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Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 25 May 2024 at 01:52 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "microbial ecology" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Kou Z, Liu K, Qiao Z, et al (2024)

The alterations of oral, airway and intestine microbiota in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1407439.

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates the microbial ecology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is intricately associated with the disease's status and severity, and distinct microbial ecological variations exist between COPD and healthy control (HC). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize microbial diversity indices and taxa relative abundance of oral, airway, and intestine microbiota of different stages of COPD and HC to make comparisons.

METHODS: A comprehensive systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library databases to identify relevant English articles on the oral, airway, and intestine microbiota in COPD published between 2003 and 8 May 2023. Information on microbial diversity indices and taxa relative abundance of oral, airway, and intestine microbiota was collected for comparison between different stages of COPD and HC.

RESULTS: A total of 20 studies were included in this review, involving a total of 337 HC participants, 511 COPD patients, and 154 AECOPD patients. We observed that no significant differences in alpha diversity between the participant groups, but beta diversity was significantly different in half of the included studies. Compared to HC, Prevotella, Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Veillonella of oral microbiota in SCOPD were reduced at the genus level. Most studies supported that Haemophilus, Lactobacillus, and Pseudomonas were increased, but Veillonella, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Porphyromonas, and Atopobium were decreased at the genus level in the airway microbiota of SCOPD. However, the abundance of Haemophilus, Lactobacillus and Pseudomonas genera exhibited an increase, whereas Actinomyces and Porphyromonas showed a decrease in the airway microbiota of AECOPD compared to HC. And Lachnospira of intestine microbiota in SCOPD was reduced at the genus level.

CONCLUSION: The majority of published research findings supported that COPD exhibited decreased alpha diversity compared to HC. However, our meta-analysis does not confirm it. In order to further investigate the characteristics and mechanisms of microbiome in the oral-airway- intestine axis of COPD patients, larger-scale and more rigorous studies are needed.

PROSPERO (, identifier CRD42023418726.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Mellouk A, Mahmood T, Jlali M, et al (2024)

Potential of guar gum as a leaky gut model in broilers: Digestibility, performance, and microbiota responses.

Animal nutrition (Zhongguo xu mu shou yi xue hui), 17:177-187.

Diet is a major modulator of animal resilience and its three pillars: host's immune response, gut microbiota, and intestinal barrier. In the present study, we endeavour to delineate a challenging condition aimed to degrade these pillars and elucidate its impact on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. To attain this objective, we opted to use guar gum (GG) as a source of galactomannan. A series of three in vivo experiments were conducted employing conventional or semi-purified diets, supplemented with or without GG during the grower phase (14-28 d). Our findings demonstrate a substantial decline in animal performance metrics such as body weight (reduced by 29%, P < 0.001), feed intake (decreased by 12%, P < 0.001), and feed conversion ratio (up to 58% increase, P < 0.001) in the presence of GG at 2%. The supplementation of a semi-purified diet with incremental doses of GG resulted in a linear reduction (P < 0.001) in the apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and apparent metabolisable energy. Additionally, a marked reduction in ileal endogenous losses, as well as apparent and standardised digestibility of all amino acids with varying proportions (P < 0.05), was observed. These alterations were accompanied by disrupted gut integrity assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d) (P < 0.001) as well as an inflammatory status characterised by elevated levels of acute-phase proteins, namely orosomucoid and serum amyloid A in the sera (P = 0.03), and increased mRNA expression levels of IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, Inos, and K203 genes in the ileum, along with a decrease in IgA levels in the gut lumen (P < 0.05). Microbial ecology and activity were characterised by reduced diversity and richness (Shannon index, P = 0.005) in the presence of GG. Consequently, our results revealed diminished levels of short-chain fatty acids (P = 0.01) and their producer genera, such as Clostridium_XIVa and Blautia, in the gut caeca, coupled with excessive accumulation of lactate (17-fold increase, P < 0.01) in the presence of GG at 2%. In addition to providing a more comprehensive characterisation of the GG supplementation as a leaky gut model, our results substantiate a thorough understanding of the intricate adjustments and interplay between the intestinal barrier, immune response, and microbiota. Furthermore, they underscore the significance of feed components in modulating these dynamics.

RevDate: 2024-05-23

Eckmann CA, Bachy C, Wittmers F, et al (2024)

Recurring seasonality exposes dominant species and niche partitioning strategies of open ocean picoeukaryotic algae.

Communications earth & environment, 5(1):266.

Ocean spring phytoplankton blooms are dynamic periods important to global primary production. We document vertical patterns of a diverse suite of eukaryotic algae, the prasinophytes, in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre with monthly sampling over four years at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site. Water column structure was used to delineate seasonal stability periods more ecologically relevant than seasons defined by calendar dates. During winter mixing, tiny prasinophytes dominated by Class II comprise 46 ± 24% of eukaryotic algal (plastid-derived) 16S rRNA V1-V2 amplicons, specifically Ostreococcus Clade OII, Micromonas commoda, and Bathycoccus calidus. In contrast, Class VII are rare and Classes I and VI peak during warm stratified periods when surface eukaryotic phytoplankton abundances are low. Seasonality underpins a reservoir of genetic diversity from multiple prasinophyte classes during warm periods that harbor ephemeral taxa. Persistent Class II sub-species dominating the winter/spring bloom period retreat to the deep chlorophyll maximum in summer, poised to seed the mixed layer upon winter convection, exposing a mechanism for initiating high abundances at bloom onset. Comparisons to tropical oceans reveal broad distributions of the dominant sub-species herein. This unparalleled window into temporal and spatial niche partitioning of picoeukaryotic primary producers demonstrates how key prasinophytes prevail in warm oceans.

RevDate: 2024-05-22
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Starr K, Montesanto F, Perisho E, et al (2024)

Gut Microbial Composition of Cyprinella lutrensis (Red Shiner) and Notropis stramineus (Sand Shiner): Insights from Wild Fish Populations.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):75.

The gut microbiome is a highly intricate ecosystem that exerts a pivotal influence on the host's physiology. Characterizing fish microbiomes is critical to understanding fish physiology and health, but little is known about the ecology and colonization dynamics of microorganisms inhabiting fish species. In this study, we investigated the bacterial communities of two small-bodied fish species, Cyprinella lutrensis (red shiner) and Notropis stramineus (sand shiner), two fish species where gut microbiomes have not been investigated previously and surrounding waters, collected from rivers in Nebraska, USA. Our study focused on evaluating microbial diversity in small-bodied fish and identifying autochthonous microbes present within these species irrespective of location to better understand bacterial community composition and possible roles of such bacterial species. Our results revealed that both red shiner and sand shiner exhibited gut bacterial communities dominated by typical bacterial phyla found in freshwater fish. The phylum Bacteroidota was minimally abundant in both species and significantly lower in relative abundance compared to the surrounding water microbial community. Furthermore, we found that the gut microbiomes of red shiner and sand shiner differed from the microbial community in the surrounding water, suggesting that these fish species contain host-associated bacterial species that may provide benefits to the host such as nutrient digestion and colonization resistance of environmental pathogens. The fish gut bacterial communities were sensitive to environmental conditions such as turbidity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and total nitrogen. Our findings also show bacterial community differences between fish species; although they shared notable similarities in bacterial taxa at phyla level composition, ASV level analysis of bacterial taxa displayed compositional differences. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the gut bacterial composition of wild, freshwater, small-bodied fish and highlight the influence of intrinsic (host) and environmental factors on shaping the bacterial composition.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Fischer FC, Schulze-Makuch D, J Heinz (2024)

Microbial preference for chlorate over perchlorate under simulated shallow subsurface Mars-like conditions.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11537.

The Martian surface and shallow subsurface lacks stable liquid water, yet hygroscopic salts in the regolith may enable the transient formation of liquid brines. This study investigated the combined impact of water scarcity, UV exposure, and regolith depth on microbial survival under Mars-like environmental conditions. Both vegetative cells of Debaryomyces hansenii and Planococcus halocryophilus, alongside with spores of Aspergillus niger, were exposed to an experimental chamber simulating Martian environmental conditions (constant temperatures of about - 11 °C, low pressure of approximately 6 mbar, a CO2 atmosphere, and 2 h of daily UV irradiation). We evaluated colony-forming units (CFU) and water content at three different regolith depths before and after exposure periods of 3 and 7 days, respectively. Each organism was tested under three conditions: one without the addition of salts to the regolith, one containing sodium chlorate, and one with sodium perchlorate. Our results reveal that the residual water content after the exposure experiments increased with regolith depth, along with the organism survival rates in chlorate-containing and salt-free samples. The survival rates of the three organisms in perchlorate-containing regolith were consistently lower for all organisms and depths compared to chlorate, with the most significant difference being observed at a depth of 10-12 cm, which corresponds to the depth with the highest residual water content. The postulated reason for this is an increase in the salt concentration at this depth due to the freezing of water, showing that for these organisms, perchlorate brines are more toxic than chlorate brines under the experimental conditions. This underscores the significance of chlorate salts when considering the habitability of Martian environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Huang WRH, Braam C, Kretschmer C, et al (2024)

Receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases of different subfamilies differentially regulate SOBIR1/BAK1-mediated immune responses in Nicotiana benthamiana.

Nature communications, 15(1):4339.

Cell-surface receptors form the front line of plant immunity. The leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-receptor-like kinases SOBIR1 and BAK1 are required for the functionality of the tomato LRR-receptor-like protein Cf-4, which detects the secreted effector Avr4 of the pathogenic fungus Fulvia fulva. Here, we show that the kinase domains of SOBIR1 and BAK1 directly phosphorylate each other and that residues Thr522 and Tyr469 of the kinase domain of Nicotiana benthamiana SOBIR1 are required for its kinase activity and for interacting with signalling partners, respectively. By knocking out multiple genes belonging to different receptor-like cytoplasmic kinase (RLCK)-VII subfamilies in N. benthamiana:Cf-4, we show that members of RLCK-VII-6, -7, and -8 differentially regulate the Avr4/Cf-4-triggered biphasic burst of reactive oxygen species. In addition, members of RLCK-VII-7 play an essential role in resistance against the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora palmivora. Our study provides molecular evidence for the specific roles of RLCKs downstream of SOBIR1/BAK1-containing immune complexes.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Zai X, Cordovez V, Zhu F, et al (2024)

C4 cereal and biofuel crop microbiomes.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(24)00093-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiomes provide multiple life-support functions for plants, including nutrient acquisition and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Considering the importance of C4 cereal and biofuel crops for food security under climate change conditions, more attention has been given recently to C4 plant microbiome assembly and functions. Here, we review the current status of C4 cereal and biofuel crop microbiome research with a focus on beneficial microbial traits for crop growth and health. We highlight the importance of environmental factors and plant genetics in C4 crop microbiome assembly and pinpoint current knowledge gaps. Finally, we discuss the potential of foxtail millet as a C4 model species and outline future perspectives of C4 plant microbiome research.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Van Hee S, Alınç T, Weldegergis BT, et al (2024)

Differential effects of plant-beneficial fungi on the attraction of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis in response to Nezara viridula egg deposition.

PloS one, 19(5):e0304220.

There is increasing evidence that plant-associated microorganisms play important roles in defending plants against insect herbivores through both direct and indirect mechanisms. While previous research has shown that these microbes can modify the behaviour and performance of insect herbivores and their natural enemies, little is known about their effect on egg parasitoids which utilize oviposition-induced plant volatiles to locate their hosts. In this study, we investigated how root inoculation of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) with the plant-beneficial fungi Beauveria bassiana ARSEF 3097 or Trichoderma harzianum T22 influences the olfactory behaviour of the egg parasitoid Trissolcus basalis following egg deposition by its host Nezara viridula. Olfactometer assays showed that inoculation by T. harzianum significantly enhanced the attraction of the egg parasitoid, while B. bassiana had the opposite effect. However, no variation was observed in the chemical composition of plant volatiles. Additionally, fitness-related traits of the parasitoids (wasp body size) were not altered by any of the two fungi, suggesting that fungal inoculation did not indirectly affect host quality. Altogether, our results indicate that plant inoculation with T. harzianum T22 can be used to enhance attraction of egg parasitoids, which could be a promising strategy in manipulating early plant responses against pest species and improving sustainable crop protection. From a more fundamental point of view, our findings highlight the importance of taking into account the role of microorganisms when studying the intricate interactions between plants, herbivores and their associated egg parasitoids.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Song S, Sun Z, Xu G, et al (2024)

Continuous warming drives the colonization dynamics of periphytic ciliate fauna in marine environments.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

In order to evaluate the influence of global warming on the ecosystem processes in marine environments, the changes in colonization dynamics of periphytic microbiota were studied using the periphytic ciliate communities as the test organism fauna under a continuous warming gradient of 22℃ (control), 25℃, 28℃, 31℃, and 34 ℃. The results demonstrated that (1) the test ciliate communities generally showed a similar temporal pattern in within the colonization process under the water temperatures from 22 up to 28℃; however, (2) the colonization dynamics were significantly changed, and the fitness of colonization curves to the MacArthur-Wilson model equation was failed under the temperature increased by 6 ℃, and (3) the loading or assimilative capacity of the test aquatic ecosystem was decreased with the increase of water temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that continuous warming may significantly drive the colonization dynamics of periphytic ciliates in marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Jiao Y, Zhang G, Ai X, et al (2024)

Comparison of the Effects of LDPE and PBAT Film Residues on Soil Microbial Ecology.

Current microbiology, 81(7):185.

The plastic film is extensively applied with limited recycling, leading to the long-run residue accumulation in soil, which offers a distinctive habitat for microorganisms, and creates a plastisphere. In this study, traditional low-density polyethylene (LDPE) plastic film and biodegradable polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT) plastic film materials were selected to test their effects on soil microbial ecology. Based on high-throughput sequencing, compared to the soil environment, the alpha-diversity of bacterial communities in plastisphere was lower, and the abundance of Actinobacteria increased. Plastic film residues, as bacterial habitats, exhibited greater heterogeneity and harbor unique bacterial communities. The communities were distinguished between plastisphere and soil environment by means of a random-forest (RF) machine-learning model. Prominent distinctions emerged among bacterial functions between soil environment and plastisphere, especially regarding organics degradation. The neutral model and null model indicated that the constitution of bacterial communities was dominated by random processes except in LDPE plastisphere. The bacterial co-occurrence network of the plastisphere exhibited higher complexity and modularity. This study contributes to our comprehending of characteristics of plastisphere bacterial communities in soil environment and the associated ecological risks of plastic film residues accumulation.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Wang Y, Q Zou (2024)

Deciphering Microbial Adaptation in the Rhizosphere: Insights into Niche Preference, Functional Profiles, and Cross-Kingdom Co-occurrences.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):74.

Rhizosphere microbial communities are to be as critical factors for plant growth and vitality, and their adaptive differentiation strategies have received increasing amounts of attention but are poorly understood. In this study, we obtained bacterial and fungal amplicon sequences from the rhizosphere and bulk soils of various ecosystems to investigate the potential mechanisms of microbial adaptation to the rhizosphere environment. Our focus encompasses three aspects: niche preference, functional profiles, and cross-kingdom co-occurrence patterns. Our findings revealed a correlation between niche similarity and nucleotide distance, suggesting that niche adaptation explains nucleotide variation among some closely related amplicon sequence variants (ASVs). Furthermore, biological macromolecule metabolism and communication among abundant bacteria increase in the rhizosphere conditions, suggesting that bacterial function is trait-mediated in terms of fitness in new habitats. Additionally, our analysis of cross-kingdom networks revealed that fungi act as intermediaries that facilitate connections between bacteria, indicating that microbes can modify their cooperative relationships to adapt. Overall, the evidence for rhizosphere microbial community adaptation, via differences in gene and functional and co-occurrence patterns, elucidates the adaptive benefits of genetic and functional flexibility of the rhizosphere microbiota through niche shifts.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Wu S, Qu Z, Chen D, et al (2024)

Deciphering and designing microbial communities by genome-scale metabolic modelling.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 23:1990-2000.

Microbial communities are shaped by the complex interactions among organisms and the environment. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) can provide deeper insights into the complexity and ecological properties of various microbial communities, revealing their intricate interactions. Many researchers have modified GEMs for the microbial communities based on specific needs. Thus, GEMs need to be comprehensively summarized to better understand the trends in their development. In this review, we summarized the key developments in deciphering and designing microbial communities using different GEMs. A timeline of selected highlights in GEMs indicated that this area is evolving from the single-strain level to the microbial community level. Then, we outlined a framework for constructing GEMs of microbial communities. We also summarized the models and resources of static and dynamic community-level GEMs. We focused on the role of external environmental and intracellular resources in shaping the assembly of microbial communities. Finally, we discussed the key challenges and future directions of GEMs, focusing on the integration of GEMs with quorum sensing mechanisms, microbial ecology interactions, machine learning algorithms, and automatic modeling, all of which contribute to consortia-based applications in different fields.

RevDate: 2024-05-19

Liu S, Shi Y, Chen J, et al (2024)

Interspecific barrier effect driven by heavy metals makes soil bacterial functional assembly more stochastic.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)01058-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Residual heavy metals in soils will destroy microbial community stability and influence its aggregation. However, exploring microbial ecology under heavy-metal stress still requires a conjoint analysis of bacterial interspecies communication and the community diversity maintenance mechanism. In this study, soil samples were collected from a heavy-metal-contaminated site in China to investigate the ecological response of indigenous microbial communities through high-throughput sequencing. Results showed that bacterial taxa and functions generated unusual decoupling phenomena. There were no significant differences in the diversity of species with the increase in concentration of heavy metals (Hg, Se, and Cr), but the functional diversity was lost. Also, the average niche breadth of bacterial species increased from 1.70 to 2.28, but community stability declined and the species assembly was always a deterministic process (NST <0.5). After the bacterial functional assembly changed from a stochastic process to a deterministic process (NST <0.5), it was transformed into a stochastic process (NST >0.5) again under the stress of high-concentration heavy metals, indicating that the collective stress resistance of bacterial communities changed from positive mutation into passive functional propagation. The research results can provide new insight into understanding the adaptive evolution of communities and ecosystem restoration under the stress of soil heavy metals.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Awala SI, Gwak JH, Kim Y, et al (2024)

Nitrous oxide respiration in acidophilic methanotrophs.

Nature communications, 15(1):4226.

Aerobic methanotrophic bacteria are considered strict aerobes but are often highly abundant in hypoxic and even anoxic environments. Despite possessing denitrification genes, it remains to be verified whether denitrification contributes to their growth. Here, we show that acidophilic methanotrophs can respire nitrous oxide (N2O) and grow anaerobically on diverse non-methane substrates, including methanol, C-C substrates, and hydrogen. We study two strains that possess N2O reductase genes: Methylocella tundrae T4 and Methylacidiphilum caldifontis IT6. We show that N2O respiration supports growth of Methylacidiphilum caldifontis at an extremely acidic pH of 2.0, exceeding the known physiological pH limits for microbial N2O consumption. Methylocella tundrae simultaneously consumes N2O and CH4 in suboxic conditions, indicating robustness of its N2O reductase activity in the presence of O2. Furthermore, in O2-limiting conditions, the amount of CH4 oxidized per O2 reduced increases when N2O is added, indicating that Methylocella tundrae can direct more O2 towards methane monooxygenase. Thus, our results demonstrate that some methanotrophs can respire N2O independently or simultaneously with O2, which may facilitate their growth and survival in dynamic environments. Such metabolic capability enables these bacteria to simultaneously reduce the release of the key greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, and N2O.

RevDate: 2024-05-21
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Min K, Glowacki AJ, Bosma ML, et al (2024)

Quantitative analysis of the effects of essential oil mouthrinses on clinical plaque microbiome: a parallel-group, randomized trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):578.

BACKGROUND: The rich diversity of microorganisms in the oral cavity plays an important role in the maintenance of oral health and development of detrimental oral health conditions. Beyond commonly used qualitative microbiome metrics, such as relative proportions or diversity, both the species-level identification and quantification of bacteria are key to understanding clinical disease associations. This study reports the first-time application of an absolute quantitative microbiome analysis using spiked DNA standards and shotgun metagenome sequencing to assess the efficacy and safety of product intervention on dental plaque microbiome.

METHODS: In this parallel-group, randomized clinical trial, essential oil mouthrinses, including LISTERINE® Cool Mint Antiseptic (LCM), an alcohol-containing prototype mouthrinse (ACPM), and an alcohol-free prototype mouthrinse (AFPM), were compared against a hydroalcohol control rinse on clinical parameters and the oral microbiome of subjects with moderate gingivitis. To enable a sensitive and clinically meaningful measure of bacterial abundances, species were categorized according to their associations with oral conditions based on published literature and quantified using known amounts of spiked DNA standards.

RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that both LCM and ACPM shifted the dysbiotic microbiome composition of subjects with gingivitis to a healthier state after 4 weeks of twice-daily use, resembling the composition of subjects with clinically healthy oral conditions recruited for observational reference comparison at baseline. The essential oil-containing mouthrinses evaluated in this study showed statistically significant reductions in clinical gingivitis and plaque measurements when compared to the hydroalcohol control rinse after 6 weeks of use.

CONCLUSIONS: By establishing a novel quantitative method for microbiome analysis, this study sheds light on the mechanisms of LCM mouthrinse efficacy on oral microbial ecology, demonstrating that repeated usage non-selectively resets a gingivitis-like oral microbiome toward that of a healthy oral cavity.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on on 10/06/2021. The registration number is NCT04921371.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Wang Z, Lü C, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Zero-valent iron (ZVI) facilitated in-situ selenium (Se) immobilization and its recovery by magnetic separation: Mechanisms and implications for microbial ecology.

Journal of hazardous materials, 473:134591 pii:S0304-3894(24)01170-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Selenium (Se(VI)) is environmentally toxic. One of the most popular reducing agents for Se(VI) remediation is zero-valent iron (ZVI). However, most ZVI studies were carried out in water matrices, and the recovery of reduced Se has not been investigated. A water-sediment system constructed using natural sediment was employed here to study in-situ Se remediation and recovery. A combined effect of ZVI and unacclimated microorganisms from natural sediment was found in Se(VI) removal in the water phase with a removal efficiency of 92.7 ± 1.1% within 7 d when 10 mg L[-1] Se(VI) was present. Soluble Se(VI) was removed from the water and precipitated to the sediment phase (74.8 ± 0.1%), which was enhanced by the addition of ZVI (83.3 ± 0.3%). The recovery proportion of the immobilized Se was 34.2 ± 0.1% and 92.5 ± 0.2% through wet and dry magnetic separation with 1 g L[-1] ZVI added, respectively. The 16 s rRNA sequencing revealed the variations in the microbial communities in response to ZVI and Se, which the magnetic separation could potentially mitigate in the long term. This study provides a novel technique to achieve in-situ Se remediation and recovery by combining ZVI reduction and magnetic separation.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Min K, Bosma ML, John G, et al (2024)

Quantitative analysis of the effects of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing on supragingival and subgingival plaque microbiota: 12-week clinical trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):575.

BACKGROUND: Translational microbiome research using next-generation DNA sequencing is challenging due to the semi-qualitative nature of relative abundance data. A novel method for quantitative analysis was applied in this 12-week clinical trial to understand the mechanical vs. chemotherapeutic actions of brushing, flossing, and mouthrinsing against the supragingival dental plaque microbiome. Enumeration of viable bacteria using vPCR was also applied on supragingival plaque for validation and on subgingival plaque to evaluate interventional effects below the gingival margin.

METHODS: Subjects with gingivitis were enrolled in a single center, examiner-blind, virtually supervised, parallel group controlled clinical trial. Subjects with gingivitis were randomized into brushing only (B); brushing and flossing (BF); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Antiseptic (BA); brushing and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BZ); or brushing, flossing, and rinsing with Listerine® Cool Mint® Zero (BFZ). All subjects brushed twice daily for 1 min with a sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste and a soft-bristled toothbrush. Subjects who flossed used unflavored waxed dental floss once daily. Subjects assigned to mouthrinses rinsed twice daily. Plaque specimens were collected at the baseline visit and after 4 and 12 weeks of intervention. Bacterial cell number quantification was achieved by adding reference amounts of DNA controls to plaque samples prior to DNA extraction, followed by shallow shotgun metagenome sequencing.

RESULTS: 286 subjects completed the trial. The metagenomic data for supragingival plaque showed significant reductions in Shannon-Weaver diversity, species richness, and total and categorical bacterial abundances (commensal, gingivitis, and malodor) after 4 and 12 weeks for the BA, BZ, and BFZ groups compared to the B group, while no significant differences were observed between the B and BF groups. Supragingival plaque vPCR further validated these results, and subgingival plaque vPCR demonstrated significant efficacy for the BFZ intervention only.

CONCLUSIONS: This publication reports on a successful application of a quantitative method of microbiome analysis in a clinical trial demonstrating the sustained and superior efficacy of essential oil mouthrinses at controlling dental plaque compared to mechanical methods. The quantitative microbiological data in this trial also reinforce the safety and mechanism of action of EO mouthrinses against plaque microbial ecology and highlights the importance of elevating EO mouthrinsing as an integral part of an oral hygiene regimen.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on on 31/10/2022. The registration number is NCT05600231.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-17

Nie X, Zhao Z, Zhang X, et al (2024)

Endophytes Alleviate Drought-Derived Oxidative Damage in Achnatherum inebrians Plants Through Increasing Antioxidants and Regulating Host Stress Responses.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):73.

Endophytes generally increase antioxidant contents of plants subjected to environmental stresses. However, the mechanisms by which endophytes alter the accumulation of antioxidants in plant tissues are not entirely clear. We hypothesized that, in stress situations, endophytes would simultaneously reduce oxidative damage and increase antioxidant contents of plants and that the accumulation of antioxidants would be a consequence of the endophyte ability to regulate the expression of plant antioxidant genes. We investigated the effects of the fungal endophyte Epichloë gansuensis (C.J. Li & Nan) on oxidative damage, antioxidant contents, and expression of representative genes associated with antioxidant pathways in Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng plants subjected to low (15%) and high (60%) soil moisture conditions. Gene expression levels were measured using RNA-seq. As expected, the endophyte reduced the oxidative damage by 17.55% and increased the antioxidant contents by 53.14% (on average) in plants subjected to low soil moisture. In line with the accumulation of antioxidants in plant tissues, the endophyte increased the expression of most plant genes associated with the biosynthesis of antioxidants (e.g., MIOX, crtB, gpx) while it reduced the expression of plant genes related to the metabolization of antioxidants (e.g., GST, PRODH, ALDH). Our findings suggest that endophyte ability of increasing antioxidant contents in plants may reduce the oxidative damage caused by stresses and that the fungal regulation of plant antioxidants would partly explain the accumulation of these compounds in plant tissues.

RevDate: 2024-05-18

Wang F, Xiang L, Sze-Yin Leung K, et al (2024)

Emerging contaminants: A One Health perspective.

Innovation (Cambridge (Mass.)), 5(4):100612.

Environmental pollution is escalating due to rapid global development that often prioritizes human needs over planetary health. Despite global efforts to mitigate legacy pollutants, the continuous introduction of new substances remains a major threat to both people and the planet. In response, global initiatives are focusing on risk assessment and regulation of emerging contaminants, as demonstrated by the ongoing efforts to establish the UN's Intergovernmental Science-Policy Panel on Chemicals, Waste, and Pollution Prevention. This review identifies the sources and impacts of emerging contaminants on planetary health, emphasizing the importance of adopting a One Health approach. Strategies for monitoring and addressing these pollutants are discussed, underscoring the need for robust and socially equitable environmental policies at both regional and international levels. Urgent actions are needed to transition toward sustainable pollution management practices to safeguard our planet for future generations.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Akashi M, Takemura M, S Suzuki (2024)

Continuous year-round isolation of giant viruses from brackish shoreline soils.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1402690.

Giant viruses, categorized under Nucleocytoviricota, are believed to exist ubiquitously in natural environments. However, comprehensive reports on isolated giant viruses remain scarce, with limited information available on unrecoverable strains, viral proliferation sites, and natural hosts. Previously, the author highlighted Pandoravirus hades, Pandoravirus persephone, and Mimivirus sp. styx, isolated from brackish water soil, as potential hotspots for giant virus multiplication. This study presents findings from nearly a year of monthly sampling within the same brackish water region after isolating the three aforementioned strains. This report details the recurrent isolation of a wide range of giant viruses. Each month, four soil samples were randomly collected from an approximately 5 × 10 m plot, comprising three soil samples and one water sample containing sediment from the riverbed. Acanthamoeba castellanii was used as a host for virus isolation. These efforts consistently yielded at least one viral species per month, culminating in a total of 55 giant virus isolates. The most frequently isolated species was Mimiviridae (24 isolates), followed by Marseilleviridae (23 isolates), Pandoravirus (6 isolates), and singular isolates of Pithovirus and Cedratvirus. Notably, viruses were not consistently isolated from any of the four samples every month, with certain sites yielding no viruses. Cluster analysis based on isolate numbers revealed that soil samples from May and water and sediment samples from January produced the highest number of viral strains. These findings underscore brackish coastal soil as a significant site for isolating numerous giant viruses, highlighting the non-uniform distribution along coastlines.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Flores-Almaraz VS, Truong C, Hernández-Oaxaca D, et al (2024)

Foliar mycobiome remains unaltered under urban air-pollution but differentially express stress-related genes.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):72.

Air pollution caused by tropospheric ozone contributes to the decline of forest ecosystems; for instance, sacred fir, Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. & Cham. forests in the peri-urban region of Mexico City. Individual trees within these forests exhibit variation in their response to ozone exposure, including the severity of visible symptoms in needles. Using RNA-Seq metatranscriptomic data and ITS2 metabarcoding, we investigated whether symptom variation correlates with the taxonomic and functional composition of fungal mycobiomes from needles collected in this highly polluted area in the surroundings of Mexico City. Our findings indicate that ozone-related symptoms do not significantly correlate with changes in the taxonomic composition of fungal mycobiomes. However, genes coding for 30 putative proteins were differentially expressed in the mycobiome of asymptomatic needles, including eight genes previously associated with resistance to oxidative stress. These results suggest that fungal communities likely play a role in mitigating the oxidative burst caused by tropospheric ozone in sacred fir. Our study illustrates the feasibility of using RNA-Seq data, accessible from global sequence repositories, for the characterization of fungal communities associated with plant tissues, including their gene expression.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-16

Schmider T, Hestnes AG, Brzykcy J, et al (2024)

Physiological basis for atmospheric methane oxidation and methanotrophic growth on air.

Nature communications, 15(1):4151.

Atmospheric methane oxidizing bacteria (atmMOB) constitute the sole biological sink for atmospheric methane. Still, the physiological basis allowing atmMOB to grow on air is not well understood. Here we assess the ability and strategies of seven methanotrophic species to grow with air as sole energy, carbon, and nitrogen source. Four species, including three outside the canonical atmMOB group USCα, enduringly oxidized atmospheric methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen during 12 months of growth on air. These four species exhibited distinct substrate preferences implying the existence of multiple metabolic strategies to grow on air. The estimated energy yields of the atmMOB were substantially lower than previously assumed necessary for cellular maintenance in atmMOB and other aerobic microorganisms. Moreover, the atmMOB also covered their nitrogen requirements from air. During growth on air, the atmMOB decreased investments in biosynthesis while increasing investments in trace gas oxidation. Furthermore, we confirm that a high apparent specific affinity for methane is a key characteristic of atmMOB. Our work shows that atmMOB grow on the trace concentrations of methane, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen present in air and outlines the metabolic strategies that enable atmMOB to mitigate greenhouse gases.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Vaccalluzzo A, Pino A, Grimaldi RL, et al (2024)

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus TOM 22.8 (DSM 33500) is an effective strategy for managing vaginal dysbiosis, rising the lactobacilli population.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7675511 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: The present study is a single-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the probiotic Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus TOM 22.8 (DSM 33500) strain, orally administrated, to treat vaginal dysbiosis.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Overall, 80 women, with signs and symptoms of vaginal dysbiosis, were enrolled and allocated to the treatment group (A, n = 60), who took 1 capsule of the probiotic strain for 10 consecutive days, or the non-treatment group (B, n = 20), who did not receive any treatment. Clinical (vaginal signs and symptoms; pH of the vaginal fluid; Amsel criteria; Nugent score; Lactobacillary grade) and microbiological examinations were performed at baseline (T0), 10 days (T1), and 30 (T2) days after the oral administration of the probiotic TOM 22.8 strain. The latter resulted in a restoration of the physiological pH, accompanied by remission or attenuation of clinical signs and symptoms as well as the improvement of the quality of life. Microbiological data revealed a significant reduction of potentially pathogenic bacteria.

CONCLUSION: The administration of the L. rhamnosus TOM 22.8 probiotic strain could be proposed as an effective strategy for the treatment of vaginal dysbiosis.TOM 22.8 strain for vaginal health.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Thomé PC, Wolinska J, Van Den Wyngaert S, et al (2024)

Phylogenomics including new sequence data of phytoplankton-infecting chytrids reveals multiple independent lifestyle transitions across the phylum.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(24)00095-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Parasitism is the most common lifestyle on Earth and has emerged many times independently across the eukaryotic tree of life. It is frequently found among chytrids (Chytridiomycota), which are early-branching unicellular fungi that feed osmotrophically via rhizoids as saprotrophs or parasites. Chytrids are abundant in most aquatic and terrestrial environments and fulfil important ecosystem functions. As parasites, they can have significant impacts on host populations. They cause global amphibian declines and influence the Earth's carbon cycle by terminating algal blooms. To date, the evolution of parasitism within the chytrid phylum remains unclear due to the low phylogenetic resolution of rRNA genes for the early diversification of fungi, and because few parasitic lineages have been cultured and genomic data for parasites is scarce. Here, we combine transcriptomics, culture-independent single-cell genomics and a phylogenomic approach to overcome these limitations. We newly sequenced 29 parasitic taxa and combined these with existing data to provide a robust backbone topology for the diversification of Chytridiomycota. Our analyses reveal multiple independent lifestyle transitions between parasitism and saprotrophy among chytrids and multiple host shifts by parasites. Based on these results and the parasitic lifestyle of other early-branching holomycotan lineages, we hypothesise that the chytrid last common ancestor was a parasite of phytoplankton.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Verstraete W (2024)

Nitrogen and me - How little did we, and do we know about "stikstof - azote - nitrogen"?.

Water research, 258:121687 pii:S0043-1354(24)00588-8 [Epub ahead of print].

This retrospective article reflects on the complex and evolving relationship between humans and nitrogen over several decades. Raised on a Flemish farm, the author's early experiences with nitrogen in agriculture - both its benefits and dangers - laid the foundation for a lifelong interest in this element. The article traverses a broad range of topics related to nitrogen, highlighting its critical role in various historical, agricultural, environmental, and industrial contexts. The narrative begins with a historical overview of nitrogen's role in agriculture and warfare. The development of industrial processes like the Haber and Ostwald methods transformed nitrogen into a key ingredient for both fertilizers and explosives. The dual nature of nitrogen - as a life-giver in agriculture and a destructive component in warfare and also in biodiversity - is an important theme. The article delves into the environmental impacts of nitrogen, particularly in the context of modern agriculture and industrialization. Issues like fertilization, water contamination, and the challenges of managing nitrogenous waste highlight the complex interplay between human activities and environmental health. Technological advancements are explored, including the development of bioaugmentation methods and the potential of genetic engineering in optimizing nitrogen fixation. Throughout the narrative, personal anecdotes are weaved with scientific information, offering a unique perspective on the historical and contemporary challenges of managing nitrogen. The discussion extends to the broader implications of nitrogen management in the context of sustainability, climate change, and global food security and its overall regulatory space. All these considerations call for a re-evaluation of our relationship with nitrogen, advocating for innovative solutions and systemic thinking to address the multifaceted challenges posed by this essential, yet often problematic element.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Barnett SE, A Shade (2024)

Seven years of microbial community metagenomes from temperate soils affected by an ongoing coal seam fire.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

We examined the dynamics of soil microbiomes under heat press disturbance from an underground coal mine fire in Centralia, PA. Here, we present metagenomic sequencing and assembly data from soil microbiomes across seven consecutive years at repeatedly sampled fire-affected sites along with unaffected reference sites.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Kaijser W, Lorenz AW, Brauer VS, et al (2024)

Differential associations of five riverine organism groups with multiple stressors.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03252-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The decline of river and stream biodiversity results from multiple simultaneous stressors, yet few studies explore responses explore responses across various taxonomic groups at the same locations. In this study, we address this shortcoming by using a coherent data set to study the association of nine commonly occurring stressors (five chemical, one morphological and three hydraulic) with five taxonomic groups (bacteria, fungi, diatoms, macro-invertebrates and fish). According to studies on single taxonomic groups, we hypothesise that gradients of chemical stressors structure community composition of all taxonomic groups, while gradients of hydraulic and morphological stressors are mainly related to larger organisms such as benthic macro-invertebrates and fish. Organisms were sampled over two years at 20 sites in two catchments: a recently restored urban lowland catchment (Boye) and a moderately disturbed rural mountainous catchment (Kinzig). Dissimilarity matrices were computed for each taxonomic group within a catchment. Taxonomic dissimilarities between sites were linked to stressor dissimilarities using multivariable Generalized Linear Mixed Models. Stressor gradients were longer in the Boye, but did in contrast to the Kinzig not cover low stress intensities. Accordingly, responses of the taxonomic groups were stronger in the Kinzig catchment than in the recently restored Boye catchment. The discrepancy between catchments underlines that associations to stressors strongly depend on which part of the stressor gradient is covered in a catchment. All taxonomic groups were related to conductivity. Bacteria, fungi and macro-invertebrates change with dissolved oxygen, and bacteria and fungi with total nitrogen. Morphological and hydraulic stressors had minor correlations with bacteria, fungi and diatoms, while macro-invertebrates were strongly related to fine sediment and discharge, and fish to high flow peaks. The results partly support our hypotheses about the differential associations of the different taxonomic groups with the stressors.

RevDate: 2024-05-16

Huusko K, Manninen OH, Myrsky E, et al (2024)

Soil fungal and bacterial communities reflect differently tundra vegetation state transitions and soil physico-chemical properties.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Strong disturbances may induce ecosystem transitions into new alternative states that sustain through plant-soil interactions, such as the transition of dwarf shrub-dominated into graminoid-dominated vegetation by herbivory in tundra. Little evidence exists on soil microbial communities in alternative states, and along the slow process of ecosystem return into the predisturbance state. We analysed vegetation, soil microbial communities and activities as well as soil physico-chemical properties in historical reindeer enclosures in northernmost Finland in the following plot types: control heaths in the surrounding tundra; graminoid-dominated; 'shifting'; and recovered dwarf shrub-dominated vegetation inside enclosures. Soil fungal communities followed changes in vegetation, whereas bacterial communities were more affected by soil physico-chemical properties. Graminoid plots were characterized by moulds, pathotrophs and dark septate endophytes. Ericoid mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi were typical for control and recovered plots. Soil microbial communities inside the enclosures showed historical contingency, as their spatial variation was high in recovered plots despite the vegetation being more homogeneous. Self-maintaining feedback loops between plant functional types, soil microbial communities, and carbon and nutrient mineralization act effectively to stabilize alternative vegetation states, but once predisturbance vegetation reestablishes itself, soil microbial communities and physico-chemical properties return back towards their predisturbance state.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Sato Y (2024)

Transcriptome Analysis: A Powerful Tool to Understand Individual Microbial Behaviors and Interactions in Ecosystems.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry pii:7674882 [Epub ahead of print].

Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool for studying microbial ecology, especially individual microbial functions in an ecosystem and their interactions. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technology, great progress had been made in analytical methods for microbial communities in natural environments. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (i.e., microbial community structure analysis) and shotgun metagenome analysis have been widely used to determine the composition and potential metabolic capability of microorganisms in target environments without requiring culture. However, even if the types of microorganisms present and their genes are known, it is difficult to determine what they are doing in an ecosystem. Gene expression analysis (transcriptome analysis; RNA-seq) is a powerful tool to address these issues. The history and basic information of gene expression analysis, as well as examples of studies using this method to analyze microbial ecosystems, are presented.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Kutralam-Muniasamy G, Shruti VC, F Pérez-Guevara (2024)

Plastisphere-hosted viruses: A review of interactions, behavior, and effects.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134533 pii:S0304-3894(24)01112-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities, including bacteria, diatoms, and fungi, colonize plastic surfaces, forming biofilms known as the "plastisphere." Recent research has revealed that plastispheres also host a wide range of viruses, sparking interest in microbial ecology and virology. This shared habitat allows viruses to replicate, interact, infect, and spread, potentially impacting the environment and human health. Consequently, viruses attached to microplastics are now recognized to have broad effects on cellular and immune responses. However, the ecology and implications of viruses hosted in plastisphere habitats remain poorly understood, highlighting their fundamental importance as a subject of study. This review explores various pathways for virus attachment to plastispheres, factors influencing these interactions, their impacts within plastisphere and host-associated environments, and associated issues. It also summarizes current research and identifies knowledge gaps. We anticipate that this paper will help improve our predictive understanding of plastisphere viruses in natural settings and emphasizes the need for more research in real-world environments to advance the field.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Perez-Bou L, Gonzalez-Martinez A, Cabrera JJ, et al (2024)

Design and Validation of Primer Sets for the Detection and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Environmental Samples by Quantitative PCR.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):71.

The high prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) in several environments is a great concern threatening human health. Particularly, wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) become important contributors to the dissemination of ARB to receiving water bodies, due to the inefficient management or treatment of highly antibiotic-concentrated wastewaters. Hence, it is vital to develop molecular tools that allow proper monitoring of the genes encoding resistances to these important therapeutic compounds (antibiotic resistant genes, ARGs). For an accurate quantification of ARGs, there is a need for sensitive and robust qPCR assays supported by a good design of primers and validated protocols. In this study, eleven relevant ARGs were selected as targets, including aadA and aadB (conferring resistance to aminoglycosides); ampC, blaTEM, blaSHV, and mecA (resistance to beta-lactams); dfrA1 (resistance to trimethoprim); ermB (resistance to macrolides); fosA (resistance to fosfomycin); qnrS (resistance to quinolones); and tetA(A) (resistance to tetracyclines). The in silico design of the new primer sets was performed based on the alignment of all the sequences of the target ARGs (orthology grade > 70%) deposited in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database, allowing higher coverages of the ARGs' biodiversity than those of several primers described to date. The adequate design and performance of the new molecular tools were validated in six samples, retrieved from both natural and engineered environments related to wastewater treatment. The hallmarks of the optimized qPCR assays were high amplification efficiency (> 90%), good linearity of the standard curve (R[2] > 0.980), repeatability and reproducibility across experiments, and a wide linear dynamic range. The new primer sets and methodology described here are valuable tools to upgrade the monitorization of the abundance and emergence of the targeted ARGs by qPCR in WWTPs and related environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Sudo M, Osvatic J, Taylor JD, et al (2024)

SoxY gene family expansion underpins adaptation to diverse hosts and environments in symbiotic sulfide oxidizers.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have developed distinct ecological strategies to obtain reduced sulfur compounds for growth. These range from specialists that can only use a limited range of reduced sulfur compounds to generalists that can use many different forms as electron donors. Forming intimate symbioses with animal hosts is another highly successful ecological strategy for SOB, as animals, through their behavior and physiology, can enable access to sulfur compounds. Symbioses have evolved multiple times in a range of animal hosts and from several lineages of SOB. They have successfully colonized a wide range of habitats, from seagrass beds to hydrothermal vents, with varying availability of symbiont energy sources. Our extensive analyses of sulfur transformation pathways in 234 genomes of symbiotic and free-living SOB revealed widespread conservation in metabolic pathways for sulfur oxidation in symbionts from different host species and environments, raising the question of how they have adapted to such a wide range of distinct habitats. We discovered a gene family expansion of soxY in these genomes, with up to five distinct copies per genome. Symbionts harboring only the "canonical" soxY were typically ecological "specialists" that are associated with specific host subfamilies or environments (e.g., hydrothermal vents, mangroves). Conversely, symbionts with multiple divergent soxY genes formed versatile associations across diverse hosts in various marine environments. We hypothesize that expansion and diversification of the soxY gene family could be one genomic mechanism supporting the metabolic flexibility of symbiotic SOB enabling them and their hosts to thrive in a range of different and dynamic environments.IMPORTANCESulfur metabolism is thought to be one of the most ancient mechanisms for energy generation in microorganisms. A diverse range of microorganisms today rely on sulfur oxidation for their metabolism. They can be free-living, or they can live in symbiosis with animal hosts, where they power entire ecosystems in the absence of light, such as in the deep sea. In the millions of years since they evolved, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria have adopted several highly successful strategies; some are ecological "specialists," and some are "generalists," but which genetic features underpin these ecological strategies are not well understood. We discovered a gene family that has become expanded in those species that also seem to be "generalists," revealing that duplication, repurposing, and reshuffling existing genes can be a powerful mechanism driving ecological lifestyle shifts.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-15

Tanabe TS, Bach E, D'Ermo G, et al (2024)

A cascade of sulfur transferases delivers sulfur to the sulfur-oxidizing heterodisulfide reductase-like complex.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society, 33(6):e5014.

A heterodisulfide reductase-like complex (sHdr) and novel lipoate-binding proteins (LbpAs) are central players of a wide-spread pathway of dissimilatory sulfur oxidation. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrate that the cytoplasmic sHdr-LbpA systems are always accompanied by sets of sulfur transferases (DsrE proteins, TusA, and rhodaneses). The exact composition of these sets may vary depending on the organism and sHdr system type. To enable generalizations, we studied model sulfur oxidizers from distant bacterial phyla, that is, Aquificota and Pseudomonadota. DsrE3C of the chemoorganotrophic Alphaproteobacterium Hyphomicrobium denitrificans and DsrE3B from the Gammaproteobacteria Thioalkalivibrio sp. K90mix, an obligate chemolithotroph, and Thiorhodospira sibirica, an obligate photolithotroph, are homotrimers that donate sulfur to TusA. Additionally, the hyphomicrobial rhodanese-like protein Rhd442 exchanges sulfur with both TusA and DsrE3C. The latter is essential for sulfur oxidation in Hm. denitrificans. TusA from Aquifex aeolicus (AqTusA) interacts physiologically with AqDsrE, AqLbpA, and AqsHdr proteins. This is particularly significant as it establishes a direct link between sulfur transferases and the sHdr-LbpA complex that oxidizes sulfane sulfur to sulfite. In vivo, it is unlikely that there is a strict unidirectional transfer between the sulfur-binding enzymes studied. Rather, the sulfur transferases form a network, each with a pool of bound sulfur. Sulfur flux can then be shifted in one direction or the other depending on metabolic requirements. A single pair of sulfur-binding proteins with a preferred transfer direction, such as a DsrE3-type protein towards TusA, may be sufficient to push sulfur into the sink where it is further metabolized or needed.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Shan Z, Chen H, Deng Y, et al (2024)

An abrupt regime shift of bacterioplankton community from weak to strong thermal pollution in a subtropical bay.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1395583.

Thermal pollution from the cooling system of the nuclear power plants greatly changes the environmental and the ecological conditions of the receiving marine water body, but we know little about their impact on the steady-state transition of marine bacterioplankton communities. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing based on the 16S rRNA gene to investigate the impact of the thermal pollution on the bacterioplankton communities in a subtropical bay (the Daya Bay). We observed that thermal pollution from the cooling system of the nuclear power plant caused a pronounced thermal gradient ranging from 19.6°C to 24.12°C over the whole Daya Bay. A temperature difference of 4.5°C between the northern and southern parts of the bay led to a regime shift in the bacterioplankton community structure. In the three typical scenarios of regime shifts, the steady-state transition of bacterioplankton community structure in response to temperature increasing was more likely consistent with an abrupt regime shift rather than a smooth regime or a discontinuous regime model. Water temperature was a decisive factor on the regime shift of bacterioplankton community structure. High temperature significantly decreased bacterioplankton diversity and shifted its community compositions. Cyanobium and Synechococcus of Cyanobacteria, NS5 marine group of Bacteroidota, and Vibrio of Gammaproteobacteria were found that favored high temperature environments. Furthermore, the increased water temperature significantly altered the community assembly of bacterioplankton in Daya Bay, with a substantial decrease in the proportion of drift and others, and a marked increase in the proportion of homogeneous selection. In summary, we proposed that seawater temperature increasing induced by the thermal pollution resulted in an abrupt regime shift of bacterioplankton community in winter subtropical bay. Our research might broad our understanding of marine microbial ecology under future conditions of global warming.

RevDate: 2024-05-15

Acheampong DA, Jenjaroenpun P, Wongsurawat T, et al (2024)

CAIM: Coverage-based Analysis for Identification of Microbiome.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

Accurate taxonomic profiling of microbial taxa in a metagenomic sample is vital to gain insights into microbial ecology. Recent advancements in sequencing technologies have contributed tremendously toward understanding these microbes at species resolution through a whole shotgun metagenomic (WMS) approach. In this study, we developed a new bioinformatics tool, CAIM, for accurate taxonomic classification and quantification within both long- and short-read metagenomic samples using an alignment-based method. CAIM depends on two different containment techniques to identify species in metagenomic samples using their genome coverage information to filter out false positives rather than the traditional approach of relative abundance. In addition, we propose a nucleotide-count based abundance estimation, which yield lesser root mean square error than the traditional read-count approach. We evaluated the performance of CAIM on 28 metagenomic mock communities and 2 synthetic datasets by comparing it with other top-performing tools. CAIM maintained a consitently good performance across datasets in identifying microbial taxa and in estimating relative abundances than other tools. CAIM was then applied to a real dataset sequenced on both Nanopore (with and without amplification) and Illumina sequencing platforms and found high similality of taxonomic profiles between the sequencing platforms. Lastly, CAIM was applied to fecal shotgun metagenomic datasets of 232 colorectal cancer patients and 229 controls obtained from 4 different countries and primary 44 liver cancer patients and 76 controls. The predictive performance of models using the genome-coverage cutoff was better than those using the relative-abundance cutoffs in discriminating colorectal cancer and primary liver cancer patients from healthy controls with a highly confident species markers.

RevDate: 2024-05-15
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Bin X, Wang P, Shen Y, et al (2024)

Investigation of Fungal Community Structure in the Gut of the Stag Beetle Dorcus hopei (Coleoptera; Lucanidae): Comparisons Among Developmental Stages.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):70.

Stag beetles, recognized as common saproxylic insects, are valued for their vibrant coloration and distinctive morphology. These beetles play a crucial ecological role in decomposition and nutrient cycling, serving as a vital functional component in ecosystem functioning. Although previous studies have confirmed that stag beetles are predominantly fungivores, the fluctuations in their intestinal fungal communities at different developmental stages remain poorly understood. In the current study, high-throughput sequencing was employed to investigate the dynamic changes within intestinal fungal communities at various developmental stages in the stag beetle Dorcus hopei. Results showed that microbial diversity was higher during the larval stage than during the pupal and adult stages. Furthermore, significant differences were identified in the composition of the intestinal fungal communities across the larval, pupal, and adult stages, suggesting that developmental transitions may be crucial factors contributing to variations in fungal community composition and diversity. Dominant genera included Candida, Scheffersomyces, Phaeoacremonium, and Trichosporon. Functional predictions indicated a greater diversity and relative abundance of endosymbiotic fungi in the larval gut, suggesting a potential dependency of larvae on beneficial gut fungi for nutrient acquisition. Additionally, the application of abundance-based β-null deviation and niche width analyses revealed that the adult gut exerted a stronger selection pressure on its fungal community, favoring certain taxa. This selection process culminates in a more robust co-occurrence network of fungal communities within the adult gut, thereby enhancing their adaptability to environmental fluctuations. This study advances our understanding of the intestinal fungal community structure in stag beetles, providing a crucial theoretical foundation for the development of saproxylic beetle resources, biomass energy utilization, plastic degradation strategies, and beetle conservation efforts.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Ibrahim SS, Ionescu D, HP Grossart (2024)

Tapping into fungal potential: Biodegradation of plastic and rubber by potent Fungi.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03335-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Plastic polymers are present in most aspects of routine daily life. Their increasing leakage into the environment poses a threat to environmental, animal, and human health. These polymers are often resistant to microbial degradation and are predicted to remain in the environment for tens to hundreds of years. Fungi have been shown to degrade complex polymers and are considered good candidates for bioremediation (biological pollutant reduction) of plastics. Therefore, we screened 18 selected fungal strains for their ability to degrade polyurethane (PU), polyethylene (PE), and tire rubber. As a proxy for plastic polymer mineralization, we quantified O2 consumption and CO2 production in an enclosed biodegradation system providing plastic as the sole carbon source. In contrast to most studies we demonstrated that the tested fungi attach to, and colonize the different plastic polymers without any pretreatment of the plastics and in the absence of sugars, which were suggested essential for priming the degradation process. Functional polymer groups identified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and changes in fungal morphology as seen in light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used as indicators of fungal adaptation to growth on PU as a substrate. Thereby, SEM analysis revealed new morphological structures and deformation of the cell wall of several fungal strains when colonizing PU and utilizing this plastic polymer for cell growth. Strains of Fusarium, Penicillium, Botryotinia cinerea EN41, and Trichoderma demonstrated a high potential to degrade PU, rubber, and PE. Growing on PU, over 90 % of the O2 was consumed in <14 days with 300-500 ppm of CO2 generated in parallel. Our study highlights a high bioremediation potential of some fungal strains to efficiently degrade plastic polymers, largely dependent on plastic type.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Kazmi SSUH, Tayyab M, Pastorino P, et al (2024)

Decoding the molecular concerto: Toxicotranscriptomic evaluation of microplastic and nanoplastic impacts on aquatic organisms.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134574 pii:S0304-3894(24)01153-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The pervasive and steadily increasing presence of microplastics/nanoplastics (MPs/NPs) in aquatic environments has raised significant concerns regarding their potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms and their integration into trophic dynamics. This emerging issue has garnered the attention of (eco)toxicologists, promoting the utilization of toxicotranscriptomics to unravel the responses of aquatic organisms not only to MPs/NPs but also to a wide spectrum of environmental pollutants. This review aims to systematically explore the broad repertoire of predicted molecular responses by aquatic organisms, providing valuable intuitions into complex interactions between plastic pollutants and aquatic biota. By synthesizing the latest literature, present analysis sheds light on transcriptomic signatures like gene expression, interconnected pathways and overall molecular mechanisms influenced by various plasticizers. Harmful effects of these contaminants on key genes/protein transcripts associated with crucial pathways lead to abnormal immune response, metabolic response, neural response, apoptosis and DNA damage, growth, development, reproductive abnormalities, detoxification, and oxidative stress in aquatic organisms. However, unique challenge lies in enhancing the fingerprint of MPs/NPs, presenting complicated enigma that requires decoding their specific impact at molecular levels. The exploration endeavors, not only to consolidate existing knowledge, but also to identify critical gaps in understanding, push forward the frontiers of knowledge about transcriptomic signatures of plastic contaminants. Moreover, this appraisal emphasizes the imperative to monitor and mitigate the contamination of commercially important aquatic species by MPs/NPs, highlighting the pivotal role that regulatory frameworks must play in protecting all aquatic ecosystems. This commitment aligns with the broader goal of ensuring the sustainability of aquatic resources and the resilience of ecosystems facing the growing threat of plastic pollutants.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

Ahmad R, Liaquat M, Sammi S, et al (2024)

Physicochemical and nutritional profiles of wild adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi Linn) accessions by GC, FTIR, and spectrophotometer.

Food chemistry: X, 22:101418.

Purpose of current study was to determine physicochemical, triglyceride composition, and functional groups of wild adlay accessions (brown, black, yellow, grey, green, off white, and purple) to find out its scope as cereal crop. Triglycerides, minerals and functional groups were determined through Gas chromatography, spectrophotometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometer respectively. Results revealed variation among bulk densities, specific densities, percent empty spaces, and corresponding grain counts per 10 g of sample are useful in distinguishing brown, black, yellow, grey, green, off white, and purple wild adlay accessions. Specific density and grain count per 10 g sample was significantly related. No statistical relationship exists among the pronounced physical characteristics. Brown adlay expressed the highest protein, fat, and fiber contents 15.82%, 4.76% and 2.37% respectively. Protein, fat, ash, and fiber percent contents were found comparable to cultivated adlay. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed macro elements including phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and sodium in the range 0.3% - 2.2% and micro elements boron, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese in the range 1.6 mg/kg - 20.8 mg/kg. Gas chromatography showed polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) constitute the primary fraction (39% ± 7.2) of wild adlay triglycerides. Linoleic and palmitic acids were present as prominent fatty acids, 43.5% ±1.4 and 26.3% ±1.4 respectively. Infra-red frequencies distinguished functional groups in narrow band and fingerprint region of protein in association with out of plane region leading to structural differences among adlay accessions. Comparison of major distinguishing vibrational frequencies among different flours indicated black adlay containing highest functional groups appeared promising for varietal development.

RevDate: 2024-05-14
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Breedt G, Korsten L, JK Gokul (2024)

Influence of Soil Phosphate on Rhizobacterial Performance in Affecting Wheat Yield.

Current microbiology, 81(7):170.

As a primary nutrient in agricultural soils, phosphorus plays a crucial but growth-limiting role for plants due to its complex interactions with various soil elements. This often results in excessive phosphorus fertilizer application, posing concerns for the environment. Agri-research has therefore shifted focus to increase fertilizer-use efficiency and minimize environmental impact by leveraging plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. This study aimed to evaluate the in-field incremental effect of inorganic phosphate concentration (up to 50 kg/ha/P) on the ability of two rhizobacterial isolates, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (T19), Paenibacillus alvei (T29), from the previous Breedt et al. (Ann Appl Biol 171:229-236, 2017) study on maize in enhancing the yield of commercially grown Duzi® cultivar wheat. Results obtained from three seasons of field trials revealed a significant relationship between soil phosphate concentration and the isolates' effectiveness in improving wheat yield. Rhizospheric samples collected at flowering during the third season, specifically to assess phosphatase enzyme activity at the different soil phosphate levels, demonstrated a significant decrease in soil phosphatase activity when the phosphorus rate reached 75% for both isolates. Furthermore, in vitro assessments of inorganic phosphate solubilization by both isolates at five increments of tricalcium phosphate-amended Pikovskaya media found that only isolate T19 was capable of solubilizing tricalcium at concentrations exceeding 3 mg/ml. The current study demonstrates the substantial influence of inorganic phosphate on the performance of individual rhizobacterial isolates, highlighting that this is an essential consideration when optimizing these isolates to increase wheat yield in commercial cultivation.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Musat F, Kjeldsen KU, Rotaru AE, et al (2024)

Archaea oxidizing alkanes through alkyl-coenzyme M reductases.

Current opinion in microbiology, 79:102486 pii:S1369-5274(24)00062-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This review synthesizes recent discoveries of novel archaea clades capable of oxidizing higher alkanes, from volatile ones like ethane to longer-chain alkanes like hexadecane. These archaea, termed anaerobic multicarbon alkane-oxidizing archaea (ANKA), initiate alkane oxidation using alkyl-coenzyme M reductases, enzymes similar to the methyl-coenzyme M reductases of methanogenic and anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME). The polyphyletic alkane-oxidizing archaea group (ALOX), encompassing ANME and ANKA, harbors increasingly complex alkane degradation pathways, correlated with the alkane chain length. We discuss the evolutionary trajectory of these pathways emphasizing metabolic innovations and the acquisition of metabolic modules via lateral gene transfer. Additionally, we explore the mechanisms by which archaea couple alkane oxidation with the reduction of electron acceptors, including electron transfer to partner sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The phylogenetic and functional constraints that shape ALOX-SRB associations are also discussed. We conclude by highlighting the research needs in this emerging research field and its potential applications in biotechnology.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Kimura K, T Okuro (2024)

Cyanobacterial Biocrust on Biomineralized Soil Mitigates Freeze-Thaw Effects and Preserves Structure and Ecological Functions.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):69.

Biocrust inoculation and microbially induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) are tools used in restoring degraded arid lands. It remains unclear whether the ecological functions of the two tools persist when these methods are combined and subjected to freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. We hypothesized a synergetic interaction between MICP treatment and biocrust under FT cycles, which would allow both components to retain their ecological functions. We grew cyanobacterial (Nostoc commune) biocrusts on bare soil and on MICP (Sporosarcina pasteurii)-treated soil, subjecting them to repeated FT cycles simulating the Mongolian climate. Generalized linear modeling revealed that FT cycling did not affect physical structure or related functions but could increase the productivity and reduce the nutrient condition of the crust. The results confirm the high tolerance of MICP-treated soil and biocrust to FT cycling. MICP treatment + biocrust maintained higher total carbohydrate content under FT stress. Our study indicates that biocrust on biomineralized soil has a robust enough structure to endure FT cycling during spring and autumn and to promote restoration of degraded lands.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Garcia-Gutierrez E, Monteoliva García G, Bodea I, et al (2024)

A secondary model for the effect of pH on the variability in growth fitness of Listeria innocua strains.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 186:114314.

Variability in microbial growth is a keystone of modern Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA). However, there are still significant knowledge gaps on how to model variability, with the most common assumption being that variability is constant. This is implemented by an error term (with constant variance) added on top of the secondary growth model (for the square root of the growth rate). However, this may go against microbial ecology principles, where differences in growth fitness among bacterial strains would be more prominent in the vicinity of the growth limits than at optimal growth conditions. This study coins the term "secondary models for variability", evaluating whether they should be considered in QMRA instead of the constant strain variability hypothesis. For this, 21 strains of Listeria innocua were used as case study, estimating their growth rate by the two-fold dilution method at pH between 5 and 10. Estimates of between-strain variability and experimental uncertainty were obtained for each pH using mixed-effects models, showing the lowest variability at optimal growth conditions, increasing towards the growth limits. Nonetheless, the experimental uncertainty also increased towards the extremes, evidencing the need to analyze both sources of variance independently. A secondary model was thus proposed, relating strain variability and pH conditions. Although the modelling approach certainly has some limitations that would need further experimental validation, it is an important step towards improving the description of variability in QMRA, being the first model of this type in the field.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Yuan Y, Zhang G, Fang H, et al (2024)

The ecology of the sewer systems: Microbial composition, function, assembly, and network in different spatial locations.

Journal of environmental management, 359:121107 pii:S0301-4797(24)01093-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial induced concrete corrosion (MICC) is the primary deterioration affecting global sewers. Disentangling ecological mechanisms in the sewer system is meaningful for implementing policies to protect sewer pipes using trenchless technology. It is necessary to understand microbial compositions, interaction networks, functions, alongside assembly processes in sewer microbial communities. In this study, sewer wastewater samples and microbial samples from the upper part (UP), middle part (MP) and bottom part (BP) of different pipes were collected for 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis. It was found that BP harbored distinct microbial communities and the largest proportion of unique species (1141) compared to UP and MP. The community in BP tended to be more clustered. Furthermore, significant differences in microbial functions existed in different spatial locations, including the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle and sulfur cycle. Active microbial sulfur cycling indicated the corrosion risk of MICC. Among the environmental factors, the oxidation‒reduction potential drove changes in BP, while sulfate managed changes in UP and BP. Stochasticity dominated community assembly in the sewer system. Additionally, the sewer microbial community exhibited numerous positive links. BP possessed a more complex, modular network with higher modularity. These deep insights into microbial ecology in the sewer system may guide engineering safety and disaster prevention in sewer infrastructure.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Ma T, Rothschild J, Halabeya F, et al (2024)

Mechanics limits ecological diversity and promotes heterogeneity in confined bacterial communities.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(20):e2322321121.

Multispecies bacterial populations often inhabit confined and densely packed environments where spatial competition determines the ecological diversity of the community. However, the role of mechanical interactions in shaping the ecology is still poorly understood. Here, we study a model system consisting of two populations of nonmotile Escherichia coli bacteria competing within open, monolayer microchannels. The competitive dynamics is observed to be biphasic: After seeding, either one strain rapidly fixates or both strains orient into spatially stratified, stable communities. We find that mechanical interactions with other cells and local spatial constraints influence the resulting community ecology in unexpected ways, severely limiting the overall diversity of the communities while simultaneously allowing for the establishment of stable, heterogeneous populations of bacteria displaying disparate growth rates. Surprisingly, the populations have a high probability of coexisting even when one strain has a significant growth advantage. A more coccus morphology is shown to provide a selective advantage, but agent-based simulations indicate this is due to hydrodynamic and adhesion effects within the microchannel and not from breaking of the nematic ordering. Our observations are qualitatively reproduced by a simple Pólya urn model, which suggests the generality of our findings for confined population dynamics and highlights the importance of early colonization conditions on the resulting diversity and ecology of bacterial communities. These results provide fundamental insights into the determinants of community diversity in dense confined ecosystems where spatial exclusion is central to competition as in organized biofilms or intestinal crypts.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Thomas MJN, Brockhurst MA, KZ Coyte (2024)

What makes a temperate phage an effective bacterial weapon?.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Temperate bacteriophages (phages) are common features of bacterial genomes and can act as self-amplifying biological weapons, killing susceptible competitors and thus increasing the fitness of their bacterial hosts (lysogens). Despite their prevalence, however, the key characteristics of an effective temperate phage weapon remain unclear. Here, we use systematic mathematical analyses coupled with experimental tests to understand what makes an effective temperate phage weapon. We find that effectiveness is controlled by phage life history traits-in particular, the probability of lysis and induction rate-but that the optimal combination of traits varies with the initial frequency of a lysogen within a population. As a consequence, certain phage weapons can be detrimental when their hosts are rare yet beneficial when their hosts are common, while subtle changes in individual life history traits can completely reverse the impact of an individual phage weapon on lysogen fitness. We confirm key predictions of our model experimentally, using temperate phages isolated from the clinically relevant Liverpool epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Through these experiments, we further demonstrate that nutrient availability can also play a critical role in driving frequency-dependent patterns in phage-mediated competition. Together, these findings highlight the complex and context-dependent nature of temperate phage weapons and the importance of both ecological and evolutionary processes in shaping microbial community dynamics more broadly.

IMPORTANCE: Temperate bacteriophages-viruses that integrate within bacterial DNA-are incredibly common within bacterial genomes and can act as powerful self-amplifying weapons. Bacterial hosts that carry temperate bacteriophages can thus gain a fitness advantage within a given niche by killing competitors. But what makes an effective phage weapon? Here, we first use a simple mathematical model to explore the factors determining bacteriophage weapon utility. Our models suggest that bacteriophage weapons are nuanced and context-dependent; an individual bacteriophage may be beneficial or costly depending upon tiny changes to how it behaves or the bacterial community it inhabits. We then confirm these mathematical predictions experimentally, using phages isolated from cystic fibrosis patients. But, in doing so, we also find that another factor-nutrient availability-plays a key role in shaping bacteriophage-mediated competition. Together, our results provide new insights into how temperate bacteriophages modulate bacterial communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Casero JJD, Rovedder APM, LK Vargas (2024)

Editorial: Plant-microbe interactions in forest ecosystems, volume II.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1414383.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Bobonis J, Yang ALJ, Voogdt CGP, et al (2024)

TAC-TIC, a high-throughput genetics method to identify triggers or blockers of bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems.

Nature protocols [Epub ahead of print].

Toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are abundant in bacterial chromosomes and can arrest growth under stress, but usually remain inactive. TAs have been increasingly implicated in halting the growth of infected bacteria from bacteriophages or foreign genetic elements[1,2] to protect the population (abortive infection, Abi). The vast diversity and abundance of TAs and other Abi systems[3] suggest they play an important immunity role, yet what allows them to sense attack remains largely enigmatic. Here, we describe a method called toxin activation-inhibition conjugation (TAC-TIC), which we used to identify gene products that trigger or block the toxicity of phage-defending tripartite retron-TAs[4]. TAC-TIC employs high-density arrayed mobilizable gene-overexpression libraries, which are transferred into cells carrying the full TA system or only its toxic component, on inducible vectors. The double-plasmid transconjugants are then pinned on inducer-containing agar plates and their colony fitness is quantified to identify gene products that trigger a TA to inhibit growth (TAC), or that block it from acting (TIC). TAC-TIC is optimized for the Singer ROTOR pinning robot, but can also be used with other robots or manual pinners, and allows screening tens of thousands of genes against any TA or Abi (with toxicity) within a week. Finally, we present a dual conjugation donor/cloning strain (Escherichia coli DATC), which accelerates the construction of TAC-TIC gene-donor libraries from phages, enabling the use of TAC-TIC for identifying TA triggers and antidefense mechanisms in phage genomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Tschitschko B, Esti M, Philippi M, et al (2024)

Rhizobia-diatom symbiosis fixes missing nitrogen in the ocean.

Nature pii:10.1038/s41586-024-07495-w [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N2) fixation in oligotrophic surface waters is the main source of new nitrogen (N) to the ocean[1] and plays a key role in fueling the biological carbon pump[2]. Oceanic N2 fixation is almost exclusively attributed to cyanobacteria, even though genes encoding nitrogenase, the enzyme fixing N2 into ammonia, are widespread among marine bacteria and archaea[3-5]. Little is known about these non-cyanobacterial N2-fixers and direct proof that they can fix N in the ocean is missing. Here we report the discovery of a non-cyanobacterial N2-fixing symbiont, Candidatus Tectiglobus diatomicola, which provides its diatom host with fixed-N in return for photosynthetic carbon. The N2-fixing symbiont belongs to the order Rhizobiales and its association with a unicellular diatom expands the known hosts for this order beyond the well-known N2-fixing rhizobia-legume symbioses on land[6]. Our results show that the rhizobia-diatom symbiosis can contribute as much fixed-N as cyanobacterial N2-fixers in the tropical North Atlantic, and that they may be responsible for N2 fixation in the vast regions of the ocean where cyanobacteria are too rare to account for the measured rates.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Hu Y, Cai J, Song Y, et al (2024)

Sediment DNA Records the Critical Transition of Bacterial Communities in the Arid Lake.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):68.

It is necessary to predict the critical transition of lake ecosystems due to their abrupt, non-linear effects on social-economic systems. Given the promising application of paleolimnological archives to tracking the historical changes of lake ecosystems, it is speculated that they can also record the lake's critical transition. We studied Lake Dali-Nor in the arid region of Inner Mongolia because of the profound shrinking the lake experienced between the 1300 s and the 1600 s. We reconstructed the succession of bacterial communities from a 140-cm-long sediment core at 4-cm intervals and detected the critical transition. Our results showed that the historical trajectory of bacterial communities from the 1200 s to the 2010s was divided into two alternative states: state1 from 1200 to 1300 s and state2 from 1400 to 2010s. Furthermore, in the late 1300 s, the appearance of a tipping point and critical slowing down implied the existence of a critical transition. By using a multi-decadal time series from the sedimentary core, with general Lotka-Volterra model simulations, local stability analysis found that bacterial communities were the most unstable as they approached the critical transition, suggesting that the collapse of stability triggers the community shift from an equilibrium state to another state. Furthermore, the most unstable community harbored the strongest antagonistic and mutualistic interactions, which may imply the detrimental role of interaction strength on community stability. Collectively, our study showed that sediment DNA can be used to detect the critical transition of lake ecosystems.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Stice SP, Jan H-H, Chen H-C, et al (2024)

Erratum for Stice et al., "Pantailocins: phage-derived bacteriocins from Pantoea ananatis and Pantoea stewartii subsp. indologenes".

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Liu S, Zhang Z, Zhao C, et al (2024)

Nonlinear responses of biofilm bacteria to alkyl-chain length of parabens by DFT calculation.

Journal of hazardous materials, 472:134460 pii:S0304-3894(24)01039-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Parabens can particularly raise significant concerns regarding the disruption of microbial ecology due to their antimicrobial properties. However, the responses of biofilm bacteria to diverse parabens with different alkyl-chain length remains unclear. Here, theoretical calculations and bioinformatic analysis were performed to decipher the influence of parabens varying alkyl-chain lengths on the biofilm bacteria. Our results showed that the disturbances in bacterial community did not linearly response to the alkyl-chain length of parabens, and propylparaben (PrP), with median chain length, had more severe impact on bacterial community. Despite the fact that paraben lethality linearly increased with chain length, the PrP had a higher chemical reactions potential than parabens with shorter or longer alkyl-chain. The chemical reactions potential was critical in the nonlinear responses of bacterial community to alkyl-chain length of parabens. PrP could impose selective pressure to disturb the bacterial community, because it had a more profound contribution to deterministic assembly process. Furthermore, N-acyl-homoserine lactones was also significantly promoted under PrP exposure, confirming that PrP could affect the bacterial community by influencing the quorum-sensing system. Overall, our study reveals the nonlinear responses of bacterial communities to the alkyl-chain lengths of parabens and provides insightful perspectives for the better regulation of parabens. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATION: Parabens are recognized as emerging organic pollutants, which specially raise great concerns due to their antimicrobial properties disturbing microbial ecology. However, few study have addressed the relationship between bacterial community responses and the molecular structural features of parabens with different alkyl-chain length. This investigation revealed nonlinear responses of the bacterial community to the alkyl-chain length of parabens through DFT calculation and bioinformatic analysis and identified the critical roles of chemical reactions potential in nonlinear responses of bacterial community. Our results benefit the precise evaluation of ecological hazards posed by parabens and provide useful insights for better regulation of parabens.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Lee KS, Landry Z, Athar A, et al (2024)

MicrobioRaman: an open-access web repository for microbiological Raman spectroscopy data.

RevDate: 2024-05-07
CmpDate: 2024-05-07

Vandermaesen J, Daly AJ, Mawarda PC, et al (2024)

Cooperative interactions between invader and resident microbial community members weaken the negative diversity-invasion relationship.

Ecology letters, 27(5):e14433.

The negative diversity-invasion relationship observed in microbial invasion studies is commonly explained by competition between the invader and resident populations. However, whether this relationship is affected by invader-resident cooperative interactions is unknown. Using ecological and mathematical approaches, we examined the survival and functionality of Aminobacter niigataensis MSH1 to mineralize 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM), a groundwater micropollutant affecting drinking water production, in sand microcosms when inoculated together with synthetic assemblies of resident bacteria. The assemblies varied in richness and in strains that interacted pairwise with MSH1, including cooperative and competitive interactions. While overall, the negative diversity-invasion relationship was retained, residents engaging in cooperative interactions with the invader had a positive impact on MSH1 survival and functionality, highlighting the dependency of invasion success on community composition. No correlation existed between community richness and the delay in BAM mineralization by MSH1. The findings suggest that the presence of cooperative residents can alleviate the negative diversity-invasion relationship.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Letourneau J, Carrion VM, Jiang S, et al (2024)

Interplay between particle size and microbial ecology in the gut microbiome.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.26.591376.

Physical particles can serve as critical abiotic factors that structure the ecology of microbial communities. For non-human vertebrate gut microbiomes, fecal particle size (FPS) has been known to be shaped by chewing efficiency and diet. However, little is known about what drives FPS in the human gut. Here, we analyzed FPS by laser diffraction across a total of 76 individuals and found FPS to be strongly individualized. Surprisingly, a behavioral intervention with 41 volunteers designed to increase chewing efficiency did not impact FPS. Dietary patterns could also not be associated with FPS. Instead, we found evidence that mammalian and human gut microbiomes shaped FPS. Fecal samples from germ-free and antibiotic-treated mice exhibited increased FPS relative to colonized mice. In humans, markers of longer transit time were correlated with smaller FPS. Gut microbiota diversity and composition were also associated with FPS. Finally, ex vivo culture experiments using human fecal microbiota from distinct donors showed that differences in microbiota community composition can drive variation in particle size. Together, our results support an ecological model in which the human gut microbiome plays a key role in reducing the size of food particles during digestion, and that the microbiomes of individuals vary in this capacity. These new insights also suggest FPS in humans to be governed by processes beyond those found in other mammals and emphasize the importance of gut microbiota in shaping their own abiotic environment.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-07

Jurburg SD, Blowes SA, Shade A, et al (2024)

Synthesis of recovery patterns in microbial communities across environments.

Microbiome, 12(1):79.

BACKGROUND: Disturbances alter the diversity and composition of microbial communities. Yet a generalized empirical assessment of microbiome responses to disturbance across different environments is needed to understand the factors driving microbiome recovery, and the role of the environment in driving these patterns.

RESULTS: To this end, we combined null models with Bayesian generalized linear models to examine 86 time series of disturbed mammalian, aquatic, and soil microbiomes up to 50 days following disturbance. Overall, disturbances had the strongest effect on mammalian microbiomes, which lost taxa and later recovered their richness, but not their composition. In contrast, following disturbance, aquatic microbiomes tended away from their pre-disturbance composition over time. Surprisingly, across all environments, we found no evidence of increased compositional dispersion (i.e., variance) following disturbance, in contrast to the expectations of the Anna Karenina Principle.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to systematically compare secondary successional dynamics across disturbed microbiomes, using a consistent temporal scale and modeling approach. Our findings show that the recovery of microbiomes is environment-specific, and helps to reconcile existing, environment-specific research into a unified perspective. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Lambert S, Vercauteren M, Catarino AI, et al (2024)

Aerosolization of Micro- and Nanoplastics via Sea Spray: Investigating the Role of Polymer Type, Size, and Concentration, and Potential Implications for Human Exposure.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00819-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Micro- and nanoplastics (MNPs) can enter the atmosphere via sea spray aerosols (SSAs), but the effects of plastic characteristics on the aerosolization process are unclear. Furthermore, the importance of the transport of MNPs via these SSAs as a possible new exposure route for human health remains unknown. The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine if a selection of factors affects aerosolization processes of MNPs, and (2) to estimate human exposure to MNPs via aerosols inhalation. A laboratory-based bubble bursting mechanism, simulating the aerosolization process at sea, was used to investigate the influence of MNP as well as seawater characteristics. To determine the potential human exposure to microplastics via inhalation of SSAs, the results of the laboratory experiments were extrapolated to the field based on sea surface microplastic concentrations and the volume of inhaled aerosols. Enrichment seemed to be influenced by MNP size, concentration and polymer type. With higher enrichment for smaller particles and denser polymers. Experiments with different concentrations showed a larger range of variability but nonetheless lower concentrations seemed to result in higher enrichment, presumably due to lower aggregation. In addition to the MNP characteristics, the type of seawater used seemed to influence the aerosolization process. Our human exposure estimate to microplastic via inhalation of sea spray aerosols shows that in comparison with reported inhaled concentrations in urban and indoor environments, this exposure route seems negligible for microplastics. Following the business-as-usual scenario on plastic production, the daily plastic inhalation in coastal areas in 2100 is estimated to increase but remain far below 1 particle per day. This study shows that aerosolization of MNPs is a new plastic transport pathway to be considered, but in terms of human exposure it seems negligible compared to other more important sources of MNPs, based on current reported environmental concentrations.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Burr DJ, Drauschke J, Kanevche K, et al (2024)

Stable Isotope Probing-nanoFTIR for Quantitation of Cellular Metabolism and Observation of Growth-Dependent Spectral Features.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

This study utilizes nanoscale Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nanoFTIR) to perform stable isotope probing (SIP) on individual bacteria cells cultured in the presence of [13]C-labelled glucose. SIP-nanoFTIR simultaneously quantifies single-cell metabolism through infrared spectroscopy and acquires cellular morphological information via atomic force microscopy. The redshift of the amide I peak corresponds to the isotopic enrichment of newly synthesized proteins. These observations of single-cell translational activity are comparable to those of conventional methods, examining bulk cell numbers. Observing cells cultured under conditions of limited carbon, SIP- nanoFTIR is used to identify environmentally-induced changes in metabolic heterogeneity and cellular morphology. Individuals outcompeting their neighboring cells will likely play a disproportionately large role in shaping population dynamics during adverse conditions or environmental fluctuations. Additionally, SIP-nanoFTIR enables the spectroscopic differentiation of specific cellular growth phases. During cellular replication, subcellular isotope distribution becomes more homogenous, which is reflected in the spectroscopic features dependent on the extent of [13]C-[13]C mode coupling or to specific isotopic symmetries within protein secondary structures. As SIP-nanoFTIR captures single-cell metabolism, environmentally-induced cellular processes, and subcellular isotope localization, this technique offers widespread applications across a variety of disciplines including microbial ecology, biophysics, biopharmaceuticals, medicinal science, and cancer research.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Rivas-Santisteban J, Yubero P, Robaina-Estévez S, et al (2024)

Quantifying microbial guilds.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae042.

The ecological role of microorganisms is of utmost importance due to their multiple interactions with the environment. However, assessing the contribution of individual taxonomic groups has proven difficult despite the availability of high throughput data, hindering our understanding of such complex systems. Here, we propose a quantitative definition of guild that is readily applicable to metagenomic data. Our framework focuses on the functional character of protein sequences, as well as their diversifying nature. First, we discriminate functional sequences from the whole sequence space corresponding to a gene annotation to then quantify their contribution to the guild composition across environments. In addition, we identify and distinguish functional implementations, which are sequence spaces that have different ways of carrying out the function. In contrast, we found that orthology delineation did not consistently align with ecologically (or functionally) distinct implementations of the function. We demonstrate the value of our approach with two case studies: the ammonia oxidation and polyamine uptake guilds from the Malaspina circumnavigation cruise, revealing novel ecological dynamics of the latter in marine ecosystems. Thus, the quantification of guilds helps us to assess the functional role of different taxonomic groups with profound implications on the study of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Liew KJ, Shahar S, Shamsir MS, et al (2024)

Integrating multi-platform assembly to recover MAGs from hot spring biofilms: insights into microbial diversity, biofilm formation, and carbohydrate degradation.

Environmental microbiome, 19(1):29.

BACKGROUND: Hot spring biofilms provide a window into the survival strategies of microbial communities in extreme environments and offer potential for biotechnological applications. This study focused on green and brown biofilms thriving on submerged plant litter within the Sungai Klah hot spring in Malaysia, characterised by temperatures of 58-74 °C. Using Illumina shotgun metagenomics and Nanopore ligation sequencing, we investigated the microbial diversity and functional potential of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) with specific focus on biofilm formation, heat stress response, and carbohydrate catabolism.

RESULTS: Leveraging the power of both Illumina short-reads and Nanopore long-reads, we employed an Illumina-Nanopore hybrid assembly approach to construct MAGs with enhanced quality. The dereplication process, facilitated by the dRep tool, validated the efficiency of the hybrid assembly, yielding MAGs that reflected the intricate microbial diversity of these extreme ecosystems. The comprehensive analysis of these MAGs uncovered intriguing insights into the survival strategies of thermophilic taxa in the hot spring biofilms. Moreover, we examined the plant litter degradation potential within the biofilms, shedding light on the participation of diverse microbial taxa in the breakdown of starch, cellulose, and hemicellulose. We highlight that Chloroflexota and Armatimonadota MAGs exhibited a wide array of glycosyl hydrolases targeting various carbohydrate substrates, underscoring their metabolic versatility in utilisation of carbohydrates at elevated temperatures.

CONCLUSIONS: This study advances understanding of microbial ecology on plant litter under elevated temperature by revealing the functional adaptation of MAGs from hot spring biofilms. In addition, our findings highlight potential for biotechnology application through identification of thermophilic lignocellulose-degrading enzymes. By demonstrating the efficiency of hybrid assembly utilising Illumina-Nanopore reads, we highlight the value of combining multiple sequencing methods for a more thorough exploration of complex microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Shao YH, Wu JH, HW Chen (2024)

Comammox Nitrospira cooperate with anammox bacteria in a partial nitritation-anammox membrane bioreactor treating low-strength ammonium wastewater at high loadings.

Water research, 257:121698 pii:S0043-1354(24)00599-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Research has revealed that comammox Nitrospira and anammox bacteria engage in dynamic interactions in partial nitritation-anammox reactors, where they compete for ammonium and nitrite or comammox Nitrospria supply nitrite to anammox bacteria. However, two gaps in the literature are present: the know-how to manipulate the interactions to foster a stable and symbiotic relationship and the assessment of how effective this partnership is for treating low-strength ammonium wastewater at high hydraulic loads. In this study, we employed a membrane bioreactor designed to treat synthetic ammonium wastewater at a concentration of 60 mg N/L, reaching a peak loading of 0.36 g N/L/day by gradually reducing the hydraulic retention time to 4 hr. Throughout the experiment, the reactor achieved an approximately 80 % nitrogen removal rate through strategically adjusting intermittent aeration at every stage. Notably, the genera Ca. Kuenena, Nitrosomonas, and Nitrospira collectively constituted approximately 40 % of the microbial community. Under superior intermittent aeration conditions, the expression of comammox amoA was consistently higher than that of Nitrospira nxrB and AOB amoA in the biofilm, despite the higher abundance of Nitrosomonas than comammox Nitrospira, implying that the biofilm environment is favorable for fostering cooperation between comammox and anammox bacteria. We then assessed the in situ activity of comammox Nitrospira in the reactor by selectively suppressing Nitrosomonas using 1-octyne, thereby confirming that comammox Nitrospira played the primary role in facilitating the nitritation (33.1 % of input ammonium) rather than complete nitrification (7.3 % of input ammonium). Kinetic analysis revealed a specific ammonia-oxidizing rate 5.3 times higher than the nitrite-oxidizing rate in the genus Nitrospira, underscoring their critical role in supplying nitrite. These findings provide novel insights into the cooperative interplay between comammox Nitrospira and anammox bacteria, potentially reshaping the management of nitrogen cycling in engineered environments, and aiding the development of microbial ecology-driven wastewater treatment technologies.

RevDate: 2024-05-04
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Zhao L, Zhang S, Xiao R, et al (2024)

Diversity and Functionality of Bacteria Associated with Different Tissues of Spider Heteropoda venatoria Revealed through Integration of High-Throughput Sequencing and Culturomics Approaches.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):67.

Spiders host a diverse range of bacteria in their guts and other tissues, which have been found to play a significant role in their fitness. This study aimed to investigate the community diversity and functional characteristics of spider-associated bacteria in four tissues of Heteropoda venatoria using HTS of the 16S rRNA gene and culturomics technologies, as well as the functional verification of the isolated strains. The results of HTS showed that the spider-associated bacteria in different tissues belonged to 34 phyla, 72 classes, 170 orders, 277 families, and 458 genera. Bacillus was found to be the most abundant bacteria in the venom gland, silk gland, and ovary, while Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Sphingomonas were dominant in the gut microbiota. Based on the amplicon sequencing results, 21 distinct cultivation conditions were developed using culturomics to isolate bacteria from the ovary, gut, venom gland, and silk gland. A total of 119 bacterial strains, representing 4 phyla and 25 genera, with Bacillus and Serratia as the dominant genera, were isolated. Five strains exhibited high efficiency in degrading pesticides in the in vitro experiments. Out of the 119 isolates, 28 exhibited antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested bacterial strains, including the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Enterococcus faecalis. The study also identified three strains, GL312, PL211, and PL316, which exhibited significant cytotoxicity against MGC-803. The crude extract from the fermentation broth of strain PL316 was found to effectively induce apoptosis in MGC-803 cells. Overall, this study offers a comprehensive understanding of the bacterial community structure associated with H. venatoria. It also provides valuable insights into discovering novel antitumor natural products for gastric cancer and xenobiotic-degrading bacteria of spiders.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Das R, Mishra P, Mishra B, et al (2024)

Effect of in ovo feeding of xylobiose and xylotriose on plasma immunoglobulin, cecal metabolites production, microbial ecology, and metabolic pathways in broiler chickens.

Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 15(1):62.

BACKGROUND: Dietary supplementation of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) has been found to influence gut health by manipulating cecal microbiota and producing microbe-origin metabolites. But no study investigated and compared the effect of in ovo feeding of xylobiose (XOS2) and xylotriose (XOS3) in chickens. This study investigated the effect of in ovo feeding of these XOS compounds on post-hatch gut health parameters in chickens. A total of 144 fertilized chicken eggs were divided into three groups: a) non-injected control (CON), b) XOS2, and c) XOS3. On the 17[th] embryonic day, the eggs of the XOS2 and XOS3 groups were injected with 3 mg of XOS2 and XOS3 diluted in 0.5 mL of 0.85% normal saline through the amniotic sac. After hatching, the chicks were raised for 21 d. Blood was collected on d 14 to measure plasma immunoglobulin. Cecal digesta were collected for measuring short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on d 14 and 21, and for microbial ecology and microbial metabolic pathway analyses on d 7 and 21.

RESULTS: The results were considered significantly different at P < 0.05. ELISA quantified plasma IgA and IgG on d 14 chickens, revealing no differences among the treatments. Gas chromatography results showed no significant differences in the concentrations of cecal SCFAs on d 14 but significant differences on d 21. However, the SCFA concentrations were lower in the XOS3 than in the CON group on d 21. The cecal metagenomics data showed that the abundance of the family Clostridiaceae significantly decreased on d 7, and the abundance of the family Oscillospiraceae increased on d 21 in the XOS2 compared to the CON. There was a reduction in the relative abundance of genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1 in the XOS2 compared to the CON on d 7 and the genus Ruminococcus torques in both XOS2 and XOS3 groups compared to the CON on d 21. The XOS2 and XOS3 groups reduced the genes for chondroitin sulfate degradation I and L-histidine degradation I pathways, which contribute to improved gut health, respectively, in the microbiome on d 7. In contrast, on d 21, the XOS2 and XOS3 groups enriched the thiamin salvage II, L-isoleucine biosynthesis IV, and O-antigen building blocks biosynthesis (E. coli) pathways, which are indicative of improved gut health. Unlike the XOS3 and CON, the microbiome enriched the pathways associated with energy enhancement, including flavin biosynthesis I, sucrose degradation III, and Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle pathways, in the XOS2 group on d 21.

CONCLUSION: In ovo XOS2 and XOS3 feeding promoted beneficial bacterial growth and reduced harmful bacteria at the family and genus levels. The metagenomic-based microbial metabolic pathway profiling predicted a favorable change in the availability of cecal metabolites in the XOS2 and XOS3 groups. The modulation of microbiota and metabolic pathways suggests that in ovo XOS2 and XOS3 feeding improved gut health during the post-hatch period of broilers.

RevDate: 2024-05-05
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Sanchis Pla L, J van Gestel (2024)

Exploring the microbial savanna: predator-prey interactions in the soil.

Molecular systems biology, 20(5):477-480.

Soils host complex multi-trophic communities with diverse, mostly microbial, predator and prey species, including numerous bacterivorous protists and bacterial prey. The molecular mechanisms underlying microbial predator-prey interactions have thus far mainly been explored using reductionist methods, outside the soil environment and independent from the broader life history strategies that microbes display in soils. In this Comment, we advocate for an integrative research approach, combining molecular systems biology and microbial ecology, to investigate how predator-prey interactions shape microbial life history strategies and thereby population dynamics in natural soil communities.

RevDate: 2024-05-05
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Purahong W, Ji L, YT Wu (2024)

Community Assembly Processes of Deadwood Mycobiome in a Tropical Forest Revealed by Long-Read Third-Generation Sequencing.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):66.

Despite the importance of wood-inhabiting fungi on nutrient cycling and ecosystem functions, their ecology, especially related to their community assembly, is still highly unexplored. In this study, we analyzed the wood-inhabiting fungal richness, community composition, and phylogenetics using PacBio sequencing. Opposite to what has been expected that deterministic processes especially environmental filtering through wood-physicochemical properties controls the community assembly of wood-inhabiting fungal communities, here we showed that both deterministic and stochastic processes can highly contribute to the community assembly processes of wood-inhabiting fungi in this tropical forest. We demonstrated that the dynamics of stochastic and deterministic processes varied with wood decomposition stages. The initial stage was mainly governed by a deterministic process (homogenous selection), whereas the early and later decomposition stages were governed by the stochastic processes (ecological drift). Deterministic processes were highly contributed by wood physicochemical properties (especially macronutrients and hemicellulose) rather than soil physicochemical factors. We elucidated that fine-scale fungal-fungal interactions, especially the network topology, modularity, and keystone taxa of wood-inhabiting fungal communities, strongly differed in an initial and decomposing deadwood. This current study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological processes of wood-inhabiting fungi in tropical regions where the knowledge of wood-inhabiting fungi is highly limited.

RevDate: 2024-05-03
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Havlena ZE, Hose LD, DuChene HR, et al (2024)

Origin and modern microbial ecology of secondary mineral deposits in Lehman Caves, Great Basin National Park, NV, USA.

Geobiology, 22(3):e12594.

Lehman Caves is an extensively decorated high desert cave that represents one of the main tourist attractions in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Although traditionally considered a water table cave, recent studies identified abundant speleogenetic features consistent with a hypogenic and, potentially, sulfuric acid origin. Here, we characterized white mineral deposits in the Gypsum Annex (GA) passage to determine whether these secondary deposits represent biogenic minerals formed during sulfuric acid corrosion and explored microbial communities associated with these and other mineral deposits throughout the cave. Powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), scanning electron microscopy with electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and electron microprobe analyses (EPMA) showed that, while most white mineral deposits from the GA contain gypsum, they also contain abundant calcite, silica, and other phases. Gypsum and carbonate-associated sulfate isotopic values of these deposits are variable, with δ[34]SV-CDT between +9.7‰ and +26.1‰, and do not reflect depleted values typically associated with replacement gypsum formed during sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Petrographic observations show that the sulfates likely co-precipitated with carbonate and SiO2 phases. Taken together, these data suggest that the deposits resulted from later-stage meteoric events and not during an initial episode of sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Most sedimentary and mineral deposits in Lehman Caves have very low microbial biomass, with the exception of select areas along the main tour route that have been impacted by tourist traffic. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing showed that microbial communities in GA sediments are distinct from those in other parts of the cave. The microbial communities that inhabit these oligotrophic secondary mineral deposits include OTUs related to known ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosococcales and Thaumarchaeota, as well as common soil taxa such as Acidobacteriota and Proteobacteria. This study reveals microbial and mineralogical diversity in a previously understudied cave and expands our understanding of the geomicrobiology of desert hypogene cave systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Nair GR, Kooverjee BB, de Scally S, et al (2024)

Changes in nutrient availability substantially alter bacteria and extracellular enzymatic activities in Antarctic soils.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7663568 [Epub ahead of print].

In polar regions, global warming has accelerated the melting of glacial and buried ice, resulting meltwater run-off and mobilisation of surface nutrients. Yet, the short-term effects of altered nutrient regimes, on the diversity and function of soil microbiota in poly-extreme environments such as Antarctica, remains poorly understood. We studied these effects by simulating such environments via constructing soil microcosms through augmented carbon, nitrogen, and moisture supplements. Addition of nitrogen significantly decreased the diversity of Antarctic soil microbial assemblages, compared with other treatment groups. Other treatments led to shift in relative abundances of these microbial assemblages with random distributional patterns. Only nitrogen treatment appeared to show clear community structural patterns, with increase in abundance of Proteobacteria (Gammaproteobateria) and decrease in Verrucomicrobiota (Chlamydiae, Verrucomicrobiae). Effects of extracellular enzyme activities and soil parameters on changes in microbial taxa also showed significance impacts of nitrogen treatment. Microbial response to nutrient addition was predicted using structural equation modelling which revealed that nutrient source and extracellular enzyme activities were positive predictors of microbial diversity. Our study highlights the effect of nitrogen addition on Antarctic soil microorganisms which showed resilience to nutrient increases. Rather than being resistant to change, these microorganisms rapidly responded to augmented nutrient regimes.

RevDate: 2024-05-05
CmpDate: 2024-05-04

Manck LE, Coale TH, Stephens BM, et al (2024)

Iron limitation of heterotrophic bacteria in the California Current System tracks relative availability of organic carbon and iron.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Iron is an essential nutrient for all microorganisms of the marine environment. Iron limitation of primary production has been well documented across a significant portion of the global surface ocean, but much less is known regarding the potential for iron limitation of the marine heterotrophic microbial community. In this work, we characterize the transcriptomic response of the heterotrophic bacterial community to iron additions in the California Current System, an eastern boundary upwelling system, to detect in situ iron stress of heterotrophic bacteria. Changes in gene expression in response to iron availability by heterotrophic bacteria were detected under conditions of high productivity when carbon limitation was relieved but when iron availability remained low. The ratio of particulate organic carbon to dissolved iron emerged as a biogeochemical proxy for iron limitation of heterotrophic bacteria in this system. Iron stress was characterized by high expression levels of iron transport pathways and decreased expression of iron-containing enzymes involved in carbon metabolism, where a majority of the heterotrophic bacterial iron requirement resides. Expression of iron stress biomarkers, as identified in the iron-addition experiments, was also detected insitu. These results suggest iron availability will impact the processing of organic matter by heterotrophic bacteria with potential consequences for the marine biological carbon pump.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Hendry MJ, Kirk L, Warner J, et al (2024)

Selenate bioreduction in a large in situ field trial.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03016-X [Epub ahead of print].

Removing selenium (Se) from mine effluent is a common challenge. A long-term, in situ experiment was conducted to bioremediate large volumes (up to 7500 m[c] d[-1]) of Se(VI)-contaminated water (mean 87 μg L[-1]) by injecting the water into a saturated waste rock fill (SRF) at a coal mining operation in Elk Valley, British Columbia, Canada. To stimulate/maintain biofilm growth in the SRF, labile organic carbon (methanol) and nutrients were added to the water prior to its injection. A conservative tracer (Br[-]) was also added to track the migration of injected water across the SRF, identify wells with minimal dilution and used to quantify the extent of bioreduction. The evolution of the Se species through the SRF was monitored in time and space for 201 d. Selenium concentrations of <3.8 μg L[-1] were attained in monitoring wells located 38 m from the injection wells after 114 to 141 d of operation. Concentrations of Se species in water samples from complementary long-term (351-498 d) column experiments using influent Se(VI) concentrations of 1.0 mg L[-1] were consistent with the results of the in situ experiment. Solid samples collected at the completion of the column experiments confirmed the presence of indigenous Se-reducing bacteria and that the sequestered Se was present as insoluble Se(0), likely in Se-S ring compounds. Based on the success of this ongoing bioremediation experiment, this technology is being applied at other mine sites.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Freilich MA, Poirier C, Dever M, et al (2024)

3D intrusions transport active surface microbial assemblages to the dark ocean.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(19):e2319937121.

Subtropical oceans contribute significantly to global primary production, but the fate of the picophytoplankton that dominate in these low-nutrient regions is poorly understood. Working in the subtropical Mediterranean, we demonstrate that subduction of water at ocean fronts generates 3D intrusions with uncharacteristically high carbon, chlorophyll, and oxygen that extend below the sunlit photic zone into the dark ocean. These contain fresh picophytoplankton assemblages that resemble the photic-zone regions where the water originated. Intrusions propagate depth-dependent seasonal variations in microbial assemblages into the ocean interior. Strikingly, the intrusions included dominant biomass contributions from nonphotosynthetic bacteria and enrichment of enigmatic heterotrophic bacterial lineages. Thus, the intrusions not only deliver material that differs in composition and nutritional character from sinking detrital particles, but also drive shifts in bacterial community composition, organic matter processing, and interactions between surface and deep communities. Modeling efforts paired with global observations demonstrate that subduction can flux similar magnitudes of particulate organic carbon as sinking export, but is not accounted for in current export estimates and carbon cycle models. Intrusions formed by subduction are a particularly important mechanism for enhancing connectivity between surface and upper mesopelagic ecosystems in stratified subtropical ocean environments that are expanding due to the warming climate.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Roh H, D Kannimuthu (2024)

Genomic and Transcriptomic Diversification of Flagellin Genes Provides Insight into Environmental Adaptation and Phylogeographic Characteristics in Aeromonas hydrophila.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):65.

Aeromonas hydrophila is an opportunistic motile pathogen with a broad host range, infecting both terrestrial and aquatic animals. Environmental and geographical conditions exert selective pressure on both geno- and phenotypes of pathogens. Flagellin, directly exposed to external environments and containing important immunogenic epitopes, may display significant variability in response to external conditions. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of ~ 150 A. hydrophila genomes, leading to the identification of six subunits of the flagellin gene (fla-1 to fla-4, flaA, and flaB). Individual strains harbored different composition of flagellin subunits and copies. The composition of subunits showed distinct patterns depending on environmental sources. Strains from aquatic environments were mainly comprised of fla-1 to fla-4 subunits, while terrestrial strains predominated in groups harboring flaA and flaB subunits. Each flagellin showed varying levels of expression, with flaA and flaB demonstrating significantly higher expression compared to others. One of the chemotaxis pathways that control flagellin movement through a two-component system was significantly upregulated in flaA(+ 1)/flaB(+ 1) group, whereas flaA and flaB showed different transcriptomic expressions. The genes positively correlated with flaA expression were relevant to biofilm formation and bacterial chemotaxis, but flaB showed a negative correlation with the genes in ABC transporters and quorum sensing pathway. However, the expression patterns of fla-2 to fla-4 were identical. This suggests various types of flagellin subunits may have different biological functions. The composition and expression levels of flagellin subunits could provide valuable insights into the adaptation of A. hydrophila and the differences among strains in response to various external environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Sumithra TG, Sharma SRK, Suresh G, et al (2024)

Mechanistic insights into the early life stage microbiota of silver pompano (Trachinotus blochii).

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1356828.

INTRODUCTION: Deep investigations of host-associated microbiota can illuminate microbe-based solutions to improve production in an unprecedented manner. The poor larval survival represents the critical bottleneck in sustainable marine aquaculture practices. However, little is known about the microbiota profiles and their governing eco-evolutionary processes of the early life stages of marine teleost, impeding the development of suitable beneficial microbial management strategies. The study provides first-hand mechanistic insights into microbiota and its governing eco-evolutionary processes in early life stages of a tropical marine teleost model, Trachinotus blochii.

METHODS: The microbiota profiles and their dynamics from the first day of hatching till the end of metamorphosis and that of fingerling's gut during the routine hatchery production were studied using 16S rRNA amplicon-based high-throughput sequencing. Further, the relative contributions of various external factors (rearing water, live feed, microalgae, and formulated feed) to the microbiota profiles at different ontogenies was also analyzed.

RESULTS: A less diverse but abundant core microbial community (~58% and 54% in the whole microbiota and gut microbiota, respectively) was observed throughout the early life stages, supporting 'core microbiota' hypothesis. Surprisingly, there were two well-differentiated clusters in the whole microbiota profiles, ≤10 DPH (days post-hatching) and > 10 DPH samples. The levels of microbial taxonomic signatures of stress indicated increased stress in the early stages, a possible explanation for increased mortality during early life stages. Further, the results suggested an adaptive mechanism for establishing beneficial strains along the ontogenetic progression. Moreover, the highly transient microbiota in the early life stages became stable along the ontogenetic progression, hypothesizing that the earlier life stages will be the best window to influence the microbiota. The egg microbiota also crucially affected the microbial community. Noteworthily, both water and the feed microbiota significantly contributed to the early microbiota, with the feed microbiota having a more significant contribution to fish microbiota. The results illustrated that rotifer enrichment would be the optimal medium for the early larval microbiota manipulations.

CONCLUSION: The present study highlighted the crucial foundations for the microbial ecology of T. blochii during early life stages with implications to develop suitable beneficial microbial management strategies for sustainable mariculture production.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Brame JE, Liddicoat C, Abbott CA, et al (2024)

The macroecology of butyrate-producing bacteria via metagenomic assessment of butyrate production capacity.

Ecology and evolution, 14(5):e11239 pii:ECE311239.

Butyrate-producing bacteria are found in many outdoor ecosystems and host organisms, including humans, and are vital to ecosystem functionality and human health. These bacteria ferment organic matter, producing the short-chain fatty acid butyrate. However, the macroecological influences on their biogeographical distribution remain poorly resolved. Here we aimed to characterise their global distribution together with key explanatory climatic, geographical and physicochemical variables. We developed new normalised butyrate production capacity (BPC) indices derived from global metagenomic (n = 13,078) and Australia-wide soil 16S rRNA (n = 1331) data, using Geographic Information System (GIS) and modelling techniques to detail their ecological and biogeographical associations. The highest median BPC scores were found in anoxic and fermentative environments, including the human (BPC = 2.99) and non-human animal gut (BPC = 2.91), and in some plant-soil systems (BPC = 2.33). Within plant-soil systems, roots (BPC = 2.50) and rhizospheres (BPC = 2.34) had the highest median BPC scores. Among soil samples, geographical and climatic variables had the strongest overall effects on BPC scores (variable importance score range = 0.30-0.03), with human population density also making a notable contribution (variable importance score = 0.20). Higher BPC scores were in soils from seasonally productive sandy rangelands, temperate rural residential areas and sites with moderate-to-high soil iron concentrations. Abundances of butyrate-producing bacteria in outdoor soils followed complex ecological patterns influenced by geography, climate, soil chemistry and hydrological fluctuations. These new macroecological insights further our understanding of the ecological patterns of outdoor butyrate-producing bacteria, with implications for emerging microbially focused ecological and human health policies.

RevDate: 2024-05-01

Xiong X, Othmer HG, WR Harcombe (2024)

Emergent antibiotic persistence in a spatially structured synthetic microbial mutualism.

The ISME journal pii:7660941 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic persistence (heterotolerance) allows a sub-population of bacteria to survive antibiotic-induced killing and contributes to the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Although bacteria typically live in microbial communities with complex ecological interactions, little is known about how microbial ecology affects antibiotic persistence. Here, we demonstrated within a synthetic two-species microbial mutualism of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica that the combination of cross-feeding and community spatial structure can emergently cause high antibiotic persistence in bacteria by increasing the cell-to-cell heterogeneity. Tracking ampicillin-induced death for bacteria on agar surfaces, we found that E. coli forms up to 55 times more antibiotic persisters in the cross-feeding coculture than in monoculture. This high persistence could not be explained solely by the presence of S. enterica, the presence of cross-feeding, average nutrient starvation, or spontaneous resistant mutations. Time-series fluorescent microscopy revealed increased cell-to-cell variation in E. coli lag time in the mutualistic co-culture. Furthermore, we discovered that an E. coli cell can survive antibiotic killing if the nearby S. enterica cells on which it relies die first. In conclusion, we showed that the high antibiotic persistence phenotype can be an emergent phenomenon caused by a combination of cross-feeding and spatial structure. Our work highlights the importance of considering spatially structured interactions during antibiotic treatment and understanding microbial community resilience more broadly.

RevDate: 2024-05-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-01

Tokash-Peters AG, Niyonzima JD, Kayirangwa M, et al (2024)

Mosquito Microbiomes of Rwanda: Characterizing Mosquito Host and Microbial Communities in the Land of a Thousand Hills.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):64.

Mosquitoes are a complex nuisance around the world and tropical countries bear the brunt of the burden of mosquito-borne diseases. Rwanda has had success in reducing malaria and some arboviral diseases over the last few years, but still faces challenges to elimination. By building our understanding of in situ mosquito communities in Rwanda at a disturbed, human-occupied site and at a natural, preserved site, we can build our understanding of natural mosquito microbiomes toward the goal of implementing novel microbial control methods. Here, we examined the composition of collected mosquitoes and their microbiomes at two diverse sites using Cytochrome c Oxidase I sequencing and 16S V4 high-throughput sequencing. The majority (36 of 40 species) of mosquitoes captured and characterized in this study are the first-known record of their species for Rwanda but have been characterized in other nations in East Africa. We found significant differences among mosquito genera and among species, but not between mosquito sexes or catch method. Bacteria of interest for arbovirus control, Asaia, Serratia, and Wolbachia, were found in abundance at both sites and varied greatly by species.

RevDate: 2024-05-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-01

Salem MA, Nour El-Din HT, Hashem AM, et al (2024)

Genome-Scale Investigation of the Regulation of azoR Expression in Escherichia coli Using Computational Analysis and Transposon Mutagenesis.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):63.

Bacterial azoreductases are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of ingested or industrial azo dyes. Although azoreductase genes have been well identified and characterized, the regulation of their expression has not been systematically investigated. To determine how different factors affect the expression of azoR, we extracted and analyzed transcriptional data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) resource, then confirmed computational predictions by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results showed that azoR expression was lower with higher glucose concentration, agitation speed, and incubation temperature, but higher at higher culture densities. Co-expression and clustering analysis indicated ten genes with similar expression patterns to azoR: melA, tpx, yhbW, yciK, fdnG, fpr, nfsA, nfsB, rutF, and chrR (yieF). In parallel, constructing a random transposon library in E. coli K-12 and screening 4320 of its colonies for altered methyl red (MR)-decolorizing activity identified another set of seven genes potentially involved in azoR regulation. Among these genes, arsC, relA, plsY, and trmM were confirmed as potential azoR regulators based on the phenotypic decolorization activity of their transposon mutants, and the expression of arsC and relA was confirmed, by qRT-PCR, to significantly increase in E. coli K-12 in response to different MR concentrations. Finally, the significant decrease in azoR transcription upon transposon insertion in arsC and relA (as compared to its expression in wild-type E. coli) suggests their probable involvement in azoR regulation. In conclusion, combining in silico analysis and random transposon mutagenesis suggested a set of potential regulators of azoR in E. coli.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Rivera-Lopez EO, Nieves-Morales R, Melendez-Martinez G, et al (2024)

Sea cucumber (Holothuria glaberrima) intestinal microbiome dataset from Puerto Rico, generated by shotgun sequencing.

Data in brief, 54:110421.

The sea cucumber (H. glaberrima) is a species found in the shallow waters near coral reefs and seagrass beds in Puerto Rico. To characterize the microbial taxonomic composition and functional profiles present in the sea cucumber, total DNA was obtained from their intestinal system, fosmid libraries constructed, and subsequent sequencing was performed. The diversity profile displayed that the most predominant domain was Bacteria (76.56 %), followed by Viruses (23.24 %) and Archaea (0.04 %). Within the 11 phyla identified, the most abundant was Proteobacteria (73.16 %), followed by Terrabacteria group (3.20 %) and Fibrobacterota, Chlorobiota, Bacteroidota (FCB) superphylum (1.02 %). The most abundant species were Porvidencia rettgeri (21.77 %), Pseudomonas stutzeri (14.78 %), and Alcaligenes faecalis (5.00 %). The functional profile revealed that the most abundant functions are related to transporters, MISC (miscellaneous information systems), organic nitrogen, energy, and carbon utilization. The data collected in this project on the diversity and functional profiles of the intestinal system of the H. glaberrima provided a detailed view of its microbial ecology. These findings may motivate comparative studies aimed at understanding the role of the microbiome in intestinal regeneration.

RevDate: 2024-04-30
CmpDate: 2024-04-30

Morigasaki S, Matsui M, Ohtsu I, et al (2024)

Temporal and fertilizer-dependent dynamics of soil bacterial communities in buckwheat fields under long-term management.

Scientific reports, 14(1):9896.

This study integrated bacterial community and soil chemicals to characterize the soil ecosystem in an open upland field managed by six controlled fertilizer programs using the minimum amount of pesticides. Amplicon sequencing the 16S rRNA gene revealed that inorganic nitrogen fertilizer and compost altered the diversity and structure of the soil bacterial community throughout buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench 'Hitachiakisoba') cultivation. The bacterial community comprised three clusters that contained bacteria that are prevalent in soils fertilized with nitrogen (cluster 1, 340 taxa), without nitrogen and compost (cluster 2, 234 taxa), and with compost-fertilized (cluster 3, 296 taxa). Cluster 2 contained more taxa in Actinobacteriota and less in Acidobacteriota, and cluster 3 contained more taxa in Gemmatimonadota compared with the other clusters. The most frequent taxa in cluster 1 were within the Chloroflexi phylum. The bacterial community structure correlated with soil chemical properties including pH, total organic carbon, SO4[2-], soluble Ca[2+]. A co-occurrence network of bacterial taxa and chemicals identified key bacterial groups comprising the center of a community network that determined topology and dynamics of the network. Temporal dynamics of the bacterial community structure indicated that Burkholderiales were associated with buckwheat ripening, indicating plant-bacteria interaction in the ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Ghani MI, Yi B, Rehmani MS, et al (2024)

Potential of melatonin and Trichoderma harzianum inoculation in ameliorating salt toxicity in watermelon: Insights into antioxidant system, leaf ultrastructure, and gene regulation.

Plant physiology and biochemistry : PPB, 211:108639 pii:S0981-9428(24)00307-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Melatonin (MT) is an extensively studied biomolecule with dual functions, serving as an antioxidant and a signaling molecule. Trichoderma Harzianum (TH) is widely recognized for its effectiveness as a biocontrol agent against many plant pathogens. However, the interplay between seed priming and MT (150 μm) in response to NaCl (100 mM) and its interaction with TH have rarely been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of MT and TH, alone and in combination, to mitigate salt stress (SS) in watermelon plants. The findings of this study revealed a significant decline in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical indices of watermelon seedlings exposed to SS. However, MT and TH treatments reduced the negative impact of salt stress. The combined application of MT and TH exerted a remarkable positive effect by increasing the growth, photosynthetic and gas exchange parameters, chlorophyll fluorescence indices, and ion balance (decreasing Na[+] and enhancing K[+]). MT and TH effectively alleviated oxidative injury by inhibiting hydrogen peroxide formation in saline and non-saline environments, as established by reduced lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage. Moreover, oxidative injury induced by SS on the cells was significantly mitigated by regulation of the antioxidant system, AsA-GSH-related enzymes, the glyoxalase system, augmentation of osmolytes, and activation of several genes involved in the defense system. Additionally, the reduction in oxidative damage was examined by chloroplast integrity via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Overall, the results of this study provide a promising contribution of MT and TH in safeguarding the watermelon crop from oxidative damage induced by salt stress.

RevDate: 2024-04-30
CmpDate: 2024-04-30

Liu Z, Zhang J, Fan C, et al (2024)

Influence of Bacillus subtilis strain Z-14 on microbial ecology of cucumber rhizospheric vermiculite infested with fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

Pesticide biochemistry and physiology, 201:105875.

Fusarium oxysporum (FO) is a typical soil-borne pathogenic fungus, and the cucumber wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) seriously affects crop yield and quality. Vermiculite is increasingly being used as a culture substrate; nevertheless, studies exploring the effectiveness and mechanisms of biocontrol bacteria in this substrate are limited. In this study, vermiculite was used as a culture substrate to investigate the control effect of Bacillus subtilis strain Z-14 on cucumber wilt and the rhizospheric microecology, focusing on colonization ability, soil microbial diversity, and rhizosphere metabolome. Pot experiments showed that Z-14 effectively colonized the cucumber roots, achieving a controlled efficacy of 61.32% for wilt disease. It significantly increased the abundance of Bacillus and the expression of NRPS and PKS genes, while reducing the abundance of FO in the rhizosphere. Microbial diversity sequencing showed that Z-14 reduced the richness and diversity of the rhizosphere bacterial community, increased the richness and diversity of the fungal community, and alleviated the effect of FO on the community structure of the cucumber rhizosphere. The metabolomics analysis revealed that Z-14 affected ABC transporters, amino acid synthesis, and the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites. Additionally, Z-14 increased the contents of phenylacetic acid, capsidol, and quinolinic acid, all of which were related to the antagonistic activity in the rhizosphere. Z-14 exhibited a significant control effect on cucumber wilt and influenced the microflora and metabolites in rhizospheric vermiculite, providing a theoretical basis for further understanding the control effect and mechanism of cucumber wilt in different culture substrates.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Cohen Y, Johnke J, Abed-Rabbo A, et al (2024)

Unbalanced predatory communities and a lack of microbial degraders characterize the microbiota of a highly sewage-polluted Eastern-Mediterranean stream.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7659829 [Epub ahead of print].

Wastewater pollution of water resources takes a heavy toll on humans and on the environment. In highly polluted water bodies, self-purification is impaired, as the capacity of the riverine microbes to regenerate the ecosystem is overwhelmed. To date, information on the composition, dynamics, and functions of the microbial communities in highly sewage-impacted rivers is limited in particular in arid and semi-arid environments. In this year-long study of the highly sewage-impacted Al-Nar/Kidron stream in the Barr al-Khalil/Judean Desert east of Jerusalem we show, using 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based community analysis and targeted QPCR, that both the bacterial and micro-eukaryotic communities, while abundant, exhibited low stability and diversity. Organic compounds hydrolyzers, and nitrogen and phosphorus recyclers were lacking, pointing at a reduced potential for regeneration. Furthermore, facultative bacterial predators were almost absent, and the obligate predators Bdellovibrio-and-like-organisms were found at very low abundance. Finally, the micro-eukaryotic predatory community differed from those of other freshwater environments. The lack of essential biochemical functions may explain the stream's inability to self-purify while the very low levels of bacterial predators and the disturbed assemblages of micro-eukaryote predators present in Al-Nar/Kidron may contribute to community instability and disfunction.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-29

Cowan DA, Albers SV, Antranikian G, et al (2024)

Extremophiles in a changing world.

Extremophiles : life under extreme conditions, 28(2):26.

Extremophiles and their products have been a major focus of research interest for over 40 years. Through this period, studies of these organisms have contributed hugely to many aspects of the fundamental and applied sciences, and to wider and more philosophical issues such as the origins of life and astrobiology. Our understanding of the cellular adaptations to extreme conditions (such as acid, temperature, pressure and more), of the mechanisms underpinning the stability of macromolecules, and of the subtleties, complexities and limits of fundamental biochemical processes has been informed by research on extremophiles. Extremophiles have also contributed numerous products and processes to the many fields of biotechnology, from diagnostics to bioremediation. Yet, after 40 years of dedicated research, there remains much to be discovered in this field. Fortunately, extremophiles remain an active and vibrant area of research. In the third decade of the twenty-first century, with decreasing global resources and a steadily increasing human population, the world's attention has turned with increasing urgency to issues of sustainability. These global concerns were encapsulated and formalized by the United Nations with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the presentation of the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in 2015. In the run-up to 2030, we consider the contributions that extremophiles have made, and will in the future make, to the SDGs.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-29

Kunzler M, Schlechter RO, Schreiber L, et al (2024)

Hitching a Ride in the Phyllosphere: Surfactant Production of Pseudomonas spp. Causes Co-swarming of Pantoea eucalypti 299R.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):62.

Here, we demonstrate the beneficial effect of surfactant-producing pseudomonads on Pantoea eucalypti 299R. We conducted a series of experiments in environments of increasing complexity. P. eucalypti 299R (Pe299R), and Pseudomonas sp. FF1 (Pff1) or Pe299R and surfactant-production deficient Pseudomonas sp. FF1::ΔviscB (Pff1ΔviscB) were co-inoculated in broth, on swarming agar plates, and on plants. In broth, there were no differences in the growth dynamics of Pe299R when growing in the presence of Pff1 or Pff1ΔviscB. By contrast, on swarming agar plates, Pe299R was able to co-swarm with Pff1 which led to a significant increase in Pe299R biomass compared to Pe299R growing with Pff1ΔviscB or in monoculture. Finally in planta, and using the single-cell bioreporter for reproductive success (CUSPER), we found a temporally distinct beneficial effect of Pff1 on co-inoculated Pe299R subpopulations that did not occur in the presence of Pff1ΔviscB. We tested three additional surfactant-producing pseudomonads and their respective surfactant knockout mutants on PE299R on swarming agar showing similar results. This led us to propose a model for the positive effect of surfactant production during leaf colonization. Our results indicate that co-motility might be common during leaf colonization and adds yet another facet to the already manyfold roles of surfactants.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Song H-S, Lee N-R, Kessell AK, et al (2024)

Kinetics-based inference of environment-dependent microbial interactions and their dynamic variation.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities in nature are dynamically evolving as member species change their interactions subject to environmental variations. Accounting for such context-dependent dynamic variations in interspecies interactions is critical for predictive ecological modeling. In the absence of generalizable theoretical foundations, we lack a fundamental understanding of how microbial interactions are driven by environmental factors, significantly limiting our capability to predict and engineer community dynamics and function. To address this issue, we propose a novel theoretical framework that allows us to represent interspecies interactions as an explicit function of environmental variables (such as substrate concentrations) by combining growth kinetics and a generalized Lotka-Volterra model. A synergistic integration of these two complementary models leads to the prediction of alterations in interspecies interactions as the outcome of dynamic balances between positive and negative influences of microbial species in mixed relationships. The effectiveness of our method was experimentally demonstrated using a synthetic consortium of two Escherichia coli mutants that are metabolically dependent (due to an inability to synthesize essential amino acids) but competitively grow on a shared substrate. The analysis of the E. coli binary consortium using our model not only showed how interactions between the two amino acid auxotrophic mutants are controlled by the dynamic shifts in limiting substrates but also enabled quantifying previously uncharacterizable complex aspects of microbial interactions, such as asymmetry in interactions. Our approach can be extended to other ecological systems to model their environment-dependent interspecies interactions from growth kinetics.IMPORTANCEModeling environment-controlled interspecies interactions through separate identification of positive and negative influences of microbes in mixed relationships is a new capability that can significantly improve our ability to understand, predict, and engineer the complex dynamics of microbial communities. Moreover, the prediction of microbial interactions as a function of environmental variables can serve as valuable benchmark data to validate modeling and network inference tools in microbial ecology, the development of which has often been impeded due to the lack of ground truth information on interactions. While demonstrated against microbial data, the theory developed in this work is readily applicable to general community ecology to predict interactions among macroorganisms, such as plants and animals, as well as microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

García FM, Guerrero SIB, la Peña CG, et al (2024)

Bacteria in the blood of healthy stray dogs infested by ticks in northern Mexico.

Journal of advanced veterinary and animal research, 11(1):132-138.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to determine the richness, abundance, and diversity of bacteria in stray dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) infested by ticks in Comarca Lagunera, northern Mexico, and to establish their pathogenic and or/zoonotic potential.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples from 12 dogs were collected, and their deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted. The V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal ribunocleic acid gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on a MiSeq Illumina platform, and the data were analyzed using quantitative insights into microbial ecology.

RESULTS: The operational taxonomic units resulted in 23 phyla, 54 classes, 89 orders, 189 families, 586 genera, and 620 bacterial species; among them, 64 species and/or bacterial genera with pathogenic or zoonotic potential were identified, some of which have been reported in the literature as relevant to public health (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Brucella spp., Clostridium spp., Corynebacterium affermentants, Cutibacterium spp., Dietzia spp., Ehrlichia canis, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Leptotrichia spp., Mycobacterium spp., Paracoccus spp., and Roseomonas gilardii).

CONCLUSION: This research offers relevant information on the prevalence of tick-borne diseases as well as other potential zoonotic diseases in the blood of stray dogs parasitized by ticks in northern Mexico. New molecular biology and massive NGS techniques may play an important role in the study and documentation of bacterial profiles from animals in close proximity to humans.

RevDate: 2024-04-28

Guo Z, Ma XS, SQ Ni (2024)

Journey of the Swift Nitrogen Transformation: Unveiling Comammox from Discovery to Deep Understanding.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)00986-X [Epub ahead of print].

COMplete AMMonia OXidizer (comammox) refers to microorganisms that have the function of oxidizing NH4[+] to NO3[-] alone. The discovery of comammox overturned the two-step theory of nitrification in the past century and triggered many important scientific questions about the nitrogen cycle in nature. This comprehensive review delves into the origin and discovery of comammox, providing a detailed account of its detection primers, clades metabolic variations, and environmental factors. An in-depth analysis of the ecological niche differentiation among ammonia oxidizers was also discussed. The intricate role of comammox in anammox systems and the relationship between comammox and nitrogen compound emissions are also discussed. Finally, the relationship between comammox and anammox is displayed, and the future research direction of comammox is prospected. This review reveals the metabolic characteristics and distribution patterns of comammox in ecosystems, providing new perspectives for understanding nitrogen cycling and microbial ecology. Additionally, it offers insights into the potential application value and prospects of comammox.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Wang X, Tang Y, Yue X, et al (2024)

The role of rhizosphere phages in soil health.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7659364 [Epub ahead of print].

While the One Health framework has emphasized the importance of soil microbiomes for plant and human health, one of the most diverse and abundant groups-bacterial viruses, i.e. phages-has been mostly neglected. This perspective reviews the significance of phages for plant health in rhizosphere and explores their ecological and evolutionary impacts on soil ecosystems. We first summarize our current understanding of the diversity and ecological roles of phages in soil microbiomes in terms of nutrient cycling, top-down density regulation and pathogen suppression. We then consider how phages drive bacterial evolution in soils by promoting horizontal gene transfer, encoding auxiliary metabolic genes that increase host bacterial fitness and selecting for phage-resistant mutants with altered ecology due to trade-offs with pathogen competitiveness and virulence. Finally, we consider challenges and avenues for phage research in soil ecosystems and how to elucidate the significance of phages for microbial ecology and evolution and soil ecosystem functioning in the future. We conclude that similar to bacteria, phages likely play important roles in connecting different One Health compartments, affecting microbiome diversity and functions in soils. From the applied perspective, phages could offer novel approaches to modulate and optimize microbial and microbe-plant interactions to enhance soil health.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Glasl B, Luter HM, Damjanovic K, et al (2024)

Co-occurring nitrifying symbiont lineages are vertically inherited and widespread in marine sponges.

The ISME journal pii:7658920 [Epub ahead of print].

Ammonia-oxidising archaea and nitrite-oxidising bacteria are common members of marine sponge microbiomes. They derive energy for carbon fixation and growth from nitrification - the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and further to nitrate - and are proposed to play essential roles in the carbon and nitrogen cycling of sponge holobionts. In this study, we characterise two novel nitrifying symbiont lineages, Candidatus Nitrosokoinonia and Candidatus Nitrosymbion in the marine sponge Coscinoderma matthewsi using a combination of molecular tools, in situ visualisation, and physiological rate measurements. Both represent a new genus in the ammonia-oxidising archaeal class Nitrososphaeria and the nitrite-oxidising bacterial order Nitrospirales, respectively. Furthermore, we show that larvae of this viviparous sponge are densely colonised by representatives of Ca. Nitrosokoinonia and Ca. Nitrosymbion indicating vertical transmission. In adults, the representatives of both symbiont genera are located extracellularly in the mesohyl. Comparative metagenome analyses and physiological data suggest that ammonia-oxidising archaeal symbionts of the genus Ca. Nitrosokoinonia strongly rely on endogenously produced nitrogenous compounds (i.e., ammonium, urea, nitriles/cyanides, and creatinine) rather than on exogenous ammonium sources taken up by the sponge. Additionally, the nitrite-oxidising bacterial symbionts of the genus Ca. Nitrosymbion may reciprocally support the ammonia-oxidisers with ammonia via the utilisation of sponge-derived urea and cyanate. Comparative analyses of published environmental 16S rRNA gene amplicon data revealed that Ca. Nitrosokoinonia and Ca. Nitrosymbion are widely distributed and predominantly associated with marine sponges and corals, suggesting a broad relevance of our findings.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Król N, Chitimia-Dobler L, Dobler G, et al (2024)

Identification of New Microfoci and Genetic Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Eastern Germany and Western Poland.

Viruses, 16(4):.

(1) Background: Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most important tick-borne viral disease in Eurasia, although effective vaccines are available. Caused by the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV, syn. Orthoflavivirus encephalitidis), in Europe, it is transmitted by ticks like Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus. TBEV circulates in natural foci, making it endemic to specific regions, such as southern Germany and northeastern Poland. Our study aimed to identify new TBEV natural foci and genetically characterize strains in ticks in previously nonendemic areas in Eastern Germany and Western Poland. (2) Methods: Ticks were collected from vegetation in areas reported by TBE patients. After identification, ticks were tested for TBEV in pools of a maximum of 10 specimens using real-time RT-PCR. From the positive TBEV samples, E genes were sequenced. (3) Results: Among 8400 ticks from 19 sites, I. ricinus (n = 4784; 56.9%) was predominant, followed by D. reticulatus (n = 3506; 41.7%), Haemaphysalis concinna (n = 108; 1.3%), and I. frontalis (n = 2; <0.1%). TBEV was detected in 19 pools originating in six sites. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that TBEV strains from Germany and Poland clustered with other German strains, as well as those from Finland and Estonia. (4) Conclusions: Although there are still only a few cases are reported from these areas, people spending much time outdoors should consider TBE vaccination.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Isokpehi RD, Kim Y, Krejci SE, et al (2024)

Ecological Trait-Based Digital Categorization of Microbial Genomes for Denitrification Potential.

Microorganisms, 12(4):.

Microorganisms encode proteins that function in the transformations of useful and harmful nitrogenous compounds in the global nitrogen cycle. The major transformations in the nitrogen cycle are nitrogen fixation, nitrification, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and ammonification. The focus of this report is the complex biogeochemical process of denitrification, which, in the complete form, consists of a series of four enzyme-catalyzed reduction reactions that transforms nitrate to nitrogen gas. Denitrification is a microbial strain-level ecological trait (characteristic), and denitrification potential (functional performance) can be inferred from trait rules that rely on the presence or absence of genes for denitrifying enzymes in microbial genomes. Despite the global significance of denitrification and associated large-scale genomic and scholarly data sources, there is lack of datasets and interactive computational tools for investigating microbial genomes according to denitrification trait rules. Therefore, our goal is to categorize archaeal and bacterial genomes by denitrification potential based on denitrification traits defined by rules of enzyme involvement in the denitrification reduction steps. We report the integration of datasets on genome, taxonomic lineage, ecosystem, and denitrifying enzymes to provide data investigations context for the denitrification potential of microbial strains. We constructed an ecosystem and taxonomic annotated denitrification potential dataset of 62,624 microbial genomes (866 archaea and 61,758 bacteria) that encode at least one of the twelve denitrifying enzymes in the four-step canonical denitrification pathway. Our four-digit binary-coding scheme categorized the microbial genomes to one of sixteen denitrification traits including complete denitrification traits assigned to 3280 genomes from 260 bacteria genera. The bacterial strains with complete denitrification potential pattern included Arcobacteraceae strains isolated or detected in diverse ecosystems including aquatic, human, plant, and Mollusca (shellfish). The dataset on microbial denitrification potential and associated interactive data investigations tools can serve as research resources for understanding the biochemical, molecular, and physiological aspects of microbial denitrification, among others. The microbial denitrification data resources produced in our research can also be useful for identifying microbial strains for synthetic denitrifying communities.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Wang H, Pijl A, Liu B, et al (2024)

A Comparison of Different Protocols for the Extraction of Microbial DNA Inhabiting Synthetic Mars Simulant Soil.

Microorganisms, 12(4):.

Compared with typical Earth soil, Martian soil and Mars simulant soils have distinct properties, including pH > 8.0 and high contents of silicates, iron-rich minerals, sulfates, and metal oxides. This unique soil matrix poses a major challenge for extracting microbial DNA. In particular, mineral adsorption and the generation of destructive hydroxyl radicals through cationic redox cycling may interfere with DNA extraction. This study evaluated different protocols for extracting microbial DNA from Mars Global Simulant (MGS-1), a Mars simulant soil. Two commercial kits were tested: the FastDNA SPIN Kit for soil ("MP kit") and the DNeasy PowerSoil Pro Kit ("PowerSoil kit"). MGS-1 was incubated with living soil for five weeks, and DNA was extracted from aliquots using the kits. After extraction, the DNA was quantified with a NanoDrop spectrophotometer and used as the template for 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and qPCR. The MP kit was the most efficient, yielding approximately four times more DNA than the PowerSoil kit. DNA extracted using the MP kit with 0.5 g soil resulted in 28,642-37,805 16S rRNA gene sequence reads and 30,380-42,070 16S rRNA gene copies, whereas the 16S rRNA gene could not be amplified from DNA extracted using the PowerSoil kit. We suggest that the FastDNA SPIN Kit is the best option for studying microbial communities in Mars simulant soils.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Daval C, Tran T, Verdier F, et al (2024)

Identification of Key Parameters Inducing Microbial Modulation during Backslopped Kombucha Fermentation.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 13(8):.

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of production parameters on the reproducibility of kombucha fermentation over several production cycles based on backslopping. Six conditions with varying oxygen accessibility (specific interface surface) and initial acidity (through the inoculation rate) of the cultures were carried out and compared to an original kombucha consortium and a synthetic consortium assembled from yeasts and bacteria isolated from the original culture. Output parameters monitored were microbial populations, biofilm weight, key physico-chemical parameters and metabolites. Results highlighted the existence of phases in microbial dynamics as backslopping cycles progressed. The transitions between phases occurred faster for the synthetic consortium compared to the original kombucha. This led to microbial dynamics and fermentative kinetics that were reproducible over several cycles but that could also deviate and shift abruptly to different behaviors. These changes were mainly induced by an increase in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae population, associated with an intensification of sucrose hydrolysis, sugar consumption and an increase in ethanol content, without any significant acceleration in the rate of acidification. The study suggests that the reproducibility of kombucha fermentations relies on high biodiversity to slow down the modulations of microbial dynamics induced by the sustained rhythm of backslopping cycles.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Sun Y, Du P, Li H, et al (2024)

Prokaryotic community assembly patterns and nitrogen metabolic potential in oxygen minimum zone of Yangtze Estuary water column.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00915-0 [Epub ahead of print].

It is predicted that oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean will expand as a consequence of global warming and environmental pollution. This will affect the overall microbial ecology and microbial nitrogen cycle. As one of the world's largest alluvial estuaries, the Yangtze Estuary has exhibited a seasonal OMZ since the 1980s. In this pioneering study, we have uncovered the microbial composition, the patterns of community assembly and the potential for microbial nitrogen cycling within the water column of the Yangtze Estuary, with a particular focus on OMZ. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a specific spatial variation in the composition of prokaryotic communities was observed for each water layer, with the Proteobacteria (46.1%), Bacteroidetes (20.3%), and Cyanobacteria (10.3%) dominant. Stochastic and deterministic processes together shaped the community assembly in the water column. Further, pH was the most important environmental factor influencing prokaryotic composition in the surface water, followed by silicate, PO4[3-], and distance offshore (p<0.05). Water depth, NH4[+], and PO4[3-] were the main factors in the bottom water (p<0.05). At last, species analysis and marker gene annotation revealed candidate nitrogen cycling performers, and a rich array of nitrogen cycling potential in the bottom water of the Yangtze Estuary. The determined physiochemical parameters and potential for nitrogen respiration suggested that organic nitrogen and NO3[-] (or NO2[-]) are the preferred nitrogen sources for microorganisms in the Yangtze Estuary OMZ. These findings are expected to advance research on the ecological responses of estuarine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) to future global climate perturbations.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Takács E, Lázár D, Siakwa A, et al (2024)

Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Safener and Antimicrobial Additives in Isoxaflutole-Based Herbicide Formulations.

Toxics, 12(4): pii:toxics12040238.

The environmental load by isoxaflutole and its formulated herbicide products has increasingly become apparent because, after the ban of atrazine, isoxaflutole has become its replacement active ingredient (a.i.). Obtaining information regarding the fate of this a.i. in environmental matrices and its ecotoxicological effects on aquatic organisms is essential for the risk assessment of the herbicide. In this study, the effects of Merlin Flexx- and Merlin WG75 formulated isoxaflutole-based herbicide products and two selected additives (cyprosulfamide safener and 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one antimicrobial agent) were investigated on Raphidocelis subcapitata in growth inhibition assays. In ecotoxicological tests, two conventional (optical density and chlorophyll-a content) and two induced fluorescence-based (Fv*/Fp: efficiency of the photosystem PSII and Rfd* changes in the observed ratio of fluorescence decrease) endpoints were determined by UV-spectrophotometer and by our FluoroMeter Module, respectively. Furthermore, dissipation of isoxaflutole alone and in its formulated products was examined by an HPLC-UV method. In ecotoxicological assays, the fluorescence-based Rfd* was observed as the most sensitive endpoint. In this study, the effects of the safener cyprosulfamide and the antimicrobial agent 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one on R. subcapitata is firstly reported. The results indicated that the isoxaflutole-equivalent toxicity of the mixture of the isoxaflutole-safener-antimicrobial agent triggered lower toxicity (EC50 = 2.81 ± 0.22 mg/L) compared to the individual effect of the a.i. (EC50 = 0.02 ± 0.00 mg/L). The Merlin Flexx formulation (EC50 = 27.04 ± 1.41 mg/L) was found to be approximately 50-fold less toxic than Merlin WG75, which can be explained by the different chemical characteristics and quantity of additives in them. The additives influenced the dissipation of the a.i. in Z8 medium, as the DT50 value decreased by approximately 1.2- and 3.5-fold under light and dark conditions, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Plewa-Tutaj K, Twarużek M, Kosicki R, et al (2024)

Analysis of Mycotoxins and Cytotoxicity of Airborne Molds Isolated from the Zoological Garden-Screening Research.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(4): pii:pathogens13040294.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to assess the airborne mold contamination, secondary metabolite profiles, and cytotoxicity of the dominant fungal species isolated from the air in selected rooms at a Zoological Garden.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fungal concentrations were measured with MAS-100 air samplers. The collected airborne fungi were identified using a combination of morphological and molecular methods. The cytotoxicity of 84 strains belonging to two Penicillium and Aspergillus genera was determined using the quantitative colorimetric MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium salt) assay. The mycotoxins were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a mass spectrometry detector.

RESULTS: The ITS gene was amplified and sequenced to identify the 132 species. For mycotoxicological and cytotoxicity analyses, 52 Penicillium isolates and 32 Aspergillus representatives were selected. Cytotoxicity was confirmed in 97.6% of cases analyzed. Using the LC-MS/MS method, 42 out of 84 strains produced at least one of the following toxins: ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, patulin, gliotoxin, roquefortine C, griseofulvin, sterigmatocystin, fumonisin B2, moniliformin, and mycophenolic acid.

CONCLUSIONS: Analytical methods for assessing the presence of mycotoxins in fungal isolates collected directly from the air have proven to be an effective tool. Our research provides new information on the occurrence of potentially toxin-producing molds within a zoo.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Crous PW, Costa MM, Kandemir H, et al (2023)

Fungal Planet description sheets: 1550-1613.

Persoonia, 51:280-417.

Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Argentina, Neocamarosporium halophilum in leaf spots of Atriplex undulata. Australia, Aschersonia merianiae on scale insect (Coccoidea), Curvularia huamulaniae isolated from air, Hevansia mainiae on dead spider, Ophiocordyceps poecilometigena on Poecilometis sp. Bolivia, Lecanora menthoides on sandstone, in open semi-desert montane areas, Sticta monlueckiorum corticolous in a forest, Trichonectria epimegalosporae on apothecia of corticolous Megalospora sulphurata var. sulphurata, Trichonectria puncteliae on the thallus of Punctelia borreri. Brazil, Catenomargarita pseudocercosporicola (incl. Catenomargarita gen. nov.) hyperparasitic on Pseudocercospora fijiensis on leaves of Musa acuminata, Tulasnella restingae on protocorms and roots of Epidendrum fulgens. Bulgaria, Anthracoidea umbrosae on Carex spp. Croatia, Hymenoscyphus radicis from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Microthlaspi erraticum, Orbilia multiserpentina on wood of decorticated branches of Quercus pubescens. France, Calosporella punctatispora on dead corticated twigs of Aceropalus. French West Indies (Martinique), Eutypella lechatii on dead corticated palm stem. Germany, Arrhenia alcalinophila on loamy soil. Iceland, Cistella blauvikensis on dead grass (Poaceae). India, Fulvifomes maritimus on living Peltophorum pterocarpum, Fulvifomes natarajanii on dead wood of Prosopis juliflora, Fulvifomes subazonatus on trunk of Azadirachta indica, Macrolepiota bharadwajii on moist soil near the forest, Narcissea delicata on decaying elephant dung, Paramyrothecium indicum on living leaves of Hibiscus hispidissimus, Trichoglossum syamviswanathii on moist soil near the base of a bamboo plantation. Iran, Vacuiphoma astragalicola from stem canker of Astragalus sarcocolla. Malaysia, Neoeriomycopsis fissistigmae (incl. Neoeriomycopsidaceae fam. nov.) on leaf spots on flower Fissistigma sp. Namibia, Exophiala lichenicola lichenicolous on Acarospora cf. luederitzensis. Netherlands, Entoloma occultatum on soil, Extremus caricis on dead leaves of Carex sp., Inocybe pseudomytiliodora on loamy soil. Norway, Inocybe guldeniae on calcareous soil, Inocybe rupestroides on gravelly soil. Pakistan, Hymenagaricus brunneodiscus on soil. Philippines, Ophiocordyceps philippinensis parasitic on Asilus sp. Poland, Hawksworthiomyces ciconiae isolated from Ciconia ciconia nest, Plectosphaerella vigrensis from leaf spots on Impatiens noli-tangere, Xenoramularia epitaxicola from sooty mould community on Taxus baccata. Portugal, Inocybe dagamae on clay soil. Saudi Arabia, Diaporthe jazanensis on branches of Coffea arabica. South Africa, Alternaria moraeae on dead leaves of Moraea sp., Bonitomyces buffels-kloofinus (incl. Bonitomyces gen. nov.) on dead twigs of unknown tree, Constrictochalara koukolii on living leaves of Itea rhamnoides colonised by a Meliola sp., Cylindromonium lichenophilum on Parmelina tiliacea, Gamszarella buffelskloofina (incl. Gamszarella gen. nov.) on dead insect, Isthmosporiella africana (incl. Isthmosporiella gen. nov.) on dead twigs of unknown tree, Nothoeucasphaeria buffelskloofina (incl. Nothoeucasphaeria gen. nov.), on dead twigs of unknown tree, Nothomicrothyrium beaucarneae (incl. Nothomicrothyrium gen. nov.) on dead leaves of Beaucarnea stricta, Paramycosphaerella proteae on living leaves of Protea caffra, Querciphoma foliicola on leaf litter, Rachicladosporium conostomii on dead twigs of Conostomium natalense var. glabrum, Rhamphoriopsis synnematosa on dead twig of unknown tree, Waltergamsia mpumalanga on dead leaves of unknown tree. Spain, Amanita fulvogrisea on limestone soil, in mixed forest, Amanita herculis in open Quercus forest, Vuilleminia beltraniae on Cistus symphytifolius. Sweden, Pachyella pulchella on decaying wood on sand-silt riverbank. Thailand, Deniquelata cassiae on dead stem of Cassia fistula, Stomiopeltis thailandica on dead twigs of Magnolia champaca. Ukraine, Circinaria podoliana on natural limestone outcrops, Neonematogonum carpinicola (incl. Neonematogonum gen. nov.) on dead branches of Carpinus betulus. USA, Exophiala wilsonii water from cooling tower, Hygrophorus aesculeticola on soil in mixed forest, and Neocelosporium aereum from air in a house attic. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes. Citation: Crous PW, Costa MM, Kandemir H, et al. 2023. Fungal Planet description sheets: 1550-1613. Persoonia 51: 280-417. doi: 10.3767/persoonia.2023.51.08.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Schilling OS, Nagaosa K, Schilling TU, et al (2023)

Revisiting Mt Fuji's groundwater origins with helium, vanadium and environmental DNA tracers.

Nature water, 1(1):60-73.

Known locally as the water mountain, for millennia Japan's iconic Mt Fuji has provided safe drinking water to millions of people via a vast network of groundwater and freshwater springs. Groundwater, which is recharged at high elevations, flows down Fuji's flanks within three basaltic aquifers, ultimately forming countless pristine freshwater springs among Fuji's foothills. Here we challenge the current conceptual model of Fuji being a simple system of laminar groundwater flow with little to no vertical exchange between its three aquifers. This model contrasts strongly with Fuji's extreme tectonic instability due to its unique location on top of the only known continental trench-trench-trench triple junction, its complex geology and its unusual microbial spring water communities. On the basis of a unique combination of microbial environmental DNA, vanadium and helium tracers, we provide evidence for prevailing deep circulation and a previously unknown deep groundwater contribution to Fuji's freshwater springs. The most substantial deep groundwater upwelling has been found along Japan's most tectonically active region, the Fujikawa-kako Fault Zone. Our findings broaden the hydrogeological understanding of Fuji and demonstrate the vast potential of combining environmental DNA, on-site noble gas and trace element analyses for groundwater science.

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-25

Vincent J, Tenore A, Mattei MR, et al (2024)

Modelling Plasmid-Mediated Horizontal Gene Transfer in Biofilms.

Bulletin of mathematical biology, 86(6):63.

In this study, we present a mathematical model for plasmid spread in a growing biofilm, formulated as a nonlocal system of partial differential equations in a 1-D free boundary domain. Plasmids are mobile genetic elements able to transfer to different phylotypes, posing a global health problem when they carry antibiotic resistance factors. We model gene transfer regulation influenced by nearby potential receptors to account for recipient-sensing. We also introduce a promotion function to account for trace metal effects on conjugation, based on literature data. The model qualitatively matches experimental results, showing that contaminants like toxic metals and antibiotics promote plasmid persistence by favoring plasmid carriers and stimulating conjugation. Even at higher contaminant concentrations inhibiting conjugation, plasmid spread persists by strongly inhibiting plasmid-free cells. The model also replicates higher plasmid density in biofilm's most active regions.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Ceballos-Escalera A, Pous N, Bañeras L, et al (2024)

Advancing towards electro-bioremediation scaling-up: On-site pilot plant for successful nitrate-contaminated groundwater treatment.

Water research, 256:121618 pii:S0043-1354(24)00519-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The potential of nitrate electro-bioremediation has been fully demonstrated at the laboratory scale, although it has not yet been fully implemented due to the challenges associated with scaling-up bioelectrochemical reactors and their on-site operation. This study describes the initial start-up and subsequent stable operation of an electro-bioremediation pilot plant for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated groundwater on-site (Navata site, Spain). The pilot plant was operated under continuous flow mode for 3 months, producing an effluent suitable for drinking water in terms of nitrates and nitrites (<50 mg NO3[-] L[-1]; 0 mg NO2[-] L[-1]). A maximum nitrate removal rate of 0.9 ± 0.1 kg NO3[-] m[-3] d[-1] (efficiency 82 ± 18 %) was achieved at a cathodic hydraulic retention time (HRTcat) of 2.0 h with a competitive energy consumption of 4.3 ± 0.4 kWh kg[-1] NO3[-]. Under these conditions, the techno-economic analysis estimated an operational cost of 0.40 € m[-3]. Simultaneously, microbiological analyses revealed structural heterogeneity in the reactor, with denitrification functionality concentrated predominantly from the centre to the upper section of the reactor. The most abundant groups were Pseudomonadaceae, Rhizobiaceae, Gallionellaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae. In conclusion, this pilot plant represents a significant advancement in implementing this technology on a larger scale, validating its effectiveness in terms of nitrate removal and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, the results validate the electro-bioremediation in a real environment and encourage further investigation of its potential as a water treatment.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Hulatt CJ, Suzuki H, Détain A, et al (2024)

The genome of the Arctic snow-alga Limnomonas spitsbergensis (Chlamydomonadales).

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:7658367 [Epub ahead of print].

Snow-algae are a diverse group of extremophilic microeukaryotes found on melting polar and alpine snowfields. They play an important role in the microbial ecology of the cryosphere, and their propagation on snow and ice surfaces may in part accelerate climate-induced melting of these systems. High quality snow-algae genomes are needed for studies on their unique physiology, adaptive mechanisms and genome evolution under multiple forms of stress, including cold temperatures and intense sunlight. Here we assembled and annotated the genome of Limnomonas spitsbergensis, a cryophilic biciliate green alga originally isolated from melting snow on Svalbard, in the Arctic. The L. spitsbergensis genome assembly is based primarily on the use of PacBio long reads and secondly Illumina short reads, with an assembly size of 260.248 Mb in 124 contigs. A combination of three alternative annotation strategies were used including protein homology, RNA-seq evidence and PacBio full length transcript isoforms. The best merged set of annotations identified 18,277 protein-coding genes, which were 95.2% complete based on BUSCO analysis. We also provide the annotated mitogenome, which is a relatively large 77.942 kb circular mapping sequence containing extensive repeats. The L. spitsbergensis genome will provide a new resource for research on snow-algae adaptation, behavior and natural selection in unique, low-temperature terrestrial environments that are under threat from climate change.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg.


ESP now offers a large collection of user-selected side-by-side timelines (e.g., all science vs. all other categories, or arts and culture vs. world history), designed to provide a comparative context for appreciating world events.


Biographical information about many key scientists (e.g., Walter Sutton).

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )