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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2019 at 01:31 Created: 


While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Lo KH, Lu CW, Lin WH, et al (2019)

Enhanced reductive dechlorination of trichloroethene with immobilized Clostridium butyricum in silica gel.

Chemosphere, 238:124596 pii:S0045-6535(19)31820-X [Epub ahead of print].

Deteriorated environmental conditions during the bioremediation of trichloroethene (TCE)-polluted groundwater cause decreased treatment efficiencies. This study assessed the effect of applying immobilized Clostridium butyricum (a hydrogen-producing bacterium) in silica gel on enhancing the reductive dechlorination efficiency of TCE with the slow polycolloid-releasing substrate (SPRS) supplement in groundwater. The responses of microbial communities with the immobilized system (immobilized Clostridium butyricum and SPRS amendments) were also characterized by the metagenomics assay. A complete TCE removal in microcosms was obtained within 30 days with the application of this immobilized system via reductive dechlorination processes. An increase in the population of Dehalococcoides spp. was observed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis. Results of metagenomics assay reveal that the microbial communities in the immobilized system were distinct from those in systems with SPRS only. Bacterial communities associated with TCE biodegradation also increased in microcosms treated with the immobilized system. The immobilized system shows a great potential to promote the TCE dechlorination efficiency, and the metagenomics-based approach provides detailed insights into dechlorinating microbial community dynamics. The results would be helpful in designing an in situ immobilized system to enhance the bioremediation efficiency of TCE-contaminated groundwater.

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Malard F, M Mohty (2019)

Gut microbiota alteration during allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation: what can we do?.

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Yeoman CJ, Brutscher LM, Esen ÖC, et al (2019)

Genome-resolved insights into a novel Spiroplasma symbiont of the Wheat Stem Sawfly (Cephus cinctus).

PeerJ, 7:e7548 pii:7548.

Arthropods often have obligate relationships with symbiotic microbes, and recent investigations have demonstrated that such host-microbe relationships could be exploited to suppress natural populations of vector carrying mosquitos. Strategies that target the interplay between agricultural pests and their symbionts could decrease the burden caused by agricultural pests; however, the lack of comprehensive genomic insights into naturally occurring microbial symbionts presents a significant bottleneck. Here we employed amplicon surveys, genome-resolved metagenomics, and scanning electron microscopy to investigate symbionts of the wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus), a major pest that causes an estimated $350 million dollars or more in wheat yield losses in the northwestern United States annually. Through 16S rRNA gene sequencing of two major haplotypes and life stages of wheat stem sawfly, we show a novel Spiroplasma species is ever-present and predominant, with phylogenomic analyses placing it as a member of the ixodetis clade of mollicutes. Using state-of-the-art metagenomic assembly and binning strategies we were able to reconstruct a 714 Kb, 72.7%-complete Spiroplasma genome, which represents just the second draft genome from the ixodetis clade of mollicutes. Functional annotation of the Spiroplasma genome indicated carbohydrate-metabolism involved PTS-mediated import of glucose and fructose followed by glycolysis to lactate, acetate, and propionoate. The bacterium also encoded biosynthetic pathways for essential vitamins B2, B3, and B9. We identified putative Spiroplasma virulence genes: cardiolipin and chitinase. These results identify a previously undescribed symbiosis between wheat stem sawfly and a novel Spiroplasma sp., availing insight into their molecular relationship, and may yield new opportunities for microbially-mediated pest control strategies.

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Cabral DJ, Penumutchu S, Reinhart EM, et al (2019)

Microbial Metabolism Modulates Antibiotic Susceptibility within the Murine Gut Microbiome.

Cell metabolism pii:S1550-4131(19)30449-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Although antibiotics disturb the structure of the gut microbiota, factors that modulate these perturbations are poorly understood. Bacterial metabolism is an important regulator of susceptibility in vitro and likely plays a large role within the host. We applied a metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approach to link antibiotic-induced taxonomic and transcriptional responses within the murine microbiome. We found that antibiotics significantly alter the expression of key metabolic pathways at the whole-community and single-species levels. Notably, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, which blooms in response to amoxicillin, upregulated polysaccharide utilization. In vitro, we found that the sensitivity of this bacterium to amoxicillin was elevated by glucose and reduced by polysaccharides. Accordingly, we observed that dietary composition affected the abundance and expansion of B. thetaiotaomicron, as well as the extent of microbiome disruption with amoxicillin. Our work indicates that the metabolic environment of the microbiome plays a role in the response of this community to antibiotics.

RevDate: 2019-09-16

Requena T, M Velasco (2019)

The human microbiome in sickness and in health.

Revista clinica espanola pii:S0014-2565(19)30194-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The study of the human microbiome has led to an exceptional increase in the current understanding of the importance of microbiota for health throughout all stages of life. Human microbial colonization occurs in the skin, genitourinary system and, mainly, in the oral cavity and intestinal tract. In these locations, the human microbiota establishes a symbiotic relationship with the host and helps maintain the physiological homeostasis. Lifestyle, age, diet and use of antibiotics are the main regulators of the composition and functionality of human microbiota. Recent studies have indicated the reduction in microbial diversity as one of the contributors to the development of diseases. In addition to phylogenetic diversity studies, further metagenomic studies are needed at the functional level of the human microbiome to improve our understanding of its involvement in human health.

RevDate: 2019-09-16
CmpDate: 2019-09-16

Rands CM, Starikova EV, Brüssow H, et al (2018)

ACI-1 beta-lactamase is widespread across human gut microbiomes in Negativicutes due to transposons harboured by tailed prophages.

Environmental microbiology, 20(6):2288-2300.

Antibiotic resistance is increasing among pathogens, and the human microbiome contains a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes. Acidaminococcus intestini is the first Negativicute bacterium (Gram-negative Firmicute) shown to be resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics. Resistance is conferred by the aci1 gene, but its evolutionary history and prevalence remain obscure. We discovered that ACI-1 proteins are phylogenetically distinct from beta-lactamases of Gram-positive Firmicutes and that aci1 occurs in bacteria scattered across the Negativicute clade, suggesting lateral gene transfer. In the reference A. intestini RyC-MR95 genome, we found transposons residing within a tailed prophage context are likely vehicles for aci1's mobility. We found aci1 in 56 (4.4%) of 1,267 human gut metagenomes, mostly hosted within A. intestini, and, where could be determined, mostly within a consistent mobile element constellation. These samples are from Europe, China and the USA, showing that aci1 is distributed globally. We found that for most Negativicute assemblies with aci1, the prophage observed in A. instestini is absent, but in all cases aci1 is flanked by varying transposons. The chimeric mobile elements we identify here likely have a complex evolutionary history and potentially provide multiple complementary mechanisms for antibiotic resistance gene transfer both within and between cells.

RevDate: 2019-09-16
CmpDate: 2019-09-16

Williams D, Fothergill JL, Evans B, et al (2018)

Transmission and lineage displacement drive rapid population genomic flux in cystic fibrosis airway infections of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa epidemic strain.

Microbial genomics, 4(3):.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa chronic infections of cystic fibrosis (CF) airways are a paradigm for within-host evolution with abundant evidence for rapid evolutionary adaptation and diversification. Recently emerged transmissible strains have spread globally, with the Liverpool Epidemic Strain (LES) the most common strain infecting the UK CF population. Previously we have shown that highly divergent lineages of LES can be found within a single infection, consistent with super-infection among a cross-sectional cohort of patients. However, despite its clinical importance, little is known about the impact of transmission on the genetic structure of these infections over time. To characterize this, we longitudinally sampled a meta-population of 15 genetic lineages within the LES over 13 months among seven chronically infected CF patients by genome sequencing. Comparative genome analyses of P. aeruginosa populations revealed that the presence of coexisting lineages contributed more to genetic diversity within an infection than diversification in situ. We observed rapid and substantial shifts in the relative abundance of lineages and replacement of dominant lineages, likely to represent super-infection by repeated transmissions. Lineage dynamics within patients led to rapid changes in the frequencies of mutations across suites of linked loci carried by each lineage. Many loci were associated with important infection phenotypes such as antibiotic resistance, mucoidy and quorum sensing, and were repeatedly mutated in different lineages. These findings suggest that transmission leads to rapid shifts in the genetic structure of CF infections, including in clinically important phenotypes such as antimicrobial resistance, and is likely to impede accurate diagnosis and treatment.

RevDate: 2019-09-13
CmpDate: 2019-09-13

Wang Y, F Staubach (2018)

Individual variation of natural D.melanogaster-associated bacterial communities.

FEMS microbiology letters, 365(6):.

Drosophila melanogaster has become an important model organism to study host-microbe interaction in the laboratory. However, the natural microbial communities that are associated with D. melanogaster have received less attention. Especially, information on inter-individual variation is still lacking, because most studies so far have used pooled material from several flies. Here, we collected bacterial 16S rRNA gene community profiles from a set of 32 individuals from a single population. We simulated pools from the individual data (i) to assess how well the microbiome of a host population is represented by pools, and (ii) to compare variation of Drosophila microbiomes within and between populations. Taxon richness was increased in simulated pools, suggesting that pools paint a more comprehensive picture of the taxa associated with a host population. Furthermore, microbiome composition varied less between pools than between individuals, indicating that differences even out in pools. Variation in microbiome composition was larger between populations than between simulated pools from a single population, adding to the notion that there are population-specific effects on the Drosophila microbiome. Surprisingly, samples from individuals clustered into two groups, suggesting that there are yet unknown factors that affect the composition of natural fly-associated microbial communities and need further research.

RevDate: 2019-09-15

Guhr A, AR Weig (2019)

Assessment of prokaryote to eukaryote ratios in environmental samples by SSU rDNA length polymorphism.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek pii:10.1007/s10482-019-01327-y [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities are important regulators of many processes in all ecosystems. Understanding of ecosystem processes requires at least an overview of the involved microorganisms. While in-depth identification of microbial species in environmental samples can be achieved by next generation sequencing, profiling of whole microbial communities can be accomplished via less labour-intensive approaches. Especially automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) are of interest as they are highly specific even at fine scales and widely applicable for environmental samples. Yet, established protocols lack the possibility to compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities as different primer sets are necessary. However, shifts in the eukaryote to prokaryote ratio can be a useful indicator for ecosystem processes like decomposition or nutrient cycling. We propose a protocol to analyse prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities using a single primer pair based reaction based on a region with variable length (V4, which is about 180 bp shorter in prokaryotes compared to eukaryotes) in the small ribosomal subunit flanked by two highly conservative regions. Shifts in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic ratio between samples can be reliably detected by fragment length polymorphism analysis as well as sequencing of this region. Together with established approaches such as ARISA or 16S and ITS rDNA sequencing, this can provide a more complex insight into microbial community shifts and ecosystem processes.

RevDate: 2019-09-15

Breton-Deval L, Sanchez-Flores A, Juárez K, et al (2019)

Integrative study of microbial community dynamics and water quality along The Apatlaco River.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 255(Pt 1):113158 pii:S0269-7491(19)31007-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing demand for clean water resources for human consumption, is raising concerning about the sustainable worldwide provisioning. In Mexico, rivers near to high-density urbanizations are subject to irrational exploitation where polluted water is a risk for human health. Therefore, the aims of this study are to analyze water quality parameters and bacterial community dynamics to understand the relation between them, in the Apatlaco river, which presents a clear environmental perturbance. Parameters such as total coliforms, chemical oxygen demand, harness, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total dissolved solids, and temperature were analyzed in 17 sampling points along the river. The high pollution level was registered in the sampling point 10 with 480 mg/L chemical oxygen demand, 7 mg/L nitrite, 34 mg/L nitrate, 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen, and 299 mg/L of total dissolved solids. From these sites, we selected four samples for DNA extraction and performed a metagenomic analysis using a whole metagenome shotgun approach, to compare the microbial communities between polluted and non-polluted sites. In general, Proteobacteria was the most representative phylum in all sites. However, the clean water reference point was enriched with microorganism from the Limnohabitans genus, a planktonic bacterium widespread in freshwater ecosystems. Nevertheless, in the polluted sampled sites, we found a high abundance of potential opportunistic pathogen genera such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Myroides, among others. This suggests that in addition to water contamination, an imminent human health risk due to pathogenic bacteria can potentially affect a population of ∼1.6 million people dwelling nearby. These results will contribute to the knowledge regarding anthropogenic pollution on the microbial population dynamic and how they affect human health and life quality.

RevDate: 2019-09-15

Wang Y, Liu F, Zhu B, et al (2019)

Metagenomic data screening reveals the distribution of mobilized resistance genes tet(X), mcr and carbapenemase in animals and humans.

RevDate: 2019-09-15

Rausch P, Rühlemann M, Hermes BM, et al (2019)

Comparative analysis of amplicon and metagenomic sequencing methods reveals key features in the evolution of animal metaorganisms.

Microbiome, 7(1):133 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0743-1.

BACKGROUND: The interplay between hosts and their associated microbiome is now recognized as a fundamental basis of the ecology, evolution, and development of both players. These interdependencies inspired a new view of multicellular organisms as "metaorganisms." The goal of the Collaborative Research Center "Origin and Function of Metaorganisms" is to understand why and how microbial communities form long-term associations with hosts from diverse taxonomic groups, ranging from sponges to humans in addition to plants.

METHODS: In order to optimize the choice of analysis procedures, which may differ according to the host organism and question at hand, we systematically compared the two main technical approaches for profiling microbial communities, 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic shotgun sequencing across our panel of ten host taxa. This includes two commonly used 16S rRNA gene regions and two amplification procedures, thus totaling five different microbial profiles per host sample.

CONCLUSION: While 16S rRNA gene-based analyses are subject to much skepticism, we demonstrate that many aspects of bacterial community characterization are consistent across methods. The resulting insight facilitates the selection of appropriate methods across a wide range of host taxa. Overall, we recommend single- over multi-step amplification procedures, and although exceptions and trade-offs exist, the V3 V4 over the V1 V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Finally, by contrasting taxonomic and functional profiles and performing phylogenetic analysis, we provide important and novel insight into broad evolutionary patterns among metaorganisms, whereby the transition of animals from an aquatic to a terrestrial habitat marks a major event in the evolution of host-associated microbial composition.

RevDate: 2019-09-15

Steinegger M, Meier M, Mirdita M, et al (2019)

HH-suite3 for fast remote homology detection and deep protein annotation.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(1):473 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-3019-7.

BACKGROUND: HH-suite is a widely used open source software suite for sensitive sequence similarity searches and protein fold recognition. It is based on pairwise alignment of profile Hidden Markov models (HMMs), which represent multiple sequence alignments of homologous proteins.

RESULTS: We developed a single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vectorized implementation of the Viterbi algorithm for profile HMM alignment and introduced various other speed-ups. These accelerated the search methods HHsearch by a factor 4 and HHblits by a factor 2 over the previous version 2.0.16. HHblits3 is ∼10× faster than PSI-BLAST and ∼20× faster than HMMER3. Jobs to perform HHsearch and HHblits searches with many query profile HMMs can be parallelized over cores and over cluster servers using OpenMP and message passing interface (MPI). The free, open-source, GPLv3-licensed software is available at .

CONCLUSION: The added functionalities and increased speed of HHsearch and HHblits should facilitate their use in large-scale protein structure and function prediction, e.g. in metagenomics and genomics projects.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

Jung H, Oh KC, Ryu HW, et al (2019)

Simultaneous mitigation of methane and odors in a biowindow using a pipe network.

Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 100:45-56 pii:S0956-053X(19)30581-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, a biowindow with a piped gas collection network is proposed as an area-efficient landfill gas treatment system. A 9-m2 biowindow was constructed for treating landfill gas collected from an area of 450 m2 in a sanitary landfill, and its performance was evaluated for 224 days. The methane removal efficiency was 59-100% at 146.3-675.1 g-CH4 m-2 d-1. Odorous compounds were also removed by the biowindow, with a complex odor intensity removal rate of 93-100%. In particular, the removal efficiency for hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol, major contributors to the complex odor intensity, was 97% and 91%, respectively. Metagenomic analysis showed that the dominant bacterial genera shifted from Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to Methylobacter and Methylocaldum due to the high concentration of methane. A high bacterial diversity was maintained, which may have contributed to the robust performance of the biowindow against environmental fluctuations. At 1/50th of the size of conventional biocovers, the proposed biowindow can greatly reduce the required installation area and represents a competitive method for the simultaneous treatment of methane and odor in landfills.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

Rollemberg SLS, Barros AN, Lira VNSA, et al (2019)

Comparison of the dynamics, biokinetics and microbial diversity between activated sludge flocs and aerobic granular sludge.

Bioresource technology, 294:122106 pii:S0960-8524(19)31336-7 [Epub ahead of print].

This work aimed to compare the dynamics, biokinetics, and microbial diversity between activated sludge flocs (ASF) and aerobic granular sludge (AGS) whose systems were operated under similar experimental conditions in terms of inoculum, feeding, substrate source, etc. Therefore, the kinetic parameters involved in the organic matter removal, nitrification, denitrification, and dephosphatation were determined, as well as the microbial changes were assessed by metagenomics analysis. Regarding the kinetic parameter yield coefficient (Y), values of 0.55 and 0.36 g VSS/g COD were found for ASF and AGS, respectively, showing a higher sludge production in ASF and the importance of feast/famine periods for lowering sludge production in AGS systems. AGS presented a lower sludge production and a higher endogenous consumption rate than ASF. The activity of phosphorus-accumulating bacteria was remarkably higher in AGS. Although both biomasses were aerobic, their kinetic parameters had significant differences.

RevDate: 2019-09-14

Ji X, Wu Z, Sung S, et al (2019)

Metagenomics and metatranscriptomics analyses reveal oxygen detoxification and mixotrophic potentials of an enriched anammox culture in a continuous stirred-tank reactor.

Water research, 166:115039 pii:S0043-1354(19)30813-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The metabolisms of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria related to ammonia oxidation with nitrite reduction and autotrophic carbon fixation have been extensively observed. However, little is known about the specific metabolic pathways associated with oxygen detoxification and organic carbon utilization. To this end, we obtained high abundance of anammox species (∼50%) in a lab-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) at room temperature without strict anaerobic condition. The draft genome of the dominant anammox bacteria affiliated to Ca. Brocadia sp. was recovered. Its metabolic pathways and genes expression were reconstructed and examined through metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses. Interestingly, the results suggested that this anammox lineage likely performs oxygen detoxification with genes encoding superoxide dismutase (SOD) and cytochrome c peroxidase (Ccp). Moreover, the Ccp-activated hydrogen peroxide (intermediate of oxygen detoxification) reduction might be energetically beneficial for the observed acetate conversion related to cell synthesis of Ca. Brocadia sp. This study offers a comprehensive understanding on the diverse metabolic activities in anammox species affiliated to Ca. Brocadia sp., and expanded the applicability of anammox process.

RevDate: 2019-09-13

McCann A, Jeffery IB, Ouliass B, et al (2019)

Exploratory analysis of covariation of microbiota-derived vitamin K and cognition in older adults.

The American journal of clinical nutrition pii:5569648 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Vitamin K has multiple important physiological roles, including blood coagulation and beneficial effects on myelin integrity in the brain. Some intestinal microbes possess the genes to produce vitamin K in the form of menaquinone (MK). MK appears in higher concentration in tissues, such as the brain, particularly MK4, than the dietary form of phylloquinone (PK). Lower PK concentrations have been reported in patients with Alzheimer disease while higher serum PK concentrations have been positively associated with verbal episodic memory. Despite knowledge of the importance of vitamin K for various health parameters, few studies have measured MK concentration and biosynthesis by gut commensals.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to investigate the relation between genes involved in gut-microbiota derived MK, concentrations of MK isoforms, and cognitive function.

METHODS: Shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the gut microbiome of 74 elderly individuals with different cognitive ability levels was performed. From this, gene counts for microbial MK biosynthesis were determined. Associations between clusters of individuals, grouped based on a similar presence and prevalence of MK biosynthesis genes, and cognitive ability were investigated. Fecal MK concentrations were quantified by HPLC to investigate correlations with subject clusters.

RESULTS: Separation of subject groups defined by banded quantification of the genetic potential of their microbiome to biosynthesize MK was associated with significant differences in cognitive ability [assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)]. Three MK isoforms were found to be positively associated with MMSE, along with the identification of key components of the MK pathway that drive this association. Although the causality and direction of these associations remain unknown, these findings justify further studies.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that although total concentrations of MK did not covary with cognition, certain MK isoforms synthesized by the gut microbiome, particularly the longer chains, are positively associated with cognition.

RevDate: 2019-09-13

Botté ES, Nielsen S, Abdul Wahab MA, et al (2019)

Changes in the metabolic potential of the sponge microbiome under ocean acidification.

Nature communications, 10(1):4134 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-12156-y.

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are causing ocean acidification, which can affect the physiology of marine organisms. Here we assess the possible effects of ocean acidification on the metabolic potential of sponge symbionts, inferred by metagenomic analyses of the microbiomes of two sponge species sampled at a shallow volcanic CO2 seep and a nearby control reef. When comparing microbial functions between the seep and control sites, the microbiome of the sponge Stylissa flabelliformis (which is more abundant at the control site) exhibits at the seep reduced potential for uptake of exogenous carbohydrates and amino acids, and for degradation of host-derived creatine, creatinine and taurine. The microbiome of Coelocarteria singaporensis (which is more abundant at the seep) exhibits reduced potential for carbohydrate import at the seep, but greater capacity for archaeal carbon fixation via the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate pathway, as well as archaeal and bacterial urea production and ammonia assimilation from arginine and creatine catabolism. Together these metabolic features might contribute to enhanced tolerance of the sponge symbionts, and possibly their host, to ocean acidification.

RevDate: 2019-09-13

Allen-Vercoe E, Carmical JR, Forry SP, et al (2019)

Perspectives for Consideration in the Development of Microbial Cell Reference Materials.

Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology pii:1055-9965.EPI-19-0557 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiome measurement and analyses benefit greatly from incorporation of reference materials as controls. However, there are many points to consider in defining an ideal whole cell reference material standard. Such a standard would embody all the diversity and measurement challenges present in real samples, would be completely characterized to provide 'ground truth' data, and would be inexpensive and widely available. This ideal is, unfortunately, not readily attainable because of the diverse nature of different sequencing projects. Some applications may benefit most from highly complex reference materials, while others will value characterization or low expense more highly. The selection of appropriate microbial whole cell reference materials to benchmark and validate microbial measurements should be considered carefully and may vary among specific applications. In this commentary, we describe a perspective on the development of whole cell microbial reference materials for use in metagenomics analyses.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Mark Welch JL, Dewhirst FE, GG Borisy (2019)

Biogeography of the Oral Microbiome: The Site-Specialist Hypothesis.

Annual review of microbiology, 73:335-358.

Microbial communities are complex and dynamic, composed of hundreds of taxa interacting across multiple spatial scales. Advances in sequencing and imaging technology have led to great strides in understanding both the composition and the spatial organization of these complex communities. In the human mouth, sequencing results indicate that distinct sites host microbial communities that not only are distinguishable but to a meaningful degree are composed of entirely different microbes. Imaging suggests that the spatial organization of these communities is also distinct. Together, the literature supports the idea that most oral microbes are site specialists. A clear understanding of microbiota structure at different sites in the mouth enables mechanistic studies, informs the generation of hypotheses, and strengthens the position of oral microbiology as a model system for microbial ecology in general.

RevDate: 2019-09-13
CmpDate: 2019-09-13

Tianero MD, Balaich JN, MS Donia (2019)

Localized production of defence chemicals by intracellular symbionts of Haliclona sponges.

Nature microbiology, 4(7):1149-1159.

Marine sponges often house small-molecule-producing symbionts extracellularly in their mesohyl, providing the host with a means of chemical defence against predation and microbial infection. Here, we report an intriguing case of chemically mediated symbiosis between the renieramycin-containing sponge Haliclona sp. and its herein discovered renieramycin-producing symbiont Candidatus Endohaliclona renieramycinifaciens. Remarkably, Ca. E. renieramycinifaciens has undergone extreme genome reduction where it has lost almost all necessary elements for free living while maintaining a complex, multi-copy plasmid-encoded biosynthetic gene cluster for renieramycin biosynthesis. In return, the sponge houses Ca. E. renieramycinifaciens in previously uncharacterized cellular reservoirs (chemobacteriocytes), where it can acquire nutrients from the host and avoid bacterial competition. This relationship is highly specific to a single clade of Haliclona sponges. Our study reveals intracellular symbionts as an understudied source for defence chemicals in the oldest-living metazoans and paves the way towards discovering similar systems in other marine sponges.

RevDate: 2019-09-13
CmpDate: 2019-09-13

Fuentes I, Guttmann-Gruber C, Tay ASL, et al (2018)

Reduced Microbial Diversity Is a Feature of Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa-Involved Skin and Wounds.

The Journal of investigative dermatology, 138(11):2492-2495.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Williams SH, Che X, Oleynik A, et al (2019)

Discovery of two highly divergent negative-sense RNA viruses associated with the parasitic nematode, Capillaria hepatica, in wild Mus musculus from New York City.

The Journal of general virology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology have led to a rapid expansion in the number of viral sequences associated with samples from vertebrates, invertebrates and environmental samples. Accurate host identification can be difficult in assays of complex samples that contain more than one potential host. Using unbiased metagenomic sequencing, we investigated wild house mice (Mus musculus) and brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) from New York City to determine the aetiology of liver disease. Light microscopy was used to characterize liver disease, and fluorescent microscopy with in situ hybridization was employed to identify viral cell tropism. Sequences representing two novel negative-sense RNA viruses were identified in homogenates of wild house mouse liver tissue: Amsterdam virus and Fulton virus. In situ hybridization localized viral RNA to Capillaria hepatica, a parasitic nematode that had infected the mouse liver. RNA from either virus was found within nematode adults and unembryonated eggs. Expanded PCR screening identified brown rats as a second rodent host for C. hepatica as well as both nematode-associated viruses. Our findings indicate that the current diversity of nematode-associated viruses may be underappreciated and that anatomical imaging offers an alternative to computational host assignment approaches.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Hameed M, Liu K, Anwar MN, et al (2019)

A Viral Metagenomic Analysis Reveals Rich Viral Abundance and Diversity in Mosquitoes from Pig Farms.

Transboundary and emerging diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Mosquitoes harbor a diversity of viruses, and are responsible for several mosquito-borne viral diseases of humans and animals, thereby leading to major public health concerns, and significant economic losses across the globe. Viral metagenomics offers a great opportunity for bulk analysis of viral genomes retrieved directly from environmental samples. In this study, we performed a viral metagenomic analysis of five pools of mosquitoes belonging to Aedes, Anopheles, and Culex species, collected from different pig farms in the vicinity of Shanghai, China to explore the viral community carried by mosquitoes. The resulting metagenomic data revealed that viral community in the mosquitoes was highly diverse and varied in abundance among pig farms, which comprised of more than 48 viral taxonomic families, specific to vertebrates, invertebrates, plants, fungi, bacteria, and protozoa. In addition, a considerable number of viral reads were related to viruses that are not classified by host. The read sequences related to animal viruses included parvoviruses, anelloviruses, circoviruses, flavivirus, rhabdovirus, and seadornaviruses, which might be taken up by mosquitoes from viremic animal hosts during blood feeding. Notably, sample G1 contained the most abundant sequence related to Banna virus, which is of public health interest because it causes encephalitis in humans. Furthermore, non-classified viruses also shared considerable virus sequences in all the samples, presumably belonging to unexplored virus category. Overall, the present study provides a comprehensive knowledge of diverse viral populations carried by mosquitoes at pig farms, which is a potential source of diseases for mammals including humans and animals. These viral metagenomic data are valuable for assessment of emerging and re-emerging viral epidemics.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Sekhohola-Dlamini L, M Tekere (2019)

Microbiology of municipal solid waste landfills: a review of microbial dynamics and ecological influences in waste bioprocessing.

Biodegradation pii:10.1007/s10532-019-09890-x [Epub ahead of print].

Municipal solid waste landfills are widely used as a waste management tool and landfill microbiology is at the core of waste degradation in these ecosystems. This review investigates the microbiology of municipal solid waste landfills, focusing on the current state of knowledge pertaining to microbial diversity and functions facilitating in situ waste bioprocessing, as well as ecological factors influencing microbial dynamics in landfills. Bioprocessing of waste in municipal landfills emanates from substrate metabolism and co-metabolism by several syntrophic microorganisms, resulting in partial transformation of complex substrates into simpler polymeric compounds and complete mineralisation into inorganic salts, water and gases including the biofuel gas methane. The substrate decomposition is characterised by evolution and interactions of different bacterial, archaeal and fungal groups due to prevailing biotic and abiotic conditions in the landfills, allowing for hydrolytic, fermentative, acetogenic and methanogenic processes to occur. Application of metagenomics studies based on high throughput Next Generation Sequencing technique has advanced research on profiling of the microbial communities in municipal solid waste landfills. However, functional diversity and bioprocess dynamics, as well as key factors influencing the in situ bioprocesses involved in landfill waste degradation; the very elements that are key in determining the efficiency of municipal landfills as tools of waste management, remain ambiguous. Such gaps also hinder progressive understanding of fundamentals that underlie technology development based on waste biodegradation, and exploration of municipal waste as a bioresource.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Wong DWS, Chan VJ, H Liao (2019)

Metagenomic discovery of feruloyl esterases from rumen microflora.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-019-10102-y [Epub ahead of print].

Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are a key group of enzymes that hydrolyze ferulic acids ester-linked to plant polysaccharides. The cow's rumen is a highly evolved ecosystem of complex microbial microflora capable of converting fibrous substances to energy. From direct cloning of the rumen microbial metagenome, we identified seven active phagemids conferring feruloyl esterase activity. The genomic inserts ranged from 1633 to 4143 bp, and the ORFs from 681 to 1359 bp. BLAST search reveals sequence homology to feruloyl esterases and esterases/lipases identified in anaerobes. The seven genes were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the proteins were purified to homogeneity. The FAEs were found to cover types B, C, and D in the feruloyl esterase classification system using model hydroxycinnamic acid esters. The release of ferulic acid (FA) catalyzed by these enzymes was established using natural substrates corn fiber (CF) and wheat insoluble arabinoxylan (WIA). Three of the enzymes were demonstrated to cleave diferulates and hence the capability to break down Araf-FA-FA-Araf cross-links. The wide variation in the sequence, activity, and substrate specificity observed in the FAEs discovered in this study is a confirming evidence that combined actions of a full range of FAE enzymes contribute to the high-efficiency fiber digestion in the rumen microbial ecosystem.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Xin Y, Guo T, Zhang Y, et al (2019)

A new β-galactosidase extracted from the infant feces with high hydrolytic and transgalactosylation activity.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-019-10092-x [Epub ahead of print].

A β-galactosidase (β-GalINF) was directly isolated from feces of an 8-month-old infant. Mass spectrum analysis showed β-GalINF with coverage over 50% to the β-galactosidase from Bifidobacterium longum EK3. Accordingly, the β-galINF was amplified from the feces metagenomic DNA by degenerate primers. After overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the β-GalINF was purified and biochemical characterized. β-GalINF existed as homotetramer and homodimer, whose activity (optimal at 50 °C, pH 6.5) was exhilaratingly increased to 484% by artificial intestinal juice. The Km and Vmax values for oNPG and lactose were 20.95 ± 2.76 mM, 5004.50 ± 318.8 μmol min-1 mg-1 and 140.2 ± 17.7 mM, 293.1 ± 14.7 μmol min-1 mg-1, respectively. The production rate of galacto-oligosaccharides by β-GalINF from 20% lactose at 50 °C was 33.4 ± 0.67%. These results suggested the β-GalINF with high hydrolytic and transgalactosylation activity from the infant intestinal has great potential as infant lactase preparation. Moreover, this study provided a new way for exploring undetected enzymes by uncultured-dependent methods.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Liu C, Li M, Redda ET, et al (2019)

A novel double-stranded RNA mycovirus isolated from Trichoderma harzianum.

Virology journal, 16(1):113 pii:10.1186/s12985-019-1213-x.

BACKGROUND: Trichoderma spp. are used extensively in agriculture as biological control agents to prevent soil-borne plant diseases. In recent years, mycoviruses from fungi have attracted increasing attention due to their effects on their hosts, but Trichoderma mycoviruses have not been the subject of extensive study. We sought to discover novel mycoviruses from Trichoderma spp. and to determine the effects of the biocontrol function of Trichoderma spp.

METHODS: Mycoviruses were screened by dsRNA extraction and metagenomic analysis. RT-PCR, 5' RACE, and 3' RACE were used to obtain the genome sequence. MEGA software was used to classify the new mycovirus. The effects of the identified mycovirus on the biological properties of the host strain 525 were evaluated using cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

RESULTS: A novel mycovirus, Trichoderma harzianum mycovirus 1 (ThMV1) (accession number MH155602), was discovered in Trichoderma harzianum strain 525, a soil-borne fungus collected from Inner Mongolia, China. The mycovirus exhibited a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome with a complete genome sequence of 3160 base pairs and two open reading frames (ORFs) on the negative strand. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it belongs to an unclassified family of dsRNA mycoviruses. The removal of ThMV1 from the host 525 strain reduced host biomass production and improved the biocontrol capability of the host for Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. At same time, the presence of ThMV1 improved the growth of cucumber.

CONCLUSION: ThMV1 is a new unclassified mycovirus found in T. harzianum. It not only affects the phenotype of the host strain but also reduces its biocontrol function, which sheds light on the interaction between the mycovirus and Trichoderma spp.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Valdes C, Stebliankin V, G Narasimhan (2019)

Large scale microbiome profiling in the cloud.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 35(14):i13-i22.

MOTIVATION: Bacterial metagenomics profiling for metagenomic whole sequencing (mWGS) usually starts by aligning sequencing reads to a collection of reference genomes. Current profiling tools are designed to work against a small representative collection of genomes, and do not scale very well to larger reference genome collections. However, large reference genome collections are capable of providing a more complete and accurate profile of the bacterial population in a metagenomics dataset. In this paper, we discuss a scalable, efficient and affordable approach to this problem, bringing big data solutions within the reach of laboratories with modest resources.

RESULTS: We developed Flint, a metagenomics profiling pipeline that is built on top of the Apache Spark framework, and is designed for fast real-time profiling of metagenomic samples against a large collection of reference genomes. Flint takes advantage of Spark's built-in parallelism and streaming engine architecture to quickly map reads against a large (170 GB) reference collection of 43 552 bacterial genomes from Ensembl. Flint runs on Amazon's Elastic MapReduce service, and is able to profile 1 million Illumina paired-end reads against over 40 K genomes on 64 machines in 67 s-an order of magnitude faster than the state of the art, while using a much larger reference collection. Streaming the sequencing reads allows this approach to sustain mapping rates of 55 million reads per hour, at an hourly cluster cost of $8.00 USD, while avoiding the necessity of storing large quantities of intermediate alignments.

Flint is open source software, available under the MIT License (MIT). Source code is available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Muggli MD, Alipanahi B, C Boucher (2019)

Building large updatable colored de Bruijn graphs via merging.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 35(14):i51-i60.

MOTIVATION: There exist several large genomic and metagenomic data collection efforts, including GenomeTrakr and MetaSub, which are routinely updated with new data. To analyze such datasets, memory-efficient methods to construct and store the colored de Bruijn graph were developed. Yet, a problem that has not been considered is constructing the colored de Bruijn graph in a scalable manner that allows new data to be added without reconstruction. This problem is important for large public datasets as scalability is needed but also the ability to update the construction is also needed.

RESULTS: We create a method for constructing the colored de Bruijn graph for large datasets that is based on partitioning the data into smaller datasets, building the colored de Bruijn graph using a FM-index based representation, and succinctly merging these representations to build a single graph. The last step, merging succinctly, is the algorithmic challenge which we solve in this article. We refer to the resulting method as VariMerge. This construction method also allows the graph to be updated with new data. We validate our approach and show it produces a three-fold reduction in working space when constructing a colored de Bruijn graph for 8000 strains. Lastly, we compare VariMerge to other competing methods-including Vari, Rainbowfish, Mantis, Bloom Filter Trie, the method of Almodaresi et al. and Multi-BRWT-and illustrate that VariMerge is the only method that is capable of building the colored de Bruijn graph for 16 000 strains in a manner that allows it to be updated. Competing methods either did not scale to this large of a dataset or do not allow for additions without reconstruction.

VariMerge is available at under GPLv3 license.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-09-12

Tolstoganov I, Bankevich A, Chen Z, et al (2019)

cloudSPAdes: assembly of synthetic long reads using de Bruijn graphs.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England), 35(14):i61-i70.

MOTIVATION: The recently developed barcoding-based synthetic long read (SLR) technologies have already found many applications in genome assembly and analysis. However, although some new barcoding protocols are emerging and the range of SLR applications is being expanded, the existing SLR assemblers are optimized for a narrow range of parameters and are not easily extendable to new barcoding technologies and new applications such as metagenomics or hybrid assembly.

RESULTS: We describe the algorithmic challenge of the SLR assembly and present a cloudSPAdes algorithm for SLR assembly that is based on analyzing the de Bruijn graph of SLRs. We benchmarked cloudSPAdes across various barcoding technologies/applications and demonstrated that it improves on the state-of-the-art SLR assemblers in accuracy and speed.

Source code and installation manual for cloudSPAdes are available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Tampuu A, Bzhalava Z, Dillner J, et al (2019)

ViraMiner: Deep learning on raw DNA sequences for identifying viral genomes in human samples.

PloS one, 14(9):e0222271 pii:PONE-D-19-16058.

Despite its clinical importance, detection of highly divergent or yet unknown viruses is a major challenge. When human samples are sequenced, conventional alignments classify many assembled contigs as "unknown" since many of the sequences are not similar to known genomes. In this work, we developed ViraMiner, a deep learning-based method to identify viruses in various human biospecimens. ViraMiner contains two branches of Convolutional Neural Networks designed to detect both patterns and pattern-frequencies on raw metagenomics contigs. The training dataset included sequences obtained from 19 metagenomic experiments which were analyzed and labeled by BLAST. The model achieves significantly improved accuracy compared to other machine learning methods for viral genome classification. Using 300 bp contigs ViraMiner achieves 0.923 area under the ROC curve. To our knowledge, this is the first machine learning methodology that can detect the presence of viral sequences among raw metagenomic contigs from diverse human samples. We suggest that the proposed model captures different types of information of genome composition, and can be used as a recommendation system to further investigate sequences labeled as "unknown" by conventional alignment methods. Exploring these highly-divergent viruses, in turn, can enhance our knowledge of infectious causes of diseases.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

King CH, Desai H, Sylvetsky AC, et al (2019)

Baseline human gut microbiota profile in healthy people and standard reporting template.

PloS one, 14(9):e0206484 pii:PONE-D-18-29457.

A comprehensive knowledge of the types and ratios of microbes that inhabit the healthy human gut is necessary before any kind of pre-clinical or clinical study can be performed that attempts to alter the microbiome to treat a condition or improve therapy outcome. To address this need we present an innovative scalable comprehensive analysis workflow, a healthy human reference microbiome list and abundance profile (GutFeelingKB), and a novel Fecal Biome Population Report (FecalBiome) with clinical applicability. GutFeelingKB provides a list of 157 organisms (8 phyla, 18 classes, 23 orders, 38 families, 59 genera and 109 species) that forms the baseline biome and therefore can be used as healthy controls for studies related to dysbiosis. This list can be expanded to 863 organisms if closely related proteomes are considered. The incorporation of microbiome science into routine clinical practice necessitates a standard report for comparison of an individual's microbiome to the growing knowledgebase of "normal" microbiome data. The FecalBiome and the underlying technology of GutFeelingKB address this need. The knowledgebase can be useful to regulatory agencies for the assessment of fecal transplant and other microbiome products, as it contains a list of organisms from healthy individuals. In addition to the list of organisms and their abundances, this study also generated a collection of assembled contiguous sequences (contigs) of metagenomics dark matter. In this study, metagenomic dark matter represents sequences that cannot be mapped to any known sequence but can be assembled into contigs of 10,000 nucleotides or higher. These sequences can be used to create primers to study potential novel organisms. All data is freely available from and NCBI's Short Read Archive.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Stevenson LJ, Owen JG, DF Ackerley (2019)

Metagenome driven discovery of non-ribosomal peptides.

ACS chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Declining rates of novel natural product discovery and exponential rates of rediscovery heralded the end of the 1940s to 1960s 'golden era' of antibiotic discovery. Fifty years later, the implementation of molecular screening methodologies revealed that standard culture-based screening approaches had failed to capture the vast majority of environmental bacteria, and that even for the cultivable isolates only a small fraction of the biosynthetic potential had been tapped. A diversity of metagenomic screening and synthetic biology approaches have been developed to address these issues. The non-ribosomal peptides have received particular focus, owing to their high levels of bioactivity and the predictability of the biosynthetic logic of the genetically-encoded assembly lines that produce them. By uniting advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analysis with a diversity of traditional disciplines, several pioneering teams have proven that this previously inaccessible resource is no longer out of reach.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Park W, Yoo J, Oh S, et al (2019)

Microbiological Characteristics of Gouda Cheese Manufactured with Pasteurized and Raw Milk during Ripening Using Next Generation Sequencing.

Food science of animal resources, 39(4):585-600.

Gouda cheese, one of most popular cheeses in the Korea, has been produced from only pasteurized milk in Korean dairy farms. Recently, it has become legally possible to produce ripened cheese manufactured with raw milk in Korea. In the present study, we investigated the physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of Gouda cheese manufactured with raw (R-GC) or pasteurized milk (P-GC) during manufacturing and ripening. Particularly, this study characterized the bacterial community structure of two cheese types, which are produced without pasteurization during ripening based on next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. During ripening, protein and fat content increased slightly, whereas moisture content decreased in both P-GC and R-GC. At the 6 wk of ripening, R-GC became softer and smoother and hence, the values of hardness and gumminess, chewiness in R-GC was lower than that of P-GC. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the bacterial genera used a starter cultures, namely Lactococcus and Leuconostoc were predominant in both P-GC and R-GC. Moreover, in R-GC, the proportion of coliform bacteria such as Escherichia, Leclercia, Raoultella, and Pseudomonas were detected initially but not during ripening. Taken together, our finding indicates the potential of manufacturing with Gouda cheese from raw milk and the benefits of next generation sequencing for microbial community composition during cheese ripening.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Huang GD, Liu XM, Huang TL, et al (2019)

The statistical power of k-mer based aggregative statistics for alignment-free detection of horizontal gene transfer.

Synthetic and systems biotechnology, 4(3):150-156 pii:S2405-805X(19)30030-4.

Alignment-based database search and sequence comparison are commonly used to detect horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, with the rapid increase of sequencing depth, hundreds of thousands of contigs are routinely assembled from metagenomics studies, which challenges alignment-based HGT analysis by overwhelming the known reference sequences. Detecting HGT by k-mer statistics thus becomes an attractive alternative. These alignment-free statistics have been demonstrated in high performance and efficiency in whole-genome and transcriptome comparisons. To adapt k-mer statistics for HGT detection, we developed two aggregative statistics T s u m S and T s u m * , which subsample metagenome contigs by their representative regions, and summarize the regional D 2 S and D 2 * metrics by their upper bounds. We systematically studied the aggregative statistics' power at different k-mer size using simulations. Our analysis showed that, in general, the power of T s u m S and T s u m * increases with sequencing coverage, and reaches a maximum power >80% at k = 6, with 5% Type-I error and the coverage ratio >0.2x. The statistical power of T s u m S and T s u m * was evaluated with realistic simulations of HGT mechanism, sequencing depth, read length, and base error. We expect these statistics to be useful distance metrics for identifying HGT in metagenomic studies.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Ogunade IM, Lay J, Andries K, et al (2019)

Effects of live yeast on differential genetic and functional attributes of rumen microbiota in beef cattle.

Journal of animal science and biotechnology, 10:68 pii:378.

Several studies have evaluated the effects of live yeast supplementation on rumen microbial population; however, its effect on differential microbial genes and their functional potential has not been described. Thus, this study applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing to evaluate the effects of live yeast supplementation on genetic and functional potential of the rumen microbiota in beef cattle. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein steers were randomly assigned to two treatments in a cross-over design with two 25-day experimental periods and a 10-day wash-out between the two periods. The steers were housed in individual pens and fed 50% concentrate-mix and 50% red clover/orchard hay ad libitum. Treatments were (1) control (CON; basal diet without additive) and (2) yeast (YEA; basal diet plus 15 g/d of live yeast product). Rumen fluid samples were collected at 3, 6, and 9 h after feeding on the last d of each period. Sequencing was done on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Dietary yeast supplementation increased the relative abundance of carbohydrate-fermenting bacteria (such as Ruminococcus albus, R. champanellensis, R. bromii, and R. obeum) and lactate-utilizing bacteria (such as Megasphaera elsdenii, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and D. vulgaris). A total of 154 differentially abundant genes (DEGs) were obtained (false discovery rate < 0.01). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analysis of the DEGs revealed that 10 pathways, including amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, pantothenate and coenzyme A biosynthesis, glutathione metabolism, beta-alanine metabolism, polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis, protein export, ribosome, and bacterial secretory system, were enriched in steers fed YEA. Annotation analysis of the DEGs in the carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZy) database revealed that the abundance of genes coding for enzymes belonging to glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, and carbohydrate binding modules were enriched in steers fed YEA. These results confirm the effectiveness of a live S. cerevisiae product for improving rumen function in beef steers by increasing the abundance of cellulolytic bacteria, lactic acid-utilizing bacteria, and carbohydrate-active enzymes in the rumen.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Ly T, Wright JR, Weit N, et al (2019)

Microbial Communities Associated With Passive Acidic Abandoned Coal Mine Remediation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1955.

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is an environmental issue that can be characterized by either acidic or circumneutral pH and high dissolved metal content in contaminated waters. It is estimated to affect roughly 3000 miles of waterways within the state of Pennsylvania, with half being acidic and half being circumneutral. To negate the harmful effects of AMD, ∼300 passive remediation systems have been constructed within the state of Pennsylvania. In this study, we evaluated the microbial community structure and functional capability associated with Middle Branch passive remediation system in central PA. Sediment and water samples were collected from each area within the passive remediation system and its receiving stream. Environmental parameters associated with the remediation system were found to explain a significant amount of variation in microbial community structure. This study revealed shifts in microbial community structure from acidophilic bacteria in raw AMD discharge to a more metabolically diverse set of taxa (i.e., Acidimicrobiales, Rhizobiales, Chthoniobacteraceae) toward the end of the system. Vertical flow ponds and the aerobic wetland showed strong metabolic capability for sulfur redox environments. These findings are integral to the understanding of designing effective passive remediation systems because it provides insight as to how certain bacteria [sulfate reducing bacteria (SRBs) and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOBs)] are potentially contributing to a microbially mediated AMD remediation process. This study further supports previous investigations that demonstrated the effectiveness of SRBs in the process of removing sulfate and heavy metals from contaminated water.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Liang Y, Wang L, Wang Z, et al (2019)

Metagenomic Analysis of the Diversity of DNA Viruses in the Surface and Deep Sea of the South China Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1951.

A metagenomic analysis of the viral community from five surface and five deep sea water (>2000 m below the surface, mbs) samples collected from the central basin of the South China Sea and adjacent Northwest Pacific Ocean during July-August 2017 was conducted herein. We builded up a South China Sea DNA virome (SCSV) dataset of 29,967 viral Operational Taxonomic Units (vOTUs), which is comparable to the viral populations from the original Tara Ocean and Malaspina expeditions. The most abundant and widespread viral populations were from the uncultivated viruses annotated from the viral metagenomics. Only 74 and 37 vOTUs have similarity with the reported genomes from the cultivated viruses and the single-virus genomics, respectively. The community structures of deep sea viromes in the SCSV were generally different from the surface viromes. The carbon flux and nutrients (PO4 and NOx) were related to the surface and deep sea viromes in the SCSV, respectively. In the SCSV, the annotated vOTUs could be affiliated to the cultivated viruses mainly including Pelagibacter (SAR11) phage HTVC010P, Prochlorococcus phages (P-GSP1, P-SSM4, and P-TIM68), Cyanophages (MED4-184 and MED4-117) and Mycobacterium phages (Sparky and Squirty). It indicated that phage infection to the SAR11 cluster may occur ubiquitously and has significant impacts on bathypelagic SAR11 communities in the deep sea. Meanwhile, as Prochlorococcus is prominently distributed in the euphotic ocean, the existence of their potential phages in the deep sea suggested the sedimentation mechanism might contribute to the formation of the deep sea viromes. Intriguingly, the presence of Mycobacterium phages only in the deep sea viromes, suggests inhabitance of endemic viral populations in the deep sea viromes in the SCSV. This study provided an insight of the viral community in the South China Sea and for the first time uncovered the deep sea viral diversity in the central basin of the South China Sea.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Durán-Viseras A, Andrei AS, Ghai R, et al (2019)

New Halonotius Species Provide Genomics-Based Insights Into Cobalamin Synthesis in Haloarchaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1928.

Hypersaline aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems display a cosmopolitan distribution. These environments teem with microbes and harbor a plethora of prokaryotic lineages that evaded ecological characterization due to the prior inability to cultivate them or to access their genomic information. In order to close the current knowledge gap, we performed two sampling and isolation campaigns in the saline soils of the Odiel Saltmarshes and the salterns of Isla Cristina (Huelva, Spain). From the isolated haloarchaeal strains subjected to high-throughput phylogenetic screening, two were chosen (F15BT and F9-27T) for physiological and genomic characterization due of their relatedness to the genus Halonotius. Comparative genomic analyses were carried out between the isolated strains and the genomes of previously described species Halonotius pteroides CECT 7525T, Halonotius aquaticus F13-13T and environmentaly recovered metagenome-assembled representatives of the genus Halonotius. The topology of the phylogenomic tree showed agreement with the phylogenetic ones based on 16S rRNA and rpoB' genes, and together with average amino acid and nucleotide identities suggested the two strains as novel species within the genus. We propose the names Halonotius terrestris sp. nov. (type strain F15BT = CECT 9688T = CCM 8954T) and Halonotius roseus sp. nov. (type strain F9-27T = CECT 9745T = CCM 8956T) for these strains. Comparative genomic analyses within the genus highlighted a typical salt-in signature, characterized by acidic proteomes with low isoelectric points, and indicated heterotrophic aerobic lifestyles. Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions revealed that the newly proposed species encode all the necessary enzymatic reactions involved in cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthesis. Based on the worldwide distribution of the genus and its abundance in hypersaline habitats we postulate that its members perform a critical function by being able to provide "expensive" commodities (i.e., vitamin B12) to the halophilic microbial communities at large.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Olekhnovich EI, Manolov AI, Samoilov AE, et al (2019)

Shifts in the Human Gut Microbiota Structure Caused by Quadruple Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1902.

The human gut microbiome plays an important role both in health and disease. Use of antibiotics can alter gut microbiota composition, which can lead to various deleterious events. Here we report a whole genome sequencing metagenomic/genomic study of the intestinal microbiota changes caused by Helicobacter pylori (HP) eradication therapy. Using approaches for metagenomic data analysis we revealed a statistically significant decrease in alpha-diversity and relative abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis due to HP eradication therapy, while the relative abundance of Enterococcus faecium increased. We have detected changes in general metagenome resistome profiles as well: after HP eradication therapy, the ermB, CFX group, and tetQ genes were overrepresented, while tetO and tetW genes were underrepresented. We have confirmed these results with genome-resolved metagenomic approaches. MAG (metagenome-assembled genomes) abundance profiles have changed dramatically after HP eradication therapy. Focusing on ermB gene conferring resistance to macrolides, which were included in the HP eradication therapy scheme, we have shown a connection between antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and some overrepresented MAGs. Moreover, some E. faecium strains isolated from stool samples obtained after HP eradication have manifested greater antibiotic resistance in vitro in comparison to other isolates, as well as the higher number of ARGs conferring resistance to macrolides and tetracyclines.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Huang M, Peng M, Gan CH, et al (2019)

A case of intracranial molluscum contagiosum virus infection diagnosed by metagenomic sequencing of cerebrospinal fluid.

Acta virologica, 63(3):333-337.

Molluscum contagiosum is a common, self-limiting infectious disease of the skin caused by molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV). The disease primarily affects children, sexually active adults, and immunocompromised individuals. Transmission of the virus occurs by direct skin contact. Therefore, the virus is usually detected in the skin and genitals of patients. However, the diagnosis of intracranial infection by the virus is difficult if the skin/mucosa lessons are atypical or absent, and the presence of the virus in the cerebrospinal fluid has not been reported. We report a very rare case of intracranial infection by molluscum contagiosum virus. A 25-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to severe headache but no fever or other symptoms. Upon examination, some small flesh-colored flattened papules on both arms were noticed. Blood tests showed slightly reduced levels of CD3 and CD4 T lymphocytes. Three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D-TOF-MRA) and head magnetic resonance (MR) were both normal. Lumbar puncture was performed, and metagenomic sequencing was applied to the spinal fluid. The unique sequences of the molluscum contagiosum virus were identified in the fluid. The patient was then diagnosed with intracranial molluscum contagiosum virus infection. No special treatment was given. The headache gradually disappeared, and the patient was discharged. During our quarterly follow-up, the girl appeared normal, and her skin lesions disappeared. However, her CD3 and CD4 T lymphocyte counts were still slightly lower than the normal level. Our case shows that the application of metagenomic sequencing to cerebrospinal fluid is a sensitive and powerful means to detect pathogens causing intracranial infection. Keywords: Molluscum contagiosum; intracranial infection; metagenomics sequencing.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Jiang Z, Li P, Wang Y, et al (2019)

Arsenic mobilization in a high arsenic groundwater revealed by metagenomic and Geochip analyses.

Scientific reports, 9(1):12972 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-49365-w.

Microbial metabolisms of arsenic, iron, sulfur, nitrogen and organic matter play important roles in arsenic mobilization in aquifer. In this study, microbial community composition and functional potentials in a high arsenic groundwater were investigated using integrated techniques of RNA- and DNA-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomic sequencing and functional gene arrays. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed the sample was dominated by members of Proteobacteria (62.3-75.2%), such as genera of Simplicispira (5.7-6.7%), Pseudomonas (3.3-5.7%), Ferribacterium (1.6-4.4%), Solimonas (1.8-3.2%), Geobacter (0.8-2.2%) and Sediminibacterium (0.6-2.4%). Functional potential analyses indicated that organics degradation, assimilatory sulfate reduction, As-resistant pathway, iron reduction, ammonification, nitrogen fixation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia were prevalent. The composition and function of microbial community and reconstructed genome bins suggest that high level of arsenite in the groundwater may be attributed to arsenate release from iron oxides reductive dissolution by the iron-reducing bacteria, and subsequent arsenate reduction by ammonia-producing bacteria featuring ars operon. This study highlights the relationship between biogeochemical cycling of arsenic and nitrogen in groundwater, which potentially occur in other aquifers with high levels of ammonia and arsenic.

RevDate: 2019-09-11

Manoharan L, Kozlowski JA, Murdoch RW, et al (2019)

Metagenomes from Coastal Marine Sediments Give Insights into the Ecological Role and Cellular Features of Loki- and Thorarchaeota.

mBio, 10(5): pii:mBio.02039-19.

The genomes of Asgard Archaea, a novel archaeal proposed superphylum, share an enriched repertoire of eukaryotic signature genes and thus promise to provide insights into early eukaryote evolution. However, the distribution, metabolisms, cellular structures, and ecology of the members within this superphylum are not well understood. Here we provide a meta-analysis of the environmental distribution of the Asgard archaea, based on available 16S rRNA gene sequences. Metagenome sequencing of samples from a salt-crusted lagoon on the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico allowed the assembly of a new Thorarchaeota and three Lokiarchaeota genomes. Comparative analyses of all known Lokiarchaeota and Thorarchaeota genomes revealed overlapping genome content, including central carbon metabolism. Members of both groups contained putative reductive dehalogenase genes, suggesting that these organisms might be able to metabolize halogenated organic compounds. Unlike the first report on Lokiarchaeota, we identified genes encoding glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase in all Loki- and Thorarchaeota genomes, suggesting that these organisms are able to synthesize bona fide archaeal lipids with their characteristic glycerol stereochemistry.IMPORTANCE Microorganisms of the superphylum Asgard Archaea are considered to be the closest living prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes (including plants and animals) and thus promise to give insights into the early evolution of more complex life forms. However, very little is known about their biology as none of the organisms has yet been cultivated in the laboratory. Here we report on the ecological distribution of Asgard Archaea and on four newly sequenced genomes of the Lokiarchaeota and Thorarchaeota lineages that give insight into possible metabolic features that might eventually help to identify these enigmatic groups of archaea in the environment and to culture them.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Tetz GV, Tetz VV, Voroshilova TM, et al (2017)

[The choice of antibiotic in microbiological study of pyoinflammatory processes.].

Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika, 62(6):372-375.

The efficiency of application of test-system "Antibiotic Choice" was examined concerning evaluation of sensitivity to medications of maximal possible number of bacteria from pathological samples at burn trauma without isolation of pure culture. The results of metagenome analysis demonstrated that test-system permits supporting factually all bacteria discovered in wound discharge, including ones related to not cultivated yet. The comparison was carried out concerning results of standard identification of sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics and efficient medication according the results of application of test-system "Antibiotic Choice". The obtained results demonstrate that test-system permits choosing antibiotic during 6-20 hours without separation of pure culture.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Bougnom BP, Thiele-Bruhn S, Ricci V, et al (2019)

Raw wastewater irrigation for urban agriculture in three African cities increases the abundance of transferable antibiotic resistance genes in soil, including those encoding extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs).

The Science of the total environment, 698:134201 pii:S0048-9697(19)34178-6 [Epub ahead of print].

A study was conducted to investigate the impact of raw wastewater use for irrigation on dissemination of bacterial resistance in urban agriculture in African cities. The pollution of agricultural fields by selected antibiotic residues was assessed. The structure and functions of the soil microbial communities, presence of antibiotic resistance genes of human clinical importance and Enterobacteriaceae plasmid replicons were analysed using high throughput metagenomic sequencing. In irrigated fields, the richness of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla increased by 65% and 15.7%, respectively; functions allocated to microbial communities' adaptation and development increased by 3%. Abundance of antibiotic resistance genes of medical interest was 27% greater in irrigated fields. Extended spectrum β-lactamase genes identified in irrigated fields included blaCARB-3, blaOXA-347, blaOXA-5 and blaRm3. The presence of ARGs encoding resistance to amphenicols, β-lactams, and tetracyclines were associated with the higher concentrations of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole in irrigated fields. Ten Enterobacteriaceae plasmid amplicon groups involved in the wide distribution of ARGs were identified in the fields. IncQ2, ColE, IncFIC, IncQ1, and IncFII were found in both farming systems; IncW and IncP1 in irrigated fields; and IncY, IncFIB and IncFIA in non-irrigated fields. In conclusion, raw wastewater irrigated soils in African cities could represent a vector for the spread of antibiotic resistance, thus threatening human and animal health. Consumers of products from these farms and farmers could be at risk of acquiring infections due to drug-resistant bacteria.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Wu S, Sun C, Li Y, et al (2019)

GMrepo: a database of curated and consistently annotated human gut metagenomes.

Nucleic acids research pii:5559685 [Epub ahead of print].

GMrepo (data repository for Gut Microbiota) is a database of curated and consistently annotated human gut metagenomes. Its main purpose is to facilitate the reusability and accessibility of the rapidly growing human metagenomic data. This is achieved by consistently annotating the microbial contents of collected samples using state-of-art toolsets and by manual curation of the meta-data of the corresponding human hosts. GMrepo organizes the collected samples according to their associated phenotypes and includes all possible related meta-data such as age, sex, country, body-mass-index (BMI) and recent antibiotics usage. To make relevant information easier to access, GMrepo is equipped with a graphical query builder, enabling users to make customized, complex and biologically relevant queries. For example, to find (1) samples from healthy individuals of 18 to 25 years old with BMIs between 18.5 and 24.9, or (2) projects that are related to colorectal neoplasms, with each containing >100 samples and both patients and healthy controls. Precomputed species/genus relative abundances, prevalence within and across phenotypes, and pairwise co-occurrence information are all available at the website and accessible through programmable interfaces. So far, GMrepo contains 58 903 human gut samples/runs (including 17 618 metagenomes and 41 285 amplicons) from 253 projects concerning 92 phenotypes. GMrepo is freely available at:

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Fleres G, Couto N, Schuele L, et al (2019)

Detection of a novel mcr-5.4 gene variant in hospital tap water by shotgun metagenomic sequencing.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy pii:5553750 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Douglas GM, MGI Langille (2019)

Current and Promising Approaches to Identify Horizontal Gene Transfer Events in Metagenomes.

Genome biology and evolution pii:5554466 [Epub ahead of print].

High-throughput shotgun metagenomics sequencing has enabled the profiling of myriad natural communities. This data is commonly used to identify gene families and pathways that were potentially gained or lost in an environment and which may be involved in microbial adaptation. Despite the widespread interest in these events, there are no established best-practices for identifying gene gain and loss in metagenomics data. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) represents several mechanisms of gene gain that are especially of interest in clinical microbiology, due to the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance genes in natural communities. Several additional mechanisms of gene gain and loss, including gene duplication, gene loss-of-function events, and de novo gene birth are also important to consider in the context of metagenomes, but have been less studied. This review is largely focused on detecting HGT in prokaryotic metagenomes, but methods for detecting these other mechanisms are first discussed. For this article to be self-contained we provide a general background on HGT and the different possible signatures of this process. Lastly, we discuss how improved assembly of genomes from metagenomes would be the most straight-forward approach for improving the inference of gene gain and loss events. Several recent technological advances could help improve metagenome assemblies: long-read sequencing, determining the physical proximity of contigs, optical mapping of short sequences along chromosomes, and single-cell metagenomics. The benefits and limitations of these advances are discussed and open-questions in this area are highlighted.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Hoyos-Hernandez C, Courbert C, Simonucci C, et al (2019)

Community structure and functional genes in radionuclide contaminated soils in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:5556529 [Epub ahead of print].

Chernobyl and Fukushima were subjected to radionuclide (RN) contamination that has led to environmental problems. In order to explore the ability of microorganisms to survive in these environments, we used a combined 16S rRNA and metagenomic approach to describe the prokaryotic community structure and metabolic potential over a gradient of RN concentrations (137Cs 1680-0.4 and 90Sr 209.1-1.9 kbq kg-1) in soil samples. The taxonomic results showed that samples with low 137Cs content (37.8-0.4 kbq kg-1) from Fukushima and Chernobyl clustered together. In order to determine the effect of soil chemical parameters such as organic carbon (OC), Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Strontium-90 (90Sr) on the functional potential of microbial communities, multiple predictor model analysis using PiecewiseSEM was carried out on Chernobyl soil metagenomes. The model identified 46 genes that were correlated to these parameters of which most have previously been described as mechanisms used by microorganisms under stress conditions. This study provides a baseline taxonomic and metagenomic dataset for Fukushima and Chernobyl respectively, including physical and chemical characteristics. Our results pave the way for evaluating the possible RN selective pressure that might contribute to shaping microbial community structure and their functions in contaminated soils.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Kim KJ, Park J, Park SC, et al (2019)

Phylogenetic Tree-based Microbiome Association Test.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5559486 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Ecological patterns of the human microbiota exhibit high inter-subject variation, with few operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared across individuals. To overcome these issues, non-parametric approaches, such as the Mann-Whitney U-test and Wilcoxon rank-sum test, have often been used to identify OTUs associated with host diseases. However, these approaches only use the ranks of observed relative abundances, leading to information loss, and are associated with high false-negative rates. In this study, we propose a phylogenetic tree-based microbiome association test (TMAT) to analyze the associations between microbiome OTU abundances and disease phenotypes. Phylogenetic trees illustrate patterns of similarity among different OTUs, and TMAT provides an efficient method for utilizing such information for association analyses. The proposed TMAT provides test statistics for each node, which are combined to identify mutations associated with host diseases.

RESULTS: Power estimates of TMAT were compared with existing methods using extensive simulations based on real absolute abundances. Simulation studies showed that TMAT preserves the nominal type-1 error rate, and estimates of its statistical power generally outperformed existing methods in the considered scenarios. Furthermore, TMAT can be used to detect phylogenetic mutations associated with host diseases, providing more in-depth insight into bacterial pathology.

AVAILABILITY: The 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing metagenomics datasets for colorectal carcinoma and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome are available from the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) database under project accession number PRJEB6070 and PRJEB13092, respectively. TMAT was implemented in the R package. Detailed information is available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Benoit G, Mariadassou M, Robin S, et al (2019)

SimkaMin: fast and resource frugal de novo comparative metagenomics.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5559271 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: De novo comparative metagenomics is one of the most straightforward ways to analyze large sets of metagenomics data. Latest methods use the fraction of shared k-mers to estimate genomic similarity between read sets. However, those methods, while extremely efficient, are still limited by computational needs for practical usage outside of large computing facilities.

RESULTS: We present SimkaMin, a quick comparative metagenomics tool with low disk and memory footprints, thanks to an efficient data subsampling scheme used to estimate Bray-Curtis and Jaccard dissimilarities. One billion metagenomic reads can be analyzed in less than 3 minutes, with tiny memory (1.09 GB) and disk (≈0.3 GB) requirements and without altering the quality of the downstream comparative analyses, making of SimkaMin a tool perfectly tailored for very large-scale metagenomic projects.


RevDate: 2019-09-10

Hugoson E, Lam WT, L Guy (2019)

miComplete: weighted quality evaluation of assembled microbial genomes.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:5553089 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: Metagenomics and single-cell genomics have revolutionized the study of microorganisms, increasing our knowledge of microbial genomic diversity by orders of magnitude. A major issue pertaining to metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) is to estimate their completeness and redundancy. Most approaches rely on counting conserved gene markers. In miComplete, we introduce a weighting strategy, where we normalize the presence/absence of markers by their median distance to the next marker in a set of complete reference genomes. This approach alleviates biases introduced by the presence/absence of shorter DNA pieces containing many markers, e.g. ribosomal protein operons.

miComplete is written in Python 3 and released under GPLv3. Source code and documentation are available at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

McLaren MR, Willis AD, BJ Callahan (2019)

Consistent and correctable bias in metagenomic sequencing experiments.

eLife, 8: pii:46923.

Marker-gene and metagenomic sequencing have profoundly expanded our ability to measure biological communities. But the measurements they provide differ from the truth, often dramatically, because these experiments are biased toward detecting some taxa over others. This experimental bias makes the taxon or gene abundances measured by different protocols quantitatively incomparable and can lead to spurious biological conclusions. We propose a mathematical model for how bias distorts community measurements based on the properties of real experiments. We validate this model with 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics data from defined bacterial communities. Our model better fits the experimental data despite being simpler than previous models. We illustrate how our model can be used to evaluate protocols, to understand the effect of bias on downstream statistical analyses, and to measure and correct bias given suitable calibration controls. These results illuminate new avenues toward truly quantitative and reproducible metagenomics measurements.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Forsberg KJ, Bhatt IV, Schmidtke DT, et al (2019)

Functional metagenomics-guided discovery of potent Cas9 inhibitors in the human microbiome.

eLife, 8: pii:46540.

CRISPR-Cas systems protect bacteria and archaea from phages and other mobile genetic elements, which use small anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to overcome CRISPR-Cas immunity. Because Acrs are challenging to identify, their natural diversity and impact on microbial ecosystems are underappreciated. To overcome this discovery bottleneck, we developed a high-throughput functional selection to isolate ten DNA fragments from human oral and fecal metagenomes that inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) in Escherichia coli. The most potent Acr from this set, AcrIIA11, was recovered from a Lachnospiraceae phage. We found that AcrIIA11 inhibits SpyCas9 in bacteria and in human cells. AcrIIA11 homologs are distributed across diverse bacteria; many distantly-related homologs inhibit both SpyCas9 and a divergent Cas9 from Treponema denticola. We find that AcrIIA11 antagonizes SpyCas9 using a different mechanism than other previously characterized Type II-A Acrs. Our study highlights the power of functional selection to uncover widespread Cas9 inhibitors within diverse microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Kumar M, Singh P, Murugesan S, et al (2020)

Microbiome as an Immunological Modifier.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2055:595-638.

Humans are living ecosystems composed of human cells and microbes. The microbiome is the collection of microbes (microbiota) and their genes. Recent breakthroughs in the high-throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible for us to understand the composition of the human microbiome. Launched by the National Institutes of Health in USA, the human microbiome project indicated that our bodies harbor a wide array of microbes, specific to each body site with interpersonal and intrapersonal variabilities. Numerous studies have indicated that several factors influence the development of the microbiome including genetics, diet, use of antibiotics, and lifestyle, among others. The microbiome and its mediators are in a continuous cross talk with the host immune system; hence, any imbalance on one side is reflected on the other. Dysbiosis (microbiota imbalance) was shown in many diseases and pathological conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, diabetes, and cancer. The microbial composition mirrors inflammation variations in certain disease conditions, within various stages of the same disease; hence, it has the potential to be used as a biomarker.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Shi LD, Wang M, Han YL, et al (2019)

Multi-omics reveal various potential antimonate reductases from phylogenetically diverse microorganisms.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-019-10111-x [Epub ahead of print].

While previous work has demonstrated that antimonate (Sb(V)) can be bio-reduced with methane as the sole electron donor, the microorganisms responsible for Sb(V) reduction remain largely uncharacterized. Inspired by the recently reported Sb(V) reductase belonging to the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR) family, this study was undertaken to use metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to unravel whether any DMSOR family genes in the bioreactor had the potential for Sb(V) reduction. A search through metagenomic-assembled genomes recovered from the microbial community found that some DMSOR family genes, designated sbrA (Sb(V) reductase gene), were highly transcribed in four phylogenetically disparate assemblies. The putative catalytic subunits were found to be representatives of two distinct phylogenetic clades of reductases that were most closely related to periplasmic nitrate reductases and respiratory arsenate reductases, respectively. Putative operons containing sbrA possessed many other components, including genes encoding c-type cytochromes, response regulators, and ferredoxins, which together implement Sb(V) reduction. This predicted ability was confirmed by incubating the enrichment culture with 13C-labeled CH4 and Sb(V) in serum bottles, where Sb(V) was reduced coincident with the production of 13C-labeled CO2. Overall, these results increase our understanding of how Sb(V) can be bio-reduced in environments.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Gasparrini AJ, Wang B, Sun X, et al (2019)

Persistent metagenomic signatures of early-life hospitalization and antibiotic treatment in the infant gut microbiota and resistome.

Nature microbiology pii:10.1038/s41564-019-0550-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hospitalized preterm infants receive frequent and often prolonged exposures to antibiotics because they are vulnerable to infection. It is not known whether the short-term effects of antibiotics on the preterm infant gut microbiota and resistome persist after discharge from neonatal intensive care units. Here, we use complementary metagenomic, culture-based and machine learning techniques to study the gut microbiota and resistome of antibiotic-exposed preterm infants during and after hospitalization, and we compare these readouts to antibiotic-naive healthy infants sampled synchronously. We find a persistently enriched gastrointestinal antibiotic resistome, prolonged carriage of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and distinct antibiotic-driven patterns of microbiota and resistome assembly in extremely preterm infants that received early-life antibiotics. The collateral damage of early-life antibiotic treatment and hospitalization in preterm infants is long lasting. We urge the development of strategies to reduce these consequences in highly vulnerable neonatal populations.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Takeuchi S, Kawada JI, Horiba K, et al (2019)

Metagenomic analysis using next-generation sequencing of pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from pediatric patients with respiratory failure.

Scientific reports, 9(1):12909 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-49372-x.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been applied in the field of infectious diseases. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is considered a sterile type of specimen that is suitable for detecting pathogens of respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to comprehensively identify causative pathogens using NGS in BALF samples from immunocompetent pediatric patients with respiratory failure. Ten patients hospitalized with respiratory failure were included. BALF samples obtained in the acute phase were used to prepare DNA- and RNA-sequencing libraries. The libraries were sequenced on MiSeq, and the sequence data were analyzed using metagenome analysis tools. A mean of 2,041,216 total reads were sequenced for each library. Significant bacterial or viral sequencing reads were detected in eight of the 10 patients. Furthermore, candidate pathogens were detected in three patients in whom etiologic agents were not identified by conventional methods. The complete genome of enterovirus D68 was identified in two patients, and phylogenetic analysis suggested that both strains belong to subclade B3, which is an epidemic strain that has spread worldwide in recent years. Our results suggest that NGS can be applied for comprehensive molecular diagnostics as well as surveillance of pathogens in BALF from patients with respiratory infection.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Kraemer S, Ramachandran A, Colatriano D, et al (2019)

Diversity and biogeography of SAR11 bacteria from the Arctic Ocean.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0499-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The Arctic Ocean is relatively isolated from other oceans and consists of strongly stratified water masses with distinct histories, nutrient, temperature, and salinity characteristics, therefore providing an optimal environment to investigate local adaptation. The globally distributed SAR11 bacterial group consists of multiple ecotypes that are associated with particular marine environments, yet relatively little is known about Arctic SAR11 diversity. Here, we examined SAR11 diversity using ITS analysis and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Arctic SAR11 assemblages were comprised of the S1a, S1b, S2, and S3 clades, and structured by water mass and depth. The fresher surface layer was dominated by an ecotype (S3-derived P3.2) previously associated with Arctic and brackish water. In contrast, deeper waters of Pacific origin were dominated by the P2.3 ecotype of the S2 clade, within which we identified a novel subdivision (P2.3s1) that was rare outside the Arctic Ocean. Arctic S2-derived SAR11 MAGs were restricted to high latitudes and included MAGs related to the recently defined S2b subclade, a finding consistent with bi-polar ecotypes and Arctic endemism. These results place the stratified Arctic Ocean into the SAR11 global biogeography and have identified SAR11 lineages for future investigation of adaptive evolution in the Arctic Ocean.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Sims TT, Colbert LE, Zheng J, et al (2019)

Gut microbial diversity and genus-level differences identified in cervical cancer patients versus healthy controls.

Gynecologic oncology pii:S0090-8258(19)31489-1 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize variation in the gut microbiome of women with locally advanced cervical cancer and compare it to healthy controls.

METHODS: We characterized the 16S rDNA fecal microbiome in 42 cervical cancer patients and 46 healthy female controls. Shannon diversity index (SDI) was used to evaluate alpha (within sample) diversity. Beta (between sample) diversity was examined using principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) of unweighted Unifrac distances. Relative abundance of microbial taxa was compared between samples using Linear Discriminant Analysis Effect Size (LEfSe).

RESULTS: Within cervical cancer patients, bacterial alpha diversity was positively correlated with age (p = 0.22) but exhibited an inverse relationship in control subjects (p < 0.01). Alpha diversity was significantly higher in cervical cancer patients as compared to controls (p < 0.05), though stratification by age suggested this relationship was restricted to older women (>50 years; p < 0.01). Beta diversity (unweighted Unifrac; p < 0.01) also significantly differed between cervical cancer patients and controls. Based on age- and race-adjusted LEfSe analysis, multiple taxa significantly differed between cervical cancer patients and controls. Prevotella, Porphyromonas, and Dialister were significantly enriched in cervical cancer patients, while Bacteroides, Alistipes and members of the Lachnospiracea family were significantly enriched in healthy subjects.

CONCLUSION: Our study suggests differences in gut microbiota diversity and composition between cervical cancer patients and controls. Associations within the gut microbiome by age may reflect etiologic/clinical differences. These findings provide rationale for further study of the gut microbiome in cervical cancer.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Menezes LAA, Sardaro MLS, Duarte RTD, et al (2020)

Sourdough bacterial dynamics revealed by metagenomic analysis in Brazil.

Food microbiology, 85:103302.

This study dealt with the influence of the temperature on the bacterial dynamics of two spontaneously fermented wheat sourdoughs, propagated at 21 ± 1 °C (SD1) and 30 ± 1 °C (SD2), during nine backslopping steps (BS1 to BS9). Proteobacteria was the only phylum found in flour. Escherichia hermannii was predominant, followed by Kosakonia cowanii, besides species belonging to the genera Pantoea and Pseudomonas. After one step of propagation, Clostridium and Bacillus cereus group became predominant. Lactobacillus curvatus was found at low relative abundance. For the second backslopping step, Clostridium was flanked by L. curvatus and Lactobacillus farciminis. From BS4 (6th day) onward, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became predominant. L. farciminis overcame L. curvatus and remained dominant until the end of propagations for both sourdoughs. At 21 °C, Bacillus, Clostridium, Pseudomonas, and Enterobacteriaceae were gradually inhibited. At the end of propagation, SD1 harbored only LAB. Otherwise, the temperature of 30 °C favored the persistence of atypical bacteria in SD2, as Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. Therefore, the temperature of 21 °C was more suitable for sourdough propagation in Brazil. This study enhanced the knowledge of temperature's influence on microbial assembly and contributed to the elucidation of sourdough microbial communities in Brazil.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Dugat-Bony E, Lossouarn J, De Paepe M, et al (2020)

Viral metagenomic analysis of the cheese surface: A comparative study of rapid procedures for extracting viral particles.

Food microbiology, 85:103278.

The structure and functioning of microbial communities from fermented foods, including cheese, have been extensively studied during the past decade. However, there is still a lack of information about both the occurrence and the role of viruses in modulating the function of this type of spatially structured and solid ecosystems. Viral metagenomics was recently applied to a wide variety of environmental samples and standardized procedures for recovering viral particles from different type of materials has emerged. In this study, we adapted a procedure originally developed to extract viruses from fecal samples, in order to enable efficient virome analysis of cheese surface. We tested and validated the positive impact of both addition of a filtration step prior to virus concentration and substitution of purification by density gradient ultracentrifugation by a simple chloroform treatment to eliminate membrane vesicles. Viral DNA extracted from the several procedures, as well as a vesicle sample, were sequenced using Illumina paired-end MiSeq technology and the subsequent clusters assembled from the virome were analyzed to assess those belonging to putative phages, plasmid-derived DNA, or even from bacterial chromosomal DNA. The best procedure was then chosen, and used to describe the first cheese surface virome, using Epoisses cheese as example. This study provides the basis of future investigations regarding the ecological importance of viruses in cheese microbial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-09-10

Li Z, Dong L, Zhao C, et al (2020)

Metagenomic insights into the changes in microbial community and antimicrobial resistance genes associated with different salt content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) sauce.

Food microbiology, 85:103295.

Fermented red pepper (FRP) sauce has been eaten in worldwide for many years. The salt content and resident microbial community influences the quality of the FRP sauce and may confer health (e.g., probiotics) or harm (e.g., antibiotic resistance genes) to the consumers in some circumstances; however, the salt-mediated alteration of microbial community and antibiotic resistance genes are little known. In this study, a combination of whole genome sequencing and amplicon analysis was used to investigate the changes in microbial community and antimicrobial resistance genes in response to different salt content during red pepper fermentation. While the family Enterobacteriaceae dominated in high-salt (15-25%) samples, Lactobacillaceae quickly became the dominant population in place of Enterobacteriaceae after 24 days in 10% salt samples. Compared to 0.05 antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) per cell number on average in 10% salt sample, 16.6 ARGs were present in high-salt samples, wherein the bacterial hosts were major assigned to Enterobacteriaceae including genera Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Escherichia, Salmonella and Klebsiella. Multidrug resistance genes were the predominant ARG type. Functional profiling showed that histidine kinase functions were of much higher abundance in high-salt samples and included several osmotic stress-related two-component systems that simultaneously encoded ARGs. These results give first metagenomic insights into the salt-mediated changes in microbial community composition and a broad view of associated antibiotic resistance genes in the process of food fermentation.

RevDate: 2019-09-09

Xu H, Ling Y, Xi Y, et al (2019)

Viral metagenomics updated the prevalence of human papillomavirus types in anogenital warts.

Emerging microbes & infections, 8(1):1291-1299.

To investigate the composition of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in anogenital warts (AGWs), viral nucleic acid in 110 AGWs, pooled into 11 specimen pools, were subjected to viral metagenomic analysis. After finding HPV7 in AGWs, conventional PCR screening was performed for HPV7 in other 190 individual AGW specimens. Viral metagenomic results indicated that 29 different types of HPV were recovered, with HPV11 and HPV6 showing the highest proportion of sequence reads. HPV7 was detected in 7 of 11 pools, 5 of which contained abundant HPV7 sequence reads. 24 complete genomes of HPV were acquired in viral metagenomic analysis, including 5 HPV7 genomes, based on which phylogenetic analysis and pairwise sequence comparison were conducted. PCR screening for HPV7 in other 190 individual AGW specimens revealed 25 positive cases (13.16%), of which the amplified fragments were sequenced and confirmed to be HPV7 sequences. Although HPV7 was generally found in hand warts and recently also in warts in toe webs, our data suggested that the role of HPV7 in AGW should be considered in the future clinical test and vaccine development for AGWs.

RevDate: 2019-09-09

Macera L, Spezia PG, Focosi D, et al (2019)

Lack of Marseillevirus DNA in immunocompetent and immunocompromised Italian patients.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Marseilleviridae is a family of viruses which have only been propagated in acanthamoeba. Marseillevirus sequences have been recently detected in different human matrices by viral metagenomics. Single-centre studies worldwide have estimated a low prevalence of Marseillevirus both in symptomatic patients and in healthy donors but, to date, no informations are available on the prevalence of this giant virus in Italy.

METHODS: By a polymerase chain reaction targeting the ORF152 viral sequence, we tested sera from 197 immunosuppressed patients and 285 healthy donors, and 63 and 30 respiratory and cerebrospinal fluid samples, respectively, of patients with various clinical conditions and referring the Virology Division for diagnostic purposes.

RESULTS: We observed no evidence of Marseillevirus DNA in all 575 samples tested.

CONCLUSIONS: Marseillevirus probably does not cause infection in human. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-09-09

De Corte D, Martínez JM, Cretoiu MS, et al (2019)

Viral Communities in the Global Deep Ocean Conveyor Belt Assessed by Targeted Viromics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1801.

Viruses are an abundant, diverse and dynamic component of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. In the ocean, viruses play a key role in the biogeochemical cycles and controlling microbial abundance, diversity and evolution. Recent metagenomics studies assessed the structure of the viral community in the upper ocean. However, little is known about the compositional changes in viral communities along the deep ocean conveyor belt. To assess potential changes in the viral community in the global deep-water circulation system, water samples were collected in the core of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) (∼2,500 m) and Pacific Antarctic Bottom Water (∼4,000 m). Microbial and viral abundance were evaluated by flow cytometry. Subsequently, flow cytometry was used to sort virus-like particles and next generation sequencing was applied to build DNA libraries from the sorted virus populations. The viral communities were highly diverse across different oceanic regions with high dissimilarity between samples. Only 18% of the viral protein clusters were shared between the NADW and the Pacific Antarctic Bottom Water. Few viral groups, mainly associated with uncultured environmental and uncultured Mediterranean viruses were ubiquitously distributed along the global deep-water circulation system. Thus, our results point to a few groups of widely distributed abundant viruses in addition to the presence of rare and diverse types of viruses at a local scale.

RevDate: 2019-09-08

Chariton AA (2019)

Book review: Environmental DNA: For Biodiversity Research and Monitoring by Pierre Taberlet, Aurélie Bonin, Lucie Zinger and Eric Coissac.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental DNA is reshaping the way we perform ecological research, with techniques such as metabarcoding increasingly used to capture complex biotic assemblages from myriad environmental matrices. Environmental DNA: For Biodiversity Research and Monitoring (2018) is a timely publication, delivering in-depth explanations of each step associated with metabarcoding research. While other eDNA techniques such as metagenomics and metatranscriptomics are covered in less detail, these chapters still provide an excellent introduction to these topics. Informative and clearly written, Environmental DNA: For Biodiversity Research and Monitoring provides the reader with the appropriate level of background information, theory and guidance to perform high quality eDNA research, and is an essential resource for both novice and well-seasoned molecular ecologist. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-09-08

Yinda CK, Esefeld J, Peter HU, et al (2019)

Penguin megrivirus, a novel picornavirus from an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae).

Archives of virology pii:10.1007/s00705-019-04404-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The complete genome sequence of a novel megrivirus of the family Picornaviridae was determined from nucleic acid extracted from a pool of six faecal specimens of Adélie penguins. The samples were collected near Bellingshausen Station, King George Island of the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica. Penguin megrivirus is the first megrivirus with a predicted L protein. It has an L-3-5-4 genome layout, a type IV IRES, and a long 3' untranslated region of 668 nt.

RevDate: 2019-09-08

Jin J, Gan Y, Liu H, et al (2019)

Diminishing microbiome richness and distinction in the lower respiratory tract of lung cancer patients: A multiple comparative study design with independent validation.

Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 136:129-135 pii:S0169-5002(19)30623-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Current evidence suggests that microorganisms are associated with neoplastic diseases; however, the role of the airway microbiome in lung cancer remains unknown. To investigate the taxonomic profiles of the lower respiratory tract (LRT) microbiome in patients with lung cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: BALF samples were collected in a discovery set comprising 150 individuals, including 91 patients with lung cancer, 29 patients with nonmalignant pulmonary diseases and 30 healthy subjects, and an independent validation set including 85 participants. The samples were assessed by metagenomics analysis. Random forest regression analysis was performed to select a diagnostic panel.

RESULTS: In the discovery set, richness was reduced in lung cancer patients compared with that in healthy subjects, and the microbiome of patients with nonmalignant diseases resembled that of patients with lung cancer. Interestingly, Bradyrhizobium japonicum was only found in patients with lung cancer, whereas Acidovorax was found in patients with cancer and nonmalignant pulmonary diseases. A microbiota-related diagnostic model consisting of age, pack year of smoking and eleven types of bacteria was built, and the area under the curve (AUC) for discriminating the patients with cancer was 0.882 (95%CI: 0.807-0.957) in the training set and 0.796 (95%CI: 0.673-0.920) in the independent validation set.

CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that the LRT microbiome richness is diminished in lung cancer patients compared with that in healthy subjects and that microbiota-specific biomarkers may be useful for diagnosing patients for whom lung biopsy is not feasible.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Ngan WY, O Habimana (2019)

From farm-scale to lab-scale: The characterization of engineered irrigation water distribution system biofilm models using an artificial freshwater source.

The Science of the total environment, 698:134025 pii:S0048-9697(19)34002-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Contaminants in freshwater environments, as well as the associated negative impacts on agricultural produce, have emerged as a critical theme of the water-energy-food nexus affecting food safety and irrigation management. Agricultural produce exposed to irrigation with questionable freshwater can internalize and concentrate pollutants. However, the potential risks posed by the ubiquitous presence of biofilms within irrigation water distribution systems (IWDS) remains overlooked, even though such biofilms may harbor and spread pathogenic, chemical, and other environmental pollutants. Our limited knowledge about the role and functional attributes of IWDS biofilms can be blamed mostly to experimental challenges encountered during attempted studies of these biofilms in their natural environments. Hence, a laboratory-based experimental system designed to simulate a freshwater environment was combined with a biofilm reactor capable of recreating the piping environments in water distribution systems. This experimental system was then tested to assess the robustness and repeatability of experimental early-stage biofilms with respect to physical structure and microbial community, using state-of-the-art confocal microscopy and next-generation sequencing, respectively. The results demonstrated the suitability of this laboratory-based experimental system for studying the impacts of selected pollutants on irrigation water distribution systems.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Lu X, Heal KR, Ingalls AE, et al (2019)

Metagenomic and chemical characterization of soil cobalamin production.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0502-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is an essential enzyme cofactor for most branches of life. Despite the potential importance of this cofactor for soil microbial communities, the producers and consumers of cobalamin in terrestrial environments are still unknown. Here we provide the first metagenome-based assessment of soil cobalamin-producing bacteria and archaea, quantifying and classifying genes encoding proteins for cobalamin biosynthesis, transport, remodeling, and dependency in 155 soil metagenomes with profile hidden Markov models. We also measured several forms of cobalamin (CN-, Me-, OH-, Ado-B12) and the cobalamin lower ligand (5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole; DMB) in 40 diverse soil samples. Metagenomic analysis revealed that less than 10% of soil bacteria and archaea encode the genetic potential for de novo synthesis of this important enzyme cofactor. Predominant soil cobalamin producers were associated with the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, and Thaumarchaeota. In contrast, a much larger proportion of abundant soil genera lacked cobalamin synthesis genes and instead were associated with gene sequences encoding cobalamin transport and cobalamin-dependent enzymes. The enrichment of DMB and corresponding DMB synthesis genes, relative to corrin ring synthesis genes, suggests an important role for cobalamin remodelers in terrestrial habitats. Together, our results indicate that microbial cobalamin production and repair serve as keystone functions that are significantly correlated with microbial community size, diversity, and biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Hembach N, Alexander J, Hiller C, et al (2019)

Dissemination prevention of antibiotic resistant and facultative pathogenic bacteria by ultrafiltration and ozone treatment at an urban wastewater treatment plant.

Scientific reports, 9(1):12843 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-49263-1.

Conventional wastewater treatment is not sufficient for the removal of hygienically relevant bacteria and achieves only limited reductions. This study focuses on the reduction efficiencies of two semi-industrial ultrafiltration units operating at a large scale municipal wastewater treatment plant. In total, 7 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes, together with 3 taxonomic gene markers targeting specific facultative pathogenic bacteria were analysed via qPCR analyses before and after advanced treatment. In parallel with membrane technologies, an ozone treatment (1 g ozone/g DOC) was performed for comparison of the different reduction efficiencies. Both ultrafiltration units showed increased reduction efficiencies for facultative pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes of up to 6 log units, resulting mostly in a strong reduction of the bacterial targets. In comparison, the ozone treatment showed some reduction efficiency, but was less effective compared with ultrafiltration due to low ozone dosages frequently used for micro-pollutant removal at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Additionally, metagenome analyses demonstrated the accumulation of facultative pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factor genes, and metabolic gene targets in the back flush retentate of the membranes, which opens further questions about retentate fluid material handling at urban wastewater treatment plants.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Treitli SC, Kolisko M, Husník F, et al (2019)

Revealing the metabolic capacity of Streblomastix strix and its bacterial symbionts using single-cell metagenomics.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:1910793116 [Epub ahead of print].

Lower termites harbor in their hindgut complex microbial communities that are involved in the digestion of cellulose. Among these are protists, which are usually associated with specific bacterial symbionts found on their surface or inside their cells. While these form the foundations of a classic system in symbiosis research, we still know little about the functional basis for most of these relationships. Here, we describe the complex functional relationship between one protist, the oxymonad Streblomastix strix, and its ectosymbiotic bacterial community using single-cell genomics. We generated partial assemblies of the host S. strix genome and Candidatus Ordinivivax streblomastigis, as well as a complex metagenome assembly of at least 8 other Bacteroidetes bacteria confirmed by ribosomal (r)RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to be associated with S. strix. Our data suggest that S. strix is probably not involved in the cellulose digestion, but the bacterial community on its surface secretes a complex array of glycosyl hydrolases, providing them with the ability to degrade cellulose to monomers and fueling the metabolism of S. strix In addition, some of the bacteria can fix nitrogen and can theoretically provide S. strix with essential amino acids and cofactors, which the protist cannot synthesize. On the contrary, most of the bacterial symbionts lack the essential glycolytic enzyme enolase, which may be overcome by the exchange of intermediates with S. strix This study demonstrates the value of the combined single-cell (meta)genomic and FISH approach for studies of complicated symbiotic systems.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Zhou K, Zhang R, Sun J, et al (2019)

Potential SUP05-Phage Interactions in Hydrothermal Vent Sponges.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00992-19 [Epub ahead of print].

In deep-sea hydrothermal vent environments, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the clade SUP05 are crucial symbionts of invertebrate animals. Marine viruses, as the most abundant biological entities in the ocean, play essential roles in regulating the sulfur metabolism of the SUP05 bacteria. To date, vent-sponge-associated SUP05 and their phages have not been well documented. The current study analyzed the microbiome of Haplosclerida spp. sponges from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough and recovered the dominant SUP05 genome, designated VS-SUP05. Phylogenetic analysis showed that VS-SUP05 was closely related to endosymbiotic SUP05 strains from mussels living in deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields. Homology and metabolic pathway comparisons against free-living and symbiotic SUP05 revealed that the VS-SUP05 genome shared many features with the deep-sea mussel symbionts. Supporting a potentially-symbiotic lifestyle, the VS-SUP05 genome contained genes involved in the synthesis of essential amino acids and cofactors that are desired by the host. Analysis of sponge-associated viral sequences revealed putative VS-SUP05 phages, all of which were double-stranded viruses belonging to the families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, and Microviridae Among the phage sequences, one contig contained metabolic genes (iscR, iscS, and iscU) involved in iron-sulfur cluster formation. Interestingly, genome sequence comparison revealed horizontal transfer of the iscS gene among phages, VS-SUP05 and other symbiotic SUP05, indicating an interaction between marine phages and SUP05 symbionts. Overall, our findings confirm the presence of SUP05 bacteria and their phages in sponges from deep-sea vents, and imply a beneficial interaction that allows adaptation of the host sponge to the hydrothermal vent environment.Importance Chemosynthetic SUP05 bacteria dominate the microbial communities of deep-sea hydrothermal vents around the world,. SUP05 bacteria utilize the reduced chemical compounds in vent fluids and commonly form symbioses with invertebrate organisms. This symbiotic relationship could be key to adapting to such unique and extreme environments. Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on the planet and have been identified in hydrothermal vent environments. However, their interactions with the symbiotic microbes of the SUP05 clade, along with their role in the symbiotic system, remain unclear. Here, using metagenomic sequence-based analyses, we determined that bacteriophages may support metabolism in SUP05 bacteria and play a role in the sponge-associated symbiosis system in hydrothermal vent environments.

RevDate: 2019-09-07

Zhong H, Ren H, Lu Y, et al (2019)

Distinct gut metagenomics and metaproteomics signatures in prediabetics and treatment-naïve type 2 diabetics.

EBioMedicine pii:S2352-3964(19)30572-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays important roles in modulating host metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in the gut microbiome of T2D and prediabetic individuals compared to healthy individuals, with distinct disease-related microbial profiles being reported in groups of different age and ethnicity. However, confounding factors such as anti-diabetic medication hamper identification of the gut microbial changes in disease development.

METHOD: We used a combination of in-depth metagenomics and metaproteomics analyses of faecal samples from treatment-naïve type 2 diabetic (TN-T2D, n = 77), pre-diabetic (Pre-DM, n = 80), and normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 97) individuals to investigate compositional and functional changes of the gut microbiota and the faecal content of microbial and host proteins in Pre-DM and treatment-naïve T2D individuals to elucidate possible host-microbial interplays characterizing different disease stages.

FINDINGS: We observed distinct differences characterizing the gut microbiota of these three groups and validated several key features in an independent TN-T2D cohort. We also demonstrated that the content of several human antimicrobial peptides and pancreatic enzymes differed in faecal samples between three groups.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest a complex, disease stage-dependent interplay between the gut microbiota and the host and point to the value of metaproteomics to gain further insight into interplays between the gut microbiota and the host. FUND: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31601073), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFC0909703) and the Shenzhen Municipal Government of China (No. JCYJ20170817145809215). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Stepnov AA, Fredriksen L, Steen IH, et al (2019)

Identification and characterization of a hyperthermophilic GH9 cellulase from the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge vent field.

PloS one, 14(9):e0222216 pii:PONE-D-19-14993.

A novel GH9 cellulase (AMOR_GH9A) was discovered by sequence-based mining of a unique metagenomic dataset collected at the Jan Mayen hydrothermal vent field. AMOR_GH9A comprises a signal peptide, a catalytic domain and a CBM3 cellulose-binding module. AMOR_GH9A is an exceptionally stable enzyme with a temperature optimum around 100°C and an apparent melting temperature of 105°C. The novel cellulase retains 64% of its activity after 4 hours of incubation at 95°C. The closest characterized homolog of AMOR_GH9A is TfCel9A, a processive endocellulase from the model thermophilic bacterium Thermobifida fusca (64.2% sequence identity). Direct comparison of AMOR_GH9A and TfCel9A revealed that AMOR_GH9A possesses higher activity on soluble and amorphous substrates (phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, konjac glucomannan) and has an ability to hydrolyse xylan that is lacking in TfCel9A.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Danczak RE, Johnston MD, Kenah C, et al (2019)

Capability for arsenic mobilization in groundwater is distributed across broad phylogenetic lineages.

PloS one, 14(9):e0221694 pii:PONE-D-18-34743.

Despite the importance of microbial activity in mobilizing arsenic in groundwater aquifers, the phylogenetic distribution of contributing microbial metabolisms is understudied. Groundwater samples from Ohio aquifers were analyzed using metagenomic sequencing to identify functional potential that could drive arsenic cycling, and revealed mechanisms for direct (i.e., Ars system) and indirect (i.e., iron reduction) arsenic mobilization in all samples, despite differing geochemical conditions. Analyses of 194 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) revealed widespread functionality related to arsenic mobilization throughout the bacterial tree of life. While arsB and arsC genes (components of an arsenic resistance system) were found in diverse lineages with no apparent phylogenetic bias, putative aioA genes (aerobic arsenite oxidase) were predominantly identified in Methylocystaceae MAGs. Both previously described and undescribed respiratory arsenate reduction potential via arrA was detected in Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Nitrospirae MAGs, whereas sulfate reduction potential was primarily limited to members of the Deltaproteobacteria and Nitrospirae. Lastly, iron reduction potential was detected in the Ignavibacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Nitrospirae. These results expand the phylogenetic distribution of taxa that may play roles in arsenic mobilization in subsurface systems. Specifically, the Nitrospirae are a much more functionally diverse group than previously assumed and may play key biogeochemical roles in arsenic-contaminated ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Jaswal R, Pathak A, A Chauhan (2019)

Metagenomic Evaluation of Bacterial and Fungal Assemblages Enriched within Diffusion Chambers and Microbial Traps Containing Uraniferous Soils.

Microorganisms, 7(9): pii:microorganisms7090324.

Despite significant technological advancements in the field of microbial ecology, cultivation and subsequent isolation of the vast majority of environmental microorganisms continues to pose challenges. Isolation of the environmental microbiomes is prerequisite to better understand a myriad of ecosystem services they provide, such as bioremediation of contaminants. Towards this end, in this culturomics study, we evaluated the colonization of soil bacterial and fungal communities within diffusion chambers (DC) and microbial traps (MT) established using uraniferous soils collected from a historically contaminated soil from Aiken, USA. Microbial assemblages were compared between the DC and MT relative to the native soils using amplicon based metagenomic and bioinformatic analysis. The overall rationale of this study is that DC and MT growth chambers provide the optimum conditions under which desired microbiota, identified in a previous study to serve as the "core" microbiomes, will proliferate, leading to their successful isolation. Specifically, the core microbiomes consisted of assemblages of bacteria (Burkholderia spp.) and fungi (Penicillium spp.), respectively. The findings from this study further supported previous data such that the abundance and diversity of the desired "core" microbiomes significantly increased as a function of enrichments over three consecutive generations of DC and MT, respectively. Metagenomic analysis of the DC/MT generations also revealed that enrichment and stable populations of the desired "core" bacterial and fungal microbiomes develop within the first 20 days of incubation and the practice of subsequent transfers for second and third generations, as is standard in previous studies, may be unnecessary. As a cost and time cutting measure, this study recommends running the DC/MT chambers for only a 20-day time period, as opposed to previous studies, which were run for months. In summation, it was concluded that, using the diffusion chamber-based enrichment techniques, growth of desired microbiota possessing environmentally relevant functions can be achieved in a much shorter time frame than has been previously shown.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Yi Y, Liang L, Wang Z, et al (2019)

A Comparative Metagenomics Study on Gastrointestinal Microbiota in Amphibious Mudskippers and Other Vertebrate Animals.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 9(9): pii:ani9090660.

Gut microbiomes in various fish species were widely investigated with the rapid development of next-generation sequencing technologies. However, little is known about gastrointestinal (GI) microbial communities in mudskippers, a representative group of marine amphibious fishes, and their comparisons with other vertebrate animals from different habitats. Here, we performed a comprehensive analysis on microbial composition in five representative vertebrate groups (including amphibious mudskippers, marine and freshwater aquatic fishes, amphibians, and terrestrial animals) via operational taxonomic unit (OTU) survey and obtained a microbial gene catalog of five common fish species by metagenome sequencing. We observed that Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria were the most substantial bacteria in mudskippers. Differential variances in composition patterns of GI microbiota among the vertebrate groups were determined, although Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the shared phyla with high abundance. In addition, Cetobacterium and Photobacterium were the most abundant genera in core OTUs of these examined omnivores, carnivores, and herbivores. Our metagenomic analysis also showed significant differences between the representative blue-spotted mudskipper and grass carp (both are herbivorous fishes) in microbes at the phylum and class levels and functional gene terms. Moreover, several bacteriocin-related genes were identified in the five common fishes, suggesting their potential contributions to pathogen resistance. In summary, our present work not only sheds new light on the correlation of GI microbiota composition with living habitats and feeding habits of the hosts, but also provides valuable bacterial genetic resources for healthy growth of aquaculture fishes.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Sakanaka M, Hansen ME, Gotoh A, et al (2019)

Evolutionary adaptation in fucosyllactose uptake systems supports bifidobacteria-infant symbiosis.

Science advances, 5(8):eaaw7696 pii:aaw7696.

The human gut microbiota established during infancy has persistent effects on health. In vitro studies have suggested that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breast milk promote the formation of a bifidobacteria-rich microbiota in infant guts; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Here, we characterized two functionally distinct but overlapping fucosyllactose transporters (FL transporter-1 and -2) from Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis. Fecal DNA and HMO consumption analyses, combined with deposited metagenome data mining, revealed that FL transporter-2 is primarily associated with the bifidobacteria-rich microbiota formation in breast-fed infant guts. Structural analyses of the solute-binding protein (SBP) of FL transporter-2 complexed with 2'-fucosyllactose and 3-fucosyllactose, together with phylogenetic analysis of SBP homologs of both FL transporters, highlight a unique adaptation strategy of Bifidobacterium to HMOs, in which the gain-of-function mutations enable FL transporter-2 to efficiently capture major fucosylated HMOs. Our results provide a molecular insight into HMO-mediated symbiosis and coevolution between bifidobacteria and humans.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Amrane S, Hocquart M, Afouda P, et al (2019)

Metagenomic and culturomic analysis of gut microbiota dysbiosis during Clostridium difficile infection.

Scientific reports, 9(1):12807 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-49189-8.

Recently, cocktail of bacteria were proposed in order to treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but these bacteriotherapies were selected more by chance than experimentation. We propose to comprehensively explore the gut microbiota of patients with CDI compared to healthy donors in order to propose a consortium of bacteria for treating C. difficile. We compared stool samples composition from 11 CDI patients and 8 healthy donors using two techniques: metagenomics, 16S V3-V4 region amplification and sequencing and culturomics, high throughout culture using six culture conditions and MALDI-TOF identification. By culturomics, we detected 170 different species in the CDI group and 275 in the control group. Bacteroidetes were significantly underrepresented in the CDI group (p = 0.007). By metagenomics, 452 different operational taxonomic units assigned to the species level were detected in the CDI group compared to 522 in the control group. By these two techniques, we selected 37 bacteria only found in control group in more than 75% of the samples and/or with high relative abundance, 10 of which have already been tested in published bacteriotherapies against CDI, and 3 of which (Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium longum and Bacteroides ovatus) have been detected by these two techniques. This controlled number of bacteria could be administrated orally in a non-invasive way in order to treat CDI.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Liu H, Zhang X, Li LX, et al (2019)

First isolation and characterization of Getah virus from cattle in northeastern China.

BMC veterinary research, 15(1):320 pii:10.1186/s12917-019-2061-z.

BACKGROUND: Getah virus (GETV) is a neglected mosquito-borne Alphavirus that causes pyrexia, body rash, and leg oedema in horses and foetal death and reproductive disorders in pigs. Infected animals may play a critical role in the amplification and circulation of the virus. The present study aimed to investigate GETV infection in clinically infected cattle and vector mosquito species in northeastern China.

RESULTS: Serum samples were collected from beef cattle that presented sudden onset of fever in forest grazing areas, and metagenomic sequencing was conducted, revealing 29 contigs from ten serum samples matching the GETV genome. Quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed with GETV RNA from 48 beef cattle serum samples, showing that the overall prevalence of GETV in the beef cattle samples was 6.25% (3/48). Serological investigation indicated that GETV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 83.3% (40/48, 95% CI 67-100) of samples from the study region. The GETV JL1808 strain was isolated from clinically infected cattle showing fever. Sequence comparisons showed high identity with the HuN1 strain, a highly pathogenic swine epidemic isolate obtained in Hunan province in 2017, at the nucleotide level (99.5%) and at the deduced amino acid level (99.7-99.9%). The phylogenetic analysis of JL1808 clustered in Group III, and also revealed a close genetic relationship with the HuN1 strain. Additionally, about 12,000 mosquitoes were trapped in this region. The presence of GETV infection was detected in mosquitoes, suggesting that the minimum infection rate (MIR) was 1.50‰, with MIRs of 1.67‰ in Culex pseudovishnui, 1.60‰ in Culex tritaeniorhynchus, and 1.21‰ in Anopheles sinensis.

CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of GETV infection in cattle. These results demonstrated that a highly pathogenic, mosquito-borne swine GETV can infect and circulate in cattle, implying that it is necessary to conduct surveillance of GETV infection in animals in northeastern China.

RevDate: 2019-09-06

Pereira-Flores E, Glöckner FO, A Fernandez-Guerra (2019)

Fast and accurate average genome size and 16S rRNA gene average copy number computation in metagenomic data.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(1):453 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-3031-y.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomics caused a quantum leap in microbial ecology. However, the inherent size and complexity of metagenomic data limit its interpretation. The quantification of metagenomic traits in metagenomic analysis workflows has the potential to improve the exploitation of metagenomic data. Metagenomic traits are organisms' characteristics linked to their performance. They are measured at the genomic level taking a random sample of individuals in a community. As such, these traits provide valuable information to uncover microorganisms' ecological patterns. The Average Genome Size (AGS) and the 16S rRNA gene Average Copy Number (ACN) are two highly informative metagenomic traits that reflect microorganisms' ecological strategies as well as the environmental conditions they inhabit.

RESULTS: Here, we present the and tools, which analytically derive the AGS and ACN metagenomic traits. These tools represent an advance on previous approaches to compute the AGS and ACN traits. Benchmarking shows that is up to 11 times faster than state-of-the-art tools dedicated to the estimation AGS. Both and show comparable or higher accuracy than existing tools used to estimate these traits. To exemplify the applicability of both tools, we analyzed the 139 prokaryotic metagenomes of TARA Oceans and revealed the ecological strategies associated with different water layers.

CONCLUSION: We took advantage of recent advances in gene annotation to develop the and tools to combine easy tool usage with fast and accurate performance. Our tools compute the AGS and ACN metagenomic traits on unassembled metagenomes and allow researchers to improve their metagenomic data analysis to gain deeper insights into microorganisms' ecology. The and tools are publicly available using Docker container technology at .

RevDate: 2019-09-06
CmpDate: 2019-09-06

Cheng Y, Sibusiso L, Hou L, et al (2019)

Sargassum fusiforme fucoidan modifies the gut microbiota during alleviation of streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia in mice.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 131:1162-1170.

Diabetes is a complicated endocrine and metabolic disorder, which has become an epidemic health issue worldwide. Fucoidan is extensively distributed in the brown algae and several marine invertebrates exhibiting diverse biological activities. In the present study, the physicochemical property of Sargassum fusiforme fucoidan (SFF) and its effects on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice and gut microbiota were investigated. Diabetes mice not only showed abnormal blood glucose, but also accompanied by multiple symptoms, such as gradual emaciation, decreased body weight, increased food and water intake. Compared with diabetic mice after 6-week treatment, administration of SFF significantly decreased the fasting blood glucose, diet and water intake. Furthermore, SFF attenuated the pathological change in the heart and liver, improved the liver function, and suppressed oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic mice. Simultaneously, SFF significantly altered the gut microbiota in the faeces of diabetic mice, decreased the relative abundances of the diabetes-related intestinal bacteria, which is a potential mechanism for relieving the symptoms of diabetes. Therefore, SFF might be considered as one of the promising complementary and alternative medicines for the management of diabetes mellitus in future.

RevDate: 2019-09-06
CmpDate: 2019-09-06

Ji X, Hou C, Zhang X, et al (2019)

Microbiome-metabolomic analysis of the impact of Zizyphus jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides consumption on colorectal cancer mice fecal microbiota and metabolites.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 131:1067-1076.

It is still uncertain whether the consumption of Zizyphus jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides (ZMP) alleviates colorectal cancer (CRC) through the gut microbiota. In this study, we investigated the mortality, colon length, inflammatory factors and cecal microbiota, metabolites of healthy and azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in induced CRC mice, consuming ZMP. Fecal-microbiota composition was examined using 16S rDNA sequencing and fecal-metabolome profiles were evaluated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatograph mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The results showed ZMP consumption prevented CRC mouse colon shortening, decreased their mortality, reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased the concentration of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and modulated gut microbiota in their feces. ZMP also increased the richness of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. In addition, among 39 perturbed metabolites, carbohydrate and amino acid production were noticeably altered. Moreover, higher correlations were found between fluctuant gut microbiota and metabolites. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the impact of dietary Zizyphus jujuba cv. Muzao polysaccharides on host health.

RevDate: 2019-09-06
CmpDate: 2019-09-06

Albert K, Rani A, DA Sela (2018)

The comparative genomics of Bifidobacterium callitrichos reflects dietary carbohydrate utilization within the common marmoset gut.

Microbial genomics, 4(6):.

Bifidobacterium is a diverse genus of anaerobic, saccharolytic bacteria that colonize many animals, notably humans and other mammals. The presence of these bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract represents a potential coevolution between the gut microbiome and its mammalian host mediated by diet. To study the relationship between bifidobacterial gut symbionts and host nutrition, we analyzed the genome of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from the feces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), a primate species studied for its ability to subsist on host-indigestible carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing identified these isolates as unique strains of Bifidobacterium callitrichos. All three strains, including these isolates and the previously described type strain, contain genes that may enable utilization of marmoset dietary substrates. These include genes predicted to contribute to galactose, arabinose, and trehalose metabolic pathways. In addition, significant genomic differences between strains suggest that bifidobacteria possess distinct roles in carbohydrate metabolism within the same host. Thus, bifidobacteria utilize dietary components specific to their host, both humans and non-human primates alike. Comparative genomics suggests conservation of possible coevolutionary relationships within the primate clade.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Zhang L, Calvo-Bado L, Murray AK, et al (2019)

Novel clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes associated with sewage sludge and industrial waste streams revealed by functional metagenomic screening.

Environment international, 132:105120 pii:S0160-4120(19)30408-8 [Epub ahead of print].

A growing body of evidence indicates that anthropogenic activities can result in increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in bacteria in natural environments. Many environmental studies have used next-generation sequencing methods to sequence the metagenome. However, this approach is limited as it does not identify divergent uncharacterized genes or demonstrate activity. Characterization of ARGs in environmental metagenomes is important for understanding the evolution and dissemination of resistance, as there are several examples of clinically important resistance genes originating in environmental species. The current study employed a functional metagenomic approach to detect genes encoding resistance to extended spectrum β-lactams (ESBLs) and carbapenems in sewage sludge, sludge amended soil, quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) impacted reed bed sediment and less impacted long term curated grassland soil. ESBL and carbapenemase genes were detected in sewage sludge, sludge amended soils and QAC impacted soil with varying degrees of homology to clinically important β-lactamase genes. The flanking regions were sequenced to identify potential host background and genetic context. Novel β-lactamase genes were found in Gram negative bacteria, with one gene adjacent to an insertion sequence ISPme1, suggesting a recent mobilization event and/ the potential for future transfer. Sewage sludge and quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) rich industrial effluent appear to disseminate and/or select for ESBL genes which were not detected in long term curated grassland soils. This work confirms the natural environment as a reservoir of novel and mobilizable resistance genes, which may pose a threat to human and animal health.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Wei ZS, He YM, Huang ZS, et al (2019)

Photocatalytic membrane combined with biodegradation for toluene oxidation.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 184:109618 pii:S0147-6513(19)30949-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Photocatalytic membrane coupled to biodegradation offers potential for degrading volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photocatalytic membrane biofilm reactor. An intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation reactor was operated in continuous operation for 500 days to treat simulated waste gas containing toluene. Toluene removal efficiency obtained 99%, with the elimination capacity of 550 g m-3·h-1. Membrane photocatalysis coupled to biodegradation was created to improve toluene removal from 11 to 20%. The dominant genera were Lysinibacillus, Hydrogenophaga, Pseudomonas at 30 d, Rudaea, Dongia, Litorilinea at 230 d xyl, Tod, Tcb, Bed, Tmo, Tbu, Tou, Dmp, Cat were functional genes of toluene metabolism, as shown by16S rDNA and metagenomic sequencing. Photocatalysis destroyed part of the toluene into biodegradable intermediates that were immediately mineralized by microorganisms in biofilm, some toluene was directly degraded by toluene degrading bacterial community into carbon dioxide and water. The novel hybrid photocatalytic membrane biofilm reactor is a cost-effective and robust alternative to VOCs treatment.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

T A PD, Sahoo D, Setti A, et al (2019)

Bacterial rhizosphere community profile at different growth stages of Umorok (Capsicum chinense) and its response to the root exudates.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology pii:10.1007/s10123-019-00097-x [Epub ahead of print].

The role of microflora is an indispensable part of the living organisms. Plants actively recruit specific microbial community to establish favorable habitat with the distinct microbiome, essentially unique for each species, offering new opportunities for plant growth and productivity. Umorok, an indigenous chili variety of northeastern India, production is highly affected by various factors; therefore, rhizosphere bacteria and their relationship with the root exudates released were analyzed to demonstrate rhizosphere bacterial impact on plant growth and health. Culturable and metagenomic bacterial DNA was characterized and the chemical nature of the root exudate was analyzed using chemotaxis assay after its basic analysis in HPLC. Juvenile stage exhibited diverse bacterial species of gammaproteobacteria, alphaproteobacteria, and actinobacteria but lacked the betaproteobacteria while the microbial diversity was reduced in flowering and fruiting stages. However, every growth stage maintained a similar amount of bacterial population regardless of diversity. The population of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, and Burkholderia species was increased several folds in flowering and fruiting stage. Further, the chemotaxis assay unveiled the advantage of root exudate chemical composition for specific microbial recruitment. The chemical composition analysis of root exudates showed substantial variation in the concentration of organic acids, phenolics, and flavonoids that are favoring unique bacterial species. Thus, root exudates confer and limit the related microbial population besides typical plant-bacterial synergetic association. This study emphasized information about the type of microbial load present in each growth stage, which is essential to develop a microbial consortia package for Umorok overall crop improvement.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Hemdan BA, El-Liethy MA, ElMahdy MEI, et al (2019)

Metagenomics analysis of bacterial structure communities within natural biofilm.

Heliyon, 5(8):e02271 pii:e02271.

The bacterial profiles of natural household biofilm have not been widely investigated. The majorities of these bacterial lineages are not cultivable. Thus, this study aims (i) to enumerate some potential bacterial lineages using culture based method within biofilm samples and confirmed using Biolog GEN III and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ii) To investigate the bacterial profiles of communities in two biofilm samples using next generation sequencing (NGS). Forty biofilm samples were cultured and colonies of each selected prevailing potential lineages (E. coli, Salmonella entrica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) were selected for confirmation. From obtained results, the counts of the tested bacterial lineages in kitchen biofilm samples were greater than those in bathroom samples. Precision of PCR was higher than Biolog GEN III to confirm the bacterial isolates. Using NGS analysis, the results revealed that a total of 110,554 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained for two biofilm samples, representing kitchen and bathroom biofilm samples. The numbers of phyla in the kitchen biofilm sample (35 OTUs) was higher than that in bathroom sample (18 OTUs). A total of 435 genera were observed in the bathroom biofilm sample compared to only 256 in the kitchen sample. Evidences have shown that the empirical gadgets for biofilm investigation are becoming convenient and affordable. Many distinct bacterial lineages observed in biofilm are one of the most significant issues that threaten human health and lead to disease outbreaks.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Mobeen F, Sharma V, T Prakash (2019)

Functional signature analysis of extreme Prakriti endophenotypes in gut microbiome of western Indian rural population.

Bioinformation, 15(7):490-505 pii:97320630015490.

Ayurveda is practiced in India from ancient times and stratifies the individuals based on their Prakriti constitution. Advancements in modern science have led to the association of Prakriti with molecular, biochemical, genomic and other entities. We have recently explored the gut microbiome composition and microbial signatures in healthy extreme Prakriti endo-phenotypes. However, their functional potentials are still lacking. The present study includes 63 females (29 Vata, 11 Pitta, and 23 Kapha) and 50 males (13 Vata, 18 Pitta, and 19 Kapha) samples. The predictive functional profiling and organism level functional traits of the human gut microbiome have been carried out in Prakriti groups using imputed metagenomic approach. A higher functional level redundancy is found than the taxonomy across the Prakriti groups, however the dominant taxa contributing to the functional profiles are found to be different. A high number of functional signatures specific to the Prakriti groups were identified in female datasets. Some of the functional signatures were found to be gender specific. For example, a higher abundance of microbes contributing potential pathogenic and stress tolerance related functions was found in Kapha in female and Pitta in male. The functional signatures correlated well with phenotypes and disease predisposition of Prakriti groups.

RevDate: 2019-09-04

Loomba R, Seguritan V, Li W, et al (2019)

Gut Microbiome-Based Metagenomic Signature for Non-invasive Detection of Advanced Fibrosis in Human Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Cell metabolism, 30(3):607.

RevDate: 2019-09-04

Baudry L, Foutel-Rodier T, Thierry A, et al (2019)

MetaTOR: A Computational Pipeline to Recover High-Quality Metagenomic Bins From Mammalian Gut Proximity-Ligation (meta3C) Libraries.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:753.

Characterizing the complete genomic structure of complex microbial communities would represent a key step toward the understanding of their diversity, dynamics, and evolution. Current metagenomics approaches aiming at this goal are typically done by analyzing millions of short DNA sequences directly extracted from the environment. New experimental and computational approaches are constantly sought for to improve the analysis and interpretation of such data. We developed MetaTOR, an open-source computational solution that bins DNA contigs into individual genomes according to their 3D contact frequencies. Those contacts are quantified by chromosome conformation capture experiments (3C, Hi-C), also known as proximity-ligation approaches, applied to metagenomics samples (meta3C). MetaTOR was applied on 20 meta3C libraries of mice gut microbiota. We quantified the program ability to recover high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from metagenomic assemblies generated directly from the meta3C libraries. Whereas nine high-quality MAGs are identified in the 148-Mb assembly generated using a single meta3C library, MetaTOR identifies 82 high-quality MAGs in the 763-Mb assembly generated from the merged 20 meta3C libraries, corresponding to nearly a third of the total assembly. Compared to the hybrid binning softwares MetaBAT or CONCOCT, MetaTOR recovered three times more high-quality MAGs. These results underline the potential of 3C-/Hi-C-based approaches in metagenomic projects.

RevDate: 2019-09-04

Skaltsas DN, Badotti F, Vaz ABM, et al (2019)

Exploration of stem endophytic communities revealed developmental stage as one of the drivers of fungal endophytic community assemblages in two Amazonian hardwood genera.

Scientific reports, 9(1):12685 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-48943-2.

Many aspects of the dynamics of tropical fungal endophyte communities are poorly known, including the influence of host taxonomy, host life stage, host defence, and host geographical distance on community assembly and composition. Recent fungal endophyte research has focused on Hevea brasiliensis due to its global importance as the main source of natural rubber. However, almost no data exist on the fungal community harboured within other Hevea species or its sister genus Micrandra. In this study, we expanded sampling to include four additional Hevea spp. and two Micrandra spp., as well as two host developmental stages. Through culture-dependent and -independent (metagenomic) approaches, a total of 381 seedlings and 144 adults distributed across three remote areas within the Peruvian Amazon were sampled. Results from both sampling methodologies indicate that host developmental stage had a greater influence in community assemblage than host taxonomy or locality. Based on FunGuild ecological guild assignments, saprotrophic and mycotrophic endophytes were more frequent in adults, while plant pathogens were dominant in seedlings. Trichoderma was the most abundant genus recovered from adult trees while Diaporthe prevailed in seedlings. Potential explanations for that disparity of abundance are discussed in relation to plant physiological traits and community ecology hypotheses.

RevDate: 2019-09-04

Claverie S, Ouattara A, Hoareau M, et al (2019)

Exploring the diversity of Poaceae-infecting mastreviruses on Reunion Island using a viral metagenomics-based approach.

Scientific reports, 9(1):12716 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-49134-9.

Mostly found in Africa and its surrounding islands, African streak viruses (AfSV) represent the largest group of known mastreviruses. Of the thirteen AfSV species that are known to infect either cultivated or wild Poaceae plant species, six have been identified on Reunion Island. To better characterize AfSV diversity on this island, we undertook a survey of a small agroecosystem using a new metagenomics-based approach involving rolling circle amplification with random PCR amplification tagging (RCA-RA-PCR), high-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq) and the mastrevirus reads classification using phylogenetic placement. Mastreviruses that likely belong to three new species were discovered and full genome sequences of these were determined by Sanger sequencing. The geminivirus-focused metagenomics approach we applied in this study was useful in both the detection of known and novel mastreviruses. The results confirm that Reunion Island is indeed a hotspot of AfSV diversity and that many of the mastrevirus species have likely been introduced multiple times. Applying a similar approach in other natural and agricultural environments should yield sufficient detail on the composition and diversity of geminivirus communities to precipitate major advances in our understanding of the ecology and the evolutionary history of this important group of viruses.

RevDate: 2019-09-04

A Duarte M, F Silva JM, R Brito C, et al (2019)

Faecal Virome Analysis of Wild Animals from Brazil.

Viruses, 11(9): pii:v11090803.

The Brazilian Cerrado fauna shows very wide diversity and can be a potential viral reservoir. Therefore, the animal's susceptibility to some virus can serve as early warning signs of potential human virus diseases. Moreover, the wild animal virome of this biome is unknown. Based on this scenario, high-throughput sequencing contributes a robust tool for the identification of known and unknown virus species in this environment. In the present study, faeces samples from cerrado birds (Psittacara leucophthalmus, Amazona aestiva, and Sicalis flaveola) and mammals (Didelphis albiventris, Sapajus libidinosus, and Galictis cuja) were collected at the Veterinary Hospital, University of Brasília. Viral nucleic acid was extracted, submitted to random amplification, and sequenced by Illumina HiSeq platform. The reads were de novo assembled, and the identities of the contigs were evaluated by Blastn and tblastx searches. Most viral contigs analyzed were closely related to bacteriophages. Novel archaeal viruses of the Smacoviridae family were detected. Moreover, sequences of members of Adenoviridae, Anelloviridae, Circoviridae, Caliciviridae, and Parvoviridae families were identified. Complete and nearly complete genomes of known anelloviruses, circoviruses, and parvoviruses were obtained, as well as putative novel species. We demonstrate that the metagenomics approach applied in this work was effective for identification of known and putative new viruses in faeces samples from Brazilian Cerrado fauna.

RevDate: 2019-09-05

Li J, Wang T, Yu S, et al (2019)

Community characteristics and ecological roles of bacterial biofilms associated with various algal settlements on coastal reefs.

Journal of environmental management, 250:109459 pii:S0301-4797(19)31177-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilms, which are a group of bacteria attaching to and ultimately forming communities on reefs, perform essential ecological functions in coastal ecosystems. Particularly, they may attract or repulse the settling down of opportunistic algae. However, this phenomenon and the interaction mechanism are not fully understood. This study investigated reefs from the Changdao coastal zone to determine the structures and functions of bacterial biofilms symbiosing with various algae using high-throughput sequencing analysis. The Shannon diversity index of microbiota with algal symbiosis reached 5.34, which was higher than that of microbiota wherein algae were absent (4.80). The beta diversity results for 11 samples revealed that there existed a separation between bacterial communities on reefs with and without attached algae, while communities with similar algae clustered together. The taxa mostly associated with algae-symbiotic microbiota are the Actinobacteria phylum, and the Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria classes. The Cyanobacteria phylum was not associated with algae-symbiotic microbiota. As revealed by functional analysis, the bacteria mostly involved in the metabolism of sulfur were represented by brown and red algae in the biofilm symbiosis. Bacteria related to the metabolism of certain trace elements were observed only in specific groups. Moreover, phototrophy-related bacteria were less abundant in samples coexisting with algae. This study established the link between bacterial biofilms and algal settlements on costal reefs, and revealed the possible holobiont relationship between them. This may provide new technical directions toward realizing algal cultivation and management during the construction of artificial reef ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-09-03

Delmont TO, Kiefl E, Kilinc O, et al (2019)

Single-amino acid variants reveal evolutionary processes that shape the biogeography of a global SAR11 subclade.

eLife, 8: pii:46497.

Members of the SAR11 order Pelagibacterales dominate the surface oceans. Their extensive diversity challenges emerging operational boundaries defined for microbial 'species' and complicates efforts of population genetics to study their evolution. Here, we employed single-amino acid variants (SAAVs) to investigate ecological and evolutionary forces that maintain the genomic heterogeneity within ubiquitous SAR11 populations we accessed through metagenomic read recruitment using a single isolate genome. Integrating amino acid and protein biochemistry with metagenomics revealed that systematic purifying selection against deleterious variants governs non-synonymous variation among very closely related populations of SAR11. SAAVs partitioned metagenomes into two main groups matching large-scale oceanic current temperatures, and six finer proteotypes that connect distant oceanic regions. These findings suggest that environmentally-mediated selection plays a critical role in the journey of cosmopolitan surface ocean microbial populations, and the idea 'everything is everywhere but the environment selects' has credence even at the finest resolutions.

RevDate: 2019-09-03

Zhao Y, Feng Y, Chen L, et al (2019)

Genome-centered omics insight into the competition and niche differentiation of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia affiliated to anammox bacteria.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-019-10040-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Although the niche differentiation of anammox bacteria has been extensively observed in a lab-scale reactor, the inherent mechanism for this ecological phenomenon is still elusive. Here, we combined the long-term reactor operation, genome-centered metagenome, and metatranscriptome analyses to gain insight into the substrate competition and niche differentiation of Candidatus Jettenia and Candidatus Brocadia. After 146 days of operation, we found the anammox bacterial population shifted from Ca. Jettenia to Ca. Brocadia in the immobilization-anaerobic baffled reactor (I-ABR) with the ammonium and nitrite concentrations of 30 mg/L. Importantly, the genome and transcript comparisons of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia showed that Ca. Brocadia harbored more complete function in cell chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, and two-component system and more redundant function in nitrite reduction, in which the genes were also highly expressed. Ca. Brocadia out-competed Ca. Jettenia at the mainstream condition. Meanwhile, though the highest biomass concentration led to the highest nitrogen removal rate (NRR) in the first compartment (C1), the competition of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia could also affect the NRR of different compartments through affecting the bacterial activity. Substrate competition of anammox bacteria led to higher transcript activity of Ca. Jettenia and Ca. Brocadia in the second (C2) and fourth (C4) compartments, respectively. Further, high transcript activity of Ca. Brocadia led to the higher NRR in C4. A comparison of metabolic potential based on the metagenome-assembled genome adds a different dimension for understanding the discrepantly physiological characteristics and competition of anammox bacteria for wastewater treatment.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
961 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

E-mail: RJR8222 @

Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )