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Bibliography on: Gregor Mendel

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2021 at 01:34 Created: 

Gregor Mendel

In 1865, Gregor Mendel reported the results of his experiments with peas and in so doing laid the foundations of what has become the modern science of genetics. There are few examples of entire fields having been so clearly founded upon the works of one man.

Created with PubMed® Query: mendel[title] AND (gregor OR brno OR versuche OR darwin OR "father of genetics") NOT "James Ross" NOT Antarctic NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-08-31

Francomano CA (2021)

Victor Almon McKusick: In the footsteps of Mendel and Osler.

American journal of medical genetics. Part A [Epub ahead of print].

Victor Almon McKusick (VAM) is widely recognized as the father of the field of medical genetics. He established one of the first medical genetics clinics in the United States at Johns Hopkins in 1957 and developed a robust training program with the tripartite mission of education, research, and clinical care. Thousands of clinicians and scientists were educated over the years through the Short Course in Medical and Molecular Genetics, which VAM founded with Dr. Thomas Roderick in 1960. His Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders, serves as the authoritative reference for geneticists around the globe. Throughout his career he was an advocate for mapping the human genome. He collaborated with Dr. Frank Ruddle in founding the International Human Gene Mapping Workshops in the early 70's and was an avid proponent of the Human Genome Project. He was the founding President of the Human Genome Organization and a founding editor of the journal Genomics. His prodigious contributions to the field of medical genetics were recognized by multiple honors, culminating with the Japan Prize in 2007.

RevDate: 2021-08-02
CmpDate: 2021-08-02

O'Brien JE, Adashi EY, C Simon (2021)

Darwin meets Mendel in the reproductive medicine field: Homo sapiens 2.0 is inevitable.

Fertility and sterility, 115(4):850-851.

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 2020-08-24

Nivet C (2020)

[Was Gregor Mendel subjected to chores before becoming a monk in 1843?].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 36(1):63-68.

Our knowledge of the young Mendel's life prior to his admission to the monastery comes essentially from the curriculum vitae submitted in 1850. His first biographer Hugo Iltis used this document as a sort of autobiography, although the document contained various voluntary omissions and inaccuracies. We have sought the reasons for these and in so doing have discovered why Mendel's entry into religion had become ineluctable.

RevDate: 2021-07-31
CmpDate: 2021-05-19

Fairbanks DJ (2020)

Mendel and Darwin: untangling a persistent enigma.

Heredity, 124(2):263-273.

Mendel and Darwin were contemporaries, with much overlap in their scientifically productive years. Available evidence shows that Mendel knew much about Darwin, whereas Darwin knew nothing of Mendel. Because of the fragmentary nature of this evidence, published inferences regarding Mendel's views on Darwinian evolution are contradictory and enigmatic, with claims ranging from enthusiastic acceptance to outright rejection. The objective of this review is to examine evidence from Mendel's published and private writings on evolution and Darwin, and the influence of the scientific environment in which he was immersed. Much of this evidence lies in Mendel's handwritten annotations in his copies of Darwin's books, which this review scrutinises in detail. Darwin's writings directly influenced Mendel's classic 1866 paper, and his letters to Nägeli. He commended and criticised Darwin on specific issues pertinent to his research, including the provisional hypothesis of pangenesis, the role of pollen in fertilisation, and the influence of "conditions of life" on heritable variation. In his final letter to Nägeli, Mendel proposed a Darwinian scenario for natural selection using the same German term for "struggle for existence" as in his copies of Darwin's books. His published and private scientific writings are entirely objective, devoid of polemics or religious allusions, and address evolutionary questions in a manner consistent with that of his scientific contemporaries. The image that emerges of Mendel is of a meticulous scientist who accepted the tenets of Darwinian evolution, while privately pinpointing aspects of Darwin's views of inheritance that were not supported by Mendel's own experiments.

RevDate: 2020-07-10
CmpDate: 2020-07-10

Deichmann U (2019)

From Gregor Mendel to Eric Davidson: Mathematical Models and Basic Principles in Biology.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology, 26(7):637-652.

Mathematical models have been widespread in biology since its emergence as a modern experimental science in the 19th century. Focusing on models in developmental biology and heredity, this article (1) presents the properties and epistemological basis of pertinent mathematical models in biology from Mendel's model of heredity in the 19th century to Eric Davidson's model of developmental gene regulatory networks in the 21st; (2) shows that the models differ not only in their epistemologies but also in regard to explicitly or implicitly taking into account basic biological principles, in particular those of biological specificity (that became, in part, replaced by genetic information) and genetic causality. The article claims that models disregarding these principles did not impact the direction of biological research in a lasting way, although some of them, such as D'Arcy Thompson's models of biological form, were widely read and admired and others, such as Turing's models of development, stimulated research in other fields. Moreover, it suggests that successful models were not purely mathematical descriptions or simulations of biological phenomena but were based on inductive, as well as hypothetico-deductive, methodology. The recent availability of large amounts of sequencing data and new computational methodology tremendously facilitates system approaches and pattern recognition in many fields of research. Although these new technologies have given rise to claims that correlation is replacing experimentation and causal analysis, the article argues that the inductive and hypothetico-deductive experimental methodologies have remained fundamentally important as long as causal-mechanistic explanations of complex systems are pursued.

RevDate: 2019-09-12
CmpDate: 2019-09-12

Liu Y (2018)

Darwin and Mendel: The Historical Connection.

Advances in genetics, 102:1-25.

Darwin carried out a host of carefully controlled cross- and self-pollination experiments in a wide variety of plants, and made a significant and imperishable contribution to the knowledge of hybridization. He not only clearly described the phenomenon of what he called prepotency and what we now call dominance or Mendelian inheritance, but also explained it by his Pangenesis. Recent discovery of small RNAs acting as dominance modifiers supports his Pangenesis regarding the control of prepotency by gemmules. Historical studies show that there is striking evidence that Mendel read Darwin's The Origin of Species, which had influenced his paper presented in 1865 and published in 1866. Although Mendel's paper has been considered a classic in the history of genetics, it generated much controversy since its rediscovery. Mendel's position as the father of genetics is being seriously challenged. Darwin's main contribution to genetics was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and the formulation of a comprehensive genetical theory for their explanation. Over the past 150 years, however, Darwin's legacy to genetics, particularly his Pangenesis, has not been considered seriously by most geneticists. It is proposed that Darwin should have been regarded as one of the most important pioneers in genetics.

RevDate: 2018-01-11
CmpDate: 2018-01-11

Abbott S, DJ Fairbanks (2016)

Experiments on Plant Hybrids by Gregor Mendel.

Genetics, 204(2):407-422.

RevDate: 2019-01-12
CmpDate: 2017-05-23

Fairbanks DJ, S Abbott (2016)

Darwin's Influence on Mendel: Evidence from a New Translation of Mendel's Paper.

Genetics, 204(2):401-405.

Gregor Mendel's classic paper, Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybrids), was published in 1866, hence 2016 is its sesquicentennial. Mendel completed his experiments in 1863 and shortly thereafter began compiling the results and writing his paper, which he presented in meetings of the Natural Science Society in Brünn in February and March of 1865. Mendel owned a personal copy of Darwin's Origin of Species, a German translation published in 1863, and it contains his marginalia. Its publication date indicates that Mendel's study of Darwin's book could have had no influence while he was conducting his experiments but its publication date coincided with the period of time when he was preparing his paper, making it possible that Darwin's writings influenced Mendel's interpretations and theory. Based on this premise, we prepared a Darwinized English translation of Mendel's paper by comparing German terms Mendel employed with the same terms in the German translation of Origin of Species in his possession, then using Darwin's counterpart English words and phrases as much as possible in our translation. We found a substantially higher use of these terms in the final two (10th and 11th) sections of Mendel's paper, particularly in one key paragraph, where Mendel reflects on evolutionary issues, providing strong evidence of Darwin's influence on Mendel.

RevDate: 2017-02-23
CmpDate: 2017-02-23

Gayon J (2016)

From Mendel to epigenetics: History of genetics.

Comptes rendus biologies, 339(7-8):225-230.

The origins of genetics are to be found in Gregor Mendel's memoir on plant hybridization (1865). However, the word 'genetics' was only coined in 1906, to designate the new science of heredity. Founded upon the Mendelian method for analyzing the products of crosses, this science is distinguished by its explicit purpose of being a general 'science of heredity', and by the introduction of totally new biological concepts (in particular those of gene, genotype, and phenotype). In the 1910s, Mendelian genetics fused with the chromosomal theory of inheritance, giving rise to what is still called 'classical genetics'. Within this framework, the gene is simultaneously a unit of function and transmission, a unit of recombination, and of mutation. Until the early 1950s, these concepts of the gene coincided. But when DNA was found to be the material basis of inheritance, this congruence dissolved. Then began the venture of molecular biology, which has never stopped revealing the complexity of the way in which hereditary material functions.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-01-20

De Castro M (2016)

Johann Gregor Mendel: paragon of experimental science.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 4(1):3-8.

This is a foreword on the life and work of one of the greatest minds of the 20th century, the father of modern genetics, Johann Gregor Mendel.

RevDate: 2016-01-10
CmpDate: 2016-01-07

Richter FC (2015)

Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 3(6):483-485 pii:MGG3186.

Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-07-28

Liu Y, X Li (2016)

Darwin and Mendel today: a comment on "Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution".

Genome, 59(1):75-77.

We comment on a recent paper by Rama Singh, who concludes that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics, and Darwin would not have understood the significance of Mendel's paper had he read it. We argue that Darwin should have been regarded as the father of genetics not only because he was the first to formulate a unifying theory of heredity, variation, and development -- Pangenesis, but also because he clearly described almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, including what he called "prepotency" and what we now call "dominance" or "Mendelian inheritance". The word "gene" evolved from Darwin's imagined "gemmules", instead of Mendel's so-called "factors".

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-01-05

Pai-Dhungat JV (2015)

John Gregor Mendel (1822-1884).

The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 63(3):60-61.

RevDate: 2015-09-26
CmpDate: 2015-12-22

Birchler JA (2015)

Mendel, mechanism, models, marketing, and more.

Cell, 163(1):9-11.

This year marks the 150(th) anniversary of the presentation by Gregor Mendel of his studies of plant hybridization to the Brunn Natural History Society. Their nature and meaning have been discussed many times. However, on this occasion, we reflect on the scientific enterprise and the perception of new discoveries.

RevDate: 2016-10-20
CmpDate: 2016-07-27

Singh RS (2015)

Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution.

Genome, 58(9):415-421.

Mendel is credited for discovering Laws of Heredity, but his work has come under criticism on three grounds: for possible falsification of data to fit his expectations, for getting undue credit for the laws of heredity without having ideas of segregation and independent assortment, and for being interested in the development of hybrids rather than in the laws of heredity. I present a brief review of these criticisms and conclude that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics even if he may not, and most likely did not, have clear ideas of segregation and particulate determiners as we know them now. I argue that neither Mendel understood the evolutionary significance of his findings for the problem of genetic variation, nor would Darwin have understood their significance had he read Mendel's paper. I argue that the limits to imagination, in both cases, came from their mental framework being shaped by existing paradigms-blending inheritance in the case of Darwin, hybrid development in the case of Mendel. Like Einstein, Darwin's natural selection was deterministic; like Niels Bohr, Mendel's Laws were probabilistic-based on random segregation of trait-determining "factors". Unlike Einstein who understood quantum mechanics, Darwin would have been at a loss with Mendel's paper with no guide to turn to. Geniuses in their imaginations are like heat-seeking missiles locked-in with their targets of deep interests and they generally see things in one dimension only. Imagination has limits; unaided imagination is like a bird without wings--it goes nowhere.

RevDate: 2018-12-03
CmpDate: 2017-03-07

Tanghe KB (2015)

Mendel at the sesquicentennial of 'Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden' (1865): The root of the biggest legend in the history of science.

Endeavour, 39(2):106-115.

In 1965, Mendel was still celebrated as the undisputed founder of genetics. In the ensuing 50 years, scholars questioned and undermined this traditional interpretation of his experiments with hybrid plants, without, however, managing to replace it: at the sesquicentennial of the presentation of his 'Versuche' (1865), the Moravian friar remains, to a vast majority, the heroic Father of genetics or at least some kind of geneticist. This exceptionally inert myth is nourished by ontological intuitions but can only continue to flourish, thanks to a long-standing conceptual void in the historiography of biology. It is merely a symptom of this more fundamental problem.

RevDate: 2015-02-19
CmpDate: 2015-03-04

Matalová A, E Matalová (2015)

Plant genetics: Czech centre marks Mendel anniversary.

Nature, 518(7539):303.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-01-28

Opitz JM, DW Bianchi (2015)

MENDEL: Morphologist and Mathematician Founder of Genetics - To Begin a Celebration of the 2015 Sesquicentennial of Mendel's Presentation in 1865 of his Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 3(1):1-7.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2012-09-06

Montoliu L (2012)

Mendel: a simple excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a χ2 test.

Transgenic research, 21(3):677-681.

The analysis of transgenic and knockout mice always involves the establishment of matings with individuals carrying different loci, segregating independently, whose presence is expected among the progeny, according to a Mendelian distribution. The appearance of distorted inheritance ratios suggests the existence of unexpected lethal or sub-lethal phenotypes associated with some genotypes. These situations are common in a number of cases, including: testing transgenic founder mice for germ-line transmission of their transgenes; setting up heterozygous crosses to obtain homozygous individuals, both for transgenic and knockout mice; establishing matings between floxed mouse lines and suitable cre transgenic mouse lines, etc. The Pearson's χ(2) test can be used to assess the significance of the observed frequencies of genotypes/phenotypes in relation to the expected values, in order to determine whether the observed cases fit the expected distribution. Here, I describe a simple Excel workbook to compare the observed and expected distributions of genotypes/phenotypes in transgenic and knockout mouse crosses involving up to three unlinked loci by means of a χ(2) test. The file is freely available for download from my laboratory's web page at: .

RevDate: 2011-07-27
CmpDate: 2011-08-18

Lorenzano P (2011)

What would have happened if Darwin had known Mendel (or Mendel's work)?.

History and philosophy of the life sciences, 33(1):3-49.

The question posed by the title is usually answered by saying that the "synthesis" between the theory of evolution by natural selection and classical genetics, which took place in 1930s-40s, would have taken place much earlier if Darwin had been aware of Mendel and his work. What is more, it nearly happened: it would have been enough if Darwin had cut the pages of the offprint of Mendel's work that was in his library and read them! Or, if Mendel had come across Darwin in London or paid him a visit at his house in the outskirts! (on occasion of Mendel's trip in 1862 to that city). The aim of the present paper is to provide elements for quite a different answer, based on further historical evidence, especially on Mendel's works, some of which mention Darwins's studies.

RevDate: 2011-11-07
CmpDate: 2012-04-17

Ellis TH, Hofer JM, Timmerman-Vaughan GM, et al (2011)

Mendel, 150 years on.

Trends in plant science, 16(11):590-596.

Mendel's paper 'Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden' is the best known in a series of studies published in the late 18th and 19th centuries that built our understanding of the mechanism of inheritance. Mendel investigated the segregation of seven gene characters of pea (Pisum sativum), of which four have been identified. Here, we review what is known about the molecular nature of these genes, which encode enzymes (R and Le), a biochemical regulator (I) and a transcription factor (A). The mutations are: a transposon insertion (r), an amino acid insertion (i), a splice variant (a) and a missense mutation (le-1). The nature of the three remaining uncharacterized characters (green versus yellow pods, inflated versus constricted pods, and axial versus terminal flowers) is discussed.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2014-06-07

Wolfe AJ (2012)

The cold war context of the golden jubilee, or, why we think of mendel as the father of genetics.

Journal of the history of biology, 45(3):389-414.

In September 1950, the Genetics Society of America (GSA) dedicated its annual meeting to a "Golden Jubilee of Genetics" that celebrated the 50th anniversary of the rediscovery of Mendel's work. This program, originally intended as a small ceremony attached to the coattails of the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) meeting, turned into a publicity juggernaut that generated coverage on Mendel and the accomplishments of Western genetics in countless newspapers and radio broadcasts. The Golden Jubilee merits historical attention as both an intriguing instance of scientific commemoration and as an early example of Cold War political theatre. Instead of condemning either Lysenko or Soviet genetics, the Golden Jubilee would celebrate Mendel - and, not coincidentally, the practical achievements in plant and animal breeding his work had made possible. The American geneticists' focus on the achievements of Western genetics as both practical and theoretical, international, and, above all, non-ideological and non-controversial, was fully intended to demonstrate the success of the Western model of science to both the American public and scientists abroad at a key transition point in the Cold War. An implicit part of this article's argument, therefore, is the pervasive impact of the Cold War in unanticipated corners of postwar scientific culture.

RevDate: 2009-06-15
CmpDate: 2009-09-30

Orel V (2009)

The "useful questions of heredity" before Mendel.

The Journal of heredity, 100(4):421-423.

Now Emeritus Head of the Mendelianum (Mendel Museum) in Brno, Czech Republic, Vítezslav Orel began his academic career as a student at the Brno Agriculture University. His work was interrupted first by the Nazi invasion and then by the communist revolution, when the science of genetics was denounced and replaced by Lysenko pseudogenetics. V. O. was dismissed from his position at the Poultry Research Institute and assigned to work at a small duck farm outside Brno. When the "Lysenkoist madness" subsided, Professor Jaroslav Krizenecky (1896-1964), teacher of V. O., was allowed to develop the museum in recognition of Mendel's contributions. V. O. assisted him by conducting research on the history of Mendel and of genetics. On Jaroslav Krizenecky's death, V. O. became head of the Mendelianum. V. O. has become an internationally recognized figure in the study of the history of science, having published nearly 200 papers in Czech and 10 other languages. Orel's most recent books, published by Oxford University Press, make use of the rich archives of the Mendelianum that he helped create. Gregor Mendel-The First Geneticist (Orel 1996) is the definitive biography of Mendel, and in 2001, V. O. and co-author R. J. Wood published Genetic Prehistory in Selective Breeding: A Prelude to Mendel. (Biography from Margaret H. Peaslee).

RevDate: 2010-11-18
CmpDate: 2010-01-11

Galton D (2009)

Did Darwin read Mendel?.

QJM : monthly journal of the Association of Physicians, 102(8):587-589.

RevDate: 2019-11-10
CmpDate: 2008-04-03

Peaslee MH, V Orel (2007)

The evolutionary ideas of F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel, teacher of Gregor Mendel.

Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia, 151(1):151-155.

Abstract: A philosopher and teacher, F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel (1808-1882), educated in what is now the Czech Republic, developed his own explanation for the origin and interaction of living organisms. Klácel, a member of the Augustinian Monastery in Brno, influenced his younger colleague, Friar Gregor Mendel, who went on to formulate concepts in heredity that are still recognized for their profound insight. A mutual interest in the natural sciences of these two friends provided a basis for their discussions of the relationship between religion, evolution, and society. Klacel's outspoken defense of his proposals caused him to lose favor with both the Church and the authorities, and he immigrated to America in 1869. His failing health and inability to communicate with the English-speaking populace, unfortunately, limited his influence in his new environs. In this paper we trace the roots of Klacel's philosophy and elucidate his incorporation of ideas from Hegel, Darwin, and others. An investigation of Klacel's recipe for a successful society reveals his belief in the universality of life and his optimistic hope for human achievement.

RevDate: 2006-12-22
CmpDate: 2007-01-31

Hackett S, Feldheim K, M Alvey (2006)

Genes and genius: the inheritance of Gregor Mendel.

DNA and cell biology, 25(12):655-658.

RevDate: 2006-10-31
CmpDate: 2007-01-05

Tan SY, J Brown (2006)

Gregor Mendel (1822-1884): man of God and science.

Singapore medical journal, 47(11):922-923.

RevDate: 2019-11-10
CmpDate: 2007-02-20

Richmond ML (2006)

The 1909 Darwin celebration. Reexamining evolution in the light of Mendel, mutation, and meiosis.

Isis; an international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences, 97(3):447-484.

In June 1909, scientists and dignitaries from 167 different countries gathered in Cambridge to celebrate the hundredth anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth and the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Origin of Species. The event was one of the most magnificent commemorations in the annals of science. Delegates gathered within the cloisters of Cambridge University not only to honor the "hero" of evolution but also to reassess the underpinnings of Darwinism at a critical juncture. With the mechanism of natural selection increasingly under attack, evolutionary theory was in disarray. Against this backdrop, biologists weighed the impact of several new developments--the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of heredity, de Vriesian mutation theory, and the linkage of sex-cell division (recently named "meiosis") to the mechanism of heredity. The 1909 Darwin celebration thus represents a significant watershed in the history of modem biology that allows historians to assess the status of evolution prior to the advent of the chromosome theory of genetics.

RevDate: 2018-12-01
CmpDate: 2006-07-25

Nivet C (2006)

[1848: Gregor Mendel, the monk who wanted to be a citizen].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 22(4):430-433.

This article proposes a previously unpublished French translation of a petition, in German, addressed by six Augustinian friars to the Constitutional Parliament of Vienna in the revolutionary year 1848. The petition states that members of religious orders are deprived of civil rights and demands that they be given citizenship ; it also contains a bitter attack on the monastic institution. We suggest that Mendel was the author of this text, which he signed and actually hand-wrote.

RevDate: 2016-11-24
CmpDate: 2005-12-09

Liu Y (2005)

Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics?.

Rivista di biologia, 98(2):305-322.

Although Mendel is now widely recognized as the founder of genetics, historical studies have shown that he did not in fact propose the modern concept of paired characters linked to genes, nor did he formulate the two "Mendelian laws" in the form now given. Furthermore, Mendel was accused of falsifying his data, and Mendelism has been met with scepticism because of its failure to provide scientific explanation for evolution, to furnish a basis for the process of genetic assimilation and to explain the inheritance of acquired characters, graft hybridization and many other facts. Darwin was the first to clearly describe almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, and was the first to present a developmental theory of heredity--Pangenesis, which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories of inheritance, particularly those of de Vries, Galton, Brooks and Weismann, but also tied all aspects of variation, heredity and development together, provided a mechanism for most of the observable facts, and is supported by increasing evidence. It has also been indicated that Darwin's influence on Mendel, primarily from The Origin, is evident. The word "gene" was derived from "pangen", itself a derivative of "Pangenesis" which Darwin had coined. It seems that Darwin should have been regarded as the pioneer, if not of transmissional genetics, of developmental genetics and molecular genetics.

RevDate: 2019-05-03
CmpDate: 2003-12-10

Dunn PM (2003)

Gregor Mendel, OSA (1822-1884), founder of scientific genetics.

Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition, 88(6):F537-9.

Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk and part-time school teacher, undertook a series of brilliant hybridisation experiments with garden peas between 1857 and 1864 in the monastery gardens and, using statistical methods for the first time in biology, established the laws of heredity, thereby establishing the discipline of genetics.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 2002-09-03

Pai Dhungat JV (2002)

Postal stamps released on John Gregor Mendel (1822-1884).

The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 50:929.

RevDate: 2010-11-18
CmpDate: 2002-06-27

Kemp M (2002)

Science in culture: peas without pictures--Gregor Mendel and the mathematical birth of modern genetics.

Nature, 417(6888):490.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 2002-03-19

Zuckerberg C (2001)

[Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884)].

Medicina, 61(6):903-904.

RevDate: 2021-05-27
CmpDate: 2001-04-05

Jay V (2001)

Gregor Johann Mendel.

Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine, 125(3):320-321.

RevDate: 2019-11-04
CmpDate: 2001-02-15

Lenay C (2000)

Hugo De Vries: from the theory of intracellular pangenesis to the rediscovery of Mendel.

Comptes rendus de l'Academie des sciences. Serie III, Sciences de la vie, 323(12):1053-1060.

On the basis of the article by the Dutch botanist Hugo De Vries 'On the law of separation of hybrids' published in the Reports of the Académie des Sciences in 1900, and the beginning of the controversy about priority with Carl Correns and Erich von Tschermak, I consider the question of the posthumous influence of the Mendel paper. I examine the construction of the new theoretical framework which enabled its reading in 1900 as a clear and acceptable presentation of the rules of the transmission of hereditary characters. In particular, I analyse the introduction of the idea of determinants of organic characters, understood as separable material elements which can be distributed randomly in descendants. Starting from the question of heredity, such as it was defined by Darwin in 1868, and after its critical developments by August Weismann, Hugo De Vries was able to suggest such an idea in his Intracellular Pangenesis. He then laid out a programme of research which helps us to understand the 'rediscovery' published in 1900.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 2000-12-28

Anonymous (2000)

MENDEL-BRNO 2000. Conference on DNA structure and interactions. Brno, Czech Republic, July 19-23, 2000. Abstracts.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics, 17(6):1117-1183.

RevDate: 2019-08-16
CmpDate: 1999-06-07

Chudley AE (1998)

Genetic landmarks through philately--Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-1884).

Clinical genetics, 54(2):121-123.

RevDate: 2019-05-01
CmpDate: 1998-05-28

Haas LF (1998)

Gregor Johann Mendel (1822-84).

Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 64(5):587.

RevDate: 2019-05-16
CmpDate: 1998-02-27

Pollack R (1998)

Darwin and Mendel versus Watson and Crick.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 12(2):149-150.

RevDate: 2007-11-15
CmpDate: 1997-11-19

Corwin RD (1997)

Point of view: from Gregor Mendel to coronary atherosclerosis.

Medicine and health, Rhode Island, 80(10):348-350.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 1995-03-20

Hirschhorn R (1995)

Genetic mosaicism: what Gregor Mendel didn't know.

The Journal of clinical investigation, 95(2):443-444.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 1995-03-06

Anonymous (1994)

International Congress on the Occasion of the 40th Anniversary of the Foundation of the Gregor Mendel Institute: Twin Study Today. Rome, Italy, 24-25 February 1994. Proceedings and abstracts.

Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae, 43(1-2):3-161.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1992-12-11

Riedel M (1992)

[Johann Gregor Mendel].

Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 117(45):1737-1738.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1992-09-09

Kohl F (1992)

[Of flowering plants and garden peas. The first description of the laws of inheritance by Johann Gregor Mendel].

Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946), 117(31-32):1212-1216.

RevDate: 2008-11-20
CmpDate: 1992-09-08

Hartl DL, V Orel (1992)

What did Gregor Mendel think he discovered?.

Genetics, 131(2):245-253.

RevDate: 2009-05-27
CmpDate: 1993-02-11

Krook H (1992)

[Mysteries surrounding Gregor Mendel and his research].

Nordisk medicinhistorisk arsbok.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 1991-10-10

Weiling F (1991)

Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

American journal of medical genetics, 40(1):1-25; discussion 26.

The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater efficiency. This included meteorology, the measurement of ground water levels, further hybridization in plants (a.o. involving the hawk week Hieracium up to about 1873), vegetable and fruit tree horticulture, apiculture, and agriculture in general. This involved Mendel's active participation in many organizations interested in advancing these fields at a time when appropriate research institutes did not exist in Brünn. Some of the positions he took in his capacity of Abbot had severe repercussions and further taxed Mendel's already over-stressed system. The worst of these was a 10-year confrontation with the government about the taxation of the monastery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

RevDate: 2007-11-15
CmpDate: 1995-06-09

Obermajer J (1991)

Further medals with the portrait of Gregor Mendel.

Folia mendeliana, 26-27:103-106.

Four new medals with Mendel's portrait were issued after 1985. Two of them were issued by the Mendelianum in Brno, one comes from the Federal Republic of Germany, and one from Spain.

RevDate: 2005-11-16
CmpDate: 1991-05-20

Piegorsch WW (1990)

Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

Biometrics, 46(4):915-924.

R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

RevDate: 2006-11-15
CmpDate: 1989-06-13

Happle R (1989)

[Gregor Mendel and dysplastic nevi].

Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift fur Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete, 40(2):70-76.

In contrast to what has so far generally been believed, dysplastic nevi do not appear to be mendelizing, but rather due to polygenic inheritance. In order to explain this contrasting idea, the following six theses are presented: (1) All dysplastic nevi are inherited in the same manner. (2) Dysplastic nevi constitute a continuous trait. (3) A "dysplastic nevus syndrome" in the form of a monogenic autosomal dominant trait probably does not exist. (4) A nonhereditary dysplastic nevus syndrome does not exist. (5) The number of the underlying genes that, considered separately, do of course follow the rules of mendelian inheritance is so far unknown. (6) A search for a single underlying gene defect is probably hopeless.

RevDate: 2017-02-14
CmpDate: 1986-08-27

Piegorsch WW (1986)

The Gregor Mendel controversy: early issues of goodness-of-fit and recent issues of genetic linkage.

History of science, 24(64 pt 2):173-182.

RevDate: 2019-05-10
CmpDate: 1986-09-16

Pilgrim I (1986)

A solution to the too-good-to-be-true paradox and Gregor Mendel.

The Journal of heredity, 77(3):218-220.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 1985-06-25

Márquez-Montez H, Salamanca Gómez F, Urzúa R, et al (1985)

[Centenary of the death of Gregor Mendel].

Gaceta medica de Mexico, 121(3-4):107-134.

RevDate: 2019-09-19
CmpDate: 1986-05-21

Gedda L, P Parisi (1985)

Gregor Mendel and twins.

Acta geneticae medicae et gemellologiae, 34(3-4):121-124.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 1985-10-23

Pelz L (1985)

[Johann Gregor Mendel and medical genetics. A medical history sketch on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of his death 6 January 1984].

Zeitschrift fur arztliche Fortbildung, 79(12):543-546.

RevDate: 2019-05-11
CmpDate: 1985-05-08

Monaghan FV, AF Corcos (1985)

Mendel, the empiricist.

The Journal of heredity, 76(1):49-54.

In contemporary texts in biology and genetics, Mendel is frequently portrayed as a theorist who was the father of classical genetics. According to some authors, he created his theory of inheritance to explain the results of his experimental hybridizations of peas. Others have proposed that he designed and carried out his experiments to demonstrate the correctness of a theory of inheritance he had already developed. We disagree strongly with these views of Mendel. Instead, we have come to regard him as an empirical investigator trying to discover the empirical natural laws describing the formation of hybrid peas and the development of their offspring over several generations. We have supported our view with an analysis of portions of Mendel's paper and his letters to Carl N ageli.

RevDate: 2019-05-11
CmpDate: 1985-02-04

Pilgrim I (1984)

The too-good-to-be-true paradox and Gregor Mendel.

The Journal of heredity, 75(6):501-502.

RevDate: 2019-05-11
CmpDate: 1985-02-04

MacRoberts MH (1984)

L. H. Bailey's citations to Gregor Mendel.

The Journal of heredity, 75(6):500-501.

L. H. Bailey cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, Cross-Breeding and Hybridizing, and Mendel is mentioned once in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant-Breeding." Bailey claimed to have copied his 1892 references to Mendel from Focke. It seems, however, that while he may have first encountered references to Mendel's work in Focke, he actually copied them from the Royal Society "Catalogue of Scientific Papers." Bailey also saw a reference to Mendel's 1865 paper in Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany." Bailey's 1895 mention of Mendel occurs in a passage he translated from Focke's "Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge."

RevDate: 2020-08-24
CmpDate: 1984-07-19

Soudek D (1984)

Gregor Mendel and the people around him (commemorative of the centennial of Mendel's death).

American journal of human genetics, 36(3):495-498.

RevDate: 2015-03-05
CmpDate: 1984-06-12

Sermonti G (1984)

[Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)].

Rivista di biologia, 77(1):105-113.

RevDate: 2019-10-31
CmpDate: 1984-06-13

Oldroyd D (1984)

Gregor Mendel: founding-father of modern genetics?.

Endeavour, 8(1):29-31.

RevDate: 2018-11-30
CmpDate: 1984-06-27

Anonymous (1984)

Gregor Johann Mendel 1822-1884. In centenary commemoration.

Hereditas, 100(1):II-XIII.

RevDate: 2013-12-13
CmpDate: 1977-09-17

Dewald GW (1977)

Gregor Johann Mendel and the beginning of genetics.

Mayo Clinic proceedings, 52(8):513-518.

RevDate: 2019-06-17
CmpDate: 1975-10-21

Blixt S (1975)

Why didn't Gregor Mendel find linkage?.

Nature, 256(5514):206.

RevDate: 2019-05-11
CmpDate: 1973-06-21

Orel V (1973)

Interest in hybridization in Moravia before Mendel came to Brno.

The Journal of heredity, 64(1):51-52.

RevDate: 2009-10-21
CmpDate: 1972-11-18

Kenéz J (1972)

[Johann Gregor Mendel, founder of modern genetics (1822-1884)].

Orvosi hetilap, 113(42):2539-2541.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1971-05-05

Orel V (1971)

[Gregor Mendel and the animal breeding in Moravia].

Schweizer Archiv fur Tierheilkunde, 113(2):82-83.

RevDate: 2010-06-28
CmpDate: 2010-06-28

Perl AF (1970)

Gregor Johann mendel.

Canadian Medical Association journal, 102(9):987.

RevDate: 2019-06-06
CmpDate: 1971-02-04

Gustafsson A (1969)

The life of Gregor Johann Mendel--tragic or not?.

Hereditas, 62(1):239-258.

RevDate: 2019-07-04
CmpDate: 1966-10-15

Mark HH (1966)

Gregor Johann Mendel on Pisum sativum. A centennial.

Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960), 76(2):287-289.

RevDate: 2008-02-13
CmpDate: 1967-08-05

Dubinin NP (1965)

[Gregor Mendel--the founder of genetics].

Izvestiia Akademii nauk SSSR. Seriia biologicheskaia, 6:809-824.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1967-07-22

Vakhtin IuB (1965)

[Johann Gregor Mendel].

Tsitologiia, 7(6):701-703.

RevDate: 2014-09-12
CmpDate: 1966-03-18

Steytler JG (1965)

[Gregor Johnann Mendel (1822-1884) the founder of the science of genetics].

South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde, 39(36):827-828.

RevDate: 2006-04-12
CmpDate: 1966-12-31

Astaurov BL (1965)

[On the scientific heritage of Gregor Mendel].

Zhurnal obshchei biologii, 26(5):521-527.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1966-03-12

Sajner J (1965)

[The fatal disease of Gregor Mendel].

Vnitrni lekarstvi, 11(9):909-916.

RevDate: 2010-11-18
CmpDate: 1968-11-20

Ondarza RN (1965)

[Centenary of the publication of the works of Gregor Mendel on genetics. V. Mendelism and biological evolution].

Gaceta medica de Mexico, 95(9):815-825.

RevDate: 2009-11-11
CmpDate: 1968-11-20

Salazar Mallén M (1965)

[Centenary of the publication of the works of Gregor Mendel on genetics. 3. The laws of heredity and human pathology].

Gaceta medica de Mexico, 95(9):795-806.

RevDate: 2009-11-11
CmpDate: 1968-11-20

Somolinos D'Ardois G (1965)

[Centenary of the publication of the works of Gregor Mendel on genetics. II. The abbot Gregor Mendel and his era].

Gaceta medica de Mexico, 95(9):781-794.

RevDate: 2009-11-11
CmpDate: 1968-11-20

Salazar Mallén M (1965)

[Centenary of the publication of the works of Gregor Mendel on genetics. I. Introduction].

Gaceta medica de Mexico, 95(9):777-779.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1967-01-23

Alikhanian SI (1965)

[Gregor Johann Mendel].

Mikrobiologiia, 34(4):733-739.

RevDate: 2014-04-06
CmpDate: 1966-10-08

Tiniakov GG (1965)

[Gregor Mendel--founder of the science of heredity. (On the centenary of the foundation of experimental genetics)].

Veterinariia, 42(7):112-113.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1966-02-05

Saavedra AM (1965)

[The abbot Gregor Johann Mendel].

Medicina, 45(964):73-74.

RevDate: 2019-05-01
CmpDate: 1996-12-01

SORSBY A (1965)


British medical journal, 1(5431):333-338.

RevDate: 2004-11-17
CmpDate: 1968-05-23

Klein D (1965)

[Gregor Mendel, the classic Mendelism and its influence on human genetics].

Archiv der Julius Klaus-Stiftung fur Vererbungsforschung, Sozialanthropologie und Rassenhygiene, 40(1-4):9-18.

RevDate: 2018-12-01
CmpDate: 1996-12-01

BARNETT CF (Jr) (1964)


The New physician, 13:A88-A89.

RevDate: 2018-12-01
CmpDate: 1998-11-01


[Founding of the Gregor Mendel Department of Genetics in the Moravian Museum in Brno and its museum and research program].

Biologia, 17:907-911.

RevDate: 2018-12-01
CmpDate: 1998-11-01


[The discovery and rediscovery of the laws of heredity. (The work of Johann Gregor Mendel)].

Revista. Asociacion Medica Mexicana, 40:401-410.

RevDate: 2019-06-05
CmpDate: 1998-11-01


A note on the bibliography of Gregor Mendel.

Medical history, 3:331-333.

RevDate: 2019-06-05
CmpDate: 2000-07-01

PLATT R (1959)

Darwin, Mendel, and Galton.

Medical history, 3(2):87-99.

RevDate: 2019-11-08
CmpDate: 2004-02-15

ZIRKLE C (1951)

Gregor Mendel & his precursors.

Isis; an international review devoted to the history of science and its cultural influences, 42(128):97-104.

RevDate: 2020-10-05
CmpDate: 2010-03-18


A note about the fundamental work of Gregor Mendel.

Comptes rendus des seances de la Societe de biologie et de ses filiales, 141(3-4):182.

RevDate: 2010-06-10
CmpDate: 2010-07-02

Davenport CB (1929)


Science (New York, N.Y.), 70(1801):16.

RevDate: 2010-06-10
CmpDate: 2010-07-02

Babcock EB (1921)


Science (New York, N.Y.), 54(1395):275-276.

ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )