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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2021 at 01:34 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-09-15

Wernke KM, Tirla A, Xue M, et al (2021)

Probing Microbiome Genotoxicity: A Stable Colibactin Provides Insight into Structure-Activity Relationships and Facilitates Mechanism of Action Studies.

Journal of the American Chemical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Colibactin is a genotoxic metabolite produced by commensal-pathogenic members of the human microbiome that possess the clb (aka pks) biosynthetic gene cluster. clb+ bacteria induce tumorigenesis in models of intestinal inflammation and have been causally linked to oncogenesis in humans. While colibactin is believed underlie these effects, it has not been possible to study the molecule directly due to its instability. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological studies of colibactin 742 (4), a stable colibactin derivative. We show that colibactin 742 (4) induces DNA interstrand-cross-links, activation of the Fanconi Anemia DNA repair pathway, and G2/M arrest in a manner similar to clb+E. coli. The linear precursor 9, which mimics the biosynthetic precursor to colibactin, also recapitulates the bacterial phenotype. In the course of this work, we discovered a novel cyclization pathway that was previously undetected in MS-based studies of colibactin, suggesting a refinement to the natural product structure and its mode of DNA binding. Colibactin 742 (4) and its precursor 9 will allow researchers to study colibactin's genotoxic effects independent of the producing organism for the first time.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Brycki JD, Chen See JR, Letson GR, et al (2021)

Temporal Transcriptomics of Gut Escherichia coli in Caenorhabditis elegans Models of Aging.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Host-bacterial interactions over the course of aging are understudied due to complexities of the human microbiome and challenges of collecting samples that span a lifetime. To investigate the role of host-microbial interactions in aging, we performed transcriptomics using wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans (N2) and three long-lived mutants (daf-2, eat-2, and asm-3) fed Escherichia coli OP50 and sampled at days 5, 7.5, and 10 of adulthood. We found host age is a better predictor of the E. coli expression profiles than host genotype. Specifically, host age was associated with clustering (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA], P = 0.001) and variation (Adonis, P = 0.001, R2 = 11.5%) among E. coli expression profiles, whereas host genotype was not (PERMANOVA, P > 0.05; Adonis, P > 0.05, R2 = 5.9%). Differential analysis of the E. coli transcriptome yielded 22 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways and 100 KEGG genes enriched when samples were grouped by time point [LDA, linear discriminant analysis; log(LDA), ≥2; P ≤ 0.05], including several involved in biofilm formation. Coexpression analysis of host and bacterial genes yielded six modules of C. elegans genes that were coexpressed with one bacterial regulator gene over time. The three most significant bacterial regulators included genes relating to biofilm formation, lipopolysaccharide production, and thiamine biosynthesis. Age was significantly associated with clustering and variation among transcriptomic samples, supporting the idea that microbes are active and plastic within C. elegans throughout life. Coexpression analysis further revealed interactions between E. coli and C. elegans that occurred over time, building on a growing literature of host-microbial interactions. IMPORTANCE Previous research has reported effects of the microbiome on health span and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, including interactions with evolutionarily conserved pathways in humans. We build on this literature by reporting the gene expression of Escherichia coli OP50 in wild-type (N2) and three long-lived mutants of C. elegans. The manuscript represents the first study, to our knowledge, to perform temporal host-microbial transcriptomics in the model organism C. elegans. Understanding changes to the microbial transcriptome over time is an important step toward elucidating host-microbial interactions and their potential relationship to aging. We found that age was significantly associated with clustering and variation among transcriptomic samples, supporting the idea that microbes are active and plastic within C. elegans throughout life. Coexpression analysis further revealed interactions between E. coli and C. elegans that occurred over time, which contributes to our growing knowledge about host-microbial interactions.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Patel P, Poudel A, Kafle S, et al (2021)

Influence of Microbiome and Antibiotics on the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Cureus, 13(8):e16829.

The human microbiome mainly consists of bacteria and interacts closely with the immune system. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are used to treat several types of cancers. Recently, it has been identified that the gut microbiome plays a role in the effectiveness of immunotherapy. This study aims to analyze the effect of microbiome and antibiotics on the effectiveness of ICI in cancer patients and the measures to improve efficacy based on that. A detailed review was conducted on articles published in PubMed and Science Direct in the last five years i.e., 2016 to 2021. A total of 16 articles involving 1293 patients with cancer who were receiving immunotherapy, were deemed eligible to be included in the final review. Data were extracted from the eligible articles and were checked for quality appraisal. All 16 articles revealed the effect of either gut microbiome or antibiotics or both on ICI. Based on our findings, we found that the microbiome enriched in different microorganisms responded differently to the ICI and that antibiotics negatively impacted the effectiveness of ICI. The time at which patients receiving ICI were prescribed antibiotics influenced the effect of ICI. Antibiotics and different microbiome also affected progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Carr C, Wilcox H, Burton JP, et al (2021)

Deciphering the low abundance microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants.

PloS one, 16(9):e0257471 pii:PONE-D-21-14757.

16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from clinically uninfected hip and knee implant samples has revealed polymicrobial populations. However, previous studies assessed 16S rRNA gene sequencing as a technique for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infections, leaving the microbiota of presumed aseptic hip and knee implants largely unstudied. These communities of microorganisms might play important roles in aspects of host health, such as aseptic loosening. Therefore, this study sought to characterize the bacterial composition of presumed aseptic joint implant microbiota using next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and it evaluated this method for future investigations. 248 samples were collected from implants of 41 patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty revision for presumed aseptic failure. DNA was extracted using two methodologies-one optimized for high throughput and the other for human samples-and amplicons of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced. Sequencing data were analyzed and compared with ancillary specific PCR and microbiological culture. Computational tools (SourceTracker and decontam) were used to detect and compensate for environmental and processing contaminants. Microbial diversity of patient samples was higher than that of open-air controls and differentially abundant taxa were detected between these conditions, possibly reflecting a true microbiota that is present in clinically uninfected joint implants. However, positive control-associated artifacts and DNA extraction methodology significantly affected sequencing results. As well, sequencing failed to identify Cutibacterium acnes in most culture- and PCR-positive samples. These challenges limited characterization of bacteria in presumed aseptic implants, but genera were identified for further investigation. In all, we provide further support for the hypothesis that there is likely a microbiota present in clinically uninfected joint implants, and we show that methods other than 16S rRNA gene sequencing may be ideal for its characterization. This work has illuminated the importance of further study of microbiota of clinically uninfected joint implants with novel molecular and computational tools to further eliminate contaminants and artifacts that arise in low bacterial abundance samples.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Leclerc M, Bedu-Ferrari C, Etienne-Mesmin L, et al (2021)

Nitric Oxide Impacts Human Gut Microbiota Diversity and Functionalities.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The disruption of gut microbiota homeostasis has been associated with numerous diseases and with a disproportionate inflammatory response, including overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in the intestinal lumen. However, the influence of NO on the human gut microbiota has not been well characterized yet. We used in vitro fermentation systems inoculated with human fecal samples to monitor the effect of repetitive NO pulses on the gut microbiota. NO exposure increased the redox potential and modified the fermentation profile and gas production. The overall metabolome was modified, reflecting less strict anaerobic conditions and shifts in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism. NO exposure led to a microbial shift in diversity with a decrease in Clostridium leptum group and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii biomass and an increased abundance of the Dialister genus. Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, and Proteus mirabilis operational taxonomic unit abundance increased, and strains from those species isolated after NO stress showed resistance to high NO concentrations. As a whole, NO quickly changed microbial fermentations, functions, and composition in a pulse- and dose-dependent manner. NO could shift, over time, the trophic chain to conditions that are unfavorable for strict anaerobic microbial processes, implying that a prolonged or uncontrolled inflammation has detrimental and irreversible consequences on the human microbiome. IMPORTANCE Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory diseases. The human inflammatory response leads to an overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in the gut. However, so far, the influence of NO on the human gut microbiota has not been characterized. In this study, we used in vitro fermentation systems with human fecal samples to understand the effect of NO on the microbiota: NO modified the microbial composition and its functionality. High NO concentration depleted the microbiota of beneficial butyrate-producing species and favored potentially deleterious species (E. coli, E. faecalis, and P. mirabilis), which we showed can sustain high NO concentrations. Our work shows that NO may participate in the vicious circle of inflammation, leading to detrimental and irreversible consequences on human health.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Smith DRM, Temime L, L Opatowski (2021)

Microbiome-pathogen interactions drive epidemiological dynamics of antibiotic resistance: a modelling study applied to nosocomial pathogen control.

eLife, 10: pii:68764 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome can protect against colonization with pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), but its impacts on the spread of antibiotic resistance are poorly understood. We propose a mathematical modelling framework for ARB epidemiology formalizing within-host ARB-microbiome competition, and impacts of antibiotic consumption on microbiome function. Applied to the healthcare setting, we demonstrate a trade-off whereby antibiotics simultaneously clear bacterial pathogens and increase host susceptibility to their colonization, and compare this framework with a traditional strain-based approach. At the population level, microbiome interactions drive ARB incidence, but not resistance rates, reflecting distinct epidemiological relevance of different forces of competition. Simulating a range of public health interventions (contact precautions, antibiotic stewardship, microbiome recovery therapy) and pathogens (Clostridioides difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae) highlights how species-specific within-host ecological interactions drive intervention efficacy. We find limited impact of contact precautions for Enterobacteriaceae prevention, and a promising role for microbiome-targeted interventions to limit ARB spread.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Korpela K (2021)

Impact of Delivery Mode on Infant Gut Microbiota.

Annals of nutrition & metabolism pii:000518498 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial colonization of the neonate is an important feature of normal birth. The gut microbiota has a central role in the programming of the host's metabolism and immune function, with both immediate and long-term health consequences. During vaginal birth, the infant is exposed to diverse maternal microbes, of which specific faecal microbes colonize the infant's gut. C-section eliminates the infant's contact with maternal microbes, preventing vertical transmission of gut microbes. Consequently, infants are colonized by bacteria from the environment, including potential pathogens from the hospital environment. Recent studies have shown that intrapartum antibiotic exposure has a C-section-like effect on the infant gut microbiota. While the composition of the gut microbiota largely normalizes during the first year of life, epidemiological studies suggest that the aberrant early microbial exposures have long-term immunological and metabolic consequences. Because of the high prevalence of procedures that prevent normal gut microbiota development, effective methods to normalize the gut microbiota of neonates are urgently needed. Even more importantly, attention should be paid to the microbiota imbalance in C-section-born and antibiotic-exposed infants in clinical practice. Breastfeeding and probiotics are particularly important for infants with disrupted gut colonization.

RevDate: 2021-09-12

Houf J (2021)

Faecal microbiota transplants: towards a healthy disgust scepticism.

Medical humanities pii:medhum-2020-012135 [Epub ahead of print].

This paper engages with the obstacle of disgust surrounding the use of faecal microbiota transplants (FMT). In discourse about the human microbiome and microbiota-based therapies (like FMT), disgust has become an unavoidable emotion for physicians, patients and caregivers interested in these therapies. Additionally, microbiota therapies and microbiomes are challenging our conception of an individual biological self. As these two discourses converge with FMT, it becomes necessary to understand how they are working together. To do this, this paper explores the way disgust functions in the formation of subjects. Scholarship about disgust can be categorised into two approaches: disgust as a deep wisdom or disgust scepticism. The former approach focuses on the physiological, embodied aspects of our disgust reactions as evidence of 'truth' in disgusting encounters, and the latter recognises the way disgust is culturally contingent and adapted for use in moral and social determinations of good and bad. However, both positions accept the use of disgust as a defence against 'toxins and diseases'. Yet, as this paper argues, we should take the sceptical approach further. The disgust sceptical approach, particularly as developed by Sarah Ahmed, does more than just challenge disgust's role in moral deliberations. It also demands sceptical reflection on disgust as a universal defence against 'toxins and diseases'. Much as disgust can be co-opted to support oppression, it too can be co-opted to reconstitute a false vision of human subjectivity-the coherent, contained and exceptional human subject situated above the natural world. The human microbiome, faecal therapeutics and being disgusted give us an opportunity to recognise ourselves as more-than-human subjects.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Cullin N, Azevedo Antunes C, Straussman R, et al (2021)

Microbiome and cancer.

Cancer cell pii:S1535-6108(21)00446-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome constitutes a complex multikingdom community that symbiotically interacts with the host across multiple body sites. Host-microbiome interactions impact multiple physiological processes and a variety of multifactorial disease conditions. In the past decade, microbiome communities have been suggested to influence the development, progression, metastasis formation, and treatment response of multiple cancer types. While causal evidence of microbial impacts on cancer biology is only beginning to be unraveled, enhanced molecular understanding of such cancer-modulating interactions and impacts on cancer treatment are considered of major scientific importance and clinical relevance. In this review, we describe the molecular pathogenic mechanisms shared throughout microbial niches that contribute to the initiation and progression of cancer. We highlight advances, limitations, challenges, and prospects in understanding how the microbiome may causally impact cancer and its treatment responsiveness, and how microorganisms or their secreted bioactive metabolites may be potentially harnessed and targeted as precision cancer therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Bron PA, Catalayud M, Marzorati M, et al (2021)

Delivery of Metabolically Neuroactive Probiotics to the Human Gut.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(17): pii:ijms22179122.

The human microbiome is a rich factory for metabolite production and emerging data has led to the concept that orally administered microbial strains can synthesize metabolites with neuroactive potential. Recent research from ex vivo and murine models suggests translational potential for microbes to regulate anxiety and depression through the gut-brain axis. However, so far, less emphasis has been placed on the selection of specific microbial strains known to produce the required key metabolites and the formulation in which microbial compositions are delivered to the gut. Here, we describe a double-capsule technology to deliver high numbers of metabolically active cells derived from the 24-strain probiotic product SH-DS01 to the gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, where immune responses and adsorption of metabolites into the bloodstream occur. Based on its genome sequence, Limosilactobacillus reuteri SD-LRE2-IT was predicted to have the genetic capacity to de novo produce a specific metabolite of interest to brain health, vitamin B12, which could be confirmed in vitro. Taken together, our data conceptualizes the importance of rationally defined microbial strain characterization based on genomics and metabolomics data, combined with carefully designed capsule technology for delivery of live cells and concomitant functionality in and beyond the gut ecosystem.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Allen-Vercoe E (2021)

Commensals make the most of their hosts.

Cell host & microbe, 29(9):1337-1339.

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Brown et al. reveal a large group of genes within the human microbiome that code for ADP-ribosyltransferases that are predicted to manipulate host cells. Previously studied for pathogens, these host modification mechanisms may also be common properties of commensals.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Wiqoyah N, Mertaniasih NM, Artama WT, et al (2021)

Microbiome in sputum as a potential biomarker of chronicity in pulmonary resistant to rifampicin-tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis patients.

International journal of mycobacteriology, 10(3):260-267.

Background: Cases of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) in South-east Asia including Indonesia are still high. The presence of mixed infections in TB cases has been reported. Several studies revealed the role of the human microbiome in TB. This study purposes to characterize microbiome which can be a potential biomarker of chronicity in TB or MDR-TB.

Methods: Sputum samples of pulmonary TB patients confirmed MDR-TB and resistant to rifampicin TB (RR-TB) were conducted Metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Principal coordinate analysis of UniFrac's showing the community structure of microbiome in MDR-TB comorbid diabetes mellitus (DM) is different from RR-TB noncomorbid DM (P = 0.003).

Results: Proteobacteria microbiome in MDR-TB comorbid DM was more abundant than in RR-TB noncomorbid DM. Actinobacteria found in the small quantity in RR-TB and MDR-TB. Diversity of microbiome genera was greater in RR-TB. The linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis represents a genus biomarker whose abundance shows significant differences between groups, genus Rothia as a potential biomarker for RR-TB noncomorbid DM.

Conclusions: Interesting findings is the community structure of microbiome in MDR-TB and RR-TB. In chronic TB such as recurrent, associated MDR-TB should attention to the findings of a small number of Actinobacteria could be a biomarker of TB which is also a determinant in patient taking combined anti-TB drugs of choice.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Lymberopoulos E, Gentili GI, Alomari M, et al (2021)

Topological Data Analysis Highlights Novel Geographical Signatures of the Human Gut Microbiome.

Frontiers in artificial intelligence, 4:680564 pii:680564.

Background: There is growing interest in the connection between the gut microbiome and human health and disease. Conventional approaches to analyse microbiome data typically entail dimensionality reduction and assume linearity of the observed relationships, however, the microbiome is a highly complex ecosystem marked by non-linear relationships. In this study, we use topological data analysis (TDA) to explore differences and similarities between the gut microbiome across several countries. Methods: We used curated adult microbiome data at the genus level from the GMrepo database. The dataset contains OTU and demographical data of over 4,400 samples from 19 studies, spanning 12 countries. We analysed the data with tmap, an integrative framework for TDA specifically designed for stratification and enrichment analysis of population-based gut microbiome datasets. Results: We find associations between specific microbial genera and groups of countries. Specifically, both the USA and UK were significantly co-enriched with the proinflammatory genera Lachnoclostridium and Ruminiclostridium, while France and New Zealand were co-enriched with other, butyrate-producing, taxa of the order Clostridiales. Conclusion: The TDA approach demonstrates the overlap and distinctions of microbiome composition between and within countries. This yields unique insights into complex associations in the dataset, a finding not possible with conventional approaches. It highlights the potential utility of TDA as a complementary tool in microbiome research, particularly for large population-scale datasets, and suggests further analysis on the effects of diet and other regionally varying factors.

RevDate: 2021-09-06

Mehta S, Crane M, Leith E, et al (2021)

ASaiM-MT: a validated and optimized ASaiM workflow for metatranscriptomics analysis within Galaxy framework.

F1000Research, 10:103.

The Human Microbiome Project (HMP) aided in understanding the role of microbial communities and the influence of collective genetic material (the 'microbiome') in human health and disease. With the evolution of new sequencing technologies, researchers can now investigate the microbiome and map its influence on human health. Advances in bioinformatics methods for next-generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis have helped researchers to gain an in-depth knowledge about the taxonomic and genetic composition of microbial communities. Metagenomic-based methods have been the most commonly used approaches for microbiome analysis; however, it primarily extracts information about taxonomic composition and genetic potential of the microbiome under study, lacking quantification of the gene products (RNA and proteins). Conversely, metatranscriptomics, the study of a microbial community's RNA expression, can reveal the dynamic gene expression of individual microbial populations and the community as a whole, ultimately providing information about the active pathways in the microbiome. In order to address the analysis of NGS data, the ASaiM analysis framework was previously developed and made available via the Galaxy platform. Although developed for both metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, the original publication demonstrated the use of ASaiM only for metagenomics, while thorough testing for metatranscriptomics data was lacking. In the current study, we have focused on validating and optimizing the tools within ASaiM for metatranscriptomics data. As a result, we deliver a robust workflow that will enable researchers to understand dynamic functional response of the microbiome in a wide variety of metatranscriptomics studies. This improved and optimized ASaiM-metatranscriptomics (ASaiM-MT) workflow is publicly available via the ASaiM framework, documented and supported with training material so that users can interrogate and characterize metatranscriptomic data, as part of larger meta-omic studies of microbiomes.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Vandamme P, Peeters C, Seth-Smith HMB, et al (2021)

Gulosibacter hominis sp. nov.: a novel human microbiome bacterium that may cause opportunistic infections.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

We present genomic, phylogenomic, and phenotypic taxonomic data to demonstrate that three human ear isolates represent a novel species within the genus Gulosibacter. These isolates could not be identified reliably using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry during routine diagnostic work, but partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belonged to the genus Gulosibacter. Overall genomic relatedness indices between the draft genome sequences of the three isolates and of the type strains of established Gulosibacter species confirmed that the three isolates represented a single novel Gulosibacter species. A biochemical characterisation yielded differential tests between the novel and established Gulosibacter species, which could also be differentiated using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We propose to formally classify these three isolates into Gulosibacter hominis sp. nov., with 401352-2018 T (= LMG 31778 T, CCUG 74795 T) as the type strain. The whole-genome sequence of strain 401352-2018 T has a size of 2,340,181 bp and a G+C content of 62.04 mol%. A Gulosibacter pangenome analysis revealed 467 gene clusters that were exclusively present in G. hominis genomes. While these G. hominis specific gene clusters were enriched in several COG functional categories, this analysis did not reveal functions that suggested a role in the human microbiome, nor did it explain the occurrence of G. hominis in ear infections. The absence of acquired antimicrobial resistance determinants and virulence factors in the G. hominis genomes, and an analysis of publicly available 16S rRNA gene sequences and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing data sets suggested that G. hominis is a member of the human skin microbiota that may occasionally be involved in opportunistic infections.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Babino G, Caccavale S, Pinto D, et al (2021)

A Randomized Double-Blind Parallel-Group Study to Evaluate the Long-Term Effects of a Medical Device Containing 0.3% Octatrienoic Acid in the Treatment of Grade III Actinic Keratosis.

Dermatology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Actinic keratosis (AK) consists of skin lesions with a milder degree of keratinocytic atypia. It can be also referred to as "field of cancerization," which can potentially evolve to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Several therapeutic options are currently available, but not all are indicated on hyperkeratotic lesions. This study aimed to test the efficacy and tolerability of a medical device containing 2,4,6-octatrienoic acid and urea for the treatment of hyperkeratotic AK lesions.

METHODS: Seventy male and female subjects with grade III AK were enrolled in this randomized double-blind parallel-group study. The product was applied once daily for three consecutive months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction in the mean number of AK lesions per subject from baseline (T0) to the end of the trial (T1) and 3 months after the end of the treatment period (T2). Therefore, clearance of target AK lesions at the end of the treatment period and local skin reaction score (LSR) versus baseline were evaluated.

RESULTS: There was a decrease of mean values from baseline to visit T2 in both treatment groups, but the decrease (versus baseline values) was more evident in the Kerà K2 group than in the placebo group (-42.78, SD 26.53, versus -6.20, SD 31.57), and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). For 70 subjects (56.7%) in the Kerà K2 group and 3 (11.54%) in the placebo group, a significant (p < 0.005) partial clearance was evidenced. The product was well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported during the duration of the trial. Subject self-assessment of acceptability, local tolerability, and the cosmetic result was good at both T1 and T2 for both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The medical device has demonstrated good efficacy in the reduction of visible AKs, encouraging its use.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

D'Huys L, Vitale R, Ruppeka-Rupeika E, et al (2021)

Assessing the Resolution of Methyltransferase-Mediated DNA Optical Mapping.

ACS omega, 6(33):21276-21283.

Interest in the human microbiome is growing and has been, for the past decade, leading to new insights into disease etiology and general human biology. Stimulated by these advances and in a parallel trend, new DNA sequencing platforms have been developed, radically expanding the possibilities in microbiome research. While DNA sequencing plays a pivotal role in this field, there are some technological hurdles that are yet to be overcome. Targeting of the 16S rRNA gene with amplicon sequencing, for instance, is frequently used for sample composition profiling due to its short sample-to-result time and low cost, which counterbalance its low resolution (genus to species level). On the other hand, more comprehensive methods, namely, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and shallow shotgun sequencing, are capable of yielding single-gene- and functional-level resolution at a higher cost and much higher sample processing time. It goes without saying that the existing gap between these two types of approaches still calls for the development of a fast, robust, and low-cost analytical platform. In search of the latter, we investigated the taxonomic resolution of methyltransferase-mediated DNA optical mapping and found that strain-level identification can be achieved with both global and whole-genome analyses as well as using a unique identifier (UI) database. In addition, we demonstrated that UI selection in DNA optical mapping, unlike variable region selection in 16S amplicon sequencing, is not limited to any genomic location, explaining the increase in resolution. This latter aspect was highlighted by SCCmec typing in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using a simulated data set. In conclusion, we propose DNA optical mapping as a method that has the potential to be highly complementary to current sequencing platforms.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Zhang Y, Thompson KN, Branck T, et al (2021)

Metatranscriptomics for the Human Microbiome and Microbial Community Functional Profiling.

Annual review of biomedical data science, 4:279-311.

Shotgun metatranscriptomics (MTX) is an increasingly practical way to survey microbial community gene function and regulation at scale. This review begins by summarizing the motivations for community transcriptomics and the history of the field. We then explore the principles, best practices, and challenges of contemporary MTX workflows: beginning with laboratory methods for isolation and sequencing of community RNA, followed by informatics methods for quantifying RNA features, and finally statistical methods for detecting differential expression in a community context. In thesecond half of the review, we survey important biological findings from the MTX literature, drawing examples from the human microbiome, other (nonhuman) host-associated microbiomes, and the environment. Across these examples, MTX methods prove invaluable for probing microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions, the dynamics of energy harvest and chemical cycling, and responses to environmental stresses. We conclude with a review of open challenges in the MTX field, including making assays and analyses more robust, accessible, and adaptable to new technologies; deciphering roles for millions of uncharacterized microbial transcripts; and solving applied problems such as biomarker discovery and development of microbial therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Chen H, Ma Y, Liu Z, et al (2021)

Circulating microbiome DNA: An emerging paradigm for cancer liquid biopsy.

Cancer letters pii:S0304-3835(21)00432-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Dysbiosis of the human microbiome has long been reported to be closely associated with various cancers. Accumulating studies have shown that microbial dysbiosis can accelerate tumorigenesis through tumor-promoting inflammation, DNA damage, and inducing immune evasion. Differential composition of microbiome could be novel biomarkers for cancer detection or biomarkers of successful immunotherapy. More importantly, emerging evidence demonstrates that alterations of circulating microbiome DNA (cmDNA) could serve as promising noninvasive biomarkers for cancer detection. It has been reported that distinct circulating bacterial DNA could distinguish prostate cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma patients from healthy populations. Therefore, in this review, we summarized current literature on microbial biomarkers for cancer detection and unraveled the potential of cmDNA as a promising cancer detection tool.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Cho HW, YB Eom (2021)

Forensic Analysis of Human Microbiome in Skin and Body Fluids Based on Geographic Location.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:695191.

High-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have facilitated the in silico forensic analysis of human microbiome. Specific microbial species or communities obtained from the crime scene provide evidence of human contacts and their body fluids. The microbial community is influenced by geographic, ethnic, lifestyle, and environmental factors such as urbanization. An understanding of the effects of these external stressors on the human microbiome and determination of stable and changing elements are important in selecting appropriate targets for investigation. In this study, the Forensic Microbiome Database (FMD) (http://www.fmd.jcvi.org) containing the microbiome data of various locations in the human body in 35 countries was used. We focused on skin, saliva, vaginal fluid, and stool and found that the microbiome distribution differed according to the body part as well as the geographic location. In the case of skin samples, Staphylococcus species were higher than Corynebacterium species among Asians compared with Americans. Holdemanella and Fusobacterium were specific in the saliva of Koreans and Japanese populations. Lactobacillus was found in the vaginal fluids of individuals in all countries, whereas Serratia and Enterobacter were endemic to Bolivia and Congo, respectively. This study is the first attempt to collate and describe the observed variation in microbiomes from the forensic microbiome database. As additional microbiome databases are reported by studies worldwide, the diversity of the applications may exceed and expand beyond the initial identification of the host.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Vork L, Penders J, Jalanka J, et al (2021)

Does Day-to-Day Variability in Stool Consistency Link to the Fecal Microbiota Composition?.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:639667.

Introduction: Stool consistency has been associated with fecal microbial composition. Stool consistency often varies over time, in subjects with and without gastrointestinal disorders, raising the question whether variability in the microbial composition should be considered in microbiota studies. We evaluated within-subject day-to-day variability in stool consistency and the association with the fecal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and healthy subjects, over seven days.

Methods: Twelve IBS patients and 12 healthy subjects collected fecal samples during seven consecutive days. Stool consistency was determined by the patient-reported Bristol Stool Scale (BSS) and fecal dry weight percentage. 16S rRNA V4 gene sequencing was performed and microbial richness (alpha diversity; Chao1 index, observed number of species, effective Shannon index) and microbial community structure (beta diversity; Bray-Curtis distance, generalized UniFrac, and taxa abundance on family level) were determined.

Results: Linear mixed-effects models showed significant associations between stool consistency and microbial richness, but no time effect. This implies that between-subject but not within-subject variation in microbiota over time can partially be explained by variation in stool consistency. Redundancy analysis showed a significant association between stool consistency and microbial community structure, but additional linear mixed-effects models did not demonstrate a time effect on this.

Conclusion: This study supports an association between stool consistency and fecal microbiota, but no effect of day-to-day fluctuations in stool consistency within seven days. This consolidates the importance of considering stool consistency in gut microbiota research, though confirms the validity of single fecal sampling to represent an individual's microbiota at a given time point. NCT00775060.

RevDate: 2021-08-29

Li JJ, Zhu M, Kashyap PC, et al (2021)

The role of microbiome in pancreatic cancer.

Cancer metastasis reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies of the human microbiome have offered new insights into how the microbiome can impact cancer development and treatment. Specifically, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), the microbiota has been shown to modulate PDAC risk, contribute to tumorigenesis, impact the tumor microenvironment, and alter treatment response. These findings provide rationale for further investigations into leveraging the microbiome to develop new strategies to diagnose and treat PDAC patients. There is growing evidence that microbiome analyses have the potential to become easily performed, non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. More excitingly, there is now emerging interest in developing interventions based on the modulation of microbiota. Fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, dietary changes, and antibiotics are all potential strategies to augment the efficacy of current therapeutics and reduce toxicities. While there are still challenges to overcome, this is a rapidly growing field that holds promise for translation into clinical practice and provides a new approach to improving patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Javelle E, Mayet A, Million M, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota in Military International Travelers with Doxycycline Malaria Prophylaxis: Towards the Risk of a Simpson Paradox in the Human Microbiome Field.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(8): pii:pathogens10081063.

Dysbiosis, developed upon antibiotic administration, results in loss of diversity and shifts in the abundance of gut microbes. Doxycycline is a tetracycline antibiotic widely used for malaria prophylaxis in travelers. We prospectively studied changes in the fecal microbiota of 15 French soldiers after a 4-month mission to Mali with doxycycline malaria prophylaxis, compared to changes in the microbiota of 28 soldiers deployed to Iraq and Lebanon without doxycycline. Stool samples were collected with clinical data before and after missions, and 16S rRNA sequenced on MiSeq targeting the V3-V4 region. Doxycycline exposure resulted in increased alpha-biodiversity and no significant beta-dissimilarities. It led to expansion in Bacteroides, with a reduction in Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, as in the group deployed without doxycycline. Doxycycline did not alter the community structure and was specifically associated with a reduction in Escherichia and expression of Rothia. Differences in the microbiota existed at baseline between military units but not within the studied groups. This group-effect highlighted the risk of a Simpson paradox in microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Dalal P, D Sharma (2021)

Microbe defines the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drug: A complete paradigm.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:6358522 [Epub ahead of print].

The human body harbors a diverse microbiome that regulates host physiology and disease development. Several studies have also been reported where the human microbiome interferes with the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Reports have also suggested the use of microbes in specific targeting and drug delivery. This review mainly focuses on the alteration in the efficacy of the drug by human microbiota. We have also discussed how the diversity in microbes can determine the therapeutic outcomes of a particular drug. The pathways involved in the alteration are also focused, with some highlights on microbes being used in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Kouvela A, Zaravinos A, V Stamatopoulou (2021)

Adaptor Molecules Epitranscriptome Reprograms Bacterial Pathogenicity.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(16): pii:ijms22168409.

The strong decoration of tRNAs with post-transcriptional modifications provides an unprecedented adaptability of this class of non-coding RNAs leading to the regulation of bacterial growth and pathogenicity. Accumulating data indicate that tRNA post-transcriptional modifications possess a central role in both the formation of bacterial cell wall and the modulation of transcription and translation fidelity, but also in the expression of virulence factors. Evolutionary conserved modifications in tRNA nucleosides ensure the proper folding and stability redounding to a totally functional molecule. However, environmental factors including stress conditions can cause various alterations in tRNA modifications, disturbing the pathogen homeostasis. Post-transcriptional modifications adjacent to the anticodon stem-loop, for instance, have been tightly linked to bacterial infectivity. Currently, advances in high throughput methodologies have facilitated the identification and functional investigation of such tRNA modifications offering a broader pool of putative alternative molecular targets and therapeutic avenues against bacterial infections. Herein, we focus on tRNA epitranscriptome shaping regarding modifications with a key role in bacterial infectivity including opportunistic pathogens of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Yano Y, Etemadi A, CC Abnet (2021)

Microbiome and Cancers of the Esophagus: A Review.

Microorganisms, 9(8): pii:microorganisms9081764.

Esophageal cancer (EC) is an aggressive malignant disease ranking amongst the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world. The two main histologic subtypes, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), have distinct geographic and temporal patterns and risk factor profiles. Despite decades of research, the factors underlying these geo-temporal patterns are still not fully understood. The human microbiome has recently been implicated in various health conditions and disease, and it is possible that the microbiome may play an important role in the etiology of EC. Although studies of the microbiome and EC are still in their early stages, we review our current understanding of the potential links between ESCC, EAC, and bacterial communities in the oral cavity and esophagus. We also provide a summary of the epidemiology of EC and highlight some key challenges and future directions.

RevDate: 2021-08-26

Insolia L, Kenney A, Chiaromonte F, et al (2021)

Simultaneous feature selection and outlier detection with optimality guarantees.

Biometrics [Epub ahead of print].

Biomedical research is increasingly data rich, with studies comprising ever growing numbers of features. The larger a study, the higher the likelihood that a substantial portion of the features may be redundant and/or contain contamination (outlying values). This poses serious challenges, which are exacerbated in cases where the sample sizes are relatively small. Effective and efficient approaches to perform sparse estimation in the presence of outliers are critical for these studies, and have received considerable attention in the last decade. We contribute to this area considering high-dimensional regressions contaminated by multiple mean-shift outliers affecting both the response and the design matrix. We develop a general framework and use mixed-integer programming to simultaneously perform feature selection and outlier detection with provably optimal guarantees. We prove theoretical properties for our approach, i.e., a necessary and sufficient condition for the robustly strong oracle property, where the number of features can increase exponentially with the sample size; the optimal estimation of parameters; and the breakdown point of the resulting estimates. Moreover, we provide computationally efficient procedures to tune integer constraints and warm-start the algorithm. We show the superior performance of our proposal compared to existing heuristic methods through simulations and use it to study the relationships between childhood obesity and the human microbiome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-08-26

Wilson M, Mello MJ, PA Gruppuso (2021)

Antibiotics and the Human Microbiome: A Survey of Prescribing Clinicians' Knowledge and Opinions Regarding the Link between Antibiotic-Induced Dysbiosis and Immune-Mediated Disease.

Rhode Island medical journal (2013), 104(7):59-63.

Altered composition or function of the human micro- biome, termed dysbiosis, has been associated with a variety of immune-mediated diseases. Antibiotic use is a well-studied cause of dysbiosis. We conducted an electronic survey of 351 antibiotic-prescribing clinicians in Rhode Island to evaluate antibiotic prescription patterns, knowledge and opinions regarding the importance of the human microbiome and its relation to antibiotics and the immune system. We found that clinicians view the health of the human microbiome as important when prescribing antibiotics; however, they do not feel well-informed or confident in their knowledge about the microbiome or its relevance to patient health. A higher level of self- reported knowledge about the microbiome was associated with increased importance placed on the microbiome and its relevance to medical practice. Our results indicate that clinicians may benefit from continuing medical education on the link between antibiotic-induced dysbiosis and immune-mediated disease.

RevDate: 2021-08-25

Gabaldón T (2021)

Roles of the human microbiome in cancer.

Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition, 10(4):558-560.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Caballero AM, Villagrán VAS, Serna AJ, et al (2021)

Challenges in the production and use of probiotics as therapeuticals in cancer treatment or prevention.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology pii:6356962 [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotics were defined as microbial strains that confer health benefits to their consumers. The concept has evolved during the last twenty years, and today metabolites produced by the strains, known as postbiotics, and even dead cells, known as paraprobiotics are closely associated to them. The isolation of commensal strains from human microbiome has led to the development of next generation probiotics. This review aims to present an overview of the developments in the area of cancer prevention and treatment, intimately related to advances in the knowledge of the microbiome role in its genesis and therapy. Strain identification and characterization, production processes, delivery strategies and clinical evaluation are crucial to translate results into the market with solid scientific support. Examples of recent tools in isolation, strain typification, quality control and development of new probiotic strains are described. Probiotics market and regulation were originally developed in the food sector, but these new strategies will impact the pharmaceutical and health sectors, requiring new considerations in regulatory frameworks.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Ammer-Herrmenau C, Pfisterer N, van den Berg T, et al (2021)

Comprehensive Wet-Bench and Bioinformatics Workflow for Complex Microbiota Using Oxford Nanopore Technologies.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The advent of high-throughput sequencing techniques has recently provided an astonishing insight into the composition and function of the human microbiome. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has become the gold standard for advanced microbiome analysis; however, 3rd generation real-time sequencing, such as Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT), enables rapid sequencing from several kilobases to >2 Mb with high resolution. Despite the wide availability and the enormous potential for clinical and translational applications, ONT is poorly standardized in terms of sampling and storage conditions, DNA extraction, library creation, and bioinformatic classification. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis pipeline with sampling, storage, DNA extraction, library preparation, and bioinformatic evaluation for complex microbiomes sequenced with ONT. Our findings from buccal and rectal swabs and DNA extraction experiments indicate that methods that were approved for NGS microbiome analysis cannot be simply adapted to ONT. We recommend using swabs and DNA extractions protocols with extended washing steps. Both 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing achieved reliable and reproducible results. Our benchmarking experiments reveal thresholds for analysis parameters that achieved excellent precision, recall, and area under the precision recall values and is superior to existing classifiers (Kraken2, Kaiju, and MetaMaps). Hence, our workflow provides an experimental and bioinformatic pipeline to perform a highly accurate analysis of complex microbial structures from buccal and rectal swabs. IMPORTANCE Advanced microbiome analysis relies on sequencing of short DNA fragments from microorganisms like bacteria, fungi, and viruses. More recently, long fragment DNA sequencing of 3rd generation sequencing has gained increasing importance and can be rapidly conducted within a few hours due to its potential real-time sequencing. However, the analysis and correct identification of the microbiome relies on a multitude of factors, such as the method of sampling, DNA extraction, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis. Scientists have used different protocols in the past that do not allow us to compare results across different studies and research fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive workflow from DNA extraction, sequencing, and bioinformatic workflow that allows rapid and accurate analysis of human buccal and rectal swabs with reproducible protocols. This workflow can be readily applied by many scientists from various research fields that aim to use long-fragment microbiome sequencing.

RevDate: 2021-08-23

Grover K, Gregory S, Gibbs JF, et al (2021)

A discussion of the gut microbiome's development, determinants, and dysbiosis in cancers of the esophagus and stomach.

Journal of gastrointestinal oncology, 12(Suppl 2):S290-S300.

The microbiome refers to a population of microbes that colonize the skin, nasopharynx, oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and urogenital tract. The human microbiome consists of bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and phages. Recent advances in genomic sequencing have catalyzed a deeper understanding of complex microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions. Dysregulation of these interactions, or dysbiosis of the gastrointestinal tract, has been implicated in a growing list of pathologies including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, depression, Parkinson's disease, autism, and various gastrointestinal cancers. Gastric and esophageal cancer, for example, continue to remain as two of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide, therefore there is an increased emphasis on investigating the role of dysbiosis on these cancers. In this review, we discuss the development and structure of the gut microbiome, its homeostatic and dysbiotic mechanisms, and the key microbes in esophageal and gastric carcinogenesis with a focus on bacterial biology. Further clarification of these pathways and discovery of diagnostic or therapeutic targets could have broad impacts on global subpopulations. It is important to understand the nature of the gastrointestinal tract microbiome and its potentional risk factors for dysbiosis in order to tailor its application to the individual patient and create an era of highly personalized, precision medicine.

RevDate: 2021-08-22

Chuzel L, Fossa SL, Boisvert ML, et al (2021)

Combining functional metagenomics and glycoanalytics to identify enzymes that facilitate structural characterization of sulfated N-glycans.

Microbial cell factories, 20(1):162.

BACKGROUND: Sulfate modification of N-glycans is important for several biological functions such as clearance of pituitary hormones or immunoregulation. Yet, the prevalence of this N-glycan modification and its functions remain largely unexplored. Characterization of N-glycans bearing sulfate modifications is hampered in part by a lack of enzymes that enable site-specific detection of N-glycan sulfation. In this study, we used functional metagenomic screening to identify enzymes that act upon sulfated N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (xCGE-LIF) -based glycoanalysis we proved their ability to act upon GlcNAc-6-SO4 on N-glycans.

RESULTS: Our screen identified a sugar-specific sulfatase that specifically removes sulfate from GlcNAc-6-SO4 when it is in a terminal position on an N-glycan. Additionally, in the absence of calcium, this sulfatase binds to the sulfated glycan but does not remove the sulfate group, suggesting it could be used for selective isolation of sulfated N-glycans. Further, we describe isolation of a sulfate-dependent hexosaminidase that removes intact GlcNAc-6-SO4 (but not asulfated GlcNAc) from a terminal position on N-glycans. Finally, the use of these enzymes to detect the presence of sulfated N-glycans by xCGE-LIF is demonstrated.

CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using functional metagenomic screening combined with glycoanalytics to discover enzymes that act upon chemical modifications of glycans. The discovered enzymes represent new specificities that can help resolve the presence of GlcNAc-6-SO4 in N-glycan structural analyses.

RevDate: 2021-08-20

Li W, Hang S, Fang Y, et al (2021)

A bacterial bile acid metabolite modulates Treg activity through the nuclear hormone receptor NR4A1.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(21)00346-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Bile acids act as signaling molecules that regulate immune homeostasis, including the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into distinct T cell subsets. The bile acid metabolite isoallolithocholic acid (isoalloLCA) enhances the differentiation of anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells (Treg cells) by facilitating the formation of a permissive chromatin structure in the promoter region of the transcription factor forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). Here, we identify gut bacteria that synthesize isoalloLCA from 3-oxolithocholic acid and uncover a gene cluster responsible for the conversion in members of the abundant human gut bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. We also show that the nuclear hormone receptor NR4A1 is required for the effect of isoalloLCA on Treg cells. Moreover, the levels of isoalloLCA and its biosynthetic genes are significantly reduced in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, suggesting that isoalloLCA and its bacterial producers may play a critical role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans.

RevDate: 2021-08-20

Yu ZK, Xie RL, You R, et al (2021)

The role of the bacterial microbiome in the treatment of cancer.

BMC cancer, 21(1):934.

The human microbiome is defined as the microorganisms that reside in or on the human body, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa, and their genomes. The human microbiome participates in the modulation of human metabolism by influencing several intricate pathways. The association between specific bacteria or viruses and the efficacy of cancer treatments and the occurrence of treatment-related toxicity in cancer patients has been reported. However, the understanding of the interaction between the host microbiome and the cancer treatment response is limited, and the microbiome potentially plays a greater role in the treatment of cancer than reported to date. Here, we provide a thorough review of the potential role of the gut and locally resident bacterial microbiota in modulating responses to different cancer therapeutics to demonstrate the association between the gut or locally resident bacterial microbiota and cancer therapy. Probable mechanisms, such as metabolism, the immune response and the translocation of microbiome constituents, are discussed to promote future research into the association between the microbiome and other types of cancer. We conclude that the interaction between the host immune system and the microbiome may be the basis of the role of the microbiome in cancer therapies. Future research on the association between host immunity and the microbiome may improve the efficacy of several cancer treatments and provide insights into the cause of treatment-related side effects.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Gopinath D, RK Menon (2021)

Increasing Reproducibility in Oral Microbiome Research.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2327:1-15.

Evidence on the role of the oral microbiome in health and disease is changing the way we understand, diagnose, and treat ailments. Numerous studies on diseases affecting the oral cavity have revealed a large amount of data that is invaluable for the advancements in diagnosing and treating these diseases. However, the clinical translation of most of these exploratory data is stalled by variable methodology between studies and non-uniform reporting of the data.Understanding the key areas that are gateways to bias in microbiome studies is imperative to overcome this challenge faced by oral microbiome research. Bias can be multifactorial and may be introduced in a microbiome research study during the formulation of the study design, sample collection and storage, or the sample processing protocols before sequencing. This chapter summarizes the recommendations from literature to eliminate bias in the microbiome research studies and to ensure the reproducibility of the microbiome research data.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Huck O, Mulhall H, Rubin G, et al (2021)

Response to Letter to the Editor, "A. muciniphila reduces Porphyromonas gingivalis induced inflammation and periodontal bone destruction".

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Mazur M, Tomczak H, Lodyga M, et al (2021)

The microbiome of the human skin and its variability in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.

Postepy dermatologii i alergologii, 38(2):205-209.

The human organism is inhabited by very diverse microorganisms, which constitute the so-called human microbiome and are necessary for the proper functioning of the macroorganism. The correct microbiome ensures homeostasis of the body. A disturbance in its homeostasis leads to dysbiosis. Such deviations may also be related to the development of inflammatory skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. This review aims to analyse the most current published data on the microbiome of the human skin and examine its role in cutaneous skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. This review was compiled by collaborating dermatologists specializing in atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. A comprehensive review of current literature was done using PubMed and limited to relevant case reports and original papers on the skin microbiome in atopic dermatitis and/or psoriasis. It has not been yet established whether changes in the microbiome are the cause or consequence of disease (atopic dermatitis/psoriasis). However, it was found that in the cases where pathological microflora predominated, an intensification of lesion severity is observed, while with clinical improvement, commensal microflora is restored. Modification of the composition of the microflora may lead to changes in the activation of the immune system and eventually to the development of inflammatory diseases. Adverse effects on the microbiome may include antibiotics, poor diet, stress and adverse environmental conditions. However, more research is needed to identify exact details and mechanisms.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Kværner AS, Birkeland E, Bucher-Johannessen C, et al (2021)

The CRCbiome study: a large prospective cohort study examining the role of lifestyle and the gut microbiome in colorectal cancer screening participants.

BMC cancer, 21(1):930.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC incidence and mortality. However, current screening methods are either hampered by invasiveness or suboptimal performance, limiting their effectiveness as primary screening methods. To aid in the development of a non-invasive screening test with improved sensitivity and specificity, we have initiated a prospective biomarker study (CRCbiome), nested within a large randomized CRC screening trial in Norway. We aim to develop a microbiome-based classification algorithm to identify advanced colorectal lesions in screening participants testing positive for an immunochemical fecal occult blood test (FIT). We will also examine interactions with host factors, diet, lifestyle and prescription drugs. The prospective nature of the study also enables the analysis of changes in the gut microbiome following the removal of precancerous lesions.

METHODS: The CRCbiome study recruits participants enrolled in the Bowel Cancer Screening in Norway (BCSN) study, a randomized trial initiated in 2012 comparing once-only sigmoidoscopy to repeated biennial FIT, where women and men aged 50-74 years at study entry are invited to participate. Since 2017, participants randomized to FIT screening with a positive test result have been invited to join the CRCbiome study. Self-reported diet, lifestyle and demographic data are collected prior to colonoscopy after the positive FIT-test (baseline). Screening data, including colonoscopy findings are obtained from the BCSN database. Fecal samples for gut microbiome analyses are collected both before and 2 and 12 months after colonoscopy. Samples are analyzed using metagenome sequencing, with taxonomy profiles, and gene and pathway content as primary measures. CRCbiome data will also be linked to national registries to obtain information on prescription histories and cancer relevant outcomes occurring during the 10 year follow-up period.

DISCUSSION: The CRCbiome study will increase our understanding of how the gut microbiome, in combination with lifestyle and environmental factors, influences the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. This knowledge will be crucial to develop microbiome-based screening tools for CRC. By evaluating biomarker performance in a screening setting, using samples from the target population, the generalizability of the findings to future screening cohorts is likely to be high.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01538550 .

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Adriaenssens EM (2021)

Phage Diversity in the Human Gut Microbiome: a Taxonomist's Perspective.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteriophages (phages) have been known for over a century, but only in the last 2 decades have we really come to appreciate how abundant and diverse they are. With that realization, research groups across the globe have shown the importance of phage-based processes in a myriad of environments, including the global oceans and soils, and as part of the human microbiome. Through advances in sequencing technology, genomics, and bioinformatics, we know that the morphological diversity of bacteriophages originally used for taxonomy is eclipsed by their genomic diversity. Because we currently do not have a complete taxonomic framework or naming scheme to describe this diversity, crucial information from virome and microbiome studies is being lost. In this commentary, I will discuss recent advances in taxonomy and its importance for studies of the microbiome with examples of the human gut phageome and make recommendations for future analyses.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Esvap E, KO Ulgen (2021)

Advances in Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling toward Microbial Community Analysis of the Human Microbiome.

ACS synthetic biology [Epub ahead of print].

A genome-scale metabolic model (GEM) represents metabolic pathways of an organism in a mathematical form and can be built using biochemistry and genome annotation data. GEMs are invaluable for understanding organisms since they analyze the metabolic capabilities and behaviors quantitatively and can predict phenotypes. The development of high-throughput data collection techniques led to an immense increase in omics data such as metagenomics, which expand our knowledge on the human microbiome, but this also created a need for systematic analysis of these data. In recent years, GEMs have also been reconstructed for microbial species, including human gut microbiota, and methods for the analysis of microbial communities have been developed to examine the interaction between the organisms or the host. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive guide for the applications of GEMs in microbial community analysis. Starting with GEM repositories, automatic GEM reconstruction tools, and quality control of models, this review will give insights into microbe-microbe and microbe-host interaction predictions and optimization of microbial community models. Recent studies that utilize microbial GEMs and personalized models to infer the influence of microbiota on human diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) or Parkinson's disease are exemplified. Being powerful system biology tools for both species-level and community-level analysis of microbes, GEMs integrated with omics data and machine learning techniques will be indispensable for studying the microbiome and their effects on human physiology as well as for deciphering the mechanisms behind human diseases.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Knippel RJ, Drewes JL, CL Sears (2021)

The Cancer Microbiome: Recent Highlights and Knowledge Gaps.

Cancer discovery pii:2159-8290.CD-21-0324 [Epub ahead of print].

knowledge of the human microbiome, which is likely a critical factor in the initiation, progression, and prognosis of multiple forms of cancer, is rapidly expanding. In this review, we focus on recent investigations to discern putative, causative microbial species and the microbiome composition and structure currently associated with procarcinogenesis and tumorigenesis at select body sites. We specifically highlight forms of cancer, gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal, that have significant bacterial associations and well-defined experimental evidence with the aim of generating directions for future experimental and translational investigations to develop a clearer understanding of the multifaceted mechanisms by which microbiota affect cancer formation. SIGNIFICANCE: Emerging and, for some cancers, strong experimental and translational data support the contribution of the microbiome to cancer biology and disease progression. Disrupting microbiome features and pathways contributing to cancer may provide new approaches to improving cancer outcomes in patients.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

van Dongen KCW, Linkens AMA, Wetzels SMW, et al (2021)

Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) increase their concentration in plasma and tissues, result in inflammation and modulate gut microbial composition in mice; evidence for reversibility.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 147:110547.

SCOPE: Dietary advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are associated with negative biological effects, possibly due to accumulation in plasma and tissues and through modulation of inflammation and gut microbiota. Whether these biological consequences are reversible by limiting dietary AGE intake is unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Young healthy C57BL/6 mice were fed a standard chow (n = 10) or a baked chow high AGE-diet (n = 10) (~1.8-6.9 fold increased protein-bound Nε-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(1-carboxyethyl)lysine (CEL), and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1)) for 10 weeks or a switch diet with baked chow for 5 weeks followed by 5 weeks of standard chow (n = 10). We assessed accumulation of AGEs in plasma, kidney, and liver and measured inflammatory markers and gut microbial composition. After 10 weeks of baked chow, a substantial panel of AGEs were increased in plasma, liver, and kidney. These increases were normalized after the switch diet. The inflammatory z-score increased after the baked chow diet. Gut microbial composition differed significantly between groups, with enriched Dubosiella spp. dominating these alterations.

CONCLUSION: A high AGE-diet led to an increase of AGEs in plasma, kidney, and liver and to more inflammation and modification of the gut microbiota. These effects were reversed or discontinued by a diet lower in AGEs.

RevDate: 2021-08-13

Alenius H, Sinkko H, Moitinho-Silva L, et al (2021)

The power and potential of BIOMAP to elucidate host-microbiome interplay in skin inflammatory diseases.

Experimental dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

The two most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases are atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. The underpinnings of the remarkable degree of clinical heterogeneity of AD and psoriasis are poorly understood and, as a consequence, disease onset and progression are unpredictable and the optimal type and time-point for intervention are as yet unknown. The BIOMAP project is the first IMI (Innovative Medicines Initiative) project dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of AD and psoriasis and to identify potential biomarkers responsible for the variation in disease outcome. The consortium includes 7 large pharmaceutical companies and 25 non-industry partners including academia. Since there is mounting evidence supporting an important role for microbial exposures and our microbiota as factors mediating immune polarization and AD and psoriasis pathogenesis, an entire work package is dedicated to the investigation of skin and gut microbiome linked to AD or psoriasis. The large collaborative BIOMAP project will enable the integration of patient cohorts, data and knowledge in unprecedented proportions. The project has a unique opportunity with a potential to bridge and fill the gaps between current problems and solutions. This review highlights the power and potential of BIOMAP project in the investigation of microbe-host interplay in AD and psoriasis.

RevDate: 2021-08-13

Jana UK, Kango N, B Pletschke (2021)

Hemicellulose-Derived Oligosaccharides: Emerging Prebiotics in Disease Alleviation.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:670817.

The gut microbiota in the human body is an important component that plays a pivotal role in the ability of the host to prevent diseases and recover from these diseases. If the human microbiome changes for any reason, it affects the overall functioning of the host. Healthy and vigorous gut microbiota require dietary fiber supplementation. Recently, oligosaccharides have been found to play a significant role in the modulation of microbiota. Several such oligosaccharides, i.e., xylooligosaccharides (XOS), mannooligosaccharides (MOS), and arabino-xylooligosaccharides (AXOS), are derived from hemicellulosic macromolecules such as xylan, mannan, and arabino-xylan, respectively. These oligosaccharides serve as substrates for the probiotic production of health-promoting substances (short-chain fatty acids, branched chain amino acids etc.), which confer a variety of health benefits, including the prevention of some dreaded diseases. Among hemicellulose-derived oligosaccharides (HDOs), XOS have been largely explored, whereas, studies on MOS and AXOS are currently underway. HDOs, upon ingestion, help reduce morbidities by lowering populations of harmful or pathogenic bacteria. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are mainly utilized for the uptake of oligosaccharides in probiotics. Butyrate generated by the selective fermentation of oligosaccharides, along with other short-chain fatty acids, reduces gut inflammation. Overall, oligosaccharides derived from hemicelluloses show a similar potential as conventional prebiotics and can be supplemented as functional foods. This review summarizes the role of HDOs in the alleviation of autoimmune diseases (inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease), diabetes, urinary tract infection, cardiovascular diseases, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) through the modulation of the gut microbiota. The mechanism of oligosaccharide utilization and disease mitigation is also explained.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Fremin BJ, Nicolaou C, AS Bhatt (2021)

Simultaneous ribosome profiling of hundreds of microbes from the human microbiome.

Nature protocols [Epub ahead of print].

Ribosome profiling enables sequencing of ribosome-bound fragments of RNA, revealing which transcripts are being translated as well as the position of ribosomes along mRNAs. Although ribosome profiling has been applied to cultured bacterial isolates, its application to uncultured, mixed communities has been challenging. We present MetaRibo-Seq, a protocol that enables the application of ribosome profiling directly to the human fecal microbiome. MetaRibo-Seq is a benchmarked method that includes several modifications to existing ribosome profiling protocols, specifically addressing challenges involving fecal sample storage, purity and input requirements. We also provide a computational workflow to quality control and trim reads, de novo assemble a reference metagenome with metagenomic reads, align MetaRibo-Seq reads to the reference, and assess MetaRibo-Seq library quality (https://github.com/bhattlab/bhattlab_workflows/tree/master/metariboseq). This MetaRibo-Seq protocol enables researchers in standard molecular biology laboratories to study translation in the fecal microbiome in ~5 d.

RevDate: 2021-08-11

Ahmed E, K Hens (2021)

Microbiome in Precision Psychiatry: An Overview of the Ethical Challenges Regarding Microbiome Big Data and Microbiome-Based Interventions.

AJOB neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

There has been a spurt in both fundamental and translational research that examines the underlying mechanisms of the human microbiome in psychiatric disorders. The personalized and dynamic features of the human microbiome suggest the potential of its manipulation for precision psychiatry in ways to improve mental health and avoid disease. However, findings in the field of microbiome also raise philosophical and ethical questions. From a philosophical point of view, they may yet be another attempt at providing a biological cause for phenomena that ultimately cannot be so easily localized. From an ethical point of view, it is relevant that the human gut microbiome comprises data on the individual's lifestyle, disease history, previous medications, and mental health. Massive datasets of microbiome sequences are collected to facilitate comparative studies to identify specific links between the microbiome and mental health. Although this emerging research domain may show promise for psychiatric patients, it is surrounded by ethical challenges regarding patient privacy, health risks, effects on personal identity, and concerns about responsibility. This narrative overview displays the roles and advances of microbiome research in psychiatry and discusses the philosophical and ethical implications of microbiome big data and microbiome-based interventions for psychiatric patients. We also investigate whether these issues are really "new," or "old wine in new bottles."

RevDate: 2021-08-11

Bui TPN, Mannerås-Holm L, Puschmann R, et al (2021)

Conversion of dietary inositol into propionate and acetate by commensal Anaerostipes associates with host health.

Nature communications, 12(1):4798.

We describe the anaerobic conversion of inositol stereoisomers to propionate and acetate by the abundant intestinal genus Anaerostipes. A inositol pathway was elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance using [13C]-inositols, mass spectrometry and proteogenomic analyses in A. rhamnosivorans, identifying 3-oxoacid CoA transferase as a key enzyme involved in both 3-oxopropionyl-CoA and propionate formation. This pathway also allowed conversion of phytate-derived inositol into propionate as shown with [13C]-phytate in fecal samples amended with A. rhamnosivorans. Metabolic and (meta)genomic analyses explained the adaptation of Anaerostipes spp. to inositol-containing substrates and identified a propionate-production gene cluster to be inversely associated with metabolic biomarkers in (pre)diabetes cohorts. Co-administration of myo-inositol with live A. rhamnosivorans in western-diet fed mice reduced fasting-glucose levels comparing to heat-killed A. rhamnosivorans after 6-weeks treatment. Altogether, these data suggest a potential beneficial role for intestinal Anaerostipes spp. in promoting host health.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Skurnik M, Jaakkola S, Mattinen L, et al (2021)

Bacteriophages fEV-1 and fD1 Infect Yersinia pestis.

Viruses, 13(7): pii:v13071384.

Bacteriophages vB_YpeM_fEV-1 (fEV-1) and vB_YpeM_fD1 (fD1) were isolated from incoming sewage water samples in Turku, Finland, using Yersinia pestis strains EV76 and KIM D27 as enrichment hosts, respectively. Genomic analysis and transmission electron microscopy established that fEV-1 is a novel type of dwarf myovirus, while fD1 is a T4-like myovirus. The genome sizes are 38 and 167 kb, respectively. To date, the morphology and genome sequences of some dwarf myoviruses have been described; however, a proteome characterization such as the one presented here, has currently been lacking for this group of viruses. Notably, fEV-1 is the first dwarf myovirus described for Y. pestis. The host range of fEV-1 was restricted strictly to Y. pestis strains, while that of fD1 also included other members of Enterobacterales such as Escherichia coli and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In this study, we present the life cycles, genomes, and proteomes of two Yersinia myoviruses, fEV-1 and fD1.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Puca P, Petito V, Laterza L, et al (2021)

Bariatric procedures and microbiota: patient selection and outcome prediction.

Therapeutic advances in gastrointestinal endoscopy, 14:26317745211014746 pii:10.1177_26317745211014746.

Obesity is a major health issue throughout the world and bariatric surgery plays a key role in its management and treatment. The role of microbiota in determining the pathogenesis of obesity has been widely studied, while its role in determining the outcome of bariatric surgery is an emerging issue that will be an outcome in near future studies. Studies on mice first showed the key role of microbiota in determining obesity, highlighting the fat mass increase in mice transplanted with microbiota from fat individuals, as well as the different microbiota composition between mice undergone to low-fat or high-fat diets. This led to characterize the asset of microbiota composition in obesity: increased abundance of Firmicutes, reduced abundance of Bacteroidetes and other taxonomical features. Variations on the composition of gut microbiome have been detected in patients undergone to diet and/or bariatric surgery procedures. Patients undergone to restricting diets showed lower level of trimethylamine N-oxide and other metabolites strictly associated to microbiome, as well as patients treated with bariatric surgery showed, after the procedure, changes in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and other phyla with a role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Eventually, studies have been led about the effects that the modification of microbiota could have on obesity itself, mainly focusing on elements like fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics such as inulin. This series of studies and considerations represent the first step in order to select patients eligible to bariatric surgery and to predict their outcome.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Wang XW, YY Liu (2020)

Comparative study of classifiers for human microbiome data.

Medicine in microecology, 4:.

Accumulated evidence has shown that commensal microorganisms play key roles in human physiology and diseases. Dysbiosis of the human-associated microbial communities, often referred to as the human microbiome, has been associated with many diseases. Applying supervised classification analysis to the human microbiome data can help us identify subsets of microorganisms that are highly discriminative and hence build prediction models that can accurately classify unlabeled samples. Here, we systematically compare two state-of-the-art ensemble classifiers: Random Forests (RF), eXtreme Gradient Boosting decision trees (XGBoost) and two traditional methods: The elastic net (ENET) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) in the classification analysis of 29 benchmark human microbiome datasets. We find that XGBoost outperforms all other methods only in a few benchmark datasets. Overall, the XGBoost, RF and ENET display comparable performance in the remaining benchmark datasets. The training time of XGBoost is much longer than others, partially due to the much larger number of hyperparameters in XGBoost. We also find that the most important features selected by the four classifiers partially overlap. Yet, the difference between their classification performance is almost independent of this overlap.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Josephs-Spaulding J, Krogh TJ, Rettig HC, et al (2021)

Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections: Unraveling the Complicated Environment of Uncomplicated rUTIs.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 11:562525.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent in humans, affecting the upper and lower urinary tract. Present diagnosis relies on the positive culture of uropathogenic bacteria from urine and clinical markers of inflammation of the urinary tract. The bladder is constantly challenged by adverse environmental stimuli which influence urinary tract physiology, contributing to a dysbiotic environment. Simultaneously, pathogens are primed by environmental stressors such as antibiotics, favoring recurrent UTIs (rUTIs), resulting in chronic illness. Due to different confounders for UTI onset, a greater understanding of the fundamental environmental mechanisms and microbial ecology of the human urinary tract is required. Such advancements could promote the tandem translation of bench and computational studies for precision treatments and clinical management of UTIs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand the ecological interactions of the human urogenital microbial communities which precede rUTIs. This review aims to outline the mechanistic aspects of rUTI ecology underlying dysbiosis between both the human microbiome and host physiology which predisposes humans to rUTIs. By assessing the applications of next generation and systems level methods, we also recommend novel approaches to elucidate the systemic consequences of rUTIs which requires an integrated approach for successful treatment. To this end, we will provide an outlook towards the so-called 'uncomplicated environment of UTIs', a holistic and systems view that applies ecological principles to define patient-specific UTIs. This perspective illustrates the need to withdraw from traditional reductionist perspectives in infection biology and instead, a move towards a systems-view revolving around patient-specific pathophysiology during UTIs.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

de Jong E, Lauzon-Joset JF, Leffler J, et al (2021)

IRF7-Associated Immunophenotypes Have Dichotomous Responses to Virus/Allergen Coexposure and OM-85-Induced Reprogramming.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:699633.

High risk for virus-induced asthma exacerbations in children is associated with an IRF7lo immunophenotype, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we applied a Systems Biology approach to an animal model comprising rat strains manifesting high (BN) versus low susceptibility (PVG) to experimental asthma, induced by virus/allergen coexposure, to elucidate the mechanism(s)-of-action of the high-risk asthma immunophenotype. We also investigated potential risk mitigation via pretreatment with the immune training agent OM-85. Virus/allergen coexposure in low-risk PVG rats resulted in rapid and transient airways inflammation alongside IRF7 gene network formation. In contrast, responses in high-risk BN rats were characterized by severe airways eosinophilia and exaggerated proinflammatory responses that failed to resolve, and complete absence of IRF7 gene networks. OM-85 had more profound effects in high-risk BN rats, inducing immune-related gene expression changes in lung at baseline and reducing exaggerated airway inflammatory responses to virus/allergen coexposure. In low-risk PVG rats, OM-85 boosted IRF7 gene networks in the lung but did not alter baseline gene expression or cellular influx. Distinct IRF7-associated asthma risk immunophenotypes have dichotomous responses to virus/allergen coexposure and respond differentially to OM-85 pretreatment. Extrapolating to humans, our findings suggest that the beneficial effects OM-85 pretreatment may preferentially target those in high-risk subgroups.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Hetemäki I, Jian C, Laakso S, et al (2021)

Fecal Bacteria Implicated in Biofilm Production Are Enriched and Associate to Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients With APECED - A Pilot Study.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:668219.

Backgrounds and Aims: APECED is a rare autoimmune disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator gene. A significant proportion of patients also have gastrointestinal symptoms, including malabsorption, chronic diarrhea, and obstipation. The pathological background of the gastrointestinal symptoms remains incompletely understood and involves multiple factors, with autoimmunity being the most common underlying cause. Patients with APECED have increased immune responses against gut commensals. Our objective was to evaluate whether the intestinal microbiota composition, predicted functions or fungal abundance differ between Finnish patients with APECED and healthy controls, and whether these associate to the patients' clinical phenotype and gastrointestinal symptoms.

Methods: DNA was isolated from fecal samples from 15 patients with APECED (median age 46.4 years) together with 15 samples from body mass index matched healthy controls. DNA samples were subjected to analysis of the gut microbiota using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, imputed metagenomics using the PICRUSt2 algorithm, and quantitative PCR for fungi. Extensive correlations of the microbiota with patient characteristics were determined.

Results: Analysis of gut microbiota indicated that both alpha- and beta-diversity were altered in patients with APECED compared to healthy controls. The fraction of Faecalibacterium was reduced in patients with APECED while that of Atopobium spp. and several gram-negative genera previously implicated in biofilm formation, e.g. Veillonella, Prevotella, Megasphaera and Heamophilus, were increased in parallel to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis in imputed metagenomics. The differences in gut microbiota were linked to patient characteristics, especially the presence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and severity of gastrointestinal symptoms.

Conclusions: Gut microbiota of patients with APECED is altered and enriched with predominantly gram-negative bacterial taxa that may promote biofilm formation and lead to increased exposure to LPS in the patients. The most pronounced alterations in the microbiota were associated with more severe gastrointestinal symptoms.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Thiele-Bruhn S (2021)

The role of soils in provision of genetic, medicinal and biochemical resources.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 376(1834):20200183.

Intact, 'healthy' soils provide indispensable ecosystem services that largely depend on the biotic activity. Soil health is connected with human health, yet, knowledge of the underlying soil functioning remains incomplete. This review highlights selected services, i.e. (i) soil as a genetic resource and hotspot of biodiversity, forming the basis for providing (ii) biochemical resources and (iii) medicinal services and goods. Soils harbour an unrivalled biodiversity of organisms, especially microorganisms. Some of the abilities of autochthonous microorganisms and their relevant enzymes serve (i) to improve natural soil functions and in particular plant growth, e.g. through beneficial plant growth-promoting, symbiotic and mycorrhizal microorganisms, (ii) to act as biopesticides, (iii) to facilitate biodegradation of pollutants for soil bioremediation and (iv) to yield enzymes or chemicals for industrial use. Soils also exert direct effects on human health. Contact with soil enriches the human microbiome, affords protection against allergies and promotes emotional well-being. Medicinally relevant are soil substrates such as loams, clays and various minerals with curative effects as well as pharmaceutically active organic chemicals like antibiotics that are formed by soil microorganisms. By contrast, irritating minerals, soil dust inhalation and misguided soil ingestion may adversely affect humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'The role of soils in delivering Nature's Contributions to People.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Dwivedi M, Powali S, Rastogi S, et al (2021)

Microbial community in Human gut: A therapeutic prospect and implication in health and diseases.

Letters in applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The interest in the working and functionality of the human gut microbiome has increased drastically over the years. Though the existence of gut microbes has long been speculated for long over the last few decades, a lot of research has sprung up in studying and understanding the role of gut microbes in the human digestive tract. The microbes present in the gut are highly instrumental in maintaining the metabolism in the body. Further research is going on in this field to understand how gut microbes can be employed as potential sources of novel therapeutics, moreover, probiotics have also elucidated their significant place in this direction. As regards the clinical perspective, microbes can be engineered to afford defense mechanisms while interacting with foreign pathogenic bodies. More investigations in this field may assist us to evaluate and understand how these cells communicate with human cells and promote immune interactions. Here we elaborate on the possible implication of human gut microbiota into the immune system as well as explore the probiotics in the various human ailments. Comprehensive information on the human gut microbiome at the same platform may contribute affectively to our understanding of the human microbiome and possible mechanisms of associated human diseases.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Kanangat S, I Skaljic (2021)

Microbiome analysis, the immune response and transplantation in the era of next generation sequencing.

Human immunology pii:S0198-8859(21)00183-X [Epub ahead of print].

The human gastrointestinal tract, skin and mucosal surfaces are inhabited by a complex system of bacteria, viruses, fungi, archaea, protists, and eukaryotic parasites with predominance of bacteria and bacterial viruses (bacteriophages). Collectively these microbes form the microbiota of the microecosystem of humans. Recent advancement in technologies for nucleic acid isolation from various environmental samples, feces and body secretions and advancements in shotgun throughput massive parallel DNA and RNA sequencing along with 16S ribosomal gene sequencing have unraveled the identity of otherwise unknown microbial entities constituting the human microecosystem. The improved transcriptome analysis, technological developments in biochemical analytical methods and availability of complex bioinformatics tools have allowed us to begin to understand the metabolome of the microbiome and the biochemical pathways and potential signal transduction pathways in human cells in response to microbial infections and their products. Also, developments in human whole genome sequencing, targeted gene sequencing of histocompatibility genes and other immune response associated genes by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) have allowed us to have a better conceptualization of immune responses, and alloimmune responses. These modern technologies have enabled us to dive into the intricate relationship between commensal symbiotic and pathogenic microbiome and immune system. For the most part, the commensal symbiotic microbiota helps to maintain normal immune homeostasis besides providing healthy nutrients, facilitating digestion, and protecting the skin, mucosal and intestinal barriers. However, changes in diets, administration of therapeutic agents like antibiotics, chemotherapeutic agents, immunosuppressants etc. along with certain host factors including human histocompatibility antigens may alter the microbial ecosystem balance by causing changes in microbial constituents, hierarchy of microbial species and even dysbiosis. Such alterations may cause immune dysregulation, breach of barrier protection and lead to immunopathogenesis rather than immune homeostasis. The effects of human microbiome on immunity, health and disease are currently under intense research with cutting edge technologies in molecular biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics along with tremendous ability to characterize immune response at single cell level. This review will discuss the contemporary status on human microbiome immune system interactions and their potential effects on health, immune homeostasis and allograft transplantation.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Kim JC, Park MJ, Park S, et al (2021)

Alteration of the Fecal but Not Salivary Microbiome in Patients with Behçet's Disease According to Disease Activity Shift.

Microorganisms, 9(7): pii:microorganisms9071449.

The human microbiome plays an important role in various diseases, including Behçet's disease (BD). However, the effects of disease activity and covariates influencing the microbial composition have not yet been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the fecal and salivary microbiomes of BD patients compared to those of recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU) patients, as well as dietary habit-matched healthy controls (HCs) selected from immediate family members using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The fecal microbiome alpha diversity of BD patients was not different from that of their matched HCs, although it was higher than that of unrelated HCs and decreased in BD patients with disease activity. A tendency toward clustering in the beta diversity of the fecal microbiome was observed between the active BD patients and their matched HCs. Active BD patients had a significantly higher abundance of fecal Bacteroides uniformis than their matched HCs and patients with the disease in an inactive state (p = 0.038). The abundance of salivary Rothia mucilaginosa group was higher in BD patients than in RAUs patients. BD patients with uveitis had different abundances of various taxa, compared to those without uveitis. Our results showed an association of fecal microbiome composition with BD disease activity and symptoms, suggesting the possible role of the gut microbiome in BD pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Puebla-Barragan S, Watson E, van der Veer C, et al (2021)

Interstrain Variability of Human Vaginal Lactobacillus crispatus for Metabolism of Biogenic Amines and Antimicrobial Activity against Urogenital Pathogens.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(15): pii:molecules26154538.

Lactobacillus crispatus is the dominant species in the vagina of many women. With the potential for strains of this species to be used as a probiotic to help prevent and treat dysbiosis, we investigated isolates from vaginal swabs with Lactobacillus-dominated and a dysbiotic microbiota. A comparative genome analysis led to the identification of metabolic pathways for synthesis and degradation of three major biogenic amines in most strains. However, targeted metabolomic analysis of the production and degradation of biogenic amines showed that certain strains have either the ability to produce or to degrade these compounds. Notably, six strains produced cadaverine, one produced putrescine, and two produced tyramine. These biogenic amines are known to raise vaginal pH, cause malodour, and make the environment more favourable to vaginal pathogens. In vitro experiments confirmed that strains isolated from women with a dysbiotic vaginal microbiota have higher antimicrobial effects against the common urogenital pathogens Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium. The results indicate that not all L. crispatus vaginal strains appear suitable for probiotic application and the basis for selection should not be only the overall composition of the vaginal microbiota of the host from which they came, but specific biochemical and genetic traits.

RevDate: 2021-08-08

Chow EWL, Pang LM, Y Wang (2021)

From Jekyll to Hyde: The Yeast-Hyphal Transition of Candida albicans.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(7):.

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, accounting for 15% of nosocomial infections with an estimated attributable mortality of 47%. C. albicans is usually a benign member of the human microbiome in healthy people. Under constant exposure to highly dynamic environmental cues in diverse host niches, C. albicans has successfully evolved to adapt to both commensal and pathogenic lifestyles. The ability of C. albicans to undergo a reversible morphological transition from yeast to filamentous forms is a well-established virulent trait. Over the past few decades, a significant amount of research has been carried out to understand the underlying regulatory mechanisms, signaling pathways, and transcription factors that govern the C. albicans yeast-to-hyphal transition. This review will summarize our current understanding of well-elucidated signal transduction pathways that activate C. albicans hyphal morphogenesis in response to various environmental cues and the cell cycle machinery involved in the subsequent regulation and maintenance of hyphal morphogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Barton W, Cronin O, Garcia-Perez I, et al (2021)

The effects of sustained fitness improvement on the gut microbiome: A longitudinal, repeated measures case-study approach.

Translational sports medicine, 4(2):174-192.

The athlete gut microbiome differs from that of non-athletes in its composition and metabolic function. Short-term fitness improvement in sedentary adults does not replicate the microbiome characteristics of athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether sustained fitness improvement leads to pronounced alterations in the gut microbiome. This was achieved using a repeated-measures, case-study approach that examined the gut microbiome of two initially unfit volunteers undertaking progressive exercise training over a 6-month period. Samples were collected every two weeks, and microbiome, metabolome, diet, body composition, and cardiorespiratory fitness data were recorded. Training culminated in both participants completing their respective goals (a marathon or Olympic-distance triathlon) with improved body composition and fitness parameters. Increases in gut microbiota α-diversity occurred with sustained training and fluctuations occurred in response to training events (eg, injury, illness, and training peaks). Participants' BMI reduced during the study and was significantly associated with increased urinary measurements of N-methyl nicotinate and hippurate, and decreased phenylacetylglutamine. These results suggest that sustained fitness improvements support alterations to gut microbiota and physiologically-relevant metabolites. This study provides longitudinal analysis of the gut microbiome response to real-world events during progressive fitness training, including intercurrent illness and injury.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

De Vincentis A, Santonico M, Del Chierico F, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota and Related Electronic Multisensorial System Changes in Subjects With Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease Undergoing Rifaximin Therapy.

Frontiers in medicine, 8:655474.

Background: Intestinal dysbiosis might play a pathogenetic role in subjects with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD), but the effect of rifaximin therapy has been scantly explored with regard to gut microbiota variations in patients with SUDD. Aims: To verify to which extent rifaximin treatment affects the gut microbiota and whether an electronic multisensorial assessment of stools and breath has the potential for detecting these changes. Methods: Breath and stool samples were collected from consecutive patients with SUDD before and after a 7 days' therapy with rifaximin. Stool microbiota was assessed, and the electronic multisensorial assessment was carried out by means of the BIONOTE electronic (e-)tongue in stools and (e-)nose in breath. Results: Forty-three subjects (female 60%, median age 66 years) were included, and 20 (47%) reported clinical improvement after rifaximin therapy. Alpha and beta diversity of stool microbiota did not significantly change after treatment, while a significant variation of selected taxa was shown (i.e., Citrobacter, Coprococcus, Anaerotruncus, Blautia, Eggerthella lenta, Dehalobacterium, SMB53, and Haemophilus parainfluenzae). Overall, the electronic multisensorial system suboptimally mirrored microbiota changes, but it was able to efficiently predict patients' clinical improvement after rifaximin with accuracies ranging from 0.81 to 0.98. Conclusions: In patients with SUDD, rifaximin administration is associated with significant variation of selected taxa. While inaccurate in predicting gut microbiota change, an electronic multisensorial system, made up of e-tongue and e-nose, was able to predict clinical improvement, thus potentially qualifying as an easy and cheap tool to forecast subjects taking most likely benefit from rifaximin therapy.

RevDate: 2021-08-05

Bajinka O, Simbilyabo L, Tan Y, et al (2021)

Lung-brain axis.

Critical reviews in microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The appreciation of human microbiome is gaining strong grounds in biomedical research. In addition to gut-brain axis, is the lung-brain axis, which is hypothesised to link pulmonary microbes to neurodegenerative disorders and behavioural changes. There is a need for analysis based on emerging studies to map out the prospects for lung-brain axis. In this review, relevant English literature and researches in the field of 'lung-brain axis' is reported. We recommend all the highlighted prospective studies to be integrated with an interdisciplinary approach. This might require conceptual research approaches based on physiology and pathophysiology. Multimodal aspects should include experimental animal units, while exploring the research gaps and making reference to the already existing human data. The overall microbiome medicine is gaining more ground. Aetiological paths and experimental recommendations as per prospective studies in this review will be an important guideline to develop effective treatments for any lung induced neurodegenerative diseases. An in-depth knowledge of the bi-directional communication between host and microbiome in the lung could help treatment to respiratory infections, alleviate stress, anxiety and enhanced neurological effects. The timely prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases requires paradigm shift of the aetiology and more innovative experimentation.Impact statementThe overall microbiome medicine is gaining more ground. An in-depth knowledge of the bi-directional communication between host and microbiome in the lung could confer treatment to respiratory infections, alleviate stress, anxiety and enhanced neurological effects. Based on this review, we recommend all the highlighted prospective studies to be integrated and be given an interdisciplinary approach. This might require conceptual research approaches based on physiology and pathophysiology. Multimodal aspects should include experimental animal units; while exploring the research gaps and making reference to the already existing human data.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Kieft K, Breister AM, Huss P, et al (2021)

Virus-associated organosulfur metabolism in human and environmental systems.

Cell reports, 36(5):109471.

Viruses influence the fate of nutrients and human health by killing microorganisms and altering metabolic processes. Organosulfur metabolism and biologically derived hydrogen sulfide play dynamic roles in manifestation of diseases, infrastructure degradation, and essential biological processes. Although microbial organosulfur metabolism is well studied, the role of viruses in organosulfur metabolism is unknown. Here, we report the discovery of 39 gene families involved in organosulfur metabolism encoded by 3,749 viruses from diverse ecosystems, including human microbiomes. The viruses infect organisms from all three domains of life. Six gene families encode for enzymes that degrade organosulfur compounds into sulfide, whereas others manipulate organosulfur compounds and may influence sulfide production. We show that viral metabolic genes encode key enzymatic domains, are translated into protein, and are maintained after recombination, and sulfide provides a fitness advantage to viruses. Our results reveal viruses as drivers of organosulfur metabolism with important implications for human and environmental health.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Britton GJ, JJ Faith (2021)

Causative Microbes in Host-Microbiome Interactions.

Annual review of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite identification of numerous associations between microbiomes and diseases, the complexity of the human microbiome has hindered identification of individual species and strains that are causative in host phenotype or disease. Uncovering causative microbes is vital to fully understand disease processes and to harness the potential therapeutic benefits of microbiota manipulation. Developments in sequencing technology, animal models, and bacterial culturing have facilitated the discovery of specific microbes that impact the host and are beginning to advance the characterization of host-microbiome interaction mechanisms. We summarize the historical and contemporary experimental approaches taken to uncover microbes from the microbiota that affect host biology and describe examples of commensals that have specific effects on the immune system, inflammation, and metabolism. There is still much to learn, and we lay out challenges faced by the field and suggest potential remedies for common pitfalls encountered in the hunt for causative commensal microbes. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Kuthyar S, AT Reese (2021)

Variation in Microbial Exposure at the Human-Animal Interface and the Implications for Microbiome-Mediated Health Outcome.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The human gut microbiome varies between populations, largely reflecting ecological differences. One ecological variable that is rarely considered but may contribute substantially to microbiome variation is the multifaceted nature of human-animal interfaces. We present the hypothesis that different interactions with animals contribute to shaping the human microbiome globally. We utilize a One Health framework to explore how changes in microbial exposure from human-animal interfaces shape the microbiome and, in turn, contribute to differential human health across populations, focusing on commensal and pathogen exposure, changes in colonization resistance and immune system training, and the potential for other functional shifts. Although human-animal interfaces are known to underlie human health and particularly infectious disease disparities, since their impact on the human microbiome remains woefully understudied, we propose foci for future research. We believe it will be crucial to understand this critical aspect of biology and its impacts on human health around the globe.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Peterson D, Bonham KS, Rowland S, et al (2021)

Comparative Analysis of 16S rRNA Gene and Metagenome Sequencing in Pediatric Gut Microbiomes.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:670336.

The colonization of the human gut microbiome begins at birth, and over time, these microbial communities become increasingly complex. Most of what we currently know about the human microbiome, especially in early stages of development, was described using culture-independent sequencing methods that allow us to identify the taxonomic composition of microbial communities using genomic techniques, such as amplicon or shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Each method has distinct tradeoffs, but there has not been a direct comparison of the utility of these methods in stool samples from very young children, which have different features than those of adults. We compared the effects of profiling the human infant gut microbiome with 16S rRNA amplicon vs. shotgun metagenomic sequencing techniques in 338 fecal samples; younger than 15, 15-30, and older than 30 months of age. We demonstrate that observed changes in alpha-diversity and beta-diversity with age occur to similar extents using both profiling methods. We also show that 16S rRNA profiling identified a larger number of genera and we find several genera that are missed or underrepresented by each profiling method. We present the link between alpha diversity and shotgun metagenomic sequencing depth for children of different ages. These findings provide a guide for selecting an appropriate method and sequencing depth for the three studied age groups.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Moeller AH (2021)

Genomic Expansions in the Human Gut Microbiome.

Genome biology and evolution, 13(7):.

Bacteria inhabiting the human body vary in genome size by over an order of magnitude, but the processes that generate this diversity are poorly understood. Here, we show that evolutionary forces drive divergence in genome size between bacterial lineages in the gut and their closest relatives in other body sites. Analyses of thousands of reference bacterial isolate genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes from the human microbiome indicated that transitions into the gut from other body sites have promoted genomic expansions, whereas the opposite transitions have promoted genomic contractions. Bacterial genomes in the gut are on average ∼127 kb larger than their closest congeneric relatives from other body sites. Moreover, genome size and relative abundance are positively associated within the gut but negatively associated at other body sites. These results indicate that the gut microbiome promotes expansions of bacterial genomes relative to other body sites.

RevDate: 2021-07-31

Suojalehto H, Ndika J, Lindström I, et al (2021)

Endotyping asthma related to three different work exposures.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(21)01139-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Work exposures play a significant role in adult-onset asthma, but mechanisms of work-related asthma are not fully elucidated.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms of work-related asthma associated with flour (FA), isocyanate (IA) or welding fume (WA) exposures and identify potential biomarkers that distinguish these groups from each other.

METHODS: We used a combination of clinical tests, transcriptomic analysis and associated pathway analyses to investigate underlying disease mechanisms of the blood immune cells and the airway epithelium of 61 men.

RESULTS: Compared to the healthy controls, the WA patients had more differentially expressed genes than the FA and IA patients both in the airway epithelia and in the blood immune cells. In the airway epithelia, active inflammation was detected only in WA patients. In contrast, large number of differentially expressed genes were detected in all asthma groups in blood cells. Disease-related immune functions in blood cells were suppressed in all the asthma groups including leukocyte migration and inflammatory responses and decreased expression of upstream cytokines such as TNF and IFNγ. In transcriptome-phenotype correlations, hyperresponsiveness (R∼|0.6|) had the highest clinical relevance and associated with a set of exposure-group specific genes. Finally, biomarker subsets of only 5 genes specifically distinguished each of the asthma exposure group.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel data on the molecular mechanisms underlying work-related asthma. We identified set of 5 promising biomarkers in asthma related to flour, isocyanate and welding exposure to be tested and clinically validated in future studies.

RevDate: 2021-08-02

Varsha KK, Maheshwari AP, KM Nampoothiri (2021)

Accomplishment of probiotics in human health pertaining to immunoregulation and disease control.

Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 44:26-37.

It is a well-established fact that the microbiome harboring the human body plays a critical role in maintaining human health and can influence treatments against various ailments. Human microbiome-based research contemplates the possibility of selecting and administering specific commensal bacterial strains to modulate the gut microbiota to attain favorable outcomes to the therapies. Consumption of probiotics and probiotic-based dietary supplements as functional foods has been a promising treatment strategy against various diseases. Clinical studies demonstrate that probiotic administration alters gut microbiota composition and instigates immune modulation in the host. The benefits of probiotics are reported to be strain-specific and depend on the host's baseline immune competence. This review explores the role of probiotics in alleviating symptoms of allergy, cancer, cardio vascular (CV) diseases, diabetes mellitus (DM), bowel diseases (IBD and IBS), periodontal disease, diseases affecting liver and kidney, neuroinflammatory diseases, and viral infections. Also, it surveyed the broad spectrum bioactive compounds produced by probiotics and possible mechanisms that trigger the immune system.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Avis T, Wilson FX, Khan N, et al (2021)

Targeted microbiome-sparing antibiotics.

Drug discovery today pii:S1359-6446(21)00324-X [Epub ahead of print].

A factor in our inability to meet the challenge of clinical antibiotic resistance has been the low productivity of research and development (R&D) efforts, with only incremental improvements on existing broad-spectrum classes coming into clinical use recently. The disappointing returns from this approach have focussed attention on narrower-spectrum antibiotics; such new agents are directed against the pathogen of relevance with the additional benefit of preserving the human microbiome(s). Our knowledge of the gut microbiome and its contribution to health homeostasis increases yearly and suggests that broad-spectrum treatments incur health costs beyond the initial infection. Improved diagnostics, antibiotic stewardship, and the crucial role of the gut microbiome in health indicate targeted agents as a more viable approach for future antibiotic R&D.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Ko YJ, Kim S, Pan CH, et al (2021)

Identification of functional microbial modules through network-based analysis of meta-microbial features using matrix factorization.

IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

As the microbiome is composed of a variety of microbial interactions, it is imperative in microbiome research to identify a microbial sub-community that collectively conducts a specific function. However, current methodologies have been highly limited to analyzing conditional abundance changes of individual microorganisms without considering group-wise collective microbial features. To overcome this limitation, we developed a network-based method using nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) to identify functional meta-microbial features (MMFs) that, as a group, better discriminate specific environmental conditions of samples using microbiome data. As proof of concept, large-scale human microbiome data collected from different body sites were used to identify body site-specific MMFs by applying NMF. The statistical test for MMFs led us to identify highly discriminative MMFs on sample classes, called synergistic MMFs (SYMMFs). Finally, we constructed a SYMMF-based microbial interaction network (SYMMF-net) by integrating all of the SYMMF information. Network analysis revealed core microbial modules closely related to critical sample properties. Similar results were also found when the method was applied to various disease-associated microbiome data. The developed method interprets high-dimensional microbiome data by identifying functional microbial modules on sample properties and intuitively representing their systematic relationships via a microbial network.

RevDate: 2021-08-01

Briana DD, Papaevangelou V, A Malamitsi-Puchner (2021)

The jury is still out on the existence of a placental microbiome.

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is crucial for regulating normal development, but the exact point when it is established remains unknown. A sterile placenta was traditionally considered a prerequisite for a healthy pregnancy, but studies have revealed that the placenta harbours microbial communities, even under normal conditions. However, reports have failed to provide evidence for the consistent presence of bacteria in the normal human placenta, challenging the in utero colonisation hypothesis. This mini review examines our understanding of the potential placental microbial colonisation in normal healthy pregnancies. This may impact the metabolic and immune functions of the growing foetus and have long-term consequences.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

Aronson MR, Ali Akbari Ghavimi S, Gehret PM, et al (2021)

Drug-Eluting Endotracheal Tubes for Preventing Bacterial Inflammation in Subglottic Stenosis.

The Laryngoscope [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Subglottic stenosis (SGS) results from dysregulated extracellular matrix deposition by laryngotracheal fibroblasts causing scar tissue formation following intubation. Recent work has highlighted a relationship between this inflammatory state and imbalances in the upper airway microbiome. Herein, we engineer novel drug-eluting endotracheal (ET) tubes to deliver a model antimicrobial peptide Lasioglossin-III (Lasio) for the local modulation of the microbiome during intubation.

STUDY DESIGN: Controlled in vitro study.

METHODS: ET tubes were coated with a water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion of Lasio in poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by dipping thrice. Peptide release was quantified over 2 weeks via fluorometric peptide assays. The antibacterial activity was tested against airway microbes (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and pooled human microbiome samples) by placing Lasio/PLGA-coated tubes and appropriate controls in 48 well plates with diluted bacteria. Bacterial inhibition and tube adhesion were tested by measuring optical density and colony formation after tube culture, respectively. Biocompatibility was tested against laryngotracheal fibroblasts and lung epithelial cells.

RESULTS: We achieved a homogeneous coating of ET tubes with Lasio in a PLGA matrix that yields a prolonged, linear release over 1 week (typical timeframe before the ET tube is changed). We observed significant antibacterial activity against S. epidermidis, S. pneumoniae, and human microbiome samples, and prevention of bacterial adherence to the tube. Additionally, the released Lasio did not cause any cytotoxicity toward laryngotracheal fibroblasts or lung epithelial cells in vitro.

CONCLUSION: Overall, we demonstrate the design of an effective-eluting ET tube to modulate upper-airway bacterial infections during intubation which could be deployed to help prevent SGS.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A Laryngoscope, 2021.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Heinken A, Basile A, Hertel J, et al (2021)

Genome-Scale Metabolic Modeling of the Human Microbiome in the Era of Personalized Medicine.

Annual review of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome plays an important role in human health and disease. Meta-omics analyses provide indispensable data for linking changes in microbiome composition and function to disease etiology. Yet, the lack of a mechanistic understanding of, e.g., microbiome-metabolome links hampers the translation of these findings into effective, novel therapeutics. Here, we propose metabolic modeling of microbial communities through constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) as a complementary approach to meta-omics analyses. First, we highlight the importance of microbial metabolism in cardiometabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. Next, we demonstrate that microbial community modeling can stratify patients and controls, mechanistically link microbes with fecal metabolites altered in disease, and identify host pathways affected by the microbiome. Finally, we outline our vision for COBRA modeling combined with meta-omics analyses and multivariate statistical analyses to inform and guide clinical trials, yield testable hypotheses, and ultimately propose novel dietary and therapeutic interventions. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Microbiology, Volume 75 is October 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Lichtenstein M, Turjerman S, Pinto JM, et al (2021)

Pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in the Upper Respiratory Tract and Its Relation to Breath Volatile Organic Compounds.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Among the many products of metabolic processes are volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In the airways, these volatile metabolites are emitted through breathing and thus are easily sampled for analysis. Recent work has connected the functions and structure of the human microbiome with health and disease. Alteration in microbial function in this context can result in differences in metabolite composition, including that of VOCs, presenting the possibility of a new noninvasive method for clinical diagnosis. Screening methods that assess VOCs arising from changes in the airway microbiome could be highly useful in diagnosing viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), e.g., COVID-19, which are highly contagious and have an enormous public health impact worldwide. A rapid noninvasive screening test for URTIs would pose major advantages in containing the disease. As early evidence shows that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection alters the human microbiome (both in the gut and the respiratory tract), we propose that detection of a VOC signature of an altered nasal microbiome could be fruitful as a rapid noninvasive measure of URTI in general and of SARS-CoV-2 in particular.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Sumibcay TJ, Lee-Jayaram JJ, LG Yamamoto (2021)

Reducing Broad-Spectrum Antibiotic Treatment of Simple Group A Streptococcal Infections to Reduce Harm to the Microbiome.

Cureus, 13(6):e15629.

Background Broad-spectrum antibiotics disrupt the human microbiome resulting in a greater risk of harmful, long-term conditions that impact human health. Group A streptococcal (GAS) infections can be treated with penicillin. Objective We examined the treatment of simple GAS infections to assess the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Methods Smart relational database extraction queries from January 1, 2016 to July 10, 2019 (3.6 years) of patients less than 22 years old in a 4-hospital system electronic medical record (EMR). Results We found 1778 non-ED outpatients and 873 ED patients with simple GAS infections who were not allergic to penicillin. A total of 75% and 44% of non-ED and ED patients were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, respectively (p < 0.001). Older patients were treated with penicillin alone more frequently than younger age groups (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings highlight opportunities for clinicians to reduce the utilization of broad-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of simple GAS infections to reduce harm to the microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Hyun DW, Lee JY, Kim MS, et al (2021)

Pathogenomics of Streptococcus ilei sp. nov., a newly identified pathogen ubiquitous in human microbiome.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea), 59(8):792-806.

Viridans group streptococci are a serious health concern because most of these bacteria cause life-threatening infections, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized individuals. We focused on two alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus strains (I-G2 and I-P16) newly isolated from an ileostomy effluent of a colorectal cancer patient. We examined their pathogenic potential by investigating their prevalence in human and assessing their pathogenicity in a mouse model. We also predicted their virulence factors and pathogenic features by using comparative genomic analysis and in vitro tests. Using polyphasic and systematic approaches, we identified the isolates as belonging to a novel Streptococcus species and designated it as Streptococcus ilei. Metagenomic survey based on taxonomic assignment of datasets from the Human Microbiome Project revealed that S. ilei is present in most human population and at various body sites but is especially abundant in the oral cavity. Intraperitoneal injection of S. ilei was lethal to otherwise healthy C57BL/6J mice. Pathogenomics and in vitro assays revealed that S. ilei possesses a unique set of virulence factors. In agreement with the in vivo and in vitro data, which indicated that S. ilei strain I-G2 is more pathogenic than strain I-P16, only the former displayed the streptococcal group A antigen. We here newly identified S. ilei sp. nov., and described its prevalence in human, virulence factors, and pathogenicity. This will help to prevent S. ilei strain misidentification in the future, and improve the understanding and management of streptococcal infections.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Gawlik A, Salonen A, Jian C, et al (2021)

Personalized approach to childhood obesity: Lessons from gut microbiota and omics studies. Narrative review and insights from the 29th European childhood obesity congress.

Pediatric obesity [Epub ahead of print].

The traditional approach to childhood obesity prevention and treatment should fit most patients, but misdiagnosis and treatment failure could be observed in some cases that lie away from average as part of individual variation or misclassification. Here, we reflect on the contributions that high-throughput technologies such as next-generation sequencing, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and microbiome analysis make towards a personalized medicine approach to childhood obesity. We hypothesize that diagnosing a child as someone with obesity captures only part of the phenotype; and that metabolomics, genomics, transcriptomics and analyses of the gut microbiome, could add precision to the term "obese," providing novel corresponding biomarkers. Identifying a cluster -omic signature in a given child can thus facilitate the development of personalized prognostic, diagnostic, and therapeutic approaches. It can also be applied to the monitoring of symptoms/signs evolution, treatment choices and efficacy, predisposition to drug-related side effects and potential relapse. This article is a narrative review of the literature and summary of the main observations, conclusions and perspectives raised during the annual meeting of the European Childhood Obesity Group. Authors discuss some recent advances and future perspectives on utilizing a systems approach to understanding and managing childhood obesity in the context of the existing omics data.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Andrade BGN, Goris T, Afli H, et al (2021)

Putative mobilized colistin resistance genes in the human gut microbiome.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):220.

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of bacterial genes that confer resistance to last-resort antibiotics, such as colistin, caused by mobilized colistin resistance (mcr) genes, poses an unprecedented threat to human health. Understanding the spread, evolution, and distribution of such genes among human populations will help in the development of strategies to diminish their occurrence. To tackle this problem, we investigated the distribution and prevalence of potential mcr genes in the human gut microbiome using a set of bioinformatics tools to screen the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection for the presence, synteny and phylogeny of putative mcr genes, and co-located antibiotic resistance genes.

RESULTS: A total of 2079 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were classified as mcr genes in 2046 metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs), distributed across 1596 individuals from 41 countries, of which 215 were identified in plasmidial contigs. The genera that presented the largest number of mcr-like genes were Suterella and Parasuterella. Other potential pathogens carrying mcr genes belonged to the genus Vibrio, Escherichia and Campylobacter. Finally, we identified a total of 22,746 ARGs belonging to 21 different classes in the same 2046 MAGs, suggesting multi-resistance potential in the corresponding bacterial strains, increasing the concern of ARGs impact in the clinical settings.

CONCLUSION: This study uncovers the diversity of mcr-like genes in the human gut microbiome. We demonstrated the cosmopolitan distribution of these genes in individuals worldwide and the co-presence of other antibiotic resistance genes, including Extended-spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL). Also, we described mcr-like genes fused to a PAP2-like domain in S. wadsworthensis. These novel sequences increase our knowledge about the diversity and evolution of mcr-like genes. Future research should focus on activity, genetic mobility and a potential colistin resistance in the corresponding strains to experimentally validate those findings.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Zhang XS, Yin YS, Wang J, et al (2021)

Maternal cecal microbiota transfer rescues early-life antibiotic-induced enhancement of type 1 diabetes in mice.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(21)00296-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Early-life antibiotic exposure perturbs the intestinal microbiota and accelerates type 1 diabetes (T1D) development in the NOD mouse model. Here, we found that maternal cecal microbiota transfer (CMT) to NOD mice after early-life antibiotic perturbation largely rescued the induced T1D enhancement. Restoration of the intestinal microbiome was significant and persistent, remediating the antibiotic-depleted diversity, relative abundance of particular taxa, and metabolic pathways. CMT also protected against perturbed metabolites and normalized innate and adaptive immune effectors. CMT restored major patterns of ileal microRNA and histone regulation of gene expression. Further experiments suggest a gut-microbiota-regulated T1D protection mechanism centered on Reg3γ, in an innate intestinal immune network involving CD44, TLR2, and Reg3γ. This regulation affects downstream immunological tone, which may lead to protection against tissue-specific T1D injury.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Brubaker L, Gourdine JF, Siddiqui NY, et al (2021)

Forming Consensus To Advance Urobiome Research.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Urobiome research has the potential to advance the understanding of a wide range of diseases, including lower urinary tract symptoms and kidney disease. Many scientific areas have benefited from early research method consensus to facilitate the greater, common good. This consensus document, developed by a group of expert investigators currently engaged in urobiome research (UROBIOME 2020 conference participants), aims to promote standardization and advances in this field by the adoption of common core research practices. We propose a standardized nomenclature as well as considerations for specimen collection, preservation, storage, and processing. Best practices for urobiome study design include our proposal for standard metadata elements as part of core metadata collection. Although it is impractical to follow fixed analytical procedures when analyzing urobiome data, we propose guidelines to document and report data originating from urobiome studies. We offer this first consensus document with every expectation of subsequent revision as our field progresses.

RevDate: 2021-07-25

Diebold PJ, New FN, Hovan M, et al (2021)

Linking plasmid-based beta-lactamases to their bacterial hosts using single-cell fusion PCR.

eLife, 10:.

The horizonal transfer of plasmid-encoded genes allows bacteria to adapt to constantly shifting environmental pressures, bestowing functional advantages to their bacterial hosts such as antibiotic resistance, metal resistance, virulence factors, and polysaccharide utilization. However, common molecular methods such as short- and long-read sequencing of microbiomes cannot associate extrachromosomal plasmids with the genome of the host bacterium. Alternative methods to link plasmids to host bacteria are either laborious, expensive, or prone to contamination. Here we present the One-step Isolation and Lysis PCR (OIL-PCR) method, which molecularly links plasmid-encoded genes with the bacterial 16S rRNA gene via fusion PCR performed within an emulsion. After validating this method, we apply it to identify the bacterial hosts of three clinically relevant beta-lactamases within the gut microbiomes of neutropenic patients, as they are particularly vulnerable multidrug-resistant infections. We successfully detect the known association of a multi-drug resistant plasmid with Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as the novel associations of two low-abundance genera, Romboutsia and Agathobacter. Further investigation with OIL-PCR confirmed that our detection of Romboutsia is due to its physical association with Klebsiella as opposed to directly harboring the beta-lactamase genes. Here we put forth a robust, accessible, and high-throughput platform for sensitively surveying the bacterial hosts of mobile genes, as well as detecting physical bacterial associations such as those occurring within biofilms and complex microbial communities.

RevDate: 2021-07-21
CmpDate: 2021-07-21

Gargiulo Isacco C, Inchingolo AD, Nguyen Cao KD, et al (2021)

The bad relationship, osteo-decay and diabetes type 2 searching for a link: a literature review.

Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents, 35(2 Suppl. 1):253-269.

The diabetes and osteoporotic metabolic diseases are characterized by a wide prevalence of the population worldwide and correlated to alteration of the bone tissues. Several cofactors could influence the clinical course and the biochemistry of the pathologies such as human microbiome, nutrition characteristics, gut microbiota activity and interactions with vitamin K and D across IGF/GH and TP53 signaling pathways and the glucose/energy as mechanism for bone tissue health. Moreover, also the calories and sugar consumption seem to be correlated to an increased inflammatory state with several consequences for hematopoiesis and host tissues response. The aim of the present literature review was to highlight the role of osteoporotic diseases and diabetes type 2 link for the bone metabolism. The literature cases showed that a correlation between bone-gut-kidney-heart-CNS-Immunity crosstalk seems to be linked with bone metabolism and health regulation. Moreover, also the aging process could represent a valuable co-factor for the sustaining of the metabolic disorders upon a multi-systemic level.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Hammond AM, Monir RL, JJ Schoch (2021)

The role of the pediatric cutaneous and gut microbiomes in childhood disease: A review.

Seminars in perinatology pii:S0146-0005(21)00066-5 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Infancy and early childhood are crucial periods in the development of the human microbiome and shape the trajectory of microbial colonization, immune system development, and systemic disease. We review the development of the skin and gut microbiomes, their connection to the immune system, and their relevance to common pediatric pathologies.

FINDINGS: Beginning after birth, and likely even in utero, colonization of the skin and the gut occur in parallel, influenced by external factors. This colonization, in turn, dictates maturation of the immune system and contributes to conditions from atopic dermatitis to sepsis. Emerging literature is identifying links between the gut and skin microbiomes.

CONCLUSION: The gut and skin microbiomes are associated with pediatric disease states. Immune and microbial plasticity make this unique period an ideal target for intervention. Investigating the purposeful manipulation of the pediatric microbiome may lead to novel treatment and prevention strategies.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Bai J, Zhang W, Z Amirkhanzadeh Barandouzir (2021)

Human Microbiome: Understanding the Role of the Gut Microbiome and Implications for Oncology Nursing Care.

Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 25(4):383-387.

By understanding the human microbiome and its influencing factors, oncology nurses in clinical practice can educate, screen, and monitor patients with cancer who have a higher risk of gut microbiome dysbiosis. Knowledge of the gut microbiome and its impact on cancer outcomes can help oncology nurses interpret associations between the gut microbiome and treatment- related toxicities and symptoms. Oncology nurses can guide patients to build a healthy gut microbiome across the trajectory of cancer treatment and survivorship.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Javier-DesLoges J, McKay RR, Swafford AD, et al (2021)

The microbiome and prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases [Epub ahead of print].

There is growing evidence that the microbiome is involved in development and treatment of many human diseases, including prostate cancer. There are several potential pathways for microbiome-based mechanisms for the development of prostate cancer: direct impacts of microbes or microbial products in the prostate or the urine, and indirect impacts from microbes or microbial products in the gastrointestinal tract. Unique microbial signatures have been identified within the stool, oral cavity, tissue, urine, and blood of prostate cancer patients, but studies vary in their findings. Recent studies describe potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications of the microbiome, but further clinical investigation is needed. In this review, we explore the existing literature on the discovery of the human microbiome and its relationship to prostate cancer.

RevDate: 2021-07-17

Han S, Van Treuren W, Fischer CR, et al (2021)

A metabolomics pipeline for the mechanistic interrogation of the gut microbiome.

Nature, 595(7867):415-420.

Gut microorganisms modulate host phenotypes and are associated with numerous health effects in humans, ranging from host responses to cancer immunotherapy to metabolic disease and obesity. However, difficulty in accurate and high-throughput functional analysis of human gut microorganisms has hindered efforts to define mechanistic connections between individual microbial strains and host phenotypes. One key way in which the gut microbiome influences host physiology is through the production of small molecules1-3, yet progress in elucidating this chemical interplay has been hindered by limited tools calibrated to detect the products of anaerobic biochemistry in the gut. Here we construct a microbiome-focused, integrated mass-spectrometry pipeline to accelerate the identification of microbiota-dependent metabolites in diverse sample types. We report the metabolic profiles of 178 gut microorganism strains using our library of 833 metabolites. Using this metabolomics resource, we establish deviations in the relationships between phylogeny and metabolism, use machine learning to discover a previously undescribed type of metabolism in Bacteroides, and reveal candidate biochemical pathways using comparative genomics. Microbiota-dependent metabolites can be detected in diverse biological fluids from gnotobiotic and conventionally colonized mice and traced back to the corresponding metabolomic profiles of cultured bacteria. Collectively, our microbiome-focused metabolomics pipeline and interactive metabolomics profile explorer are a powerful tool for characterizing microorganisms and interactions between microorganisms and their host.

RevDate: 2021-07-18

Karcher N, Nigro E, Punčochář M, et al (2021)

Genomic diversity and ecology of human-associated Akkermansia species in the gut microbiome revealed by extensive metagenomic assembly.

Genome biology, 22(1):209.

BACKGROUND: Akkermansia muciniphila is a human gut microbe with a key role in the physiology of the intestinal mucus layer and reported associations with decreased body mass and increased gut barrier function and health. Despite its biomedical relevance, the genomic diversity of A. muciniphila remains understudied and that of closely related species, except for A. glycaniphila, unexplored.

RESULTS: We present a large-scale population genomics analysis of the Akkermansia genus using 188 isolate genomes and 2226 genomes assembled from 18,600 metagenomes from humans and other animals. While we do not detect A. glycaniphila, the Akkermansia strains in the human gut can be grouped into five distinct candidate species, including A. muciniphila, that show remarkable whole-genome divergence despite surprisingly similar 16S rRNA gene sequences. These candidate species are likely human-specific, as they are detected in mice and non-human primates almost exclusively when kept in captivity. In humans, Akkermansia candidate species display ecological co-exclusion, diversified functional capabilities, and distinct patterns of associations with host body mass. Analysis of CRISPR-Cas loci reveals new variants and spacers targeting newly discovered putative bacteriophages. Remarkably, we observe an increased relative abundance of Akkermansia when cognate predicted bacteriophages are present, suggesting ecological interactions. A. muciniphila further exhibits subspecies-level genetic stratification with associated functional differences such as a putative exo/lipopolysaccharide operon.

CONCLUSIONS: We uncover a large phylogenetic and functional diversity of the Akkermansia genus in humans. This variability should be considered in the ongoing experimental and metagenomic efforts to characterize the health-associated properties of A. muciniphila and related bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

McCoubrey LE, Gaisford S, Orlu M, et al (2021)

Predicting drug-microbiome interactions with machine learning.

Biotechnology advances pii:S0734-9750(21)00103-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Pivotal work in recent years has cast light on the importance of the human microbiome in maintenance of health and physiological response to drugs. It is now clear that gastrointestinal microbiota have the metabolic power to promote, inactivate, or even toxify the efficacy of a drug to a level of clinically relevant significance. At the same time, it appears that drug intake has the propensity to alter gut microbiome composition, potentially affecting health and response to other drugs. Since the precise composition of an individual's microbiome is unique, one's drug-microbiome relationship is similarly unique. Thus, in the age of evermore personalised medicine, the ability to predict individuals' drug-microbiome interactions is highly sought. Machine learning (ML) offers a powerful toolkit capable of characterising and predicting drug-microbiota interactions at the individual patient level. ML techniques have the potential to learn the mechanisms operating drug-microbiome activities and measure patients' risk of such occurrences. This review will outline current knowledge at the drug-microbiota interface, and present ML as a technique for examining and forecasting personalised drug-microbiome interactions. When harnessed effectively, ML could alter how the pharmaceutical industry and healthcare professionals consider the drug-microbiome axis in patient care.

RevDate: 2021-08-05
CmpDate: 2021-08-05

Jian C, Carpén N, Helve O, et al (2021)

Early-life gut microbiota and its connection to metabolic health in children: Perspective on ecological drivers and need for quantitative approach.

EBioMedicine, 69:103475.

The colonisation and development of the gut microbiota has been implicated in paediatric metabolic disorders via its powerful effect on host metabolic and immune homeostasis. Here we summarise the evidence from human studies on the early gut microbiota and paediatric overweight and obesity. Manipulation of the early gut microbiota may represent a promising target for countering the burgeoning metabolic disorders in the paediatric population, provided the assembly patterns of microbiota and their health consequences can be decoded. Therefore, in this review, we pay particular attention to the important ecological drivers affecting the community dynamics of the early gut microbiota. We then discuss the knowledge gaps in commonly studied exposures linking the gut microbiota to metabolic disorders, especially regarding maternal factors and antibiotic use. This review also attempts to give directions for future studies aiming to identify predictive and corrective measures for paediatric metabolic disorders based on the gut microbiota. Gut microbiota; Metabolism; Paediatric overweight and obesity; Ecological driver; Dynamics; Infants.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Wastyk HC, Fragiadakis GK, Perelman D, et al (2021)

Gut-microbiota-targeted diets modulate human immune status.

Cell, 184(16):4137-4153.e14.

Diet modulates the gut microbiome, which in turn can impact the immune system. Here, we determined how two microbiota-targeted dietary interventions, plant-based fiber and fermented foods, influence the human microbiome and immune system in healthy adults. Using a 17-week randomized, prospective study (n = 18/arm) combined with -omics measurements of microbiome and host, including extensive immune profiling, we found diet-specific effects. The high-fiber diet increased microbiome-encoded glycan-degrading carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) despite stable microbial community diversity. Although cytokine response score (primary outcome) was unchanged, three distinct immunological trajectories in high-fiber consumers corresponded to baseline microbiota diversity. Alternatively, the high-fermented-food diet steadily increased microbiota diversity and decreased inflammatory markers. The data highlight how coupling dietary interventions to deep and longitudinal immune and microbiome profiling can provide individualized and population-wide insight. Fermented foods may be valuable in countering the decreased microbiome diversity and increased inflammation pervasive in industrialized society.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Kostopoulos I, Aalvink S, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, et al (2021)

A Continuous Battle for Host-Derived Glycans Between a Mucus Specialist and a Glycan Generalist in vitro and in vivo.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:632454.

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by a diverse microbial community, which plays a crucial role in human health. In the gut, a protective mucus layer that consists of glycan structures separates the bacteria from the host epithelial cells. These host-derived glycans are utilized by bacteria that have adapted to this specific compound in the gastrointestinal tract. Our study investigated the close interaction between two distinct gut microbiota members known to use mucus glycans, the generalist Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and the specialist Akkermansia muciniphila in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro study, in which mucin was the only nutrient source, indicated that B. thetaiotaomicron significantly upregulated genes coding for Glycoside Hydrolases (GHs) and mucin degradation activity when cultured in the presence of A. muciniphila. Furthermore, B. thetaiotaomicron significantly upregulated the expression of a gene encoding for membrane attack complex/perforin (MACPF) domain in co-culture. The transcriptome analysis also indicated that A. muciniphila was less affected by the environmental changes and was able to sustain its abundance in the presence of B. thetaiotaomicron while increasing the expression of LPS core biosynthesis activity encoding genes (O-antigen ligase, Lipid A and Glycosyl transferases) as well as ABC transporters. Using germ-free mice colonized with B. thetaiotaomicron and/or A. muciniphila, we observed a more general glycan degrading profile in B. thetaiotaomicron while the expression profile of A. muciniphila was not significantly affected when colonizing together, indicating that two different nutritional niches were established in mice gut. Thus, our results indicate that a mucin degrading generalist adapts to its changing environment, depending on available carbohydrates while a mucin degrading specialist adapts by coping with competing microorganism through upregulation of defense related genes.

RevDate: 2021-08-04
CmpDate: 2021-08-04

Koskenvuo L, Lunkka P, Varpe P, et al (2021)

Mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics versus mechanical bowel preparation only prior rectal surgery (MOBILE2): a multicentre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial-study protocol.

BMJ open, 11(7):e051269.

INTRODUCTION: Mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) prior to rectal surgery is widely used. Based on retrospective data many guidelines recommend mechanical and oral antibiotic bowel preparation (MOABP) to reduce postoperative complications and specifically surgical site infections (SSIs). The primary aim of this study is to examine whether MOABP reduces complications of rectal surgery.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The MOBILE2 (Mechanical Bowel Preparation and Oral Antibiotics vs Mechanical Bowel Preparation Only Prior Rectal Surgery) trial is a multicentre, double-blinded, parallel group, superiority, randomised controlled trial comparing MOABP to MBP among patients scheduled for rectal surgery with colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. The patients randomised to the MOABP group receive 1 g neomycin and 1 g metronidazole two times on a day prior to surgery and patients randomised to the MBP group receive identical placebo. Based on power calculations, 604 patients will be enrolled in the study. The primary outcome is Comprehensive Complication Index within 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes are SSIs within 30 days after surgery, the number and classification of anastomosis dehiscences, the length of hospital stay, mortality within 90 days after surgery and the number of patients who received adjuvant treatment if needed. Tertiary outcomes are overall survival, disease-specific survival, recurrence-free survival and difference in quality-of-life before and 1 year after surgery. In addition, the microbiota differences in colon mucosa are analysed.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committee of Helsinki University Hospital approved the study. The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed academic journals.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04281667.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Tuganbaev T, K Honda (2021)

Non-zero-sum microbiome immune system interactions.

European journal of immunology [Epub ahead of print].

Fundamental asymmetries between the host and its microbiome in enzymatic activities and nutrient storage capabilities have promoted mutualistic adaptations on both sides. As a result, the enteric immune system has evolved so as not to cause a zero-sum sterilization of non-self, but rather achieve a non-zero-sum self-reinforcing cooperation with its evolutionary partner the microbiome. In this review, we attempt to integrate the accumulated knowledge of immune-microbiome interactions into an evolutionary framework and trace the pattern of positive immune-microbiome feedback loops across epithelial, enteric nervous system, innate, and adaptive immune circuits. Indeed, the immune system requires commensal signals for its development and function, and reciprocally protects the microbiome from nutrient shortage and pathogen outgrowth. In turn, a healthy microbiome is the result of immune system curatorship as well as microbial ecology. The paradigms of host-microbiome asymmetry and the cooperative nature of their interactions identified in the gut are applicable across all tissues influenced by microbial activities. Incorporation of immune system influences into models of microbiome ecology will be a step forward toward defining what constitutes a healthy human microbiome and guide discoveries of novel host-microbiome mutualistic adaptations that may be harnessed for the promotion of human health.

RevDate: 2021-07-10

Young RB, Marcelino VR, Chonwerawong M, et al (2021)

Key Technologies for Progressing Discovery of Microbiome-Based Medicines.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:685935.

A growing number of experimental and computational approaches are illuminating the "microbial dark matter" and uncovering the integral role of commensal microbes in human health. Through this work, it is now clear that the human microbiome presents great potential as a therapeutic target for a plethora of diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes and obesity. The development of more efficacious and targeted treatments relies on identification of causal links between the microbiome and disease; with future progress dependent on effective links between state-of-the-art sequencing approaches, computational analyses and experimental assays. We argue determining causation is essential, which can be attained by generating hypotheses using multi-omic functional analyses and validating these hypotheses in complex, biologically relevant experimental models. In this review we discuss existing analysis and validation methods, and propose best-practice approaches required to enable the next phase of microbiome research.

RevDate: 2021-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Paglia L (2021)

From native core micriobiome to milk-oriented microbiome.

European journal of paediatric dentistry, 22(2):89.

The human microbiome is the full set of microorganisms (microbiota) present on and in our body. Its importance is such that the human being has been defined as a holobiont, that is, a superorganism made up of human eukaryotic cells and microbial cells. A balanced microbiota (eubiosis) is a prerequisite for health and well-being; on the contrary, an altered microbiota (dysbiosis) is the cause of pathological conditions. This concept is the cornerstone of the "microbiota revolution": Currently there is no disease that cannot be re- interpreted as a function of microbiome. While all human beings have similar DNA, it is the microbiome that make every person genetically unique; therefore the microbiome is the variable component of the genome which characterises each one of us. About one third of the microbiome is common to all individuals, while two thirds are specific to each subject and constitute a sort of fingerprint that forms and stabilises in the first 2-3 years of life. This timeframe is extremely important since it has been shown that the structure of the microbiome is already acquired in the embryonic-fetal period, it is completed within 3 years and lasts a lifetime. The native core microbiome is the first microbiota and characterises individuals for their whole life. It is affected by four main variables: The quality of family and social life of the mother-to-be, the intake of drugs during pregnancy, as well as the type of birth and breastfeeding. It is renowned that breast milk is a complex, unique and essential food for the growth of the child, but one of its functions - which is still under investigation today - is to feed and guide the formation of the microbiome of the newborn even after the introduction of solid foods, during the first 3 years of life. This function is carried out by the over one hundred different types of oligosaccharides that are present in breast milk, which is why these days we talk about the so-called MOM (milk-oriented microbiome). The correct formation of the microbiome affects the entire life of an individual. This is a more than valid reason to promote breastfeeding even after eruption of baby teeth and throughout the weaning period. The role of pediatric dentists, together with hygienists and pediatricians, is to spread and stress out the importance of oral hygiene so that breastfeeding can only bring benefits and not carious lesions!

RevDate: 2021-07-11

Jones J, Reinke SN, Ali A, et al (2021)

Fecal sample collection methods and time of day impact microbiome composition and short chain fatty acid concentrations.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13964.

Associations between the human gut microbiome and health outcomes continues to be of great interest, although fecal sample collection methods which impact microbiome studies are sometimes neglected. Here, we expand on previous work in sample optimization, to promote high quality microbiome data. To compare fecal sample collection methods, amplicons from the bacterial 16S rRNA gene (V4) and fungal (ITS2) region, as well as short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were determined in fecal material over three timepoints. We demonstrated that spot sampling of stool results in variable detection of some microbial members, and inconsistent levels of SCFA; therefore, sample homogenization prior to subsequent analysis or subsampling is recommended. We also identify a trend in microbial and metabolite composition that shifts over two consecutive stool collections less than 25 h apart. Lastly, we show significant differences in bacterial composition that result from collecting stool samples in OMNIgene·Gut tube (DNA Genotec) or Stool Nucleic Acid Collection and Preservation Tube (NORGEN) compared to immediate freezing. To assist with planning fecal sample collection and storage procedures for microbiome investigations with multiple analyses, we recommend participants to collect the first full bowel movement of the day and freeze the sample immediately after collection.

RevDate: 2021-07-26

Liao B, Ye X, Chen X, et al (2021)

The two-component signal transduction system and its regulation in Candida albicans.

Virulence, 12(1):1884-1899.

Candida albicans, which can cause superficial and life-threatening systemic infections, is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen in the human microbiome. The two-component system is one of the most important C. albicans signal transduction pathways, regulating the response to oxidative and osmotic stresses, adhesion, morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, virulence, drug resistance, and the host-pathogen interactions. Notably, some components of this signaling pathway have not been found in the human genome, indicating that the two-component system of C. albicans can be a potential target for new antifungal agents. Here, we summarize the composition, signal transduction, and regulation of the two-component system of C. albicans to emphasize its essential roles in the pathogenesis of C. albicans and the new therapeutic target for antifungal drugs.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Cabrera LE, Pekkarinen PT, Alander M, et al (2021)

Characterization of low-density granulocytes in COVID-19.

PLoS pathogens, 17(7):e1009721.

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by extensive pulmonary complications, to which host immune responses are believed to play a role. As the major arm of innate immunity, neutrophils are one of the first cells recruited to the site of infection where their excessive activation can contribute to lung pathology. Low-density granulocytes (LDGs) are circulating neutrophils, whose numbers increase in some autoimmune diseases and cancer, but are poorly characterized in acute viral infections. Using flow cytometry, we detected a significant increase of LDGs in the blood of acute COVID-19 patients, compared to healthy controls. Based on their surface marker expression, COVID-19-related LDGs exhibit four different populations, which display distinctive stages of granulocytic development and most likely reflect emergency myelopoiesis. Moreover, COVID-19 LDGs show a link with an elevated recruitment and activation of neutrophils. Functional assays demonstrated the immunosuppressive capacities of these cells, which might contribute to impaired lymphocyte responses during acute disease. Taken together, our data confirms a significant granulocyte activation during COVID-19 and suggests that granulocytes of lower density play a role in disease progression.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )