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Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 02:04 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: "microbial ecology" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-11-09

Ayilara MS, Adeleke BS, OO Babalola (2022)

Correction to: Bioprospecting and Challenges of Plant Microbiome Research for Sustainable Agriculture, a Review on Soybean Endophytic Bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Collin B, Auffan M, Doelsch E, et al (2022)

Bacterial Metabolites and Particle Size Determine Cerium Oxide Nanomaterial Biotransformation.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Soil is a major receptor of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) following unintentional releases or intentional uses. Ceria NMs have been shown to undergo biotransformation in plant and soil organisms with a partial Ce(IV) reduction into Ce(III), but the influence of environmentally widespread soil bacteria is poorly understood. We used high-energy resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (HERFD-XAS) with an unprecedented detection limit to assess Ce speciation in a model soil bacterium (Pseudomonas brassicacearum) exposed to CeO2 NMs of different sizes and shapes. The findings revealed that the CeO2 NM's size drives the biotransformation process. No biotransformation was observed for the 31 nm CeO2 NMs, contrary to 7 and 4 nm CeO2 NMs, with a Ce reduction of 64 ± 14% and 70 ± 15%, respectively. This major reduction appeared quickly, from the early exponential bacterial growth phase. Environmentally relevant organic acid metabolites secreted by Pseudomonas, especially in the rhizosphere, were investigated. The 2-keto-gluconic and citric acid metabolites alone were able to induce a significant reduction in 4 nm CeO2 NMs. The high biotransformation measured for <7 nm NMs would affect the fate of Ce in the soil and biota.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Hu J, Vandenkoornhuyse P, Khalfallah F, et al (2022)

Ecological corridors homogenize plant root endospheric mycobiota.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Ecological corridors promote species coexistence in fragmented habitats where dispersal limits species fluxes. The corridor concept was developed and investigated with macroorganisms in mind while microorganisms, the invisible majority of biodiversity, were disregarded. We analyzed the effect of corridors on the dynamics of endospheric fungal assemblages associated with plant roots at the scale of one meter over two years (i.e. at five time points) by combining an experimental corridor-mesocosm with high-throughput amplicon sequencing. We show that the plant root endospheric mycobiota was sensitive to corridor effects when the corridors were set up at a small spatial scale. The endospheric mycobiota of connected plants had higher species richness, lower beta-diversity, and more deterministic assembly than the mycobiota of isolated plants. These effects became more pronounced with the development of host plants. Biotic corridors composed of host plants may thus play a key role in the spatial dynamics of microbial communities and may influence microbial diversity and related ecological functions.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Chen H, Fang Y, Zwaenepoel A, et al (2022)

Revisiting ancient polyploidy in leptosporangiate ferns.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Ferns, and particularly homosporous ferns, have long been assumed to have experienced recurrent whole-genome duplication (WGD) events because of their substantially large genome sizes, surprisingly high chromosome numbers, and high degrees of polyploidy among many extant members. As the number of sequenced fern genomes is limited, recent studies have employed transcriptome data to find evidence for WGDs in ferns. However, they have reached conflicting results concerning the occurrence of ancient polyploidy, for instance, in the lineage of leptosporangiate ferns. Because identifying WGDs in a phylogenetic context is the foremost step in studying the contribution of ancient polyploidy to evolution, we here revisited earlier identified WGDs in leptosporangiate ferns, mainly the core leptosporangiate ferns, by building KS -age distributions and applying substitution rate corrections, and by conducting statistical gene tree - species tree reconciliation analyses. Our integrative analyses confidently identified four ancient WGDs in the sampled core leptosporangiate ferns but also identified false positives and false negatives for WGDs that recent studies have reported earlier. In conclusion, we underscore the significance of substitution rate corrections and uncertainties in gene tree - species tree reconciliations in calling WGD events and advance an exemplar workflow to overcome such often-overlooked issues.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Palmer B, Lawson D, DA Lipson (2022)

Years After a Fire, Biocrust Microbial Communities are Similar to Unburned Communities in a Coastal Grassland.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities are integral for ecosystem processes and their taxonomic composition and function may be altered by a disturbance such as fire. Biocrusts are composed of macroscopic and microscopic organisms and are important for a variety of ecosystem functions, such as nutrient cycling and erosion control. We sought to understand if biocrust community composition and function were altered 1 year after a prescribed fire and 6 years after a wildfire in a coastal California grassland on San Clemente Island. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and measurements of chlorophyll content, exopolysaccharide production related to soil stability, and nitrogen fixation. There were no differences in the community composition between unburned samples and the samples burned in the prescribed fire and wildfire. Chlorophyll content differed between the prescribed fire and the controls; however, there were no measured differences in exopolysaccharide production, and nitrogen fixation. However, the wildfire and their respective unburned samples had different functions based on the gene annotations. We compiled one Actinobacteria metagenome-assembled genome from the shotgun sequences which had genes for oxidative and heat stress tolerance. These results suggest that the biocrust community can reach a community composition and function similar to the unburned biocrusts within a year after a prescribed burn and 6 years after a wildfire. However, legacy effects of the wildfire may present themselves in the differences between functional gene sequences. Due to their ability to match the undisturbed community composition and function within years and without intervention, future restoration work should consider the biocrusts in their restoration plans as they may provide valuable ecosystem functions after a disturbance.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

DeWitt ME, Polk C, Williamson J, et al (2022)

Global monkeypox case hospitalisation rates: A rapid systematic review and meta-analysis.

EClinicalMedicine, 54:101710 pii:S2589-5370(22)00440-0.

Background: Estimates of the case hospitalization rate and case fatality rate when hospital care is available for monkeypox (MPX) infections have not been well defined. This rapid systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the case hospitalisation rate and case fatality rate where hospital care is available.

Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, the Lancet Preprints, and MedRxiv for studies published between Jan 1, 1950 and Aug 2, 2022. We included documents which contained both the number of cases and associated hospitalisations of MPX infections. From eligible studies we extracted the country, the year of the study, the study design type, the clade of MPX, the participant characteristics, transmission type, any treatments used, number of cases (including suspected, probable, or laboratory confirmed diagnosis), number of hospitalizations, hospitalized patient outcomes, and case definition. Case hospitalization rate (CHR) was defined as the proportion of cases that were admitted to hospital care while case fatality rate (CFR) was defined as the proportion of cases that died. CHR and CFR were analysed in a fully Bayesian meta-analytic framework using random effects models, including sub-group analysis with heterogeneity assessed using I2.

Findings: Of the 259 unique documents identified, 19 studies were eligible for inclusion. Included studies represented 7553 reported cases among which there were 555 hospitalizations. Of the 7540 cases for which outcomes were available, there were 15 recorded deaths. The median age of cases was 35 years (interquartile range 28-38, n = 2010) and primarily male (7339/7489, 98%) in studies where age or sex were available. Combined CHR was estimated to be 14.1% (95% credible interval, 7.5-25.0, I2 97.4%), with a high degree of heterogeneity. Further analysis by outbreak period indicates CHRs of 49.8% (28.2-74.0, I2 81.4%), 21.7% (7.2-52.1, I2 57.7%), and 5.8% (3.2-9.4, I2 92.4%) during the pre-2017, 2017-2021, and 2022 outbreaks, respectively, again with high levels of heterogeneity. CFR was estimated to be 0.03% (0.0-0.44, I2 99.9%), with evidence of large heterogeneity between the studies.

Interpretation: There is limited data for MPX hospitalization rates in countries where MPX has been traditionally non-endemic until the current outbreak. Due to substantial heterogeneity, caution is needed when interpreting these findings. Health care organizations should be cognizant of the potential increase in healthcare utilization. Rapid identification of infection and use of appropriate therapies such as antivirals play a role reducing the CHR and associated CFR.

Funding: None.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Verbeelen T, Van Houdt R, Leys N, et al (2022)

Optimization of RNA extraction for bacterial whole transcriptome studies of low-biomass samples.

iScience, 25(11):105311 pii:S2589-0042(22)01583-8.

We developed a procedure for extracting maximal amounts of high-quality RNA from low-biomass producing (autotrophic) bacteria for experiments where sample volume is limited. Large amounts of high-quality RNA for downstream analyses cannot be obtained using larger quantities of culture volume. The performance of standard commercial silica-column based kit protocols and these procedures amended by ultrasonication or enzymatic lysis were assessed. The ammonium-oxidizing Nitrosomonas europaea and nitrite-oxidizing Nitrobacter winogradskyi were used as model organisms for optimization of the RNA isolation protocol. Enzymatic lysis through lysozyme digestion generated high-quality, high-yield RNA samples. Subsequent RNA-seq analysis resulted in qualitative data for both strains. The RNA extraction procedure is suitable for experiments with volume and/or biomass limitations, e.g., as encountered during space flight experiments. Furthermore, it will also result in higher RNA yields for whole transcriptome experiments where sample volume and/or biomass was increased to compensate the low-biomass characteristic of autotrophs.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bringhurst B, Allert M, Greenwold M, et al (2022)

Environments and Hosts Structure the Bacterial Microbiomes of Fungus-Gardening Ants and their Symbiotic Fungus Gardens.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The fungus gardening-ant system is considered a complex, multi-tiered symbiosis, as it is composed of ants, their fungus, and microorganisms associated with either ants or fungus. We examine the bacterial microbiome of Trachymyrmex septentrionalis and Mycetomoellerius turrifex ants and their symbiotic fungus gardens, using 16S rRNA Illumina sequencing, over a region spanning approximately 350 km (east and central Texas). Typically, microorganisms can be acquired from a parent colony (vertical transmission) or from the environment (horizontal transmission). Because the symbiosis is characterized by co-dispersal of the ants and fungus, elements of both ant and fungus garden microbiome could be characterized by vertical transmission. The goals of this study were to explore how both the ant and fungus garden bacterial microbiome are acquired. The main findings were that different mechanisms appear to explain the structure the microbiomes of ants and their symbiotic fungus gardens. Ant associated microbiomes had a strong host ant signature, which could be indicative of vertical inheritance of the ant associated bacterial microbiome or an unknown mechanism of active uptake or screening. On the other hand, the bacterial microbiome of the fungus garden was more complex in that some bacterial taxa appear to be structured by the ant host species, whereas others by fungal lineage or the environment (geographic region). Thus bacteria in fungus gardens appear to be acquired both horizontally and vertically.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jin H, Li X, Wang H, et al (2022)

Anaerobic Biohydrogenation of Isoprene by Acetobacterium wieringae Strain Y.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Isoprene is a ubiquitously distributed, biogenic, and climate-active organic compound. Microbial isoprene degradation in oxic environments is fairly well understood; however, studies exploring anaerobic isoprene metabolism remain scarce, with no isolates for study available. Here, we obtained an acetogenic isolate, designated Acetobacterium wieringae strain Y, which hydrogenated isoprene to a mixture of methyl-1-butenes at an overall rate of 288.8 ± 20.9 μM day-1 with concomitant acetate production at a rate of 478.4 ± 5.6 μM day-1. Physiological characterization demonstrated that isoprene was not utilized in a respiratory process; rather, isoprene promoted acetogenesis kinetically. Bioinformatic analysis and proteomics experiments revealed the expression of candidate ene-reductases responsible for isoprene biohydrogenation. Notably, the addition of isoprene to strain Y cultures stimulated the expression of proteins associated with the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, indicating unresolved impacts of isoprene on carbon cycling and microbial ecology in anoxic environments (e.g., promoting CO2 plus H2 reductive acetogenesis while inhibiting methanogenesis). Our new findings advance understanding of microbial transformation of isoprene under anoxic conditions and suggest that anoxic environments are isoprene sinks. IMPORTANCE Isoprene is the most abundant, biologically generated, volatile organic compound on Earth, with estimated emissions in the same magnitude as methane. Nonetheless, a comprehensive knowledge of isoprene turnover in the environment is lacking, impacting global isoprene flux models and our understanding of the environmental fate and longevity of isoprene. A critical knowledge gap that has remained largely unexplored until recently is the microbiology and associated molecular mechanisms involved in the anaerobic biotransformation of isoprene. By integrating culture-dependent approaches with omics techniques, we isolated an acetogen, Acetobacterium wieringae strain Y, capable of anaerobic biohydrogenation of isoprene. We obtained the complete genome of strain Y, and proteomic experiments identified candidate ene-reductases for catalyzing the asymmetric reduction of the electronically activated carbon-carbon double bond of isoprene. We also demonstrated that isoprene biohydrogenation stimulates the expression of Wood-Ljungdahl pathway enzymes. This study emphasizes the ecological roles of specialized Acetobacterium on the natural cycling of isoprene in anoxic environments and the potential effects of isoprene biohydrogenation on acetogens and methanogens, which have implications for global climate change and bioenergy production.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kraemer SA, Barbosa da Costa N, Oliva A, et al (2022)

A resistome survey across hundreds of freshwater bacterial communities reveals the impacts of veterinary and human antibiotics use.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:995418.

Our decreasing ability to fight bacterial infections is a major health concern. It is arising due to the evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in response to the mis- and overuse of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine. Lakes integrate watershed processes and thus may act as receptors and reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) introduced into the watershed by human activities. The resistome - the diversity of ARGs - under varying anthropogenic watershed pressures has been previously studied either focused on few select genes or few lakes. Here, we link the resistome of ~350 lakes sampled across Canada to human watershed activity, trophic status, as well as point sources of ARG pollution including wastewater treatment plants and hospitals in the watershed. A high percentage of the resistance genes detected was either unimpacted by human activity or highly prevalent in pristine lakes, highlighting the role of AMR in microbial ecology in aquatic systems, as well as a pool of genes available for potential horizontal gene transfer to pathogenic species. Nonetheless, watershed agricultural and pasture area significantly impacted the resistome. Moreover, the number of hospitals and the population density in a watershed, the volume of wastewater entering the lake, as well as the fraction of manure applied in the watershed as fertilizer significantly impacted ARG diversity. Together, these findings indicate that lake resistomes are regularly stocked with resistance genes evolved in the context of both veterinary and human antibiotics use and represent reservoirs of ARGs that require further monitoring.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Tian L, Wang L, Zhang X, et al (2022)

Multi-omics analysis on seasonal variations of the biofilm microbial community in a full-scale pre-denitrification biofilter.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The seasonal variations of biofilm communities in a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated using multi-omics techniques. The abundance of the main phyla of microorganisms varied with summer (July 2019) and winter (January 2019) samples considerably, the Bacteroidetes enriched in winter and Chloroflexi in summer. The results of metaproteomic and metagenomic showed that most of the functional microorganisms belonged to the Betaproteobacteria class, and the enrichment of Flavobacteria class in winter guaranteed the stability of denitrification performance to some extent. Seasonal variations affected the proteomic expression profiling, a total of 2835 differentially expressed proteins identified were significantly enriched in quorum sensing, two-component system, ribosome, benzoate degradation, butanoate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and cysteine and methionine metabolism pathways. With the expression of nitrogen metabolic proteins decreases in winter, the overall expression of denitrification-related enzymes in winter was much lower than that in summer, the nitrogen metabolism pathway varied significantly. Seasonal variations also induced the alteration of the biofilm metabolite profile; a total of 66 differential metabolites, 8 potential biomarkers, and 8 perturbed metabolic pathways such as TCA cycle were detected. It was found that most of the perturbed pathways are directly related to nitrogen metabolism, and several amino acids and organic acids associated with the TCA cycle were significantly perturbed, the accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates, ornithine, and L-histidine in winter might be conducive to resisting cold temperatures. Furthermore, the correlation between biofilm microbial communities and metabolites was identified by the combined analysis of metabolomic and metaproteomic. The differences of microbial community structure, function, and metabolism between winter and summer in a full-scale pre-denitrification biofilter were revealed for the first time, strengthening our understanding of the microbial ecology of biofilm communities.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Stouvenakers G, Massart S, MH Jijakli (2022)

First Study Case of Microbial Biocontrol Agents Isolated from Aquaponics Through the Mining of High-Throughput Sequencing Data to Control Pythium aphanidermatum on Lettuce.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Aquaponics is defined as a sustainable and integrated system that combines fish aquaculture and hydroponic plant production in the same recirculated water loop. A recent study using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies highlighted that microbial communities from an aquaponic system could control one of the most problematic pathogens in soilless lettuce culture, namely, Pythium aphanidermatum. Therefore, this study aims at isolating the microorganisms responsible for this biocontrol action. Based on the most promising genera identified by HTS, an innovative strategy for isolating and testing original biocontrol agents from aquaponic water was designed to control P. aphanidermatum. Eighty-two bacterial strains and 18 fungal strains were isolated, identified by Sanger sequencing, and screened in vivo to control damping-off of lettuce seeds caused by P. aphanidermatum. Out of these 100 isolates, the eight most efficacious ones were selected and further tested individually to control root rot disease caused by the same pathogen at a later stage of lettuce growth. Strains SHb30 (Sphingobium xenophagum), G2 (Aspergillus flavus), and Chito13 (Mycolicibacterium fortuitum) decreased seed damping-off at a better rate than a propamocarb fungicide and a Pseudomonas chlororaphis registered biocontrol agent did. In root rot bioassays, lettuce mortality was prevented by applying strains G2 and Chito13, which were at least as efficacious as the fungicide or biopesticide controls. Lettuce disease symptoms and mortality were eradicated by strain SHb30 in the first bioassay, but not in the second one. These results show that aquaponic systems are promising sources of original biocontrol agents, and that HTS-guided strategies could represent interesting approaches to identify new biocontrol agents.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Zhang S, Yang Q, T Defoirdt (2022)

Indole analogues decreasing the virulence of Vibrio campbellii towards brine shrimp larvae.

Microbial biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Indole signalling has been proposed as a potential target for the development of novel virulence inhibitors to control bacterial infections. However, the major structural features of indole analogues that govern antivirulence activity remain unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the impact of 26 indole analogues on indole-regulated virulence phenotypes in Vibrio campbellii and on the virulence of the bacterium in a gnotobiotic brine shrimp model. The results demonstrated that 10 indole analogues significantly increased the fluorescence of indole reporter strain Vibrio cholerae S9149, 21 of them decreased the swimming motility of V. campbellii, and 13 of them significantly decreased the biofilm formation of V. campbellii. Further, we found that 1-methylindole, indene, 2,3-benzofuran, thianaphthene, indole-3-acetonitrile, methyl indole-3-carboxylate, 3-methylindole, and indole-2-carboxaldehyde exhibited a significant protective effect on brine shrimp larvae against V. campbellii infection, resulting in survival rates of challenged brine shrimp above 80%. The highest survival of shrimp larvae (98%) was obtained with indole-3-acetonitrile, even at a relatively low concentration of 20 μM. Importantly, the indole analogues did not affect bacterial growth, both in vitro and in vivo. These results indicate the potential of indole analogues in applications aiming at the protection of shrimp from vibriosis.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Berry O, Briand E, Bagot A, et al (2022)

Deciphering interactions between the marine dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima and the fungus Aspergillus pseudoglaucus.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The comprehension of microbial interactions is one of the key challenges in marine microbial ecology. This study focused on exploring chemical interactions between the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima and a filamentous fungal species, Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, which has been isolated from the microalgal culture. Such interspecies interactions are expected to occur even though they were rarely studied. Here, a co-culture system was designed in a dedicated microscale marine-like condition. This system allowed to explore microalgal-fungal physical and metabolic interactions in presence and absence of the bacterial consortium. Microscopic observation showed an unusual physical contact between the fungal mycelium and dinoflagellate cells. To delineate specialized metabolome alterations during microalgal-fungal co-culture metabolomes were monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. In-depth multivariate statistical analysis using dedicated approaches highlighted (1) the metabolic alterations associated with microalgal-fungal co-culture, and (2) the impact of associated bacteria in microalgal metabolome response to fungal interaction. Unfortunately, only a very low number of highlighted features were fully characterised. However, an up-regulation of the dinoflagellate toxins okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin 1 was observed during co-culture in supernatants. Such results highlight the importance to consider microalgal-fungal interactions in the study of parameters regulating toxin production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Barret M, Gandois L, Thalasso F, et al (2022)

A combined microbial and biogeochemical dataset from high-latitude ecosystems with respect to methane cycle.

Scientific data, 9(1):674.

High latitudes are experiencing intense ecosystem changes with climate warming. The underlying methane (CH4) cycling dynamics remain unresolved, despite its crucial climatic feedback. Atmospheric CH4 emissions are heterogeneous, resulting from local geochemical drivers, global climatic factors, and microbial production/consumption balance. Holistic studies are mandatory to capture CH4 cycling complexity. Here, we report a large set of integrated microbial and biogeochemical data from 387 samples, using a concerted sampling strategy and experimental protocols. The study followed international standards to ensure inter-comparisons of data amongst three high-latitude regions: Alaska, Siberia, and Patagonia. The dataset encompasses different representative environmental features (e.g. lake, wetland, tundra, forest soil) of these high-latitude sites and their respective heterogeneity (e.g. characteristic microtopographic patterns). The data included physicochemical parameters, greenhouse gas concentrations and emissions, organic matter characterization, trace elements and nutrients, isotopes, microbial quantification and composition. This dataset addresses the need for a robust physicochemical framework to conduct and contextualize future research on the interactions between climate change, biogeochemical cycles and microbial communities at high-latitudes.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Daille LK, Aguirre J, Anguita J, et al (2022)

When material science meets microbial ecology: Bacterial community selection on stainless steels in natural seawater.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 221:112955 pii:S0927-7765(22)00639-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The passive film depends on the alloy's composition and the exposure conditions. How the surface composition affects the selection of microbial biofilms though, has not been fully elucidated or incorporated into the analysis of corrosive biofilms. The degradation of stainless steel (SS) exposed to natural seawater was studied to understand how the oxide layer composition of SS could affect the selection and variability of the bacterial community. To accomplish this goal, austenitic and superferritic SS grades were exposed to natural seawater on the central coast of Chile. The deterioration of steel and qualitative description of biofilm formation was monitored at different exposure periods. Biofilms were evaluated based on massive sequencing analysis of the bacterial community and subsequent ecological studies. The results revealed that variability of the calculated corrosion rate correlated with the similarity of the bacterial community within samples from each SS and its corrosion inferred capacity. The associated bacterial families showed a higher representation in SSs with a more significant increase in the Fe/Cr ratio over the exposure time. These findings revealed that iron content in the oxide layer represents a key feature of the surface composition for selecting bacterial assemblages in marine environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Lin Q, De Vrieze J, Fang X, et al (2022)

Microbial life strategy with high rRNA operon copy number facilitates the energy and nutrient flux in anaerobic digestion.

Water research, 226:119307 pii:S0043-1354(22)01252-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial life strategy, reflected by rRNA operon (rrn) copy number, determines microbial ecological roles. However, the relationship between microbial life strategy and the energy and nutrient flux in anaerobic digestion (AD) remains elusive. This study investigated microbial rrn copy number and expression ratio using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA, and monitored CH4 daily production to approximate the status of energy and nutrient flux in semi-continuous AD. A significantly positive correlation between the mean rrn copy number of microbial communities in digestate and CH4 daily production was detected in the control treatment fed swine manure. The reduced feedstock complexity, by replacing parts of swine manure with fructose or apple waste, weakened the correlation. When feedstock complexity was increased again, the correlation was strengthened again. Similar results were detected in mean rrn expression ratio of microbial communities. The responses of mean rrn copy number and expression ratio of communities to feedstock addition differed between the reduced feedstock complexity and the control treatment, as well as between in digestate and in straw. Our findings reveal a novel relationship between microbial community life strategy and the energy and nutrient flux, and the roles of feedstock characteristics therein in AD.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Cortés-Pérez S, Ferrera-Cerrato R, Rodríguez-Zaragoza S, et al (2022)

Short-Term Evaluation of the Spatial Distribution of Trophic Groups of Amoebae in the Rhizosphere of Zea mays Inoculated with Rhizophagus intraradices.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Primary production in terrestrial ecosystems is sustained by plants, microbiota, and fungi, which are the major organic matter providers in the root zone, setting in motion the soil food webs. Predators like soil amoebae voraciously feed on bacteria, fungi, and microbial eukaryotes releasing the nutrients sequestered in their biomass. Early food web setting up is crucial for seedling nutrition and its further development after establishment. Mycorrhizal fungi are more than phosphorus providers, and we wonder what their role is in structuring the predators' trophic groups in the root zone. We evaluated the effect of Rhizophagus intraradices inoculated in Zea mays (mycorrhizosphere), on the structuration of amoebae trophic groups along vertical and horizontal (3, 6, and 9 cm) soil distribution when compared to un-inoculated plants, after 20 days in microcosms. Amoebae species richness was highest in non-mycorrhizal seedlings in the root zone at 6- to 9-cm depth, and 3 cm away from plants. More bacterial species are needed when plants are devoid of mycorrhiza, and their influence is constrained 3 cm away from roots. Higher diversity of trophic groups was recorded at mycorrhizal seedlings and at the compartment influenced by the mycelium at 6- to 9-cm depth. The highest bacterivorous diversity, higher number of rare species and protozoa-eating amoebae, and the absence of fungivorous group recorded at the mycorrhizosphere of Z. mays, indicate that the community was very different from the non-mycorrhizal plants. We conclude that the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus exerts significant changes on the community of trophic groups of amoebae.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Schrad N, Pensky J, Gorski G, et al (2022)

Soil characteristics and redox properties of infiltrating water are determinants of microbial communities at managed aquifer recharge sites.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6795929 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of soil microbial communities at three, pilot-scale field sites simulating shallow infiltration for managed aquifer recharge (MAR). We evaluated shifts in microbial communities after infiltration across site location, through different soils, with and without carbon-rich amendments added to test plots. Our meta-analysis aims to enable more effective MAR basin design by identifying potentially important interactions between soil physical-geochemical parameters and microbial communities across several geographically separate MAR basins. We hypothesized infiltration and carbon amendments would lead to common changes in subsurface microbial communities at multiple field sites but found distinct differences instead. Sites with coarser (mainly sandy) soil had large changes in diversity and taxa abundance, while sites with finer soils had fewer significant changes in genera, despite having the greatest increase in nitrogen cycling. Below plots amended with a carbon-rich permeable reactive barrier, we observed more nitrate removal and a decrease in genera capable of nitrification. Multivariate statistics determined that the soil texture (a proxy for numerous soil characteristics) was the main determinant of whether the microbial community composition changed because of infiltration. These results suggest that microbial communities in sandy soil with carbon-rich amendments are most impacted by infiltration. Soil composition is a critical parameter that links between microbial communities and nutrient cycling during infiltration and could influence the citing and operation of MAR to benefit water quality and supply.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Klein M, Stewart JD, Porter SS, et al (2022)

Evolution of manipulative microbial behaviors in the rhizosphere.

Evolutionary applications, 15(10):1521-1536 pii:EVA13333.

The rhizosphere has been called "one of the most complex ecosystems on earth" because it is a hotspot for interactions among millions of microbial cells. Many of these are microbes are also participating in a dynamic interplay with host plant tissues, signaling pathways, and metabolites. Historically, breeders have employed a plant-centric perspective when trying to harness the potential of microbiome-derived benefits to improve productivity and resilience of economically important plants. This is potentially problematic because: (i) the evolution of the microbes themselves is often ignored, and (ii) it assumes that the fitness of interacting plants and microbes is strictly aligned. In contrast, a microbe-centric perspective recognizes that putatively beneficial microbes are still under selection to increase their own fitness, even if there are costs to the host. This can lead to the evolution of sophisticated, potentially subtle, ways for microbes to manipulate the phenotype of their hosts, as well as other microbes in the rhizosphere. We illustrate this idea with a review of cases where rhizosphere microbes have been demonstrated to directly manipulate host root growth, architecture and exudation, host nutrient uptake systems, and host immunity and defense. We also discuss indirect effects, whereby fitness outcomes for the plant are a consequence of ecological interactions between rhizosphere microbes. If these consequences are positive for the plant, they can potentially be misconstrued as traits that have evolved to promote host growth, even if they are a result of selection for unrelated functions. The ubiquity of both direct microbial manipulation of hosts and context-dependent, variable indirect effects leads us to argue that an evolutionary perspective on rhizosphere microbial ecology will become increasingly important as we continue to engineer microbial communities for crop production.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Xu H, Xue Y, Na N, et al (2022)

Fermentation quality, bacterial community, and aerobic stability of ensiling Leymus chinensis with lactic acid bacteria or/and water after long-term storage.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:959018.

Leymus chinensis is a major forage resource for herbivores on typical steppe and meadow steppes in Northern China. This study aimed to reveal the fermentation quality, bacterial community, and aerobic stability of L. chinensis silage treated with lactic acid bacteria or/and water after long-term storage. Leymus chinensis was harvested at the heading stage and ensiled with lactic acid bacteria [LAB, 2.00 ml/kg fresh weight (FW) of LAB, L], water (100 ml/kg FW of distilled water, W), or a combination of both [2.00 ml/kg fresh weight (FW) of LAB and 100 ml/kg FW of distilled water, LW] in polyethylene laboratory-scale silos (diameter, 20 cm; height, 30 cm) at a density of 650 kg/m3. As a control silage (CK), untreated L. chinensis silage was also assessed. The samples were taken at 0 day of opening after 300 days of ensiling (CK_0d, L_0d, W_0d, and LW_0d) and at 10 days of opening (CK_10d, L_10d, W_10d, and LW_10d). The fermentation quality, microbial counts, bacterial community, and aerobic stability of the silage were assessed. The CK_0d contained higher pH and aerobic bacteria count, and lower LA and BC concentrations than L_0d, W_0d, and LW_0d (p < 0.05), and the LAB and yeasts were only detected in CK at 0 day of opening. Lactobacillus had the most abundance among bacterial genera in all silages at 0 day of opening. Just CK had 2°C above the ambient temperature during aerobic exposure (at 224 h). During aerobic exposure, the pH and microbial counts in CK increased (p < 0.05), and Lactobacillus in L and LW had decreasing abundance (p < 0.05). The CK_10d had higher pH and microbial counts, and lower lactic acid and buffering capacity than L_10d, W_10d, and LW_10d (p < 0.05). At 10 days of opening, the coliforms and yeasts were just detected in CK, and Lactobacillus also had the most abundance among bacterial genera in all silages at 10 days of opening. Overall, inoculating LAB and adding water improved the fermentation quality and the aerobic exposure of L. chinensis silage after long-term storage. The activities of coliforms and yeasts during aerobic exposure contributed to the aerobic deterioration of L. chinensis silage without any treating. Lactobacillus dominated the bacterial communities of all silage at 0 and 10 days of opening. During aerobic exposure, the abundance of Lactobacillus reduced in L. chinensis silage treated with LAB or water.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Fang FZ, Chen SL, Gui HY, et al (2022)

Long-Read Sequencing Analysis Revealed the Impact of Forest Conversion on Soil Fungal Diversity in Limu Mountain, Hainan.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Soil fungi are essential to soil microorganisms that play an important role in the ecosystem's soil carbon cycle and mineral nutrient transformation. Understanding the structural characteristics and diversity of soil fungal communities helps understand the health of forest ecosystems. The transition from tropical rainforest to artificial forest greatly impacts the composition and diversity of fungal communities. Hainan Limushan tropical rainforest National Park has a large area of artificial forests. Ecologists have conducted in-depth studies on the succession of animals and plants to regenerate tropical rainforests. There are few reports on the diversity of soil fungi and its influencing factors in the succession of tropical rainforests in Limu Mountain. In this study, 44 soil samples from five different stands were collected in the tropical rainforest of Limushan, Hainan. High-throughput sequencing of rDNA in its region was used to analyze fungal communities and study their α and β diversity. Analysis of variance and multiple regression models was used to analyze soil variables and fungal functional groups to determine the effects of interaction between fungi and environmental factors. A total of 273,996 reads and 1290 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, belonging to 418 species, 325 genera, 159 families, eight phyla, 30 classes, and 73 orders. The results showed that the composition of soil fungal communities in the five stands was similar, with ascomycetes accounting for 70.5% and basidiomycetes accounting for 14.7%. α and β diversity analysis showed that soil fungi in Limushan tropical rainforest had high abundance and diversity. Multiple regression analysis between soil variables and functional groups showed that organic matter, TN, TP, TK, and AK were excellent predictors for soil fungi. TP was the strongest predictor in all functional groups except soil saprotroph. Organic matter and total nitrogen were the strongest predictors of soil rot. The transformation from tropical rainforest to artificial forest in Limushan did not change the soil fungal community structure, but the richness and diversity of soil fungi changed. The forest transformation did not lead to decreased soil fungal abundance and diversity. Different vegetation types and soil properties affect the diversity of soil fungal communities. We found that Caribbean pine plantations can improve soil fungal diversity, while long-term Eucalyptus spp. plantations may reduce soil fungal diversity.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

van Spanning RJM, Guan Q, Melkonian C, et al (2022)

Methanotrophy by a Mycobacterium species that dominates a cave microbial ecosystem.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

So far, only members of the bacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia are known to grow methanotrophically under aerobic conditions. Here we report that this metabolic trait is also observed within the Actinobacteria. We enriched and cultivated a methanotrophic Mycobacterium from an extremely acidic biofilm growing on a cave wall at a gaseous chemocline interface between volcanic gases and the Earth's atmosphere. This Mycobacterium, for which we propose the name Candidatus Mycobacterium methanotrophicum, is closely related to well-known obligate pathogens such as M. tuberculosis and M. leprae. Genomic and proteomic analyses revealed that Candidatus M. methanotrophicum expresses a full suite of enzymes required for aerobic growth on methane, including a soluble methane monooxygenase that catalyses the hydroxylation of methane to methanol and enzymes involved in formaldehyde fixation via the ribulose monophosphate pathway. Growth experiments combined with stable isotope probing using 13C-labelled methane confirmed that Candidatus M. methanotrophicum can grow on methane as a sole carbon and energy source. A broader survey based on 16S metabarcoding suggests that species closely related to Candidatus M. methanotrophicum may be abundant in low-pH, high-methane environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Slack E, M Diard (2022)

Resistance is futile? Mucosal immune mechanisms in the context of microbial ecology and evolution.

Mucosal immunology [Epub ahead of print].

In the beginning it was simple: we injected a protein antigen and studied the immune responses against the purified protein. This elegant toolbox uncovered thousands of mechanisms via which immune cells are activated. However, when we consider immune responses against real infectious threats, this elegant simplification misses half of the story: the infectious agents are typically evolving orders-of-magnitude faster than we are. Nowhere is this more pronounced than in the mammalian large intestine. A bacterium representing only 0.1% of the human gut microbiota will have a population size of 109 clones, each actively replicating. Moreover, the evolutionary pressure from other microbes is at least as profound as direct effects of the immune system. Therefore, to really understand intestinal immune mechanisms, we need to understand both the host response and how rapid microbial evolution alters the apparent outcome of the response. In this review we use the examples of intestinal inflammation and secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) to highlight what is already known (Fig. 1). Further, we will explore how these interactions can inform immunotherapy and prophylaxis. This has major implications for how we design effective mucosal vaccines against increasingly drug-resistant bacterial pathogens Fig. 1 THE IMMUNE RESPONSE SHAPES THE FITNESS LANDSCAPE IN THE GASTRO-INTESTINAL TRACT.: The red arrows depict possible evolutionary paths of a novel colonizer along adaptive peaks in the intestinal fitness landscapes that change with the status of the host immune system. The flat surfaces represent the non-null fitness baselines (values x or y) at which a bacterium can establish at minimum carrying capacity. a In the healthy gut, metabolic competence, resistance to aggressions by competitors and predators, swift adaptation to rapid fluctuations as well as surviving acidic pH and the flow of the intestinal content, represent potent selective pressures and as many opportunities for bacteria to increase fitness by phenotypic or genetic variations. b When pathogens trigger acute inflammation, bacteria must adapt to iron starvation, killing by immune cells and antimicrobial peptides, and oxidative stress, while new metabolic opportunities emerge. c When high-affinity SIgA are produced against a bacterium, e.g., after oral vaccination, escape of SIgA by altering or losing surface epitopes becomes crucial for maximum fitness. However, escaping polyvalent SIgA responses after vaccination with "evolutionary trap" vaccines leads to evolutionary trade-offs: A fitness maximum is reached in the vaccinated host gut that represents a major disadvantage for transmission into naïve hosts (fitness diminished below x) (d).

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Al MA, Wang W, Jin L, et al (2022)

Planktonic ciliate community driven by environmental variables and cyanobacterial blooms: A 9-year study in two subtropical reservoirs.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06966-2 [Epub ahead of print].

It is well-established that environmental variability and cyanobacterial blooms have major effects on the assembly and functioning of bacterial communities in both marine and freshwater habitats. It remains unclear, however, how the ciliate community responds to such changes over the long-term, particularly in subtropical lake and reservoir ecosystems. We analysed 9-year planktonic ciliate data series from the surface water of two subtropical reservoirs to elucidate the role of cyanobacterial bloom and environmental variabilities on the ciliate temporal dynamics. We identified five distinct periods of cyanobacterial succession in both reservoirs. Using multiple time-scale analyses, we found that the interannual variability of ciliate communities was more strongly related to cyanobacteria than to other environmental variables or to seasonality. Moreover, the percentage of species turnover across cyanobacterial bloom and non-bloom periods increased significantly with time over the 9-year period. Phylogenetic analyses further indicated that 84 %-86 % of ciliate community turnover was governed by stochastic dispersal limitation or undominated processes, suggesting that the ciliate communities in subtropical reservoirs were mainly controlled by neutral processes. However, short-term blooms increased the selection pressure and drove 40 %-53 % of the ciliate community turnover. We found that the ciliate community composition was influenced by environmental conditions with nutrients, both cyanobacterial biomass and microzooplankton having direct and/or indirect significant effects on the ciliate taxonomic or functional community dynamics. Our results provide new insights into the long-term temporal dynamics of planktonic ciliate communities under cyanobacterial bloom disturbance.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Wong YY, Lee CW, Chai SCY, et al (2022)

Distribution of faecal indicator bacteria in tropical waters of Peninsular Malaysia and their decay rates in tropical seawater.

Marine pollution bulletin, 185(Pt A):114297 pii:S0025-326X(22)00979-1 [Epub ahead of print].

We investigated the appropriateness of faecal indicator bacteria in tropical waters. We compared total coliform (undetectable to 7.2 × 105 cfu 100 mL-1), faecal coliform (undetectable to 6.1 × 105 cfu 100 mL-1) and enterococci (undetectable to 3.1 × 104 cfu 100 mL-1) distribution in Peninsular Malaysia. Faecal indicator bacteria was highest in freshwater, and lowest in seawater (q > 4.18, p < 0.01). We also measured the decay rates of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecium in microcosms. In seawater, average decay rate for E. coli was 0.084 ± 0.029 h-1, and higher than E. faecium (0.048 ± 0.024 h-1) (t = 2.527, p < 0.05). Grazing accounted for 54 % of both E. coli and E. faecium decay. E. coli decayed in the <0.02 μm seawater fraction (0.023 ± 0.012 h-1) but E. faecium sometimes grew. Seawater warming further uncoupled the response from both E. coli and E. faecium as E. faecium grew and E. coli decayed with warming. Our results suggested that the prevalence of faecal indicator bacteria in tropical waters was not due to faecal pollution alone, and this will have serious implications towards the use of these faecal indicator bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Moreira VA, Cravo-Laureau C, de Carvalho ACB, et al (2022)

Microbial indicators along a metallic contamination gradient in tropical coastal sediments.

Journal of hazardous materials, 443(Pt B):130244 pii:S0304-3894(22)02038-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The structure and diversity of microbial community inhabiting coastal sediments reflect the exposition to contaminants. Aiming to assess the changes in the microbiota from Sepetiba Bay (SB, Brazil) sediments, correlations between the 16S rRNA gene data (V4-V5 region), metal contamination factors (CF), and the ecological risk classification provided by the Quality Ratio (QR) index were considered. The results show that microbial diversity differs significantly between the less (SB external sector) and the most (SB internal sector) polluted sectors. Also, differences in the microbial community structure regarding the ecological risk classifications validated the QR index as a reliable tool to report the SB chronic contamination. Microbial indicator genera resistant to metals (Desulfatiglans, SEEP-SRB1, Spirochaeta 2, among others) presented mainly anaerobic metabolisms. These genera are related to the sulfate reducing and methanogenic metabolisms probably participating in the natural attenuation processes but also associated with greenhouse gas emissions. In contrast, microbial indicator genera sensitive to metals (Rubripirellula, Blastopirellula, Aquibacter, among others) presented mainly aerobic metabolisms. It is suggested that future works should investigate the metabolic functions to evaluate the influence of metallic contaminants on microbial community inhabiting SB sediment.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Chen T, Zhao M, Tang X, et al (2022)

Serious Risk of Tigecycline Resistance in Escherichia coli Isolated from Swine Manure.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of the plasmid-mediated tigecycline resistance gene tetX family in pig farms has attracted worldwide attention. The use of tetracycline antibiotics in pig farms has a facilitating effect on the prevalence of the tetX family, but the relationship among its presence, expression, and resistance phenotype in resistant bacteria is unknown. In this study, the presence and expression characteristics of tetracycline resistance genes (TRGs) in 89 strains of doxycycline-resistant E. coli (DRE) isolated from pig manure samples from 20 pig farms under low concentrations of doxycycline stress (2 μg/mL) were analyzed. The detection rate of tetO was 96.63%, which is higher than those of other TRGs, such as tetA (94.38%), tetX (76.40%), tetB (73.03%), and tet(X4) (69.66%). At least three TRG types were present in DRE strains, which thus showed extensive resistance to tetracycline antibiotics, and 37% of these strains were resistant to tigecycline. In the presence of a low concentration of doxycycline, tetA played an important role, and the expression and existence ratio of TRGs indicated low expression of TRGs. Furthermore, the doxycycline resistance of DRE was jointly determined by the total absolute abundance of TRGs, and the absolute abundance of tetX and tet(X4) was significantly positively associated with tigecycline resistance in DRE (P < 0.05). Overall, DRE isolated from swine manure is an important reservoir of the tetX family, which suggests that DRE in swine manure has a high risk of tigecycline resistance, poses a potential threat to human health, and should be of public concern.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Bandekar M, Abdolahpur Monikh F, Kekäläinen J, et al (2022)

Submicron Plastic Adsorption by Peat, Accumulation in Sphagnum Mosses and Influence on Bacterial Communities in Peatland Ecosystems.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

The smallest fraction of plastic pollution, submicron plastics (SMPs <1 μm) are expected to be ubiquitous in the environment. No information is available about SMPs in peatlands, which have a key role in sequestering carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. It is unknown how these plastic particles might behave and interact with (micro)organisms in these ecosystems. Here, we show that the chemical composition of polystyrene (PS) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-SMPs influenced their adsorption to peat. Consequently, this influenced the accumualtion of SMPs by Sphagnum moss and the composition and diversity of the microbial communities in peatland. Natural organic matter (NOM), which adsorbs from the surrounding water to the surface of SMPs, decreased the adsorption of the particles to peat and their accumulation by Sphagnum moss. However, the presence of NOM on SMPs significantly altered the bacterial community structure compared to SMPs without NOM. Our findings show that peatland ecosystems can potentially adsorb plastic particles. This can not only impact mosses themselves but also change the local microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Li Y, Xin X, Song W, et al (2022)

VHL syndrome without clear family history: A rare case report and literature review of Chinese patients.

Frontiers in neurology, 13:951054.

Objective: To analyze the clinical manifestations and imaging features of a hospitalized patient with intermittent headache who was finally diagnosed with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome and to perform whole-exon gene detection to improve the understanding of the diagnosis and treatment strategies of the disease.

Methods: A case of suspected VHL syndrome in Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital was analyzed. Proband DNA was also extracted for whole exome sequencing and screened for causative mutation sites, which were validated by Sanger sequencing. The literature about VHL gene mutations in Chinese patients in the past 10 years were also reviewed.

Results: There is a heterozygous mutation site c.499C > G on the VHL gene on the short arm of chromosome 3 of the patient, which is a missense mutation. The mutation results in the substitution of arginine with glycine at amino acid 167 of the encoded protein, which may be primarily responsible for the disease in the patient with VHL syndrome. However, the mutation did not occur in other family members.

Conclusion: Early recognition and treatment of VHL syndrome can be available with genetic testing technology. Strengthening the understanding of this complex genetic disease and improving the diagnostic rate of VHL syndrome are helpful for the precise treatment of patients with this disease, which may help prolong the survival time of patients to a certain extent and improve their quality of life.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Ma Y, Li P, Zhong H, et al (2022)

The Ecological Differentiation of Particle-Attached and Free-Living Bacterial Communities in a Seasonal Flooding Lake-the Poyang Lake.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterial communities play essential roles in the biogeochemical cycling of essential nutrients in aquatic environments. However, little is known about the factors that drive the differentiation of bacterial lifestyles, especially in flooding lake systems. Here we assessed the compositional and functional similarities between the FL and PA bacterial fractions in a typical flooding lake-the Poyang Lake (PYL) of China. The results revealed that PA communities had significantly different compositions and functions from FL communities in every hydrological period, and the diversity of both PA and FL communities was affected mainly by the water regime rather than bacterial lifestyles. PA communities were more diverse and enriched with Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes, while FL communities had more Actinobacteria. There was a higher abundance of photosynthetic and nitrogen-cycling bacterial groups in PA communities, but a higher abundance of members involved in hydrocarbon degradation, aromatic hydrocarbon degradation, and methylotrophy in FL communities. Water properties (e.g., temperature, pH, total phosphorus) significantly regulated the lifestyle variations of PA and FL bacteria in PYL. Collectively, our results have demonstrated a clear ecological differentiation of PA and FL bacterial communities in flooding lakes, suggesting that the connectivity between FL and PA bacterial fractions is water property-related rather than water regime-related.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Stupar M, Savković Ž, Breka K, et al (2022)

A Variety of Fungal Species on the Green Frogs' Skin (Pelophylax esculentus complex) in South Banat.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In the last several decades, amphibian populations have been declining worldwide. Many factors have been linked to global amphibian decline, including habitat destruction, pollution, introduced species, global environmental changes, and emerging infectious diseases. Recent studies of amphibian skin infections were mainly focused on the presence of chytridiomycosis, neglecting other members of the frogs' skin communities. The diversity pattern of fungal dwellers on the skin of green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex) was investigated. A total of 100 adults were sampled from three localities in South Banat (northern Serbia) over three consecutive years and detected fungal dwellers were identified using light microscopy and ITS and BenA gene sequencing. Structures belonging to fungi and fungus-like organisms including a variety of spores and different mycelia types were documented in the biofilm formed on amphibian skin, and are classified into 10 groups. In total, 42 fungal isolates were identified to species, section, or genus level. The difference in mycobiota composition between sampling points (localities and green frog taxa) was documented. The highest number of fungal structures and isolates was recorded on the hybrid taxon P. esculentus and locality Stevanove ravnice. Parental species showed a markedly lower diversity than the hybrid taxon and were more similar in diversity patterns and were placed in the same homogenous group. The locality Stevanove ravnice exhibited more pronounced differences in diversity pattern than the other two localities and was placed in a distinct and separate homogenous group. Among the fungal isolates, the highest isolation frequency was documented for Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus sp. sect. Nigri, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium proliferatum, and Trichoderma atroviride. Among the documented species, dematiaceous fungi, causative agents of chromomycosis in amphibians, were also recorded in this research with high isolation frequency. Also, some rare fungal species such as Quambalaria cyanescens and Pseudoteniolina globosa are documented for the first time in this research as microbial inhabitants of amphibian skin.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Spencer-Williams I, Balangoda A, Dabundo R, et al (2022)

Exploring the Impacts of Full-Scale Distribution System Orthophosphate Corrosion Control Implementation on the Microbial Ecology of Hydrologically Connected Urban Streams.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Many cities across the nation are plagued by lead contamination in drinking water. As such, many drinking water utilities have undertaken lead service line (LSL) replacement to prevent further lead contamination. However, given the urgency of lead mitigation, and the socioeconomic challenges associated with LSL replacement, cities have used phosphate-based corrosion inhibitors (i.e., orthophosphate) alongside LSL replacement. While necessary to ensure public health protection from lead contamination, the addition of orthophosphate into an aging and leaking drinking water system may increase the concentration of phosphate leaching into urban streams characterized by century-old failing water infrastructure. Such increases in phosphate availability may cascade into nutrient and microbial community composition shifts. The purpose of this study was to determine how this occurs and to understand whether full-scale distribution system orthophosphate addition impacts the microbial ecology of urban streams. Through monthly collection of water samples from five urban streams before and after orthophosphate addition, significant changes in microbial community composition (16S rRNA amplicon sequencing) and in the relative abundance of typical freshwater taxa were observed. In addition, key microbial phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism genes (e.g., two component regulatory systems) were predicted to change via BugBase. No significant differences in the absolute abundances of total bacteria, Cyanobacteria, and "Candidatus Accumulibacter" were observed. Overall, the findings from this study provide further evidence that urban streams are compromised by unintentional hydrologic connections with drinking water infrastructure. Moreover, our results suggest that infiltration of phosphate-based corrosion inhibitors can impact urban streams and have important, as-yet-overlooked impacts on urban stream microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Elevated lead levels in drinking water supplies are a public health risk. As such, it is imperative for cities to urgently address lead contamination from aging drinking water supplies by way of lead service line replacements and corrosion control methods. However, when applying corrosion control methods, it is also important to consider the chemical and microbiological effects that can occur in natural settings, given that our water infrastructure is aging and more prone to leaks and breaks. Here, we examine the impacts on the microbial ecology of five urban stream systems before and after full-scale distribution system orthophosphate addition. Overall, the results suggest that infiltration of corrosion inhibitors may impact microbial communities; however, future work should be done to ascertain the true impact to protect both public and environmental health.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Simões ACP, Fernandes RP, Barreto MS, et al (2022)

Growth of Methylobacterium organophilum in Methanol for the Simultaneous Production of Single-Cell Protein and Metabolites of Interest.

Food technology and biotechnology, 60(3):338-349.

Research background: This study aims to monitor the growth of the methylotrophic bacteria Methylobacterium organophilum in a culture medium with methanol as a carbon source and to verify the production of unicellular proteins and other biomolecules, such as carotenoids, exopolysaccharides and polyhydroxyalkanoates, making them more attractive as animal feed.

Experimental approach: Bacterial growth was studied in shake flasks using different carbon/nitrogen (C:N) ratios to determine their best ratio for achieving the highest volumetric productivity of cells and substrate consumption rate. This optimal parameter was further used in a fed-batch operating bioreactor system to define the kinetic profile of cell growth. Methanol consumption was measured by HPLC analysis and the extracted pigments were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chemical composition and rheological properties of the produced exopolysaccharides were also determined.

Results and conclusions: The best experimental parameters were verified using an initial methanol concentration of 7 g/L in the culture medium. The same initial substrate concentration was used in the fed-batch operation and after 60 h of cultivation 5 g/L of biomass were obtained. The accumulation of carotenoids associated with cell growth was monitored, reaching a concentration of 1.6 mg/L at the end of the process. These pigments were then analyzed and characterized as a set of xanthophylls (oxidized carotenoids). In addition, two other product types were identified during the fed-batch operation: exopolysaccharides, which reached a concentration of 8.9 g/L at the end of the cultivation, and an intracellular granular structure that was detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), suggesting the accumulation of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA), most likely polyhydroxybutyrate.

Methylobacterium organophilum demonstrated a unique ability to produce compounds of commercial interest. The distinct metabolic diversity of this bacterium makes room for its use in biorefineries.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Ayilara MS, Adeleke BS, OO Babalola (2022)

Bioprospecting and Challenges of Plant Microbiome Research for Sustainable Agriculture, a Review on Soybean Endophytic Bacteria.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

This review evaluates oilseed crop soybean endophytic bacteria, their prospects, and challenges for sustainable agriculture. Soybean is one of the most important oilseed crops with about 20-25% protein content and 20% edible oil production. The ability of soybean root-associated microbes to restore soil nutrients enhances crop yield. Naturally, the soybean root endosphere harbors root nodule bacteria, and endophytic bacteria, which help increase the nitrogen pool and reclamation of another nutrient loss in the soil for plant nutrition. Endophytic bacteria can sustain plant growth and health by exhibiting antibiosis against phytopathogens, production of enzymes, phytohormone biosynthesis, organic acids, and secondary metabolite secretions. Considerable effort in the agricultural industry is focused on multifunctional concepts and bioprospecting on the use of bioinput from endophytic microbes to ensure a stable ecosystem. Bioprospecting in the case of this review is a systemic overview of the biorational approach to harness beneficial plant-associated microbes to ensure food security in the future. Progress in this endeavor is limited by available techniques. The use of molecular techniques in unraveling the functions of soybean endophytic bacteria can explore their use in integrated organic farming. Our review brings to light the endophytic microbial dynamics of soybeans and current status of plant microbiome research for sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Hill AJ, Grisnik M, DM Walker (2022)

Bacterial Skin Assemblages of Sympatric Salamanders Are Primarily Shaped by Host Genus.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial assemblages on the skins of amphibians are known to influence pathogen resistance and other important physiological functions in the host. Host-specific factors and the environment play significant roles in structuring skin assemblages. This study used high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and multivariate analyses to examine differences in skin-bacterial assemblages from 246 salamanders belonging to three genera in the lungless family Plethodontidae along multiple spatial gradients. Composition and α- and β-diversity of bacterial assemblages were defined, indicator species were identified for each host group, and the relative influences of host- versus environment-specific ecological factors were evaluated. At the broadest spatial scale, host genus, host species, and sampling site were predictive of skin assemblage structure, but host genus and species were more influential after controlling for the marginal effects of site, as well as nestedness of site. Furthermore, assemblage similarity within each host genus did not change with increasing geographic distance. At the smallest spatial scale, site-specific climate analyses revealed different relationships to climatic variables for each of the three genera, and these relationships were determined by host ecomode. Variation in bacterial assemblages of terrestrial hosts correlated with landscape-level climatic variability, and this pattern decayed with increasing water dependence of the host. Results from this study highlight host-specific considerations for researchers studying wildlife diseases in co-occurring, yet ecologically divergent, species.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Bachimanchi H, Midtvedt B, Midtvedt D, et al (2022)

Microplankton life histories revealed by holographic microscopy and deep learning.

eLife, 11: pii:79760.

The marine microbial food web plays a central role in the global carbon cycle. However, our mechanistic understanding of the ocean is biased toward its larger constituents, while rates and biomass fluxes in the microbial food web are mainly inferred from indirect measurements and ensemble averages. Yet, resolution at the level of the individual microplankton is required to advance our understanding of the microbial food web. Here, we demonstrate that, by combining holographic microscopy with deep learning, we can follow microplanktons throughout their lifespan, continuously measuring their three-dimensional position and dry mass. The deep-learning algorithms circumvent the computationally intensive processing of holographic data and allow rapid measurements over extended time periods. This permits us to reliably estimate growth rates, both in terms of dry mass increase and cell divisions, as well as to measure trophic interactions between species such as predation events. The individual resolution provides information about selectivity, individual feeding rates, and handling times for individual microplanktons. The method is particularly useful to detail the rates and routes of organic matter transfer in micro-zooplankton, the most important and least known group of primary consumers in the oceans. Studying individual interactions in idealized small systems provides insights that help us understand microbial food webs and ultimately larger-scale processes. We exemplify this by detailed descriptions of micro-zooplankton feeding events, cell divisions, and long-term monitoring of single cells from division to division.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Noiset P, Cabirol N, Rojas-Oropeza M, et al (2022)

Honey compositional convergence and the parallel domestication of social bees.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18280.

Honey collection evolved from simple honey hunting to the parallel and independent domestication of different species of bees in various parts of the world. In this study, we investigate the extent to which the composition of Apis and stingless bee honeys has been a driver in the selection of different bee species for domestication in Mesoamerica (Mexico) and Asia (Thailand) using a sampling design that combines peak honey profiling by H1 NMR spectroscopy with the collection of honeys from domesticated and undomesticated bee species. Our results show that, independently of the region of the world considered, domesticated stingless bees produce honey whose compositional profiles differ from those of the non-domesticated species and exhibit more similarities towards honeys produced by the domesticated Apis species. Our results provide evidence for the first time that the search for natural sweeteners in the environment by our ancestors led to the parallel and independent domestication of social bees producing honeys with similar compositional profiles.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Florent P, Cauchie HM, Herold M, et al (2022)

Bacteriophages pass through candle-shaped porous ceramic filters: Application for the collection of viruses in soil water.

MicrobiologyOpen, 11(5):e1314.

Despite the ubiquity of viruses in soils, their diversity in soil water has not been explored, mainly due to the difficulty of collecting them. In hydrology, soil water is usually collected using porous candles. This study proposes using these porous candles as a new tool for sampling viruses in soil water to analyze their passage through the ceramic part of the candles. The recovery of the viruses was determined after filtration under laboratory conditions using three model bacteriophages (MS2, ΦX174, and Φ6) and Escherichia coli, at neutral and acidic pH. Then, a field experiment was carried out where soil water filtration and viral identification by metagenomic shotgun were performed. At neutral pH, all bacteriophages tested successfully passed through the porous candles during the filtration process, with reductions of 0.02 log, 0.16 log, and 0.55 log for MS2 ΦX174 and Φ6, respectively. At pH 4.4, the passage of MS2 was not affected while ΦX174 underwent a slight reduction in recovery, probably caused by adsorption onto the filter material. Regarding the application of the porous candles in the field, the results obtained allowed the successful recovery of viruses, exposing porous candles as a new method suitable for the collection of viruses from soil water in the context of the study of viral communities.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Brauer A, MM Bengtsson (2022)

DNA extraction bias is more pronounced for microbial eukaryotes than for prokaryotes.

MicrobiologyOpen, 11(5):e1323.

DNA extraction and preservation bias is a recurring topic in DNA sequencing-based microbial ecology. The different methodologies can lead to distinct outcomes, which has been demonstrated especially in studies investigating prokaryotic community composition. Eukaryotic microbes are ubiquitous, diverse, and increasingly a subject of investigation in addition to bacteria and archaea. However, little is known about how the choice of DNA preservation and extraction methodology impacts perceived eukaryotic community composition. In this study, we compared the effect of two DNA preservation methods and six DNA extraction methods on the community profiles of both eukaryotes and prokaryotes in phototrophic biofilms on seagrass (Zostera marina) leaves from the Baltic Sea. We found that, whereas both DNA preservation and extraction method caused significant bias in perceived community composition for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, extraction bias was more pronounced for eukaryotes than for prokaryotes. In particular, soft-bodied and hard-shelled eukaryotes like nematodes and diatoms, respectively, were differentially abundant depending on the extraction method. We conclude that careful consideration of DNA preservation and extraction methodology is crucial to achieving representative community profiles of eukaryotes in marine biofilms and likely all other habitats containing diverse eukaryotic microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Orsini M, Ianni A, L Zinzula (2022)

Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis genome characterization unveils genetic features that highlight their zoonotic potential.

MicrobiologyOpen, 11(5):e1329.

The Gram-negative bacteria Brucella ceti and Brucella pinnipedialis circulate in marine environments primarily infecting marine mammals, where they cause an often-fatal disease named brucellosis. The increase of brucellosis among several species of cetaceans and pinnipeds, together with the report of sporadic human infections, raises concerns about the zoonotic potential of these pathogens on a large scale and may pose a threat to coastal communities worldwide. Therefore, the characterization of the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genetic features is a priority to better understand the pathological factors that may impact global health. Moreover, an in-depth functional analysis of the B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genome in the context of virulence and pathogenesis was not undertaken so far. Within this picture, here we present the comparative whole-genome characterization of all B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genomes available in public resources, uncovering a collection of genetic tools possessed by these aquatic bacterial species compared to their zoonotic terrestrial relatives. We show that B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genomes display a wide host-range infection capability and a polyphyletic phylogeny within the genus, showing a genomic structure that fits the canonical definition of closeness. Functional genome annotation led to identifying genes related to several pathways involved in mechanisms of infection, others conferring pan-susceptibility to antimicrobials and a set of virulence genes that highlight the similarity of B. ceti and B. pinnipedialis genotypes to those of Brucella spp. displaying human-infecting phenotypes.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Ma K, Q Tu (2022)

Random sampling associated with microbial profiling leads to overestimated stochasticity inference in community assembly.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1011269.

Revealing the mechanisms governing the complex community assembly over space and time is a central issue in ecology. Null models have been developed to quantitatively disentangle the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic processes in structuring the compositional variations of biological communities. Similar approaches have been recently extended to the field of microbial ecology. However, the profiling of highly diverse biological communities (e.g., microbial communities) is severely influenced by random sampling issues, leading to undersampled community profiles and overestimated β-diversity, which may further affect stochasticity inference in community assembly. By implementing simulated datasets, this study demonstrate that microbial stochasticity inference is also affected due to random sampling issues associated with microbial profiling. The effects on microbial stochasticity inference for the whole community and the abundant subcommunities were different using different randomization methods in generating null communities. The stochasticity of rare subcommunities, however, was persistently overestimated irrespective of which randomization method was used. Comparatively, the stochastic ratio approach was more sensitive to random sampling issues, whereas the Raup-Crick metric was more affected by randomization methods. As more studies begin to focus on the mechanisms governing abundant and rare subcommunities, we urge cautions be taken for microbial stochasticity inference based on β-diversity, especially for rare subcommunities. Randomization methods to generate null communities shall also be carefully selected. When necessary, the cutoff used for judging the relative importance of deterministic vs. stochastic processes shall be redefined.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Quagliariello A, Ramiro RS, Couce A, et al (2022)

Editorial: Integrating multi-scale approaches for predicting microbiome ecology and evolution.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1045045.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Jääskeläinen E, Säde E, Rönkkö T, et al (2023)

Marination increased tyramine levels in rainbow trout fillet strips packaged under modified atmosphere.

Food microbiology, 109:104099.

Marinades are increasingly used to manufacture raw fish products. In corresponding meats, marinating is known to have a major effect on the composition of the microbiome, but the effect of marinating on fish is not known as well. This knowledge gap prompted our study of the microbial ecology and amine formation in marinated and unmarinated modified atmosphere commercially packaged rainbow trout fillet strips. According to our findings, marination increased the maximum concentrations (7-8 log CFU/g) of psychrotrophic bacteria by one logarithmic unit and led to 5 times higher average tyramine concentrations than the corresponding unmarinated product. Instead, trimethylamine concentrations were 30 times higher in the unmarinated product than those in the marinated one. According to the 16 S rRNA sequence analyses, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominated in the marinated strips one day after the use-by date, whereas in the unmarinated strips Fusobacteriaceae and LAB were the dominating taxa. Based on the culture-dependent analysis, Latilactobacillus fuchuensis was the prevailing LAB in both products. Since the subset of L. fuchuensis strains tested was able to produce tyramine in vitro, we hypothesise that the use of the acidic marinade activated the production of tyrosine-decarboxylating enzymes in L. fuchuensis and led to the increased tyramine concentrations.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Hladnik M, Unković N, Janakiev T, et al (2022)

An Insight into an Olive Scab on the "Istrska Belica" Variety: Host-Pathogen Interactions and Phyllosphere Mycobiome.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The olive tree is one of the most important agricultural plants, affected by several pests and diseases that cause a severe decline in health status leading to crop losses. Olive leaf spot disease caused by the fungus Venturia oleaginea can result in complete tree defoliation and consequently lower yield. The aim of the study was to obtain new knowledge related to plant-pathogen interaction, reveal mechanisms of plant defense against the pathogen, and characterize fungal phyllosphere communities on infected and symptomless leaves that could contribute to the development of new plant breeding strategies and identification of novel biocontrol agents. The highly susceptible olive variety "Istrska Belica"' was selected for a detailed evaluation. Microscopy analyses led to the observation of raphides in the mesophyll and parenchyma cells of infected leaves and gave new insight into the complex V. oleaginea pathogenesis. Culturable and total phyllosphere mycobiota, obtained via metabarcoding approach, highlighted Didymella, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, and Alternaria species as overlapping between infected and symptomless leaves. Only Venturia and Erythrobasidium in infected and Cladosporium in symptomless samples with higher abundance showed statistically significant differences. Based on the ecological role of identified taxa, it can be suggested that Cladosporium species might have potential antagonistic effects on V. oleaginea.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Jameson E, Taubert M, Angel R, et al (2023)

DNA-, RNA-, and Protein-Based Stable-Isotope Probing for High-Throughput Biomarker Analysis of Active Microorganisms.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2555:261-282.

Stable-isotope probing (SIP) enables researchers to target active populations within complex microbial communities, which is achieved by providing growth substrates enriched in heavy isotopes, usually in the form of 13C, 18O, or 15N. After growth on the substrate and subsequent extraction of microbial biomarkers, typically nucleic acids or proteins, the SIP technique is used for the recovery and analysis of isotope-labelled biomarkers from active microbial populations. In the years following the initial development of DNA- and RNA-based SIP, it was common practice to characterize labelled populations by targeted gene analysis. Such approaches usually involved fingerprint-based analyses or sequencing clone libraries containing 16S rRNA genes or functional marker gene amplicons. Although molecular fingerprinting remains a valuable approach for rapid confirmation of isotope labelling, recent advances in sequencing technology mean that it is possible to obtain affordable and comprehensive amplicon profiles, or even metagenomes and metatranscriptomes from SIP experiments. Not only can the abundance of microbial groups be inferred from metagenomes, but researchers can bin, assemble, and explore individual genomes to build hypotheses about the metabolic capabilities of labelled microorganisms. Analysis of labelled mRNA is a more recent advance that can provide independent metatranscriptome-based analysis of active microorganisms. The power of metatranscriptomics is that mRNA abundance often correlates closely with the corresponding activity of encoded enzymes, thus providing insight into microbial metabolism at the time of sampling. Together, these advances have improved the sensitivity of SIP methods and allowed using labelled substrates at environmentally relevant concentrations. Particularly as methods improve and costs continue to drop, we expect that the integration of SIP with multiple omics-based methods will become prevalent components of microbial ecology studies, leading to further breakthroughs in our understanding of novel microbial populations and elucidation of the metabolic function of complex microbial communities. In this chapter, we provide protocols for obtaining labelled DNA, RNA, and proteins that can be used for downstream omics-based analyses.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Costas-Selas C, Martínez-García S, Logares R, et al (2022)

Role of Bacterial Community Composition as a Driver of the Small-Sized Phytoplankton Community Structure in a Productive Coastal System.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

We present here the first detailed description of the seasonal patterns in bacterial community composition (BCC) in shelf waters off the Ría de Vigo (Spain), based on monthly samplings during 2 years. Moreover, we studied the relationship between bacterial and small-sized eukaryotic community composition to identify potential biotic interactions among components of these two communities. Bacterial operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness and diversity systematically peaked in autumn-winter, likely related to low resource availability during this period. BCC showed seasonal and vertical patterns, with Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae families dominating in surface waters, and SAR11 clade dominating at the base of the photic zone (30 m depth). BCC variability was significantly explained by environmental variables (e.g., temperature of water, solar radiation, or dissolved organic matter). Interestingly, a strong and significant correlation was found between BCC and small-sized eukaryotic community composition (ECC), which suggests that biotic interactions may play a major role as structuring factors of the microbial plankton in this productive area. In addition, co-occurrence network analyses revealed strong and significant, mostly positive, associations between bacteria and small-sized phytoplankton. Positive associations likely result from mutualistic relationships (e.g., between Dinophyceae and Rhodobacteraceae), while some negative correlations suggest antagonistic interactions (e.g., between Pseudo-nitzchia sp. and SAR11). These results support the key role of biotic interactions as structuring factors of the small-sized eukaryotic community, mostly driven by positive associations between small-sized phytoplankton and bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Saenz C, Nigro E, Gunalan V, et al (2022)

MIntO: A Modular and Scalable Pipeline For Microbiome Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Data Integration.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 2:846922.

Omics technologies have revolutionized microbiome research allowing the characterization of complex microbial communities in different biomes without requiring their cultivation. As a consequence, there has been a great increase in the generation of omics data from metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. However, pre-processing and analysis of these data have been limited by the availability of computational resources, bioinformatics expertise and standardized computational workflows to obtain consistent results that are comparable across different studies. Here, we introduce MIntO (Microbiome Integrated meta-Omics), a highly versatile pipeline that integrates metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data in a scalable way. The distinctive feature of this pipeline is the computation of gene expression profile through integrating metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data taking into account the community turnover and gene expression variations to disentangle the mechanisms that shape the metatranscriptome across time and between conditions. The modular design of MIntO enables users to run the pipeline using three available modes based on the input data and the experimental design, including de novo assembly leading to metagenome-assembled genomes. The integrated pipeline will be relevant to provide unique biochemical insights into microbial ecology by linking functions to retrieved genomes and to examine gene expression variation. Functional characterization of community members will be crucial to increase our knowledge of the microbiome's contribution to human health and environment. MIntO v1.0.1 is available at https://github.com/arumugamlab/MIntO.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Karaoz U, EL Brodie (2022)

microTrait: A Toolset for a Trait-Based Representation of Microbial Genomes.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 2:918853.

Remote sensing approaches have revolutionized the study of macroorganisms, allowing theories of population and community ecology to be tested across increasingly larger scales without much compromise in resolution of biological complexity. In microbial ecology, our remote window into the ecology of microorganisms is through the lens of genome sequencing. For microbial organisms, recent evidence from genomes recovered from metagenomic samples corroborate a highly complex view of their metabolic diversity and other associated traits which map into high physiological complexity. Regardless, during the first decades of this omics era, microbial ecological research has primarily focused on taxa and functional genes as ecological units, favoring breadth of coverage over resolution of biological complexity manifested as physiological diversity. Recently, the rate at which provisional draft genomes are generated has increased substantially, giving new insights into ecological processes and interactions. From a genotype perspective, the wide availability of genome-centric data requires new data synthesis approaches that place organismal genomes center stage in the study of environmental roles and functional performance. Extraction of ecologically relevant traits from microbial genomes will be essential to the future of microbial ecological research. Here, we present microTrait, a computational pipeline that infers and distills ecologically relevant traits from microbial genome sequences. microTrait maps a genome sequence into a trait space, including discrete and continuous traits, as well as simple and composite. Traits are inferred from genes and pathways representing energetic, resource acquisition, and stress tolerance mechanisms, while genome-wide signatures are used to infer composite, or life history, traits of microorganisms. This approach is extensible to any microbial habitat, although we provide initial examples of this approach with reference to soil microbiomes.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Hu B, Canon S, Eloe-Fadrosh EA, et al (2021)

Challenges in Bioinformatics Workflows for Processing Microbiome Omics Data at Scale.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 1:826370.

The nascent field of microbiome science is transitioning from a descriptive approach of cataloging taxa and functions present in an environment to applying multi-omics methods to investigate microbiome dynamics and function. A large number of new tools and algorithms have been designed and used for very specific purposes on samples collected by individual investigators or groups. While these developments have been quite instructive, the ability to compare microbiome data generated by many groups of researchers is impeded by the lack of standardized application of bioinformatics methods. Additionally, there are few examples of broad bioinformatics workflows that can process metagenome, metatranscriptome, metaproteome and metabolomic data at scale, and no central hub that allows processing, or provides varied omics data that are findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR). Here, we review some of the challenges that exist in analyzing omics data within the microbiome research sphere, and provide context on how the National Microbiome Data Collaborative has adopted a standardized and open access approach to address such challenges.

RevDate: 2022-10-29

Giulia A, Anna S, Antonia B, et al (2021)

Extending Association Rule Mining to Microbiome Pattern Analysis: Tools and Guidelines to Support Real Applications.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 1:794547.

Boosted by the exponential growth of microbiome-based studies, analyzing microbiome patterns is now a hot-topic, finding different fields of application. In particular, the use of machine learning techniques is increasing in microbiome studies, providing deep insights into microbial community composition. In this context, in order to investigate microbial patterns from 16S rRNA metabarcoding data, we explored the effectiveness of Association Rule Mining (ARM) technique, a supervised-machine learning procedure, to extract patterns (in this work, intended as groups of species or taxa) from microbiome data. ARM can generate huge amounts of data, making spurious information removal and visualizing results challenging. Our work sheds light on the strengths and weaknesses of pattern mining strategy into the study of microbial patterns, in particular from 16S rRNA microbiome datasets, applying ARM on real case studies and providing guidelines for future usage. Our results highlighted issues related to the type of input and the use of metadata in microbial pattern extraction, identifying the key steps that must be considered to apply ARM consciously on 16S rRNA microbiome data. To promote the use of ARM and the visualization of microbiome patterns, specifically, we developed microFIM (microbial Frequent Itemset Mining), a versatile Python tool that facilitates the use of ARM integrating common microbiome outputs, such as taxa tables. microFIM implements interest measures to remove spurious information and merges the results of ARM analysis with the common microbiome outputs, providing similar microbiome strategies that help scientists to integrate ARM in microbiome applications. With this work, we aimed at creating a bridge between microbial ecology researchers and ARM technique, making researchers aware about the strength and weaknesses of association rule mining approach.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Yin G, Chen F, Chen G, et al (2022)

Alterations of bacteriome, mycobiome and metabolome characteristics in PCOS patients with normal/overweight individuals.

Journal of ovarian research, 15(1):117.

To characterize the gut bacteriome, mycobiome and serum metabolome profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with normal/overweight individuals and evaluate a potential microbiota-related diagnostic method development for PCOS, 16S rRNA and ITS2 gene sequencing using 88 fecal samples and 87 metabolome analysis from serum samples are conducted and PCOS classifiers based on multiomics markers are constructed. There are significant bacterial, fungal community and metabolite differences among PCOS patients and healthy volunteers with normal/overweight individuals. Healthy individuals with overweight/obesity display less abnormal metabolism than PCOS patients and uniquely higher abundance of the fungal genus Mortierella. Nine bacterial genera, 4 predicted pathways, 11 fungal genera and top 30 metabolites are screened out which distinguish PCOS from healthy controls, with AUCs of 0.84, 0.64, 0.85 and 1, respectively. The metabolite-derived model is more accurate than the microbe-based model in discriminating normal BMI PCOS (PCOS-LB) from normal BMI healthy (Healthy-LB), PCOS-HB from Healthy-HB. Featured bacteria, fungi, predicted pathways and serum metabolites display higher associations with free androgen index (FAI) in the cooccurrence network. In conclusion, our data reveal that hyperandrogenemia plays a central role in the dysbiosis of intestinal microecology and the change in metabolic status in patients with PCOS and that its effect exceeds the role of BMI. Healthy women with high BMI showed unique microbiota and metabolic features.The priority of predictive models in discriminating PCOS from healthy status in this study were serum metabolites, fungal taxa and bacterial taxa.

RevDate: 2022-10-28

Xu X, AN Dodd (2022)

Is there crosstalk between circadian clocks in plants and the rhizomicrobiome?.

BMC biology, 20(1):241.

Circadian clocks occur across the kingdoms of life, including some fungi and bacteria present in the root-associated soil known as the rhizosphere. Recent work from Amy Newman and colleagues, published in BMC Biology, has discovered that the circadian clock in Arabidopsis plants affects the rhythmicity of rhizosphere microbial communities This brings into play the exciting question of whether there is a bidirectional rhythmic interaction between plants and their rhizomicrobiome. Here, we discuss how the findings of Newman et al. suggest that soil microbiomes can have both self-sustained and plant-imposed rhythmicity, and the challenges of plant-microbiome circadian clock research.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Xiang L, Harindintwali JD, Wang F, et al (2022)

Integrating Biochar, Bacteria, and Plants for Sustainable Remediation of Soils Contaminated with Organic Pollutants.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

The contamination of soil with organic pollutants has been accelerated by agricultural and industrial development and poses a major threat to global ecosystems and human health. Various chemical and physical techniques have been developed to remediate soils contaminated with organic pollutants, but challenges related to cost, efficacy, and toxic byproducts often limit their sustainability. Fortunately, phytoremediation, achieved through the use of plants and associated microbiomes, has shown great promise for tackling environmental pollution; this technology has been tested both in the laboratory and in the field. Plant-microbe interactions further promote the efficacy of phytoremediation, with plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) often used to assist the remediation of organic pollutants. However, the efficiency of microbe-assisted phytoremediation can be impeded by (i) high concentrations of secondary toxins, (ii) the absence of a suitable sink for these toxins, (iii) nutrient limitations, (iv) the lack of continued release of microbial inocula, and (v) the lack of shelter or porous habitats for planktonic organisms. In this regard, biochar affords unparalleled positive attributes that make it a suitable bacterial carrier and soil health enhancer. We propose that several barriers can be overcome by integrating plants, PGPB, and biochar for the remediation of organic pollutants in soil. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which biochar and PGPB can assist plants in the remediation of organic pollutants in soils, and thereby improve soil health. We analyze the cost-effectiveness, feasibility, life cycle, and practicality of this integration for sustainable restoration and management of soil.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Woo C, Bhuiyan MIU, Kim D, et al (2022)

DNA metabarcoding-based study on bacteria and fungi associated with house dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) in settled house dust.

Experimental & applied acarology [Epub ahead of print].

House dust mites (HDMs) including Dermatophagoides spp. are an important cause of respiratory allergies. However, their relationship with microorganisms in house dust has not been fully elucidated. Here, we characterized bacteria and fungi associated with HDMs in house dust samples collected in 107 homes in Korea by using DNA barcode sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene, fungal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, and arthropod cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. Our inter-kingdom co-occurrence network analysis and/or indicator species analysis identified that HDMs were positively related with a xerophilic fungus Wallemia, mycoparasitic fungi such as Cystobasidium, and some human skin-related bacterial and fungal genera, and they were negatively related with the hygrophilous fungus Cephalotrichum. Overall, our study has succeeded in adding novel insights into HDM-related bacteria and fungi in the house dust ecosystem, and in confirming the historically recognized fact that HDMs are associated with xerophilic fungi such as Wallemia. Understanding the microbial ecology in house dust is thought to be important for elucidating the etiology of human diseases including allergies, and our study revealed baseline information of house dust ecology in relation to HDMs. The findings could be useful from a perspective of human health.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Deng Y, Mauri M, Vallet M, et al (2022)

Dynamic Diatom-Bacteria Consortia in Synthetic Plankton Communities.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Microalgae that form phytoplankton live and die in a complex microbial consortium in which they co-exist with bacteria and other microorganisms. The dynamics of species succession in the plankton depends on the interplay of these partners. Bacteria utilize substrates produced by the phototrophic algae, while algal growth can be supported by bacterial exudates. Bacteria might also use chemical mediators with algicidal properties to attack algae. To elucidate whether specific bacteria play universal or context-specific roles in the interaction with phytoplankton, we investigated the effect of cocultured bacteria on the growth of 8 microalgae. An interaction matrix revealed that the function of a given bacterium is highly dependent on the cocultured partner. We observed no universally algicidal or universally growth-promoting bacteria. The activity of bacteria can even change during the aging of an algal culture from inhibitory to stimulatory or vice versa. We further established a synthetic phytoplankton/bacteria community with the centric diatom, Coscinodiscus radiatus, and 4 phylogenetically distinctive bacterial isolates, Mameliella sp., Roseovarius sp., Croceibacter sp., and Marinobacter sp. Supported by a Lotka-Volterra model, we show that interactions within the consortium are specific and that the sum of the pairwise interactions can explain algal and bacterial growth in the community. No synergistic effects between bacteria in the presence of the diatom was observed. Our survey documents highly species-specific interactions that are dependent on algal fitness, bacterial metabolism, and community composition. This species specificity may underly the high complexity of the multi-species plankton communities observed in nature. IMPORTANCE The marine food web is fueled by phototrophic phytoplankton. These algae are central primary producers responsible for the fixation of ca. 40% of the global CO2. Phytoplankton always co-occur with a diverse bacterial community in nature. This diversity suggests the existence of ecological niches for the associated bacteria. We show that the interaction between algae and bacteria is highly species-specific. Furthermore, both, the fitness stage of the algae and the community composition are relevant in determining the effect of bacteria on algal growth. We conclude that bacteria should not be sorted into algicidal or growth supporting categories; instead, a context-specific function of the bacteria in the plankton must be considered. This functional diversity of single players within a consortium may underly the observed diversity in the plankton.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Gao J, Wang M, Huang W, et al (2022)

Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae Could Better Adapt to the Physicochemical Conditions and Natural Microbial Ecology of Prince Grape Must Compared with Commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae FX10.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 27(20): pii:molecules27206892.

Indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a new and useful tool, can be used in fermentation to enhance the aroma characteristic qualities of the wine-production region. In this study, we used indigenous S. cerevisiae L59 and commercial S. cerevisiae FX10 to ferment Prince (a new hybrid variety from Lion Winery) wine, detected the basic physicochemical parameters and the dynamic changes of fungal communities during fermentation, and analyzed the correlations between fungal communities and volatile compounds. The results showed that the indigenous S. cerevisiae L59 could quickly adapt to the specific physicochemical conditions and microbial ecology of the grape must, showing a strong potential for winemaking. Compared with commercial S. cerevisiae FX10, the wine fermented by indigenous S. cerevisiae L59 contained more glycerol and less organic acids, contributing to a rounder taste. The results of volatile compounds indicated that the indigenous S. cerevisiae L59 had a positive effect on adding rosy, honey, pineapple and other sweet aroma characteristics to the wine. Overall, the study we performed showed that selection of indigenous S. cerevisiae from the wine-producing region as a starter for wine fermentation is conducive to improving the aroma profile of wine and preserving the aroma of the grape variety.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Lorenzi AS, Bonatelli ML, Chia MA, et al (2022)

Opposite Sides of Pantoea agglomerans and Its Associated Commercial Outlook.

Microorganisms, 10(10): pii:microorganisms10102072.

Multifaceted microorganisms such as the bacterium Pantoea colonize a wide range of habitats and can exhibit both beneficial and harmful behaviors, which provide new insights into microbial ecology. In the agricultural context, several strains of Pantoea spp. can promote plant growth through direct or indirect mechanisms. Members of this genus contribute to plant growth mainly by increasing the supply of nitrogen, solubilizing ammonia and inorganic phosphate, and producing phytohormones (e.g., auxins). Several other studies have shown the potential of strains of Pantoea spp. to induce systemic resistance and protection against pests and pathogenic microorganisms in cultivated plants. Strains of the species Pantoea agglomerans deserve attention as a pest and phytopathogen control agent. Several of them also possess a biotechnological potential for therapeutic purposes (e.g., immunomodulators) and are implicated in human infections. Thus, the differentiation between the harmful and beneficial strains of P. agglomerans is mandatory to apply this bacterium safely as a biofertilizer or biocontroller. This review specifically evaluates the potential of the strain-associated features of P. agglomerans for bioprospecting and agricultural applications through its biological versatility as well as clarifying its potential animal and human health risks from a genomic point of view.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Trego A, Keating C, Nzeteu C, et al (2022)

Beyond Basic Diversity Estimates-Analytical Tools for Mechanistic Interpretations of Amplicon Sequencing Data.

Microorganisms, 10(10): pii:microorganisms10101961.

Understanding microbial ecology through amplifying short read regions, typically 16S rRNA for prokaryotic species or 18S rRNA for eukaryotic species, remains a popular, economical choice. These methods provide relative abundances of key microbial taxa, which, depending on the experimental design, can be used to infer mechanistic ecological underpinnings. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in in situ analytical tools that have the power to elucidate ecological phenomena, unveil the metabolic potential of microbial communities, identify complex multidimensional interactions between species, and compare stability and complexity under different conditions. Additionally, we highlight methods that incorporate various modalities and additional information, which in combination with abundance data, can help us understand how microbial communities respond to change in a typical ecosystem. Whilst the field of microbial informatics continues to progress substantially, our emphasis is on popular methods that are applicable to a broad range of study designs. The application of these methods can increase our mechanistic understanding of the ongoing dynamics of complex microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Leite MFA, van den Broek SWEB, EE Kuramae (2022)

Current Challenges and Pitfalls in Soil Metagenomics.

Microorganisms, 10(10): pii:microorganisms10101900.

Soil microbial communities are essential components of agroecological ecosystems that influence soil fertility, nutrient turnover, and plant productivity. Metagenomics data are increasingly easy to obtain, but studies of soil metagenomics face three key challenges: (1) accounting for soil physicochemical properties; (2) incorporating untreated controls; and (3) sharing data. Accounting for soil physicochemical properties is crucial for better understanding the changes in soil microbial community composition, mechanisms, and abundance. Untreated controls provide a good baseline to measure changes in soil microbial communities and separate treatment effects from random effects. Sharing data increases reproducibility and enables meta-analyses, which are important for investigating overall effects. To overcome these challenges, we suggest establishing standard guidelines for the design of experiments for studying soil metagenomics. Addressing these challenges will promote a better understanding of soil microbial community composition and function, which we can exploit to enhance soil quality, health, and fertility.

RevDate: 2022-10-27

Ghosh S, Namin SM, C Jung (2022)

Differential Bacterial Community of Bee Bread and Bee Pollen Revealed by 16s rRNA High-Throughput Sequencing.

Insects, 13(10): pii:insects13100863.

We investigated the bacterial community of bee bread and bee pollen samples using an approach through 16 s rRNA high-throughput sequencing. The results revealed a higher bacterial diversity in bee bread than in bee pollen as depicted in taxonomic profiling, as well as diversity indices such as the Shannon diversity index (3.7 to 4.8 for bee bread and 1.1 to 1.7 for bee pollen samples) and Simpson's index (>0.9 for bee bread and 0.4-0.5 for bee pollen). Principal component analysis showed a distinct difference in bacterial communities. The higher bacterial diversity in the bee bread than bee pollen could presumably be due to factors such as storage period, processing of food, fermentation, and high sugar environment. However, no effect of the feed (rapeseed or oak pollen patties or even natural inflow) was indicated on the bacterial composition of bee bread, presumably because of the lack of restriction of foraged pollen inflow in the hive. The diverse bacterial profile of the bee bread could contribute to the nutritional provisioning as well as enhance the detoxification process; however, a thorough investigation of the functional role of individual bacteria genera remains a task for future studies.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Akob DM, Sutton JM, Bushman TJ, et al (2022)

Acetylenotrophic and Diazotrophic Bradyrhizobium sp. Strain I71 from TCE-Contaminated Soils.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Acetylene (C2H2) is a molecule rarely found in nature, with very few known natural sources, but acetylenotrophic microorganisms can use acetylene as their primary carbon and energy source. As of 2018 there were 15 known strains of aerobic and anaerobic acetylenotrophs; however, we hypothesize there may yet be unrecognized diversity of acetylenotrophs in nature. This study expands the known diversity of acetylenotrophs by isolating the aerobic acetylenotroph, Bradyrhizobium sp. strain I71, from trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated soils. Strain I71 is a member of the class Alphaproteobacteria and exhibits acetylenotrophic and diazotrophic activities, the only two enzymatic reactions known to transform acetylene. This unique capability in the isolated strain may increase the genus' economic impact beyond agriculture as acetylenotrophy is closely linked to bioremediation of chlorinated contaminants. Computational analyses indicate that the Bradyrhizobium sp. strain I71 genome contains 522 unique genes compared to close relatives. Moreover, applying a novel hidden Markov model of known acetylene hydratase (AH) enzymes identified a putative AH enzyme. Protein annotation with I-TASSER software predicted the AH from the microbe Syntrophotalea acetylenica as the closest structural and functional analog. Furthermore, the putative AH was flanked by horizontal gene transfer (HGT) elements, like that of AH in anaerobic acetylenotrophs, suggesting an unknown source of acetylene or acetylenic substrate in the environment that is selecting for the presence of AH. IMPORTANCE The isolation of Bradyrhizobium strain I71 expands the distribution of acetylene-consuming microbes to include a group of economically important microorganisms. Members of Bradyrhizobium are well studied for their abilities to improve plant health and increase crop yields by providing bioavailable nitrogen. Additionally, acetylene-consuming microbes have been shown to work in tandem with other microbes to degrade soil contaminants. Based on genome, cultivation, and protein prediction analysis, the ability to consume acetylene is likely not widespread within the genus Bradyrhizobium. These findings suggest that the suite of phenotypic capabilities of strain I71 may be unique and make it a good candidate for further study in several research avenues.

RevDate: 2022-10-26

Van Peteghem L, Sakarika M, Matassa S, et al (2022)

The Role of Microorganisms and Carbon-to-Nitrogen Ratios for Microbial Protein Production from Bioethanol.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

With industrial agriculture increasingly challenging our ecological limits, alternative food production routes such as microbial protein (MP) production are receiving renewed interest. Among the multiple substrates so far evaluated for MP production, renewable bioethanol (EtOH) is still underexplored. Therefore, the present study investigated the cultivation of five microorganisms (2 bacteria, 3 yeasts) under carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and dual C-N-limiting conditions (molar C/N ratios of 5, 60, and 20, respectively) to evaluate the production (specific growth rate, protein and biomass yield, production cost) as well as the nutritional characteristics (protein and carbohydrate content, amino acid [AA] profile) of MP production from bioethanol. Under C-limiting conditions, all the selected microorganisms showed a favorable AA profile for human nutrition (average AA score of 1.5 or higher), with a negative correlation between protein content and growth rate. Maximal biomass yields were achieved under conditions where no extracellular acetate was produced. Cyberlindnera saturnus and Wickerhamomyces anomalus displayed remarkably high biomass yields (0.40 to 0.82 g cell dry weight [CDW]/g EtOHconsumed), which was reflected in the lowest estimated biomass production costs when cultivated with a C/N ratio of 20. Finally, when the production cost was evaluated on a protein basis, Corynebacterium glutamicum grown under C-limiting conditions showed the most promising economic outlook. IMPORTANCE The global protein demand is rapidly increasing at rates that cannot be sustained, with projections showing 78% increased global protein needs by 2050 (361 compared to 202 million tonprotein/year in 2017). In the absence of dedicated mitigation strategies, the environmental effects of our current food production system (relying on agriculture) are expected to surpass the planetary boundaries-the safe operating space for humanity-by 2050. Here, we illustrate the potential of bioethanol-renewable ethanol produced from side streams-as a main resource for the production of microbial protein, a radically different food production strategy in comparison to traditional agriculture, with the potential to be more sustainable. This study unravels the kinetic, productive, and nutritional potential for microbial protein production from bioethanol using the bacteria Methylorubrum extorquens and Corynebacterium glutamicum and the yeasts Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Cyberlindnera saturnus, and Metschnikowia pulcherrima, setting the scene for microbial protein production from renewable ethanol.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Sarkar A, Prescott SM, Dutra S, et al (2022)

Relationships of the very low birth weight infant microbiome with neurodevelopment at 2 and 4 years of age.

Developmental psychobiology, 64(7):e22317.

Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants (<1500 g) are at risk for poor neurodevelopmental outcomes depending on gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), and morbidity in early life. The contribution of the gut microbiome is not well understood. Stool samples were collected weekly in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) from 24 VLBW infants for 6 weeks after admission and then again at 2 and 4 years of age. The Battelle Development Inventory-2 Screening Test (BDI-2 ST) was administered at 2- and 4-year time points. VLBW infants had dysbiotic microbiota in the NICU that progressed for most to an adult-type microbiota by 4 years of age. The BDI-2 ST results at age of 2 years triggered referral for further testing in 14 toddlers (70%), and by 4 years of age only seven of these 14 continued to require referral. Both NICU infant stool diversity and particular microbial amplicon sequence variants were associated with BDI-2 ST subscales, particularly for cognition, adaptive, and communication subscales, when controlled for GA, BW, and antibiotic exposure. Network analysis of the NICU infant stool microbial ecology showed differences in children needing neurodevelopmental referral. The results of this preliminary study indicate that the neonatal gut microbiome plays a role in early cognitive and behavioral neurodevelopment.

RevDate: 2022-10-25

Ortiz WE, Carlos-Shanley C, M Huertas (2022)

Impact of Sublethal Concentrations of Nitrite on Goldfish (Carassius auratus) Microbiomes.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Elevated concentrations of nitrite are toxic to fish and can cause a myriad of well documented issues. However, the effects of sublethal concentrations of nitrite on fish health, and specifically, fish tissue microbiomes have not been studied. To test the effects of nitrite exposure, goldfish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of nitrite, 0.0 mM, 0.1 mM, and 1.0 mM, for 2 months. The bacteria in the nose, skin, gills, and water were then extracted and sequenced to identify changes to the microbial composition. The water microbiome was not significantly changed by the added nitrite; however, each of the tissue microbiomes was changed by at least one of the treatments. The skin and gill microbiomes were significantly different between the control and 1.0 mM treatment and the nose microbiome showed significant changes between the control and both the 0.1 mM and 1.0 mM treatments. Thus, sublethal concentrations of nitrite in the environment caused a shift in the fish tissue microbiomes independently of the water microbiome. These changes could lead to an increased chance of infection, disrupt organ systems, and raise the mortality rate of fish. In systems with high nitrite concentrations, like intensive aquaculture setups or polluted areas, the effects of nitrite on the microbiomes could negatively affect fish populations.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Narendrakumar L, A Ray (2022)

Respiratory tract microbiome and pneumonia.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 192(1):97-124.

The respiratory system, like the gut, harbors a vast variety of microorganisms which include bacteria, viruses and fungi. The advent of next generation sequencing and multi-omic approaches has revealed the diversity and functional significances of microorganisms in the respiratory health. It has been identified that there has been a co-evolution of indigenous respiratory microbiota and the human immune system. However, an immune response is usually generated when the homeostasis of the microbiota is disturbed. The respiratory microbiome has been identified to be important in shaping the respiratory immunity. Gut microbiota and oral microbiota are also known to be pivotal in shaping the immune system of the respiratory tract and influence its microbial dynamics. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes have been identified to be predominant in the respiratory system. While, Streptococcus, Prevotella, Fusobacteria, and Veillonella forms the major part, potential pathogens, such as Haemophilus and Neisseria, also form a small fraction of the healthy lung microbiome. Dysbiosis of respiratory microbiome can lead to increased colonization of opportunistic pathogens that can lead to respiratory infections such as pneumonia. This chapter describes the microbial diversity of respiratory system and the role of respiratory microbiome during respiratory infections like pneumonia. The chapter also discusses few strategies that have been proved effective in preventing pneumonia.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Xin X, Wang Q, Qing J, et al (2022)

Th17 cells in primary Sjögren's syndrome negatively correlate with increased Roseburia and Coprococcus.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:974648.

Background: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is closely related to chronic systemic inflammation and autoimmunity, playing an essential role in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). Abnormalities in the proportions of blood T lymphocyte subtype, that is Th17/Treg, were detected in pSS patients. We aimed to determine the associations between gut microbiota and Th17/Treg in pSS.

Method: 98 pSS patients and 105 healthy controls (NC) were enrolled between Dec 1, 2018, and Aug 31, 2019. The baseline information and clinical parameters on pSS patients and healthy controls were collected. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to characterize the gut microbiome and identify gut microbes that are differentially abundant between patients and healthy controls. Lastly, associations between relative abundances of specific bacterial taxa in the gut and clinical outcome parameters were evaluated.

Results: Patients with pSS show decreased gut microbial diversity and richness, decreased abundance of butyrate producing bacteria, such as Roseburia and Coprococcus, and increased abundance of other taxa, such as Eubacterium rectale and Roseburia inulinivorans. These bacteria are enriched with functions related to glycolytic and lipogenic, energy, substance, galactose, pentose metabolism pathways and glucuronate interconversions, decreased with functions related to peptidoglycan biosynthesis, pyrimidine metabolism pathways. An integrative analysis identified pSS-related specific bacterial taxa in the gut, for which the abundance of Eubacterium rectale is negatively correlated with Th17/Treg. Furthermore, the pathways of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of amino acids, peptidoglycan biosynthesis and pyrimidine, galactose, pentose, microbial metabolism in diverse environments, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism are associated with Treg or Th17/Treg.

Conclusions: Primary Sjögren's syndrome could lead to decreased gut microbial diversity and richness of intestinal flora in patients. The proportions of Th17 and Treg cells induced by microbiota were predictive pSS manifestations and accounted for the pSS severity.

RevDate: 2022-10-24

Tims S, Marsaux C, Pinto A, et al (2022)

Altered gut microbiome diversity and function in patients with propionic acidemia.

Molecular genetics and metabolism, 137(3):308-322 pii:S1096-7192(22)00407-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Propionic acidemia (PA) is an inherited metabolic disorder of propionate metabolism, where the gut microbiota may play a role in pathophysiology and therefore, represent a relevant therapeutic target. Little is known about the gut microbiota composition and activity in patients with PA. Although clinical practice varies between metabolic treatment centers, management of PA requires combined dietary and pharmaceutical treatments, both known to affect the gut microbiota. This study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota and its metabolites in fecal samples of patients with PA compared with healthy controls from the same household. Eight patients (aged 3-14y) and 8 controls (4-31y) were recruited from Center 1 (UK) and 7 patients (11-33y) and 6 controls (15-54y) from Center 2 (Austria). Stool samples were collected 4 times over 3 months, alongside data on dietary intakes and medication usage. Several microbial taxa differed between patients with PA and controls, particularly for Center 1, e.g., Proteobacteria levels were increased, whereas butyrate-producing genera, such as Roseburia and Faecalibacterium, were decreased. Most measured microbial metabolites were lower in patients with PA, and butyrate was particularly depleted in patients from Center 1. Furthermore, microbiota profile of these patients showed the lowest compositional and functional diversity, and lowest stability over 3 months. As the first study to map the gut microbiota of patients with PA, this work represents an important step forward for developing new therapeutic strategies to further improve PA clinical status. New dietary strategies should consider microbial propionate production as well as butyrate production and microbiota stability.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Ahrodia T, Das S, Bakshi S, et al (2022)

Structure, functions, and diversity of the healthy human microbiome.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 191(1):53-82.

Taxonomic composition and functional potency of microbes associated with different parts of the human body have largely been explored by culture-independent metagenome sequencing. The diverse microbiota living throughout the human body is made up of thousands of microbial taxa from all three domains of life: Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Microbial load and functional potency in different body sites are well distinct and have minimal resemblance at higher taxonomic levels between the two habitats. The highest microbial load, diversity, and functional potency including biosynthesis of essential nutrients, chemical modifications of dietary components, and sources of immunomodulatory molecules, are found in the gut microbiome. However, the inter-individual diversity and dynamics of the human microbiome in a given body habitat vary greatly over time. Both environmental factors and host genetics contribute significantly to shaping microbial community structure and its stability. A basic understanding of native microbial compositions and their functional potency and stability in different parts of healthy humans living across geography will help us to identify disease-specific microbiota and develop potential microbiome-based therapeutics. Here, we updated our current understanding of the diversity, dynamics, and functional potency of microbiomes associated with different parts of the human body.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Purohit A, Alam MJ, Kandiyal B, et al (2022)

Gut microbiome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 191(1):187-206.

The human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) contains a dynamic and diverse collection of bacteria, archaea, and fungi termed the "gut microbiome." The gut microbiome has a major impact on the host during homeostasis and disease. The connection between both the host and the microbiome is complex, although its manipulation may assist prevent or treating a multitude of morbidities. These microorganisms play a critical role in the host's energy metabolism and homeostasis. According to new research, the microbes in the gastrointestinal tract play a substantial role in host health, and alterations in its composition and function might lead to the emergence of metabolic disorders like non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The resilience of the GIT microbial ecology and its tolerance to perturbation are robust but not ideal. Several factors may disrupt the GIT microbiome's homeostasis leading to dysbiosis, characterized by an imbalanced equilibrium and perturbations in gut homeostasis. Irritable bowel disease (IBD), malnutrition, and metabolic disorders, such as NAFLD, have been associated with the dysbiotic gut microbiome. Recent evidence suggests that utilizing medications, prebiotics, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to manipulate the microbiome could be a viable method for treating NAFLD.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Das B (2022)

An introduction to human microbiome.

Progress in molecular biology and translational science, 191(1):1-28.

The microbiome is an assemblage of a complex community of microbes (bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, protists, and viruses) and their biomolecules occupying a well-defined habitat in or on a living or non-living object. All the environmentally exposed surfaces of the human body are colonized with trillions of microbes from all three major domains of life, including bacteria, archea, and microscopic eukarya. However, the richness, abundance, and functional potency of microbial taxa living in different parts of the human body are distinct. The Presence of common microbial taxa in different body habitats is also very rare. With the recent development of next generation sequencing technologies, it has been established that the indigenous microbial community in the human body and their functional attributes within a given body habitat vary over time, between ethnic groups and health status of the host. Perturbation of homeostasis in community structures or functions due to any extrinsic factors can alter mutualistic host-microbe interactions and may lead to disease. In addition, the dysbiotic state of the microbiome can also affect the efficacy of therapeutics, prolong treatment duration and lead to undesired treatment outcomes. In this chapter, structure, functions, diversity and dynamics of human microbiome in health and diseases, factors that alter microbial composition, interactions between microbial taxa and xenobiotics, and therapeutic efficacy of drugs in dysbiotic conditions are highlighted.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Evariste L, Mouchet F, Pinelli E, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota impairment following graphene oxide exposure is associated to physiological alterations in Xenopus laevis tadpoles.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06614-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Graphene-based nanomaterials such as graphene oxide (GO) possess unique properties triggering high expectations for the development of technological applications. Thus, GO is likely to be released in aquatic ecosystems. It is essential to evaluate its ecotoxicological potential to ensure a safe use of these nanomaterials. In amphibians, previous studies highlighted X. laevis tadpole growth inhibitions together with metabolic disturbances and genotoxic effects following GO exposure. As GO is known to exert bactericidal effects whereas the gut microbiota constitutes a compartment involved in host homeostasis regulation, it is important to determine if this microbial compartment constitutes a toxicological pathway involved in known GO-induced host physiological impairments. This study investigates the potential link between gut microbial communities and host physiological alterations. For this purpose, X. laevis tadpoles were exposed during 12 days to GO. Growth rate was monitored every 2 days and genotoxicity was assessed through enumeration of micronucleated erythrocytes. Genomic DNA was also extracted from the whole intestine to quantify gut bacteria and to analyze the community composition. GO exposure led to a dose dependent growth inhibition and genotoxic effects were detected following exposure to low doses. A transient decrease of the total bacteria was noticed with a persistent shift in the gut microbiota structure in exposed animals. Genotoxic effects were associated to gut microbiota remodeling characterized by an increase of the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis. The growth inhibitory effects would be associated to a shift in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio while metagenome inference suggested changes in metabolic pathways and upregulation of detoxification processes. This work indicates that the gut microbiota compartment is a biological compartment of interest as it is integrative of host physiological alterations and should be considered for ecotoxicological studies as structural or functional impairments could lead to later life host fitness loss.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Regueira A, Turunen R, Vuoristo KS, et al (2022)

Model-aided targeted volatile fatty acid production from food waste using a defined co-culture microbial community.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06620-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) is gaining momentum due to their central role in the emerging carboxylate platform. Particularly, the production of the longest VFA (from butyrate to caproate) is desired due to their increased economic value and easier downstream processing. While the use of undefined microbial cultures is usually preferred with organic waste streams, the use of defined microbial co-culture processes could tackle some of their drawbacks such as poor control over the process outcome, which often leads to low selectivity for the desired products. However, the extensive experimentation needed to design a co-culture system hinders the use of this technology. In this work, a workflow based on the combined use of mathematical models and wet experimentation is proposed to accelerate the design of novel bioprocesses. In particular, a co-culture consisting of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Megaphaera cerevisiae is used to target the production of high-value odd- and even‑carbon VFA. An unstructured kinetic model was developed, calibrated and used to design experiments with the goal of increasing the selectivity for the desired VFA, which were experimentally validated. In the case of even‑carbon VFA, the experimental validation showed an increase of 38 % in caproate yield and, in the case of enhanced odd‑carbon VFA experiments, the yield of butyrate and caproate diminished by 62 % and 94 %, respectively, while propionate became one of the main end products and valerate yield value increased from 0.007 to 0.085 gvalearte per gconsumed sugar. The workflow followed in this work proved to be a sound tool for bioprocess design due to its capacity to explore and design new experiments in silico in a fast way and ability to quickly adapt to new scenarios.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Huang W, Zhu L, Song W, et al (2022)

Crosstalk between the Gut and Brain in Ischemic Stroke: Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Options.

Mediators of inflammation, 2022:6508046.

There has been a significant amount of interest in the past two decades in the study of the evolution of the gut microbiota, its internal and external impacts on the gut, and risk factors for cerebrovascular disorders such as cerebral ischemic stroke. The network of bidirectional communication between gut microorganisms and their host is known as the microbiota-gut-brain axis (MGBA). There is mounting evidence that maintaining gut microbiota homeostasis can frequently enhance the effectiveness of ischemic stroke treatment by modulating immune, metabolic, and inflammatory responses through MGBA. To effectively monitor and cure ischemic stroke, restoring a healthy microbial ecology in the gut may be a critical therapeutic focus. This review highlights mechanistic insights on the MGBA in disease pathophysiology. This review summarizes the role of MGBA signaling in the development of stroke risk factors such as aging, hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, as well as changes in the microbiota in experimental or clinical populations. In addition, this review also examines dietary changes, the administration of probiotics and prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation as treatment options for ischemic stroke as potential health benefits. It will become more apparent how the MGBA affects human health and disease with continuing advancements in this emerging field of biomedical sciences.

RevDate: 2022-10-21

Wang M, Q Tu (2022)

Effective data filtering is prerequisite for robust microbial association network construction.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1016947.

Microorganisms do not exist as individual population in the environment. Rather, they form complex assemblages that perform essential ecosystem functions and maintain ecosystem stability. Besides the diversity and composition of microbial communities, deciphering their potential interactions in the form of association networks has attracted many microbiologists and ecologists. Much effort has been made toward the methodological development for constructing microbial association networks. However, microbial profiles suffer dramatically from zero values, which hamper accurate association network construction. In this study, we investigated the effects of zero-value issues associated with microbial association network construction. Using the TARA Oceans microbial profile as an example, different zero-value-treatment approaches were comparatively investigated using different correlation methods. The results suggested dramatic variations of correlation coefficient values for differently treated microbial profiles. Most specifically, correlation coefficients among less frequent microbial taxa were more affected, whichever method was used. Negative correlation coefficients were more problematic and sensitive to network construction, as many of them were inferred from low-overlapped microbial taxa. Consequently, microbial association networks were greatly differed. Among various approaches, we recommend sequential calculation of correlation coefficients for microbial taxa pairs by excluding paired zero values. Filling missing values with pseudo-values is not recommended. As microbial association network analyses have become a widely used technique in the field of microbial ecology and environmental science, we urge cautions be made to critically consider the zero-value issues in microbial data.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Sauvaitre T, Van Landuyt J, Durif C, et al (2022)

Role of mucus-bacteria interactions in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) H10407 virulence and interplay with human microbiome.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):86.

The intestinal mucus layer has a dual role in human health constituting a well-known microbial niche that supports gut microbiota maintenance but also acting as a physical barrier against enteric pathogens. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the major agent responsible for traveler's diarrhea, is able to bind and degrade intestinal mucins, representing an important but understudied virulent trait of the pathogen. Using a set of complementary in vitro approaches simulating the human digestive environment, this study aimed to describe how the mucus microenvironment could shape different aspects of the human ETEC strain H10407 pathophysiology, namely its survival, adhesion, virulence gene expression, interleukin-8 induction and interactions with human fecal microbiota. Using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1) simulating the physicochemical conditions of the human upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, we reported that mucus secretion and physical surface sustained ETEC survival, probably by helping it to face GI stresses. When integrating the host part in Caco2/HT29-MTX co-culture model, we demonstrated that mucus secreting-cells favored ETEC adhesion and virulence gene expression, but did not impede ETEC Interleukin-8 (IL-8) induction. Furthermore, we proved that mucosal surface did not favor ETEC colonization in a complex gut microbial background simulated in batch fecal experiments. However, the mucus-specific microbiota was widely modified upon the ETEC challenge suggesting its role in the pathogen infectious cycle. Using multi-targeted in vitro approaches, this study supports the major role played by mucus in ETEC pathophysiology, opening avenues in the design of new treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Zhu M, Duan X, Cai P, et al (2022)

Genome Sequence Resource of Trichothecium roseum (ZM-Tr2021), the causal agent of postharvest pink rot.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Trichothecium roseum is an economically and agriculturally important fungal pathogen that causes postharvest pink rot on a variety of fruits and vegetables. In addition, it is a biocontrol agent against insects and phytopathogens. However, few genome-sequence resources of T. roseum are publicly available, and this has likely limited progress in understanding genes involved in pathogenicity and other processes in the fungus. In the current study, we used Illumina and PacBio DNA sequencing technologies to generate a chromosome-scale genome sequence assembly of a T. roseum strain (ZM-Tr2021) isolated from colonies of the wheat powdery mildew, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, in China. In total, 26.06 Gb polymerase reads for raw data and 25.86 Gb subreads were obtained. These reads were processed into a 33.80 Mb genome assembly containing 19 contigs, resulting in nine superscaffolds that likely correspond to nearly full-length chromosomes, with an N50 of 4.31 Mb and scaffold lengths ranging from 2.02 Mb to 6.06 Mb. Combining the data of transcriptome and genome, we predicted 8695 protein-coding genes, of which 8488 genes were annotated with known functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first chromosome-scale genome of a Trichothecium species. The assembled genome sequence will facilitate studies of comparative genomics, genome evolution, pathogenicity and parasitism of T. roseum and, thereby, provide insights into control of crop diseases caused by the fungus and its use as a biocontrol agent.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

Faust V, van Alen TA, Op den Camp HJM, et al (2022)

Ammonia oxidation by novel "Candidatus Nitrosacidococcus urinae" is sensitive to process disturbances at low pH and to iron limitation at neutral pH.

Water research X, 17:100157 pii:S2589-9147(22)00027-5.

Acid-tolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can open the door to new applications, such as partial nitritation at low pH. However, they can also be problematic because chemical nitrite oxidation occurs at low pH, leading to the release of harmful nitrogen oxide gases. In this publication, the role of acid-tolerant AOB in urine treatment was explored. On the one hand, the technical feasibility of ammonia oxidation under acidic conditions for source-separated urine with total nitrogen concentrations up to 3.5 g-N L-1 was investigated. On the other hand, the abundance and growth of acid-tolerant AOB at more neutral pH was explored. Under acidic conditions (pH of 5), ammonia oxidation rates of 500 mg-N L-1 d-1 and 10 g-N g-VSS-1 d-1 were observed, despite high concentrations of 15 mg-N L-1 of the AOB-inhibiting compound nitrous acid and low concentration of 0.04 mg-N L-1 of the substrate ammonia. However, ammonia oxidation under acidic conditions was very sensitive to process disturbances. Even short periods of less than 12 h without oxygen or without influent resulted in a complete cessation of ammonia oxidation with a recovery time of up to two months, which is a problem for low maintenance applications such as decentralized treatment. Furthermore, undesirable nitrogen losses of about 10% were observed. Under acidic conditions, a novel AOB strain was enriched with a relative abundance of up to 80%, for which the name "Candidatus (Ca.) Nitrosacidococcus urinae" is proposed. While Nitrosacidococcus members were present only to a small extent (0.004%) in urine nitrification reactors operated at pH values between 5.8 and 7, acid-tolerant AOB were always enriched during long periods without influent, resulting in an uncontrolled drop in pH to as low as 2.5. Long-term experiments at different pH values showed that the activity of "Ca. Nitrosacidococcus urinae" decreased strongly at a pH of 7, where they were also outcompeted by the acid-sensitive AOB Nitrosomonas halophila. The experiment results showed that the decreased activity of "Ca. Nitrosacidococcus urinae" correlated with the limited availability of dissolved iron at neutral pH.

RevDate: 2022-10-20

De La Fuente MJ, De la Iglesia R, Farias L, et al (2022)

Enhanced nitrogen and carbon removal in natural seawater by electrochemical enrichment in a bioelectrochemical reactor.

Journal of environmental management, 323:116294.

Municipal and industrial wastewater discharges in coastal and marine environments are of major concern due to their high carbon and nitrogen loads and the resulted phenomenon of eutrophication. Bioelectrochemical reactors (BERs) for simultaneous nitrogen and carbon removal have gained attention owing to their cost efficiency and versatility, as well as the possibility of electrochemical enrich specific groups. This study presented a scalable two-chamber BERs using graphite granules as electrode material. BERs were inoculated and operated for 37 days using natural seawater with high concentrations of ammonium and acetate. The BERs demonstrated a maximum current density of 0.9 A m-3 and removal rates of 7.5 mg NH4+-N L-1 d-1 and 99.5 mg L-1 d-1 for total organic carbon (TOC). Removals observed for NH4+-N and TOC were 96.2% and 68.7%, respectively. The results of nutrient removal (i.e., ammonium, nitrate, nitrite and TOC) and microbial characterization (i.e., next-generation sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization) showed that BERs operated with a poised cathode at -260 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) significantly enriched nitrifying microorganisms in the anode and denitrifying microorganisms and planctomycetes in the cathode. Interestingly, the electrochemical enrichment did not increase the total number of microorganisms in the formed biofilms but controlled their composition. Thus, this work shows the first successful attempt to electrochemically enrich marine nitrifying and denitrifying microorganisms and presents a technique to accelerate the start-up process of BERs to remove dissolved inorganic nitrogen and total organic carbon from seawater.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Eliades SJ, Colston TJ, CD Siler (2022)

Gut microbial ecology of Philippine gekkonids: ecoevolutionary effects on microbiome compositions.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6763418 [Epub ahead of print].

Given the rapidly changing landscapes of habitats across the globe, a sound understanding of host-associated microbial communities and the ecoevolutionary forces that shape them is needed to assess general organismal adaptability. Knowledge of the symbiotic endogenous microbiomes of most reptilian species worldwide remains limited. We sampled gut microbiomes of geckos spanning nine species and four genera in the Philippines to (i) provide baseline data on gut microbiota in these host species, (ii) test for significant associations between host phylogenetic relationships and observed microbial assemblages, potentially indicative of phylosymbiosis, and (iii) identify correlations between multiple ecoevolutionary factors (e.g. species identity, habitat tendencies, range extents, and maximum body sizes) and gut microbiomes in Philippine gekkonids. We recovered no significant association between interspecific host genetic distances and observed gut microbiomes, providing limited evidence for phylosymbiosis in this group. Philippine gekkonid microbiomes were associated most heavily with host species identity, though marked variation among conspecifics at distinct sampling sites indicates that host locality influences gut microbiomes as well. Interestingly, individuals grouped as widespread and microendemic regardless of host species identity displayed significant differences in alpha and beta diversity metrics examined, likely driven by differences in rare OTU presence between groups. These results provide much needed insight in host-associated microbiomes in wild reptiles and the ecoevolutionary forces that structure such communities.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

Conacher CG, Naidoo-Blassoples RK, Rossouw D, et al (2022)

A Transcriptomic Analysis of Higher-Order Ecological Interactions in a Eukaryotic Model Microbial Ecosystem.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Nonlinear ecological interactions within microbial ecosystems and their contribution to ecosystem functioning remain largely unexplored. Higher-order interactions, or interactions in systems comprised of more than two members that cannot be explained by cumulative pairwise interactions, are particularly understudied, especially in eukaryotic microorganisms. The wine fermentation ecosystem presents an ideal model to study yeast ecosystem establishment and functioning. Some pairwise ecological interactions between wine yeast species have been characterized, but very little is known about how more complex, multispecies systems function. Here, we evaluated nonlinear ecosystem properties by determining the transcriptomic response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to pairwise versus tri-species culture. The transcriptome revealed that genes expressed during pairwise coculture were enriched in the tri-species data set but also that just under half of the data set comprised unique genes attributed to a higher-order response. Through interactive protein-association network visualizations, a holistic cell-wide view of the gene expression data was generated, which highlighted known stress response and metabolic adaptation mechanisms which were specifically activated during tri-species growth. Further, extracellular metabolite data corroborated that the observed differences were a result of a biotic stress response. This provides exciting new evidence showing the presence of higher-order interactions within a model microbial ecosystem. IMPORTANCE Higher-order interactions are one of the major blind spots in our understanding of microbial ecosystems. These systems remain largely unpredictable and are characterized by nonlinear dynamics, in particular when the system is comprised of more than two entities. By evaluating the transcriptomic response of S. cerevisiae to an increase in culture complexity from a single species to two- and three-species systems, we were able to confirm the presence of a unique response in the more complex setting that could not be explained by the responses observed at the pairwise level. This is the first data set that provides molecular targets for further analysis to explain unpredictable ecosystem dynamics in yeast.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Wang J, Shi X, Tan Y, et al (2022)

Elevated O3 Exerts Stronger Effects than Elevated CO2 on the Functional Guilds of Fungi, but Collectively Increase the Structural Complexity of Fungi in a Paddy Soil.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Global climate change is characterized by altered global atmospheric composition, including elevated CO2 and O3, with important consequences on soil fungal communities. However, the function and community composition of soil fungi in response to elevated CO2 together with elevated O3 in paddy soils remain largely unknown. Here we used twelve open-top chamber facilities (OTCs) to evaluate the interactive effect of CO2 (+ 200 ppm) and O3 (+ 40 ppb) on the diversity, gene abundance, community structure, and functional composition of soil fungi during the growing seasons of two rice cultivars (Japonica, Wuyujing 3 vs. Nangeng 5055) in a Chinese paddy soil. Elevated CO2 and O3 showed no individual or combined effect on the gene abundance or relative abundance of soil fungi, but increased structural complexity of soil fungal communities, indicating that elevated CO2 and/or O3 promoted the competition of species-species interactions. When averaged both cultivars, elevated CO2 showed no individual effect on the diversity or abundance of functional guilds of soil fungi. By contrast, elevated O3 significantly reduced the relative abundance and diversity of symbiotrophic fungi by an average of 47.2% and 39.1%, respectively. Notably, elevated O3 exerts stronger effects on the functional processes of fungal communities than elevated CO2. The structural equation model revealed that elevated CO2 and/or O3 indirectly affected the functional composition of soil fungi through community structure and diversity of soil fungi. Root C/N and soil environmental parameters were identified as the top direct predictors for the community structure of soil fungi. Furthermore, significant correlations were identified between saprotrophic fungi and root biomass, symbiotrophic fungi and root carbon, the pathotroph-symbiotroph and soil pH, as well as pathotroph-saprotroph-symbiotroph and soil microbial biomass carbon. These results suggest that climatic factors substantially affected the functional processes of soil fungal, and threatened soil function and food production, highlighting the detrimental impacts of high O3 on the function composition of soil biota.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Chen H, Liu K, Yang E, et al (2022)

A critical review on microbial ecology in the novel biological nitrogen removal process: Dynamic balance of complex functional microbes for nitrogen removal.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06561-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The novel biological nitrogen removal process has been extensively studied for its high nitrogen removal efficiency, energy efficiency, and greenness. A successful novel biological nitrogen removal process has a stable microecological equilibrium and benign interactions between the various functional bacteria. However, changes in the external environment can easily disrupt the dynamic balance of the microecology and affect the activity of functional bacteria in the novel biological nitrogen removal process. Therefore, this review focuses on the microecology in existing the novel biological nitrogen removal process, including the growth characteristics of functional microorganisms and their interactions, together with the effects of different influencing factors on the evolution of microbial communities. This provides ideas for achieving a stable dynamic balance of the microecology in a novel biological nitrogen removal process. Furthermore, to investigate deeply the mechanisms of microbial interactions in novel biological nitrogen removal process, this review also focuses on the influence of quorum sensing (QS) systems on nitrogen removal microbes, regulated by which bacteria secrete acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signaling molecules to regulate microbial ecology in the novel biological nitrogen removal process. However, the mechanisms of action of AHLs on the regulation of functional bacteria have not been fully determined and the composition of QS system circuits requires further investigation. Meanwhile, it is necessary to further apply molecular analysis techniques and the theory of systems ecology in the future to enhance the exploration of microbial species and ecological niches, providing a deeper scientific basis for the development of a novel biological nitrogen removal process.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Yang Y, Lu Z, Azari M, et al (2022)

Discovery of a new genus of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria with a mechanism for oxygen tolerance.

Water research, 226:119165 pii:S0043-1354(22)01110-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In the past 20 years, there has been a major stride in understanding the core mechanism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria, but there are still several discussion points on their survival strategies. Here, we discovered a new genus of anammox bacteria in a full-scale wastewater-treating biofilm system, tentatively named "Candidatus Loosdrechtia aerotolerans". Next to genes of all core anammox metabolisms, it encoded and transcribed genes involved in the dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), which coupled to oxidation of small organic acids, could be used to replenish ammonium and sustain their metabolism. Surprisingly, it uniquely harbored a new ferredoxin-dependent nitrate reductase, which has not yet been found in any other anammox genome and might confer a selective advantage to it in nitrate assimilation. Similar to many other microorganisms, superoxide dismutase and catalase related to oxidative stress resistance were encoded and transcribed by "Ca. Loosdrechtia aerotolerans". Interestingly, bilirubin oxidase (BOD), likely involved in oxygen resistance of anammox bacteria under fluctuating oxygen concentrations, was identified in "Ca. Loosdrechtia aerotolerans" and four Ca. Brocadia genomes, and its activity was demonstrated using purified heterologously expressed proteins. A following survey of oxygen-active proteins in anammox bacteria revealed the presence of other previously undetected oxygen defense systems. The novel cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase and bifunctional catalase-peroxidase may confer a selective advantage to Ca. Kuenenia and Ca. Scalindua that face frequent changes in oxygen concentrations. The discovery of this new genus significantly broadens our understanding of the ecophysiology of anammox bacteria. Furthermore, the diverse oxygen tolerance strategies employed by distinct anammox bacteria advance our understanding of their niche adaptability and provide valuable insight for the operation of anammox-based wastewater treatment systems.

RevDate: 2022-10-18

Castillo DJ, Dithugoe CD, Bezuidt OK, et al (2022)

Microbial ecology of the Southern Ocean.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6762916 [Epub ahead of print].

The Southern Ocean (SO) distributes climate signals and nutrients worldwide, playing a pivotal role in global carbon sequestration. Microbial communities are essential mediators of primary productivity and carbon sequestration, yet we lack a comprehensive understanding of microbial diversity and functionality in the SO. Here, we examine contemporary studies in this unique polar system, focusing on prokaryotic communities and their relationships with other trophic levels (i.e. phytoplankton and viruses). Strong seasonal variations and the characteristic features of this ocean are directly linked to community composition and ecosystem functions. Specifically, we discuss characteristics of SO microbial communities and emphasise differences from the Arctic Ocean microbiome. We highlight the importance of abundant bacteria in recycling photosynthetically derived organic matter. These heterotrophs appear to control carbon flux to higher trophic levels when light and iron availability favour primary production in spring and summer. Conversely, during winter, evidence suggests that chemolithoautotrophs contribute to prokaryotic production in Antarctic waters. We conclude by reviewing the effects of climate change on marine microbiota in the SO.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Wang Z, Li K, Shen X, et al (2022)

Soil nitrogen substances and denitrifying communities regulate the anaerobic oxidation of methane in wetlands of Yellow River Delta, China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06538-X [Epub ahead of print].

Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) in wetland soils is widely recognized as a key sink for the greenhouse gas methane (CH4). The occurrence of this reaction is influenced by several factors, but the exact process and related mechanism of this reaction remain unclear, due to the complex interactions between multiple influencing factors in nature. Therefore, we investigated how environmental and microbial factors affect AOM in wetlands using laboratory incubation methods combined with molecular biology techniques. The results showed that wetland AOM was associated with a variety of environmental factors and microbial factors. The environmental factors include such as vegetation, depth, hydrogen ion concentration (pH), oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), electrical conductivity (EC), total nitrogen (TN), nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), and nitrous oxide (N2O) flux, among them, soil N substances (TN, NO3-, N2O) have essential regulatory roles in the AOM process, while NO3- and N2O may be the key electron acceptors driving the AOM process under the coexistence of multiple electron acceptors. Moreover, denitrification communities (narG, nirS, nirK, nosZI, nosZII) and anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME-2d) were identified as important functional microorganisms affecting the AOM process, which is largely regulated by the former. In the environmental context of growing global anthropogenic N inputs to wetlands, these findings imply that N cycle-mediated AOM processes are a more important CH4 sink for controlling global climate change. This studying contributes to the knowledge and prediction of wetland CH4 biogeochemical cycling and provides a microbial ecology viewpoint on the AOM response to global environmental change.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Calatayud M, Xiong C, Selma-Royo M, et al (2022)

Arsenolipids reduce butyrate levels and influence human gut microbiota in a donor-dependent way.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 246:114175 pii:S0147-6513(22)01015-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Arsenolipids are organic arsenic species with variable toxicity. Accurate assessment of the risks derived from arsenic-contaminated seafood intake requires studying the interplay between arsenolipids and the human gut microbiota. This research used the in vitro mucosal simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME) to assess the effect of defined chemical standards of arsenolipids (AsFA 362 and AsHC 332) on a simulated healthy human gut microbiota (n = 4). Microbial-derived metabolites were quantified by gas chromatography and microbiota structure was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A specific reduction in butyrate production (control=5.28 ± 0.3 mM; AsFAs=4.56 ± 0.4 mM; AsHC 332=4.4 ± 0.6 mM, n = 4 donors), concomitant with a reduction in the abundance of Lachnospiraceae UCG-004 group and the Faecalibacterium genus was observed, albeit in a donor-dependent manner. Furthermore, an increase in Escherichia/Shigella, Proteobacteria and Fusobacterium abundance was observed after arsenolipid treatments, depending on individual microbiota background. These alterations in microbial functionality and microbial community structure suggest a detrimental effect of arsenolipids intake towards the commensal gut microbiome, and consequently, on human health.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Ross DE, Lipus D, D Gulliver (2022)

Predominance of Methanomicrobiales and diverse hydrocarbon-degrading taxa in the Appalachian coalbed biosphere revealed through metagenomics and genome-resolved metabolisms.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Coalbed deposits are a unique subsurface environment and represent an underutilized resource for methane generation. Microbial communities extant in coalbed deposits are responsible for key subsurface biogeochemical cycling and could be utilized to enhance methane production in areas where existing gas wells have depleted methane stores, or in coalbeds that are unmined, or conversely be utilized for mitigation of methane release. Here we utilize metagenomics and metagenome-assembled genomes to identify extant microbial lineages and genome-resolved microbial metabolisms of coalbed produced water, which has not yet been explored in the Appalachian Basin. Our analyses resulted in the recovery of over 40 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from eight coalbed methane wells. The most commonly identified taxa among samples were hydrogenotrophic methanogens from the order Methanomicrobiales and these dominant MAGs were highly similar to one another. Conversely, low-abundance coalbed bacterial populations were taxonomically and functionally diverse, mostly belonging to a variety of Proteobacteria classes, and encoding various hydrocarbon solubilization and degradation pathways. The data presented herein provides novel insights into Appalachian Basin coalbed microbial ecology, and our findings provide new perspectives on underrepresented Methanocalculus species and low-relative abundance bacterial assemblages in coalbed environments, and their potential roles in stimulation or mitigation of methane release. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-10-17

Mörkl S, Oberascher A, Tatschl JM, et al (2022)

Cardiac vagal activity is associated with gut-microbiome patterns in women-An exploratory pilot study.

Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 24(1):1-9 pii:2128697.

Introduction: A functional reciprocity between the gut microbiome and vagal nerve activity has been suggested, however, human studies addressing this phenomenon are limited.

Methods: Twenty-four-hour cardiac vagal activity (CVA) was assessed from 73 female participants (aged 24.5 ± 4.3 years). Additionally, stool samples were subjected to 16SrRNA gene analysis (V1-V2). Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME) was used to analyse microbiome data. Additionally, inflammatory parameters (such as CRP and IL-6) were derived from serum samples.

Results: Daytime CVA correlated significantly with gut microbiota diversity (r sp = 0.254, p = 0.030), CRP (r sp = -0.348, p = 0.003), and IL-6 (r sp = -0.320, p = 0.006). When the group was divided at the median of 24 h CVA (Mdn = 1.322), the following features were more abundant in the high CVA group: Clostridia (Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LDA) = 4.195, p = 0.029), Clostridiales (LDA = 4.195, p = 0.029), Lachnospira (LDA = 3.489, p = 0.004), Ruminococcaceae (LDA = 4.073, p = 0.010), Faecalibacterium (LDA = 3.982, p = 0.042), Lactobacillales (LDA = 3.317, p = 0.029), Bacilli (LDA = 3.294, p = 0.0350), Streptococcaceae (LDA = 3.353, p = 0.006), Streptococcus (LDA = 3.332, p = 0.011). Based on Dirichlet multinomial mixtures two enterotypes could be detected, which differed significantly in CVA, age, BMI, CRP, IL-6, and diversity.

Conclusions: As an indicator of gut-brain communication, gut microbiome analysis could be extended by measurements of CVA to enhance our understanding of signalling via microbiota-gut-brain-axis and its alterations through psychobiotics.

RevDate: 2022-10-15

Pinnell LJ, PS Morley (2022)

The Microbial Ecology of Liver Abscesses in Cattle.

The Veterinary clinics of North America. Food animal practice, 38(3):367-381.

Emerging evidence regarding the microbiome of liver abscesses (LAs) and the gastrointestinal tract of cattle suggests that a reexamination of the etiopathogenesis of LAs is warranted. Microbiome studies using 16S rRNA gene sequencing have demonstrated that LAs are highly polymicrobial, and hundreds of bacterial taxa are typically found in these lesions at slaughter. Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes are equally dominant phyla within LAs, followed by Proteobacteria. The gut-liver axis (ie, bidirectional crosstalk between the gut and liver) is linked with a variety of liver diseases in humans, and investigation of host-microbiome interactions in cattle may lead to improved methods of prevention.

RevDate: 2022-10-15

Li W, Li X, Wang W, et al (2022)

Impact of Sulfoxaflor Exposure on Bacterial Community and Developmental Performance of the Predatory Ladybeetle Propylea japonica.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Insects maintain a vast number of symbiotic bacteria, and these symbionts play key roles in the hosts' life processes. Propylea japonica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is an abundant and widespread ladybeetle in agricultural fields in Asia. Both larvae and adults of P. japonica are likely to be exposed to insecticide residue in the field during their predatory activity. Sulfoxaflor is a highly powerful insecticide that has strong efficacy in controlling sap-sucking pests. To date, there have been several studies on the acute and long-term toxicity of sulfoxaflor to insects, but few studies have reported the impact of sulfoxaflor on the predators' micro-ecosystems. This study was to determine the impact of sulfoxaflor on the symbiotic bacteria and developmental performance of P. japonica. In the present study, two concentrations (1 mg/L and 5 mg/L) and two exposure periods (1 day and 5 days) were set for P. japonica under sulfoxaflor exposure. The survival rate, developmental duration, pupation rate, emergence rate, and body weight of P. japonica were examined. Moreover, the bacterial community of P. japonica was investigated by high-throughput 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Our results indicated that bacterial community of P. japonica was mainly composed of Staphylococcus, Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, and Ralstonia at the genus level. The bacterial community of P. japonica in 1 mg/L and 5 mg/L sulfoxaflor groups was significantly altered on day 1, compared with that in control group. The results also showed that the larval duration was significantly prolonged but the pupal duration was significantly shortened in both sulfoxaflor groups. Meanwhile, the pupation and emergence rate was not significantly changed, but the body weights of adults were significantly decreased in both sulfoxaflor groups. Our study will provide a new perspective for evaluating the safety of pesticides to beneficial arthropods.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Tian C, Lv Y, Yang Z, et al (2022)

Microbial Community Structure and Metabolic Potential at the Initial Stage of Soil Development of the Glacial Forefields in Svalbard.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities have been identified as the primary inhabitants of Arctic forefields. However, the metabolic potential of microbial communities in these newly exposed soils remains underexplored due to limited access. Here, we sampled the very edge of the glacial forefield in Svalbard and performed the 16S rRNA genes and metagenomic analysis to illustrate the ecosystem characteristics. Burkholderiales and Micrococcales were the dominant bacterial groups at the initial stage of soil development of glacial forefields. 214 metagenome-assembled genomes were recovered from glacier forefield microbiome datasets, including only 2 belonging to archaea. Analysis of these metagenome-assembled genomes revealed that 41% of assembled genomes had the genetic potential to use nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptors. Metabolic pathway reconstruction for these microbes suggested versatility for sulfide and thiosulfate oxidation, H2 and CO utilization, and CO2 fixation. Our results indicate the importance of anaerobic processes in elemental cycling in the glacial forefields. Besides, a range of genes related to adaption to low temperature and other stresses were detected, which revealed the presence of diverse mechanisms of adaption to the extreme environment of Svalbard. This research provides ecological insight into the initial stage of the soil developed during the retreating of glaciers.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Nissen L, Aniballi C, Casciano F, et al (2022)

Maternal amoxicillin affects piglets colon microbiota: microbial ecology and metabolomics in a gut model.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The first weeks of life represent a crucial stage for microbial colonization of the piglets' gastrointestinal tract. Newborns' microbiota is unstable and easily subject to changes under stimuli or insults. Nonetheless, the administration of antibiotics to the sow is still considered as common practice in intensive farming for pathological conditions in the postpartum. Therefore, transfer of antibiotic residues through milk may occurs, affecting the piglets' colon microbiota. In this study, we aimed to extend the knowledge on antibiotic transfer through milk, employing an in vitro dedicated piglet colon model (MICODE-Multi Unit In vitro Colon Model). The authors' focus was set on the shifts of the piglets' microbiota composition microbiomics (16S r-DNA MiSeq and qPCR-quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and on the production of microbial metabolites (SPME GC/MS-solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) in response to milk with different concentrations of amoxicillin. The results showed an effective influence of amoxicillin in piglets' microbiota and metabolites production; however, without altering the overall biodiversity. The scenario is that of a limitation of pathogens and opportunistic taxa, e.g., Staphylococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, but also a limitation of commensal dominant Lactobacillaceae, a reduction in commensal Ruminococcaceae and a depletion in beneficial Bifidobactericeae. Lastly, an incremental growth of resistant species, such as Enterococcaceae or Clostridiaceae, was observed. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first evaluating the impact of antibiotic residues towards the piglets' colon microbiota in an in vitro model, opening the way to include such approach in a pipeline of experiments where a reduced number of animals for testing is employed. KEY POINTS: • Piglet colon model to study antibiotic transfer through milk. • MICODE resulted a robust and versatile in vitro gut model. • Towards the "3Rs" Principles to replace, reduce and refine the use of animals used for scientific purposes (Directive 2010/63/UE).

RevDate: 2022-10-14

Sinclair P, Longyear J, Reynolds K, et al (2022)

A computational model for microbial colonization of an antifouling surface.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:920014.

Biofouling of marine surfaces such as ship hulls is a major industrial problem. Antifouling (AF) paints delay the onset of biofouling by releasing biocidal chemicals. We present a computational model for microbial colonization of a biocide-releasing AF surface. Our model accounts for random arrival from the ocean of microorganisms with different biocide resistance levels, biocide-dependent proliferation or killing, and a transition to a biofilm state. Our computer simulations support a picture in which biocide-resistant microorganisms initially form a loosely attached layer that eventually transitions to a growing biofilm. Once the growing biofilm is established, immigrating microorganisms are shielded from the biocide, allowing more biocide-susceptible strains to proliferate. In our model, colonization of the AF surface is highly stochastic. The waiting time before the biofilm establishes is exponentially distributed, suggesting a Poisson process. The waiting time depends exponentially on both the concentration of biocide at the surface and the rate of arrival of resistant microorganisms from the ocean. Taken together our results suggest that biofouling of AF surfaces may be intrinsically stochastic and hence unpredictable, but immigration of more biocide-resistant species, as well as the biological transition to biofilm physiology, may be important factors controlling the time to biofilm establishment.

RevDate: 2022-10-14

De Spiegeleer A, Wynendaele E, Descamps A, et al (2022)

The bacterial quorum sensing peptide iAM373 is a novel inducer of sarcopenia.

Clinical and translational medicine, 12(10):e1053.

RevDate: 2022-10-12

Bayer N, Hausman B, Pandey RV, et al (2022)

Disturbances in microbial skin recolonization and cutaneous immune response following allogeneic stem cell transfer.

Leukemia [Epub ahead of print].

The composition of the gut microbiome influences the clinical course after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but little is known about the relevance of skin microorganisms. In a single-center, observational study, we recruited a cohort of 50 patients before undergoing conditioning treatment and took both stool and skin samples up to one year after HSCT. We could confirm intestinal dysbiosis following HSCT and report that the skin microbiome is likewise perturbed in HSCT-recipients. Overall bacterial colonization of the skin was decreased after conditioning. Particularly patients that developed acute skin graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) presented with an overabundance of Staphylococcus spp. In addition, a loss in alpha diversity was indicative of aGVHD development already before disease onset and correlated with disease severity. Further, co-localization of CD45+ leukocytes and staphylococci was observed in the skin of aGVHD patients even before disease development and paralleled with upregulated genes required for antigen-presentation in mononuclear phagocytes. Overall, our data reveal disturbances of the skin microbiome as well as cutaneous immune response in HSCT recipients with changes associated with cutaneous aGVHD.

RevDate: 2022-10-12

Rohrbach S, Gkoutselis G, Hink L, et al (2022)

Microplastic polymer properties as deterministic factors driving terrestrial plastisphere microbiome assembly and succession in the field.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental microplastic (MP) is ubiquitous in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems providing artificial habitats for microbes. Mechanisms of MP colonization, MP polymer impacts, and effects on soil microbiomes are largely unknown in terrestrial systems. Therefore, we experimentally tested the hypothesis that MP polymer type is an important deterministic factor affecting MP community assembly by incubating common MP polymer types in situ in landfill soil for 14 months. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing indicated that MP polymers have specific impacts on plastisphere microbiomes, which are subsets of the soil microbiome. Chloroflexota, Gammaproteobacteria, certain Nitrososphaerota, and Nanoarchaeota explained differences among MP polymers and time points. Plastisphere microbial community composition derived from different MP diverged over time and was enriched in potential pathogens. PICRUSt predictions of pathway abundances and quantitative PCR of functional marker genes indicated that MP polymers exerted an ambivalent effect on genetic potentials of biogeochemical cycles. Overall, the data indicates that (i) polymer type as deterministic factor rather than stochastic factors drives plastisphere community assembly, (ii) MP impacts greenhouse gas metabolism, xenobiotic degradation and pathogen distribution, and (iii) MP serves as an ideal model system for studying fundamental questions in microbial ecology such as community assembly mechanisms in terrestrial environments.

RevDate: 2022-10-10

Sabba F, Farmer M, Jia Z, et al (2022)

Impact of operational strategies on a sidestream enhanced biological phosphorus removal (S2EBPR) reactor in a carbon limited wastewater plant.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)06379-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Water resource recovery facilities are faced with stringent effluent phosphorus limits to reduce nutrient pollution. Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is the most common biological route to remove phosphorus; however, many facilities struggle to achieve consistent performance due to limited carbon availability in the influent wastewater. A promising process to improve carbon availability is through return activated sludge (RAS) fermentation via sidestream EBPR (S2EBPR). In this study, a full-scale S2EBPR pilot was operated with a sidestream plus carbon configuration (SSRC) at a carbon-limited facility. A model based on the pilot test was developed and calibrated in the SUMO platform and used to explore routes for improving orthophosphate (OP) effluent compliance. Modeling results showed that RAS diversion by itself was not sufficient to drive OP removal to permit limits of 1 mg L-1, therefore, other strategies were evaluated. Supplemental carbon addition of MicroC® at 1.90 L min-1 and controlling the phosphorus concentration below 3.5 mgP L-1 in the primary effluent (PE) proved to be valid supplemental strategies to achieve OP removal below 1 mg L-1 most of the time. In particular, the proposed supplemental carbon flow rate would result in an improvement of the rbCOD:P ratio from 17:1 to 26:1. The synergistic approach of RAS diversion and supplemental carbon addition increased the polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAO) population while minimizing the supplemental carbon needed to achieve consistent phosphorus removal. Overall, this pilot and modeling study shows that joint strategies, including RAS diversion, carbon addition and PE control, can be effective to achieve optimal control of OP effluent.

RevDate: 2022-10-10

Uroosa , Kazmi SSUH, Warren A, et al (2022)

Effects of nitrofurazone on ecosystem function in marine environments: A case study on microbial fauna.

Marine pollution bulletin, 184:114216 pii:S0025-326X(22)00898-0 [Epub ahead of print].

To evaluate the effects of nitrofurazone on functional processes in marine ecosystems, periphytic protozoan communities were exposed to different concentrations of the antibiotic for a 10-day duration. Species trait distributions in the tested communities were observed during exposure to five concentrations of nitrofurazone. A fuzzy coding system with seven traits and seventeen categories was used to summarize the changes in functional patterns of the test organisms. Nitrofurazone had a significant influence on the function process of the periphytic ciliate communities. Bacterivores with flattened bodies were sensitive to the toxicant whereas sessile and cylindrical raptors showed a high tolerance to nitrofurazone, invariably dominating communities exposed to high concentrations. Bootstrapped-average analysis demonstrated a significant change in functional patterns at highest nitrofurazone concentrations (8 mg l-1). Based on these findings, it is suggested that nitrofurazone may negatively influence ecosystem function in marine environments.

RevDate: 2022-10-10

Chevrette MG, Thomas CS, Hurley A, et al (2022)

Microbiome composition modulates secondary metabolism in a multispecies bacterial community.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(42):e2212930119.

Bacterial secondary metabolites are a major source of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds. In microbial communities, these molecules can mediate interspecies interactions and responses to environmental change. Despite the importance of secondary metabolites in human health and microbial ecology, little is known about their roles and regulation in the context of multispecies communities. In a simplified model of the rhizosphere composed of Bacillus cereus, Flavobacterium johnsoniae, and Pseudomonas koreensis, we show that the dynamics of secondary metabolism depend on community species composition and interspecies interactions. Comparative metatranscriptomics and metametabolomics reveal that the abundance of transcripts of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and metabolomic molecular features differ between monocultures or dual cultures and a tripartite community. In both two- and three-member cocultures, P. koreensis modified expression of BGCs for zwittermicin, petrobactin, and other secondary metabolites in B. cereus and F. johnsoniae, whereas the BGC transcriptional response to the community in P. koreensis itself was minimal. Pairwise and tripartite cocultures with P. koreensis displayed unique molecular features that appear to be derivatives of lokisin, suggesting metabolic handoffs between species. Deleting the BGC for koreenceine, another P. koreensis metabolite, altered transcript and metabolite profiles across the community, including substantial up-regulation of the petrobactin and bacillibactin BGCs in B. cereus, suggesting that koreenceine represses siderophore production. Results from this model community show that bacterial BGC expression and chemical output depend on the identity and biosynthetic capacity of coculture partners, suggesting community composition and microbiome interactions may shape the regulation of secondary metabolism in nature.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )