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Bibliography on: Microbiome

The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project: Providing world-wide, free access to classic scientific papers and other scholarly materials, since 1993.


ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 26 Sep 2023 at 01:52 Created: 


It has long been known that every multicellular organism coexists with large prokaryotic ecosystems — microbiomes — that completely cover its surfaces, external and internal. Recent studies have shown that these associated microbiomes are not mere contamination, but instead have profound effects upon the function and fitness of the multicellular organism. We now know that all MCEs are actually functional composites, holobionts, composed of more prokaryotic cells than eukaryotic cells and expressing more prokaryotic genes than eukaryotic genes. A full understanding of the biology of "individual" eukaryotes will now depend on an understanding of their associated microbiomes.

Created with PubMed® Query: microbiome[tiab] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-25

Robertson EB, JLE Willett (2023)

Streptococcus mutans inhibits the growth of Enterococcus via the non-ribosomal cyclic peptide mutanobactin.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.12.557362.

UNLABELLED: Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive commensal bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen. Enterococci are a leading cause of nosocomial infections, treatment of which is complicated by intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Additionally, E. faecalis has been associated with various oral diseases, and it is frequently implicated in the failure of endodontic treatment. For establishment and persistence in a microbial community, E. faecalis must successfully compete against other bacteria. Streptococcal species play an important role in the establishment of the oral microbiome and co-exist with Enterococcus in the small intestine, yet the nature of interactions between E. faecalis and oral streptococci remains unclear. Here, we describe a mechanism by which Streptococcus mutans inhibits the growth of E. faecalis and other Gram-positive pathogens through the production of mutanobactin, a cyclic lipopeptide. Mutanobactin is produced by a polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrid system encoded by the mub locus. Mutanobactin-producing S. mutans inhibits planktonic and biofilm growth of E. faecalis and is also active against other Enterococcus species and Staphylococcus aureus . Mutanobactin damages the cell envelope of E. faecalis , similar to other lipopeptide antibiotics like daptomycin. E. faecalis resistance to mutanobactin is mediated by the virulence factor gelatinase, a secreted metalloprotease. Our results highlight the anti-biofilm potential of the microbial natural product mutanobactin, provide insight into how E. faecalis interacts with other organisms in the human microbiome, and demonstrate the importance of studying E. faecalis dynamics within polymicrobial communities.

SIGNIFICANCE: Entercoccus faecalis is a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, treatment of which is complicated by virulence factors, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. Here, we demonstrate the antibiotic and anti-biofilm activity of mutanobactin, a cyclic lipopeptide produced by Streptococcus mutans , against Enterococcus and Staphylococcus spp., including vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE). Similar to other lipopeptides, mutanobactin damages the bacterial cell envelope. E. faecalis may overcome antagonism from mutanobactin through production of gelatinase, a secreted protease and prevalent virulence factor. Our results demonstrate the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential of mutanobactin and highlight the role of bacterial proteases in resistance to bacteria- and host-derived antimicrobial compounds.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zhang B, Liu J, Li H, et al (2023)

Integrated multi-omics identified the novel intratumor microbiome-derived subtypes and signature to predict the outcome, tumor microenvironment heterogeneity, and immunotherapy response for pancreatic cancer patients.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 14:1244752.

Background: The extremely malignant tumour known as pancreatic cancer (PC) lacks efficient prognostic markers and treatment strategies. The microbiome is crucial to how cancer develops and responds to treatment. Our study was conducted in order to better understand how PC patients' microbiomes influence their outcome, tumour microenvironment, and responsiveness to immunotherapy. Methods: We integrated transcriptome and microbiome data of PC and used univariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier method for screening the prognostic microbes. Then intratumor microbiome-derived subtypes were identified using consensus clustering. We utilized LASSO and Cox regression to build the microbe-related model for predicting the prognosis of PC, and utilized eight algorithms to assess the immune microenvironment feature. The OncoPredict package was utilized to predict drug treatment response. We utilized qRT-PCR to verify gene expression and single-cell analysis to reveal the composition of PC tumour microenvironment. Results: We obtained a total of 26 prognostic genera in PC. And PC samples were divided into two microbiome-related subtypes: Mcluster A and B. Compared with Mcluster A, patients in Mcluster B had a worse prognosis and higher TNM stage and pathological grade. Immune analysis revealed that neutrophils, regulatory T cell, CD8[+] T cell, macrophages M1 and M2, cancer associated fibroblasts, myeloid dendritic cell, and activated mast cell had remarkably higher infiltrated levels within the tumour microenvironment of Mcluster B. Patients in Mcluster A were more likely to benefit from CTLA-4 blockers and were highly sensitive to 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, gemcitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and epirubicin. Moreover, we built a microbe-derived model to assess the outcome. The ROC curves showed that the microbe-related model has good predictive performance. The expression of LAMA3 and LIPH was markedly increased within pancreatic tumour tissues and was linked to advanced stage and poor prognosis. Single-cell analysis indicated that besides cancer cells, the tumour microenvironment of PC was also rich in monocytes/macrophages, endothelial cells, and fibroblasts. LIPH and LAMA3 exhibited relatively higher expression in cancer cells and neutrophils. Conclusion: The intratumor microbiome-derived subtypes and signature in PC were first established, and our study provided novel perspectives on PC prognostic indicators and treatment options.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Chhimwal J, Anand P, Mehta P, et al (2023)

Metagenomic signatures reveal the key role of phloretin in amelioration of gut dysbiosis attributed to metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease by time-dependent modulation of gut microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1210517.

The importance of gut-liver axis in the pathophysiology of metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is being investigated more closely in recent times. However, the inevitable changes in gut microbiota during progression of the disease merits closer look. The present work intends to assess the time-dependent gut dysbiosis in MAFLD, its implications in disease progression and role of plant-derived prebiotics in its attenuation. Male C57BL/6J mice were given western diet (WD) for up to 16 weeks and phloretin was administered orally. The fecal samples of mice were collected every fourth week for 16 weeks. The animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and biochemical and histological analyses were performed. Further, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis was performed to investigate longitudinal modification of gut microbiome at different time points. Findings of our study corroborate that phloretin alleviated the metabolic changes and mitigated circulating inflammatory cytokines levels. Phloretin treatment resists WD induced changes in microbial diversity of mice and decreased endotoxin content. Prolonged exposure of WD changed dynamics of gut microbiota abundance and distribution. Increased abundance of pathogenic taxa like Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptostreptococcus, Clostridium, and Terrisporobacter was noted. Phloretin treatment not only reversed this dysbiosis but also modulated taxonomic signatures of beneficial microbes like Ruminococcus, Lactobacillus, and Alloprevotella. Therefore, the potential of phloretin to restore gut eubiosis could be utilized as an intervention strategy for the prevention of MAFLD and related metabolic disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Arishi RA, Lai CT, Geddes DT, et al (2023)

Impact of breastfeeding and other early-life factors on the development of the oral microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1236601.

The oral cavity is home to the second most diverse microbiome in the human body. This community contributes to both oral and systemic health. Acquisition and development of the oral microbiome is a dynamic process that occurs over early life; however, data regarding longitudinal assembly of the infant oral microbiome is scarce. While numerous factors have been associated with the composition of the infant oral microbiome, early feeding practices (breastfeeding and the introduction of solids) appear to be the strongest determinants of the infant oral microbiome. In the present review, we draw together data on the maternal, infant, and environmental factors linked to the composition of the infant oral microbiome, with a focus on early nutrition. Given evidence that breastfeeding powerfully shapes the infant oral microbiome, the review explores potential mechanisms through which human milk components, including microbes, metabolites, oligosaccharides, and antimicrobial proteins, may interact with and shape the infant oral microbiome. Infancy is a unique period for the oral microbiome. By enhancing our understanding of oral microbiome assembly in early life, we may better support both oral and systemic health throughout the lifespan.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zhao C, Wang L, Zhang K, et al (2023)

Variation of Helicoverpa armigera symbionts across developmental stages and geographic locations.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1251627.

Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) poses a global problem, causing substantial economic and ecological losses. Endosymbionts in insects play crucial roles in multiple insect biological processes. However, the interactions between H. armigera and its symbionts have not been well characterized to date. We investigated the symbionts of H. armigera in the whole life cycle from different geographical locations. In the whole life cycle of H. armigera, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria were the dominant bacteria at the phylum level, while Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Glutamicibacter, and Bacillus were the four dominant bacteria at the genus level. Furthermore, high similarity in symbiotic bacterial community was observed in different stages of H. armigera, which were dominated by Enterococcus and Enterobacter. In fields, the dominant bacteria were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, whereas, in the laboratory, the dominant bacteria were Proteobacteria. At the genus level, the dominant bacteria in cotton bollworm eggs of wild populations were Enterobacter, Morganella, Lactococcus, Asaia, Apibacter, and Enterococcus, and the subdominant bacteria were Bartonella, Pseudomonas, and Orbus. Moreover, the symbionts varied with geographical locations, and the closer the geographical distance, the more similar the microbial composition. Taken together, our study identifies and compares the symbiont variation along with geographical gradients and host development dynamic and reveals the high flexibility of microbiome communities in H. armigera, which probably benefits for the successful survival in a complicated changing environment.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Bose T, Wasimuddin , Acharya V, et al (2023)

A cross-sectional study on the nasopharyngeal microbiota of individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection across three COVID-19 waves in India.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1238829.

BACKGROUND: Multiple variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus have plagued the world through successive waves of infection over the past three years. Independent research groups across geographies have shown that the microbiome composition in COVID-19 positive patients (CP) differs from that of COVID-19 negative individuals (CN). However, these observations were based on limited-sized sample-sets collected primarily from the early days of the pandemic. Here, we study the nasopharyngeal microbiota in COVID-19 patients, wherein the samples have been collected across the three COVID-19 waves witnessed in India, which were driven by different variants of concern.

METHODS: The nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 589 subjects providing samples for diagnostics purposes at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CSIR-CCMB), Hyderabad, India and subjected to 16s rRNA gene amplicon - based sequencing.

FINDINGS: We found variations in the microbiota of symptomatic vs. asymptomatic COVID-19 patients. CP showed a marked shift in the microbial diversity and composition compared to CN, in a wave-dependent manner. Rickettsiaceae was the only family that was noted to be consistently depleted in CP samples across the waves. The genera Staphylococcus, Anhydrobacter, Thermus, and Aerococcus were observed to be highly abundant in the symptomatic CP patients when compared to the asymptomatic group. In general, we observed a decrease in the burden of opportunistic pathogens in the host microbiota during the later waves of infection.

INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this is the first analytical cross-sectional study of this scale, which was designed to understand the relation between the evolving nature of the virus and the changes in the human nasopharyngeal microbiota. Although no clear signatures were observed, this study shall pave the way for a better understanding of the disease pathophysiology and help gather preliminary evidence on whether interventions to the host microbiota can help in better protection or faster recovery.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zeigler MK, KB Vander Wyst (2023)

Microbial associations and transfers across the One Health Triad effects on human and animal adiposity and temperament: a protocol for an observational pilot study.

Frontiers in public health, 11:1225188.

INTRODUCTION: It is known that humans and pet dogs harbor microbial communities that are important regulators of health and disease. Pet dogs have been shown to promote microbial exchange between members of a household, a process that may have lasting health implications. Infancy marks a unique period of development as environmental exploration and introduction to complementary foods occur. This may lead to greater opportunities for microbial transfer between pet dogs and human infants due to a more confined shared environment, similar means of mobility, greater physical contact, and increased frequency of shared foods. This human-animal bond has led to extensive research in the areas of childhood allergies and behavioral health; however, there is a paucity in the available literature that has evaluated how this unique ecological relationship may impact both human and animal health.

METHODS: Infants who reside in a household with a pet dog will be recruited from the greater Phoenix metropolitan area for this longitudinal, observational pilot study and followed through the complementary feeding period. Infant and pet dog fecal, salivary, and skin samples, as well as environmental samples from feeding areas/surfaces and main indoor play areas from both infants and pet dogs will be collected through in-home visits before (~5 mos), during (~9 mos), and after (~12 mos) the complementary feeding (CF) period. Anthropometrics, temperament, and dietary habits of both infants and pet dogs along with assessment of the home condition will also be collected. Microbial comparisons between infant and pet dog samples and evaluation of microbial changes during the CF period will be evaluated. Further, we will assess relationships between microbial composition and adiposity and temperament of both infants and pet dogs.

DISCUSSION: The proposed observational pilot study will advance the available science by exploring how microbial communities are associated and change between infants and pet dogs before, during, and after the CF period, a unique period of human growth and development. Findings from this study will provide insights into the impact these ecological relationships have on each other and how transfer across the One Health Triad impacts human and animal health.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Corbett AJ, Ussher JE, TSC Hinks (2023)

Editorial: MAIT cells come of age.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1281881.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Galià-Camps C, Baños E, Pascual M, et al (2023)

Multidimensional variability of the microbiome of an invasive ascidian species.

iScience, 26(10):107812.

Animals, including invasive species, are complex entities consisting of a host and its associated symbionts (holobiont). The interaction between the holobiont components is crucial for the host's survival. However, our understanding of how microbiomes of invasive species change across different tissues, localities, and ontogenetic stages, is limited. In the introduced ascidian Styela plicata, we found that its microbiome is highly distinct and specialized among compartments (tunic, gill, and gut). Smaller but significant differences were also found across harbors, suggesting local adaptation, and between juveniles and adults. Furthermore, we found a correlation between the microbiome and environmental trace element concentrations, especially in adults. Functional analyses showed that adult microbiomes possess specific metabolic pathways that may enhance fitness during the introduction process. These findings highlight the importance of integrated approaches in studying the interplay between animals and microbiomes, as a first step toward understanding how it can affect the species' invasive success.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zhao ZS, Yang LY, Li FX, et al (2023)

Gut flora alterations among aquatic firefly Aquatica leii inhabiting various dissolved oxygen in fresh water.

iScience, 26(10):107809.

Knowledge about the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) on the composition and function of gut bacteria of aquatic insects is largely unknown. Herein, we constructed freshwater environments with different DOs (hypoxia: 2.50 ± 0.50, normoxia: 7.00 ± 0.50, and hyperoxia: 13.00 ± 0.50 mg/L) where aquatic firefly Aquatica leii larvae lived for three months. Their gut flora was analyzed using the combination of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and metagenomics. The results showed no difference in alpha diversity of the gut flora between A. leii inhabiting various DOs. However, the relative abundance of several bacterial lineages presented significant changes, such as Pseudomonas. In addition, bacterial genes with an altered relative abundance in response to various DOs were primarily related to metabolism. The alteration of these functions correlated with the DO change. This is the first to uncover structure of gut flora under various DOs in aquatic insect larvae.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Tran DM, TH Nguyen (2023)

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated in the Central Highlands of Vietnam: Dataset on the endophytic microbiome.

Data in brief, 50:109551.

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the main annual crop cultivated in the Central Highlands region of Vietnam. Understanding the endophytic bacterial community of this plant, a new technique for sustainable production can be developed. In this work, a representative sample was obtained by combining rice (RVT variety) root samples collected from five different fields in Dray Sap Commune, Krong Ana District, Dak Lak Province, the Central Highlands of Vietnam. Using the Illumina MiSeq technology, the 16S rRNA metagenomics was applied to the sequencing amplicons library. The QIIME2 matched with the SILVA SSURef reference database was employed to analyze the taxonomic profile, and the PICRUSt2 and MetaCyc databases were used to predict the functional profile of rice endophytic prokaryotes. Results revealed that Enterobacterales was the most predominant class (57.7%) in the bacterial community, and biosynthesis was the primary function of the rice endophytic microbiome (75.95%). Raw sequences obtained in this work are available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (Bioproject ID: PRJNA994482) and Mendeley Data [1]. Data in this work provide insight into the endophytic microbiome of rice (RVT variety) cultivated in the Central Highlands of Vietnam. These data are valuable for developing a new method for producing locally sustainable rice employing endophytic bacteria. This is the first report on the endophytic microbiome of rice cultivated in this region.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Liu Y, Chan MTV, Chan FKL, et al (2023)

Lower gut abundance of Eubacterium rectale is linked to COVID-19 mortality.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1249069.

INTRODUCTION: Emerging preclinical and clinical studies suggest that altered gut microbiome composition and functions are associated with coronavirus 2019 (COVID- 19) severity and its long-term complications. We hypothesize that COVID-19 outcome is associated with gut microbiome status in population-based settings.

METHODS: Gut metagenomic data of the adult population consisting of 2871 subjects from 16 countries were obtained from ExperimentHub through R, while the dynamic death data of COVID-19 patients between January 22, 2020 and December 8, 2020 in each country was acquired from Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. An adjusted stable mortality rate (SMR) was used to represent these countries' mortality and correlated with the mean relative abundance (mRA) of healthy adult gut microbiome species.

RESULTS: After excluding bacterial species with low prevalence (prevalence <0.2 in the included countries), the β-diversity was significantly higher in the countries with high SMR when compared with those with median or low SMR (p <0.001). We then identified the mRA of two butyrate producers, Eubacterium rectale and Roseburia intestinalis, that were negatively correlated with SMR during the study period. And the reduction of these species was associated with severer COVID-19 manifestation.

CONCLUSION: Population-based microbiome signatures with the stable mortality rate of COVID-19 in different countries suggest that altered gut microbiome composition and functions are associated with mortality of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Palanisamy V, Bosilevac JM, Barkhouse DA, et al (2023)

Shotgun-metagenomics reveals a highly diverse and communal microbial network present in the drains of three beef-processing plants.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1240138.

BACKGROUND: Multi-species biofilms pose a problem in various environments, especially food-processing environments. The diversity of microorganisms in these biofilms plays a critical role in their integrity and protection against external biotic and abiotic factors. Compared to single-species biofilms, mixed-species biofilms are more resistant to various stresses, including antimicrobials like sanitizers. Therefore, understanding the microbiome composition and diversity in biofilms and their metabolic potential is a priority when developing intervention techniques to combat foodborne pathogens in food processing environments.

METHODS: This study aimed to describe and compare the microbiome profile of 75 drain biofilm samples obtained from five different locations (Hotscale, Hotbox, Cooler, Processing, & Grind room) of three beef-processing plants (Plant A, B & C) taken over two timepoints 2017-18 (T1) and 2021 (T2) by shotgun sequencing.

RESULTS: Core microbiome analysis found Pseudomonas, Psychrobacter, and Acinetobacter to be the top three prevalent genera among the plants and locations. Alpha diversity analysis demonstrated a high diversity of microbiome present in all the plants and locations across the time points. Functional analysis showed the high metabolic potential of the microbial community with abundance of genes in metabolism, cell-adhesion, motility, and quorum sensing. Moreover, Quaternary Ammonium Compound (QAC) resistance genes were also observed, this is significant as QAC sanitizers are commonly used in many food processing facilities. Multi-functional genes such as transposases, polymerases, permeases, flagellar proteins, and Mobile Genetic Elements (MGEs) were found suggesting these are dynamic microbial communities that work together to protect themselves against environmental stresses through multiple defense mechanisms.

CONCLUSION: This study provides a framework for understanding the collective microbial network spanning a beef processing system. The results can be used to develop intervention strategies to best control these highly communicative microbial networks.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Howe S, Kegley B, Powell J, et al (2023)

Effect of bovine respiratory disease on the respiratory microbiome: a meta-analysis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1223090.

BACKGROUND: Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most devastating disease affecting beef and dairy cattle producers in North America. An emerging area of interest is the respiratory microbiome's relationship with BRD. However, results regarding the effect of BRD on respiratory microbiome diversity are conflicting.

RESULTS: To examine the effect of BRD on the alpha diversity of the respiratory microbiome, a meta-analysis analyzing the relationship between the standardized mean difference (SMD) of three alpha diversity metrics (Shannon's Diversity Index (Shannon), Chao1, and Observed features (OTUs, ASVs, species, and reads) and BRD was conducted. Our multi-level model found no difference in Chao1 and Observed features SMDs between calves with BRD and controls. The Shannon SMD was significantly greater in controls compared to that in calves with BRD. Furthermore, we re-analyzed 16S amplicon sequencing data from four previously published datasets to investigate BRD's effect on individual taxa abundances. Additionally, based on Bray Curtis and Jaccard distances, health status, sampling location, and dataset were all significant sources of variation. Using a consensus approach based on RandomForest, DESeq2, and ANCOM-BC2, we identified three differentially abundant amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) within the nasal cavity, ASV5_Mycoplasma, ASV19_Corynebacterium, and ASV37_Ruminococcaceae. However, no ASVs were differentially abundant in the other sampling locations. Moreover, based on SECOM analysis, ASV37_Ruminococcaceae had a negative relationship with ASV1_Mycoplasma_hyorhinis, ASV5_Mycoplasma, and ASV4_Mannheimia. ASV19_Corynebacterium had negative relationships with ASV1_Mycoplasma_hyorhinis, ASV4_Mannheimia, ASV54_Mycoplasma, ASV7_Mycoplasma, and ASV8_Pasteurella.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm a relationship between bovine respiratory disease and respiratory microbiome diversity and composition, which provide additional insight into microbial community dynamics during BRD development. Furthermore, as sampling location and sample processing (dataset) can also affect results, consideration should be taken when comparing results across studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Mao X, Chen H, Peng X, et al (2023)

Dysbiosis of vaginal and cervical microbiome is associated with uterine fibroids.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1196823.

Dysbiosis of the female reproductive tract is closely associated with gynecologic diseases. Here, we aim to explore the association between dysbiosis in the genital tract and uterine fibroids (UFs) to further provide new insights into UF etiology. We present an observational study to profile vaginal and cervical microbiome from 29 women with UFs and 38 healthy women, and 125 samples were obtained and sequenced. By comparing the microbial profiles between different parts of the reproductive tract, there is no significant difference in microbial diversity between healthy subjects and UF patients. However, alpha diversity of UF patients was negatively correlated with the number of fibroids. Increased Firmicutes were observed in both the cervical and vaginal microbiome of UF patients at the phylum level. In differential analysis of relative abundance, some genera were shown to be significantly enriched (e.g., Erysipelatoclostridium, Mucispirillum, and Finegoldia) and depleted (e.g., Erysipelotrichaceae UCG-003 and Sporolactobacillus) in UF patients. Furthermore, the microbial co-occurrence networks of UF patients showed lower connectivity and complexity, suggesting reduced interactions and stability of the cervical and vaginal microbiota in UF patients. In summary, our findings revealed the perturbation of microbiome in the presence of UFs and a distinct pattern of characteristic vaginal and cervical microbiome involved in UFs, offering new options to further improve prevention and management strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Wojciech L, Png CW, Koh EY, et al (2023)

A tryptophan metabolite made by a gut microbiome eukaryote induces pro-inflammatory T cells.

The EMBO journal [Epub ahead of print].

The large intestine harbors microorganisms playing unique roles in host physiology. The beneficial or detrimental outcome of host-microbiome coexistence depends largely on the balance between regulators and responder intestinal CD4[+] T cells. We found that ulcerative colitis-like changes in the large intestine after infection with the protist Blastocystis ST7 in a mouse model are associated with reduction of anti-inflammatory Treg cells and simultaneous expansion of pro-inflammatory Th17 responders. These alterations in CD4[+] T cells depended on the tryptophan metabolite indole-3-acetaldehyde (I3AA) produced by this single-cell eukaryote. I3AA reduced the Treg subset in vivo and iTreg development in vitro by modifying their sensing of TGFβ, concomitantly affecting recognition of self-flora antigens by conventional CD4[+] T cells. Parasite-derived I3AA also induces over-exuberant TCR signaling, manifested by increased CD69 expression and downregulation of co-inhibitor PD-1. We have thus identified a new mechanism dictating CD4[+] fate decisions. The findings thus shine a new light on the ability of the protist microbiome and tryptophan metabolites, derived from them or other sources, to modulate the adaptive immune compartment, particularly in the context of gut inflammatory disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Ma Y, Cao Y, Song X, et al (2023)

Integration of semi-empirical MS/MS library with characteristic features for the annotation of novel amino acid-conjugated bile acids.

The Analyst [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, amino acids other than glycine and taurine were found to be conjugated with bile acids by the gut microbiome in mouse and human. As potential diagnostic markers for inflammatory bowel disease and farnesoid X receptor agonists, their physiological effects and mechanisms, however, remain to be elucidated. A tool for the rapid and comprehensive annotation of such new metabolites is required. Thus, we developed a semi-empirical MS/MS library for bile acids conjugated with 18 common amino acids, including alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartate, glutamine, glutamate, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. To investigate their fragmentation rules, these amino acids were chemically conjugated with lithocholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and cholic acid, and their accurate-mass MS/MS spectra were acquired. The common fragmentation patterns from the amino acid moieties were combined with 10 general bile acid skeletons to generate a semi-empirical MS/MS library of 180 structures. Software named BAFinder 2.0 was developed to combine the semi-empirical library in negative mode and the characteristic fragments in positive mode for automatic unknown identification. As a proof of concept, this workflow was applied to the LC-MS/MS analysis of the feces of human, beagle dogs, and rats. In total, 171 common amino acid-conjugated bile acids were annotated and 105 of them were confirmed with the retention times of synthesized compounds. To explore other potential bile acid conjugates, user-defined small molecules were in-silico conjugated with bile acids and searched in the fecal dataset. Four novel bile acid conjugates were discovered, including D-Ala-D-Ala, Lys(iso)-Gly, L-2-aminobutyric acid, and ornithine.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Monteiro RC, M Fernandes (2023)

Are antibiotics still relevant in acne? A review of the therapeutic conundrum.

International journal of dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics have constituted the mainstay of acne therapy despite acne being classified as an inflammatory disorder. The indiscriminate usage of antibiotics over the years has thus fueled the issue of antimicrobial resistance. Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) can acquire resistance due to chromosomal mutation or genetic acquisition. C. acnes can transfer resistance to other resident flora, complicating the management of skin and soft tissue infections. It can also transfer resistant strains to other body sites and to immunocompromised and elderly patients thus putting them at risk of serious infections. Recent studies have highlighted the physiologic role of C. acnes in maintaining the normal homeostasis of the skin microbiome. The role of Malassezia in causation of acne has piqued interest in recent times. The efficacy of antibiotics in acne is attributed to their para-antibiotic, anti-inflammatory action rather than antimicrobial action. Thus, usage of low-dose antibiotics and alternatives to antibiotics has been advocated. Some alternative therapies showing efficacy in acne are probiotics, oral zinc, precision therapy using succinic acid, bacteriophages, and anti-biofilm therapy like myrtacin, topical azelaic acid, and salicylic acid. Using isotretinoin in early stages of acne can reduce the incidence of scarring and alleviate the need for antibiotics. Thus, a gradual shift from antibiotics to alternative therapies in acne is the need of the hour.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Huang C, Gin C, Fettweis J, et al (2023)

Meta-analysis reveals the vaginal microbiome is a better predictor of earlier than later preterm birth.

BMC biology, 21(1):199.

BACKGROUND: High-throughput sequencing measurements of the vaginal microbiome have yielded intriguing potential relationships between the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth (PTB; live birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation). However, results across studies have been inconsistent.

RESULTS: Here, we perform an integrated analysis of previously published datasets from 12 cohorts of pregnant women whose vaginal microbiomes were measured by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of 2039 women included in our analysis, 586 went on to deliver prematurely. Substantial variation between these datasets existed in their definition of preterm birth, characteristics of the study populations, and sequencing methodology. Nevertheless, a small group of taxa comprised a vast majority of the measured microbiome in all cohorts. We trained machine learning (ML) models to predict PTB from the composition of the vaginal microbiome, finding low to modest predictive accuracy (0.28-0.79). Predictive accuracy was typically lower when ML models trained in one dataset predicted PTB in another dataset. Earlier preterm birth (< 32 weeks, < 34 weeks) was more predictable from the vaginal microbiome than late preterm birth (34-37 weeks), both within and across datasets. Integrated differential abundance analysis revealed a highly significant negative association between L. crispatus and PTB that was consistent across almost all studies. The presence of the majority (18 out of 25) of genera was associated with a higher risk of PTB, with L. iners, Prevotella, and Gardnerella showing particularly consistent and significant associations. Some example discrepancies between studies could be attributed to specific methodological differences but not most study-to-study variations in the relationship between the vaginal microbiome and preterm birth.

CONCLUSIONS: We believe future studies of the vaginal microbiome and PTB will benefit from a focus on earlier preterm births and improved reporting of specific patient metadata shown to influence the vaginal microbiome and/or birth outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Jiang D, Li S, Liang Y, et al (2023)

16S rRNA and transcriptome analysis of the FOS-mediated alleviation of Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal damage in Megalobrama amblycephala.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)03937-5 [Epub ahead of print].

This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of FOS that alleviate Aeromonas hydrophila-induced intestinal damage. The results showed that A. hydrophila disrupted the intestinal structure and increased intestinal permeability, causing abnormalities in mucosal pathology. Additionally, A. hydrophila induced an imbalance in the intestinal flora and disturbed its stability. Dietary FOS ameliorated the injury to the intestinal structure of fish, but also in part improved the condition of the intestinal tight junction complex. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 120 genes were up-regulated and 320 genes were down-regulated. The intestinal immune network for the IgA production signalling pathway was enriched following A. hydrophila infection, and the change in the FOS group was mainly in the Tight junction signalling pathway. Similarly, dietary FOS reduced the disruption of the intestinal microbiota induced by A. hydrophila and improved the intestinal microbiota's stability; FOS was also partially implicated in the upregulation of Tight junction and Adhesion junction pathways by transcriptomic analysis. After further analysis, it was found that fish fed FOS had upregulated expression of genes related to apoptosis, antigen presentation, and the T-cell-mediated immune response in the intestine compared with those in the A. hydrophila group, which may be related to changes in the intestinal microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Ciernikova S, Sevcikova A, Drgona L, et al (2023)

Modulating the gut microbiota by probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation: An emerging trend in cancer patient care.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer pii:S0304-419X(23)00139-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment resistance, together with acute and late adverse effects, represents critical issues in the management of cancer patients. Promising results from preclinical and clinical research underline the emerging trend of a microbiome-based approach in oncology. Favorable bacterial species and higher gut diversity are associated with increased treatment efficacy, mainly in chemo- and immunotherapy. On the other hand, alterations in the composition and activity of gut microbial communities are linked to intestinal dysbiosis and contribute to high treatment-induced toxicity. In this Review, we provide an overview of studies concerning gut microbiota modulation in patients with solid and hematologic malignancies with a focus on probiotics, prebiotics, postbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation. Targeting the gut microbiome might bring clinical benefits and improve patient outcomes. However, a deeper understanding of mechanisms and large clinical trials concerning microbiome and immunological profiling is warranted to identify safe and effective ways to incorporate microbiota-based interventions in routine clinical practice.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Meng H, Xu D, Wang Q, et al (2023)

Maintaining immune homeostasis with Coptis Chinensis water extract to mitigate sepsis severity via modulating gut microbiome and metabolism.

Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, 236:115719 pii:S0731-7085(23)00488-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Sepsis arises from an uncontrolled inflammatory response to infection that can lead to organ failure. The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a key modulator of sepsis progression. This study investigated whether Coptis chinensis water extract (CCWE) could attenuate sepsis by modulating the gut microbiome and immune response. A rat model of sepsis induced by cecum ligation and perforation was used. 16 S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequencing, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ([1]H NMR) metabolomics and flow cytometry assays were used to evaluate microbial, metabolic and immune profiles. CCWE treatment reversed sepsis-induced loss of beneficial bacteria like Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and restored gut microbial balance. CCWE increased short-chain fatty acids, carnitine and phenylacetate, which provide energy and curb inflammation. By enhancing immune homeostasis and maintaining regulatory T cells (Tregs), CCWE treatment also exerted bidirectional regulation on T cells for initially suppressing hyperactivation then enabling recovery. Overall, CCWE may benefit sepsis by regulating the gut-microbiome-immune axis. By restoring microbiome balance, improving metabolism, and modulating immunity, CCWE treatment shows potential for alleviating sepsis severity and progression. The increases in beneficial bacteria, Tregs, and anti-inflammatory metabolites coupled with decreases in opportunistic pathogens likely contributed collectively to CCWE's protective effects. CCWE may emerge as an alternative or adjunctive option for managing disorders of dangerous inflammation like sepsis. Future research should explore CCWE's mechanisms of action clinically to determine its potential as a safe, effective means of modulating health through natural regulation of the gut microbiome and immune function.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Johnson CA, Snelling TJ, Huntington JA, et al (2023)

Effect of feeding Yucca schidigera extract and a live yeast on the rumen microbiome and performance of dairy cows fed a diet excess in rumen degradable nitrogen.

Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience, 17(10):100967 pii:S1751-7311(23)00284-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N) loss from livestock agriculture via ammonia and nitrous oxide can reduce feed efficiency, production and negatively affect the environment. One option to reduce N loss is to add dietary supplements such as Yucca schidigera extract which has ammonia-binding properties and contains antimicrobial steroidal saponins, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, which can stabilise rumen pH and promote fibre degradation, increasing microbial growth and demand for degradable N. To determine the effect of Yucca schidigera extract when fed alone or in combination with a live yeast on the performance, rumen metabolism, microbiome and N balance, six rumen cannulated dairy cows were fed a mixed ration (C), mixed ration with Y. schidigera extract (De-Odorase®, Alltech®; 5 g/cow/day; D), or mixed ration with Y. schidigera extract (5 g/day) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yea-Sacc®, Alltech®, 1 g/cow per day; DY), in a 3 × 3 Latin rectangle design study with three periods of 49-day duration. Digesta samples were collected via the ruminal cannula during the final week of each period and separated into liquid (LPD) and solid (SPD) phases for microbiome analysis using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. DM intake was 0.8 kg/d lower (P < 0.05) in cows fed DY than C or D, with milk protein concentration 1.7 g/kg higher in C than D or DY. There was a beta diversity (Bray Curtis) clustering of the LPD in cows fed D or DY compared to C (P < 0.05), driven by an increase in Prevotella ruminicola-related operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and a decrease in P. brevis and P. bryantii OTUs. A methanogen OTU, Methanobrevibacter olleyae, was decreased in cows fed D or DY and an unclassified species of Gammaproteobacteria was increased in DY (LDA > 2.0, P < 0.05) compared to C. Rumen pH, ammonia and total VFA concentration were not affected by treatment (P > 0.05) but the concentration of propionate and iso-butyrate were lower at 1700 and 2000 h in cows fed DY compared to C (P < 0.05). Measurements of N balance were unaffected by supplementation with D or DY, and there was no effect of treatment on slurry pH. In conclusion, supplementing with an extract of Yucca schidigera either alone or in combination with a live yeast had only a small effect on performance, with Yucca schidigera altering species associated with carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and reduced Methanobrevibacter olleyae which is involved in methanogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Metras BN, Oba PM, Miller MJ, et al (2023)

Effects of Commercial and Traditional Kefir Supplementation on Apparent Total Tract Macronutrient Digestibility and the Fecal Characteristics, Metabolites, and Microbiota of Healthy Adult Dogs.

Journal of animal science pii:7281732 [Epub ahead of print].

Kefir is a fermented dairy beverage that has been consumed by humans for centuries, but poorly studied in pets. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of commercial or traditional kefir supplementation on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility (ATTD) and fecal characteristics, microbiota populations, and metabolite and immunoglobulin (Ig) A concentrations of healthy adult dogs. Twelve healthy adult dogs (5.67±1.72 y, 7.27±1.15 kg) were used in a replicated 3x3 Latin square design (n=12/group). All dogs were fed a commercial diet and allotted to 1 of 3 treatments (60 mL/d): 2% reduced-fat milk treated with lactase [CNTL; 4.57E+03 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL], commercial kefir (C-Kefir; 6.95E+04 LAB CFU/mL), or traditional kefir brewed daily from 2% reduced-fat milk and kefir grains (T-Kefir; 1.79E+09 LAB CFU/mL). The experiment was composed of three 28-d periods, with each consisting of a 22-d transition phase, a 5-d fecal collection phase, and 1 d for blood collection. Fecal samples were collected for determination of ATTD and fecal pH, dry matter, microbiota, and metabolite and IgA concentrations. Data were analyzed using the Mixed Models procedure of SAS 9.4. The main effects of treatment were tested, with significance set at p≤0.05 and trends set at p≤0.10. Kefir products differed in microbial density and profile, but fecal microbiota populations were weakly impacted. Bacterial alpha diversity tended to be greater (p=0.10) in dogs fed T-Kefir than those fed CNTL. Bacterial beta diversity analysis identified a difference (p<0.0004) between dogs fed CNTL and those fed C-Kefir. Dogs fed C-Kefir tended to have a greater (p=0.06) relative abundance of Fusobacteriota than those fed CNTL or T-Kefir. Dogs fed T-Kefir had a greater (p<0.0001) relative abundance of Lactococcus than those fed CNTL or C-Kefir. Dogs fed T-Kefir also tended to have a lower (p=0.09) relative abundance of Escherichia-Shigella and greater (p=0.09) relative abundance of Candidatus stoquefichus than dogs fed CNTL or C-Kefir. Dogs fed C-Kefir tended to have lower (p=0.08) fecal valerate concentrations than those fed CNTL or T-Kefir. All other measures were unaffected by kefir treatments. Our results suggest that kefir supplementation had minor effects on the fecal microbiota populations and fecal metabolite concentrations of healthy adult dogs without impacting ATTD, fecal characteristics, or fecal IgA concentrations.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Kemter AM, Patry RT, Arnold J, et al (2023)

Commensal bacteria signal through TLR5 and AhR to improve barrier integrity and prevent allergic responses to food.

Cell reports, 42(10):113153 pii:S2211-1247(23)01165-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing prevalence of food allergies has been linked to reduced commensal microbial diversity. In this article, we describe two features of allergy-protective Clostridia that contribute to their beneficial effects. Some Clostridial taxa bear flagella (a ligand for TLR5) and produce indole (a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor [AhR]). Lysates and flagella from a Clostridia consortium induced interleukin-22 (IL-22) secretion from ileal explants. IL-22 production is abrogated in explants from mice in which TLR5 or MyD88 signaling is deficient either globally or conditionally in CD11c[+] antigen-presenting cells. AhR signaling in RORγt[+] cells is necessary for the induction of IL-22. Mice deficient in AhR in RORγt[+] cells exhibit increased intestinal permeability and are more susceptible to an anaphylactic response to food. Our findings implicate TLR5 and AhR signaling in a molecular mechanism by which commensal Clostridia protect against allergic responses to food.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Yuan T, Zhang S, He S, et al (2023)

Bacterial lipopolysaccharide related genes signature as potential biomarker for prognosis and immune treatment in gastric cancer.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15916.

The composition of microbial microenvironment is an important factor affecting the development of tumor diseases. However, due to the limitations of current technological levels, we are still unable to fully study and elucidate the depth and breadth of the impact of microorganisms on tumors, especially whether microorganisms have an impact on cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct in-depth research on the role and mechanism of prostate microbiome in gastric cancer (GC) based on the related genes of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) by using bioinformatics methods. Through comparison in the Toxin Genomics Database (CTD), we can find and screen out the bacterial LPS related genes. In the study, Venn plots and lasso analysis were used to obtain differentially expressed LPS related hub genes (LRHG). Afterwards, in order to establish a prognostic risk score model and column chart in LRHG features, we used univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis for modeling and composition. In addition, we also conducted in-depth research on the clinical role of immunotherapy with TMB, MSI, KRAS mutants, and TIDE scores. We screened 9 LRHGs in the database. We constructed a prognostic risk score and column chart based on LRHG, indicating that low risk scores have a protective effect on patients. We particularly found that low risk scores are beneficial for immunotherapy through TIDE score evaluation. Based on LPS related hub genes, we established a LRHG signature, which can help predict immunotherapy and prognosis for GC patients. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide related genes can also be biomarkers to predict progression free survival in GC patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Wang A, Diana A, Rahmannia S, et al (2023)

Impact of milk secretor status on the fecal metabolome and microbiota of breastfed infants.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2257273.

Maternal secretor status has been shown to be associated with the presence of specific fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), and the impact of maternal secretor status on infant gut microbiota measured through 16s sequencing has previously been reported. None of those studies have confirmed exclusive breastfeeding nor investigated the impact of maternal secretor status on gut microbial fermentation products. The present study focused on exclusively breastfed (EBF) Indonesian infants, with exclusive breastfeeding validated through the stable isotope deuterium oxide dose-to-mother (DTM) technique, and the impact of maternal secretor status on the infant fecal microbiome and metabolome. Maternal secretor status did not alter the within-community (alpha) diversity, between-community (beta) diversity, or the relative abundance of bacterial taxa at the genus level. However, infants fed milk from secretor (Se+) mothers exhibited a lower level of fecal succinate, amino acids and their derivatives, and a higher level of 1,2-propanediol when compared to infants fed milk from non-secretor (Se-) mothers. Interestingly, for infants consuming milk from Se+ mothers, there was a correlation between the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus, and between each of these genera and fecal metabolites that was not observed in infants receiving milk from Se- mothers. Our findings indicate that the secretor status of the mother impacts the gut microbiome of the exclusively breastfed infant.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Wicaksono WA, Cernava T, Wassermann B, et al (2023)

The edible plant microbiome: evidence for the occurrence of fruit and vegetable bacteria in the human gut.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2258565.

Diversity of the gut microbiota is crucial for human health. However, whether fruit and vegetable associated bacteria contribute to overall gut bacterial diversity is still unknown. We reconstructed metagenome-assembled genomes from 156 fruit and vegetable metagenomes to investigate the prevalence of associated bacteria in 2,426 publicly available gut metagenomes. The microbiomes of fresh fruits and vegetables and the human gut are represented by members in common such as Enterobacterales, Burkholderiales, and Lactobacillales. Exposure to bacteria via fruit and vegetable consumption potentially has a beneficial impact on the functional diversity of gut microbiota particularly due to the presence of putative health-promoting genes for the production of vitamin and short-chain fatty acids. In the human gut, they were consistently present, although at a low abundance, approx. 2.2%. Host age, vegetable consumption frequency, and the diversity of plants consumed were drivers favoring a higher proportion. Overall, these results provide one of the primary links between the human microbiome and the environmental microbiome. This study revealed evidence that fruit and vegetable-derived microbes could be found in the human gut and contribute to gut microbiome diversity.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Hirt H, Boukcim H, Ducousso M, et al (2023)

Engineering carbon sequestration on arid lands.

Trends in plant science pii:S1360-1385(23)00271-6 [Epub ahead of print].

To limit the effects of global warming, arid lands, which constitute approximately one-third of terrestrial surfaces and are not utilized for agriculture, could serve as an effective method for long-term carbon (C) storage. We propose that soil-plant-microbiome engineering with oxalogenic plants and oxalotrophic microbes could facilitate C sequestration on a global scale.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Muhammad A, Zhang N, He J, et al (2023)

Multiomics analysis reveals the molecular basis for increased body weight in silkworms (Bombyx mori) exposed to environmental concentrations of polystyrene micro- and nanoplastics.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(23)00259-X [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) are emerging environmental pollutants that have raised serious concerns about their potential impact on ecosystem and organism health. Despite increasing efforts to investigate the impacts of micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) on biota little is known about their potential impacts on terrestrial organisms, especially insects, at environmental concentrations.

OBJECTIVES: To address this gap, we used an insect model, silkworm Bombyx mori to examine the potential long-term impacts of different sizes of polystyrene (PS) MNPs at environmentally realistic concentrations (0.25 to 1.0 μg/mL).

METHODS: After exposure to PS-MNPs over most of the larval lifetime (from second to last instar), the endpoints were examined by an integrated physiological (growth and survival) and multiomics approach (metabolomics, 16S rRNA, and transcriptomics).

RESULTS: Our results indicated that dietary exposures to PS-MNPs had no lethal effect on survivorship, but interestingly, increased host body weight. Multiomics analysis revealed that PS-MNPs exposure significantly altered multiple pathways, particularly lipid metabolism, leading to enriched energy reserves. Furthermore, the exposure changed the structure and composition of the gut microbiome and increased the abundance of gut bacteria Acinetobacter and Enterococcus. Notably, the predicted functional profiles and metabolite expressions were significantly correlated with bacterial abundance. Importantly, these observed effects were particle size-dependent and were ranked as PS-S (91.92 nm) > PS-M (5.69 µm) > PS-L (9.7 µm).

CONCLUSION: Overall, PS-MNPs at environmentally realistic concentrations exerted stimulatory effects on energy metabolism that subsequently enhanced body weight in silkworms, suggesting that chronic PS-MNPs exposure might trigger weight gain in animals and humans by influencing host energy and microbiota homeostasis.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Fu W, Xu L, Chen Z, et al (2023)

Recent advances on emerging nanomaterials for diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society pii:S0168-3659(23)00620-X [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder that affects the entire gastrointestinal tract and is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Mainstream clinical testing methods are time-consuming, painful for patients, and insufficiently sensitive to detect early symptoms. Currently, there is no definitive cure for IBD, and frequent doses of medications with potentially severe side effects may affect patient response. In recent years, nanomaterials have demonstrated considerable potential for IBD management due to their diverse structures, composition, and physical and chemical properties. In this review, we provide an overview of the advances in nanomaterial-based diagnosis and treatment of IBD in recent five years. Multi-functional bio-nano platforms, including contrast agents, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes, and bioactive substance detection agents have been developed for IBD diagnosis. Based on a series of pathogenic characteristics of IBD, the therapeutic strategies of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and intestinal microbiome regulation of IBD based on nanomaterials are systematically introduced. Finally, the future challenges and prospects in this field are presented to facilitate the development of diagnosis and treatment of IBD.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Quan Z, Zhao Z, Liu Z, et al (2023)

Biodegradation of polystyrene microplastics by superworms (larve of Zophobas atratus): Gut microbiota transition, and putative metabolic ways.

Chemosphere, 343:140246 pii:S0045-6535(23)02516-X [Epub ahead of print].

Superworm (larve of Zophobas atratus) could consume foams of expanded polystyrene plastics. However, there is no sufficient understanding of the impact of microplastics on superworms and the degradation pathways of polystyrene. Herein, we explored the weight and survival change of superworms while fed with polystyrene microplastics, and found that survival rate and mean weight would reduce. In terms of gut microbial community structure of surperworms, significant shifts were detected with the relative abundance of Hafnia-Obesumbacterium sp. increasing. In addition, we domesticated two microbiota from the gut of superworms, and confirmed their ability to degrade PS in vitro. The last but most important, 1291 metabolites were identified by HPLC-TOF-MS/MS, and six metabolites related to polystyrene degradation were identified through comparative metabolomic analysis. According to the content and pathways of these metabolites, three metabolic pathways of polystyrene were (a) styrene-phenylacetyl-CoA-L-2-aminoadipic acid; (b) styrene-phenylacetyl-CoA-benzaldehyde; (c) styrene-2-hydroxyacetophenone. These results would help to further screen bacteria of PS degradation and investigate PS metabolic pathways in invertebrates.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Cheng Y, An N, Ishaq HM, et al (2023)

Ocular microbial dysbiosis and its linkage with infectious keratitis patients in Northwest China: A cross-sectional study.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00404-7 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the alteration of ocular surface microbiome of patients with infectious keratitis in northwest of China.

METHODS: The corneal scrapings, eyelid margin and conjunctiva samples were collected from 57 participants, who were divided into bacterial keratitis, fungal keratitis, viral keratitis and control group. The V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rDNA in each sample was amplified and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform, and the differences among different groups were compared bioinformatically.

RESULTS: Significant alterations of the microbiome were observed in alpha-diversity and beta-diversity analysis between the keratitis groups and the control group (p < 0.05). There was no significant differences between eyelid margin and conjunctiva samples in Alpha-Diversity analysis, but a significant difference between eyelid margin and corneal scraping samples in the keratitis group (p < 0.05, independent t-test). The abundances of Bacillus, Megamonas, Acinetobacter, and Rhodococcu were significantly elevated, while the abundance of Staphylococcus was decreased in the keratitis group compared to the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: The abundance of the ocular microbiome in patients with bacterial keratitis, fungal keratitis, or viral keratitis was significantly higher than those in the control group. Keratitis patients may have ecological disorder on ocular surface microbiome compared with controls. We believe that the conjunctiva and eyelid margin microbiome combined analysis can more comprehensively reflect the composition and abundance of ocular surface microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Liu Z, Sun M, Jin C, et al (2023)

Naringenin confers protection against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis through modulating the gut-brain axis: A multi-omics analysis.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry pii:S0955-2863(23)00181-X [Epub ahead of print].

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the central nervous system that involves the immune system attacking the protective covering of nerve fibers. This disease can be influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Evidence has highlighted the critical role of the intestinal microbiota in MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The composition of gut microflora is mainly determined by dietary components, which, in turn, modulate host homeostasis. A diet rich in naringenin at 0.5% can effectively mitigate the severity of EAE in mice. However, there is little direct data on the impact of naringenin at optimal doses on EAE development, as well as its intestinal microbiota and metabolites. Our study revealed that 2.0% naringenin resulted in the lowest clinical score and pathological changes in EAE mice, and altered the gene expression profiles associated with inflammation and immunity in spinal cord tissue. We then used untargeted metabolomics and 16S rRNA gene sequence to identify metabolites and intestinal microbiota, respectively. Naringenin supplementation enriched gut microbiota in EAE mice, including increasing the abundance of Paraprevotellaceae and Comamonadaceae, while decreasing the abundance of Deltaproteobacteria, RF39, and Desulfovibrionaceae. Furthermore, the changes in gut microbiota affected the production of metabolites in the feces and brain, suggesting a role in regulating the gut-brain axis. Finally, we conducted a fecal transplantation experiment to validate that gut microbiota partly mediates the effect of naringenin on EAE alleviation. In conclusion, naringenin has potential immunomodulatory effects that are influenced to some extent by the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Gao C, Ni B, Lu X, et al (2023)

An integrated investigation of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and proteomics to elucidate the mechanism of Corydalis bungeana Turcz. on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 167:115550 pii:S0753-3322(23)01348-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Corydalis bungeana Turcz. (CBT) is frequently used to treat inflammatory illnesses, the mechanisms underlying its use to ulcerative colitis (UC) remain unclear. A dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC mice model was established. The disease activity index (DAI), colonic length, histological inspection by hematoxylin-eosin staining, the cytokines levels in the colon, proteomics and intestinal flora in mice were investigated to evaluate the effect of CBT. The results showed that CBT can significantly reduce the DAI, increase the length of colon, improve the pathological injury of colon tissue, decrease the level of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and increase the level of IL-10 in UC mice. Gut microbe sequencing showed that CBT could enhance the abundance of the intestinal microbiome, decrease possibly harmful bacteria and promote potentially helpful microbes. Proteomics investigation showed that 20 overlapping differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were discovered in the control, model, and CBT administration groups. The DEPs in the CBT administration group were connected to biological procedures mainly involving detoxification. Extracellular matrix (ECM) receptor-associated proteins such as Col6a1 and CD36 may be important targets for CBT treatment of UC. Overall, this integrated methodology identified a comprehensive multi-omics network, composed of a certain set of gut microbiota and proteins, which may be potential targets for CBT treatment with UC.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Haight PJ, Kistenfeger Q, Riedinger CJ, et al (2023)

The impact of antibiotic and proton pump inhibitor use at the time of adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy on survival in patients with endometrial cancer.

Gynecologic oncology, 178:14-22 pii:S0090-8258(23)01469-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the impact of antibiotic (ABX) and proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) use on progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients treated with adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy (PC) for endometrial cancer (EC).

METHODS: A retrospective, single-institution cohort study of EC patients treated with ≥four cycles of adjuvant PC following surgical staging from 2014 to 2020. Demographics and clinicopathologic features, including ABX and PPI use, were compared using χ[2] and Fisher's exact tests. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed, and survival outcomes were compared using the log-rank test.

RESULTS: Of 325 patients, 95 (29%) received ABX, and 80 (24.6%) received PPI. ABX were associated with decreased 3-year PFS (49.9% vs. 66%; p = 0.0237) but not 3-year OS (68.9% vs. 79.9%; p = 0.0649). ABX targeting gram-positive bacteria were associated with decreased 3-year PFS (21.2% vs. 66.0% vs. 55.4%; p = 0.0038) and 3-year OS (36.5% vs. 79.9% vs. 75.6%; p = 0.0014) compared to no ABX and other ABX, respectively. PPI use was associated with decreased 3-year PFS (46.9% vs. 66.0%; p = 0.0001) and 3-year OS (60.7% vs. 81.9%; p = 0.0041) compared to no PPI. On multivariable regression analysis controlling for confounders including stage, histology, grade, radiation, and co-morbidities, PPI use was independently associated with worse PFS (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.25-3.08; p = 0.0041) and OS (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.01-4.18, p = 0.04).

CONCLUSION: In this retrospective cohort study, we demonstrate that PPI use is independently associated with worse PFS and OS in patients with EC treated with PC. ABX use was associated with worse PFS on univariate analysis only. There is an unmet need to understand how PPI, ABX, and, potentially, the microbiome impact the effectiveness of chemotherapy in EC patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Sagada G, Wang L, Xu B, et al (2023)

Interactive Effect of Dietary Heat-Killed Lactobacillus Plantarum L-137 and Berberine Supplementation on Intestinal Mucosa and Microbiota of Juvenile Black Sea Bream (Acanthopagrus Schlegelii).

Probiotics and antimicrobial proteins [Epub ahead of print].

To compare the synergistic impact of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum and berberine supplementation on intestinal health of juvenile black sea bream, the test fish (5.67 ± 0.05 g) were fed three diets: a basal control diet designated as Con; basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg L. plantarum, labelled LP; and basal diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg L. plantarum + 50 mg/k berberine, labelled LPBB. After 56 days of feeding, the control fish had significantly lower intestinal villus height (VH), villus surface area (VSA), and muscularis mucosae (MS) thickness than the rest of the groups (P < 0.05). The LPBB fish had significantly higher VH than the control fish, and wider MS and VSA than the rest of the groups (P < 0.05). Occludin was significantly upregulated in the LPBB fish, and heat shock protein 90 was upregulated in the control fish (P < 0.05). The abundance of Proteobacteria family was significantly higher in the intestinal microbiome of the control and LP fish, the LPBB fish had higher abundance of Cyanobacteria and Spirochaetes, and the LP group had higher Bacteroidetes abundance (P < 0.05). Potentially beneficial Delftia and Brevinema were the significantly abundant genera in the LP and LPBB fish, respectively; potentially pathogenic Elizabethkingia was abundant in the LP fish; and the control fish had higher abundance of potentially pathogenic Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia (P < 0.05). According to these results, there is possible synergy between L. plantarum and berberine as dietary supplements in fostering healthy intestine for black sea bream than L. plantarum alone.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Anonymous (2023)

Correction to: The microbiome of the sponge Aplysina caissara in two sites with different levels of anthropogenic impact.

FEMS microbiology letters, 370:.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Zanardi KR, Grancieri M, Silva CW, et al (2023)

Functional effects of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and kefir on systemic inflammation, antioxidant activity, and intestinal microbiome in rats with induced colorectal cancer.

Food & function [Epub ahead of print].

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers with high morbidity and mortality. The modulation of intestinal health through the administration of pro- and prebiotics may be a viable alternative to reduce the risk of CRC. This study aimed to evaluate the functional effects of yacon and kefir, isolated or associated, in rats with colorectal cancer. Adult Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 8): HC (healthy control AIN-93M diet), CC (CCR + AIN-93M diet), Y (CCR + AIN-93 M + yacon diet), K (CCR + AIN-93-M + kefir diet) and YK (CCR + AIN-93 M + yacon + kefir diet). Colorectal carcinogenesis was induced in groups CC, Y, K, and YK with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (55 mg kg[-1], subcutaneously) for 5 weeks. From the 6[th] week onwards, the experimental groups were fed the respective diets. In the 15[th] week, urine was collected for analysis of intestinal permeability and then the animals were euthanized. Yacon increased acetate levels, reduced pH and carcinogenic neoplastic lesions, and increased the abundance of bacteria related to the fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrates, such as the genera Dorea, Collinsela, and Bifidobacteria. On the other hand, kefir increased macroscopic neoplastic lesions and increased the abundance of Firmicutes and Clostridium. The association of yacon + kefir increased the number of carcinogenic lesions, despite a reduction in pH and beneficial bacteria prevalence. Thus, it is concluded that yacon, unlikely kefir, is a promising alternative to mitigate the manifestations of induced carcinogenesis in rats.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Acuña AM, MF Olive (2023)

Influence of gut microbiome metabolites on cocaine demand and cocaine-seeking behavior.

Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Bao Y, Ma Y, Liu W, et al (2023)

Innovative strategy for the conservation of a millennial mausoleum from biodeterioration through artificial light management.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):69.

Artificial lights can cause critical microbial biodeterioration of heritage monuments by promoting the outbreak of phototrophic microbiomes when they are used for touristic viewing. Here, with the ultimate aim of providing innovative solutions for the conservation and visiting of such monuments, we conducted a pioneering two-year in situ manipulative experiment to evaluate the impacts of different artificial light wavelengths (i.e., blue, green and red lights compared to white light) on the phototrophic microbiome of a millennial Chinese imperial mausoleum. Our results show that artificial light can shape the ecophysiological features of the phototrophic bacteriome in this monument and reduce its potential for further biodeterioration. In general, Cyanobacteria dominated (42.0% of the total relative abundance) the phototrophic bacteriome of this cultural relic; however, they were also very sensitive to the choice of artificial light. Compared to white light, monochromatic light, especially green light, reduced Cyanobacteria abundances (18.6%) by decreasing photosynthetic pigment abundances (42.9%); decreased the abundances of heterotrophic species belonging to Proteobacteria (4.5%) and the proportion of genes (6.1%) associated with carbon (i.e., carbon fixation), nitrogen (i.e., denitrification), and sulfur (i.e., dissimilatory sulfate reduction) cycling; and further decreased organic acid (10.1-14.1%) production of the phototrophic bacteriome, which is known to be involved in biodeterioration. Taken together, our findings constitute a major advancement in understanding how light wavelengths influence the phototrophic microbiome in cultural relics, and we found that artificial lights with certain wavelengths (e.g., green light) can help long-term conservation while allowing tourism activities.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Kabir MH, Rahman SA, M Kamruzzaman (2023)

General and abdominal obesity and dietary nutrient intake among university students in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study targeting potential risk factors.

Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 57:587-597.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The overall national increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity has emerged among university students in Bangladesh. Though, poor dietary habits and lifestyle is quite common among university students, their dietary nutrient intake level, obesity prevalence and potential risk factors has hitherto given little priority. This study aimed to understand the prevalence and factors associated with general and abdominal obesity and level of dietary nutrient intake among university students in Bangladesh.

METHODS: Data from 320 unselected tertiary level students (81.6% males, 18.4% females; average age 22.7±3.0, BMI 22.4±3.1 and waist-hip ratio (WHR) 0.88 ± 0.1) was collected randomly, in a single visit, from Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh. Basic demographic and anthropometric information were collected. Twenty-four hour (24H) dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary nutrient level retrospectively. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-test, ANOVA, and binomial logistic regression analysis were done.

RESULTS: Around 3% and 42% student were reported to be obese and overweight respectively. Whereas abdominal obesity was prevalent among ∼52% and more than 67% of student were reportedly obese/overweight by either BMI or WHR or WHtR category. Energy and carbohydrate (CHO) intake were reported to be significantly higher (P < 0.05) among overweight who born by C-section delivery and were fed formula milk than those were normal weight and born by vaginal-birth and were breastfed. The overweight individual with a history of preterm birth was reported to intake significantly higher (P < 0.05) carbohydrates compared to normal-weight individuals with a history of term birth. While total fat intake was significantly higher (P < 0.05) among overweight individuals with their mother had gestational diabetes than those with normal weight individuals with mother without gestational diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: General and abdominal obesity is common among university students and possibly associated with mode of birth, gestational duration, gestational diabetes, and breastfeeding practice.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Patel PA, Teherani MF, Xiang Y, et al (2023)

Short-course empiric antibiotics in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant.

Transplantation and cellular therapy pii:S2666-6367(23)01549-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Fever is common in children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Empiric antibiotics (EA) are initiated and often continued until neutrophil engraftment. Prolonged antibiotic exposure reduces microbiome diversity and causes overgrowth of pathogenic organisms, leading to complications such as infections from antibiotic-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile colitis. Shorter courses of EA have been studied in adults undergoing HCT without significant safety concerns but data in children are lacking.

OBJECTIVE: We instituted a single-center pre-/post-intervention quality improvement (QI) project to assess the feasibility of short-course EA for first fever in patients undergoing HCT. We aimed to reduce the median duration of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in eligible patients from 20 days in 2020 to 10 days in 2021.

METHODS: Patients were eligible for the intervention, limiting EA to 7 days for first fever, if admitted for their first allogeneic HCT, afebrile for >24 hours, had no infection requiring systemic treatment, and were hemodynamically stable. Outcome measures included days of EA for first fever and total broad-spectrum antibiotic use during the hospitalization period, defined as the start of the conditioning regimen to 30 days after HCT or hospital discharge, whichever occurred first. Balancing measures included bloodstream infection (BSI), fever, and ICU admission within 3 days of stopping EAT. Project criteria were applied retrospectively to patients transplanted in 2020 to construct a pre-intervention short-course eligible cohort.

RESULTS: During the intervention period, 41 patients underwent allogeneic HCT with 17 (41%) eligible for short-course EA. Among eligible patients, the median age was 5.3 years, 47% had an underlying malignancy, and 88% received myeloablative conditioning. There were no differences in demographics or HCT characteristics between patients eligible for short-course EA during the intervention and pre-intervention period (n=24). Short-course EA was adhered to in 14 of the 17 eligible patients (82%). The duration of EA for first fever and total broad-spectrum antibiotic use significantly decreased in the short-course EA eligible patients compared to the pre-intervention cohort from a median of 17 days to 8 days and 20 days to 10 days respectively (p<0.01). Of the 14 patients adhering to short-course EA, 2 experienced a balancing measure of recurrent fever requiring resumption of EA, but no infection was identified. There were no BSIs, ICU admissions, or deaths during the hospitalization period in patients who underwent short-course EA.

CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center QI project, short-course EA for initial fever was successfully applied to children undergoing allogeneic HCT using strict criteria and led to a significant decrease in broad-spectrum antibiotic use during hospitalization. These results should be validated in a prospective clinical trial to include the impact of short-course EA on antibiotic-resistant organisms, the intestinal microbiome and HCT outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Du L, Gao X, Zhao L, et al (2023)

Assessment of the risk of imidaclothiz to the dominant aphid parasitoid Binodoxys communis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01969-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The neonicotinoid of imidaclothiz insecticide with low resistance and high efficiency, has great potential for application in pest control in specifically cotton field. In this systematically evaluate the effects of sublethal doses of imidaclothiz (LC10: 11.48 mg/L; LC30: 28.03 mg/L) on the biology, transcriptome, and microbiome of Binodoxys communis, the predominant primary parasitic natural enemy of aphids. The findings indicated that imidaclothiz has significant deleterious effects on the survival rate, parasitic rate, and survival time of B. communis. Additionally, there was a marked reduction in the survival rate and survival time of the F1 generation, that is, the negative effect of imidaclothiz on B. communis was continuous and trans-generational. Transcriptome analysis revealed that imidaclothiz treatment elicited alterations in the expression of genes associated with energy and detoxification metabolism. In addition, 16S rRNA analysis revealed a significant increase in the relative abundance of Rhodococcus and Pantoea, which are associated with detoxification metabolism, due to imidaclothiz exposure. These findings provide evidence that B. communis may regulate gene expression in conjunction with symbiotic bacteria to enhance adaptation to imidaclothiz. Finally, this study precise evaluation of imidaclothiz's potential risk to B. communis and provides crucial theoretical support for increasing the assessment of imidaclothiz in integrated pest management.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Gao X, Hu F, Cui H, et al (2023)

Glyphosate decreases survival, increases fecundity, and alters the microbiome of the natural predator Harmonia axyridis (ladybird beetle).

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)01978-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Glyphosate is a widely-used herbicide that shows toxicity to non-target organisms. The predatory natural enemy Harmonia axyridis may ingest glyphosate present in pollen and aphid prey. The present study characterized the responses of adult H. axyridis to environmentally relevant concentrations of glyphosate (5, 10, and 20 mg/L) for one or five days. There were no obvious effects on adult H. axyridis survival rates or fecundity in response to 5 or 10 mg/L glyphosate. However, exposure to 20 mg/L glyphosate significantly reduced the survival rate and increased fecundity. Analysis of the adult H. axyridis microbiota with 16S rRNA sequencing demonstrated changes in the relative and/or total abundance of specific taxa, including Serratia, Enterobacter, Staphylococcus, and Hafnia-Obesumbacterium. These changes in symbiotic bacterial abundance may have led to changes in survival rates or fecundity of this beetle. This is the first report of herbicide-induced stimulation of fecundity in a non-target predatory natural enemy, reflecting potentially unexpected risks of glyphosate exposure in adult H. axyridis. Although glyphosate resistant crops have been widely planted, the results of this study indicate a need to strengthen glyphosate management to prevent over-use, which could cause glyphosate toxicity and threaten environmental and human health.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Prajapati SK, Shah R, Alford N, et al (2023)

The Triple Alliance: Microbiome, Mitochondria, and Metabolites in the Context of Age-Related Cognitive Decline and Alzheimer's Disease.

The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences pii:7280345 [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, age-related neurodegenerative disorder that affects a large proportion of the elderly population. It currently lacks effective treatments, placing a heavy burden on patients, families, healthcare systems, and society. This is mainly due to our limited comprehension of the pathophysiology of AD progression, as well as the lack of effective drug targets and intervention timing to address the underlying pathology. AD is a multifactorial condition, and emerging evidence suggests that abnormalities in the gut microbiota play a significant role as environmental and multifaceted contributors to AD, although the exact mechanisms are yet to be fully explored. Changes in the composition of microbiota influence host neuronal health through their metabolites. These metabolites regulate intestinal epithelia, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and neuroinflammation by impacting mitochondrial function. The decline in the proportion of beneficial microbes and their essential metabolites during aging and AD is directly linked to poor mitochondrial function, although the specific mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we discuss recent developments in understanding the impact of the microbiome and its metabolites on various cell types, their influence on the integrity of the gut and BBB barriers, systemic and brain inflammation, and cell-specific effects in AD pathology. This information is expected to pave the way for a new understanding of the interactions between microbiota and mitochondria in AD, providing a foundation for the development of novel treatments for AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Cho H, Qu Y, Liu C, et al (2023)

Comprehensive evaluation of methods for differential expression analysis of metatranscriptomics data.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(5):.

Understanding the function of the human microbiome is important but the development of statistical methods specifically for the microbial gene expression (i.e. metatranscriptomics) is in its infancy. Many currently employed differential expression analysis methods have been designed for different data types and have not been evaluated in metatranscriptomics settings. To address this gap, we undertook a comprehensive evaluation and benchmarking of 10 differential analysis methods for metatranscriptomics data. We used a combination of real and simulated data to evaluate performance (i.e. type I error, false discovery rate and sensitivity) of the following methods: log-normal (LN), logistic-beta (LB), MAST, DESeq2, metagenomeSeq, ANCOM-BC, LEfSe, ALDEx2, Kruskal-Wallis and two-part Kruskal-Wallis. The simulation was informed by supragingival biofilm microbiome data from 300 preschool-age children enrolled in a study of childhood dental disease (early childhood caries, ECC), whereas validations were sought in two additional datasets from the ECC study and an inflammatory bowel disease study. The LB test showed the highest sensitivity in both small and large samples and reasonably controlled type I error. Contrarily, MAST was hampered by inflated type I error. Upon application of the LN and LB tests in the ECC study, we found that genes C8PHV7 and C8PEV7, harbored by the lactate-producing Campylobacter gracilis, had the strongest association with childhood dental disease. This comprehensive model evaluation offers practical guidance for selection of appropriate methods for rigorous analyses of differential expression in metatranscriptomics. Selection of an optimal method increases the possibility of detecting true signals while minimizing the chance of claiming false ones.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Gerke J, Köhler AM, Wennrich JP, et al (2021)

Biosynthesis of Antibacterial Iron-Chelating Tropolones in Aspergillus nidulans as Response to Glycopeptide-Producing Streptomycetes.

Frontiers in fungal biology, 2:777474.

The soil microbiome comprises numerous filamentous fungi and bacteria that mutually react and challenge each other by the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Herein, we show in liquid co-cultures that the presence of filamentous Streptomycetes producing antifungal glycopeptide antibiotics induces the production of the antibacterial and iron-chelating tropolones anhydrosepedonin (1) and antibiotic C (2) in the mold Aspergillus nidulans. Additionally, the biosynthesis of the related polyketide tripyrnidone (5) was induced, whose novel tricyclic scaffold we elucidated by NMR and HRESIMS data. The corresponding biosynthetic polyketide synthase-encoding gene cluster responsible for the production of these compounds was identified. The tropolones as well as tripyrnidone (5) are produced by genes that belong to the broad reservoir of the fungal genome for the synthesis of different secondary metabolites, which are usually silenced under standard laboratory conditions. These molecules might be part of the bacterium-fungus competition in the complex soil environment, with the bacterial glycopeptide antibiotic as specific environmental trigger for fungal induction of this cluster.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Price JT, McLachlan RH, Jury CP, et al (2023)

Long-term coral microbial community acclimatization is associated with coral survival in a changing climate.

PloS one, 18(9):e0291503.

The plasticity of some coral-associated microbial communities under stressors like warming and ocean acidification suggests the microbiome has a role in the acclimatization of corals to future ocean conditions. Here, we evaluated the acclimatization potential of coral-associated microbial communities of four Hawaiian coral species (Porites compressa, Porites lobata, Montipora capitata, and Pocillopora acuta) over 22-month mesocosm experiment. The corals were exposed to one of four treatments: control, ocean acidification, ocean warming, or combined future ocean conditions. Over the 22-month study, 33-67% of corals died or experienced a loss of most live tissue coverage in the ocean warming and future ocean treatments while only 0-10% died in the ocean acidification and control. Among the survivors, coral-associated microbial communities responded to the chronic future ocean treatment in one of two ways: (1) microbial communities differed between the control and future ocean treatment, suggesting the potential capacity for acclimatization, or (2) microbial communities did not significantly differ between the control and future ocean treatment. The first strategy was observed in both Porites species and was associated with higher survivorship compared to M. capitata and P. acuta which exhibited the second strategy. Interestingly, the microbial community responses to chronic stressors were independent of coral physiology. These findings indicate acclimatization of microbial communities may confer resilience in some species of corals to chronic warming associated with climate change. However, M. capitata genets that survived the future ocean treatment hosted significantly different microbial communities from those that died, suggesting the microbial communities of the survivors conferred some resilience. Thus, even among coral species with inflexible microbial communities, some individuals may already be tolerant to future ocean conditions. These findings suggest that coral-associated microbial communities could play an important role in the persistence of some corals and underlie climate change-driven shifts in coral community composition.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Suarez Arbelaez MC, Monshine J, Porto JG, et al (2023)

The emerging role of the urinary microbiome in benign noninfectious urological conditions: an up-to-date systematic review.

World journal of urology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: The goal of this systematic review was to examine the current literature on the urinary microbiome and its associations with noninfectious, nonmalignant, urologic diseases. Secondarily, we aimed to describe the most common bioinformatics used to analyze the urinary microbiome.

METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of Ovid MEDLINE using the keywords "microbiota" AND "prostatic hyperplasia," "microbiota" AND "urinary bladder, overactive," "microbiota" AND "pelvic pain," and "microbiota" AND "urolithiasis" OR "nephrolithiasis" OR "urinary calculi" AND "calcium oxalate" was performed to identify relevant clinical microbiome studies associated with noninfectious benign urological conditions published from 2010 to 2022. We included human studies that evaluated the urinary, stone, or semen microbiota, or any combination of the above-mentioned locations.

RESULTS: A total of 25 human studies met the inclusion criteria: 4 on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 9 on overactive bladder (OAB), 8 on calcium oxalate stones, and 4 on chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS). Specific taxonomic profiles in the urine microbiome were associated with each pathology, and evaluation of alpha- and beta-diversity and relative abundance was accounted for most of the studies. Symptom prevalence and severity were also analyzed and showed associations with specific microbes.

CONCLUSION: The study of the urogenital microbiome is rapidly expanding in urology. Noninfectious benign urogenital diseases, such as BPH, calcium oxalate stones, CPPS, and OAB were found to be associated with specific microbial taxonomies. Further research with larger study populations is necessary to solidify the knowledge of the urine microbiome in these conditions and to facilitate the creation of microbiome-based diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Ahmad AF, Caparrós-Martin JA, Gray N, et al (2023)

Insights into the associations between the gut microbiome, its metabolites and heart failure.

American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Heart failure (HF) is the end stage of most cardiovascular diseases and remains a significant health problem globally. We aimed to assess whether patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45% had alterations in both the gut microbiome profile and production of associated metabolites when compared to a healthy cohort. We also examined the associated inflammatory, metabolomic, and lipidomic profiles of HF patients. This single centre, observational study, recruited 73 HF patients and 59 healthy volunteers. Blood and stool samples were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up, along with anthropometric and clinical data. Compared to healthy controls, HF patients had reduced gut bacterial alpha diversity at follow-up (p =0.004) but not at baseline. The stool microbiota of HF patients was characterized by a depletion of operational taxonomic units representing commensal Clostridia at both baseline and follow-up. HF patients also had significantly elevated baseline plasma acetate (p =0.007), plasma TMAO (p =0.003), serum sCD14 (p =0.005) and sCD163 (p =0.004) levels compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, HF patients had a distinct metabolomic and lipidomic profile at baseline when compared to healthy controls. Differences in the composition of the gut microbiome and the levels of associated metabolites were observed in patients with HF when compared to a healthy cohort. This was also associated with an altered metabolomic and lipidomic profile. Our study identifies microorganisms and metabolites that could represent new therapeutic targets and diagnostic tools in the pathogenesis of HF.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Fanfan D, Mulligan CJ, Groer M, et al (2023)

The intersection of social determinants of health, the microbiome, and health outcomes in immigrants: A scoping review.

American journal of biological anthropology [Epub ahead of print].

In the present scoping review, we explore whether existing evidence supports the premise that social determinants of health (SDoH) affect immigrant health outcomes through their effects on the microbiome. We adapt the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities' research framework to propose a conceptual model that considers the intersection of SDoH, the microbiome, and health outcomes in immigrants. We use this conceptual model as a lens through which to explore recent research about SDoH, biological factors associated with changes to immigrants' microbiomes, and long-term health outcomes. In the 17 articles reviewed, dietary acculturation, physical activity, ethnicity, birthplace, age at migration and length of time in the host country, socioeconomic status, and social/linguistic acculturation were important determinants of postmigration microbiome-related transformations. These factors are associated with progressive shifts in microbiome profile with time in host country, increasing the risks for cardiometabolic, mental, immune, and inflammatory disorders and antibiotic resistance. The evidence thus supports the premise that SDoH influence immigrants' health postmigration, at least in part, through their effects on the microbiome. Omission of important postmigration social-ecological variables (e.g., stress, racism, social/family relationships, and environment), limited research among minoritized subgroups of immigrants, complexity and inter- and intra-individual differences in the microbiome, and limited interdisciplinary and biosocial collaboration restrict our understanding of this area of study. To identify potential microbiome-based interventions and promote immigrants' well-being, more research is necessary to understand the intersections of immigrant health with factors from the biological, behavioral/psychosocial, physical/built environment, and sociocultural environment domains at all social-ecological levels.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

London LY, Lim CH, Modliszewski JL, et al (2023)

Draft genomes of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Klebsiella pneumoniae coexisting within a female urinary bladder.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we present the draft genome sequences of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Klebsiella pneumoniae, both isolated from the urinary bladder of an asymptomatic post-menopausal female patient with a diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections. These genomes will facilitate analyses of interbacterial interactions in the urinary microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Effandie E, GL Gupte (2023)

Chronic Liver Disease - What's New?.

Indian journal of pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic liver disease (CLD) is a persistent public health burden, with over one billion cases reported worldwide. In most cases, the progression of CLD is slow and undulating with end-stage liver disease developing at variable time points depending on the underlying etiology of the disease. The concept of reversibility or halting progression to end stage liver disease is recent and various medications are in the pipeline which influence the progression of CLD. Non-invasive tests for monitoring of CLD may have the potential to avoid the morbidity and mortality related to invasive procedures. However, their applicability and validation in pediatrics requires further development and a coordinated effort by large pediatric liver centres. Recent advances in metabolomics and modern molecular technologies have led to an understanding of the interaction between gut microbiome liver axis and gut dysbiosis contributing to liver diseases. In the future, modifying the gut microbiome has the potential to change the outcome and significantly reduce the morbidity associated with CLD. This article focuses on newer modalities and concepts in the management of CLD, which may help develop strategies to prevent its progression to end-stage liver disease and associated morbidity/mortality.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Kalayci FNC, S Ozen (2023)

Possible Role of Dysbiosis of the Gut Microbiome in SLE.

Current rheumatology reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The resident gut microbiota serves as a double-edged sword that aids the host in multiple ways to preserve a healthy equilibrium and serve as early companions and boosters for the gradual evolution of our immune defensive layers; nevertheless, the perturbation of the symbiotic resident intestinal communities has a profound impact on autoimmunity induction, particularly in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we seek to critically evaluate the microbiome research in SLE with a focus on intestinal dysbiosis.

RECENT FINDINGS: SLE is a complex and heterogeneous disorder with self-attack due to loss of tolerance, and there is aberrant excessive immune system activation. There is mounting evidence suggesting that intestinal flora disturbances may accelerate the formation and progression of SLE, presumably through a variety of mechanisms, including intestinal barrier dysfunction and leaky gut, molecular mimicry, bystander activation, epitope spreading, gender bias, and biofilms. Gut microbiome plays a critical role in SLE pathogenesis, and additional studies are warranted to properly define the impact of gut microbiome in SLE, which can eventually lead to new and potentially safer management approaches for this debilitating disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Luan M, Niu M, Yang P, et al (2023)

Metagenomic sequencing reveals altered gut microbial compositions and gene functions in patients with non-segmental vitiligo.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):265.

BACKGROUND: Vitiligo has been correlated with an abnormal gut microbiota. We aimed to systematically identify characteristics of the gut microbial compositions, genetic functions, and potential metabolic features in patients with non-segmental vitiligo.

METHODS: Twenty-five patients with non-segmental vitiligo and 25 matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were performed to determine the gut microbiota profiles. Differences in gut microbiota diversity and composition between patients with vitiligo and HCs were analyzed. Gene functions and gut metabolic modules were predicted with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) and MetaCyc databases.

RESULTS: Compared with HCs, alpha diversity of intestinal microbiome in vitiligo patients was significantly reduced. At the species level, the relative abundance of Staphylococcus thermophiles was decreased, and that of Bacteroides fragilis was increased in patients with vitiligo compared with those of the HCs. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) analysis revealed representative microbial markers of Lachnospiraceae_bacterium_BX3, Massilioclostridium_coli, TM7_phylum_sp_oral_taxon_348 and Bacteroides_fragilis for patients with vitiligo. KEGG gene function analysis showed that the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway was significantly enriched in patients with vitiligo. Gut metabolic modules (GMMs) analysis showed that cysteine degradation was significantly down-regulated, and galactose degradation was up-regulated in patients with vitiligo. A panel of 28 microbial features was constructed to distinguish patients with vitiligo from HCs.

CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbial profiles and genetic functions of patients with vitiligo were distinct from those of the HCs. The identified gut microbial markers may potentially be used for earlier diagnosis and treatment targets.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Lasagna A, Mascaro F, Figini S, et al (2023)

Impact of proton pump inhibitors on the onset of gastrointestinal immune-related adverse events during immunotherapy.

Cancer medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiota (GM) can influence the pathogenesis of immune-mediated adverse events (irAEs). Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) can affect the integrity of GM, but their role in promoting irAEs is still poorly understood.

METHODS: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, the primary endpoint was the evaluation of the incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) irAEs in cancer patients on PPIs (exposed) versus cancer patients who were not on PPIs (unexposed).

RESULTS: Three hundred and sixty three patients' records (248 M/115F, median age 69) were reviewed. Twenty-three exposed patients (92%) developed GI irAEs while only two unexposed patients (8%) developed GI irAEs (hazard ratio [HR] 13.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11-56.10, p < 0.000). This HR was confirmed after weighting for the propensity score (HR15.13 95% CI 3.22-71.03, p < 0.000).

CONCLUSION: Chronic PPI use is associated with an increased risk of GI irAES.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Moreno Jiménez E, Ferrol N, Corradi N, et al (2023)

The potential of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to enhance metallic micronutrient uptake and mitigate food contamination in agriculture: prospects and challenges.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Optimizing agroecosystems and crops for micronutrient uptake while reducing issues with inorganic contaminants (metal(loid)s) is a challenging task. One promising approach is to use arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and investigate the physiological, molecular and epigenetic changes that occur in their presence and that lead to changes in plant metal(loid) concentration (biofortification of micronutrients or mitigation of contaminants). Moreover, it is important to understand these mechanisms in the context of the soil microbiome, particularly those interactions of AMF with other soil microbes that can further shape crop nutrition. To address these challenges, a two-pronged approach is recommended: exploring molecular mechanisms and investigating microbiome management and engineering. Combining both approaches can lead to benefits in human health by balancing nutrition and contamination caused by metal(loid)s in the agro-ecosystem.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Revillini D, David AS, Reyes AL, et al (2023)

Allelopathy-selected microbiomes mitigate chemical inhibition of plant performance.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Allelopathy is a common and important stressor that shapes plant communities and can alter soil microbiomes, yet little is known about the direct effects of allelochemical addition on bacterial and fungal communities or the potential for allelochemical-selected microbiomes to mediate plant performance responses, especially in habitats naturally structured by allelopathy. Here, we present the first community-wide investigation of microbial mediation of allelochemical effects on plant performance by testing how allelopathy affects soil microbiome structure and how these microbial changes impact germination and productivity across 13 plant species. The soil microbiome exhibited significant changes to 'core' bacterial and fungal taxa, bacterial composition, abundance of functionally important bacterial and fungal taxa, and predicted bacterial functional genes after the addition of the dominant allelochemical native to this habitat. Furthermore, plant performance was mediated by the allelochemical-selected microbiome, with allelopathic inhibition of plant productivity moderately mitigated by the microbiome. Through our findings, we present a potential framework to understand the strength of plant-microbial interactions in the presence of environmental stressors, in which frequency of the ecological stress may be a key predictor of microbiome-mediation strength.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Bernadus JBB, Pelealu J, Kandou GD, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Insight into the Microbiome and Virome Associated with Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Manado (North Sulawesi, Indonesia).

Infectious disease reports, 15(5):549-563.

The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity encompassing bacteria, fungi, and viruses within the composite microbial community associated with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Manado, Indonesia, using a whole-genome shotgun metagenomics approach. Female mosquitoes were collected and grouped into pools of 50 individuals, from which genomic DNA (gDNA) and RNA were extracted separately. Whole-genome shotgun metagenomics were performed on gDNA samples. The bioinformatics analysis encompassed quality assessment, taxonomic classification, and visualization. The evaluation of the microbial community entailed an assessment of taxa abundance and diversity using Kraken version 2.1.2. The study delineated the prevalence of dominant bacterial phyla, including Proteobacteria, with varying abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteria, and notable occurrence of Tenericutes. Furthermore, the presence of the fungal phylum Ascomycota was also detected. Among the identified barcodes, Barcode04 emerged as the most abundant and diverse, while Barcode06 exhibited greater evenness. Barcode03, 05, and 07 displayed moderate richness and diversity. Through an analysis of the relative abundance, a spectrum of viruses within Ae. aegypti populations was unveiled, with Negarnaviricota constituting the most prevalent phylum, followed by Nucleocytoviricota, Uroviricota, Artverviricota, Kitrinoviricota, Peploviricota, Phixviricota, and Cossaviricota. The presence of Negarnaviricota viruses raises pertinent public health concerns. The presence of other viral phyla underscores the intricate nature of virus-mosquito interactions. The analysis of viral diversity provides valuable insights into the range of viruses carried by Ae. aegypti. The community exhibits low biodiversity, with a few dominant species significantly influencing its composition. This has implications for healthcare and ecological management, potentially simplifying control measures but also posing risks if the dominant species are harmful. This study enriches our comprehension of the microbiome and virome associated with Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, emphasizing the importance of further research to fully comprehend their ecological significance and impact on public health. The findings shed light on the microbial ecology of Ae. aegypti, offering potential insights into mosquito biology, disease transmission, and strategies for vector control. Future studies should endeavor to establish specific associations with Ae. aegypti, elucidate the functional roles of the identified microbial and viral species, and investigate their ecological implications.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Nie S, Y Ge (2023)

The link between the gut microbiome, inflammation, and Parkinson's disease.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

As our society ages, the growing number of people with Parkinson's disease (PD) puts tremendous pressure on our society. Currently, there is no effective treatment for PD, so there is an urgent need to find new treatment options. In recent years, increasing studies have shown a strong link between gut microbes and PD. In this review, recent advances in research on gut microbes in PD patients were summarized. Increased potential pro-inflammatory microbes and decreased potential anti-inflammatory microbes are prominent features of gut microbiota in PD patients. These changes may lead to an increase in pro-inflammatory substances (such as lipopolysaccharide and H2S) and a decrease in anti-inflammatory substances (such as short-chain fatty acids) to promote inflammation in the gut. This gut microbiota-mediated inflammation will lead to pathological α-synuclein accumulation in the gut, and the inflammation and α-synuclein can spread to the brain via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, thereby promoting neuroinflammation, apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons, and ultimately the development of PD. This review also showed that therapies based on gut microbiota may have a bright future for PD. However, more research and new approaches are still needed to clarify the causal relationship between gut microbes and PD and to determine whether therapies based on gut microbiota are effective in PD patients. KEY POINTS: • There is a strong association between gut microbes and PD. • Inflammation mediated by gut microbes may promote the development of PD. • Therapies based on the gut microbiome provide a promising strategy for PD prevention.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Wu L, Weston LA, Zhu S, et al (2023)

Editorial: Rhizosphere interactions: root exudates and the rhizosphere microbiome.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1281010.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Kim SH, SH Lee (2023)

Updates on ankylosing spondylitis: pathogenesis and therapeutic agents.

Journal of rheumatic diseases, 30(4):220-233.

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoinflammatory disease that manifests with the unique feature of enthesitis. Gut microbiota, HLA-B*27, and biomechanical stress mutually influence and interact resulting in setting off a flame of inflammation. In the HLA-B*27 positive group, dysbiosis in the gut environment disrupts the barrier to exogenous bacteria or viruses. Additionally, biomechanical stress induces inflammation through enthesial resident or gut-origin immune cells. On this basis, innate and adaptive immunity can propagate inflammation and lead to chronic disease. Finally, bone homeostasis is regulated by cytokines, by which the inflamed region is substituted into new bone. Agents that block cytokines are constantly being developed to provide diverse therapeutic options for preventing the progression of inflammation. In addition, some antibodies have been shown to distinguish disease selectively, which support the involvement of autoimmune immunity in AS. In this review, we critically analyze the complexity and uniqueness of the pathogenesis with updates on the findings of immunity and provide new information about biologics and biomarkers.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Dweh TJ, Pattnaik S, JP Sahoo (2023)

Assessing the impact of meta-genomic tools on current cutting-edge genome engineering and technology.

International journal of biochemistry and molecular biology, 14(4):62-75.

Metagenomics is defined as the study of the genome of the total microbiota found in nature and is often referred to as microbial environmental genomics because it entails the examination of a group of genetic components (genomes) from a diverse community of organisms in a particular setting. It is a sub-branch of omics technology that encompasses Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA), Ribonucleic acid (DNA), proteins, and various components associated with comprehensive analysis of all aspects of biological molecules in a system-wide manner. Clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats and its endonuclease, CRISPR-associated protein which forms a complex called CRISPR-cas9 technology, though it is a different technique used to make precise changes to the genome of an organism, it can be used in conjunction with metagenomic approaches to give a better, rapid, and more accurate description of genomes and sequence reads. There have been ongoing improvements in sequencing that have deepened our understanding of microbial genomes forever. From the time when only a small amount of gene could be sequenced using traditional methods (e.g., "the plus and minus" method developed by Allan and Sanger and the "chemical cleavage" method that is known for its use in the sequencing the phiX174 bacteriophage genome via radio-labeled DNA polymerase-primer in a polymerization reaction aided by polyacrylamide gel) to the era of total genomes sequencing which includes "sequencing-by-ligation" and the "sequencing-by-synthesis" that detects hydrogen ions when new DNA is synthesized (Second Generation) and then Next Generation Sequencing technologies (NGS). With these technologies, the Human Genome Project (HGP) was made possible. The study looks at recent advancements in metagenomics in plants and animals by examining findings from randomly selected research papers. All selected case studies examined the functional and taxonomical analysis of different microbial communities using high-throughput sequencing to generate different sequence reads. In animals, five studies indicated how Zebrafish, Livestock, Poultry, cattle, niches, and the human microbiome were exploited using environmental samples, such as soil and water, to identify microbial communities and their functions. It has also been used to study the microbiome of humans and other organisms, including gut microbiomes. Recent studies demonstrated how these technologies have allowed for faster and more accurate identification of pathogens, leading to improved disease diagnostics. They have also enabled the development of personalized medicine by allowing for the identification of genetic variations that can impact drug efficacy and toxicity. Continued advancements in sequencing techniques and the refinement of CRISPR-Cas9 tools offer even greater potential for transformative breakthroughs in scientific research and applications. On the other hand, metagenomic data are always large and uneasy to handle. The complexity of taxonomical profiling, functional annotation, and mechanisms of complex interaction still needs better bioinformatics tools. Current review focuses on better (e.g., AI-driven algorithms) tools that can predict metabolic pathways and interactions, and manipulate complex data to address potential bias for accurate interpretation.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Hammond TC, Green SJ, Jacobs Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome association with brain imaging markers, APOE genotype, calcium and vegetable intakes, and obesity in healthy aging adults.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 15:1227203.

INTRODUCTION: Advanced age is a significant factor in changes to brain physiology and cognitive functions. Recent research has highlighted the critical role of the gut microbiome in modulating brain functions during aging, which can be influenced by various factors such as apolipoprotein E (APOE) genetic variance, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, and dietary intake. However, the associations between the gut microbiome and these factors, as well as brain structural, vascular, and metabolic imaging markers, have not been well explored.

METHODS: We recruited 30 community dwelling older adults between age 55-85 in Kentucky. We collected the medical history from the electronic health record as well as the Dietary Screener Questionnaire. We performed APOE genotyping with an oral swab, gut microbiome analysis using metagenomics sequencing, and brain structural, vascular, and metabolic imaging using MRI.

RESULTS: Individuals with APOE e2 and APOE e4 genotypes had distinct microbiota composition, and higher level of pro-inflammatory microbiota were associated higher BMI and diabetes. In contrast, calcium- and vegetable-rich diets were associated with microbiota that produced short chain fatty acids leading to an anti-inflammatory state. We also found that important gut microbial butyrate producers were correlated with the volume of the thalamus and corpus callosum, which are regions of the brain responsible for relaying and processing information. Additionally, putative proinflammatory species were negatively correlated with GABA production, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Furthermore, we observed that the relative abundance of bacteria from the family Eggerthellaceae, equol producers, was correlated with white matter integrity in tracts connecting the brain regions related to language, memory, and learning.

DISCUSSION: These findings highlight the importance of gut microbiome association with brain health in aging population and could have important implications aimed at optimizing healthy brain aging through precision prebiotic, probiotic or dietary interventions.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Schaft N, Dörrie J, Schuler G, et al (2023)

The future of affordable cancer immunotherapy.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1248867.

The treatment of cancer was revolutionized within the last two decades by utilizing the mechanism of the immune system against malignant tissue in so-called cancer immunotherapy. Two main developments boosted cancer immunotherapy: 1) the use of checkpoint inhibitors, which are characterized by a relatively high response rate mainly in solid tumors; however, at the cost of serious side effects, and 2) the use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells, which were shown to be very efficient in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, but failed to show high clinical effectiveness in solid tumors until now. In addition, active immunization against individual tumors is emerging, and the first products have reached clinical approval. These new treatment options are very cost-intensive and are not financially compensated by health insurance in many countries. Hence, strategies must be developed to make cancer immunotherapy affordable and to improve the cost-benefit ratio. In this review, we discuss the following strategies: 1) to leverage the antigenicity of "cold tumors" with affordable reagents, 2) to use microbiome-based products as markers or therapeutics, 3) to apply measures that make adoptive cell therapy (ACT) cheaper, e.g., the use of off-the-shelf products, 4) to use immunotherapies that offer cheaper platforms, such as RNA- or peptide-based vaccines and vaccines that use shared or common antigens instead of highly personal antigens, 5) to use a small set of predictive biomarkers instead of the "sequence everything" approach, and 6) to explore affordable immunohistochemistry markers that may direct individual therapies.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Farooq MZ, Wang X, X Yan (2023)

Effects of Aeriscardovia aeriphila on growth performance, antioxidant functions, immune responses, and gut microbiota in broiler chickens.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B [Epub ahead of print].

Aeriscardovia aeriphila, also known as Bifidobacterium aerophilum, was first isolated from the caecal contents of pigs and the faeces of cotton-top tamarin. Bifidobacterium species play important roles in preventing intestinal infections, decreasing cholesterol levels, and stimulating the immune system. In this study, we isolated a strain of bacteria from the duodenal contents of broiler chickens, which was identified as A. aeriphila, and then evaluated the effects of A. aeriphila on growth performance, antioxidant functions, immune functions, and gut microbiota in commercial broiler chickens. Chickens were orally gavaged with A. aeriphila (1×10[9] CFU/mL) for 21 d. The results showed that A. aeriphila treatment significantly increased the average daily gain and reduced the feed conversion ratio (P<0.001). The levels of serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) were significantly increased following A. aeriphila treatment (P<0.05). Blood urea nitrogen and aspartate aminotransferase levels were decreased, whereas glucose and creatinine levels increased as a result of A. aeriphila treatment. Furthermore, the levels of serum antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (P<0.01), superoxide dismutase (P<0.001), and glutathione peroxidase (P<0.05), and total antioxidant capacity (P<0.05) were enhanced following A. aeriphila treatment. A. aeriphila treatment significantly increased the levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) (P<0.05), IgG (P<0.01), IgM (P<0.05), interleukin-1 (IL-1) (P<0.05), IL-4 (P<0.05), and IL-10 (P<0.05). The broiler chickens in the A. aeriphila group had higher secretory IgA (SIgA) levels in the duodenum (P<0.01), jejunum (P<0.001), and cecum (P<0.001) than those in the control group. The messenger RNA (mRNA) relative expression levels of IL-10 (P<0.05) and IL-4 (P<0.001) in the intestinal mucosa of chickens were increased, while nuclear factor-‍κB (NF‍-‍κB) (P<0.001) expression was decreased in the A. aeriphila group compared to the control group. Phylum-level analysis revealed Firmicutes as the main phylum, followed by Bacteroidetes, in both groups. The data also found that Phascolarctobacterium and Barnesiella were increased in A. aeriphila-treated group. In conclusion, oral administration of A. aeriphila could improve the growth performance, serum antioxidant capacity, immune modulation, and gut health of broilers. Our findings may provide important information for the application of A. aeriphila in poultry production.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Newman NK, Zhang Y, Padiadpu J, et al (2023)

Reducing gut microbiome-driven adipose tissue inflammation alleviates metabolic syndrome.

Microbiome, 11(1):208.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota contributes to macrophage-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue with consumption of an obesogenic diet, thus driving the development of metabolic syndrome. There is a need to identify and develop interventions that abrogate this condition. The hops-derived prenylated flavonoid xanthohumol (XN) and its semi-synthetic derivative tetrahydroxanthohumol (TXN) attenuate high-fat diet-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and metabolic syndrome in C57Bl/6J mice. This coincides with a decrease in pro-inflammatory gene expression in the gut and adipose tissue, together with alterations in the gut microbiota and bile acid composition.

RESULTS: In this study, we integrated and interrogated multi-omics data from different organs with fecal 16S rRNA sequences and systemic metabolic phenotypic data using a Transkingdom Network Analysis. By incorporating cell type information from single-cell RNA-seq data, we discovered TXN attenuates macrophage inflammatory processes in adipose tissue. TXN treatment also reduced levels of inflammation-inducing microbes, such as Oscillibacter valericigenes, that lead to adverse metabolic phenotypes. Furthermore, in vitro validation in macrophage cell lines and in vivo mouse supplementation showed addition of O. valericigenes supernatant induced the expression of metabolic macrophage signature genes that are downregulated by TXN in vivo.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings establish an important mechanism by which TXN mitigates adverse phenotypic outcomes of diet-induced obesity and metabolic syndrome. TXN primarily reduces the abundance of pro-inflammatory gut microbes that can otherwise promote macrophage-associated inflammation in white adipose tissue. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Castonguay-Paradis S, Perron J, Flamand N, et al (2023)

Dietary food patterns as determinants of the gut microbiome-endocannabinoidome axis in humans.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15702.

The gut microbiota and the endocannabinoidome (eCBome) play important roles in regulating energy homeostasis, and both are closely linked to dietary habits. However, the complex and compositional nature of these variables has limited our understanding of their interrelationship. This study aims to decipher the interrelation between dietary intake and the gut microbiome-eCBome axis using two different approaches for measuring dietary intake: one based on whole food and the other on macronutrient intakes. We reveal that food patterns, rather than macronutrient intakes, were associated with the gut microbiome-eCBome axis in a sample of healthy men and women (n = 195). N-acyl-ethanolamines (NAEs) and gut microbial families were correlated with intakes of vegetables, refined grains, olive oil and meats independently of adiposity and energy intakes. Specifically, higher intakes in vegetables and olive oil were associated with increased relative abundance of Clostridiaceae, Veillonellaceae and Peptostreptococaceae, decreased relative abundance of Acidominococaceae, higher circulating levels of NAEs, and higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels. Our findings highlight the relative importance of food patterns in determining the gut microbiome-eCBome axis. They emphasize the importance of recognizing the contribution of dietary habits in these systems to develop personalized dietary interventions for preventing and treating metabolic disorders through this axis.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Schnell LJ, Khan F, Hart M, et al (2023)

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification identifies nematode Leidynema in the hindgut of non-pest cockroach.

BMC research notes, 16(1):227.

Cockroach microbiome studies generally focus on pest cockroach species belonging to the Blattidae and Ectobiidae families. There are no reports characterizing the gut microbiome of non-pest cockroach species Blaberus discoidalis (family Blaberidae), which is commonly used as a food source for insectivorous animals. We discovered the parasitic nematode Leidynema appendiculata in the B. discoidalis hindgut during initial work characterizing the gut microbiome of this organism. To determine the proportion of the B. discoidalis colony that was colonized by L. appendiculata, 28 S rDNA was amplified using two Methods: endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). B. discoidalis colonies were raised on three diet types (control, high fibre, and high fat and salt) for 21 days before dissection. Each individual was sexed during dissection to identify potential sex-based effects of colonization. Data collected were analysed to determine if diet and sex impacted parasite colonization patterns. LAMP detected a higher proportion of parasite positive samples when compared to endpoint PCR. No sex- or diet-based differences in L. appendiculata colonization were found. This study adds to the limited existing knowledge of the B. discoidalis gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Pinnow N, Chibani CM, Güllert S, et al (2023)

Microbial community changes correlate with impaired host fitness of Aurelia aurita after environmental challenge.

Animal microbiome, 5(1):45.

Climate change globally endangers certain marine species, but at the same time, such changes may promote species that can tolerate and adapt to varying environmental conditions. Such acclimatization can be accompanied or possibly even be enabled by a host's microbiome; however, few studies have so far directly addressed this process. Here we show that acute, individual rises in seawater temperature and salinity to sub-lethal levels diminished host fitness of the benthic Aurelia aurita polyp, demonstrated by up to 34% reduced survival rate, shrinking of the animals, and almost halted asexual reproduction. Changes in the fitness of the polyps to environmental stressors coincided with microbiome changes, mainly within the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota. The absence of bacteria amplified these effects, pointing to the benefit of a balanced microbiota to cope with a changing environment. In a future ocean scenario, mimicked by a combined but milder rise of temperature and salinity, the fitness of polyps was severely less impaired, together with condition-specific changes in the microbiome composition. Our results show that the effects on host fitness correlate with the strength of environmental stress, while salt-conveyed thermotolerance might be involved. Further, a specific, balanced microbiome of A. aurita polyps supports the host's acclimatization. Microbiomes may provide a means for acclimatization, and microbiome flexibility can be a fundamental strategy for marine animals to adapt to future ocean scenarios and maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functioning.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Malukiewicz J, D'arc M, Dias CA, et al (2023)

Bifidobacteria define gut microbiome profiles of golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) and marmoset (Callithrix sp.) metagenomic shotgun pools.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15679.

Gut microbiome disruptions may lead to adverse effects on wildlife fitness and viability, thus maintaining host microbiota biodiversity needs to become an integral part of wildlife conservation. The highly-endangered callitrichid golden lion tamarin (GLT-Leontopithecus rosalia) is a rare conservation success, but allochthonous callitrichid marmosets (Callithrix) serve as principle ecological GLT threats. However, incorporation of microbiome approaches to GLT conservation is impeded by limited gut microbiome studies of Brazilian primates. Here, we carried out analysis of gut metagenomic pools from 114 individuals of wild and captive GLTs and marmosets. More specifically, we analyzed the bacterial component of ultra filtered samples originally collected as part of a virome profiling study. The major findings of this study are consistent with previous studies in showing that Bifidobacterium, a bacterial species important for the metabolism of tree gums consumed by callitrichids, is an important component of the callitrichid gut microbiome - although GTLs and marmosets were enriched for different species of Bifidobacterium. Additionally, the composition of GLT and marmoset gut microbiota is sensitive to host environmental factors. Overall, our data expand baseline gut microbiome data for callitrichids to allow for the development of new tools to improve their management and conservation.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Khalid M, Liu X, Ur Rahman S, et al (2023)

Responses of microbial communities in rhizocompartments of king grass to phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soil.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05853-9 [Epub ahead of print].

King grass has been recognized as a potential phytoremediation plant species due to its high biomass and resistance to heavy metals (HMs). However, the possible impacts of cadmium (Cd) contamination on rhizocompartments' microbial activities in association with king grass have not been extensively explored. The utilization of 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing was carried out to examine alterations in the bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of king grass in response to low and high Cd stress. Results demonstrated that both bacterial and fungal communities' diversity and richness were negatively impacted by Cd stress, regardless of its concentration. However, evenness did not exhibit any significant response to either of the concentrations. Additionally, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination demonstrated a significant difference (p < 0.001) in microbial communities under different treatments. The abundance of bacterial taxa such as Steroibacter, Nitrospira, Pseudoxanthomonas, Cellvirio, Phenylobacterium, Mycobacterium, Pirellula and Aquicella was adversely affected under Cd stress while Flavobacterium, Gemmata, Thiobacillus and Gemmatimonas showed no prominent response, indicating their resistance to Cd stress. Like that, certain fungal taxa for instance, Cladosporium, Cercophora, Acremonium, Mortierella, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Glomus and Sebacina were also highly reduced by low and high Cd stress. In contrast, Fusarium, Thanatephorus, Botrytis and Curvularia did not show any response to Cd stress. The identified taxa may have a crucial role in the growth of king grass under heavy metal contamination, making them promising candidates for developing bioinoculants to encourage plant performance and phytoremediation capability in HM-contaminated soils.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Martinez G, Zhu J, Takser L, et al (2023)

Complementarity of plasma and stool for the characterization of children's exposure to halogenated flame retardants: Update on analytical methods and application to a Canadian cohort.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)02492-X [Epub ahead of print].

Sixteen halogenated flame retardants including Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), Dechlorane-like compounds, and emerging halogenated flame retardants were measured in stool and plasma samples from children aged 8.9-13.8 years old. Samples were obtained from a Canadian cohort investigating the effect of contaminants on children's neurodevelopment in the Estrie region, Québec, Canada. The method for stool analysis developed for this study showed good recovery for all targeted compounds (73%-93%) with associated relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 16.0%-30.7% for most compounds except for the thermosensitive BDE209, OBTMBI, and BTBPE, which showed slightly higher RSD, i.e., 49.3%, 37.2%, and 34.9% respectively. Complementarity investigation of stool and blood samples allowed us to better characterize human exposure to these halogenated flame retardants. Exposure patterns differed significantly between stool and blood, notably in the relative abundance of BDE47, BDE100, BDE99, and BDE153 and the detection frequencies of BDE209, syn-DP, anti-DP, and DBDPE. There was no correlation between the two matrices' PBDEs concentration levels except for BDE153 (rho = 0.44, p < 0.01). Our results indicate that future epidemiological studies may benefit from the use of stool as a complementary matrix to blood, especially investigations into chemical impacts on the gut microbiome. Results also revealed that children from the GESTE cohort, an Eastern Canadian semi-rural cohort, are exposed to both historical and emergent flame retardants.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Chicas RC, Wang Y, Jennifer Weil E, et al (2023)

The impact of heat exposures on biomarkers of AKI and plasma metabolome among agricultural and non-agricultural workers.

Environment international, 180:108206 pii:S0160-4120(23)00479-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Agricultural workers are consistently exposed to elevated heat exposures and vulnerable to acute kidney injury. The underlying pathophysiology and detailed molecular mechanisms of AKI among agricultural workers, and the disproportionate burden of HRI and heat stress exposure are not well understood, especially at the level of cellular metabolism.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of heat exposures on renal biomarkers and on the human metabolome via untargeted high-resolution metabolomics among agricultural and non-agricultural workers.

METHODS: Blood and urine samples were collected pre- and post-work shift from 63 agricultural workers and 27 non- agricultural workers. We evaluated pre- and post-work shift renal biomarkers and completed untargeted metabolomics using high-resolution mass spectrometry with liquid chromatography. Metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS) models identified the metabolic features differentially expressed between agricultural workers and non-agricultural workers.

RESULTS: Median values of pre-shift creatinine and osteopontin (p < 0.05) were higher for agricultural workers than non-agricultural workers. Metabolic pathway enrichment analyses revealed 27 diverse pathways differed between agricultural workers and non-agricultural workers (p < 0.05) including TCA cycle and urea cycle, carbohydrate metabolism, histidine metabolism and evidence for altered microbiome shikimate pathway.

CONCLUSION: This is the first investigation on the metabolic pathways that are affected among agricultural workers who are exposed to heat compared to non-heat exposed workers. This study shows extensive responses of central metabolic systems to heat exposures that impact human health.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Anonymous (2023)

Association of the Cervicovaginal Microbiome With Contraceptive Methods in Hispanic Women Living in Puerto Rico [ID: 1376364]: Correction.

Obstetrics and gynecology, 142(4):996.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Beller ZW, Wesener DA, Seebeck TR, et al (2023)

Inducible CRISPR-targeted "knockdown" of human gut Bacteroides in gnotobiotic mice discloses glycan utilization strategies.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(39):e2311422120.

Understanding how members of the human gut microbiota prioritize nutrient resources is one component of a larger effort to decipher the mechanisms defining microbial community robustness and resiliency in health and disease. This knowledge is foundational for development of microbiota-directed therapeutics. To model how bacteria prioritize glycans in the gut, germfree mice were colonized with 13 human gut bacterial strains, including seven saccharolytic Bacteroidaceae species. Animals were fed a Western diet supplemented with pea fiber. After community assembly, an inducible CRISPR-based system was used to selectively and temporarily reduce the absolute abundance of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron or B. cellulosilyticus by 10- to 60-fold. Each knockdown resulted in specific, reproducible increases in the abundances of other Bacteroidaceae and dynamic alterations in their expression of genes involved in glycan utilization. Emergence of these "alternate consumers" was associated with preservation of community saccharolytic activity. Using an inducible system for CRISPR base editing in vitro, we disrupted translation of transporters critical for utilizing dietary polysaccharides in Phocaeicola vulgatus, a B. cellulosilyticus knockdown-responsive taxon. In vitro and in vivo tests of the resulting P. vulgatus mutants allowed us to further characterize mechanisms associated with its increased fitness after knockdown. In principle, the approach described can be applied to study utilization of a range of nutrients and to preclinical efforts designed to develop therapeutic strategies for precision manipulation of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Perna A, Montine KS, White LR, et al (2023)

Paradigm Shift: Multiple Potential Pathways to Neurodegenerative Dementia.

Neurotherapeutics : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative dementia can result from multiple underlying abnormalities, including neurotransmitter imbalances, protein aggregation, and other neurotoxic events. A major complication in identifying effective treatment targets is the frequent co-occurrence of multiple neurodegenerative processes, occurring either in parallel or sequentially. The path towards developing effective treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias has been relatively slow and until recently has focused on disease symptoms. Aducanumab and lecanemab, recently approved by the FDA, are meant to target disease structures but have only modest benefit on symptom progression and remain unproven in reversing or preventing dementia. A third, donanemab, appears more promising but awaits FDA approval. Ongoing trials include potential cognition enhancers, new combinations of known drugs for synergistic effects, prodrugs with less toxicity, and increasing interest in drugs targeting neuroinflammation or microbiome. Scientific and technological advances offer the opportunity to move in new therapy directions, such as modifying microglia to prevent or suppress underlying disease. A major challenge, however, is that underlying comorbidities likely influence the effectiveness of therapies. Indeed, the full range of comorbidity, today only definitively identified postmortem, likely contributes to failed clinical trials and overmedication of older adults, since it is difficult to exclude (during life) people unlikely to respond. Our current knowledge thus signals that a paradigm shift towards individualized and multimodal treatments is necessary to effectively advance the field of dementia therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Pal P, RP Shastry (2023)

Correction to: Exploring the complex role of gut microbiome in the development of precision medicine strategies for targeting microbial imbalance-induced colon cancer.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

O'Brien PA, Tan S, Frade PR, et al (2023)

Validation of key sponge symbiont pathways using genome-centric metatranscriptomics.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The sponge microbiome underpins host function through provision and recycling of essential nutrients in a nutrient poor environment. Genomic data suggest that carbohydrate degradation, carbon fixation, nitrogen metabolism, sulphur metabolism and supplementation of B-vitamins are central microbial functions. However, validation beyond the genomic potential of sponge symbiont pathways is rarely explored. To evaluate metagenomic predictions, we sequenced the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of three common coral reef sponges: Ircinia ramosa, Ircinia microconulosa and Phyllospongia foliascens. Multiple carbohydrate active enzymes were expressed by Poribacteria, Bacteroidota and Cyanobacteria symbionts, suggesting these lineages have a central role in assimilating dissolved organic matter. Expression of entire pathways for carbon fixation and multiple sulphur compound transformations were observed in all sponges. Gene expression for anaerobic nitrogen metabolism (denitrification and nitrate reduction) were more common than aerobic metabolism (nitrification), where only the I. ramosa microbiome expressed the nitrification pathway. Finally, while expression of the biosynthetic pathways for B-vitamins was common, the expression of additional transporter genes was far more limited. Overall, we highlight consistencies and disparities between metagenomic and metatranscriptomic results when inferring microbial activity, while uncovering new microbial taxa that contribute to the health of their sponge host via nutrient exchange.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Tsamir-Rimon M, E Borenstein (2023)

A Manifold-Based Framework for Studying the Dynamics of the Vaginal Microbiome.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

The vaginal bacterial community plays a crucial role in preventing infections. The composition of this community can be classified into five main groups, termed community state types (CSTs). Four of these CSTs, which are primarily consisted of Lactobacillus species, are considered healthy, while the fifth, which is composed of non-Lactobacillus populations, is considered less protective. This latter CST is often considered to represent a state termed Bacterial vaginosis (BV) - a common disease condition associated with unpleasant symptoms and increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases. However, the exact mechanisms underlying BV development are not yet fully understood, including specifically, the dynamics of the vaginal microbiome in BV, and the possible routes it may take from a healthy to a BV state. This study aims to identify the progression from healthy Lactobacillus-dominant populations to symptomatic BV by analyzing 8,026 vaginal samples and using a manifold-detection framework. This approach is inspired by single-cell analysis and aims to identify low-dimensional trajectories in the high-dimensional composition space. This framework further order samples along these trajectories and assign a score (pseudo-time) to each sample based on its proximity to the BV state. Our results reveal distinct routes of progression between healthy and BV state for each CST, with pseudo-time scores correlating with community diversity and quantifying the health state of each sample. BV indicators, including Nugent score, positive Amsel's test, and several Amsel's criteria, can also be successfully predicted based on pseudo-time scores. Additionally, Gardnerella vaginalis can be identified as a key taxon in BV development using this approach, with increased abundance in samples with high pseudo-time, indicating an unhealthier state across all BV-development routes on the manifold. Taken together, these findings demonstrate how manifold detection can be used to successfully characterizes the progression from healthy Lactobacillus-dominant populations to BV and to accurately quantify the health condition of new samples along the route of BV development.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Fang M, Hu W, B Liu (2023)

Effects of nano-selenium on cecum microbial community and metabolomics in chickens challenged with Ochratoxin A.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1228360.

INTRODUCTION: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widely distributed mycotoxin. Nano-selenium (Nano-Se) is an emerging form of selenium known for its superior bioavailability, remarkable catalytic efficiency, and robust adsorbing capacity. Despite these characteristics, its impact on the microbial community and metabolomics in the cecum of chickens exposed to OTA has been infrequently investigated. This research examined the microbiota and metabolomic alterations linked to OTA in chickens, with or without Nano-Se present.

METHODS: A cohort of 80 healthy chickens at the age of 1 day was randomly distributed into four groups of equal numbers, namely the Se cohort (1 mg/kg Nano-Se), the OTA cohort (50 μg/kg OTA), the OTA-Se cohort (50 μg/kg OTA + 1 mg/kg Nano-Se), and the control group. Each chicken group's caecal microbiome and metabolome were characterized using 16S rRNA sequencing and Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that the on day 21, the final body weight was significantly reduced in response to OTA treatments (p < 0.05), the average daily gain in the OTA group was found to be inferior to the other groups (p < 0.01). In addition, Nano-Se supplementation could reduce the jejunum and liver pathological injuries caused by OTA exposure. The 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that Nano-Se supplementation in OTA-exposed chickens mitigated gut microbiota imbalances by promoting beneficial microbiota and suppressing detrimental bacteria. Moreover, untargeted metabolomics revealed a significant difference in caecal metabolites by Nano-Se pretreatment. Collectively, the dataset outcomes highlighted that Nano-Se augmentation regulates intestinal microbiota and associated metabolite profiles, thus influencing critical metabolic pathways, and points to a possible food-additive product.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Ji J, Ye Y, Sheng L, et al (2023)

Sleep Promotion by 3-Hydroxy-4-Iminobutyric Acid in Walnut Diaphragma juglandis Fructus.

Research (Washington, D.C.), 6:0216.

Insufficient sleep can produce a multitude of deleterious repercussions on various domains of human well-being. Concomitantly, the walnut (Juglans mandshurica) confers numerous salutary biological activities pertaining to sleep. Nevertheless, the sedative and hypnotic capacities of walnut's functional constituents remain obscure. In this investigation, we analyzed the sedative and hypnotic components of the walnut Diaphragma juglandis fructus and innovatively discovered a compound, defined as 3-hydroxy-4-iminobutyric acid (HIBA), which disrupts motor activity and enhances sleep duration by regulating the neurotransmitters (GABA, DA, etc.) within the brain and serum of mice. Subsequently, a metabolomics approach of the serum, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, and hippocampus as well as the gut microbiota was undertaken to unravel the underlying molecular mechanisms of sleep promotion. Our data reveal that HIBA can regulate the metabolism of basal ganglia (sphingolipids, acylcarnitines, etc.), possibly in relation to HIBA's influence on the gut microbiome (Muribaculum, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, etc.). Therefore, we introduce a novel natural product, HIBA, and explicate the modulation of sleep promotion in mice based on the microbiota-gut-brain axis. This study contributes fresh insights toward natural product-based sleep research.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Dikareva E, Matharu D, Lahtinen E, et al (2023)

An extended catalog of integrated prophages in the infant and adult fecal microbiome shows high prevalence of lysogeny.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1254535.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The acquisition and gradual maturation of gut microbial communities during early childhood is central to an individual's healthy development. Bacteriophages have the potential to shape the gut bacterial communities. However, the complex ecological interactions between phages and their bacterial host are still poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated the abundance and diversity of integrated prophages in infant and adult gut bacteria by detecting integrated prophages in metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) of commensal bacteria.

METHODS: Our study included 88 infants sampled at 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months (n = 323 total samples), and their parents around delivery time (n = 138 total samples). Fecal DNA was extracted and characterized by using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and a collection of prokaryotic MAGs was generated. The MAG collection was screened for the presence of integrated bacteriophage sequences, allowing their taxonomic and functional characterization.

RESULTS: A large collection of 6,186 MAGs from infant and adult gut microbiota was obtained and screened for integrated prophages, allowing the identification of 7,165 prophage sequences longer than 10 kb. Strikingly, more than 70% of the near-complete MAGs were identified as lysogens. The prevalence of prophages in MAGs varied across bacterial families, with a lower prevalence observed among Coriobacteriaceae, Eggerthellaceae, Veillonellaceae and Burkholderiaceae, while a very high prevalence of lysogen MAGs were observed in Oscillospiraceae, Enterococcaceae, and Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly for several bacterial families such as Bifidobacteriaceae and Bacteroidaceae, the prevalence of prophages in MAGs was higher in early infant time point (3 weeks and 3 months) than in later sampling points (6 and 12 months) and in adults. The prophage sequences were clustered into 5,616 species-like vOTUs, 77% of which were novel. Finally, we explored the functional repertoire of the potential auxiliary metabolic genes carried by these prophages, encoding functions involved in carbohydrate metabolism and degradation, amino acid metabolism and carbon metabolism.

CONCLUSION: Our study provides an enhanced understanding of the diversity and prevalence of lysogens in infant and adult gut microbiota and suggests a complex interplay between prophages and their bacterial hosts.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Xiong M, Jiang W, Zou S, et al (2023)

Microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes influence soil carbon by regulating the of plant- and fungal-derived biomass decomposition in plateau peat wetlands under differing water conditions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1266016.

Peatlands are important carbon sinks and water sources in terrestrial ecosystems. It is important to explore their microbial-driven water-carbon synergistic mechanisms to understand the driving mechanisms of carbon processes in peatlands. Based on macrogenomic sequencing techniques, located on the peatland of the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau with similar stand and different water conditions, we taken soil properties, microbiome abundance, CAZyme abundance and enzyme gene pathways as the object of study, investigated the characterization of soil microbial carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) under different water gradients in peatland. According to the results, these three phyla (Chloroflexi, Gemmatimonadetes, and Verrucomicrobia) differed significantly between water gradients. Under dried wetlands, the abundance of CAZymes involved in hemicellulose and glucan degradation increased by 3.0 × 10[-5] and 3.0 × 10[-6], respectively. In contrast, the abundance of CAZymes involved in chitin degradation decreased by 1.1 × 10[-5] (p < 0.05). It highlights that regulating plant- and fungus-derived carbon metabolism processes by soil microorganisms in highland peatlands is a crucial mechanism for their response to water changes. Most plant-derived carbon fractions are regulated by soil enzymes (endo-beta 1,4-xylanase, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, and alpha-L-fucosidase) containing CAZymes functional genes. Additional findings in this enzyme gene pathway indicate that water changes that affect soil carbon fractions indirectly influence the three enzyme gene metabolic pathways related to plant carbon sources (the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, other glycan degradation and amino sugar, and nucleotide sugar metabolism). Overall, this study highlights the significance of microbial CAZymes in highland peatland soil carbon processes and indicates that microbial conversion of plant and fungal biomass carbon is more sensitive to water changes.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Wu J, Tian C, Jiao J, et al (2023)

The epithelial transcriptome and mucosal microbiota are altered for goats fed with a low-protein diet.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1237955.

INTRODUCTION: Feeding low protein (LP) diet to animals impose severe challenge to animals' immune homeostasis. However, limited knowledge about the underlying adaption mechanism of host and ruminal microbiota responding to LP diet were well understood. Herein, this study was performed to examine the changes in relative abundance of ruminal microbiota and host ruminal mucosal transcriptome profiles in response to a LP diet.

METHODS: A total of twenty-four female Xiangdong balck goats with similar weight (20.64 ± 2.40 kg) and age (8 ± 0.3 months) were randomly assigned into two groups, LP (5.52% crude protein containing diet) and CON (10.77% crude protein containing diet) groups. Upon completion of the trial, all goats were slaughtered after a 16-hour fasting period in LiuYang city (N 28°15', E 113°63') in China. HE staining, free amino acids measurement, transcriptome analysis and microbiome analysis were applied to detect the morphology alterations, free amino acids profile alterations and the shift in host ruminal mucosal transcriptome and ruminal microbiota communities.

RESULTS: Firstly, the results showed that feeding LP diet to goats decreased the rumen papilla width (P = 0.043), surface area (P = 0.013) and total ruminal free amino acids concentration (P = 0.016). Secondly, microbiome analysis indicated that 9 microbial genera, including Eubacterium and Prevotella, were enriched in LP group while 11 microbial genera, including Butyrivibrio and Ruminococcus, were enriched in CON group. Finally, in terms of immune-related genes, the expression levels of genes involved in tight junction categories (e.g., MYH11, PPP2R2C, and MYL9) and acquired immunity (e.g., PCP4 and CXCL13) were observed to be upregulated in the LP group when compared to the CON group.

CONCLUSION: Under the LP diet, the rumen exhibited increased relative abundance of pathogenic microbiota and VFA-degrading microbiota, leading to disruptions in immune homeostasis within the host's ruminal mucosa. These findings indicate that the ruminal microbiota interacts with host results in the disruption in animals' immune homeostasis under LP diet challenge.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Liu H, Zhang H, Yu Q, et al (2023)

Lead induced structural and functional damage and microbiota dysbiosis in the intestine of crucian carp (Carassius auratus).

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1239323.

Lead (Pb) is a hazardous pollutant in water environments that can cause significant damage to aquatic animals and humans. In this study, crucian carp (Carassius auratus) were exposed to waterborne Pb for 96 h; then, histopathological analysis, quantitative qPCR analysis, and 16S high-throughput sequencing were performed to explore the effects of Pb on intestinal bioaccumulation, structural damage, oxidative stress, immune response, and microbiota imbalance of C. auratus. After Pb exposure, the intestinal morphology was obviously damaged, including significantly increasing the thickness of the intestinal wall and the number of goblet cells and reducing the depth of intestinal crypts. Pb exposure reduced the mRNA expressions of Claudin-7 and villin-1 while significantly elevated the level of GST, GSH, CAT, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1, and TNF-α. Furthermore, 16S rRNA analysis showed that the Shannon and Simpson indices decreased at 48 h after Pb exposure, and the abundance of pathogenic bacteria (Erysipelotrichaceae, Weeksellaceae, and Vibrionaceae) increased after Pb exposure. In addition, the correlation network analysis found that Proteobacteria were negatively correlated with Firmicutes and positively correlated with Bacteroidetes. Functional prediction analysis of bacteria speculated that the change in intestinal microbiota led to the PPAR signaling pathway and peroxisome function of the intestine of crucian carp was increased, while the immune system and membrane transport function were decreased. Finally, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) found that there were correlations between the intestinal microbiota, morphology, antioxidant factors, and immune factors of crucian carp after Pb exposure. Taken together, our results demonstrated that intestinal flora dysbiosis, morphological disruption, oxidative stress, and immune injury are involved in the toxic damage of Pb exposure to the intestinal structure and function of crucian carp. Meanwhile, Pb exposure rapidly increased the abundance of pathogenic bacteria, leading to intestinal disorders, further aggravating the damage of Pb to intestinal structure and function. These findings provide us a basis for the link between gut microbiome changes and heavy metal toxicity, and gut microbiota can be used as biomarkers for the evaluation of heavy metal pollution in future.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Molina MA, Melchers WJG, Andralojc KM, et al (2023)

Longitudinal analysis on the ecological dynamics of the cervicovaginal microbiome in hrHPV infection.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:4424-4431.

The cervicovaginal microbiome (CVM) is a dynamic continuous microenvironment that can be clustered in microbial community state types (CSTs) and is associated with women's cervical health. Lactobacillus-depleted communities particularly associate with an increased susceptibility for persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infections and progression of disease, but the long-term ecological dynamics of CSTs after hrHPV infection diagnosis remain poorly understood. To determine such dynamics, we examined the CVM of our longitudinal cohort of 141 women diagnosed with hrHPV infection at baseline with collected cervical smears at two timepoints six-months apart. Here we describe that the long-term microbiome dissimilarity has a positive correlation with microbial diversity at both visits and that women with high abundance and dominance for Lactobacillus iners at baseline exhibit more similar microbiome composition at second visit than women with Lactobacillus-depleted communities at baseline. We further show that the species Lactobacillus acidophilus and Megasphaera genomosp type 1 associate with CST changes between both visits. Lastly, we also observe that Gardnerella vaginalis is associated with the stability of Lactobacillus-depleted communities while L. iners is associated with the instability of Megasphaera genomosp type 1-dominated communities. Our data suggest dynamic patterns of cervicovaginal CSTs during hrHPV infection, which could be potentially used to develop microbiome-based therapies against infection progression towards disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Zyoud SH, Shakhshir M, Abushanab AS, et al (2023)

Unveiling the hidden world of gut health: Exploring cutting-edge research through visualizing randomized controlled trials on the gut microbiota.

World journal of clinical cases, 11(26):6132-6146.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal and overall health. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) play a crucial role in advancing our knowledge and evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions targeting the gut microbiota.

AIM: To conduct a comprehensive bibliometric analysis of the literature on RCTs involving the gut microbiota.

METHODS: Using bibliometric tools, a descriptive cross-sectional investigation was conducted on scholarly publications concentrated on RCTs related to gut microbiota, spanning the years 2003 to 2022. The study used VOSviewer version 1.6.9 to examine collaboration networks between different countries and evaluate the frequently employed terms in the titles and abstracts of the retrieved publications. The primary objective of this analysis was to identify key research areas and focal points associated with RCTs involving the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: A total of 1061 relevant articles were identified from the 24758 research articles published between 2003 and 2022. The number of publications showed a notable increase over time, with a positive correlation (R[2] = 0.978, P < 0.001). China (n = 276, 26.01%), the United States (n = 254, 23.94%), and the United Kingdom (n = 97, 9.14%) were the leading contributing countries. Københavns Universitet (n = 38, 3.58%) and Dankook University (n = 35, 3.30%) were the top active institutions. The co-occurrence analysis shows current gut microbiota research trends and important topics, such as obesity interventions targeting the gut microbiota, the efficacy and safety of fecal microbiota transplantation, and the effects of dietary interventions on humans.

CONCLUSION: The study highlights the rapid growth and importance of research on RCTs that involve the gut microbiota. This study provides valuable insight into research trends, identifies key players, and outlines potential future directions in this field. Additionally, the co-occurrence analysis identified important topics that play a critical role in the advancement of science and provided insights into future research directions in this field.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Aizpurua O, Dunn RR, Hansen LH, et al (2023)

Field and laboratory guidelines for reliable bioinformatic and statistical analysis of bacterial shotgun metagenomic data.

Critical reviews in biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Shotgun metagenomics is an increasingly cost-effective approach for profiling environmental and host-associated microbial communities. However, due to the complexity of both microbiomes and the molecular techniques required to analyze them, the reliability and representativeness of the results are contingent upon the field, laboratory, and bioinformatic procedures employed. Here, we consider 15 field and laboratory issues that critically impact downstream bioinformatic and statistical data processing, as well as result interpretation, in bacterial shotgun metagenomic studies. The issues we consider encompass intrinsic properties of samples, study design, and laboratory-processing strategies. We identify the links of field and laboratory steps with downstream analytical procedures, explain the means for detecting potential pitfalls, and propose mitigation measures to overcome or minimize their impact in metagenomic studies. We anticipate that our guidelines will assist data scientists in appropriately processing and interpreting their data, while aiding field and laboratory researchers to implement strategies for improving the quality of the generated results.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Easter QT, Matuck BF, Warner BM, et al (2023)

Biogeographical Impacts of Dental, Oral, and Craniofacial Microbial Reservoirs.

Journal of dental research [Epub ahead of print].

The human mouth, or oral cavity, is at the crossroads of our external and internal environments, and it is increasingly evident that local colonization of dental, oral, and craniofacial (DOC) tissues and cells by bacteria and viruses may also have systemic effects across myriad diseases and disorders. Better understanding of this phenomenon will require a holistic understanding of host-microbial interactions in both spatiotemporal and biogeographical contexts while also considering person-, organ-, tissue-, cell-, and molecular-level variation. After the acute phase interaction with microbes, the establishment of site-specific reservoirs constitutes an important relationship to understand within the human body; however, despite a preliminary understanding of how viral reservoirs originate and persist across the human body, the landscape of single-cell and spatial multiomic tools has challenged our current understanding of what cells and niches can support microbial reservoirs. The lack of complete understanding impacts research into these relevant topics and implementing precision care for microbial-induced or microbial-influenced diseases. Here, via the lens of acute and chronic microbial infections of the DOC tissues, the goal of this review is to highlight and link the emerging spatiotemporal biogeography of host-viral interactomics at 3 levels: (1) DOC cell types in distinct tissues, (2) DOC-associated microbes, and (3) niche-specific DOC pathologies. Further, we will focus on the impact of postacute infectious syndromes such as long COVID, neurodegenerative disorders, and other underappreciated postviral conditions. We will provide hypotheses about how DOC tissues may play roles systemically in these conditions. Throughout, we will underscore how COVID-19 has catalyzed a new understanding of these biological questions, discuss future directions to study these phenomena, and highlight the utility of noninvasive oral biofluids in screening, monitoring, and intervening to prevent and/or ameliorate human infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Pacheco-Yanes J, Reynolds E, Li J, et al (2023)

Microbiome-targeted interventions for the control of oral-gut dysbiosis and chronic systemic inflammation.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(23)00191-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent research has confirmed the strong connection between imbalances in the oral and gut microbiome (oral-gut dysbiosis), periodontitis, and inflammatory conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cardiovascular diseases. Microbiome modulation is crucial for preventing and treating several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, including periodontitis. However, the causal relationships between the microbiome and its derived metabolites that mediate periodontitis and chronic inflammation constitute a notable knowledge gap. Here we review the mechanisms involved in the microbiome-host crosstalk, and describe novel precision medicine for the control of systemic inflammation. As microbiome-targeted therapies begin to enter clinical trials, the success of these approaches relies upon understanding these reciprocal microbiome-host interactions, and it may provide new therapeutic avenues to reduce the risk of periodontitis-associated diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Yu Z, Cantet JM, Paz HA, et al (2023)

Heat stress-associated changes in the intestinal barrier, inflammatory signals, and microbiome communities in dairy calves.

Journal of dairy science pii:S0022-0302(23)00683-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies indicate that heat stress pathophysiology is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction, local and systemic inflammation, and gut dysbiosis. However, inconclusive results and a poor description of tissue specific changes must be addressed to identify potential intervention targets against heat stress illness in growing calves. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate components of the intestinal barrier, pro- and anti-inflammatory signals, and microbiota community composition in Holstein bull calves exposed to heat stress. Animals (mean age = 12-week-old, mean body weight = 122 kg) penned individually in temperature-controlled rooms were assigned to 1) thermoneutral conditions (constant room temperature at 19.5°C) and restricted offer of feed (TNR, n = 8), or, 2) heat stress conditions (cycles of room temperatures ranging from 20 to 37.8°C) along with ad libitum offer of feed (HS, n = 8) for 7 d. Upon treatment completion, sections of the jejunum, ileum, and colon were collected and snap-frozen immediately to evaluate gene and protein expression, cytokine concentrations, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Digesta aliquots of the ileum, colon, and rectum were collected to assess bacterial communities. Plasma was harvested on d 2, 5, and 7 to determine cytokine concentrations. Overall, results showed a section-specific impact of HS on intestinal integrity. Jejunal mRNA expression of TJP1 was decreased by 70% in HS relative to TNR calves. In agreement, jejunal expression of heat shock transcription factor-1 protein (HSF-1), a known tight junction protein expression regulator, decreased by 48% in HS calves. Jejunal analyses showed that HS decreased concentrations of interleukin-1 α by 36.6% and tended to decrease the concentration of interleukin-17A. Conversely, HS elicited a 3.5-fold increase in jejunal concentration of anti-inflammatory interleukin-36 receptor antagonist. Plasma analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines showed that interleukin-6 decreased by 51% in HS relative to TNR calves. Heat stress alteration of the large intestine bacterial communities was characterized by increased genus Butyrivibrio_3, a known butyrate-producing organism, and changes in bacteria metabolism of energy and amino acids. A strong positive correlation between the rectal temperature and pro-inflammatory Eggerthii spp. was detected in HS calves. In conclusion, this work indicates that HS impairs the intestinal barrier function of jejunum. The pro- and anti-inflammatory signal changes may be part of a broader response to restore intestinal homeostasis in jejunum. The changes in large intestine bacterial communities favoring butyrate-producing organisms e.g., Butyrivibrio spp. may be part of a successful response to maintain the integrity of the colonic mucosa of HS calves. The alteration of intestinal homeostasis should be the target for heat stress therapies to restore biological functions, and, thus highlights the relevance of this work.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Oldfield L, E Costello (2023)

Where the metabolome meets the microbiome for pancreatic cancer detection.

Cell reports. Medicine, 4(9):101011.

Risk prediction tools for pancreatic cancer are urgently sought to facilitate screening. Irajizad et al.[1] describe the performance of a risk predication model based on circulating microbial- and non-microbial metabolites for assessment of 5-year pancreatic cancer risk.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Irajizad E, Kenney A, Tang T, et al (2023)

A blood-based metabolomic signature predictive of risk for pancreatic cancer.

Cell reports. Medicine, 4(9):101194.

Emerging evidence implicates microbiome involvement in the development of pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Here, we investigate whether increases in circulating microbial-related metabolites associate with PaCa risk by applying metabolomics profiling to 172 sera collected within 5 years prior to PaCa diagnosis and 863 matched non-subject sera from participants in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) cohort. We develop a three-marker microbial-related metabolite panel to assess 5-year risk of PaCa. The addition of five non-microbial metabolites further improves 5-year risk prediction of PaCa. The combined metabolite panel complements CA19-9, and individuals with a combined metabolite panel + CA19-9 score in the top 2.5th percentile have absolute 5-year risk estimates of >13%. The risk prediction model based on circulating microbial and non-microbial metabolites provides a potential tool to identify individuals at high risk of PaCa that would benefit from surveillance and/or from potential cancer interception strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Qian Y, Hu P, Lang-Yona N, et al (2023)

Global landfill leachate characteristics: Occurrences and abundances of environmental contaminants and the microbiome.

Journal of hazardous materials, 461:132446 pii:S0304-3894(23)01729-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Landfill leachates are complex mixtures containing very high concentrations of biodegradable and recalcitrant toxic compounds. Understanding the major contaminant components and microbial community signatures in global landfill leachates is crucial for timely decision-making regarding contaminant management and treatment. Therefore, this study analyzed leachate data from 318 landfill sites primarily used for municipal solid waste disposal, focusing on their chemical and microbiological characteristics. The most prevalent and dominant components in landfill leachates are the chemical oxygen demand (COD, 3.7-75.9 × 10[3] mg/L) and NH4[+] (0.03-0.81 × 10[4] mg/L), followed by salt species such as SO4[2-] (0.03-5.25 × 10[3] mg/L), Cl[-] (3.2-7.8 × 10[3] mg/L), K[+] (0.58-4.20 × 10[3] mg/L), Na[+] (1.3-13.0 × 10[3] mg/L) and Ca[2+] (2.35-230.23 × 10[3] mg/L), which exhibit significant fluctuations. Heavy metals and metalloids are widely distributed in most landfill leachates but at relatively low concentrations (<182.8 mg/L) compared to conventional parameters. Importantly, there is a distinct global variation in the occurrence of emerging environmental contaminants (ECs). Among these compounds, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, 0.02-7.50 × 10[3] μg/L) of per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), bisphenol A (BPA, 0.01-33.46 × 10[3] μg/L) belonged to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), together with di-ethyltoluamide (DEET, 1.0-1.0 × 10[3] μg/L) affiliated to pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are the most frequently detected in landfill leachates. Additionally, the microbial community compositions in most leachates are primarily dominated by Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi, and some of their abundances are correlated with the concentrations of NH4[+], NO3[-], Cl[-], Na[+] and Cr. Notably, the leading microbes driving advanced removal of inorganic nitrogen in the treatment systems are Candidatus Brocadia (anammox), denitrifying Thauera, nitrite-oxidizing bacteria Nitrospira, along with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira. The findings of this work provide a deeper insight into the leachate characteristics and the sustainable management of landfill leachates, especially presenting a snapshot of the global distribution of pollutants and also the microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Gong S, Liang J, Jin X, et al (2023)

Unfolding the secrets of microbiome (Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria) in cold-water coral.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Recent deep-ocean exploration has uncovered a variety of cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems around the world ocean, but it remains unclear how microbiome is associated with these corals at a molecular levels. This study utilized metabarcoding, tissue section observation, and metatranscriptomes to investigate the microbiome (Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria) of CWC species (Narella versluysi, Heterogorgia uatumani, and Muriceides sp.) from depths ranging from 260 m to 370 m. Warm-water coral (WWC) species (Acropora pruinosa, Pocillopora damicornis, and Galaxea fascicularis) were used as control groups. Results revealed that CWC host diverse bacteria and Symbiodiniaceae cells were observed in endoderm of CWC tissues. Several new candidate bacterial phyla were found in both CWC and WWC, including Coralsanbacteria, Coralqiangbacteria, Coralgsqaceae, Coralgongineae, etc. Both the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metatranscriptomes revealed that Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were abundant bacterial phyla in CWC. At the gene transcription level, the CWC-associated Symbiodiniaceae community showed a low-level transcription of genes involved in photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, glycolysis, citric acid cycle, while bacteria associated with CWC exhibited a high-level transcription of genes for carbon fixation via the Wood-Lijungdahl pathway, short chain fatty acids production, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles. IMPORTANCE This study shed new light on the functions of both Symbiodiniaceae and bacteria in cold-water coral (CWC). The results demonstrated that Symbiodiniaceae can survive and actively transcribe genes in CWC, suggesting a possible symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the host. This study also revealed complete non-photosynthetic CO2 fixation pathway of bacteria in CWC, as well as their roles in short chain fatty acids production and assimilation of host-derived organic nitrogen and sulfur. These findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the carbon, nitrogen sulfur cycles in CWC, which were possibly crucial for CWC survival in in deep-water environments.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Naasko KI, Naylor D, Graham EB, et al (2023)

Influence of soil depth, irrigation, and plant genotype on the soil microbiome, metaphenome, and carbon chemistry.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change is causing an increase in drought in many soil ecosystems and a loss of soil organic carbon. Calcareous soils may partially mitigate these losses via carbon capture and storage. Here, we aimed to determine how irrigation-supplied soil moisture and perennial plants impact biotic and abiotic soil properties that underpin deep soil carbon chemistry in an unfertilized calcareous soil. Soil was sampled up to 1 m in depth from irrigated and planted field treatments and was analyzed using a suite of omics and chemical analyses. The soil microbial community composition was impacted more by irrigation and plant cover treatments than by soil depth. By contrast, metabolomes, lipidomes, and proteomes differed more with soil depth than treatments. Deep soil (>50 cm) had higher soil pH and calcium concentrations and higher levels of organic acids, bicarbonate, and triacylglycerides. By contrast, surface soil (0-5 cm) had higher concentrations of soil organic matter, organic carbon, oxidizable carbon, and total nitrogen. Surface soils also had higher amounts of sugars, sugar alcohols, phosphocholines, and proteins that reflect osmotic and oxidative stress responses. The lipidome was more responsive to perennial tall wheatgrass treatments compared to the metabolome or proteome, with a striking change in diacylglyceride composition. Permanganate oxidizable carbon was more consistently correlated to metabolites and proteins than soil organic and inorganic carbon and soil organic matter. This study reveals specific compounds that reflect differences in organic, inorganic, and oxidizable soil carbon fractions that are impacted by interactions between irrigation-supplied moisture and plant cover in calcareous soil profiles. IMPORTANCE Carbon is cycled through the air, plants, and belowground environment. Understanding soil carbon cycling in deep soil profiles will be important to mitigate climate change. Soil carbon cycling is impacted by water, plants, and soil microorganisms, in addition to soil mineralogy. Measuring biotic and abiotic soil properties provides a perspective of how soil microorganisms interact with the surrounding chemical environment. This study emphasizes the importance of considering biotic interactions with inorganic and oxidizable soil carbon in addition to total organic carbon in carbonate-containing soils for better informing soil carbon management decisions.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Qu L, Li Y, Liu F, et al (2023)

Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis Dysregulation in Alzheimer's Disease: Multi-Pathway Effects and Therapeutic Potential.

Aging and disease pii:AD.2023.0823-2 [Epub ahead of print].

An essential regulator of neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the gut microbiota. Alterations in intestinal permeability brought on by gut microbiota dysregulation encourage neuroinflammation, central immune dysregulation, and peripheral immunological dysregulation in AD, as well as hasten aberrant protein aggregation and neuronal death in the brain. However, it is unclear how the gut microbiota transmits information to the brain and how it influences brain cognition and function. In this review, we summarized the multiple pathways involved in the gut microbiome in AD and provided detailed treatment strategies based on the gut microbiome. Based on these observations, this review also discusses the problems, challenges, and strategies to address current therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Mancabelli L, Taurino G, Ticinesi A, et al (2023)

Disentangling the interactions between nasopharyngeal and gut microbiome and their involvement in the modulation of COVID-19 infection.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The human organism is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms, known as microbiota, which are considered to exploit a pivotal role in the regulation of host health and immunity. Recent investigations have suggested a relationship between the composition of the human microbiota and COVID-19 infection, highlighting a possible role of bacterial communities in the modulation of the disease severity. In this study, we performed a shotgun metagenomics analysis to explore and compare the nasopharyngeal microbiota of 38 hospitalized Italian patients with and without COVID-19 infection during the third and fourth pandemic waves. In detail, the metagenomic analysis combined with specific correlation analyses suggested a positive association of several microbial species, such as S. parasanguinis and P. melaninogenica, with the severity of COVID-19 infection. Furthermore, the comparison of the microbiota composition between the nasopharyngeal and their respective fecal samples highlighted an association between these different compartments represented by a sharing of several bacterial species. Additionally, lipidomic and deep-shotgun functional analyses of the fecal samples suggested a metabolic impact of the microbiome on the host's immune response, indicating the presence of key metabolic compounds in COVID-19 patients, such as lipid oxidation end products, potentially related to the inflammatory state. Conversely, the patients without COVID-19 displayed enzymatic patterns associated with the biosynthesis and degradation of specific compounds like lysine (synthesis) and phenylalanine (degradation) that could positively impact disease severity and contribute to modulating COVID-19 infection. IMPORTANCE The human microbiota is reported to play a major role in the regulation of host health and immunity, suggesting a possible impact on the severity of COVID-19 disease. This preliminary study investigated the possible correlation between nasopharyngeal microbiota and COVID-19 infection. In detail, the analysis of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of hospitalized Italian patients with and without COVID-19 infection suggested a positive association of several microbial species with the severity of the disease and highlighted a sharing of several bacteria species with the respective fecal samples. Moreover, the metabolic analyses suggested a possible impact of the microbiome on the host's immune response and the disease severity.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )