha in Patients with Tuberculous Meningitis.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Tuberculous meningitis (TBM), the most lethal and disabling form of tuberculosis (TB), may be related to gut microbiota composition, warranting further study. Here we systematically compared gut microbiota compositions and blood cytokine profiles of TBM patients, pulmonary TB patients, and healthy controls. Notably, the significant gut microbiota dysbiosis observed in TBM patients was associated with markedly high proportions of Escherichia-Shigella species as well as increased blood levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Next, we obtained a fecal bacterial isolate from a TBM patient and administered it via oral gavage to mice in order to develop a murine gut microbiota dysbiosis model for use in exploring mechanisms underlying the observed relationship between gut microbial dysbiosis and TBM. Thereafter, cells of commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated and administered to model mice by gavage and then mice were inoculated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). Subsequently, these mice exhibited increased blood TNF-α levels accompanied by downregulated expression of tight junction protein claudin-5, increased brain tissue bacterial burden, and elevated central nervous system inflammation relative to corresponding indicators in controls administered PBS by gavage. Thus, our results demonstrated that a signature dysbiotic gut microbiome profile containing a high proportion of E. coli was potentially associated with an increased circulating TNF-α level in TBM patients. Collectively, these results suggest that modulation of dysbiotic gut microbiota holds promise as a new strategy for preventing or alleviating TBM. IMPORTANCE As the most severe form of tuberculosis, the pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is still unclear. Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays an important role in a variety of central nervous system diseases. However, the relationship between gut microbiota and TBM has not been identified. In our study, significant dysbiosis in gut microbiota composition with a high proportion of E. coli and increased levels of TNF-α in plasma was noted in TBM patients. A commensal E. coli was isolated and shown to increase the plasma level of TNF-α and downregulate brain tight junction protein claudin-5 in the murine model. Gavage administration of E. coli aggravated the bacterial burden and increased the inflammatory responses in the central nervous system after M. tuberculosis infection. Dysbiosis of gut microbiota may be a promising therapeutic target and biomarker for TBM prevention or treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Lai CKC, Cheung MK, Lui GCY, et al (2022)

Limited Impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the Human Naso-Oropharyngeal Microbiota in Hospitalized Patients.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Numerous studies have reported dysbiosis in the naso- and/or oro-pharyngeal microbiota of COVID-19 patients compared with healthy individuals; however, only a few small-scale studies have also included a disease control group. In this study, we characterized and compared the bacterial communities of pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs from hospitalized COVID-19 patients (n = 76), hospitalized non-COVID-19 patients with respiratory symptoms or related illnesses (n = 69), and local community controls (n = 76) using 16S rRNA gene V3-V4 amplicon sequencing. None of the subjects received antimicrobial therapy within 2 weeks prior to sample collection. Both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 hospitalized patients differed in the composition, alpha and beta diversity, and metabolic potential of the naso-oropharyngeal microbiota compared with local controls. However, the microbial communities in the two hospitalized patient groups did not differ significantly from each other. Differential abundance analysis revealed the enrichment of nine bacterial genera in the COVID-19 patients compared with local controls; however, six of them were also enriched in the non-COVID-19 patients. Bacterial genera uniquely enriched in the COVID-19 patients included Alloprevotella and Solobacterium. In contrast, Mogibacterium and Lactococcus were dramatically decreased in COVID-19 patients only. Association analysis revealed that Alloprevotella in COVID-19 patients was positively correlated with the level of the inflammation biomarker C-reactive protein. Our findings reveal a limited impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the naso-oropharyngeal microbiota in hospitalized patients and suggest that Alloprevotella and Solobacterium are more specific biomarkers for COVID-19 detection. IMPORTANCE Our results showed that while both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 hospitalized patients differed in the composition, alpha and beta diversity, and metabolic potential of the naso-oropharyngeal microbiota compared with local controls, the microbial communities in the two hospitalized patient groups did not differ significantly from each other, indicating a limited impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the naso-oropharyngeal microbiota in hospitalized patients. Besides, we identified Alloprevotella and Solobacterium as bacterial genera uniquely enriched in COVID-19 patients, which may serve as more specific biomarkers for COVID-19 detection.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Simpson AMR, De Souza MJ, Damani J, et al (2022)

Prune supplementation for 12 months alters the gut microbiome in postmenopausal women.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Prunes have health benefits, particularly in postmenopausal women. It is likely that the gut microbiome mediates some of these effects, but its exact role remains to be elucidated. This study aims to characterize the effect of prune supplementation on the gut microbiome of postmenopausal women. The fecal microbiome of 143 postmenopausal women ages 55-75 who met the compliance criteria in a randomized controlled trial of a 12-month dietary intervention in one of three treatment groups - no prunes (n = 52), 50 g prunes per day (n = 54), or 100 g prunes per day (n = 37) - was characterized at baseline and at the 12-month endpoint using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and QIIME2. Additional outcomes included assessment of select urinary phenolic metabolites and inflammatory markers. After 12 months, microbiomes of women consuming 50 g prunes had decreased evenness in bacteria taxa (Pielou's Evenness, Kruskal-Wallis p = 0.026). Beta diversity comparisons indicated significant differences in microbiomes among prune treatments (Bray-Curtis PERMANOVA, p = 0.005), and the effect was different at each prune dose (p = 0.057). Prunes enriched some bacterial taxa such as the family Lachnospiraceae (LEfSe LDA = 4.5). Some taxa correlated with urinary phenolic metabolites and inflammatory markers. Blautia negatively correlated with total urinary phenolics (r = -0.25, p = 0.035) and Lachnospiraceae UCG-001 negatively correlated with plasma concentrations of IL-1β (r = -0.29, p = 0.002). Differing gut microbiomes and correlation of some taxa with select phenolic metabolites and inflammatory markers, particularly Lachnospiraceae, after prune consumption suggest a potential mechanism mediating health effects. The microbiome differences at each dose may have implications for the use of prunes as a non-pharmacological whole food intervention for gut health.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Leth ML, Pichler MJ, M Abou Hachem (2022)

Butyrate-producing colonic clostridia: picky glycan utilization specialists.

Essays in biochemistry pii:232065 [Epub ahead of print].

Butyrate-producing human gut microbiota members are recognized for their strong association with a healthy immune-homeostasis and protection from inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer. These effects are attributed to butyrate, the terminal electron sink of glycan fermentation by prevalent and abundant colonic Firmicutes from the Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospiraceae families. Remarkably, our insight into the glycan utilization mechanisms and preferences of butyrogenic Firmicutes remains very limited as compared with other gut symbionts, especially from the Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, and Lactobacillus genera. Here, we summarize recent findings on the strategies that colonic butyrate producers have evolved to harvest energy from major dietary fibres, especially plant structural and storage glycans, such as resistant starch, xylans, and mannans. Besides dietary fibre, we also present the unexpected discovery of a conserved protein apparatus that confers the growth of butyrate producers on human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are unique to mother's milk. The dual dietary fibre/HMO utilization machinery attests the adaptation of this group to both the infant and adult guts. These finding are discussed in relation to the early colonization of butyrogenic bacteria and the maturation of the microbiota during the transition from mother's milk to solid food. To date, the described butyrogenic Firmicutes are glycan utilization specialists that target only a few glycans in a highly competitive manner relying on co-regulated glycan utilization loci. We describe the common pillars of this machinery, highlighting butyrate producers as a source for discovery of biochemically and structurally novel carbohydrate active enzymes.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Serrano M, Srivastava A, Buck G, et al (2022)

Dietary Protein and Fiber Affect Gut Microbiome and Treg/Th17 Commitment in Chronic Kidney Disease Mice.

BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have dysbiosis, dysmetabolism, and immune dysregulation. Gut microbiome plays an important role shaping the immune system which is an important modulator of CKD progression.

METHODS: We compared the effect of a diet low in protein and high in fiber (LP-HF; n = 7) to that of diet rich in protein, but low in fiber (HP-LF; n = 7) on gut microbiome and T-cell commitment in male CKD (Alb/TGF-β1) mice. The gut microbiomes of these mice were subjected to 16S rRNA taxonomic profiling at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks of the study.

RESULTS: The LP-HF diet was associated with an increase in Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum BT, a taxon whose functions include those closely related to butyric acid synthesis (Kendall's W statistic = 180 in analysis of microbiome composition). HP-LF diet was associated with increased abundance of two predominantly proteolytic bacterial strains related to Parabacteroides distasonis (W statistic = 173), Mucispirillum schaedleri, and Bacteroides dorei (W statistic = 192). Pathway analysis suggested that the LP-HF diet induced carbohydrate, lipid, and butyrate metabolism. As compared with HP-LF mice, LP-HF mice had 1.7-fold increase in CD4+Foxp3+Treg cells in spleen and 2.4-fold increase of these cells in peripheral blood. There was an 87% decrease in percentage of CD4+ Th17 + cells in spleen and an 85% decrease in peripheral blood, respectively, in LP-HF mice compared to the HP-LF mice.

CONCLUSION: The LP-HF diet promotes the proliferation of saccharolytic bacteria and favors T-cell commitment toward Treg cells in a CKD mouse of model. Clinical significance of the finding needs to be further investigated.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Almeida HM, Sardeli AV, Conway J, et al (2022)

Comparison between frail and non-frail older adults' gut microbiota: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ageing research reviews, 82:101773 pii:S1568-1637(22)00215-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that the intestinal microbiota (IM) undergoes remodelling as we age, and this impacts the ageing trajectory and mortality in older adults. The aim was to investigate IM diversity differences between frail and non-frail older adults by meta-analysing previous studies.

METHODS: The protocol of this systematic review with meta-analysis was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021276733). We searched for studies comparing IM diversity of frail and non-frail older adults indexed on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science in November 2021.

RESULTS: We included 11 studies with 1239 participants, of which 340 were meta-analysed. Frailty was defined by a variety of criteria (i.e. Fried Scale, European Consensus on Sarcopenia). There were no differences in the meta-analyses between the frail and non-frail groups for species richness index (SMD = -0.147; 95% CI = -0.394, 0.100; p = 0.243) and species diversity index (SMD = -0.033; 95% CI = -0.315, 0.250; p = 0.820). However, we identified almost 50 differences between frail and non-frail within the relative abundance of bacteria phyla, families, genera, and species in the primary studies.

CONCLUSIONS: The evidence to prove that there are differences between frail and non-frail IM diversity by meta-analysis is still lacking. The present results suggest that further investigation into the role of specific bacteria, their function, and their influence on the physiopathology of frailty is needed.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Wang H, Chen K, Ning M, et al (2022)

Intake of Pro- and/or Prebiotics as a Promising Approach for Prevention and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer.

Molecular nutrition & food research [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer, posing a serious threat to human life. It is widely believed that dietary factors may be crucial modifiers of CRC risk, with pro-and/or prebiotics being especially promising.

SCOPE: In this review, we gave a synthesis of CRC prevention and treatment of strategies relying on usage of pro- and/or prebiotics supplements, as well as discuss mechanisms underlying the contribution of pro-and/or prebiotics to the suppression of colonic carcinogenesis. Furthermore, we suggest a framework for personalizing such supplements according to the composition of an individual's gut microbiome.

CONCLUSIONS: Various factors including diversity of one's intestinal microflora, integrity of their intestinal barrier, and the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic/genotoxic and beneficial compounds are known to have a prominent influence on the development of CRC; thus, clarifying the role of pro- and/or prebiotics will yield valuable insight toward optimizing interventions for enhanced patient outcomes in the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Li H, Wang S, Wang S, et al (2022)

Atorvastatin Inhibits High-Fat Diet-Induced Lipid Metabolism Disorders in Rats by Inhibiting Bacteroides Reduction and Improving Metabolism.

Drug design, development and therapy, 16:3805-3816 pii:379335.

Purpose: The prevalence of hyperlipidemia and related illnesses is on its rise, and atorvastatin is the frequently used hypolipidemic agent. However, there is still uncertainty about the mechanisms, especially the relationship between the lipid-lowering effect, intestinal microbiome, and metabolic profiles. We aim to intensively explain the mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect of atorvastatin through multi-omics perspective of intestinal microbiome and metabolomics.

Methods: Multi-omics methods play an increasingly important role in the analysis of intestinal triggers and evaluation of metabolic disorders such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes. Therefore, we were prompted to explore intestinal triggers, underlying biomarkers, and potential intervention targets of atorvastatin in the treatment of dyslipidemia through multi-omics. To achieve this, SPF Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet or normal diet for 8 weeks. Atorvastatin was then administered to high-fat diet-fed rats.

Results: By altering intestinal microbiome, a high-fat diet can affect feces and plasma metabolic profiles. Treatment with atorvastatin possibly increases the abundance of Bacteroides, thereby improving "propanoate metabolism" and "glycine, serine and threonine metabolism" in feces and plasma, and contributing to blood lipid reduction.

Conclusion: Our study elucidated the intestinal triggers and metabolites of high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia from the perspective of intestinal microbiome and metabolomics. It equally identified potential intervention targets of atorvastatin. This further explains the mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect of atorvastatin from a multi-omics perspective.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Wang B, Wu C, Cui L, et al (2022)

Dietary aluminium intake disrupts the overall structure of gut microbiota in Wistar rats.

Food science & nutrition, 10(11):3574-3584 pii:FSN32955.

Approximately, 40% of ingested dietary aluminium accumulates in the intestine, which has been considered a target organ for dietary aluminium exposure. The gut microbiota may be the first protective barrier against the toxic metal aluminium and a crucial mediator of the bioavailability of metal aluminium. We previously evaluated dietary aluminium intake and its health risks in a population from Jilin Province, China, and found that the average daily intake of aluminium in the diet of residents in Jilin Province was 0.163 mg/kg after the total diet survey. In the present study, the equivalent concentration of aluminium in rats was extrapolated by the average dietary aluminium intake in the population of Jilin Province based on body surface area. Furthermore, healthy adult Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15 for each group): a control group and three groups treated with aluminium solution (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg/day, intragastrically) for 28 days. Following treatment, necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells, hyperplasia of bile ducts and hyperplasia of heart tissue, as well as fiber in the liver, kidney, and heart tissues of aluminium-treated rats were observed, although there were no significant changes in the spleen and brain. Subsequently, fecal samples were withdrawn for 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It was found that aluminium decreased the microbiota diversity and changed the overall community structure of the gut microbiota, including three phyla and four genera, together with the regulation of 12 signaling pathways. Collectively, treatment with aluminium markedly altered the structure of the gut microbiota, suggesting that the disorders of intestinal flora induced by aluminium may be an important mechanism for aluminium toxicity.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Zhang J, Yi C, Han J, et al (2022)

Gut microbiome and metabolome analyses reveal the protective effect of special high-docosahexaenoic acid tuna oil on d-galactose-induced aging in mice.

Food science & nutrition, 10(11):3814-3827 pii:FSN32978.

Aging is closely related to altered gut function and its microbiome composition. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in the preventive effect of special high-docosahexaenoic acid tuna oil (HDTO) on senescence, the effects of different doses of HDTO on the gut microbiome and metabolome of d-galactose-induced aging mice were studied. Deferribacteres and Tenericutes and uridine might be used as indicator bacteria and characteristic metabolites to identify aging, respectively. HDTO markedly improved the impaired memory and antioxidant abilities induced by d-galactose. At the phylum level, the abundance of Firmicutes and Tenericutes was significantly increased upon d-galactose induction, while that of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Deferribacteres was significantly decreased. At the genus level, the variation mainly presented as an increase in the abundance of the Firmicutes genera Ligilactobacillus, Lactobacillus, and Erysipelothrix, the decrease in the abundance of the Bacteroidetes genera Bacteroides and Alistipes, the Firmicutes genus Dielma, and the Deferribacteres genus Mucispirillum. HDTO supplementation reversed the alterations in the intestinal flora by promoting the proliferation of beneficial flora during the aging process; the metabolic pathways, such as glycine-serine-threonine metabolism, valine-leucine-isoleucine biosynthesis, and some metabolic pathways involved in uridine, were also partially restored. Furthermore, the correlation analysis illustrated an obvious correlation between gut microbiota, its metabolites, and aging-related indices. Moreover, it is worth noting that the metabolic regulation by dietary intervention varied with different HDTO doses and did not present a simple additive effect; indeed, each dose showed a unique modulation mechanism.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Song K, YH Zhou (2022)

C3NA: correlation and consensus-based cross-taxonomy network analysis for compositional microbial data.

BMC bioinformatics, 23(1):468.

BACKGROUND: Studying the co-occurrence network structure of microbial samples is one of the critical approaches to understanding the perplexing and delicate relationship between the microbe, host, and diseases. It is also critical to develop a tool for investigating co-occurrence networks and differential abundance analyses to reveal the disease-related taxa-taxa relationship. In addition, it is also necessary to tighten the co-occurrence network into smaller modules to increase the ability for functional annotation and interpretability of these taxa-taxa relationships. Also, it is critical to retain the phylogenetic relationship among the taxa to identify differential abundance patterns, which can be used to resolve contradicting functions reported by different studies.

RESULTS: In this article, we present Correlation and Consensus-based Cross-taxonomy Network Analysis (C3NA), a user-friendly R package for investigating compositional microbial sequencing data to identify and compare co-occurrence patterns across different taxonomic levels. C3NA contains two interactive graphic user interfaces (Shiny applications), one of them dedicated to the comparison between two diagnoses, e.g., disease versus control. We used C3NA to analyze two well-studied diseases, colorectal cancer, and Crohn's disease. We discovered clusters of study and disease-dependent taxa that overlap with known functional taxa studied by other discovery studies and differential abundance analyses.

CONCLUSION: C3NA offers a new microbial data analyses pipeline for refined and enriched taxa-taxa co-occurrence network analyses, and the usability was further expanded via the built-in Shiny applications for interactive investigation.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Rasmussen N (2022)

René Dubos, the Autochthonous Flora, and the Discovery of the Microbiome.

Journal of the history of biology [Epub ahead of print].

Now characterised by high-throughput sequencing methods that enable the study of microbes without lab culture, the human "microbiome" (the microbial flora of the body) is said to have revolutionary implications for biology and medicine. According to many experts, we must now understand ourselves as "holobionts" like lichen or coral, multispecies superorganisms that consist of animal and symbiotic microbes in combination, because normal physiological function depends on them. Here I explore the 1960s research of biologist René Dubos, a forerunner figure mentioned in some historical accounts of the microbiome, and argue that he arrived at the superorganism concept 40 years before the Human Microbiome Project. This raises the question of why his contribution was not hailed as revolutionary at the time and why Dubos is not remembered for it.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Yang Q, Van Haute M, Korth N, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Genetic analysis of seed traits in Sorghum bicolor that affect the human gut microbiome.

Nature communications, 13(1):6743 pii:10.1038/s41467-022-34544-7.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Liu C, Li Z, Song Z, et al (2022)

Choline and butyrate beneficially modulate the gut microbiome without affecting atherosclerosis in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice.

Atherosclerosis pii:S0021-9150(22)01480-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Choline has been shown to exert atherogenic effects in Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/- mice, related to its conversion by gut bacteria into trimethylamine (TMA) that is converted by the liver into the proinflammatory metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). Since butyrate beneficially modulates the gut microbiota and has anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic properties, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether butyrate can alleviate choline-induced atherosclerosis. To this end, we used APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established atherosclerosis-prone model with human-like lipoprotein metabolism.

METHODS: Female APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice were fed an atherogenic diet alone or supplemented with choline, butyrate or their combination for 16 weeks.

RESULTS: Interestingly, choline protected against fat mass gain, increased the abundance of anti-inflammatory gut microbes, and increased the expression of gut microbial genes involved in TMA and TMAO degradation. Butyrate similarly attenuated fat mass gain and beneficially modulated the gut microbiome, as shown by increased abundance of anti-inflammatory and short chain fatty acid-producing microbes, and inhibited expression of gut microbial genes involved in lipopolysaccharide synthesis. Both choline and butyrate upregulated hepatic expression of flavin-containing monooxygenases, and their combination resulted in highest circulating TMAO levels. Nonetheless, choline, butyrate and their combination did not influence atherosclerosis development, and TMAO levels were not associated with atherosclerotic lesion size.

CONCLUSIONS: While choline and butyrate have been reported to oppositely modulate atherosclerosis development in Apoe-/- and Ldlr-/- mice as related to changes in the gut microbiota, both dietary constituents did not affect atherosclerosis development while beneficially modulating the gut microbiome in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Lv H, Jia H, Cai W, et al (2022)

Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharides attenuates colitis via reshaping gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acid production.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is a gastrointestinal disease closely related to intestinal epithelial barrier damage and intestinal microbiome imbalance; however, effective treatment methods are currently limited. Rehmannia glutinosa polysaccharide (RGP) is an important active ingredient with a wide range of pharmacological activities, although its protective effect on colitis remains to be explored. Herein, this experiment verified the in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of RGP, and observed the ameliorating effect of RGP on DSS-induced colitis in mice.

RESULTS: The results showed that (1) RGP attenuated LPS-induced overexpression of inflammatory factors in RAW264.7 cells; (2) RGP improved the pathological damage caused by DSS, including weight loss, increased disease activity index and intestinal tissue ulcers; (3) RGP improves tight junction proteins to protects the tightness of the intestinal epithelium; (4) RGP inhibited the expression of inflammatory factors through the NF-κB pathway, and improved the of intestinal tissues inflammation; (5) RGP can maintain the species diversity of intestinal microbes, increase the content of short-chain fatty acids and then restore the imbalance of intestinal microecology.

CONCLUSION: RGP can improve the intestinal microbiota to strengthen the intestinal epithelial barrier and protect against DSS-induced colitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Dumitrescu DG, Gordon EM, Kovalyova Y, et al (2022)

A microbial transporter of the dietary antioxidant ergothioneine.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(22)01323-X [Epub ahead of print].

Low-molecular-weight (LMW) thiols are small-molecule antioxidants required for the maintenance of intracellular redox homeostasis. However, many host-associated microbes, including the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori, unexpectedly lack LMW-thiol biosynthetic pathways. Using reactivity-guided metabolomics, we identified the unusual LMW thiol ergothioneine (EGT) in H. pylori. Dietary EGT accumulates to millimolar levels in human tissues and has been broadly implicated in mitigating disease risk. Although certain microorganisms synthesize EGT, we discovered that H. pylori acquires this LMW thiol from the host environment using a highly selective ATP-binding cassette transporter-EgtUV. EgtUV confers a competitive colonization advantage in vivo and is widely conserved in gastrointestinal microbes. Furthermore, we found that human fecal bacteria metabolize EGT, which may contribute to production of the disease-associated metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide. Collectively, our findings illustrate a previously unappreciated mechanism of microbial redox regulation in the gut and suggest that inter-kingdom competition for dietary EGT may broadly impact human health.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Brown TL, Charity OJ, EM Adriaenssens (2022)

Ecological and functional roles of bacteriophages in contrasting environments: marine, terrestrial and human gut.

Current opinion in microbiology, 70:102229 pii:S1369-5274(22)00113-8 [Epub ahead of print].

While they are the most abundant biological entities on the planet, the role of bacteriophages (phages) in the microbiome remains enigmatic and understudied. With a rise in the number of metagenomics studies and the publication of highly efficient phage mining programmes, we now have extensive data on the genomic and taxonomic diversity of (mainly) DNA bacteriophages in a wide range of environments. In addition, the higher throughput and quality of sequencing is allowing for strain-level reconstructions of phage genomes from metagenomes. These factors will ultimately help us to understand the role these phages play as part of specific microbial communities, enabling the tracking of individual virus genomes through space and time. Using lessons learned from the latest metagenomic studies, we focus on two explicit aspects of the role bacteriophages play within the microbiome, their ecological role in structuring bacterial populations, and their contribution to microbiome functioning by encoding auxiliary metabolism genes.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Gonzalez-Visiedo M, Kulis MD, DM Markusic (2022)

Manipulating the microbiome to enhance oral tolerance in food allergy.

Cellular immunology, 382:104633 pii:S0008-8749(22)00158-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Loss of oral tolerance (OT) to food antigens results in food allergies. One component of achieving OT is the symbiotic microorganisms living in the gut (microbiota). The composition of the microbiota can drive either pro-tolerogenic or pro-inflammatory responses against dietary antigens though interactions with the local immune cells within the gut. Products from bacterial fermentation, such as butyrate, are one of the main communication molecules involved in this interaction, however, this is released by a subset of bacterial species. Thus, strategies to specifically expand these bacteria with protolerogenic properties have been explored to complement oral immunotherapy in food allergy. These approaches either provide digestible biomolecules to induce beneficial bacteria species (prebiotics) or the direct administration of live bacteria species (probiotics). While this combined therapy has shown positive outcomes in clinical trials for cow's milk allergy, more research is needed to determine if this therapy can be extended to other food allergens.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Ghotaslou R, Nabizadeh E, Memar MY, et al (2022)

The metabolic, protective, and immune functions of Akkermansia muciniphila.

Microbiological research, 266:127245 pii:S0944-5013(22)00285-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Numerous studies have almost proven the beneficial effects of gut microbiota in various aspects of human health, and even the gut microbiota is known as a new and forgotten organ. Akkermansia muciniphila, as a member of the gut microbiota, is considered a bacterium with probiotic properties; consequently, it has a remarkable position in microbiome research. This bacterium accounts for about 1-4 % of the total fecal microbiota population and is also considered a health marker. The accumulated evidence has shown a significant association between A. muciniphila and several disorders and diseases, such as obesity, fatty liver disease, diabetes, and even behavioral disorders. On the other hand, the beneficial effects of A. muciniphila in different studies have shown, such as protective role against pathogenic agents, antitumor properties, tight junctions' improvement, reduction of inflammation, gut permeability, and boosting adaptive immune responses. In this review, based on the available evidence and the latest research, we comprehensively evaluated the impact of A. muciniphila on host health from three points of view: metabolic, protective, and immune functions, as well as the possible mechanisms of each process.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Oost LJ, Tack CJ, JHF de Baaij (2022)

Hypomagnesemia and Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes.

Endocrine reviews pii:6811786 [Epub ahead of print].

Hypomagnesemia is tenfold more common in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), compared to the healthy population. Factors that are involved in this high prevalence are low Mg2+ intake, gut microbiome composition, medication use and presumably genetics. Hypomagnesemia is associated with insulin resistance, which subsequently increases the risk to develop T2D or deteriorates glycaemic control in existing diabetes. Mg2+ supplementation decreases T2D associated features like dyslipidaemia and inflammation; which are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse association between serum Mg2+ and the risk to develop heart failure (HF), atrial fibrillation (AF) and microvascular disease in T2D. The potential protective effect of Mg2+ on HF and AF may be explained by reduced oxidative stress, fibrosis and electrical remodeling in the heart. In microvascular disease, Mg2+ reduces the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia and improves endothelial dysfunction. Though, clinical studies assessing the effect of long-term Mg2+ supplementation on CVD incidents are lacking and gaps remain on how Mg2+ may reduce CVD risk in T2D. Despite the high prevalence of hypomagnesemia in people with T2D, routine screening of Mg2+ deficiency to provide Mg2+ supplementation when needed is not implemented in clinical care as sufficient clinical evidence is lacking. In conclusion, hypomagnesemia is common in people with T2D and is both involved as cause, probably through molecular mechanisms leading to insulin resistance, and consequence and is prospectively associated with development of HF, AF and microvascular complications. Whether long-term supplementation of Mg2+ is beneficial, however, remains to be determined.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Peterson LS, K Scheible (2022)

Leveraging Microbial Symbiosis to Modulate Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Abdel-Haq R, Schlachetzki JCM, Boktor JC, et al (2022)

A prebiotic diet modulates microglial states and motor deficits in α-synuclein overexpressing mice.

eLife, 11: pii:81453 [Epub ahead of print].

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder characterized by neuroinflammation, α-synuclein pathology, and neurodegeneration. Most cases of PD are non-hereditary, suggesting a strong role for environmental factors, and it has been speculated that disease may originate in peripheral tissues such as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract before affecting the brain. The gut microbiome is altered in PD and may impact motor and GI symptoms as indicated by animal studies, though mechanisms of gut-brain interactions remain incompletely defined. Intestinal bacteria ferment dietary fibers into short-chain fatty acids, with fecal levels of these molecules differing between PD and healthy controls and in mouse models. Among other effects, dietary microbial metabolites can modulate activation of microglia, brain-resident immune cells implicated in PD. We therefore investigated whether a fiber-rich diet influences microglial function in α-synuclein overexpressing (ASO) mice, a preclinical model with PD-like symptoms and pathology. Feeding a prebiotic high-fiber diet attenuates motor deficits and reduces α-synuclein aggregation in the substantia nigra of mice. Concomitantly, the gut microbiome of ASO mice adopts a profile correlated with health upon prebiotic treatment, which also reduces microglial activation. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of microglia from the substantia nigra and striatum uncovers increased pro-inflammatory signaling and reduced homeostatic responses in ASO mice compared to wild-type counterparts on standard diets. However, prebiotic feeding reverses pathogenic microglial states in ASO mice and promotes expansion of protective disease-associated macrophage (DAM) subsets of microglia. Notably, depletion of microglia using a CSF1R inhibitor eliminates the beneficial effects of prebiotics by restoring motor deficits to ASO mice despite feeding a prebiotic diet. These studies uncover a novel microglia-dependent interaction between diet and motor symptoms in mice, findings that may have implications for neuroinflammation and PD.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Williams RBH (2022)

Adapt or perish.

eLife, 11: pii:83617.

Microbial communities in wastewater treatment plants provide insights into the development and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Dahdouh E, Fernández-Tomé L, Cendejas E, et al (2022)

Intestinal Dominance by Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Pediatric Liver Transplant Patients.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Pediatric liver transplantation (PLTx) is commonly associated with extensive antibiotic treatments that can produce gut microbiome alterations and open the way to dominance by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). In this study, the relationship between intestinal Relative Loads (RLs) of β-lactamase genes, antibiotic consumption, microbiome disruption, and the extraintestinal dissemination of MDROs among PLTx patients is investigated. 28 PLTx patients were included, from whom 169 rectal swabs were collected. Total DNA was extracted and blaCTX-M-1-Family, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-48, and blaVIM were quantified via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and normalized to the total bacterial load (16SrRNA) through LogΔΔCt to determine the RLs. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed for 18 samples, and metagenomic sequencing was performed for 2. Patients' clinical data were retrieved from the hospital's database. At least one of the genes tested were detected in all of the patients. The RLs for blaCTX-M-1-Family, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-48, and blaVIM were higher than 1% of the total bacterial population in 67 (80.73%), 56 (78.87%), 57 (77.03%) and 39 (61.9%) samples, respectively. High RLs for blaCTX-M-1-Family, blaOXA-1, and/or blaOXA-48, were positively associated with the consumption of carbapenems with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and coincided with low diversity in the gut microbiome. Low RLs were associated with the consumption of noncarbapenem β-lactams with aminoglycosides (P < 0.05). Extraintestinal isolates harboring the same gene(s) as those detected intraintestinally were found in 18 samples, and the RLs of the respective swabs were high. We demonstrated a relationship between the consumption of carbapenems with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, intestinal dominance by MDROs and extraintestinal spread of these organisms among PLTx patients. IMPORTANCE In this study, we track the relative intestinal loads of antibiotic resistance genes among pediatric liver transplant patients and determine the relationship between this load, antibiotic consumption, and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms. We demonstrate that the consumption of broad spectrum antibiotics increase this load and decrease the gut microbial diversity among these patients. Moreover, the high loads of resistance genes were related to the extraintestinal spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. Together, our data show that the tracking of the relative intestinal loads of antibiotic resistance genes can be used as a biomarker that has the potential to stop the extraintestinal spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via the measurement of the intestinal dominance of these organisms, thereby allowing for the application of preventive measures.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Goggans ML, Bilbrey EA, Quiroz-Moreno CD, et al (2022)

Short-Term Tomato Consumption Alters the Pig Gut Microbiome toward a More Favorable Profile.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert positive effects on the gut microbiome. However, little is known about the specific effect of individual fruits or vegetables on gut microbe profiles. This study aims to elucidate the effects of tomato consumption on the gut microbiome, as tomatoes account for 22% of vegetable consumption in Western diets, and their consumption has been associated with positive health outcomes. Using piglets as a physiologically relevant model of human metabolism, 20 animals were assigned to either a control or a tomato powder-supplemented diet (both macronutrient matched and isocaloric) for 14 days. The microbiome was sampled rectally at three time points: day 0 (baseline), day 7 (midpoint), and day 14 (end of study). DNA was sequenced using shotgun metagenomics, and reads were annotated using MG-RAST. There were no differences in body weight or feed intake between our two treatment groups. There was a microbial shift which included a higher ratio of Bacteroidota to Bacillota (formerly known as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively) and higher alpha-diversity in tomato-fed animals, indicating a shift to a more desirable phenotype. Analyses at both the phylum and genus levels showed global microbiome profile changes (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA], P ≤ 0.05) over time but not with tomato consumption. These data suggest that short-term tomato consumption can beneficially influence the gut microbial profile, warranting further investigation in humans. IMPORTANCE The composition of the microorganisms in the gut is a contributor to overall health, prompting the development of strategies to alter the microbiome composition. Studies have investigated the role of the diet on the microbiome, as it is a major modifiable risk factor contributing to health; however, little is known about the causal effects of consumption of specific foods on the gut microbiota. A more complete understanding of how individual foods impact the microbiome will enable more evidence-based dietary recommendations for long-term health. Tomatoes are of interest as the most consumed nonstarchy vegetable and a common source of nutrients and phytochemicals across the world. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of short-term tomato consumption on the microbiome, using piglets as a physiologically relevant model to humans. We found that tomato consumption can positively affect the gut microbial profile, which warrants further investigation in humans.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Walker H, Shanthikumar S, Cole T, et al (2022)

Novel approaches to the prediction and diagnosis of pulmonary complications in the paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

Current opinion in infectious diseases, 35(6):493-499.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment option for many children with relapsed leukaemia, primary immunodeficiencies and haemoglobinopathies. Unfortunately, infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications following HSCT continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on recent advances in the field that enhance clinically available diagnostic tools and the role of novel diagnostic techniques.

RECENT FINDINGS: Research continues to highlight the role of standard diagnostic modalities, including imaging using computed topography chest and Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of posttransplant pulmonary infections. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage using bronchoscopy to obtain samples for microbiological analysis remains an important tool in the clinical and diagnostic algorithm for these children. The application of more novel diagnostic techniques such as metagenomic next-generation sequencing and the use of specific biomarkers remain potential future tools in children in whom the aetiology of posttransplant lung disease is unknown. The impact of the pulmonary microbiome on infectious and noninfectious pulmonary disease post HSCT is a future research direction.

SUMMARY: Pulmonary infectious complications post HSCT remain a devastating complication for children and their families. Despite improvements in standard and novel diagnostic modalities, the aetiology of pulmonary disease remains unknown for many patients. There is an urgent need for ongoing collaborative research to bridge this critical knowledge gap and lead to better patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Song Y, Perlman K, P Gyarmati (2022)

Microbial and host factors contribute to bloodstream infection in a pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia mouse model.

Heliyon, 8(11):e11340 pii:S2405-8440(22)02628-7.

Background: Hematological malignancies are the most common cancers in the pediatric population, and T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy in children. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a commonly occurring complication in leukemia due to underlying conditions and therapy-induced neutropenia. Several studies identified the gut microbiome as a major source of BSI due to bacterial translocation. This study aimed to investigate changes in the intestinal and fecal microbiome, and their roles in the pathophysiology of BSI in a pediatric T-ALL mouse model using high-throughput shotgun metagenomics sequencing, and metabolomics.

Results: Our results show that BSI in ALL is characterized by an increase of a mucin degrading bacterium (Akkermansia muciniphila) and a decrease of butyrate producer Clostridia spp., along with a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and differential expression of tight junction proteins in the small intestine. Functional analysis of the small intestinal microbiome indicated a reduced capability of SCFA synthesis, while SCFA supplementation ameliorated the development of BSI in ALL.

Conclusions: Our data indicates that changes in the microbiome, and the resulting changes in levels of SCFAs contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection in ALL. Our study provides tailored preventive or therapeutic approaches to reduce BSI-associated mortality in ALL.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Esposito P, Gandelman M, Rodriguez C, et al (2022)

The acute effects of antimicrobials and lipopolysaccharide on the cellular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration in pubertal male and female CD1 mice.

Brain, behavior, & immunity - health, 26:100543 pii:S2666-3546(22)00133-8.

Exposure to stressors during puberty can cause enduring effects on brain functioning and behaviours related to neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. The gut microbiome is a complex and dynamic system that could serve as a possible mechanism through which early life stress may increase the predisposition to neurodegeneration. Therefore, the current study was designed to examine the acute effects of pubertal antimicrobial and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments on the cellular mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative disorders in male and female mice. At five weeks of age, male and female CD-1 mice received 200 μL of broad-spectrum antimicrobials or water, through oral gavage, twice daily for seven days. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of either saline or LPS at 6 weeks of age (i.e., pubertal period). Sickness behaviours were recorded and mice were euthanized 8 h post-injection. Following euthanasia, brains and blood samples were collected. The results indicated that puberal antimicrobial and LPS treatment induced sex-dependent changes in biomarkers related to sickness behaviour, peripheral inflammation, intestinal permeability, and neurodegeneration. The findings suggest that pubertal LPS and antimicrobial treatment may increase susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases later in life, particularly in males.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Molina L, Rajchenberg M, de Errasti A, et al (2022)

Sapwood mycobiome vary across host, plant compartment and environments in Nothofagus forests from Northern Patagonia.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Global forests are increasingly threatened by altered climatic conditions and increased attacks by pests and pathogens. The complex ecological interactions among pathogens, microbial communities, tree host, and environment are important drivers of forest dynamics. Little is known about the ecology of forest pathology and related microbial communities in temperate forests of the southern hemisphere. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to characterize sapwood-inhabiting fungal communities in North Patagonian Nothofagus forests and assessed patterns of diversity of taxa and ecological guilds across climatic, site and host variables (health condition and compartment) as a contribution to Nothofagus autecology. The diversity patterns inferred through the metabarcoding analysis were similar to those obtained through culture-dependent approaches. However, we detected additional heterogeneity and greater richness with culture-free methods. Host species was the strongest driver of fungal community structure and composition, while the host health status was the weakest. The relative impact of site, season, plant compartment and health status were different for each tree species; these differences can be interpreted as a matter of water availability. For N. dombeyi, which is distributed across a wide range of climatic conditions, site was the strongest driver of community composition. Nothofagus pumilio's microbiome varied more with season and temperature, a relevant factor for forest conservation in the present climate change scenario. Both species carry a number of potential fungal pathogens in their sapwood, whether they exhibit symptoms or not. Our results provide an insight into the diversity of fungi associated with the complex pathobiome of the dominant Nothofagus species in southern south America.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Rao BC, Zhang GZ, Zou YW, et al (2022)

Alterations in the human oral microbiome in cholangiocarcinoma.

Military Medical Research, 9(1):62.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Lincoln A, Benton S, Piggott C, et al (2022)

Exploring the utility and acceptability of Faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) as a novel intervention for the improvement of colorectal Cancer (CRC) surveillance in individuals with lynch syndrome (FIT for lynch study): a single-arm, prospective, multi-centre, non-randomised study.

BMC cancer, 22(1):1144.

BACKGROUND: Lynch Syndrome (LS) is an inherited cancer predisposition syndrome defined by pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) or EPCAM genes. In the United Kingdom, people with LS are advised to undergo biennial colonoscopy from as early as 25 until 75 years of age to mitigate a high lifetime colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, though the consideration of additional surveillance intervention(s) through the application of non-invasive diagnostic devices has yet to be longitudinally observed in LS patients. In this study, we will examine the role of annual faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) alongside biennial colonoscopy for CRC surveillance in people with LS.

METHODS/DESIGN: In this single-arm, prospective, non-randomised study, 400 LS patients will be recruited across 11 National Health Service (NHS) Trusts throughout the United Kingdom. Study inclusion requires a LS diagnosis, between 25 and 73 years old, and a routine surveillance colonoscopy scheduled during the recruitment period. Eligible patients will receive a baseline OC-Sensor™ FIT kit ahead of their colonoscopy, and annually for 3 years thereafter. A pre-paid envelope addressed to the central lab will be included within all patient mailings for the return of FIT kits and relevant study documents. A questionnaire assessing attitudes and perception of FIT will also be included at baseline. All study samples received by the central lab will be assayed on an OC-Sensor™ PLEDIA Analyser. Patients with FIT results of ≥6 μg of Haemoglobin per gram of faeces (f-Hb) at Years 1 and/or 3 will be referred for colonoscopy via an urgent colonoscopy triage pathway. 16S rRNA gene V4 amplicon sequencing will be carried out on residual faecal DNA of eligible archived FIT samples to characterise the faecal microbiome.

DISCUSSION: FIT may have clinical utility alongside colonoscopic surveillance in people with LS. We have designed a longitudinal study to examine the efficacy of FIT as a non-invasive modality. Potential limitations of this method will be assessed, including false negative or false positive FIT results related to specific morphological features of LS neoplasia or the presence of post-resection anastomotic inflammation. The potential for additional colonoscopies in a subset of participants may also impact on colonoscopic resources and patient acceptability.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial Registration: ISRCTN, ISRCTN15740250 . Registered 13 July 2021.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bringhurst B, Allert M, Greenwold M, et al (2022)

Environments and Hosts Structure the Bacterial Microbiomes of Fungus-Gardening Ants and their Symbiotic Fungus Gardens.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The fungus gardening-ant system is considered a complex, multi-tiered symbiosis, as it is composed of ants, their fungus, and microorganisms associated with either ants or fungus. We examine the bacterial microbiome of Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Mycetomoellerius turrifex ants and their symbiotic fungus gardens, using 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing, over a region spanning approximately 350 km (east and central Texas). Typically, microorganisms can be acquired from a parent colony (vertical transmission) or from the environment (horizontal transmission). Because the symbiosis is characterized by co-dispersal of the ants and fungus, elements of both ant and fungus garden microbiome could be characterized by vertical transmission. The goals of this study were to explore how both the ant and fungus garden bacterial microbiome are acquired. The main findings were that different mechanisms appear to explain the structure the microbiomes of ants and their symbiotic fungus gardens. Ant associated microbiomes had a strong host ant signature, which could be indicative of vertical inheritance of the ant associated bacterial microbiome or an unknown mechanism of active uptake or screening. On the other hand, the bacterial microbiome of the fungus garden was more complex in that some bacterial taxa appear to be structured by the ant host species, whereas others by fungal lineage or the environment (geographic region). Thus bacteria in fungus gardens appear to be acquired both horizontally and vertically.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Basha OM, Hafez RA, Salem SM, et al (2022)

Impact of gut Microbiome alteration in Ulcerative Colitis patients on disease severity and outcome.

Clinical and experimental medicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis is a heterogeneous disease in terms of disease course, location, and therapeutic response. The current study was done to assess the alteration of the gut microbiome in UC patients and its relationship to severity, response to therapy, and outcome.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 96 participants who were divided into a case group (n = 48, recent onset, treatment naive ulcerative colitis patients who were subdivided into mild, moderate, and severe subgroups based on Truelove-Witts and endoscopic severity) and a healthy control group (n = 48). All were subjected to a thorough history, clinical examination, colonoscopy, routine laboratory tests, and quantitative real-time PCR to quantify Bacteroides, Lactobacilli, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Veillonella, and Hemophilus in fecal samples at baseline and 6 months after treatment.

RESULTS: Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed a significant reduction in the phylum Firmicutes in UC patients, with a significant predominance of the phylum Bacteriodetes. F. prausnitzii and lactobacilli were inversely proportional to disease severity, whereas Bacteroides, Hemophilus, and Veillonella were directly proportional to it. Six months after therapy, a statistically significant increase in F. prausnitzii and lactobacilli was observed, with a decrease in the levels of other bacteria. Lower baseline F. praustinizii (< 8.5) increased the risk of relapse; however, lower ESR (< 10), lower post-treatment CRP (< 6), lower Bacteroides (< 10.6) indefinitely protect against relapse.

CONCLUSION: The gut microbiome of recently diagnosed UC showed lower levels of Lactobacilli, Faecalibacterium, and higher levels of Bacteroides and Veillonella, and the change in their levels can be used to predict response to therapy.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zakavi M, Askari H, M Shahrooei (2022)

Characterization of bacterial diversity between two coastal regions with heterogeneous soil texture.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18901.

Studying microbial diversity and the effects of external factors on the microbiome could expand our understanding of environmental alterations. Silt and sand are mineral particles that form soil texture and even though most of the soils on earth contain a fraction of them and some other soils form almost by them, their effects on the microbiome remained to elucidate. In this study, the bacterial biodiversity of sand and silt clay soils was investigated. Furthermore, their effects on plant growth have been determined. Our data showed that biodiversity and biomass of microbiome are higher in silt-based soil. It is interesting that the pseudomonas genera only exist in silt-based soil while it is in the absence of sand-based soil. In contrast, B. thuringiensis could be found in sand-based soil while it is not found in silt texture. Our data also demonstrated that there are no significant changes in stress response between the two groups however, differential physiological changes in plants inoculated with silt and sand based bacterial isolates have been observed. This data could indicate that smaller size particles could contain more bacteria with higher biodiversity due to providing more surfaces for bacteria to grow.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kunimitsu M, Nakagami G, Kitamura A, et al (2022)

Relationship between healing status and microbial dissimilarity in wound and peri-wound skin in pressure injuries.

Journal of tissue viability pii:S0965-206X(22)00114-0 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Wound infection is the most serious cause of delayed healing for patients with pressure injuries. The wound microbiota, which plays a crucial role in delayed healing, forms by bacterial dissemination from the peri-wound skin. To manage the bioburden, wound and peri-wound skin care has been implemented; however, how the microbiota at these sites contribute to delayed healing is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between healing status and microbial dissimilarity in wound and peri-wound skin.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a long-term care hospital. The outcome was healing status assessed using the DESIGN-R® tool, a wound assessment tool to monitor the wound healing process. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the wound and peri-wound swabs, and microbiota composition was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene analysis. To evaluate microbial similarity, the weighted UniFrac dissimilarity index between wound and peri-wound microbiota was calculated.

RESULTS: Twenty-two pressure injuries (7 deep and 15 superficial wounds) were included in the study. For deep wounds, the predominant bacteria in wound and peri-wound skin were the same in the healing wounds, whereas they were different in all cases of hard-to-heal wounds. Analysis based on the weighted UniFrac dissimilarity index, there was no significant difference for healing wounds (p = 0.639), while a significant difference was found for hard-to-heal wounds (p = 0.047).

CONCLUSIONS: Delayed healing is possibly associated with formation of wound microbiota that is different in composition from that of the skin commensal microbiota. This study provides a new perspective for assessing wound bioburden.

RevDate: 2022-11-08
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Liu JL, Woo JMP, Parks CG, et al (2022)

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Risk: The Role of Environmental Factors.

Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America, 48(4):827-843.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex, chronic autoimmune disease. The etiology of SLE is multifactorial and includes potential environmental triggers, which may occur sequentially (the "multi-hit" hypothesis). This review focuses on SLE risk potentially associated with environmental factors including infections, the microbiome, diet, respirable exposures (eg, crystalline silica, smoking, air pollution), organic pollutants, heavy metals, and ultraviolet radiation.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Boesch M, Horvath L, Baty F, et al (2022)

Compartmentalization of the host microbiome: how tumor microbiota shapes checkpoint immunotherapy outcome and offers therapeutic prospects.

Journal for immunotherapy of cancer, 10(11):.

The host microbiome is polymorphic, compartmentalized, and composed of distinctive tissue microbiomes. While research in the field of cancer immunotherapy has provided an improved understanding of the interaction with the gastrointestinal microbiome, the significance of the tumor-associated microbiome has only recently been grasped. This article provides a state-of-the-art review about the tumor-associated microbiome and sheds light on how local tumor microbiota shapes anticancer immunity and influences checkpoint immunotherapy outcome. The direct route of interaction between cancer cells, immune cells, and microbiota in the tumor microenvironment is emphasized and advocates a focus on the tumor-associated microbiome in addition to the spatially separated gut compartment. Since the mechanisms underlying checkpoint immunotherapy modulation by tumor-associated microbiota remain largely elusive, future research should dissect the pathways involved and outline strategies to therapeutically modulate microbes and their products within the tumor microenvironment. A more detailed knowledge about the mechanisms governing the composition and functional quality of the tumor microbiome will improve cancer immunotherapy and advance precision medicine for solid tumors.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Li H, Xia W, Liu X, et al (2022)

Food provisioning results in functional, but not compositional, convergence of the gut microbiomes of two wild Rhinopithecus species: Evidence of functional redundancy in the gut microbiome.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07057-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The consumption of similar diets has led to the convergence of gut microbial compositions and functions across phylogenetically distinct animals. However, given the functional redundancy in gut microbiomes, it remains unclear whether synchrony occurs in their functions only and not in their composition, even within phylogenetically close animals consuming a similar diet. In this study, we collected fresh fecal samples from a Rhinopithecus roxellana population in April 2021 (before food provisioning) and June and December 2021 (after food provisioning) and used high-throughput sequencing methods (full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomes) to investigate changes in the gut microbiome due to food provisioning. Combining the results from our previous studies on a wild Rhinopithecus bieti population, we found that the artificial food provisions (e.g., apples, carrots, and peanuts) affected the gut microbiome, and synchrony occurred only in its functions and antibiotic resistance gene community in both Rhinopithecus species, reflecting its ecological functional redundancy. Given the current findings (e.g., depletion in probiotic microbes, dysbiosis in the gut microbial community, and changes in the antibiotic resistance gene profile), anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., food provisioning) would have potential negative effects on host health. Therefore, human activity in animal conservation should be rethought from the standpoint of gut microbial diversity.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Huang HS, Lin YE, Panyod S, et al (2022)

Anti-depressive-like and cognitive impairment alleviation effects of Gastrodia elata Blume water extract is related to gut microbiome remodeling in ApoE-/- mice exposed to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

Journal of ethnopharmacology pii:S0378-8741(22)00911-4 [Epub ahead of print].

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Gastrodia elata Blume (GE) is a traditional Chinese dietary therapy used to treat neurological disorders. Gastrodia elata Blume water extract (WGE) has been shown to ameliorate inflammation and improve social frustration in mice in a chronic social defeat model. However, studies on the anti-depressive-like effects and cognitive impairment alleviation related to the impact of WGE on the gut microbiome of ApoE-/- mice remain elusive.

AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study aimed to investigate the anti-depressive-like effect and cognitive impairment alleviation and mechanisms of WGE in ApoE-/- mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS), as well as its impact on the gut microbiome of the mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty ApoE-/- mice (6 months old) were randomly grouped into six groups: control, UCMS, WGE groups [5, 10, 20 mL WGE/kg body weight (bw) + UCMS], and a positive group (fluoxetine 20 mg/kg bw + UCMS). After four weeks of the UCMS paradigm, the sucrose preference, novel object recognition, and open field tests were conducted. The neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) and their metabolites were measured in the prefrontal cortex. Serum was collected to measure corticosterone and amyloid-42 (Aβ-42) levels. Feces were collected, and the gut microbiome was analyzed.

RESULTS: WGE restored sucrose preference, exploratory behavior and recognition ability, and decreased the levels of serum corticosterone and Aβ-42 in ApoE-/- mice to alleviate depressive-like behavior and cognitive impairment. Furthermore, WGE regulated the monoamine neurotransmitter via reduced the 5-HT and DA turnover rates in the prefrontal cortex. Moreover, WGE elevated the levels of potentially beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Alloprevotella, Defluviitaleaceae_UCG-011, and Bifidobacterium pseudolongum as well as balanced fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs).

CONCLUSION: WGE demonstrates anti-depressive-like effects, cognitive impairment alleviation, and gut microbiome and metabolite regulation in ApoE-/- mice. Our results support the possibility of developing a functional and complementary medicine to prevent or alleviate depression and cognitive decline using WGE in CVDs patients.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Perez-Garcia J, González-Carracedo M, Espuela-Ortiz A, et al (2022)

The Upper-Airway Microbiome as a Biomarker of Asthma Exacerbations despite Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(22)01475-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma is affected by the interplay of several factors. Among these, the role of the upper-airway microbiome has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the association between the salivary, pharyngeal, and nasal microbiome with asthma exacerbations despite ICS use.

METHODS: Samples from 250 asthma patients from the Genomics and Metagenomics of Asthma Severity (GEMAS) study treated with ICS were analyzed. Controls/cases were defined by the absence/presence of asthma exacerbations in the past six months despite being treated with ICS. The bacterial microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Differences between groups were assessed by PERMANOVA and regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Classification models of asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment were built with machine learning approaches based on clinical, genetic, and microbiome data.

RESULTS: In nasal and saliva samples, cases had lower bacterial diversity (Richness, Shannon, and Faith indexes) than controls (0.007≤p≤0.037). Asthma exacerbations accounted for 8-9% of the interindividual variation of the salivary and nasal microbiomes (0.003≤p≤0.046). Three, four, and eleven bacterial genera from the salivary, pharyngeal, and nasal microbiomes were differentially abundant between groups (4.09x10-12≤FDR≤0.047). Integrating clinical, genetic, and microbiome data showed good discrimination for the development of asthma exacerbations despite ICS use (AUCtraining:0.82 and AUCvalidation:0.77).

CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the upper-airway microbiome are associated with asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment. The salivary microbiome has a potential application as a biomarker of asthma exacerbations despite ICS use.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Victor Mercado J, Koyama M, K Nakasaki (2022)

Complexity of acclimatization substrate affects anaerobic digester microbial community response to organic load shocks.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)02049-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This study elucidated the changes in the short-term response to organic load shocks of the anaerobic digestion (AD) microbiome acclimatized to a simple substrate and a complex substrate. Batch vial reactors were inoculated with AD sludge acclimatized to either a simple (starch and hipolypeptone) or a complex (dog food and starch) substrate, both with carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 25. Organic loads in the form of an easily degradable substrate mix (starch and hipolypeptone) with concentrations varying from 0 to 5 g VS/L were applied to the reactors. Runs utilizing the inoculum acclimatized to a complex substrate sustained its methane productivity despite the high organic load shocks which the inoculum acclimatized to a simple substrate was unable to handle efficiently. The alpha-diversity of the microbiome decreased with increase in organic load for inoculum acclimatized with a simple substrate but was unaffected for the case of the inoculum acclimatized with a complex substrate. Lactobacillales and Cloacimonadales were inferred to be major players in starch degradation pathways for the inoculum acclimatized using a simple substrate as predicted by the bioinformatics package PICRUSt2. However, acclimatizing using a complex substrate did not support their growth and were replaced by Coriobacteriales which provided higher flexibility in terms of the predicted regulated metabolic functions. The predicted functional regulation of Synergistales and Syntrophales increased with acclimatization using a complex substrate which also showed increase in the flexibility of the microbiome towards handling organic load shocks. Acetoclastic pathway was upregulated with increase in organic load regardless of the acclimatization substrate while the hydrogenotrophic pathway was downregulated. Overall, acclimatization using a complex substrate increased the robustness and flexibility of the microbiome towards organic load shocks.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Lee JW, Cowley ES, Wolf PG, et al (2022)

Formation of secondary allo-bile acids by novel enzymes from gut Firmicutes.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2132903.

The gut microbiome of vertebrates is capable of numerous biotransformations of bile acids, which are responsible for intestinal lipid digestion and function as key nutrient-signaling molecules. The human liver produces bile acids from cholesterol predominantly in the A/B-cis orientation in which the sterol rings are "kinked", as well as small quantities of A/B-trans oriented "flat" stereoisomers known as "primary allo-bile acids". While the complex multi-step bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation pathway has been well-studied for conversion of "kinked" primary bile acids such as cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), respectively, the enzymatic basis for the formation of "flat" stereoisomers allo-deoxycholic acid (allo-DCA) and allo-lithocholic acid (allo-LCA) by Firmicutes has remained unsolved for three decades. Here, we present a novel mechanism by which Firmicutes generate the "flat" bile acids allo-DCA and allo-LCA. The BaiA1 was shown to catalyze the final reduction from 3-oxo-allo-DCA to allo-DCA and 3-oxo-allo-LCA to allo-LCA. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of human stool samples indicate that BaiP and BaiJ are encoded only in Firmicutes and differ from membrane-associated bile acid 5α-reductases recently reported in Bacteroidetes that indirectly generate allo-LCA from 3-oxo-Δ4-LCA. We further map the distribution of baiP and baiJ among Firmicutes in human metagenomes, demonstrating an increased abundance of the two genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients relative to healthy individuals.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Wu JY, Hua ZL, Liang ZY, et al (2022)

Impacts of iron amendments and per-fluoroalkyl substances' bio-availability to the soil microbiome in wheat ecosystem.

Chemosphere, 311(Pt 2):137140 pii:S0045-6535(22)03633-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become ubiquitous in farmland ecosystems and pose risks to agricultural safety, and iron is often applied to farmland soils to reduce the availability of pollutants. However, the effects of iron amendment on the availability of PFASs in the soil and on the soil microbiome are not well understood. Here, we investigated the responses of wheat soil containing PFASs to iron addition using a 21-day experiment. Our results showed that iron amendment enhanced PFAS availability (p < 0.05) and stimulated superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the wheat soil (p < 0.05), but iron amendment decreased the activities of soil catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) (p < 0.05). Soil bacterial community was more structurally stable than fungal community in response to iron addition, while species' pools were more stable in fungi than in bacteria (p < 0.05). Finally, PFPeA's availability in the wheat soil was the most important abiotic factors driving community succession of iron-cycling bacteria (p < 0.05). These results highlighted the potential interactions among PFASs' availability and microbial iron cycling in wheat farmland soil ecosystems and provided guidance in farmland environmental conservation and management.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Liao H, Li C, Ai S, et al (2022)

A simulated ecological restoration of bare cut slope reveals the dosage and temporal effects of cement on ecosystem multifunctionality in a mountain ecosystem.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116672 pii:S0301-4797(22)02245-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Cement is a critical building material used in the restorations of bare cut slopes. Yet, how cement affects ecosystem's functions and their undertakers remains elusive. Here, we revealed the dosage and temporal effects of cement on plant and soil traits, extracellular enzymes, greenhouse gas fluxes and microbiome using simulation experiments. The results showed that soil pH increased with the cement content at 1st day but relatively constant values around 7 to 7.5 were detected in the flowing days. The β-1,4-glucosidase, phenol oxidase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase showed high activities under high cement content, and they generally increased with the cultivations except for acid phosphatase. CH4 fluxes at 16th day were less than zero, and they increased to peak around at 37th to 44th days followed by decreasing until reaching to relatively stable fluctuations around 0. Despite of decrease patterns, N2O fluxes stayed around zero across the temporal gradient except for the maximum around at 30th day in 2%, 5% and 8% cement treatment. Microbial diversity decreased with the cement content, in which there were a recovery trend for bacteria. By integrating above- and belowground ecosystem traits into a multifunctionality index, we identified a potential optimum cement content (11%). PLSPM showed that multifunctionality was affected by the shifts in soil bacterial community, enzyme activity and greenhouse gases while these components were effected by other environmental changes resulted from cement. Our results demonstrate that cement determines multifunctionality through mediating microbial community and activity, providing new insights for designing in situ experiments and ecological restoration strategies for bare cut slopes.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Moutsoglou DM, Tatah J, Prisco SZ, et al (2022)

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Have a Proinflammatory Gut Microbiome and Altered Circulating Microbial Metabolites.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Inflammation drives pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Gut dysbiosis causes immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation by altering circulating microbial metabolites; however, little is known about gut dysbiosis and microbial metabolites in PAH.

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites in PAH patients.

METHODS: We performed 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene and shotgun metagenomics sequencing on stool from PAH patients, family controls, and healthy controls. We measured markers of inflammation, gut permeability, and microbial metabolites in plasma from PAH patients, family controls, and healthy controls.

MAIN RESULTS: The gut microbiome was less diverse in PAH patients. Shannon diversity index correlated with measures of pulmonary vascular disease but not with right ventricular function. PAH patients had a distinct gut microbial signature at the phylogenetic level with lower copies of gut microbial genes that produce anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and secondary bile acids and lower relative abundances of species encoding these genes. Consistent with the gut microbial changes, PAH patients had relatively lower plasma levels of SCFAs and secondary bile acids. PAH patients also had enrichment of species with the microbial genes that encoded the proinflammatory microbial metabolite trimethylamine. The changes in the gut microbiome and circulating microbial metabolites between PAH patients and family controls were not as substantial as the differences between PAH patients and healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS: PAH patients have proinflammatory gut dysbiosis in which lower circulating SCFAs and secondary bile acids may facilitate pulmonary vascular disease. These findings support investigating modulation of the gut microbiome as a potential treatment for PAH.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Nethery MA, Hidalgo-Cantabrana C, Roberts A, et al (2022)

CRISPR-based engineering of phages for in situ bacterial base editing.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(46):e2206744119.

Investigation of microbial gene function is essential to the elucidation of ecological roles and complex genetic interactions that take place in microbial communities. While microbiome studies have increased in prevalence, the lack of viable in situ editing strategies impedes experimental progress, rendering genetic knowledge and manipulation of microbial communities largely inaccessible. Here, we demonstrate the utility of phage-delivered CRISPR-Cas payloads to perform targeted genetic manipulation within a community context, deploying a fabricated ecosystem (EcoFAB) as an analog for the soil microbiome. First, we detail the engineering of two classical phages for community editing using recombination to replace nonessential genes through Cas9-based selection. We show efficient engineering of T7, then demonstrate the expression of antibiotic resistance and fluorescent genes from an engineered λ prophage within an Escherichia coli host. Next, we modify λ to express an APOBEC-1-based cytosine base editor (CBE), which we leverage to perform C-to-T point mutations guided by a modified Cas9 containing only a single active nucleolytic domain (nCas9). We strategically introduce these base substitutions to create premature stop codons in-frame, inactivating both chromosomal (lacZ) and plasmid-encoded genes (mCherry and ampicillin resistance) without perturbation of the surrounding genomic regions. Furthermore, using a multigenera synthetic soil community, we employ phage-assisted base editing to induce host-specific phenotypic alterations in a community context both in vitro and within the EcoFAB, observing editing efficiencies from 10 to 28% across the bacterial population. The concurrent use of a synthetic microbial community, soil matrix, and EcoFAB device provides a controlled and reproducible model to more closely approximate in situ editing of the soil microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Orenstein R (2022)

The Role of Microbiome-Based Therapeutics in Clostridioides difficile Infection: Durable, Long-Term Results of RBX2660.

Infectious diseases and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

A recently published manuscript described findings from a phase 2 open label study of the microbiota-based live biotherapeutic product RBX2660 in patients with two or more previous recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) episodes, and described long-term safety and sustained treatment success through 24 months. As previous studies have typically focused on short-term clinical outcomes, these new data provide insight into the tolerability, safety, and efficacy of RBX2660 over the long term. When microbiota-based products were first evaluated, the long-term efficacy and safety were principal concerns of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Microbiota-based live biotherapeutic products (LBPs) represent an emerging approach to the management of CDI and perhaps other gastrointestinal and medical conditions whose pathogenesis is defined by microbial dysbiosis. RBX2660 is a human-derived, broad consortium microbiota-based LBP that consists of a population of microbes obtained from healthy stool donors and may reflect the symbiotic nature of a healthy colonic microbiome. RBX2660 is rectally administered and does not require sedation or special preparation of the recipient. Potential advantages of the rectal administration of RBX2660 include the ease of administration and lack of need for any bowel preparation, which may benefit those who are frail, have swallowing issues, or cannot take bowel laxative preparations. In this multicenter prospective trial of rCDI, patients who achieved treatment success 8 weeks after receiving RBX2660 continued to have a sustained clinical response over the course of long-term follow-up, with more than 90% of treatment responders remaining CDI-free at 6, 12, and 24 months. Following receipt of RBX2660, the gut microbiota of those with treatment success were restored from a dysbiotic state to become more diverse and similar to RBX2660 composition. The restoration of the microbiota occurred as early as 7 days after RBX2660 administration and remained stable through the 24-month analysis. No new adverse outcomes were observed during the prospective assessment, and the safety profile of RBX2660 was consistent with previous studies. Based on the clinical studies, RBX2660 will most likely benefit those with ≥ 1 rCDI episode or those who are at a high risk of subsequent rCDI, such as patients who have comorbid conditions including renal disease, heart disease, or inflammatory bowel disease, or who are immunosuppressed. The role of microbiome-based therapeutics in 47 Clostridioides difficile infection: Durable, long-term results of RBX2660 (MP4 511833 KB).

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mirabelli C, Santos-Ferreira N, Gillilland MG, et al (2022)

Human Norovirus Efficiently Replicates in Differentiated 3D-Human Intestinal Enteroids.

Journal of virology [Epub ahead of print].

Human norovirus (HNoV) accounts for one-fifth of all acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide and an economic burden of ~$60 billion globally. The lack of treatment options against HNoV is in part due to the lack of cultivation systems. Recently, a model of infection in biopsy-derived human intestinal enteroids (HIE) has been described: 3D-HIE are first dispersed in 2D-monolayers and differentiated prior to infection, resulting in a labor-intensive, time-consuming procedure. Here, we present an alternative protocol for HNoV infection of 3D-HIE. We found that 3D-HIE differentiated as efficiently as 2D-monolayers. In addition, immunofluorescence-based quantification of UEA-1, a lectin that stains the villus brush border, revealed that ~80% of differentiated 3D-HIE spontaneously undergo polarity inversion, allowing for viral infection without the need for microinjection. Infection with HNoV GII.4-positive stool samples attained a fold-increase over inoculum of ~2 Log10 at 2 days postinfection or up to 3.5 Log10 when ruxolitinib, a JAK1/2-inhibitor, was added. Treatment of GII.4-infected 3D-HIE with the polymerase inhibitor 2'-C-Methylcytidine (2CMC) and other antivirals showed a reduction in viral infection, suggesting that 3D-HIE are an excellent platform to test anti-infectives. The transcriptional host response to HNoV was then investigated by RNA sequencing in infected versus uninfected 3D-HIE in the presence of ruxolitinib to focus on virus-associated signatures while limiting interferon-stimulated gene signatures. The analysis revealed upregulated hormone and neurotransmitter signal transduction pathways and downregulated glycolysis and hypoxia-response pathways upon HNoV infection. Overall, 3D-HIE have proven to be a highly robust model to study HNoV infection, screen antivirals, and to investigate the host response to HNoV infection. IMPORTANCE The human norovirus (HNoV) clinical and socio-economic impact calls for immediate action in the development of anti-infectives. Physiologically relevant in vitro models are hence needed to study HNoV biology, tropism, and mechanisms of viral-associated disease, and also as a platform to identify antiviral agents. Biopsy-derived human intestinal enteroids are a biomimetic of the intestinal epithelium and were recently described as a model that supports HNoV infection. However, the established protocol is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Therefore, we sought to develop a simplified and robust alternative model of infection in 3D enteroids that undergoes differentiation and spontaneous polarity inversion. Advantages of this model are the shorter experimental time, better infection yield, and spatial integrity of the intestinal epithelium. This model is potentially suitable for the study of other pathogens that infect intestinal cells from the apical surface but also for unraveling the interactions between intestinal epithelium and indigenous bacteria of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bergen N, Krämer P, Romberg J, et al (2022)

Shell Disease Syndrome Is Associated with Reduced and Shifted Epibacterial Diversity on the Carapace of the Crustacean Cancer pagurus.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer pagurus is highly susceptible to shell disease syndrome. However, little is known about concomitant changes in the epibacterial community. We compared the bacterial communities of black spot affected and nonaffected areas of the carapace by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and 16S rRNA. Within each spot, bacterial communities of affected areas were less diverse compared to communities from nonaffected areas. Communities of different affected spots were, however, more divergent from each other, compared to those of different nonaffected areas. This indicates a reduced and shifted microbial community composition caused by the black spot disease. Different communities found in black spots likely indicate different stages of the disease. In affected areas, Flavobacteriaceae rose to one of the most abundant and active families due to the increase of Aquimarina spp., suggesting a significant role in shell disease syndrome. We isolated 75 bacterial strains from diseased and healthy areas, which are primarily affiliated with Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, reflecting the dominant phyla detected by amplicon sequencing. The ability to degrade chitin was mainly found for Gammaproteobacteria and Aquimarina spp. within the Flavobacteriia, while the ability to use N-acetylglucosamine, the monomer of the polysaccharide chitin, was observed for most isolates, including many Alphaproteobacteria. One-third of the isolates, including most Aquimarina spp., showed antagonistic properties, indicating a high potential for interactions between the bacterial populations. The combination of bacterial community analysis and the physiological properties of the isolates provided insights into a functional complex epibacterial community on the carapace of C. pagurus. IMPORTANCE In recent years, shell disease syndrome has been detected for several ecologically and economically important crustacean species. Large proportions of populations are affected, e.g., >60% of the widely distributed species Cancer pagurus in different North Sea areas. Bacteria play a significant role in the development of different forms of shell disease, all characterized by microbial chitinolytic degradation of the outer shell. By comparing the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased areas of the shell of C. pagurus, we demonstrated that the disease causes a reduced bacterial diversity within affected areas, a phenomenon co-occurring also with many other diseases. Furthermore, the community composition dramatically changed with some taxa rising to high relative abundances and showing increased activity, indicating strong participation in shell disease. Characterization of bacterial isolates obtained from affected and nonaffected spots provided deeper insights into their physiological properties and thus the possible role within the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mackenzie CL, Pearce CM, Leduc S, et al (2022)

Impacts of Seawater pH Buffering on the Larval Microbiome and Carry-Over Effects on Later-Life Disease Susceptibility in Pacific Oysters.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Ocean acidification upwelling events and the resulting lowered aragonite saturation state of seawater have been linked to high mortality of marine bivalve larvae in hatcheries. Major oyster seed producers along North America's west coast have mitigated impacts via seawater pH buffering (e.g., addition of soda ash). However, little consideration has been given to whether such practice may impact the larval microbiome, with potential carry-over effects on immune competency and disease susceptibility in later-life stages. To investigate possible impacts, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were reared under soda ash pH buffered or ambient pH seawater conditions for the first 24 h of development. Both treatment groups were then reared under ambient pH conditions for the remainder of the developmental period. Larval microbiome, immune status (via gene expression), growth, and survival were assessed throughout the developmental period. Juveniles and adults arising from the larval run were then subjected to laboratory-based disease challenges to investigate carry-over effects. Larvae reared under buffered conditions showed an altered microbiome, which was still evident in juvenile animals. Moreover, reduced survival was observed in both juveniles and adults of the buffered group under a simulated marine heatwave and Vibrio exposure compared with those reared under ambient conditions. Results suggest that soda ash pH buffering during early development may compromise later-life stages under stressor conditions, and illustrate the importance of a long-view approach with regard to hatchery husbandry practices and climate change mitigation. IMPORTANCE Shellfish industries are threatened worldwide by recurrent summer mortality events. Such incidences are often associated with Vibrio disease outbreaks, and thus, it is critical that animals are able to mount sufficient immune responses. The oyster immune system is linked to the microbiome which is laid down during early developmental stages. Consequently, shellfish hatcheries play a key role with regard to shaping the immune competency of later-life stages. This study represents the first in-depth examination of whether the adoption of seawater pH buffering practice by hatcheries for mitigation of ocean acidification may alter the larval microbiome, and thus, have repercussions for adult susceptibility to summer mortality events. Findings demonstrate that even minimal buffering results in a changed microbiome which is paralleled by increased mortality of later-life stages under Vibrio and temperature stressors, highlighting the importance of the hatchery environment with regard to shaping resilience to summer mortality events.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Begley LA, Opron K, Bian G, et al (2022)

Effects of Fluticasone Propionate on Klebsiella pneumoniae and Gram-Negative Bacteria Associated with Chronic Airway Disease.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are commonly prescribed first-line treatments for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recent evidence has shown that ICS use is associated with changes in the airway microbiome, which may impact clinical outcomes such as potential increased risk for pneumonia in COPD. Although the immunomodulatory effects of corticosteroids are well appreciated, whether ICS could directly influence the behavior of respiratory tract bacteria has been unknown. In this pilot study we explored the effects of fluticasone proprionate, a commonly prescribed inhaled corticosteroid, on respiratory bacteria with an expanded focus on Klebsiella pneumoniae, a species previously implicated in fluticasone-associated pneumonia in COPD. We observed significant effects of fluticasone proprionate on growth responses of K. pneumoniae, as well as other bacterial species isolated from asthmatic patients. Fluticasone-exposed K. pneumoniae displayed altered expression of several bacterial genes and reduced the metabolic activity of bronchial epithelial cells and their expression of human β-defensin 2. Targeted assays identified a fluticasone metabolite from fluticasone-exposed K. pneumoniae cells, suggesting this species may be capable of metabolizing fluticasone proprionate. Collectively, these observations support the hypothesis that specific members of the airway microbiota possess the functional repertoire to respond to or potentially utilize corticosteroids in their microenvironment. These findings lay a foundation for novel research directions into the potential direct effects of ICS, often prescribed long term to patients, on the broader airway microbial community and on the behavior of specific microbial species implicated in asthma and COPD outcomes. IMPORTANCE Inhaled corticosteroids are widely prescribed for many respiratory diseases, including asthma and COPD. While they benefit many patients, corticosteroids can also have negative effects. Some patients do not improve with treatment and even experience adverse side effects. Recent studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids can change the make-up of bacteria in the human respiratory tract. However, whether these medications can directly impact the behavior of such bacteria has been unknown. Here, we explored the effects of fluticasone propionate, a commonly prescribed inhaled corticosteroid, on Klebsiella pneumoniae and other airway bacteria of interest, including primary species isolated from adult asthma patients. We provide evidence of growth responses to direct fluticasone exposure in culture and further examined fluticasone's effects on K. pneumoniae, including gene expression changes and effects of fluticasone-exposed bacteria on airway cells. These findings indicate that members of the human airway bacterial community possess the functional ability to respond to corticosteroids, which may have implications for the heterogeneity of treatment response observed clinically.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jiang H, Cao HW, Chai ZX, et al (2022)

Dynamic alterations in yak (Bos grunniens) rumen microbiome in response to seasonal variations in diet.

Physiological genomics [Epub ahead of print].

Rumen microorganisms play important roles in the healthy growth of yaks. This study investigated changes of yak rumen microbiome during natural grazing at the warm seasons and supplementary feeding at cold seasons. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and metagenome analysis were conducted to investigate the structures and functions of yak rumen microbial communities. The results indicated that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla. In addition, Bacteroidetes might play a more important role than Firmicutes during the supplementary feeding stage (spring and winter), but less during natural grazing stage (summer and autumn). KEGG analysis showed that the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism were the main pathways in the microbial community, which were significantly different between seasons. The carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZyme) annotation revealed that cellulose was an important carbon source for microorganisms in yak rumen. Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) were the most abundant class of CAZymes, followed by glycosyl transferases (GTs), which were important to digestion of oil, cellulose, and hemicellulose in food. These results contribute to the understanding of microbial component and functions in yak rumen.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Chen X, Zhang D, Li Y, et al (2022)

Changes in rhizospheric microbiome structure and soil metabolic function in response to continuous cucumber cultivation.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6807410 [Epub ahead of print].

With the increasing reliance on intensive arable agriculture, analysis of the problems associated with continuous cropping has become a global research focus. Here, high-throughput sequencing and non-targeted metabolomics were used to evaluate the responses of soil microbial community structure and soil metabolic function to continuous cucumber cultivation (from one to 18 years of continuous cultivation) in greenhouses. Continuous cucumber cropping resulted in increased soil nutrient concentrations but decreased concentrations of available nutrients. The abundance of several bacterial genera associated with nutrient cycling, such as Bacillus and Sphingomonas, was reduced by continuous cucumber cultivation. The abundance of several beneficial fungal genera, including pathogen antagonists (e.g. Chaetomium, Mortierella, Aspergillus, and Penicillium), were found to gradually decrease in response to the increased duration of continuous cropping. 3-amino-2-naphthoic acid and L-valine increased initially and then decreased as the cropping continued, which were related to fatty acid metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis. We also confirmed a close association between microbial community structure and soil metabolites. This study linked the changes in microbial community structure and metabolites in the rhizosphere soil and provided new insights into soil-microbial interactions in continuous cucumber culture systems.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kessler C, Hou J, Neo O, et al (2022)

In situ, in vivo and in vitro approaches for studying AMR plasmid conjugation in the gut microbiome.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:6807411 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global threat, with evolution and spread of resistance to frontline antibiotics outpacing the development of novel treatments. The spread of AMR is perpetuated by transfer of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) between bacteria, notably those encoded by conjugative plasmids. The human gut microbiome is a known 'melting pot' for plasmid conjugation, with ARG transfer in this environment widely documented. There is a need to better understand the factors affecting the incidence of these transfer events, and to investigate methods of potentially counteracting the spread of ARGs. This review describes the use and potential of three approaches to studying conjugation in the human gut: observation of in situ events in hospitalized patients, modelling of the microbiome in vivo predominantly in rodent models, and the use of in vitro models of various complexities. Each has brought unique insights to our understanding of conjugation in the gut. The use and development of these systems, and combinations thereof, will be pivotal in better understanding the significance, prevalence and manipulability of horizontal gene transfer in the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Xu J, Xu J, Shi T, et al (2022)

Probiotic-inspired nanomedicine restores intestinal homeostasis in colitis by regulating redox balance, immune responses, and the gut microbiome.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiota-based therapeutics offer innovative strategies to treat inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). However, the poor clinical outcome so far and the limited flexibility of the bacterial approach call for improvement. Inspired by the health benefits of probiotics in alleviating symptoms of bowel diseases, we designed bioartificial probiotics to restore the intestinal microenvironment in colitis by regulating redox balance, immune responses, and the gut microbiome. The bioartificial probiotic comprises two components: an E. coli Nissle 1917-derived membrane (EM) as the surface and the biodegradable diselenide-bridged mesoporous silica nanoparticles (SeM) as the core. When orally administered, the probiotic-inspired nanomedicine (SeM@EM) adhered strongly to the mucus layer and restored intestinal redox balance and immune regulation homeostasis in a murine model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate. In addition, the respective properties of the EM and SeM synergistically altered the gut microbiome to a favorable state by increasing the bacterial diversity and shifting the microbiome profile to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. This work suggests a safe and effective nanomedicine that can restore intestinal homeostasis for IBDs therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mousa WK, Chehadeh F, S Husband (2022)

Microbial dysbiosis in the gut drives systemic autoimmune diseases.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:906258.

Trillions of microbes survive and thrive inside the human body. These tiny creatures are crucial to the development and maturation of our immune system and to maintain gut immune homeostasis. Microbial dysbiosis is the main driver of local inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as colitis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Dysbiosis in the gut can also drive systemic autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, rheumatic arthritis, and multiple sclerosis. Gut microbes directly interact with the immune system by multiple mechanisms including modulation of the host microRNAs affecting gene expression at the post-transcriptional level or production of microbial metabolites that interact with cellular receptors such as TLRs and GPCRs. This interaction modulates crucial immune functions such as differentiation of lymphocytes, production of interleukins, or controlling the leakage of inflammatory molecules from the gut to the systemic circulation. In this review, we compile and analyze data to gain insights into the underpinning mechanisms mediating systemic autoimmune diseases. Understanding how gut microbes can trigger or protect from systemic autoimmune diseases is crucial to (1) tackle these diseases through diet or lifestyle modification, (2) develop new microbiome-based therapeutics such as prebiotics or probiotics, (3) identify diagnostic biomarkers to predict disease risk, and (4) observe and intervene with microbial population change with the flare-up of autoimmune responses. Considering the microbiome signature as a crucial player in systemic autoimmune diseases might hold a promise to turn these untreatable diseases into manageable or preventable ones.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mukanova S, Borissenko A, Kim A, et al (2022)

Role of periostin in inflammatory bowel disease development and synergistic effects mediated by the CCL5-CCR5 axis.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:956691.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising mainly Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. In recent years, a wealth of data has been accumulated demonstrating the complex interplay of many different factors in the pathogenesis of IBD. Among these are factors impacting the epithelial barrier function, including vessel and extracellular matrix (ECM) formation, the gut microbiome (e.g., bacterial antigens), and, most importantly, the production of cytokines (pro- and anti-inflammatory) directly shaping the immune response. Patients failing to resolve the acute intestinal inflammation develop chronic inflammation. It has been shown that the expression of the matricellular protein periostin is enhanced during IBD and is one of the drivers of this disease. The C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is engaged by the chemotactic mediators CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES. CCR5 blockade has been reported to ameliorate inflammation in a murine IBD model. Thus, both periostin and CCR5 are involved in the development of IBD. In this study, we investigated the potential crosstalk between the two signaling systems and tested a highly potent CCL5 derivative acting as a CCR5 antagonist in a murine model of IBD. We observed that the absence of periostin influences the CCR5-expressing cell population of the gut. Our data further support the notion that targeted modulation of the periostin and CCR5 signaling systems bears therapeutic potential for IBD.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Ackerley CG, Smith SA, Murray PM, et al (2022)

The rectal mucosal immune environment and HIV susceptibility among young men who have sex with men.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:972170.

Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) represent a particularly high-risk group for HIV acquisition in the US, despite similarly reported rates of sexual activity as older, adult MSM (AMSM). Increased rates of HIV infection among YMSM compared to AMSM could be partially attributable to differences within the rectal mucosal (RM) immune environment associated with earlier sexual debut and less lifetime exposure to receptive anal intercourse. Using an ex vivo explant HIV challenge model, we found that rectal tissues from YMSM supported higher levels of p24 at peak viral replication timepoints compared to AMSM. Among YMSM, the RM was characterized by increased CD4+ T cell proliferation, as well as lower frequencies of tissue resident CD8+ T cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In addition, the microbiome composition of YMSM was enriched for anaerobic taxa that have previously been associated with HIV acquisition risk, including Prevotella, Peptostreptococcus, and Peptoniphilus. These distinct immunologic and microbiome characteristics were found to be associated with higher HIV replication following ex vivo challenge of rectal explants, suggesting the RM microenvironment of YMSM may be uniquely conducive to HIV infection.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Liu Z, Xiang Y, Zheng Y, et al (2022)

Advancing immune checkpoint blockade in colorectal cancer therapy with nanotechnology.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1027124.

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has gained unparalleled success in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, undesired side effects, unsatisfactory response rates, tumor metastasis, and drug resistance still hinder the further application of ICB therapy against CRC. Advancing ICB with nanotechnology can be game-changing. With the development of immuno-oncology and nanomaterials, various nanoplatforms have been fabricated to enhance the efficacy of ICB in CRC treatment. Herein, this review systematically summarizes these recent nano-strategies according to their mechanisms. Despite their diverse and complex designs, these nanoplatforms have four main mechanisms in enhancing ICB: 1) targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to tumor foci, 2) increasing tumor immunogenicity, 3) remodeling tumor microenvironment, and 4) pre-sensitizing immune systems. Importantly, advantages of nanotechnology in CRC, such as innovating the mode-of-actions of ICB, modulating intestinal microbiome, and integrating the whole process of antigen presentation, are highlighted in this review. In general, this review describes the latest applications of nanotechnology for CRC immunotherapy, and may shed light on the future design of ICB platforms.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yin L, Li X, J Hou (2022)

Macrophages in periodontitis: A dynamic shift between tissue destruction and repair.

The Japanese dental science review, 58:336-347.

Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with a dysbiotic bacterial biofilm in the subgingival environment that may disturb the balance between the oral microbiome and its host. The inability of the immune system to eliminate inflammation may result in the progressive destruction of tooth-support tissues. Macrophages are crucial cellular components of the innate immune system and play important roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes. In response to periodontitis-associated bacterial communities, macrophages contribute to inflammation and restoration of tissue homeostasis through pattern recognition receptor-induced signaling cascades; therefore, targeting macrophages can be a feasible strategy to treat patients with periodontitis. Although recent studies indicate that macrophages have a spectrum of activation states, ranging from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, the regulatory mechanism of the macrophage response to dysbiosis in a tissue-specific manner remains largely unclear. Herein, we attempt to summarize the potential role of macrophage activation in the progression of periodontitis, as well as its relevance to future approaches in the treatment of periodontitis.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Lin Q, Wang Y, Li M, et al (2022)

Ecological niche selection shapes the assembly and diversity of microbial communities in Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:988485.

The plant microbiome profoundly affects many aspects of host performance; however, the ecological processes by which plant hosts govern microbiome assembly, function, and dispersal remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the bacterial and fungal communities in multiple compartment niches (bulk soil, rhizosphere soil, root endosphere, phylloplane, and leaf endosphere) of Casuarina equisetifolia L. at three developmental stages in Hainan Province, China. We found that microbiome assemblages along the soil-plant continuum were shaped by the compartment niches. Bacterial diversity and richness decreased from the soils to roots to leaves, with the highest network complexity found in the roots and the lowest found in the phylloplane. However, fungal diversity gradually increased from the soils to roots to phyllosphere, whereas fungal richness decreased from the soils to roots but increased from the roots to phyllosphere; the greatest network complexity was found in bulk soils and the lowest was found in the roots. Different biomarker taxa occurred in the different ecological niches. Bacterial and fungal communities exhibited distinct ecological functions; the former played important roles in maintaining plant growth and providing nutrients, whereas the latter predominantly decomposed organic matter. The bacterial community of C. equisetifolia mostly originated from bulk soil, whereas the fungal community was mainly derived from rhizosphere soil and air. Leaf endophytes were positively correlated with organic carbon, and root and soil microorganisms were positively correlated with total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total potassium. Our findings provide empirical evidence for plant-microbiome interactions and contribute to future research on non-crop management and the manipulation of non-crop microbiomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Liu W, Qiu K, Xie Y, et al (2022)

Years of sand fixation with Caragana korshinskii drive the enrichment of its rhizosphere functional microbes by accumulating soil N.

PeerJ, 10:e14271 pii:14271.

C. korshinskii is one of the most widely-planted sand-fixing legumes in northwest China and exploring its rhizosphere microbiome is of great ecological importance. However, the effect of long-term sand fixation on the composition, diversity, and underlying functions of microbes in the C. korshinskii rhizosphere in dryland ecosystems remain unclear. Here, we performed high-throughput sequencing using a 16S rRNA (absolute quantification) and bacterial functional annotation of prokaryotic taxa (FAPROTAX) analysis and an ITS (relative quantification) and fungal functional guild (FUNGuild) analysis to investigate the C. korshinskii rhizosphere microbiome and metabolic functional groups at different sand-fixing ages (six years, CK6; twelve years, CK12; and eighteen years, CK18) and determined the physicochemical properties of the rhizosphere soil. Results showed that the key bacterial taxa of the rhizosphere were significantly more abundant in CK18 than in CK12 and CK6 at the phylum-class-genus level, and that fungal Glomeromycota was also significantly more abundant in the CK18 rhizosphere compared to CK12 and CK6. Among these bacterial taxa, the enrichment effect of key, functional, genus-level species of bacteria was the most obvious, including Rhizobium, Ensifer, Neorhizobium, Mesorhizobium, Streptomyces, Sphingomonas, and Flavobacterium, which are N-fixing and/or phosphate-solubilizing groups. The significant improvement seen in the physicochemical properties of the CK18 rhizosphere soil, including the higher total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), higher N:P ratio, and lower C:N ratio, all demonstrated the relationship between the rhizosphere microbes and soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. A redundancy analysis (RDA) of different taxonomic levels indicated a close positive relationship between rhizosphere microbes and AN. In addition, the functional groups of the C. korshinskii rhizosphere bacteria were closely related to soil AN and were mainly composed of chemoheterotrophy and aerobic chemoheterotrophy. A Spearman correlation analysis revealed that these functional groups were mainly identified from bacterial Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Bacteroidetes, and fungal Glomeromycota. Our study provides evidence that the rhizosphere microbes of C. korshinskii are closely related to the accumulation of N in the restoration of desert ecosystems, and that the ecological functional processes they are involved in mainly involve C and N cycles, which play an important role in desertification reversal.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Han S, Chen M, Cheng P, et al (2022)

A systematic review and meta-analysis of gut microbiota in diabetic kidney disease: Comparisons with diabetes mellitus, non-diabetic kidney disease, and healthy individuals.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:1018093.

Background: Gut microbiota has been reported to play an important role in diabetic kidney disease (DKD), however, the alterations of gut bacteria have not been determined.

Methods: Studies comparing the differences of gut microbiome between patients with DKD and non-DKD individuals using high-throughput sequencing technology, were systematically searched and reviewed. Outcomes were set as gut bacterial diversity, microbial composition, and correlation with clinical parameters of DKD. Qualitative data were summarized and compared through a funnel R script, and quantitative data were estimated by meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 15 studies and 1640 participants were included, the comparisons were conducted between DKD, diabetes mellitus (DM), non-diabetic kidney disease (NDKD), and healthy controls. There were no significant differences of α-diversity between DKD and DM, and between DKD and NDKD, however, significant lower microbial richness was found in DKD compared to healthy controls. Different bacterial compositions were found between DKD and non-DKD subjects. The phylum Actinobacteria were found to be enriched in DKD compared to healthy controls. At the genus level, we found the enrichment of Hungatella, Bilophila, and Escherichia in DKD compared to DM, patients with DKD showed lower abundances of Faecalibacterium compared to those with NDKD. The genera Butyricicoccus, Faecalibacterium, and Lachnospira were depleted in DKD compared to healthy controls, whereas Hungatella, Escherichia, and lactobacillus were significantly enriched. The genus Ruminococcus torques group was demonstrated to be inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate of DKD.

Conclusions: Gut bacterial alterations was demonstrated in DKD, characterized by the enrichment of the genera Hungatella and Escherichia, and the depletion of butyrate-producing bacteria, which might be associated with the occurrence and development of DKD. Further studies are still needed to validate these findings, due to substantial heterogeneity., identifier CRD42022340870.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Calcaterra V, Rossi V, Massini G, et al (2022)

Precocious puberty and microbiota: The role of the sex hormone-gut microbiome axis.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:1000919.

Puberty is a critical phase of life associated with physiological changes related to sexual maturation, and represents a complex process regulated by multiple endocrine and genetic controls. Puberty is driven by hormones, and it can impact the gut microbiome (GM). GM differences between sex emerge at puberty onset, confirming a relationship between microbiota and sex hormones. In this narrative review, we present an overview of precocious pubertal development and the changes in the GM in precocious puberty (PP) in order to consider the role of the sex hormone-gut microbiome axis from the perspective of pediatric endocrinology. Bidirectional interactions between the GM and sex hormones have been proposed in different studies. Although the evidence on the interaction between microbiota and sex hormones remains limited in pediatric patients, the evidence that GM alterations may occur in girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) represents an interesting finding for the prediction and prevention of PP. Deepening the understanding of the connection between the sex hormones and the role of microbiota changes can lead to the implementation of microbiota-targeted therapies in pubertal disorders by offering a pediatric endocrinology perspective.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Papp-Wallace KM, Manning SD, Craney A, et al (2022)

Editorial: Women and clinical microbiology 2021.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:999967.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zhu M, Liu S, Zhao C, et al (2022)

Alterations in the gut microbiota of AIDS patients with pneumocystis pneumonia and correlations with the lung microbiota.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1033427.

Background: Due to the inability to be cultured in vitro, the biological characteristics and pathogenicity of Pneumocystis jirovecii remain unclear. Intestinal microflora disorder is related to the occurrence and development of various pulmonary diseases. This work explores the pathogenesis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients from a microbiome perspective, to provide better strategies for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of PCP.

Methods: Subjects were divided into three groups: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients combined with PCP, HIV-infected patients without PCP, and HIV-negative. Stool and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected, total DNA was extracted, and 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing was performed using an Illumina MiSeq platform. PICRUSt and BugBase were used to predict microflora functions, and correlation analysis of intestinal and lung bacterial flora was conducted.

Results: Compared with the HIV- group, prevotella and another 21 genera in the intestinal microbiome were statistically different in the HIV+ group; 25 genera including Escherichia-Shigella from HIV+PCP+ group were statistically different from HIV+PCP- group. The abundance of Genera such as Porphyromonas was positively or negatively correlated with CD16/CD56+ (μL). Compared with the HIV- group, identification efficiency based on area under the curve (AUC) >0.7 for the HIV+ group identified seven genera in the gut microbiota, including Enterococcus (total AUC = 0.9519). Compared with the HIV+PCP- group, there were no bacteria with AUC >0.7 in the lung or intestine of the HIV+PCP+ group. The number of shared bacteria between BALF and fecal samples was eight species in the HIV- group, 109 species in PCP- patients, and 228 species in PCP+ patients, according to Venn diagram analysis. Changes in various clinical indicators and blood parameters were also closely related to the increase or decrease in the abundance of intestinal and pulmonary bacteria, respectively.

Conclusions: HIV infection and PCP significantly altered the species composition of lung and intestinal microbiomes, HIV infection also significantly affected intestinal microbiome gene functions, and PCP exacerbated the changes. The classification model can be used to distinguish HIV+ from HIV- patients, but the efficiency of bacterial classification was poor between PCP+ and PCP- groups. The microbiomes in the lung and gut were correlated to some extent, providing evidence for the existence of a lung-gut axis, revealing a potential therapeutic target in patients with HIV and PCP.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zhang Y, Shang L, Roffel S, et al (2022)

Stable reconstructed human gingiva-microbe interaction model: Differential response to commensals and pathogens.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:991128.

Background: To investigate human oral health and disease, models are required which represent the interactions between the oral mucosa and microbiome. Our aim was to develop an organotypic model which maintains viability of both host and microbes for an extended period of time.

Methods: Reconstructed Human Gingiva (RHG) were cultured air-lifted with or without penicillin-streptomycin (PS) and topically exposed to Streptococcus gordonii (commensal) or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (pathogen) for 72 hours in agar. RHG histology, viability and cytokines (ELISA), and bacterial viability (colony forming units) and location (FISH) were assessed.

Results: The low concentration of topically applied agar did not influence RHG viability. Topically applied bacteria in agar remained localized and viable for 72 hours and did not spill over to infect RHG culture medium. PS in RHG culture medium killed topically applied bacteria. Co-culture with living bacteria did not influence RHG viability (Ki67 expression, MTT assay) or histology (epithelium differentiation, Keratin10 expression). RHG exposed to S. gordonii (with or without PS) did not influence low level of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL5, CCL20 or CXCL1 secretion. However, all cytokines increased (except CCL2) when RHG were co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans. The effect was significantly more in the presence of living, rather than dead, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Both bacteria resulted in increased expression of RHG antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Elafin and HBD-2, with S. gordonii exposure resulting in the most Elafin secretion.

Conclusion: This technical advance enables living human oral host-microbe interactions to be investigated during a 72-hour period and shows differences in innate immunology triggered by S. gordonii and A. actinomycetemcomitans.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bartlett A, M Kleiner (2022)

Dietary protein and the intestinal microbiota: An understudied relationship.

iScience, 25(11):105313 pii:S2589-0042(22)01585-1.

Diet has a profound impact on the microbial community in the gastrointestinal tract, the intestinal microbiota, to the benefit or detriment of human health. To understand the influence of diet on the intestinal microbiota, research has focused on individual macronutrients. Some macronutrients (e.g. fiber) have been studied in great detail and have been found to strongly influence the intestinal microbiota. The relationship between dietary protein, a vital macronutrient, and the intestinal microbiota has gone largely unexplored. Emerging evidence suggests that dietary protein strongly impacts intestinal microbiota composition and function and that protein-microbiota interactions can have critical impacts on host health. In this review, we focus on recent studies investigating the impact of dietary protein quantity and source on the intestinal microbiota and resulting host health consequences. We highlight major open questions critical to understanding health outcomes mediated by interactions between dietary protein and the microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Goldsmith R, Aburahma A, Pachhain S, et al (2022)

Reversal of temperature responses to methylone mediated through bi-directional fecal microbiota transplantation between hyperthermic tolerant and naïve rats.

Temperature (Austin, Tex.), 9(4):318-330 pii:2069965.

The synthetic cathinone ("bath salt") methylone induces a hyperthermia response and with chronic administration tolerance to this hyperthermia has been reported. The microbiome-gut-brain axis has been implicated in multiple bodily systems and pathologies, and intentional manipulation of the gut-microbiome has yielded clinically significant results. Here, we examined the effects of bi-directional Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) between methylone-induced hyperthermic tolerant (MHT) and methylone-naïve (MN) rats. Rats treated with methylone once per week developed tolerance to methylone-induced hyperthermia by the fourth week. Once tolerant, daily bi-directional FMT between the two groups were performed for seven days prior to the next methylone treatment. The FMT abated the developed tolerance in the MHT group. When treated with methylone for the first time following FMT, recipient MN rats displayed significant tolerance to hyperthermia despite it being their initial drug treatment. Post-FMT, MHT rats displayed elevations in norepinephrine and expression of UCP1, UCP3 and TGR5 in brown adipose tissue, with reductions in expression of TGR5 and UCP3 in skeletal muscle. The pre- and post-FMT methylone tolerance phenotypes of transplant recipients are concurrent with changes in the relative abundance of several classes of Proteobacteria, most evident for Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. MHT recipients demonstrated a marked increase in the relative proportion of the Firmicutes class Erysipelotrichia. These findings suggest that transplantation of gut-microbiomes can confer phenotypic responses to a drug and that the microbiome may be playing a major role in sympathomimetic-mediated hyperthermia. Abbreviations: 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA); methylone-induced hyperthermic tolerant (MHT); methylone-naïve (MN); fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT); uncoupling protein (UCP); subcutaneous (sc); intraperitoneal (ip); brown adipose tissue (BAT); skeletal muscle (SKM); sympathetic nervous system (SNS); norepinephrine (NE); quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR); quantification cycle (Cq); High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrochemical Detection (HPLC-EC); amplicon sequence variants (ASVs); principal coordinates analysis (PCoA); permutational multivariate analysis (PERMANOVA).

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Zhou X, Wang B, Demkowicz PC, et al (2022)

Exploratory studies of oral and fecal microbiome in healthy human aging.

Frontiers in aging, 3:1002405 pii:1002405.

Growing evidence has linked an altered host fecal microbiome composition with health status, common chronic diseases, and institutionalization in vulnerable older adults. However, fewer studies have described microbiome changes in healthy older adults without major confounding diseases or conditions, and the impact of aging on the microbiome across different body sites remains unknown. Using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we reconstructed the composition of oral and fecal microbiomes in young (23-32; mean = 25 years old) and older (69-94; mean = 77 years old) healthy community-dwelling research subjects. In both body sites, we identified changes in minor bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between young and older subjects. However, the composition of the predominant bacterial species of the healthy older group in both microbiomes was not significantly different from that of the young cohort, which suggests that dominant bacterial species are relatively stable with healthy aging. In addition, the relative abundance of potentially pathogenic genera, such as Rothia and Mycoplasma, was enriched in the oral microbiome of the healthy older group relative to the young cohort. We also identified several OTUs with a prevalence above 40% and some were more common in young and others in healthy older adults. Differences with aging varied for oral and fecal samples, which suggests that members of the microbiome may be differentially affected by aging in a tissue-specific fashion. This is the first study to investigate both oral and fecal microbiomes in the context of human aging, and provides new insights into interactions between aging and the microbiome within two different clinically relevant sites.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Rabe A, Gesell Salazar M, Michalik S, et al (2022)

Impact of different oral treatments on the composition of the supragingival plaque microbiome.

Journal of oral microbiology, 14(1):2138251 pii:2138251.

Background: Dental plaque consists of a diverse microbial community embedded in a complex structure of exopolysaccharides. Dental biofilms form a natural barrier against pathogens but lead to oral diseases in a dysbiotic state.

Objective: Using a metaproteome approach combined with a standard plaque-regrowth study, this pilot study examined the impact of different concentrations of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on early plaque formation, and active biological processes.

Design: Sixteen orally healthy subjects received four local treatments as a randomized single-blind study based on a cross-over design. Two lozenges containing components of the LPO-system in different concentrations were compared to a placebo and Listerine®. The newly formed dental plaque was analyzed by mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS).

Results: On average 1,916 metaproteins per sample were identified, which could be assigned to 116 genera and 1,316 protein functions. Listerine® reduced the number of metaproteins and their relative abundance, confirming the plaque inhibiting effect. The LPO-lozenges triggered mainly higher metaprotein abundances of early and secondary colonizers as well as bacteria associated with dental health but also periodontitis. Functional information indicated plaque biofilm growth.

Conclusion: In conclusion, the mechanisms on plaque biofilm formation of Listerine® and the LPO-system containing lozenges are different. In contrast to Listerine®, the lozenges led to a higher bacterial diversity.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Weinroth MD, Oakley B, Ramírez GA, et al (2022)

16S rRNA gene-based assessment of common broiler chicken sampling methods: Evaluating intra-flock sample size, cecal pair similarity, and cloacal swab similarity to other alimentary tract locations.

Frontiers in physiology, 13:996654 pii:996654.

16S rRNA gene sequencing for characterization of microbiomes has become more common in poultry research and can be used to both answer specific research questions and help inform experimental design choices. The objective of this study was to use 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine common sampling practices in broiler chicken studies such as: the required number of birds selected from a flock to adequately capture microbiome diversity, the differences between cecal pairs within the same bird, and whether cloacal swabs are representative of other alimentary tract (AT) locations. To do this, nine market age broilers were euthanized and immediately sampled in ten AT locations: crop, gizzard, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecal samples from each pouch, colon, and cloacal swab. DNA was extracted and subjected to 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. Each location within the broiler AT hosts distinct microbial communities. When each sampling location was considered, it was found that sampling after 2.8 birds (range 2-4) resulted in less than 10% new amplicon sequencing variants (ASV) being added while sampling after 7.6 birds (range 6-10) increases new observed ASVs by less than 1%. Additionally, when cecal pairs from the same bird were evaluated, it was found that cecal pair mates are an adequate replication if interested in the total cecal microbiome but may be less useful if a rare lineage is of interest. Furthermore, when compared to other AT locations, the cecal microbiome was enriched in Firmicutes and Bacteroides while several lineages, most notably Lactobacillus, were under-represented. Finally, when cloacal swabs were compared to other AT locations, community similarity exhibited a direct distance relationship, i.e., the more aborad samples were the more similar they were to the swab. These findings indicate that while cloacal swabs can approximate overall changes in microbiome composition, they are not adequate for inferring changes to specific taxa in other parts of the AT tract-even those that are highly abundant within the microbial community. These data provide new insights guiding appropriate sample size selection within flocks and add to the consensus data regarding cecal pair similarity and destructive versus non-destructive sampling methods.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Beaver A, Petersen C, Weary DM, et al (2021)

Differences in the fecal microbiota of dairy calves reared with differing sources of milk and levels of maternal contact.

JDS communications, 2(4):200-206 pii:S2666-9102(21)00061-2.

The practice of rearing cows and calves together is gaining popularity on dairy farms, with different systems currently under assessment in mainland Europe, the United Kingdom, and Oceania. Research into the effects of cow-calf rearing has primarily focused on direct health and welfare implications, and little work has examined the role of different rearing paradigms on calf microbiota. We trialed a cow-calf rearing system on a Canadian dairy farm and compared fecal microbiota of these calves with the microbiota of calves reared according to the conventional practice of the same farm (separated from the dam and fed waste milk). At 4 wk, the conventionally reared calves had reduced relative abundance of Lactobacillus and higher relative abundance of other taxa, including Sutterella, Prevotella, and Bacteroides. We also detected predicted functional differences, such as reduced l-tryptophan biosynthesis in conventionally reared calves. These results suggest that maternal contact may influence the calf microbiota, but the observed differences are also likely related to other aspects of the rearing environment independent of maternal contact (e.g., potential exposure to antibiotic residues in waste milk). These findings provide preliminary evidence of the effects of early rearing environments on the establishment of the dairy calf fecal microbiota. This research is needed, given the critical role of the bovine gut microbiome in behavioral, metabolic, and immune development.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Campbell CD, Barnett C, I Sulaiman (2022)

A clinicians' review of the respiratory microbiome.

Breathe (Sheffield, England), 18(1):210161.

The respiratory microbiome and its impact in health and disease is now well characterised. With the development of next-generation sequencing and the use of other techniques such as metabolomics, the functional impact of microorganisms in different host environments can be elucidated. It is now clear that the respiratory microbiome plays an important role in respiratory disease. In some diseases, such as bronchiectasis, examination of the microbiome can even be used to identify patients at higher risk of poor outcomes. Furthermore, the microbiome can aid in phenotyping. Finally, development of multi-omic analysis has revealed interactions between the host and microbiome in some conditions. This review, although not exhaustive, aims to outline how the microbiome is investigated, the healthy respiratory microbiome and its role in respiratory disease.

Educational aims: To define the respiratory microbiome and describe its analysis.To outline the respiratory microbiome in health and disease.To describe future directions for microbiome research.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jiang C, Liu Y, Li H, et al (2022)

The characterization of microbial communities and associations in karst tiankeng.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1002198.

The karst tiankeng is a special and grand negative terrain on the surface, that maintains a unique ecosystem. However, knowledge about bacterial and fungal communities in karst tiankengs is still limited. Therefore, soil samples from five karst tiankengs were collected and subjected to high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS genes, and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed abundant and diversified bacterial and fungal communities in karst tiankeng. The bacterial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria, and the fungal communities were dominated by Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial and fungal communities among the five karst tiankengs, which may indicate that the distribution of bacterial and fungal communities was driven by separate karst tiankengs. The co-occurrence network structure was characterized by highly modularized assembly patterns and more positive interactions. The keystone taxa were mainly involved in nutrient cycling and energy metabolism. The null model analysis results showed that the stochastic process, especially dispersal limitation, tended to be more important in controlling the development of bacterial and fungal communities in karst tiankeng. The bacterial community structure was significantly associated with soil properties (SWC, TN, AN, and BD), while the fungal community structure was significantly associated with soil properties (SWC and TP) and plant diversity. These results can expand our knowledge of the karst tiankeng microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang X, Tai Y, Ma Y, et al (2022)

Cecum microbiome and metabolism characteristics of Silky Fowl and White Leghorn chicken in late laying stages.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:984654.

Cecal microflora plays a key role in the production performance and immune function of chickens. White Leghorn (WL) is a well-known commercial layer line chicken with high egg production rate. In contrast, Silky Fowl (SF), a Chinese native chicken variety, has a low egg production rate, but good immune performance. This study analyzed the composition of cecal microbiota, metabolism, and gene expression in intestinal tissue of these varieties and the correlations among them. Significant differences were observed in the cecal microbes: Bacteroides was significantly enriched in WL, whereas Veillonellaceae and Parabacteroides were significantly enriched in SF. Carbohydrate biosynthesis and metabolism pathways were significantly upregulated in WL cecum, which might provide more energy to the host, leading to persistently high levels of egg production. The higher Parabacteroides abundance in SF increased volicitin content, enhanced α-linolenic acid metabolism, and significantly negatively correlated with metabolites of propanoate metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. Genes related to lipid metabolism, immunity, and melanogenesis were significantly upregulated in the SF cecum, regulating lipid metabolism, and participating in the immune response, while genes related to glucose metabolism and bile acid metabolism were expressed at higher levels in WL, benefiting energy support. This study provided a mechanism for intestinal microorganisms and metabolic pathways to regulate chicken egg-laying performance and immunity.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Chen J, Liu K, Sun X, et al (2022)

Microbiome landscape of lesions and adjacent normal mucosal areas in oral lichen planus patient.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:992065.

The pathogenesis of oral lichen planus (OLP) remains unclear, and microbial dysbiosis has been proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of OLP. Oral mucosal swabs from 77 OLP patients and 76 healthy subjects were collected. The bacterial community among the OLP lesion, the adjacent normal mucosal, and the oral mucosal surface in healthy people were analyzed by 16S sequencing. The factor of gender and age that may affect the flora distribution of OLP patients were explored. Results indicate no significant difference in microbiota between OLP and the adjacent group. Compared with the healthy group, Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Rothia, Actinomyces, and Capnocytophaga significantly increased in the OLP group. Actinomyces increased in male OLP patients, and the other six bacteria increased in female OLP patients. In female OLP patients, Lautropia and Dialister were positively correlated with age. While in male OLP patients, Moraxella, Porphyromonas, and Fusobacterium were positively correlated with age. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that abnormal energy metabolism related to ATP synthases, abnormal transport and metabolism of glycans, amino acids, and vitamins, and disorders of the local immune microenvironment might exist in OLP lesion.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Ding P, Ming Z, Liu J, et al (2022)

Editorial: Microbiome and microbial informatics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1054811.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bhar A, Gierse LC, Meene A, et al (2022)

Application of a maximal-clique based community detection algorithm to gut microbiome data reveals driver microbes during influenza A virus infection.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:979320.

Influenza A Virus (IAV) infection followed by bacterial pneumonia often leads to hospitalization and death in individuals from high risk groups. Following infection, IAV triggers the process of viral RNA replication which in turn disrupts healthy gut microbial community, while the gut microbiota plays an instrumental role in protecting the host by evolving colonization resistance. Although the underlying mechanisms of IAV infection have been unraveled, the underlying complex mechanisms evolved by gut microbiota in order to induce host immune response following IAV infection remain evasive. In this work, we developed a novel Maximal-Clique based Community Detection algorithm for Weighted undirected Networks (MCCD-WN) and compared its performance with other existing algorithms using three sets of benchmark networks. Moreover, we applied our algorithm to gut microbiome data derived from fecal samples of both healthy and IAV-infected pigs over a sequence of time-points. The results we obtained from the real-life IAV dataset unveil the role of the microbial families Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Spirochaetaceae and Prevotellaceae in the gut microbiome of the IAV-infected cohort. Furthermore, the additional integration of metaproteomic data enabled not only the identification of microbial biomarkers, but also the elucidation of their functional roles in protecting the host following IAV infection. Our network analysis reveals a fast recovery of the infected cohort after the second IAV infection and provides insights into crucial roles of Desulfovibrionaceae and Lactobacillaceae families in combating Influenza A Virus infection. Source code of the community detection algorithm can be downloaded from

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang Z, Fu H, Su H, et al (2022)

Multi-omics analyses reveal the specific changes in gut metagenome and serum metabolome of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1017147.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific alterations in gut microbiome and serum metabolome and their interactions in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: The stool samples from 32 PCOS patients and 18 healthy controls underwent the intestinal microbiome analysis using shotgun metagenomics sequencing approach. Serum metabolome was analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An integrative network by combining metagenomics and metabolomics datasets was constructed to explore the possible interactions between gut microbiota and circulating metabolites in PCOS, which was further assessed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in a rat trial.

Results: Fecal metagenomics identified 64 microbial strains significantly differing between PCOS and healthy subjects, half of which were enriched in patients. These changed species showed an ability to perturb host metabolic homeostasis (including insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism) and inflammatory levels (such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways) by expressing sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1, serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR, and 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-cattier-protein] synthase III, possibly suggesting the potential mechanisms of gut microbiota underlying PCOS. By integrating multi-omics datasets, the panel comprising seven strains (Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas sp. M1, Aquitalea pelogenes, Porphyrobacter sp. HL-46, Vibrio fortis, Leisingera sp. ANG-Vp, and Sinorhizobium meliloti) and three metabolites [ganglioside GM3 (d18:0/16:0), ceramide (d16:2/22:0), and 3Z,6Z,9Z-pentacosatriene] showed the highest predictivity of PCOS (AUC: 1.0) with sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 1.0. Moreover, the intestinal microbiome modifications by FMT were demonstrated to regulate PCOS phenotypes including metabolic variables and reproductive hormones.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed key microbial and metabolite features and their interactions underlying PCOS by integrating multi-omics approaches, which may provide novel insights into discovering clinical diagnostic biomarkers and developing efficient therapeutic strategies for PCOS.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Koczorski P, Furtado BU, Gołębiewski M, et al (2022)

Mixed growth of Salix species can promote phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in the roots and rhizosphere.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1006722.

Phosphorus (P) is an essential plant nutrient that can limit plant growth due to low availability in the soil. P-solubilizing bacteria in the roots and rhizosphere increase the P use efficiency of plants. This study addressed the impact of plant species, the level of plant association with bacteria (rhizosphere or root endophyte) and environmental factors (e.g., seasons, soil properties) on the abundance and diversity of P-solubilizing bacteria in short-rotation coppices (SRC) of willows (Salix spp.) for biomass production. Two willow species (S. dasyclados cv. Loden and S. schwerinii × S. viminalis cv. Tora) grown in mono-and mixed culture plots were examined for the abundance and diversity of bacteria in the root endosphere and rhizosphere during two seasons (fall and spring) in central Sweden and northern Germany. Soil properties, such as pH and available P and N, had a significant effect on the structure of the bacterial community. Microbiome analysis and culture-based methods revealed a higher diversity of rhizospheric bacteria than endophytic bacteria. The P-solubilizing bacterial isolates belonged mainly to Proteobacteria (85%), Actinobacteria (6%) and Firmicutes (9%). Pseudomonas was the most frequently isolated cultivable bacterial genus from both the root endosphere and the rhizosphere. The remaining cultivable bacterial isolates belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. In conclusion, site-specific soil conditions and the level of plant association with bacteria were the main factors shaping the bacterial communities in the willow SRCs. In particular, the concentration of available P along with the total nitrogen in the soil controlled the total bacterial diversity in willow SRCs. A lower number of endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria was observed in Loden willow species compared to that of Tora and the mix of the two, indicating that mixed growth of Salix species promotes P-solubilizing bacterial diversity and abundance. Therefore, a mixed plant design was presented as a management option to increase the P availability for Salix in SRCs. This design should be tested for further species mixtures.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Peter TK, Withanage MHH, Comnick CL, et al (2022)

Systematic review and meta-analysis of oral squamous cell carcinoma associated oral microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:968304.

The intersection between the human oral microbiome and oral health is an emerging area of study which has gained momentum over the last decade. This momentum has motivated a search for associations between the oral microbiome and oral cancer, in hopes of identifying possible biomarkers that facilitate earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis for patients with that disease. The present study examined the relationship between the microbiome in the human oral cavity and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We searched the literature for case-control studies which focused on the relationship between the human oral microbiome and OSCC. We aggregated three types of data from these studies: bacteriome data at the genus level, predicted functional pathway data, and gene abundance data. From these data, we noted several microbial genera which may be associated with oral cancer status, including Fusobacterium. We also identified functional pathways which merit further investigation, including RNA degradation (ko03018) and primary immunodeficiency (ko05340). In addition, our analysis of gene abundance data identified the gene K06147 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial) as being over abundant in OSCC samples. Our results are generalizations which identified some currents that we believe could guide further research. Our work faced several limitations related to the heterogeneity of the available data. Wide variation in methods for sample collection, methods for controlling for known behavioral risk factors, computing platform choice, and methods for case-control design all posed confounding factors in this work. We examined the current methods of data collection, data processing, and data reporting in order to offer suggestions toward the establishment of best practices within this field. We propose that these limitations should be addressed through the implementation of standardized data analytic practices that will conform to the rigor and reproducibility standards required of publicly funded research.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Meyer KM, Deines P, Wei Z, et al (2022)

Editorial: The role of dispersal and transmission in structuring microbial communities.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1054498.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Dong S, Wu C, He W, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and metabolomic analyses show correlations between intestinal microbiome diversity and microbiome metabolites in ob/ob and ApoE-/- mice.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:934294.

Obesity and atherosclerosis are the most prevalent metabolic diseases. ApoE-/- and ob/ob mice are widely used as models to study the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, how gut microbes, gut bacteriophages, and metabolites change in these two disease models is unclear. Here, we used wild-type C57BL/6J (Wt) mice as normal controls to analyze the intestinal archaea, bacteria, bacteriophages, and microbial metabolites of ob/ob and ApoE-/- mice through metagenomics and metabolomics. Analysis of the intestinal archaea showed that the abundances of Methanobrevibacter and Halolamina were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the ob/ob group compared with those in the Wt and ApoE-/- groups (p < 0.05). Compared with those of the Wt group, the relative abundances of the bacterial genera Enterorhabdus, Alistipes, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Rikenella, Barnesiella, Porphyromonas, Riemerella, and Bifidobacterium were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the ob/ob mice, and the relative abundance of Akkermansia was significantly decreased in the ApoE-/- group. The relative abundances of A. muciniphila and L. murinus were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the ob/ob and ApoE-/- groups compared with those of the Wt group (p < 0.05). Lactobacillus_ prophage_ Lj965 and Lactobacillus _ prophage _ Lj771 were significantly more abundant in the ob/ob mice than in the Wt mice. Analysis of the aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis metabolic pathway revealed that the enriched compounds of phenylalanine, glutamine, glycine, serine, methionine, valine, alanine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine were downregulated in the ApoE-/- mice compared with those of the ob/ob mice. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are considered manifestations of metabolic diseases and are closely associated with obesity, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. These data offer new insight regarding possible causes of these diseases and provide a foundation for studying the regulation of various food nutrients in metabolic disease models.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Muratore E, Leardini D, Baccelli F, et al (2022)

Nutritional modulation of the gut microbiome in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:993668.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) represents a potentially curative strategy for many oncological and non-oncological diseases, but it is associated with marked morbidity and mortality. The disruption of gut microbiota (GM) eubiosis has been linked to major allo-HSCT complications, including infections and acute graft vs. host disease (aGvHD), and correlates with mortality. This increasing knowledge on the role of the GM in the allo-HSCT procedure has led to fascinating ideas for modulating the intestinal ecosystem in order to improve clinical outcomes. Nutritional strategies, either by changing the route of nutritional supplementation or by administering specific molecules, are increasingly being considered as cost- and risk-effective methods of modulating the GM. Nutritional support has also emerged in the past several years as a key feature in supportive care for allo-HSCT recipients, and deterioration of nutritional status is associated with decreased overall survival and higher complication rates during treatment. Herein we provide a complete overview focused on nutritional modulation of the GM in allo-HSCT recipients. We address how pre transplant diet could affect GM composition and its ability to withstand the upsetting events occurring during transplantation. We also provide a complete overview on the influence of the route of nutritional administration on the intestinal ecosystem, with a particular focus on the comparison between enteral and parenteral nutrition (PN). Moreover, as mounting evidence are showing how specific components of post-transplant diet, such as lactose, could drastically shape the GM, we will also summarize the role of prebiotic supplementation in the modulation of the intestinal flora and in allo-HSCT outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Akimbekov NS, Digel I, Yerezhepov AY, et al (2022)

Nutritional factors influencing microbiota-mediated colonization resistance of the oral cavity: A literature review.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:1029324.

The oral cavity is a key biocenosis for many distinct microbial communities that interact with both the external environment and internal body systems. The oral microbiota is a vital part of the human microbiome. It has been developed through mutual interactions among the environment, host physiological state, and microbial community composition. Indigenious microbiota of the oral cavity is one of the factors that prevent adhesion and invasion of pathogens on the mucous membrane, i.e., the development of the infectious process and thereby participating in the implementation of one of the mechanisms of local immunity-colonization resistance. The balance between bacterial symbiosis, microbial virulence, and host resistance ensures the integrity of the oral cavity. In this review we have tried to address how nutritional factors influence integrity of the oral indigenous microbiota and its involvement in colonization resistance.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Dhakal S, M Dey (2022)

Resistant starch type-4 intake alters circulating bile acids in human subjects.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:930414.

Background: Resistant starch (RS) type 4 (RS4) is a type of RS, a class of non-digestible prebiotic dietary fibers with a range of demonstrated metabolic health benefits to the host. On the other hand, bile acids (BA) have recently emerged as an important class of metabolic function mediators that involve host-microbiota interactions. RS consumption alters fecal and cecal BA in humans and rodents, respectively. The effect of RS intake on circulating BA concentrations remains unexplored in humans.

Methods and results: Using available plasma and stool samples from our previously reported double-blind, controlled, 2-arm crossover nutrition intervention trial ( NCT01887964), a liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry-based targeted multiple reaction monitoring, and absolute quantifications, we assessed BA changes after 12 weeks of an average 12 g/day RS4-intake. Stool BA concentrations were lower post RS4 compared to the control, the two groups consuming similar macronutrients (n = 14/group). Partial least squares-discriminant analysis revealed distinct BA signatures in stool and plasma post interventions. The increased circulating BA concentrations were further investigated using linear mixed-effect modeling that controlled for potential confounders. A higher plasma abundance of several BA species post RS4 was observed (fold increase compared to control in parenthesis): taurocholic acid (1.92), taurodeoxycholic acid (1.60), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (1.58), glycodeoxycholic acid (1.79), and deoxycholic acid (1.77) (all, p < 0.05). Distinct microbiome ortholog-signatures were observed between RS4 and control groups (95% CI), derived using the Piphillin function-prediction algorithm and principal component analysis (PCA) of pre-existing 16S rRNA gene sequences. Association of Bifidobacterium adolescentis with secondary BA such as, deoxycholic acid (rho = 0.55, p = 0.05), glycodeoxycholic acid (rho = 0.65, p = 0.02), and taurodeoxycholic acid (rho = 0.56, p = 0.04) were observed in the RS4-group, but not in the control group (all, p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Our observations indicate a previously unknown in humans- RS4-associated systemic alteration of microbiota-derived secondary BA. Follow-up investigations of BA biosynthesis in the context of RS4 may provide molecular targets to understand and manipulate microbiome-host interactions.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kim SW, JH Kim (2022)

Establishing an experimental model for canine atopic dermatitis through epicutaneous application of Dermatophagoides farinae.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 9:1015915.

There is no established protocol for the development of an experimental canine atopic dermatitis model in laboratory beagles. This study aimed to establish an experimental model that mimics spontaneous canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) clinically, immunologically, and microbiologically, by repeated epicutaneous applications of mite antigens and to describe the entire process including sensitization and provocation in detail for reproducibility. Six intact male laboratory beagle dogs aged 14 months were included in this study. During the sensitization and provocation phase, the house dust mite (HDM) paste consisted of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) and mineral oil, which was applied focally to the 10 × 10 cm area of the right groin as evenly as possible. Further, 120 mg of Der f was applied to each dog twice a week for 12 weeks during the sensitization phase and 25 mg and 120 mg was applied to each dog for the first 2 weeks and subsequent 2 weeks, respectively, during the provocation phase. Thereafter, the applied area was covered with a dressing. Skin lesions including erythema, hyperpigmentation, excoriation, and lichenification were induced and exacerbated gradually through the experimental time course in all six dogs. The canine atopic dermatitis extent and severity index (CADESI) score and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) significantly increased after sensitization and provocation. IL-13 and IL-31 levels increased significantly after provocation as a result of the activation of the T helper-2 (Th2) response. On the contrary, the IL-10 levels decreased significantly after sensitization, which suggested a suppression of Tregs activity. After the completion of provocation, skin microbiome analysis showed that Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum, which indicated bacterial dysbiosis. This study demonstrated that epicutaneous application of HDM in beagle dogs resulted in the elevation of serum HDM-specific IgE levels and clinical atopic scores, a high TEWL, and microbiome dysbiosis resembling spontaneous CAD. These results suggest that this tailored protocol of epicutaneous exposure to Der f may provide support for the development of the experimental CAD model in laboratory beagles.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jiao J, Shen Y, Wang P, et al (2022)

Characterization of the Intestinal Microbiome in Healthy Adults over Sars-Cov-2 Vaccination.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 27(10):280.

BACKGROUND: In response to the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide, inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are implemented. Dysbiosic gut microbiota is implicated in the COVID-19 patients. Whereas, how intestinal microbiota are affected by vaccination remains elusive, and it is important to investigate the microbial shifts during vaccines treatment.

METHODS: In the present study, we assessed the gut microbial composition in healthy adults, and performed comparison before and post an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, BBIBP-CorV vaccination.

RESULTS: Microbial diversity in shannon, pielou evenness, simpson and invsimpson index was remarkably suppressed by vaccination. Ruminococcus and Actinomyces were observed to be strikingly deficient, and Faecalibacterium was dramatically augmented after BBIBP-CorV treatment. Potential functional profiles of gut microbiome in amino acid metabolism, lipid biosynthesis proteins and steroid biosynthesis were remarkably increased, while the capacity in renin-angiotensin system was remarkably decreased following vaccines.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that inactivated BBIBP-CorV against SARS-CoV-2 could elicit modulations on gut microbial composition and functions, which might favor host immune response and protect from COVID-19.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )