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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 14 Nov 2022 at 01:30 Created: 

Metagenomics

While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-11-09

Corno G, Ghaly T, Sabatino R, et al (2022)

Class 1 integron and related antimicrobial resistance gene dynamics along a complex freshwater system affected by different anthropogenic pressures.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(22)01815-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The risk for human health posed by polluted aquatic environments, and especially those carrying antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) of clinical interest, is still debated. This is because of our limited knowledge of the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in the environment, the selection mechanisms underlying the spread of ARGs, and the ecological factors potentially favoring their return to humans. The Class 1 integron is one of the most effective platforms for the dissemination of ARGs. In this study we investigated a freshwater system consisting of a lake-river-lake continuum, determining the abundance of class 1 integrons and their associated ARGs by a modulated metagenomic approach. Bacterial abundance and community composition were used to identify the potential carriers of ARGs over a period of six months. Class 1 integrons and their ARG cargoes were significantly more abundant in riverine sampling sites receiving treated wastewater. Further, class 1 integrons carried ARGs ranked at the highest risk for human health (e.g. catB genes), in particular, genes encoding resistance to aminoglycosides. Genera of potential pathogens, such as Pseudomonas and Escherichia-Shigella, were correlated with class 1 integrons. The lake-river-lake system demonstrated a clear relationship between the integrase gene of class 1 integrons (intI1) and anthropogenic impact, but also a strong environmental filtering that favored elimination of intI1 once the human derived stressors were reduced. Overall, the results of this study underline the role class 1 integrons as proxy of anthropogenic pollution and suggest this genetic platform as an important driver of aminoglycoside resistance genes including high risk ARGs, of potential concern for human health.

RevDate: 2022-11-09

Yuan ZA, Zhong LQ, Du HR, et al (2022)

Effects of vegetation type differences induced by human disturbance on the nutrition strategy and gut microbiota of Siberian roe deer.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) is a widely distributed ungulate in northeast China. Due to a series of human disturbance activities such as large-scale forest cutting, deforestation and reclamation, road construction in the past, the appearance and internal structure of forest vegetation in the habitat of Siberian roe have changed significantly. At the same time, Siberian roe population had a series of ecological adaptation responses in the face of such habitat changes. Therefore, two typical vegetation types with differences were selected in the Muling Forest, China. We used nutritional ecology and microbial metagenomic analysis techniques to compare the nutritional selection strategy and the structure and functional characteristics of fecal microbiota of Siberian roe groups in two vegetation types. The results showed that the α diversity of dietary and gut microbes of deer in Natural Forest was higher than that in Plantation Forest. However, the gut microbes of the Plantation Forest group contained more unique enzymes in the functional pathways of carbon metabolism and biosynthesis of amino acids. This study suggests that habitat type is associated with plant community composition, and contributes to changes in the intake proportions of major macronutrients by altering the availability, quality, and composition of certain edible plants. Feeding behavior may be an important regulatory factor of gut microbiota structure and function of deer. The metabolic function of gut microbiota to different nutrients may affect the microbial community structure. Therefore, our results suggest that the gut microbes of Siberian roe may have co-evolved with their diets, and reflect the adaptability of deer populations to environmental changes (e.g., vegetation type). Our study provides new insights into how spatial heterogeneity affects nutrition and microecosystems by describing the interactions among the environment, diet, and symbiotic gut microbes in wild ungulates.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-09

Ouyang J, Zheng S, Huang M, et al (2022)

Chromosome-level genome and population genomics reveal evolutionary characteristics and conservation status of Chinese indigenous geese.

Communications biology, 5(1):1191.

Geese are herbivorous birds that play an essential role in the agricultural economy. We construct the chromosome-level genome of a Chinese indigenous goose (the Xingguo gray goose, XGG; Anser cygnoides) and analyze the adaptation of fat storage capacity in the goose liver during the evolution of Anatidae. Genomic resequencing of 994 geese is used to investigate the genetic relationships of geese, which supports the dual origin of geese (Anser cygnoides and Anser anser). Chinese indigenous geese show higher genetic diversity than European geese, and a scientific conservation program can be established to preserve genetic variation for each breed. We also find that a 14-bp insertion in endothelin receptor B subtype 2 (EDNRB2) that determines the white plumage of Chinese domestic geese is a natural mutation, and the linkaged alleles rapidly increase in frequency as a result of genetic hitchhiking, leading to the formation of completely different haplotypes of white geese under strong artificial selection. These genomic resources and our findings will facilitate marker-assisted breeding of geese and provide a foundation for further research on geese genetics and evolution.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Brown TL, Charity OJ, EM Adriaenssens (2022)

Ecological and functional roles of bacteriophages in contrasting environments: marine, terrestrial and human gut.

Current opinion in microbiology, 70:102229 pii:S1369-5274(22)00113-8 [Epub ahead of print].

While they are the most abundant biological entities on the planet, the role of bacteriophages (phages) in the microbiome remains enigmatic and understudied. With a rise in the number of metagenomics studies and the publication of highly efficient phage mining programmes, we now have extensive data on the genomic and taxonomic diversity of (mainly) DNA bacteriophages in a wide range of environments. In addition, the higher throughput and quality of sequencing is allowing for strain-level reconstructions of phage genomes from metagenomes. These factors will ultimately help us to understand the role these phages play as part of specific microbial communities, enabling the tracking of individual virus genomes through space and time. Using lessons learned from the latest metagenomic studies, we focus on two explicit aspects of the role bacteriophages play within the microbiome, their ecological role in structuring bacterial populations, and their contribution to microbiome functioning by encoding auxiliary metabolism genes.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Wang R, Lai Y, Fang Q, et al (2022)

Discovery of enzymes to biotransform ginsenoside Rd into ginsenosides F2 and CK using metagenomics and genomic mining.

Archives of microbiology, 204(12):694.

Ginsenosides are the main active components of ginseng, including many types and different contents. Among them, minor ginsenosides have better biological functions and pharmacological activities than those of the major ginsenosides. However, minor ginsenosides cannot be obtained in large quantities, but by means of enzymatic transformation technology, some major ginsenosides can be de-glycosylated at a specific position to generate minor ginsenosides. In this study, we report two glycosidase genes associated with the conversion of ginsenoside Rd to ginsenosides F2 or CK. SWMU-CK-1 was identified among the total genes extracted from the feces of plum deer by local Blast screening for putative ginsenoside conversion function, which could cause the conversion of ginsenoside Rd → F2 → CK. The other gene was found in the Bifidobacterium breve 689b SGAir 0764 chromosome genome, which might have the same function as the β-glucosidase gene testified by the gene matching, named SWMU-F2-2, and can achieve the Rd → F2 transformation. This study reports two genes that enable achieving the biotransformation of rare ginsenosides, while it provides a new insight and a promising approach to explore new genes and develop new functions of existing genes.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Palmer B, Lawson D, DA Lipson (2022)

Years After a Fire, Biocrust Microbial Communities are Similar to Unburned Communities in a Coastal Grassland.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial communities are integral for ecosystem processes and their taxonomic composition and function may be altered by a disturbance such as fire. Biocrusts are composed of macroscopic and microscopic organisms and are important for a variety of ecosystem functions, such as nutrient cycling and erosion control. We sought to understand if biocrust community composition and function were altered 1 year after a prescribed fire and 6 years after a wildfire in a coastal California grassland on San Clemente Island. We used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and measurements of chlorophyll content, exopolysaccharide production related to soil stability, and nitrogen fixation. There were no differences in the community composition between unburned samples and the samples burned in the prescribed fire and wildfire. Chlorophyll content differed between the prescribed fire and the controls; however, there were no measured differences in exopolysaccharide production, and nitrogen fixation. However, the wildfire and their respective unburned samples had different functions based on the gene annotations. We compiled one Actinobacteria metagenome-assembled genome from the shotgun sequences which had genes for oxidative and heat stress tolerance. These results suggest that the biocrust community can reach a community composition and function similar to the unburned biocrusts within a year after a prescribed burn and 6 years after a wildfire. However, legacy effects of the wildfire may present themselves in the differences between functional gene sequences. Due to their ability to match the undisturbed community composition and function within years and without intervention, future restoration work should consider the biocrusts in their restoration plans as they may provide valuable ecosystem functions after a disturbance.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Williams RBH (2022)

Adapt or perish.

eLife, 11: pii:83617.

Microbial communities in wastewater treatment plants provide insights into the development and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Wright AA, SJ Harper (2022)

Draft Genome Sequence of a Washington Isolate of "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni".

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Illumina sequencing of a Prunus avium tree with X-disease symptoms was performed to obtain a draft genome of "Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni." The genome consists of 14 contigs covering 588,767 bp. This is the first metagenome to be sequenced from the current X-disease epidemic in stone fruit in the Pacific Northwest.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Dahdouh E, Fernández-Tomé L, Cendejas E, et al (2022)

Intestinal Dominance by Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Pediatric Liver Transplant Patients.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Pediatric liver transplantation (PLTx) is commonly associated with extensive antibiotic treatments that can produce gut microbiome alterations and open the way to dominance by multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). In this study, the relationship between intestinal Relative Loads (RLs) of β-lactamase genes, antibiotic consumption, microbiome disruption, and the extraintestinal dissemination of MDROs among PLTx patients is investigated. 28 PLTx patients were included, from whom 169 rectal swabs were collected. Total DNA was extracted and blaCTX-M-1-Family, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-48, and blaVIM were quantified via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and normalized to the total bacterial load (16SrRNA) through LogΔΔCt to determine the RLs. 16SrRNA sequencing was performed for 18 samples, and metagenomic sequencing was performed for 2. Patients' clinical data were retrieved from the hospital's database. At least one of the genes tested were detected in all of the patients. The RLs for blaCTX-M-1-Family, blaOXA-1, blaOXA-48, and blaVIM were higher than 1% of the total bacterial population in 67 (80.73%), 56 (78.87%), 57 (77.03%) and 39 (61.9%) samples, respectively. High RLs for blaCTX-M-1-Family, blaOXA-1, and/or blaOXA-48, were positively associated with the consumption of carbapenems with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and coincided with low diversity in the gut microbiome. Low RLs were associated with the consumption of noncarbapenem β-lactams with aminoglycosides (P < 0.05). Extraintestinal isolates harboring the same gene(s) as those detected intraintestinally were found in 18 samples, and the RLs of the respective swabs were high. We demonstrated a relationship between the consumption of carbapenems with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, intestinal dominance by MDROs and extraintestinal spread of these organisms among PLTx patients. IMPORTANCE In this study, we track the relative intestinal loads of antibiotic resistance genes among pediatric liver transplant patients and determine the relationship between this load, antibiotic consumption, and infections caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms. We demonstrate that the consumption of broad spectrum antibiotics increase this load and decrease the gut microbial diversity among these patients. Moreover, the high loads of resistance genes were related to the extraintestinal spread of multidrug-resistant organisms. Together, our data show that the tracking of the relative intestinal loads of antibiotic resistance genes can be used as a biomarker that has the potential to stop the extraintestinal spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via the measurement of the intestinal dominance of these organisms, thereby allowing for the application of preventive measures.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Goggans ML, Bilbrey EA, Quiroz-Moreno CD, et al (2022)

Short-Term Tomato Consumption Alters the Pig Gut Microbiome toward a More Favorable Profile.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Diets rich in fruits and vegetables have been shown to exert positive effects on the gut microbiome. However, little is known about the specific effect of individual fruits or vegetables on gut microbe profiles. This study aims to elucidate the effects of tomato consumption on the gut microbiome, as tomatoes account for 22% of vegetable consumption in Western diets, and their consumption has been associated with positive health outcomes. Using piglets as a physiologically relevant model of human metabolism, 20 animals were assigned to either a control or a tomato powder-supplemented diet (both macronutrient matched and isocaloric) for 14 days. The microbiome was sampled rectally at three time points: day 0 (baseline), day 7 (midpoint), and day 14 (end of study). DNA was sequenced using shotgun metagenomics, and reads were annotated using MG-RAST. There were no differences in body weight or feed intake between our two treatment groups. There was a microbial shift which included a higher ratio of Bacteroidota to Bacillota (formerly known as Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, respectively) and higher alpha-diversity in tomato-fed animals, indicating a shift to a more desirable phenotype. Analyses at both the phylum and genus levels showed global microbiome profile changes (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [PERMANOVA], P ≤ 0.05) over time but not with tomato consumption. These data suggest that short-term tomato consumption can beneficially influence the gut microbial profile, warranting further investigation in humans. IMPORTANCE The composition of the microorganisms in the gut is a contributor to overall health, prompting the development of strategies to alter the microbiome composition. Studies have investigated the role of the diet on the microbiome, as it is a major modifiable risk factor contributing to health; however, little is known about the causal effects of consumption of specific foods on the gut microbiota. A more complete understanding of how individual foods impact the microbiome will enable more evidence-based dietary recommendations for long-term health. Tomatoes are of interest as the most consumed nonstarchy vegetable and a common source of nutrients and phytochemicals across the world. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of short-term tomato consumption on the microbiome, using piglets as a physiologically relevant model to humans. We found that tomato consumption can positively affect the gut microbial profile, which warrants further investigation in humans.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Walker H, Shanthikumar S, Cole T, et al (2022)

Novel approaches to the prediction and diagnosis of pulmonary complications in the paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplant patient.

Current opinion in infectious diseases, 35(6):493-499.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment option for many children with relapsed leukaemia, primary immunodeficiencies and haemoglobinopathies. Unfortunately, infectious and noninfectious pulmonary complications following HSCT continue to cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review will focus on recent advances in the field that enhance clinically available diagnostic tools and the role of novel diagnostic techniques.

RECENT FINDINGS: Research continues to highlight the role of standard diagnostic modalities, including imaging using computed topography chest and Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in the diagnosis of posttransplant pulmonary infections. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage using bronchoscopy to obtain samples for microbiological analysis remains an important tool in the clinical and diagnostic algorithm for these children. The application of more novel diagnostic techniques such as metagenomic next-generation sequencing and the use of specific biomarkers remain potential future tools in children in whom the aetiology of posttransplant lung disease is unknown. The impact of the pulmonary microbiome on infectious and noninfectious pulmonary disease post HSCT is a future research direction.

SUMMARY: Pulmonary infectious complications post HSCT remain a devastating complication for children and their families. Despite improvements in standard and novel diagnostic modalities, the aetiology of pulmonary disease remains unknown for many patients. There is an urgent need for ongoing collaborative research to bridge this critical knowledge gap and lead to better patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2022-11-08

Song Y, Perlman K, P Gyarmati (2022)

Microbial and host factors contribute to bloodstream infection in a pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia mouse model.

Heliyon, 8(11):e11340 pii:S2405-8440(22)02628-7.

Background: Hematological malignancies are the most common cancers in the pediatric population, and T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (T-ALL) is the most common hematological malignancy in children. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a commonly occurring complication in leukemia due to underlying conditions and therapy-induced neutropenia. Several studies identified the gut microbiome as a major source of BSI due to bacterial translocation. This study aimed to investigate changes in the intestinal and fecal microbiome, and their roles in the pathophysiology of BSI in a pediatric T-ALL mouse model using high-throughput shotgun metagenomics sequencing, and metabolomics.

Results: Our results show that BSI in ALL is characterized by an increase of a mucin degrading bacterium (Akkermansia muciniphila) and a decrease of butyrate producer Clostridia spp., along with a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and differential expression of tight junction proteins in the small intestine. Functional analysis of the small intestinal microbiome indicated a reduced capability of SCFA synthesis, while SCFA supplementation ameliorated the development of BSI in ALL.

Conclusions: Our data indicates that changes in the microbiome, and the resulting changes in levels of SCFAs contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of bloodstream infection in ALL. Our study provides tailored preventive or therapeutic approaches to reduce BSI-associated mortality in ALL.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Kato K, Okazaki S, Kannan S, et al (2022)

Structure of the IscB-ωRNA ribonucleoprotein complex, the likely ancestor of CRISPR-Cas9.

Nature communications, 13(1):6719.

Transposon-encoded IscB family proteins are RNA-guided nucleases in the OMEGA (obligate mobile element-guided activity) system, and likely ancestors of the RNA-guided nuclease Cas9 in the type II CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system. IscB associates with its cognate ωRNA to form a ribonucleoprotein complex that cleaves double-stranded DNA targets complementary to an ωRNA guide segment. Although IscB shares the RuvC and HNH endonuclease domains with Cas9, it is much smaller than Cas9, mainly due to the lack of the α-helical nucleic-acid recognition lobe. Here, we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of an IscB protein from the human gut metagenome (OgeuIscB) in complex with its cognate ωRNA and a target DNA, at 2.6-Å resolution. This high-resolution structure reveals the detailed architecture of the IscB-ωRNA ribonucleoprotein complex, and shows how the small IscB protein assembles with the ωRNA and mediates RNA-guided DNA cleavage. The large ωRNA scaffold structurally and functionally compensates for the recognition lobe of Cas9, and participates in the recognition of the guide RNA-target DNA heteroduplex. These findings provide insights into the mechanism of the programmable DNA cleavage by the IscB-ωRNA complex and the evolution of the type II CRISPR-Cas9 effector complexes.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Wang Y, Li H, Li Y, et al (2022)

Metagenomic analysis revealed sources, transmission, and health risk of antibiotic resistance genes in confluence of Fenhe, Weihe, and Yellow Rivers.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07013-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Rivers are important vectors and reservoirs of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs). Information regarding transmission and health risk of ARGs in river confluence is still lacking. In this study, metagenomics was used to distinguish contributions of human activities on ARGs and human pathogenic bacteria (HPB) in confluence of Fenhe, Weihe, and Yellow Rivers. Bacitracin resistance gene and bacA were the highest in all rivers, with 1.86 × 10-2-7.26 × 10-2 and 1.79 × 10-2-9.12 × 10-2 copies/16S rRNA copies, respectively. River confluence significantly increased the abundance of ARGs, especially at the confluence of three rivers with the highest 1.53 × 10-1 copies/16S rRNA copies. Antibiotic efflux and antibiotic target alteration were the dominant resistant mechanisms in three rivers. ARGs profiles were influenced by multiple factors, with the contributions of various factors ranked as microbial communities > physicochemical factors > human activities > mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Notably, human activities and animal feces were important potential contributors of ARGs in the Weihe River and Yellow River. Transposons, as the main MGEs in three rivers, played important roles in ARGs transfer. The confluence of three rivers had the highest abundance of MGEs with the greatest transfer potentials, and therefore exhibiting the largest exposure risk of ARGs with 232.4 copies/cap·d. Furthermore, correlations of ARGs, MGEs, and HPB in different rivers were constructed via co-occurrence modes to systematically illustrate the health risks of ARGs. This study firstly unveiled the transmission and health risk of ARGs in river confluence, providing supports for ARGs control in watershed.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Perez-Garcia J, González-Carracedo M, Espuela-Ortiz A, et al (2022)

The Upper-Airway Microbiome as a Biomarker of Asthma Exacerbations despite Inhaled Corticosteroid Treatment.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology pii:S0091-6749(22)01475-0 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma is affected by the interplay of several factors. Among these, the role of the upper-airway microbiome has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the association between the salivary, pharyngeal, and nasal microbiome with asthma exacerbations despite ICS use.

METHODS: Samples from 250 asthma patients from the Genomics and Metagenomics of Asthma Severity (GEMAS) study treated with ICS were analyzed. Controls/cases were defined by the absence/presence of asthma exacerbations in the past six months despite being treated with ICS. The bacterial microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Differences between groups were assessed by PERMANOVA and regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Classification models of asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment were built with machine learning approaches based on clinical, genetic, and microbiome data.

RESULTS: In nasal and saliva samples, cases had lower bacterial diversity (Richness, Shannon, and Faith indexes) than controls (0.007≤p≤0.037). Asthma exacerbations accounted for 8-9% of the interindividual variation of the salivary and nasal microbiomes (0.003≤p≤0.046). Three, four, and eleven bacterial genera from the salivary, pharyngeal, and nasal microbiomes were differentially abundant between groups (4.09x10-12≤FDR≤0.047). Integrating clinical, genetic, and microbiome data showed good discrimination for the development of asthma exacerbations despite ICS use (AUCtraining:0.82 and AUCvalidation:0.77).

CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the upper-airway microbiome are associated with asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment. The salivary microbiome has a potential application as a biomarker of asthma exacerbations despite ICS use.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Lee JW, Cowley ES, Wolf PG, et al (2022)

Formation of secondary allo-bile acids by novel enzymes from gut Firmicutes.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2132903.

The gut microbiome of vertebrates is capable of numerous biotransformations of bile acids, which are responsible for intestinal lipid digestion and function as key nutrient-signaling molecules. The human liver produces bile acids from cholesterol predominantly in the A/B-cis orientation in which the sterol rings are "kinked", as well as small quantities of A/B-trans oriented "flat" stereoisomers known as "primary allo-bile acids". While the complex multi-step bile acid 7α-dehydroxylation pathway has been well-studied for conversion of "kinked" primary bile acids such as cholic acid (CA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) to deoxycholic acid (DCA) and lithocholic acid (LCA), respectively, the enzymatic basis for the formation of "flat" stereoisomers allo-deoxycholic acid (allo-DCA) and allo-lithocholic acid (allo-LCA) by Firmicutes has remained unsolved for three decades. Here, we present a novel mechanism by which Firmicutes generate the "flat" bile acids allo-DCA and allo-LCA. The BaiA1 was shown to catalyze the final reduction from 3-oxo-allo-DCA to allo-DCA and 3-oxo-allo-LCA to allo-LCA. Phylogenetic and metagenomic analyses of human stool samples indicate that BaiP and BaiJ are encoded only in Firmicutes and differ from membrane-associated bile acid 5α-reductases recently reported in Bacteroidetes that indirectly generate allo-LCA from 3-oxo-Δ4-LCA. We further map the distribution of baiP and baiJ among Firmicutes in human metagenomes, demonstrating an increased abundance of the two genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients relative to healthy individuals.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Moutsoglou DM, Tatah J, Prisco SZ, et al (2022)

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Have a Proinflammatory Gut Microbiome and Altered Circulating Microbial Metabolites.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

RATIONALE: Inflammation drives pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Gut dysbiosis causes immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation by altering circulating microbial metabolites; however, little is known about gut dysbiosis and microbial metabolites in PAH.

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites in PAH patients.

METHODS: We performed 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene and shotgun metagenomics sequencing on stool from PAH patients, family controls, and healthy controls. We measured markers of inflammation, gut permeability, and microbial metabolites in plasma from PAH patients, family controls, and healthy controls.

MAIN RESULTS: The gut microbiome was less diverse in PAH patients. Shannon diversity index correlated with measures of pulmonary vascular disease but not with right ventricular function. PAH patients had a distinct gut microbial signature at the phylogenetic level with lower copies of gut microbial genes that produce anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and secondary bile acids and lower relative abundances of species encoding these genes. Consistent with the gut microbial changes, PAH patients had relatively lower plasma levels of SCFAs and secondary bile acids. PAH patients also had enrichment of species with the microbial genes that encoded the proinflammatory microbial metabolite trimethylamine. The changes in the gut microbiome and circulating microbial metabolites between PAH patients and family controls were not as substantial as the differences between PAH patients and healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS: PAH patients have proinflammatory gut dysbiosis in which lower circulating SCFAs and secondary bile acids may facilitate pulmonary vascular disease. These findings support investigating modulation of the gut microbiome as a potential treatment for PAH.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Li J, Dong C, Lai Q, et al (2022)

Frequent Occurrence and Metabolic Versatility of Marinifilaceae Bacteria as Key Players in Organic Matter Mineralization in Global Deep Seas.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Transfer of animal and plant detritus of both terrestrial and marine origins to the deep sea occurs on a global scale. Microorganisms play an important role in mineralizing them therein, but these are yet to be identified in situ. To observe key bacteria involved, we conducted long-term in situ incubation and found that members of the family Marinifilaceae (MF) occurred as some of the most predominant bacteria thriving on the new inputs of plant and animal biomasses in the deep sea in both marginal and oceanic areas. This taxon is diverse and ubiquitous in marine environments. A total of 11 MAGs belonging to MF were retrieved from metagenomic data and diverged into four subgroups in the phylogenomic tree. Based on metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses, we described the metabolic features and in situ metabolizing activities of different subgroups. The MF-2 subgroup, which dominates plant detritus-enriched cultures, specializes in polysaccharide degradation and lignin oxidation and has high transcriptional activities of related genes in situ. Intriguingly, members of this subgroup encode a nitrogen fixation pathway to compensate for the shortage of nitrogen sources inside the plant detritus. In contrast, other subgroups dominating the animal tissue-supported microbiomes are distinguished from MF-2 with regard to carbon and nitrogen metabolism and exhibit high transcriptional activity for proteolysis in situ. Despite these metabolic divergences of MF lineages, they show high in situ transcriptional activities for organic fermentation and anaerobic respiration (reductions of metal and/or dimethyl sulfoxide). These results highlight the role of previously unrecognized Marinifilaceae bacteria in organic matter mineralization in marine environments by coupling carbon and nitrogen cycling with metal and sulfur. IMPORTANCE Microbial mineralization of organic matter has a significant impact on the global biogeochemical cycle. This report confirms the role of Marinifilaceae in organic degradation in the oceans, with a contribution to ocean carbon cycling that has previously been underestimated. It was the dominant taxon thriving on plant and animal biomasses in our in situ incubator, as well as in whale falls and wood falls. At least 9 subgroups were revealed, and they were widely distributed in oceans globally but predominant in organic-matter-rich environments, with an average relative abundance of 8.3%. Different subgroups display a preference for the degradation of different macromolecules (polysaccharides, lignin, and protein) and adapt to their environments via special metabolic mechanisms.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Alegria Terrazas R, Robertson-Albertyn S, Corral AM, et al (2022)

Defining Composition and Function of the Rhizosphere Microbiota of Barley Genotypes Exposed to Growth-Limiting Nitrogen Supplies.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The microbiota populating the rhizosphere, the interface between roots and soil, can modulate plant growth, development, and health. These microbial communities are not stochastically assembled from the surrounding soil, but their composition and putative function are controlled, at least partially, by the host plant. Here, we use the staple cereal barley as a model to gain novel insights into the impact of differential applications of nitrogen, a rate-limiting step for global crop production, on the host genetic control of the rhizosphere microbiota. Using a high-throughput amplicon sequencing survey, we determined that nitrogen availability for plant uptake is a factor promoting the selective enrichment of individual taxa in the rhizosphere of wild and domesticated barley genotypes. Shotgun sequencing and metagenome-assembled genomes revealed that this taxonomic diversification is mirrored by a functional specialization, manifested by the differential enrichment of multiple Gene Ontology terms, of the microbiota of plants exposed to nitrogen conditions limiting barley growth. Finally, a plant soil feedback experiment revealed that host control of the barley microbiota underpins the assembly of a phylogenetically diverse group of bacteria putatively required to sustain plant performance under nitrogen-limiting supplies. Taken together, our observations indicate that under nitrogen conditions limiting plant growth, host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions fine-tune the host genetic selection of the barley microbiota at both taxonomic and functional levels. The disruption of these recruitment cues negatively impacts plant growth. IMPORTANCE The microbiota inhabiting the rhizosphere, the thin layer of soil surrounding plant roots, can promote the growth, development, and health of their host plants. Previous research indicated that differences in the genetic composition of the host plant coincide with variations in the composition of the rhizosphere microbiota. This is particularly evident when looking at the microbiota associated with input-demanding modern cultivated varieties and their wild relatives, which have evolved under marginal conditions. However, the functional significance of these differences remains to be fully elucidated. We investigated the rhizosphere microbiota of wild and cultivated genotypes of the global crop barley and determined that nutrient conditions limiting plant growth amplify the host control on microbes at the root-soil interface. This is reflected in a plant- and genotype-dependent functional specialization of the rhizosphere microbiota, which appears to be required for optimal plant growth. These findings provide novel insights into the significance of the rhizosphere microbiota for plant growth and sustainable agriculture.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Jiang H, Cao HW, Chai ZX, et al (2022)

Dynamic alterations in yak (Bos grunniens) rumen microbiome in response to seasonal variations in diet.

Physiological genomics [Epub ahead of print].

Rumen microorganisms play important roles in the healthy growth of yaks. This study investigated changes of yak rumen microbiome during natural grazing at the warm seasons and supplementary feeding at cold seasons. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA and metagenome analysis were conducted to investigate the structures and functions of yak rumen microbial communities. The results indicated that Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most abundant phyla. In addition, Bacteroidetes might play a more important role than Firmicutes during the supplementary feeding stage (spring and winter), but less during natural grazing stage (summer and autumn). KEGG analysis showed that the amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pyruvate metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and fructose and mannose metabolism were the main pathways in the microbial community, which were significantly different between seasons. The carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZyme) annotation revealed that cellulose was an important carbon source for microorganisms in yak rumen. Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) were the most abundant class of CAZymes, followed by glycosyl transferases (GTs), which were important to digestion of oil, cellulose, and hemicellulose in food. These results contribute to the understanding of microbial component and functions in yak rumen.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang J, Qin S, H Zhang (2022)

Precise strategies for selecting probiotic bacteria in treatment of intestinal bacterial dysfunctional diseases.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1034727.

Abundant microbiota resides in the organs of the body, which utilize the nutrition and form a reciprocal relationship with the host. The composition of these microbiota changes under different pathological conditions, particularly in response to stress and digestive diseases, making the microbial composition and health of the hosts body interdependent. Probiotics are living microorganisms that have demonstrated beneficial effects on physical health and as such are used as supplements to ameliorate symptoms of various digestive diseases by optimizing microbial composition of the gut and restore digestive balance. However, the supplementary effect does not achieve the expected result. Therefore, a targeted screening strategy on probiotic bacteria is crucial, owing to the presence of several bacterial strains. Core bacteria work effectively in maintaining microbiological homeostasis and stabilization in the gastrointestinal tract. Some of the core bacteria can be inherited and acquired from maternal pregnancy and delivery; others can be acquired from contact with the mother, feces, and the environment. Knowing the genera and functions of the core bacteria could be vital in the isolation and selection of probiotic bacteria for supplementation. In addition, other supporting strains of probiotic bacteria are also needed. A comprehensive strategy for mining both core and supporting bacteria before its clinical use is needed. Using metagenomics or other methods of estimation to discern the typically differentiated strains of bacteria is another important strategy to treat dysbiosis. Hence, these two factors are significant to carry out targeted isolation and selection of the functional strains to compose the resulting probiotic preparation for application in both research and clinical use. In conclusion, precise probiotic supplementation, by screening abundant strains of bacteria and isolating specific probiotic strains, could rapidly establish the core microbiota needed to confer resilience, particularly in bacterial dysfunctional diseases. This approach can help identify distinct bacteria which can be used to improve supplementation therapies.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Wang X, Xiong K, Huang F, et al (2022)

A metagenome-wide association study of the gut microbiota in recurrent aphthous ulcer and regulation by thalidomide.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1018567.

Recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU), one of the most common diseases in humans, has an unknown etiology and is difficult to treat. Thalidomide is an important immunomodulatory and antitumor drug and its effects on the gut microbiota still remain unclear. We conducted a metagenomic sequencing study of fecal samples from a cohort of individuals with RAU, performed biochemical assays of cytokines, immunoglobulins and antimicrobial peptides in serum and saliva, and investigated the regulation effects of thalidomide administration and withdrawal. Meanwhile we constructed the corresponding prediction models. Our metagenome-wide association results indicated that gut dysbacteriosis, microbial dysfunction and immune imbalance occurred in RAU patients. Thalidomide regulated gut dysbacteriosis in a species-specific manner and had different sustainable effects on various probiotics and pathogens. A previously unknown association between gut microbiota alterations and RAU was found, and the specific roles of thalidomide in modulating the gut microbiota and immunity were determined, suggesting that RAU may be affected by targeting gut dysbacteriosis and modifying immune imbalance. In-depth insights into sophisticated networks consisting of the gut microbiota and host cells may lead to the development of emerging treatments, including prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, and postbiotics.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Shirane M, Yawata N, Motooka D, et al (2022)

Intraocular human cytomegaloviruses of ocular diseases are distinct from those of viremia and are capable of escaping from innate and adaptive immunity by exploiting HLA-E-mediated peripheral and central tolerance.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:1008220.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections develop into CMV diseases that result in various forms of manifestations in local organs. CMV-retinitis is a form of CMV disease that develops in immunocompromised hosts with CMV-viremia after viruses in the peripheral circulation have entered the eye. In the HCMV genome, extensive diversification of the UL40 gene has produced peptide sequences that modulate NK cell effector functions when loaded onto HLA-E and are subsequently recognized by the NKG2A and NKG2C receptors. Notably, some HCMV strains carry UL40 genes that encode peptide sequences identical to the signal peptide sequences of specific HLA-A and HLA-C allotypes, which enables these CMV strains to escape HLA-E-restricted CD8+T cell responses. Variations in UL40 sequences have been studied mainly in the peripheral blood of CMV-viremia cases. In this study, we sought to investigate how ocular CMV disease develops from CMV infections. CMV gene sequences were compared between the intraocular fluids and peripheral blood of 77 clinical cases. UL40 signal peptide sequences were more diverse, and multiple sequences were typically present in CMV-viremia blood compared to intraocular fluid. Significantly stronger NK cell suppression was induced by UL40-derived peptides from intraocular HCMV compared to those identified only in peripheral blood. HCMV present in intraocular fluids were limited to those carrying a UL40 peptide sequence corresponding to the leader peptide sequence of the host's HLA class I, while UL40-derived peptides from HCMV found only in the peripheral blood were disparate from any HLA class I allotype. Overall, our analyses of CMV-retinitis inferred that specific HCMV strains with UL40 signal sequences matching the host's HLA signal peptide sequences were those that crossed the blood-ocular barrier to enter the intraocular space. UL40 peptide repertoires were the same in the intraocular fluids of all ocular CMV diseases, regardless of host immune status, implying that virus type is likely to be a common determinant in ocular CMV disease development. We thus propose a mechanism for ocular CMV disease development, in which particular HCMV types in the blood exploit peripheral and central HLA-E-mediated tolerance mechanisms and, thus, escape the antivirus responses of both innate and adaptive immunity.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Pilo P, Lawless C, Tiley AMM, et al (2022)

Comparison of microscopic and metagenomic approaches to identify cereal pathogens and track fungal spore release in the field.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1039090.

Wheat is one of the main staple food crops, and 775 million tonnes of wheat were produced worldwide in 2022. Fungal diseases such as Fusarium head blight, Septoria tritici blotch, spot blotch, tan spot, stripe rust, leaf rust, and powdery mildew cause serious yield losses in wheat and can impact quality. We aimed to investigate the incidence of spores from major fungal pathogens of cereals in the field by comparing microscopic and metagenomic based approaches for spore identification. Spore traps were set up in four geographically distinct UK wheat fields (Carnoustie, Angus; Bishop Burton, Yorkshire; Swindon, Wiltshire; and Lenham, Kent). Six major cereal fungal pathogen genera (Alternaria spp., Blumeria graminis, Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Puccinia spp., and Zymoseptoria spp.) were found using these techniques at all sites. Using metagenomic and BLAST analysis, 150 cereal pathogen species (33 different genera) were recorded on the spore trap tapes. The metagenomic BLAST analysis showed a higher accuracy in terms of species-specific identification than the taxonomic tool software Kraken2 or microscopic analysis. Microscopic data from the spore traps was subsequently correlated with weather data to examine the conditions which promote ascospore release of Fusarium spp. and Zymoseptoria spp. This revealed that Zymoseptoria spp. and Fusarium spp. ascospore release show a positive correlation with relative humidity (%RH). Whereas air temperature (°C) negatively affects Zymoseptoria spp. ascospore release.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Mao Y, Shen H, Yang C, et al (2022)

Clinical performance of metagenomic next-generation sequencing for the rapid diagnosis of talaromycosis in HIV-infected patients.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:962441.

Background: Talaromycosis is an invasive endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei, TM). It mainly affects immunodeficient patients, especially HIV-infected individuals, which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Culture-based diagnosis takes a long turnaround time with low sensitivity, leading to treatment delay. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the performance of Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing (mNGS) for the rapid diagnosis of talaromycosis in HIV-infected patients.

Methods: Retrospectively analysis was conducted in HIV-infected cases at Changsha First Hospital (China) from January 2021 to March 2022. Patients who underwent routine microbiological examination and mNGS testing in parallel were enrolled. The clinical final diagnosis was used as a reference standard, and cases were classified into the TM group (60 cases) and the non-TM group (148 cases). The clinical performances of mNGS were compared with culture and serum Galactomannan (GM). The mixed infections detected by mNGS were analyzed. The impact of mNGS detection on treatment was also investigated.

Results: The sensitivity of mNGS test reached 98.3% (95% CI, 89.8-99.9), which was significantly higher than culture (66.7% [95% CI, 53.2-77.9], P < 0.001) and serum GM (83.3% [95% CI, 71.0-91.2], P < 0.05). The specificity of 98.6% (95% CI, 94.7-99.7) was similar to culture (100.0% [95% CI, 96.8-100.0], P = 0.156), and superior to serum GM (91.9% [95% CI, 85.9-95.5], P < 0.05). In bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples, the positive rate of mNGS was 97.6%, which was significantly higher than culture (28.6%, P <0.001). mNGS has excellent performance in the identification of mixed infection in TM group patients. Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus and Pneumocystis jirovecii were the most common concurrent pathogens. In summary, 60.0% (36/60) patients were added or adjusted to antimicrobial therapy after mNGS test.

Conclusion: mNGS is a powerful technique with high specificity and sensitivity for the rapid diagnosis of talaromycosis. mNGS of BALF samples may be a good option for early identification of T. marneffei in HIV-infected individuals with manifestations of infection. Moreover, mNGS shows excellent performance in mixed infection, which benefits timely treatment and potential mortality reduction.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Su Y, Miao Q, Li N, et al (2022)

Diagnostic accuracy of metagenomic next-generation sequencing for cryptococcosis in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:997256.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) for cryptococcosis in patients with different immune statuses with that of conventional detection.

Methods: A total of 1442 specimens including 71 specimens from patients with cryptococcosis were analyzed in the study. The chi square test was used to screen the sensitivity and specificity of different detection methods for different specimen types. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the mNGS results with age, CD4, lymphocytes, IFN, IL-6, IL-2 and serum antigen assay.

Results: The sensitivity of mNGS was 44.29% in Cryptococcus infection cases. The positive rate of mNGS results for bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, 87.50%) from immunocompromised patients was higher than that of BALF from immunocompetent patients (40.00%, p=0.04). The sensitivity of the serum Cryptococcus capsular antigen assay was 80.00% in immunocompetent patients and 96.42% in immunocompromised patients (p = 0.049). A positive rate of detection of Cryptococcus from mNGS was higher when cryptococcal antigen ≥1:160 (p=0.022) in immunocompromised patients. A positive rate of detection of Cryptococcus from mNGS was higher when lymphocyte counts were lower in both immunocompetent patients(p=0.017) and in immunocompromised patients(p=0.029).

Conclusions: The sensitivity of mNGS is lower than that of serum cryptococcal antigen assay and histopathology in immunocompetent patients. However, BALF detection is recommend for immunocompromised patients compared with tissue and CSF. The positive mNGS result was correlated with lower lymphocyte counts, higher IL-2 and higher serum antigen assay in immunocompromised patients.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Ye F, Zhang W, Dong J, et al (2022)

A novel STAT1 loss-of-function mutation associated with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:1002140.

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare congenital immune deficiency characterized by susceptibility to weakly virulent mycobacteria. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is one of the common genetic causes of MSMD. In this study, we identified a patient who presented with multiple lymph node enlargements and multiple osteolytic disruptions. Mycobacterium gordonae infection was confirmed by metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing identified a novel paternal heterozygous mutation in exon 22 of STAT1 (NM_007315.4, c.1892T>C, p.Val631Ala). This variant was confirmed pathogenic by multiple software predictions. Based on functional assays, STAT1 expression in STAT1V631A cells was not different from STAT1WT cells. But STAT1V631A mutation caused much lower activation of STAT1 when stimulated by interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Fluorescence localization analysis revealed that both STAT1V631A and STAT1WT proteins were located in the cytoplasm, and only a few STAT1V631A proteins were translocated to the nucleus in response to IFN-γ. These results suggest that STAT1V631A leads to LOF in IFN-γ-mediated mycobacterial immunity, resulting in MSMD. Treatment with antibiotics has achieved ideal disease control for this patient, and no adverse events occurred during follow-up. The STAT1 LOF deficiency is a genetic cause of MSMD, which should be considered in patients with mycobacterial disease, especially those with bone involvement.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Liu J, Tao J, Chen W, et al (2022)

The application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing for Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis in a pediatric patient: A case report.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1003013.

Background: Angiostrongylus eosinophilic meningitis (AEM) is a rare yet emerging disease caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection. Its atypical symptoms may delay the diagnosis and cause fatal outcomes, especially in the early stages of infection and among children.

Case presentation: Here we reported the use of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) to facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of an 8-year-old boy with severe A. cantonensis infection. The mNGS tests consistently identified the infection of A. cantonensis prior to the detection by the immunologic method and confirmed it as AEM. Owing to the multidisciplinary team (MDT)-administrated treatments and close disease monitoring based on regular clinical tests and sequential mNGS tests, the patients eventually fully recovered from severe infectious conditions.

Conclusion: This case demonstrated the advantages of mNGS for early diagnosis of AEM in pediatric patients, highlighting its application for pan-pathogen detection, as well as disease monitoring for severe A. cantonensis infection.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Tian Y, Xia H, Zhang L, et al (2022)

Detection of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii by metagenomic next-generation sequencing in central nervous system infection after neurosurgery: A case report.

Frontiers in public health, 10:1028920.

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) infection is one of the most serious complications after neurosurgery. Traditional clinical methods are difficult to diagnose the pathogen of intracranial infection. Due to recent advances in genomic approaches, especially sequencing technologies, metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has been applied in many research and clinical settings.

Case presentation: Here, we report a case of CNS infection with Acinetobacter baumannii in a 15-year-old woman, who previously underwent surgery for recurrence of ependymoma in the fourth ventricle. On the eleventh postoperative day, the patient had a high fever and leukocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). mNGS using CSF rapidly and accurately identified the causative pathogen as A. baumannii with carbapenem resistance genes blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-51, which were confirmed by subsequent culture and susceptibility tests within 5 days. During the disease, mNGS, culture, and drug susceptibility testing were continued to monitor changes in pathogenic bacteria and adjust medication. At present, there are no case reports on to the use of mNGS for detecting pathogens in postoperative infection with ependymoma and guide medication.

Conclusion: mNGS has great advantages in pathogen identification and even pathogen resistance prediction. Multiple mNGS examinations during the course of the disease play an important role in the dynamic monitoring of pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Qiao N, Wittouck S, Mattarelli P, et al (2022)

After the storm-Perspectives on the taxonomy of Lactobacillaceae.

JDS communications, 3(3):222-227 pii:S2666-9102(22)00050-3.

In 2020, a taxonomic reorganization of the lactic acid bacteria reclassified over 300 species in 7 genera and 2 families into one family, the Lactobacillaceae, with 31 genera including 23 new genera to include organisms formerly classified as Lactobacillus species. This communication aims to provide a debrief on the taxonomic reorganization of lactobacilli to identify shortcomings in the proposed taxonomic framework, and to outline perspectives and opportunities provided by the current taxonomy of the Lactobacillaceae. The current taxonomy of lactobacilli not only necessitates becoming familiar with 23 new genus names but also provides substantial new opportunities in scientific discovery and regulatory approval of these organisms. First, description of new species in the Lactobacillaceae is facilitated and a solid framework for description of novel genera is provided. Second, the current taxonomy greatly enhances the resolution of genus-level sequencing approaches (e.g., 16S rRNA-based metagenomics) when identifying the composition and function of microbial communities. Third, the current taxonomy greatly facilitates the formulation of hypotheses linking phylogeny to metabolism and ecology of lactobacilli.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Bao XL, Tang N, YZ Wang (2022)

Severe Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia complicated by acute intra-abdominal multiple arterial thrombosis and bacterial embolism: A case report.

World journal of clinical cases, 10(30):11101-11110.

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is a clinically common Gram-negative bacillus that can cause community- and hospital-acquired infections and lead to pneumonia, liver abscesses, bloodstream infections, and other infectious diseases; however, severe pneumonia caused by hypervirulent K. pneumoniae (hvKp) complicated by acute intra-abdominal multiple arterial thrombosis and bacterial embolism is rarely seen in the clinical setting and has not been reported in the literature.

CASE SUMMARY: A 51-year-old man was hospitalized with fever and dyspnea. Persistent mild pain in the middle and upper abdomen began at dawn on the 3rd day following admission and developed into persistent severe pain in the left upper abdomen 8 h later. Based on chest computed tomography (CT), bronchoscopy, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid metagenomic next-generation sequencing, abdominal aortic CT angiography (CTA), and culture of the superior mesenteric artery embolus, adult community-acquired severe hvKp pneumonia complicated by acute intra-abdominal multiple arterial thrombosis and bacterial embolism was diagnosed. Notably, he recovered and was discharged from the hospital after receiving effective meropenem anti-infection, endovascular contact thrombolytic, and systemic anticoagulant therapies and undergoing percutaneous thrombus aspiration. Ten days later, the patient returned to the hospital for abdominal CTA examination, which indicated blocked initial common pathway of the celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery, and local stenosis. Therefore, celiac trunk artery stenting was performed in Chongqing Hospital, and postoperative recovery was good.

CONCLUSION: We report a case of hvKp severe pneumonia complicated by acute intra-abdominal multiple arterial thrombosis and bacterial embolism and suggest that clinicians should consider the possibility of a Gram-negative bacillus infection and conduct effective pathogen detection in a timely fashion when managing patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia before obtaining bacteriologic and drug sensitivity results. At the same time, when patients have severe pulmonary infection complicated by severe abdominal pain, an acute mesenteric artery embolism should be considered to avoid delays in treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang X, Zhang T, Lei CW, et al (2022)

Florfenicol and oxazolidone resistance status in livestock farms revealed by short- and long-read metagenomic sequencing.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1018901.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as a novel type of environmental pollutant pose a health risk to humans. Oxazolidinones are one of the most important antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections in humans. Although oxazolidinones are not utilized in the livestock industry, florfenicol is commonly used on farms to treat bacterial infections, which may contribute to the spread of the cfr, optrA, and poxtA genes on farms. Using metagenomics sequencing, we looked into the antibiotic resistome context of florfenicol and oxazolidinone in 10 large-scale commercial farms in China. We identified 490 different resistance genes and 1,515 bacterial genera in the fecal samples obtained from 10 farms. Florfenicol-resistant Kurthia, Escherichia, and Proteus were widely present in these samples. The situation of florfenicol and oxazolidone resistance in pig farms is even more severe. The total number of genes and the abundance of drug resistance genes were higher in pigs than in chickens, including optrA and poxtA. All the samples we collected had a high abundance of fexA and floR. Through nanopore metagenomic analysis of the genetic environment, we found that plasmids, integrative and conjugative element (ICE), and transposons (Tn7-like and Tn558) may play an important role in the spread of floR, cfr, and optrA. Our findings suggest that florfenicol and oxazolidinone resistance genes have diverse genetic environments and are at risk of co-transmission with, for example, tetracycline and aminoglycoside resistance genes. The spread of florfenicol- and oxazolidinone-resistant bacteria on animal farms should be continuously monitored.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Ding P, Ming Z, Liu J, et al (2022)

Editorial: Microbiome and microbial informatics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1054811.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Yang Z, Fu H, Su H, et al (2022)

Multi-omics analyses reveal the specific changes in gut metagenome and serum metabolome of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1017147.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific alterations in gut microbiome and serum metabolome and their interactions in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: The stool samples from 32 PCOS patients and 18 healthy controls underwent the intestinal microbiome analysis using shotgun metagenomics sequencing approach. Serum metabolome was analyzed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An integrative network by combining metagenomics and metabolomics datasets was constructed to explore the possible interactions between gut microbiota and circulating metabolites in PCOS, which was further assessed by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in a rat trial.

Results: Fecal metagenomics identified 64 microbial strains significantly differing between PCOS and healthy subjects, half of which were enriched in patients. These changed species showed an ability to perturb host metabolic homeostasis (including insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism) and inflammatory levels (such as PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways) by expressing sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor-1, serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR, and 3-oxoacyl-[acyl-cattier-protein] synthase III, possibly suggesting the potential mechanisms of gut microbiota underlying PCOS. By integrating multi-omics datasets, the panel comprising seven strains (Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Pseudomonas sp. M1, Aquitalea pelogenes, Porphyrobacter sp. HL-46, Vibrio fortis, Leisingera sp. ANG-Vp, and Sinorhizobium meliloti) and three metabolites [ganglioside GM3 (d18:0/16:0), ceramide (d16:2/22:0), and 3Z,6Z,9Z-pentacosatriene] showed the highest predictivity of PCOS (AUC: 1.0) with sensitivity of 0.97 and specificity of 1.0. Moreover, the intestinal microbiome modifications by FMT were demonstrated to regulate PCOS phenotypes including metabolic variables and reproductive hormones.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed key microbial and metabolite features and their interactions underlying PCOS by integrating multi-omics approaches, which may provide novel insights into discovering clinical diagnostic biomarkers and developing efficient therapeutic strategies for PCOS.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Montso PK, Mnisi CM, AS Ayangbenro (2022)

Caecal microbial communities, functional diversity, and metabolic pathways in Ross 308 broiler chickens fed with diets containing different levels of Marama (Tylosema esculentum) bean meal.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1009945.

The caecum of a chicken harbors complex microbial communities that play vital roles in feed digestion, nutrient absorption, and bird health. Understanding the caecal microbial communities could help improve feed utilization efficiency and chicken product quality and, ultimately, deliver sustainable poultry production systems. Thus, this study assessed the caecal microbial communities and their functional diversity and metabolic pathways in broilers reared on diets containing different levels of marama (Tylosema esculentum) bean meal (MBM). A total of 350, day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly allocated to five dietary treatments formulated as follows: a soybean-based standard broiler diet (Con_BC); Con_BC in which soybean products were substituted with 7 (M7_BC), 14 (M14_BC), 21 (M21_BC), and 28% (M28_BC) MBM. The dietary treatments were distributed to 35 replicate pens (10 birds each). After 42 days of feeding, the birds were slaughtered and thereafter caecal samples were collected from each replicate pen. Subsequently, the samples were pooled per treatment group for metagenomics sequence analysis. The results revealed that the bacteria domain (99.11%), with Bacteroides, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria being the most prominent phyla (48.28, 47.52, and 4.86%, respectively). Out of 846 genera obtained, the most abundant genera were Bacteroides, Clostridium, Alistipes, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, and Parabacterioides. At the genus level, the alpha-diversity showed significant (p < 0.05) difference across all treatment groups. Based on the SEED subsystem, 28 functional categories that include carbohydrates (14.65%), clustering-based subsystems (13.01%), protein metabolism (10.12%) were obtained. The KO analysis revealed 183 endogenous pathways, with 100 functional pathways associated with the metabolism category. Moreover, 15 pathways associated with carbohydrates were observed. The glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, galactose metabolism, pyruvate metabolism (15.32, 12.63, and 11.93%) were the most abundant pathways. Moreover, glycoside hydrolases (GH1, GH5, and GH13) were the most prominent carbohydrates-active enzymes. Therefore, results presented in this study suggest that dietary MB meal can improve microbial communities and their functional and metabolic pathways, which may help increase poultry production.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Dong S, Wu C, He W, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and metabolomic analyses show correlations between intestinal microbiome diversity and microbiome metabolites in ob/ob and ApoE-/- mice.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:934294.

Obesity and atherosclerosis are the most prevalent metabolic diseases. ApoE-/- and ob/ob mice are widely used as models to study the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, how gut microbes, gut bacteriophages, and metabolites change in these two disease models is unclear. Here, we used wild-type C57BL/6J (Wt) mice as normal controls to analyze the intestinal archaea, bacteria, bacteriophages, and microbial metabolites of ob/ob and ApoE-/- mice through metagenomics and metabolomics. Analysis of the intestinal archaea showed that the abundances of Methanobrevibacter and Halolamina were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the ob/ob group compared with those in the Wt and ApoE-/- groups (p < 0.05). Compared with those of the Wt group, the relative abundances of the bacterial genera Enterorhabdus, Alistipes, Bacteroides, Prevotella, Rikenella, Barnesiella, Porphyromonas, Riemerella, and Bifidobacterium were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the ob/ob mice, and the relative abundance of Akkermansia was significantly decreased in the ApoE-/- group. The relative abundances of A. muciniphila and L. murinus were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, in the ob/ob and ApoE-/- groups compared with those of the Wt group (p < 0.05). Lactobacillus_ prophage_ Lj965 and Lactobacillus _ prophage _ Lj771 were significantly more abundant in the ob/ob mice than in the Wt mice. Analysis of the aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis metabolic pathway revealed that the enriched compounds of phenylalanine, glutamine, glycine, serine, methionine, valine, alanine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, threonine, tryptophan, and tyrosine were downregulated in the ApoE-/- mice compared with those of the ob/ob mice. Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are considered manifestations of metabolic diseases and are closely associated with obesity, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. These data offer new insight regarding possible causes of these diseases and provide a foundation for studying the regulation of various food nutrients in metabolic disease models.

RevDate: 2022-11-07

Navapurkar V, Bartholdson Scott J, Maes M, et al (2021)

Development and implementation of a customised rapid syndromic diagnostic test for severe pneumonia.

Wellcome open research, 6:256.

Background: The diagnosis of pneumonia has been hampered by a reliance on bacterial cultures which take several days to return a result, and are frequently negative. In critically ill patients this leads to the use of empiric, broad-spectrum antimicrobials and compromises good antimicrobial stewardship. The objective of this study was to establish the performance of a syndromic molecular diagnostic approach, using a custom TaqMan array card (TAC) covering 52 respiratory pathogens, and assess its impact on antimicrobial prescribing. Methods: The TAC was validated against a retrospective multi-centre cohort of broncho-alveolar lavage samples. The TAC was assessed prospectively in patients undergoing investigation for suspected pneumonia, with a comparator cohort formed of patients investigated when the TAC laboratory team were unavailable. Co-primary outcomes were sensitivity compared to conventional microbiology and, for the prospective study, time to result. Metagenomic sequencing was performed to validate findings in prospective samples. Antibiotic free days (AFD) were compared between the study cohort and comparator group. Results: 128 stored samples were tested, with sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval (CI) 88-100%). Prospectively, 95 patients were tested by TAC, with 71 forming the comparator group. TAC returned results 51 hours (interquartile range 41-69 hours) faster than culture and with sensitivity of 92% (95% CI 83-98%) compared to conventional microbiology. 94% of organisms identified by sequencing were detected by TAC. There was a significant difference in the distribution of AFDs with more AFDs in the TAC group (p=0.02). TAC group were more likely to experience antimicrobial de-escalation (odds ratio 2.9 (95%1.5-5.5)). Conclusions: Implementation of a syndromic molecular diagnostic approach to pneumonia led to faster results, with high sensitivity and impact on antibiotic prescribing.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Weigert S, Perez-Garcia P, Gisdon FJ, et al (2022)

Investigation of the halophilic PET hydrolase PET6 from Vibrio gazogenes.

Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society [Epub ahead of print].

The handling of plastic waste and the associated ubiquitous occurrence of microplastic poses one of the biggest challenges of our time. Recent investigations of plastic degrading enzymes have opened new prospects for biological microplastic decomposition as well as recycling applications. For polyethylene terephthalate, in particular, several natural and engineered enzymes are known to have such promising properties. From a previous study that identified new PETase candidates by homology search, we chose the candidate PET6 from the globally distributed, halophilic organism Vibrio gazogenes for further investigation. By mapping the occurrence of Vibrios containing PET6 homologs we demonstrated their ubiquitous prevalence in the pangenome of several Vibrio strains. The biochemical characterization of PET6 showed that PET6 has a comparatively lower activity than other enzymes but also revealed a superior turnover at very high salt concentrations. The crystal structure of PET6 provides structural insights into this adaptation to saline environments. By grafting only a few beneficial mutations from other PET degrading enzymes onto PET6, we increased the activity up to three-fold, demonstrating the evolutionary potential of the enzyme. MD simulations of the variant helped rationalize the mutational effects of those mutants and elucidate the interaction of the enzyme with a PET substrate. With tremendous amounts of plastic waste in the Ocean and the prevalence of Vibrio gazogenes in marine biofilms and estuarine marshes, our findings suggest that Vibrio and the PET6 enzyme are worthy subjects to study the PET degradation in marine environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Saran C, Purchase D, Saratale GD, et al (2022)

Microbial fuel cell: A green eco-friendly agent for tannery wastewater treatment and simultaneous bioelectricity/power generation.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(22)03565-2 [Epub ahead of print].

This review paper emphasised on the origin of hexavalent chromium toxicity in tannery wastewater and its remediation using novel Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) technology, including electroactive bacteria which are known as exoelectrogens, to simultaneously treat wastewater and its action in the production of bioenergy and the mechanism of Cr6+ reduction. Also, there are various parameters like electrode, pH, mode of operation, time of operation, and type of exchange membrane used for promising results shown in enhancing MFC production and remediation of Cr6+. Destructive anthropological activities such as leather making and electroplating industries are key sources of hexavalent chromium contamination in aquatic repositories. When Cr6+ enters the food chain and enters the human body, it has the potential to cause cancer. MFC is a green innovation that generates energy economically through the reduction of toxic Cr6+ to less toxic Cr3+. The organic substrates utilized at the anode of MFC act as electrons (e-) donors. This review also highlighted the utilization of cheap substrates to make MFCs more economically suitable and the energy production at minimum cost.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Cadenas-Castrejón E, Verleyen J, Boukadida C, et al (2022)

Evaluation of tools for taxonomic classification of viruses.

Briefings in functional genomics pii:6804015 [Epub ahead of print].

Viruses are the most abundant infectious agents on earth, and they infect living organisms such as bacteria, plants and animals, among others. They play an important role in the balance of different ecosystems by modulating microbial populations. In humans, they are responsible for some common diseases and may cause severe illnesses. Viral metagenomic studies have become essential and offer the possibility to understand and extend the knowledge of virus diversity and functionality. For these approaches, an essential step is the classification of viral sequences. In this work, 11 taxonomic classification tools were compared by analysing their performances, in terms of sensitivity and precision, to classify reads at the species and family levels using the same (viral and nonviral) datasets and evaluation metrics, as well as their processing times and memory requirements. The results showed that factors such as richness (numbers of viral species in samples), taxonomic level in the classification and read length influence tool performance. High values of viral richness in samples decreased the performances of most tools. Additionally, the classifications were better at higher taxonomic levels, such as families, compared to lower taxonomic levels, such as species, and were more evident in short reads. The results also indicated that BLAST and Kraken2 were the best tools for classifying all types of reads, while FastViromeExplorer and VirusFinder were only good when used for long reads and Centrifuge, DIAMOND, and One Codex when used for short reads. Regarding nonviral datasets (human and bacterial), all tools correctly classified them as nonviral.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Costa MF, Morales-Marroquín JA, de Araújo Batista CE, et al (2022)

Population genomics of the neotropical palm Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore: Implications for conservation.

PloS one, 17(11):e0276408 pii:PONE-D-22-16807.

Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore is a palm tree native to Brazil. The products obtained from its leaf extracts are a source of income for local families and the agroindustry. Owing to the reduction of natural habitats and the absence of a sustainable management plan, the maintenance of the natural populations of this palm tree has been compromised. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the diversity and genetic structure of 14 C. prunifera populations using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified through genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) to provide information that contributes to the conservation of this species. A total of 1,013 SNP markers were identified, of which 84 loci showed outlier behavior and may reflect responses to natural selection. Overall, the level of genomic diversity was compatible with the biological aspects of this species. The inbreeding coefficient (f) was negative for all populations, indicating excess heterozygotes. Most genetic variations occurred within populations (77.26%), and a positive correlation existed between genetic and geographic distances. The population structure evaluated through discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) revealed low genetic differentiation between populations. The results highlight the need for efforts to conserve C. prunifera as well as its distribution range to preserve its global genetic diversity and evolutionary potential.

RevDate: 2022-11-07
CmpDate: 2022-11-07

Hu S, Xu H, Meng X, et al (2022)

Population genomics of emerging Elizabethkingia anophelis pathogens reveals potential outbreak and rapid global dissemination.

Emerging microbes & infections, 11(1):2590-2599.

Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging species and has increasingly been reported to cause life-threatening infections and even outbreaks in humans. Nevertheless, there is little data regarding the E. anophelis geographical distribution, phylogenetic structure, and transmission across the globe, especially in Asia. We utilize whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data to define a global population framework, phylogenetic structure, geographical distribution, and transmission evaluation of E. anophelis pathogens. The geographical distribution diagram revealed the emerging pathogenic bacteria already distributed in various countries worldwide, especially in the USA and China. Strikingly, phylogenetic analysis showed a part of our China original E. anophelis shared the same ancestor with the USA outbreak strain, which implies the possibility of localized outbreaks and global spread. These closer related strains also contained ICEEaI, which might insert into a disrupted DNA repair mutY gene and made the strain more liable to mutation and outbreak infection. BEAST analysis showed that the most recent common ancestor for ICEEaI E. anophelis was dated twelve years ago, and China might be the most likely recent source of this bacteria. Our study sheds light on the potential possibility of E. anophelis causing the large-scale outbreak and rapid global dissemination. Continued genomic surveillance of the dynamics of E. anophelis populations will generate further knowledge for optimizing future prevent global outbreak infections.

RevDate: 2022-11-06

Wang C, Gao ZY, Walsh N, et al (2022)

Acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology among children around the world.

Infectious diseases of poverty, 11(1):112.

By 26 August 2022, the number of cases of acute hepatitis of unknown etiology (AHUA) has drastically increased to 1115 distributed in 35 countries that fulfill the World Health Organization definition. Several hypotheses on the cause of AHUA have been proposed and are being investigated around the world. In the recent United Kingdom (UK) report, human adenovirus (HAdV) with adeno-associated virus (AAV) co-infection is the leading hypothesis. However, there is still limited evidence in establishing the causal relationship between AHUA and any potential aetiology. The leading aetiology continues to be HAdV infection. It is reported that HAdV genomics is not unusual among the population in the UK, especially among AUHA cases. Expanding the surveillance of HAdV and AAV in the population and the environment in the countries with AUHA cases is suggested to be the primary action. Metagenomics should be used in detecting other infectious pathogens on a larger scale, to supplement the detection of viruses in the blood, stool, and liver specimens from AUHA cases. It is useful to develop a consensus-specific case definition of AHUA to better understand the characteristics of these cases globally based on all the collected cases.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Tian L, Wang L, Zhang X, et al (2022)

Multi-omics analysis on seasonal variations of the biofilm microbial community in a full-scale pre-denitrification biofilter.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

The seasonal variations of biofilm communities in a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated using multi-omics techniques. The abundance of the main phyla of microorganisms varied with summer (July 2019) and winter (January 2019) samples considerably, the Bacteroidetes enriched in winter and Chloroflexi in summer. The results of metaproteomic and metagenomic showed that most of the functional microorganisms belonged to the Betaproteobacteria class, and the enrichment of Flavobacteria class in winter guaranteed the stability of denitrification performance to some extent. Seasonal variations affected the proteomic expression profiling, a total of 2835 differentially expressed proteins identified were significantly enriched in quorum sensing, two-component system, ribosome, benzoate degradation, butanoate metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle), and cysteine and methionine metabolism pathways. With the expression of nitrogen metabolic proteins decreases in winter, the overall expression of denitrification-related enzymes in winter was much lower than that in summer, the nitrogen metabolism pathway varied significantly. Seasonal variations also induced the alteration of the biofilm metabolite profile; a total of 66 differential metabolites, 8 potential biomarkers, and 8 perturbed metabolic pathways such as TCA cycle were detected. It was found that most of the perturbed pathways are directly related to nitrogen metabolism, and several amino acids and organic acids associated with the TCA cycle were significantly perturbed, the accumulation of TCA cycle intermediates, ornithine, and L-histidine in winter might be conducive to resisting cold temperatures. Furthermore, the correlation between biofilm microbial communities and metabolites was identified by the combined analysis of metabolomic and metaproteomic. The differences of microbial community structure, function, and metabolism between winter and summer in a full-scale pre-denitrification biofilter were revealed for the first time, strengthening our understanding of the microbial ecology of biofilm communities.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Zhao F, Guo Z, Kwok LY, et al (2022)

Bifidobacterium lactis Probio-M8 improves bone metabolism in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, possibly by modulating the gut microbiota.

European journal of nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is usually managed by conventional drug treatment. However, prolonged use of these drugs cause side effects. Gut microbiota may be a potential target for treatment of PMO. This work was a three-month intervention trial aiming to evaluate the added effect of probiotics as adjunctive treatment for PMO.

METHODS: Forty patients with PMO were randomized into probiotic (n = 20; received Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Probio-M8 [Probio-M8], calcium, calcitriol) and placebo (n = 20; received placebo material, calcium, calcitriol) groups. The bone mineral density of patients was measured at month 0 (0 M; baseline) and month 3 (3 M; after three-month intervention). Blood and fecal samples were collected 0 M and 3 M. Only 15 and 12 patients from Probio-M8 and placebo groups, respectively, provided complete fecal samples for gut microbiota analysis.

RESULTS: No significant change was observed in the bone mineral density of patients at 3 M. Co-administering Probio-M8 improved the bone metabolism, reflected by an increased vitamin D3 level and decreased PTH and procalcitonin levels in serum at 3 M. Fecal metagenomic analysis revealed modest changes in the gut microbiome in both groups at 3 M. Interestingly, Probio-M8 co-administration affected the gut microbial interactive correlation network, particularly the short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria. Probio-M8 co-administration significantly increased genes encoding some carbohydrate metabolism pathways (including ABC transporters, the phosphotransferase system, and fructose and mannose metabolism) and a choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase.

CONCLUSIONS: Co-administering Probio-M8 with conventional drugs/supplements was more efficacious than conventional drugs/supplements alone in managing PMO. Our study shed insights into the beneficial mechanism of probiotic adjunctive treatment.

Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (identifier number: ChiCTR1800019268).

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Hammer TJ, Easton-Calabria A, NA Moran (2022)

Microbiome assembly and maintenance across the lifespan of bumble bee workers.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

How a host's microbiome changes over its lifespan can influence development and aging. As these temporal patterns have only been described in detail for a handful of hosts, an important next step is to compare microbiome succession more broadly and investigate why it varies. Here we characterize the temporal dynamics and stability of the bumble bee worker gut microbiome. Bumble bees have simple and host-specific gut microbiomes, and their microbial dynamics may influence health and pollination services. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing, qPCR, and metagenomics to characterize gut microbiomes over the lifespan of Bombus impatiens workers. We also sequenced gut transcriptomes to examine host factors that may control the microbiome. At the community level, microbiome assembly is highly predictable and similar to patterns of primary succession observed in the human gut. But at the strain level, partitioning of bacterial variants among colonies suggests stochastic colonization events similar to those observed in flies and nematodes. We also find strong differences in temporal dynamics among symbiont species, suggesting ecological differences among microbiome members in colonization and persistence. Finally, we show that both the gut microbiome and host transcriptome-including expression of key immunity genes-stabilize, as opposed to senesce, with age. We suggest that in highly social groups such as bumble bees, maintenance of both microbiomes and immunity contribute to the inclusive fitness of workers, and thus remain under selection even in old age. Our findings provide a foundation for exploring the mechanisms and functional outcomes of bee microbiome succession.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Xu H, Zhang L, Feng X, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and proteomic analysis of bacterial retting community and proteome profile in the degumming process of kenaf bast.

BMC plant biology, 22(1):516.

BACKGROUND: Data on the microbial community and functional proteins associated with degumming in kenaf remains scant. Here, we analyzed the microbial communities associated with kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) bast fibers during retting to identify potential candidate degumming bacteria. Retting liquids were collected and analyzed at 0 days, 10 days, and 34 days and then evaluated the yield and quality of kenaf fiber at the different retting times. Besides, the microbial communities were characterized using metagenomic and proteomic analysis by LC-MS/MS technology.

RESULTS: The data showed that increase in the retting time significantly improves the softness, dispersion, and fiber whiteness of the kenaf fiber. The relative abundance of Acinetobacter increased from 2.88% at the baseline to 6.64% at the 34th retting. On the other hand, some members of Clostridium were reduced from 3% at the baseline to 2% at the 34th retting. Analysis of carbohydrate active enzymes showed constant changes in the utilization of carbohydrates. Besides, benzoquinone reductase, cellobiose dehydrogenase, glucose 1-oxidase, aryl alcohol oxidase and alcohol oxidase were the top five most abundant enzymes in the retting liquids. This present results demonstrated that the expressions of B7GYR8, Q6RYW5 and Q6FFK2 proteins were suppressed in Acinetobacter with the retting time. On the contrary, P05149 was upregulated with the retting time. In Clostridium, P37698, P52040 and P54937 proteins were upregulated with the retting time.

CONCLUSION: In addition, bacteria Acinetobacter and Clostridium might be playing important roles in the kenaf degumming process. Similarly, up-regulation of P37698, P52040 and P54937 proteins is an important manifestation and mediates important roles in the degumming process.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Aubé J, Cambon-Bonavita MA, Velo-Suárez L, et al (2022)

A novel and dual digestive symbiosis scales up the nutrition and immune system of the holobiont Rimicaris exoculata.

Microbiome, 10(1):189.

BACKGROUND: In deep-sea hydrothermal vent areas, deprived of light, most animals rely on chemosynthetic symbionts for their nutrition. These symbionts may be located on their cuticle, inside modified organs, or in specialized cells. Nonetheless, many of these animals have an open and functional digestive tract. The vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is fueled mainly by its gill chamber symbionts, but also has a complete digestive system with symbionts. These are found in the shrimp foregut and midgut, but their roles remain unknown. We used genome-resolved metagenomics on separate foregut and midgut samples, taken from specimens living at three contrasted sites along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (TAG, Rainbow, and Snake Pit) to reveal their genetic potential.

RESULTS: We reconstructed and studied 20 Metagenome-Assembled Genomes (MAGs), including novel lineages of Hepatoplasmataceae and Deferribacteres, abundant in the shrimp foregut and midgut, respectively. Although the former showed streamlined reduced genomes capable of using mostly broken-down complex molecules, Deferribacteres showed the ability to degrade complex polymers, synthesize vitamins, and encode numerous flagellar and chemotaxis genes for host-symbiont sensing. Both symbionts harbor a diverse set of immune system genes favoring holobiont defense. In addition, Deferribacteres were observed to particularly colonize the bacteria-free ectoperitrophic space, in direct contact with the host, elongating but not dividing despite possessing the complete genetic machinery necessary for this.

CONCLUSION: Overall, these data suggest that these digestive symbionts have key communication and defense roles, which contribute to the overall fitness of the Rimicaris holobiont. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Luo XQ, Wang P, Li JL, et al (2022)

Viral community-wide auxiliary metabolic genes differ by lifestyles, habitats, and hosts.

Microbiome, 10(1):190.

BACKGROUND: Viral-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) are important toolkits for modulating their hosts' metabolisms and the microbial-driven biogeochemical cycles. Although the functions of AMGs have been extensively reported in numerous environments, we still know little about the drivers that shape the viral community-wide AMG compositions in natural ecosystems. Exploring the drivers of viral community-wide AMG compositions is critical for a deeper understanding of the complex interplays among viruses, hosts, and the environments.

RESULTS: Here, we investigated the impact of viral lifestyles (i.e., lytic and lysogenic), habitats (i.e., water, particle, and sediment), and prokaryotic hosts on viral AMG profiles by utilizing metagenomic and metatranscriptomic techniques. We found that viral lifestyles were the most important drivers, followed by habitats and host identities. Specifically, irrespective of what habitats viruses came from, lytic viruses exhibited greater AMG diversity and tended to encode AMGs for chaperone biosynthesis, signaling proteins, and lipid metabolism, which could boost progeny reproduction, whereas temperate viruses were apt to encode AMGs for host survivability. Moreover, the lytic and temperate viral communities tended to mediate the microbial-driven biogeochemical cycles, especially nitrogen metabolism, in different manners via AMGs. When focusing on each lifestyle, we further found clear dissimilarity in AMG compositions between water and sediment, as well the divergent AMGs encoded by viruses infecting different host orders.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our study provides a first systematic characterization of the drivers of viral community-wide AMG compositions and further expands our knowledge of the distinct interactions of lytic and temperate viruses with their prokaryotic hosts from an AMG perspective, which is critical for understanding virus-host-environment interactions in natural conditions. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-05

Sieber G, Beisser D, Rothenberger JL, et al (2022)

Microbial community shifts induced by plastic and zinc as substitutes of tire abrasion.

Scientific reports, 12(1):18684.

Aquatic environments serve as a sink for anthropogenic discharges. A significant part of the discharge is tire wear, which is increasingly being released into the environment, causing environmental disasters due to their longevity and the large number of pollutants they contain. Main components of tires are plastic and zinc, which therefore can be used as substitutes for tire abrasion to study the effect on microbial life. We investigate environmentally realistic concentrations of plastic and zinc on a freshwater microeukaryotic community using high-throughput sequencing of the 18S V9 region over a 14-day exposure period. Apart from a generally unchanged diversity upon exposure to zinc and nanoplastics, a change in community structure due to zinc is evident, but not due to nanoplastics. Evidently, nanoplastic particles hardly affect the community, but zinc exposure results in drastic functional abundance shifts concerning the trophic mode. Phototrophic microorganisms were almost completely diminished initially, but photosynthesis recovered. However, the dominant taxa performing photosynthesis changed from bacillariophytes to chlorophytes. While phototrophic organisms are decreasing in the presence of zinc, the mixotrophic fraction initially benefitted and the heterotrophic fraction were benefitting throughout the exposure period. In contrast to lasting changes in taxon composition, the functional community composition is initially strongly imbalanced after application of zinc but returns to the original state.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Yang JH, Huang DQ, Geng YC, et al (2022)

Role of quorum sensing-based regulation in development of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(22)01561-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Shortage of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) sludge greatly limits the extensive full-scale application of anammox-based processes. Although numerous start-up strategies have been proposed, the interaction among microbial consortia and corresponding mechanism during the process development remain unknown. In this study, three reactors were established based on different seed sludges. After 27 days, the anammox process inoculated with anammox granules and activated sludge (1:5) was firstly achieved, and the highest nitrogen removal rate (NRR) was 1.17 kg N m-3 d-1. Correspondingly, the anammox activity and abundances of related functional genes increased. Notably, the dominant anammox bacteria shifted from Candidatus Kuenenia to Candidatus Brocadia. Metagenomic analysis indicated that quorum sensing-based regulation mainly contributed to the proliferation and accumulation of anammox bacteria. This work provides an insight into the QS-regulated microbial interactions in the anammox and activated sludge consortia during the process development.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Wu Z, Che Y, Dang C, et al (2022)

Nanopore-based long-read metagenomics uncover the resistome intrusion by antibiotic resistant bacteria from treated wastewater in receiving water body.

Water research, 226:119282 pii:S0043-1354(22)01227-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent discharge could induce the resistome enrichment in the receiving water environments. However, because of the general lack of a robust antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) identification method, the driving mechanism for resistome accumulation in receiving environment is unclear. Here, we took advantage of the enhanced ARBs recognition by nanopore long reads to distinguish the indigenous ARBs and the accumulation of WWTP-borne ARBs in the receiving water body of a domestic WWTP. A bioinformatic framework (named ARGpore2: https://github.com/sustc-xylab/ARGpore2) was constructed and evaluate to facilitate antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and ARBs identification in nanopore reads. ARGs identification by ARGpore2 showed comparable precision and recall to that of the commonly adopt BLASTP-based method, whereas the spectrum of ARBs doubled that of the assembled Illumina dataset. Totally, we identified 33 ARBs genera carrying 65 ARG subtypes in the receiving seawater, whose concentration was in general 10 times higher than clean seawater's. Notably we report a primary resistome intrusion caused by the revival of residual microbes survived from disinfection treatment. These WWTP-borne ARBs, including several animal/human enteric pathogens, contributed up to 85% of the receiving water resistome. Plasmids and class 1 integrons were reckoned as major vehicles facilitating the persistence and dissemination of ARGs. Moreover, our work demonstrated the importance of extensive carrier identification in determining the driving force of multifactor coupled resistome booming in complicated environmental conditions, thereby paving the way for establishing priority for effective ARGs mitigation strategies.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Adam PS, Kolyfetis GE, Bornemann TLV, et al (2022)

Genomic remnants of ancestral methanogenesis and hydrogenotrophy in Archaea drive anaerobic carbon cycling.

Science advances, 8(44):eabm9651.

Anaerobic methane metabolism is among the hallmarks of Archaea, originating very early in their evolution. Here, we show that the ancestor of methane metabolizers was an autotrophic CO2-reducing hydrogenotrophic methanogen that possessed the two main complexes, methyl-CoM reductase (Mcr) and tetrahydromethanopterin-CoM methyltransferase (Mtr), the anaplerotic hydrogenases Eha and Ehb, and a set of other genes collectively called "methanogenesis markers" but could not oxidize alkanes. Overturning recent inferences, we demonstrate that methyl-dependent hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis has emerged multiple times independently, either due to a loss of Mtr while Mcr is inherited vertically or from an ancient lateral acquisition of Mcr. Even if Mcr is lost, Mtr, Eha, Ehb, and the markers can persist, resulting in mixotrophic metabolisms centered around the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Through their methanogenesis remnants, Thorarchaeia and two newly reconstructed order-level lineages in Archaeoglobi and Bathyarchaeia act as metabolically versatile players in carbon cycling of anoxic environments across the globe.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Deng P, Durham J, Liu J, et al (2022)

Metabolomic, Lipidomic, Transcriptomic, and Metagenomic Analyses in Mice Exposed to PFOS and Fed Soluble and Insoluble Dietary Fibers.

Environmental health perspectives, 130(11):117003.

BACKGROUND: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent environmental pollutant that has become a significant concern around the world. Exposure to PFOS may alter gut microbiota and liver metabolic homeostasis in mammals, thereby increasing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases. Diets high in soluble fibers can ameliorate metabolic disease risks.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test the hypothesis that soluble fibers (inulin or pectin) could modulate the adverse metabolic effects of PFOS by affecting microbe-liver metabolism and interactions.

METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed an isocaloric diet containing different fibers: a) inulin (soluble), b) pectin (soluble), or c) cellulose (control, insoluble). The mice were exposed to PFOS in drinking water (3μg/g per day) for 7 wk. Multi-omics was used to analyze mouse liver and cecum contents.

RESULTS: In PFOS-exposed mice, the number of differentially expressed genes associated with atherogenesis and hepatic hyperlipidemia were lower in those that were fed soluble fiber than those fed insoluble fiber. Shotgun metagenomics showed that inulin and pectin protected against differences in microbiome community in PFOS-exposed vs. control mice. It was found that the plasma PFOS levels were lower in inulin-fed mice, and there was a trend of lower liver accumulation of PFOS in soluble fiber-fed mice compared with the control group. Soluble fiber intake ameliorated the effects of PFOS on host hepatic metabolism gene expression and cecal content microbiome structure.

DISCUSSIONS: Results from metabolomic, lipidomic, and transcriptomic studies suggest that inulin- and pectin-fed mice were less susceptible to PFOS-induced liver metabolic disturbance, hepatic lipid accumulation, and transcriptional changes compared with control diet-fed mice. Our study advances the understanding of interaction between microbes and host under the influences of environmental pollutants and nutrients. The results provide new insights into the microbe-liver metabolic network and the protection against environmental pollutant-induced metabolic diseases by high-fiber diets. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP11360.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Yaovi AB, Sessou P, Tonouhewa ABN, et al (2022)

Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria amongst dogs in Africa: A meta-analysis review.

The Onderstepoort journal of veterinary research, 89(1):e1-e12.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health threat for both human and veterinary medicine. Increasing evidence suggests that animals are important sources of AMR to humans; however, most of these studies focus on production animals. In order to determine the pattern of AMR in pets, mainly in dogs in Africa, a meta-analysis was performed with AMR studies conducted in African countries and published between January 2000 and January 2021 in four databases: Medline (PubMed), Scopus, Cab abstract and Google Scholar. Seven bacterial strains, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (SNC) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius were included in this study. A total of 18 out of 234 indexed articles met the study criteria. The results revealed that multiple bacteria were resistant to various commonly used antibiotics including enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin, clavulanic acid, cotrimoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol. Concerning multidrug resistance, E. coli strains came first with the highest prevalence of 98%, followed by P. aeroginosa (92%) and Salmonella spp. (53%). In contrast, the overall prevalence of multidrug resistance was low for S. aureus (18%) and S. pseudintermedius (25%). It is therefore urgent to find, as soon as possible, alternatives to replace these antibiotics, which have become ineffective in controlling these bacteria in dogs in Africa. Moreover, further metagenomic studies are needed to describe the full resistome and mobilome in dogs regardless of the bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Wang P, Yuan Q, Wang X, et al (2022)

Metagenomic insight into the distribution of metal resistance genes within cascade reservoir waters: Synergic impacts of geographic variation and anthropogenic pollution.

Environmental research, 216(Pt 3):114682 pii:S0013-9351(22)02009-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Metal resistance genes (MRGs) are potential bio-indicators to diagnose contamination stress on riverine ecosystems. Within reservoir systems, river damming weakens hydrodynamic condition and enriches metal contaminants. But, little is known about the synergic impacts of geographic variation and anthropogenic pollution on MRGs. In this study, the abundance, composition and microbes of MRGs in four cascade reservoirs along the Jinsha River, southwestern China were investigated via high-throughput metagenomics. The results showed significant enrichment of chromium, cadmium and lead in Ludila and Xiluodu reservoirs with moderate ecological risks based on the criteria of drinking water quality and aquatic life protection. Nevertheless, at watershed scale, these metals played little role in up-regulating MRGs abundance owing to the limited toxic stress on microbes. Accordingly, geographic variation showed stronger impacts on MRGs composition than metals as revealed by the distance-decay relationship (Pearson correlation, rgeo = 0.24-0.57, rmetal = 0.10-0.41) and co-occurrence network (Node degree to MRGs subtype, ngeo = 180, nmetal = 6). River damming, as an artificial isolation of geographic space, significantly affected MRGs composition. The longer operation history, smaller storage capacity and higher regulation frequency caused the higher dissimilarity of MRGs composition between the reservoir's upstream and downstream areas. In conclusion, the metal pollution level is a prerequisite regulating MRGs; while under the lowly-polluted conditions, geographic variation had stronger impacts on MRGs than metal pollution via altered assembly of microbial communities. This study provides an important guidance for the future environmental management and ecological protection of river-reservoir ecosystems.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Song X, Li Y, Stirling E, et al (2022)

AsgeneDB: a curated orthology arsenic metabolism gene database and computational tool for metagenome annotation.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 4(4):lqac080 pii:lqac080.

Arsenic (As) is the most ubiquitous toxic metalloid in nature. Microbe-mediated As metabolism plays an important role in global As biogeochemical processes, greatly changing its toxicity and bioavailability. While metagenomic sequencing may advance our understanding of the As metabolism capacity of microbial communities in different environments, accurate metagenomic profiling of As metabolism remains challenging due to low coverage and inaccurate definitions of As metabolism gene families in public orthology databases. Here we developed a manually curated As metabolism gene database (AsgeneDB) comprising 400 242 representative sequences from 59 As metabolism gene families, which are affiliated with 1653 microbial genera from 46 phyla. AsgeneDB achieved 100% annotation sensitivity and 99.96% annotation accuracy for an artificial gene dataset. We then applied AsgeneDB for functional and taxonomic profiling of As metabolism in metagenomes from various habitats (freshwater, hot spring, marine sediment and soil). The results showed that AsgeneDB substantially improved the mapping ratio of short reads in metagenomes from various environments. Compared with other databases, AsgeneDB provides more accurate, more comprehensive and faster analysis of As metabolic genes. In addition, we developed an R package, Asgene, to facilitate the analysis of metagenome sequencing data. Therefore, AsgeneDB and the associated Asgene package will greatly promote the study of As metabolism in microbial communities in various environments.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Dunay E, Owens LA, Dunn CD, et al (2022)

Viruses in sanctuary chimpanzees across Africa.

American journal of primatology [Epub ahead of print].

Infectious disease is a major concern for both wild and captive primate populations. Primate sanctuaries in Africa provide critical protection to thousands of wild-born, orphan primates confiscated from the bushmeat and pet trades. However, uncertainty about the infectious agents these individuals potentially harbor has important implications for their individual care and long-term conservation strategies. We used metagenomic next-generation sequencing to identify viruses in blood samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in three sanctuaries in West, Central, and East Africa. Our goal was to evaluate whether viruses of human origin or other "atypical" or unknown viruses might infect these chimpanzees. We identified viruses from eight families: Anelloviridae, Flaviviridae, Genomoviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Parvoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, and Rhabdoviridae. The majority (15/26) of viruses identified were members of the family Anelloviridae and represent the genera Alphatorquevirus (torque teno viruses) and Betatorquevirus (torque teno mini viruses), which are common in chimpanzees and apathogenic. Of the remaining 11 viruses, 9 were typical constituents of the chimpanzee virome that have been identified in previous studies and are also thought to be apathogenic. One virus, a novel tibrovirus (Rhabdoviridae: Tibrovirus) is related to Bas-Congo virus, which was originally thought to be a human pathogen but is currently thought to be apathogenic, incidental, and vector-borne. The only virus associated with disease was rhinovirus C (Picornaviridae: Enterovirus) infecting one chimpanzee subsequent to an outbreak of respiratory illness at that sanctuary. Our results suggest that the blood-borne virome of African sanctuary chimpanzees does not differ appreciably from that of their wild counterparts, and that persistent infection with exogenous viruses may be less common than often assumed.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Li Y, Yang R, Häggblom MM, et al (2022)

Characterization of diazotrophic root endophytes in Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis).

Microbiome, 10(1):186.

BACKGROUND: Phytoremediation is a potentially cost-effective way to remediate highly contaminated mine tailing sites. However, nutrient limitations, especially the deficiency of nitrogen (N), can hinder the growth of plants and impair the phytoremediation of mine tailings. Nevertheless, pioneer plants can successfully colonize mine tailings and exhibit potential for tailing phytoremediation. Diazotrophs, especially diazotrophic endophytes, can promote the growth of their host plants. This was tested in a mine-tailing habitat by a combination of field sampling, DNA-stable isotope probing (SIP) analysis, and pot experiments.

RESULTS: Bacteria belonging to the genera Herbaspirillum, Rhizobium, Devosia, Pseudomonas, Microbacterium, and Delftia are crucial endophytes for Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis) grown in the tailing, the model pioneer plant selected in this study. Further, DNA-SIP using 15N2 identified Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Exiguobacterium as putative diazotrophic endophytes of M. sinensis. Metagenomic-binning suggested that these bacteria contained essential genes for nitrogen fixation and plant growth promotion. Finally, two diazotrophic endophytes Rhizobium sp. G-14 and Pseudomonas sp. Y-5 were isolated from M. sinensis. Inoculation of another pioneer plant in mine tailings, Bidens pilosa, with diazotrophic endophytes resulted in successful plant colonization, significantly increased nitrogen fixation activity, and promotion of plant growth.

CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that diazotrophic endophytes have the potential to promote the growth of pioneer plant B. pilosa in mine tailings. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Sun Z, Jiang X, Wang B, et al (2022)

Novel Phocaeicola Strain Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis in Mice.

Current microbiology, 79(12):393.

Previously, we isolated a novel Phocaeicola strain, Phocaeicola faecalis FXJYN30E22, from the feces of a healthy human from China. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the distribution of FXJYN30E22 differed in the intestinal tract of different hosts. We aimed to determine whether FXJYN30E22 protects against ulcerative colitis by employing a mouse model. In this study, dextran sulfate sodium was used to construct the UC model. The disease activity index, colon length, body weight changes, and histological scores were used as the pathological indicators to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of P. faecalis FXJYN30E22. Further, cytokine levels, tight junction mRNA expression levels, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations were also analyzed. Phocaeicola faecalis FXJYN30E22 could reduce the DSS-induced increase in DAI score, and enhance the colon length and body weight. Phocaeicola faecalis FXJYN30E22 could enhance TJ protein concentration and modulate the level of cytokines to reach levels close to those of the control group. FXJYN30E22 could also upregulate the concentrations of SCFA, which include acetate and butyrate. Based on the correlation analysis, four factors, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-1β levels, and propionate concentration, were related to the protective roles of FXJYN30E22 in UC mice to different degrees. According to an analysis of the genomic information, the potential protective effects of strain FXJYN30E22 may be associated with the secretion of SCFA by specific genes. These findings suggest that oral P. faecalis FXJYN30E22 could help maintain the epithelial barrier by regulating cytokine levels and secreting SCFA.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Salam LB, OS Obayori (2022)

Functional characterization of the ABC transporters and transposable elements of an uncultured Paracoccus sp. recovered from a hydrocarbon-polluted soil metagenome.

Folia microbiologica pii:10.1007/s12223-022-01012-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental microorganisms usually exhibit a high level of genomic plasticity and metabolic versatility that allow them to be well-adapted to diverse environmental challenges. This study used shotgun metagenomics to decipher the functional and metabolic attributes of an uncultured Paracoccus recovered from a polluted soil metagenome and determine whether the detected attributes are influenced by the nature of the polluted soil. Functional and metabolic attributes of the uncultured Paracoccus were elucidated via functional annotation of the open reading frames (ORFs) of its contig. Functional tools deployed for the analysis include KEGG, KEGG KofamKOALA, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG), Comprehensive Antibiotic Resistance Database (CARD), and the Antibiotic Resistance Gene-ANNOTation (ARG-ANNOT V6) for antibiotic resistance genes, TnCentral for transposable element, Transporter Classification Database (TCDB) for transporter genes, and FunRich for gene enrichment analysis. Analyses revealed the preponderance of ABC transporter genes responsible for the transport of oligosaccharides (malK, msmX, msmK, lacK, smoK, aglK, togA, thuK, treV, msiK), monosaccharides (glcV, malK, rbsC, rbsA, araG, ytfR, mglA), amino acids (thiQ, ynjD, thiZ, glnQ, gluA, gltL, peb1C, artP, aotP, bgtA, artQ, artR), and several others. Also detected are transporter genes for inorganic/organic nutrients like phosphate/phosphonate, nitrate/nitrite/cyanate, sulfate/sulfonate, bicarbonate, and heavy metals such as nickel/cobalt, molybdate/tungstate, and iron, among others. Antibiotic resistance genes that mediate efflux, inactivation, and target protection were detected, while transposable elements carrying resistance phenotypes for antibiotics and heavy metals were also annotated. The findings from this study have established the resilience, adaptability, and survivability of the uncultured Paracoccus in the hydrocarbon-polluted soil.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Zaman S, Gohar M, Kanwal H, et al (2022)

Impact of Probiotic Geotrichum candidum QAUGC01 on Health, Productivity, and Gut Microbial Diversity of Dairy Cattle.

Current microbiology, 79(12):376.

Gut microbial diversity is a determinant of animal productivity and health. Probiotic supplementation in feed has been known to modulate the gut microbial diversity resulting in better feed utilization and resistance against diseases. The current study was designed to determine the probiotic potential of Geotrichum candidum QAUGC01 (VHDP00000000) in Sahiwal-Friesian crossbred dairy cows and its impact on gut microbial diversity, health, and productivity. To evaluate health and productivity, growth performance, determination of blood parameters, serum biochemistry, feed efficiency, milk yield & composition, and nutrients digestibility was determined and compared between control and experimental groups. Moreover, at the end of the experiment, the gut microbial diversity was evaluated through MiSeq (Illumina) sequencing of bacterial and fungal/yeast DNA in dung samples of both control and experimental cows. Inspite of a significant reduction in dry matter intake the increase in feed efficiency and milk yield was observed in experimental cows with normal hematological and serum biochemical profile. The increase in anaerobic bacterial count and decrease in the shredding of pathogenic flora was observed in experimental cows. Metagenomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes to be the four dominating phyla among bacteria and, Ascomycota followed by Basidiomycota and Neocallimastigomycota among the fungal population in both groups. The diversity of the core microbiome revealed high bacterial and Fungal Alpha diversity in the experimental group than in control via the Shannon index. This study provided insights into the safe use of G. candidum as a probiotic, to improve growth performance, health, productivity and gut microbial diversity of dairy cattle.

RevDate: 2022-11-04

Stutz MR, Dylla NP, Pearson SD, et al (2022)

Immunomodulatory fecal metabolites are associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.

Nature communications, 13(1):6615.

Respiratory failure and mortality from COVID-19 result from virus- and inflammation-induced lung tissue damage. The intestinal microbiome and associated metabolites are implicated in immune responses to respiratory viral infections, however their impact on progression of severe COVID-19 remains unclear. We prospectively enrolled 71 patients with COVID-19 associated critical illness, collected fecal specimens within 3 days of medical intensive care unit admission, defined microbiome compositions by shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and quantified microbiota-derived metabolites (NCT #04552834). Of the 71 patients, 39 survived and 32 died. Mortality was associated with increased representation of Proteobacteria in the fecal microbiota and decreased concentrations of fecal secondary bile acids and desaminotyrosine (DAT). A microbiome metabolic profile (MMP) that accounts for fecal secondary bile acids and desaminotyrosine concentrations was independently associated with progression of respiratory failure leading to mechanical ventilation. Our findings demonstrate that fecal microbiota composition and microbiota-derived metabolite concentrations can predict the trajectory of respiratory function and death in patients with severe SARS-Cov-2 infection and suggest that the gut-lung axis plays an important role in the recovery from COVID-19.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Ehlers L, Netz LAW, Reiner J, et al (2022)

Effects of Bile Duct Ligation and Ghrelin Treatment on the Colonic Barrier and Microbiome of Mice.

Pharmacology pii:000527142 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Cholestatic liver disease (CLD) is associated with intestinal barrier dysfunction. The peptide hormone ghrelin may exert both hepatoprotective and barrier-strengthening effects. Here, we have evaluated these effects under the conditions of experimental cholestasis.

METHODS: C57BL/6J mice with bile duct ligation (BDL) or sham surgery were treated with ghrelin or solvent for 9 days. Liver injury was assessed by histological and laboratory analyses. Paracellular macromolecule permeability and transmural electrical resistance (TMER) of colonic tissues were measured using a Ussing chamber. Expression of tight junction (TJ) genes was quantified by real-time PCR. Amplicon metagenomic sequencing was employed to analyze bacterial 16S rRNA from colonic stool samples.

RESULTS: Mice with BDL exhibited weight loss and signs of severe liver injury. These changes were unaffected by ghrelin treatment. FITC-4-kDa-dextran flux was increased and TMER decreased after BDL. Treatment with ghrelin tended to reduce these effects. Furthermore, application of ghrelin was associated with higher mRNA levels of claudin-4, occludin, and ZO-1 in colonic tissues of mice with BDL. Reduced alpha-diversity of the microbiome was observed in solvent-treated mice with BDL but not in ghrelin-treated animals.

CONCLUSION: Ghrelin treatment did not improve weight loss and liver damage but increased gene expression of colonic TJ proteins and restored the alpha-diversity of the microbiome. Since protective effects of ghrelin might be masked by the severity of the model, we suggest follow-up studies in models of milder CLD.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Yi X, Wen P, Liang JL, et al (2022)

Phytostabilization mitigates antibiotic resistance gene enrichment in a copper mine tailings pond.

Journal of hazardous materials, 443(Pt B):130255 pii:S0304-3894(22)02049-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Mining-impacted environments are distributed globally and have become increasingly recognized as hotspots of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, there are currently no reports on treatment technologies to deal with such an important environmental problem. To narrow this knowledge gap, we implemented a phytostabilization project in an acidic copper mine tailings pond and employed metagenomics to explore ARG characteristics in the soil samples. Our results showed that phytostabilization decreased the total ARG abundance in 0-10 cm soil layer by 75 %, which was companied by a significant decrease in ARG mobility, and a significant increase in ARG diversity and microbial diversity. Phytostabilization was also found to drastically alter the ARG host composition and to significantly reduce the total abundance of virulence factor genes of ARG hosts. Soil nutrient status, heavy metal toxicity and SO42- concentration were important physicochemical factors to affect the total ARG abundance, while causal mediation analysis showed that their effects were largely mediated by the changes in ARG mobility and microbial diversity. The increase in ARG diversity associated with phytostabilization was mainly mediated by a small subgroup of ARG hosts, most of which could not be classified at the genus level and deserve further research in the future.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Li Q, An Z, Sun T, et al (2022)

Sensitive colorimetric detection of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus on dairy farms using LAMP with pH-responsive polydiacetylene.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 219:114824 pii:S0956-5663(22)00864-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Rapidly and accurately detecting antibiotic-resistant pathogens in agriculture and husbandry is important since these represent a major threat to public health. While much attention has been dedicated to detecting now-common resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, fewer methods have been developed to assess resistance against macrolides in Staphylococcus aureus (SA). Here, we report a visual on-site detection system for macrolide resistant SA in dairy products. First, metagenomic sequencing in raw milk, cow manure, water and aerosol deposit collected from dairy farms around Tianjin was used to identify the most abundant macrolide resistance gene, which was found to be the macB gene. In parallel, SA housekeeping genes were screened to allow selective identification of SA, which resulted in the selection of the SAOUHSC_01275 gene. Next, LAMP assays targeting the above-mentioned genes were developed and interpreted by agarose gel electrophoresis. For on-site application, different pH-sensitive colorimetric LAMP indicators were compared, which resulted in selection of polydiacetylene (PDA) as the most sensitive candidate. Additionally, a semi-quantitative detection could be realized by analyzing the RGB information via smartphone with a LOD of 1.344 × 10-7 ng/μL of genomic DNA from a milk sample. Finally, the proposed method was successfully carried out at a real farm within 1 h from sample to result by using freeze-dried reagents and portable devices. This is the first instance in which PDA is used to detect LAMP products, and this generic read-out system can be expanded to other antibiotic resistant genes and bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Idowu GA, Olalemi AO, KD Ileke (2022)

COVID-19 face masks attracted Cellulomonas and Acinetobacter bacteria and provided breeding haven for red cotton bug (Dysdercus suturellus) and house cricket (Acheta domesticus).

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigated the possibility of COVID-19 medical face masks to affect bacterial and macrofaunal communities in open soil environment. An estimated 1.24 trillion of face masks have been used and discarded as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, with a significant part of this ending up in the soil environment, where they degrade gradually over time. Because bacteria and macrofauna are sensitive indicators of changes in soil ecosystem, we investigated possible impacts of face masks on population, distribution, and diversity of these soil species. Effect on soil bacterial community was studied by both culture-based and advanced molecular (metagenomics) approach, while impact on macrofauna was investigated by examining monoliths around heap of masks for soil insects. In both cases, control soil experiments without face masks were also set up and monitored over a period of 48 weeks. The study found that the presence of face masks led to a more diverse bacterial community, although no influence on overall bacterial population was evidenced. More importantly, bacteria belonging to the genera Cellulomonas and Acinetobacter were found prominently around face masks and are believed to be involved in biodegradation of the masks. The bacterial community around the masks was dominated by Proteobacteria (29.7-38.7%), but the diversity of species increased gradually with time. Tiny black ants (Monomorium invidium) were attracted to the face masks to take advantage of water retained by the masks during the period of little rainfall. The heaps of face masks also provided shelter and breeding "haven" for soil insects, notably the red cotton bug (Dysdercus suturellus) and house cricket (Acheta domesticus), thereby impacting positively on the population of insect species in the environment. This study provides insights into the actual impacts of face masks on soil organisms under normal outdoor environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Amulyasai B, Anusha R, Sasikala C, et al (2022)

Phylogenomic analysis of a metagenome-assembled genome indicates a new taxon of an anoxygenic phototroph bacterium in the family Chromatiaceae and the proposal of "Candidatus Thioaporhodococcus" gen. nov.

Archives of microbiology, 204(12):688.

In this study, three metagenome-assembled genomes of a sediment sample were constructed. A Bin1 (JB001) genome was identified as a photo-litho-auto/heterotroph (purple sulfur bacteria) bacterium with the ability to fix nitrogen, tolerate salt, and to produce bacteriochlorophyll a. It has a genome length of 4.1 Mb and a G + C content of 64.9%. Phylogenetic studies based on concatenated 92 core genes and photosynthetic genes (pufLM and bchY) showed that Bin JB001 is related to Thiococcus pfennigii, "Thioflavicoccus mobilis" and to the Lamprocystis purpurea lineage. Bin JB001 and its closely related members were subjected to the genome-based study of phenotypic and phylogenomic analysis. Genomic similarity indices (dDDH and ANI) showed that Bin JB001 could be defined as a novel species. The average amino acid identity (AAI) and percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) values were below 60 and 50%, respectively. The pan-genome analysis indicated that the pan-genome was an open type wherein Bin JB001 had 855 core genes. This study shows that the binned genome, Bin JB001 could represent a novel species of a new genus under the family Chromatiaceae, for which the name "Candidatus Thioaporhodococcus sediminis" gen. nov. sp. nov. is proposed.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Li Z, Shi J, Lei Y, et al (2022)

Castration alters the cecal microbiota and inhibits growth in Holstein cattle.

Journal of animal science pii:6795202 [Epub ahead of print].

To determine the effects of castration on growth performance, serum hormone levels, cecal microbiota composition, and metabolites in cattle. Total of 18 Holstein bulls and steers were divided into bull and steer groups and randomly assigned to 3 pens (3 cattle per pen, and each cattle were separated by a fence) to determine the average daily gain (ADG), daily dry matter intake (DMI), and feed efficiency (G/F). After the finishing trial, six cattle per group were randomly slaughtered. Serum was collected to measure the hormone concentration, and the cecal content was collected to measure the pH, short-chain fatty acids, and digestive enzyme activities. Metagenome sequencing and untargeted metabolomics were used to investigate the microbiota composition, functional profiles, and differential metabolites of the cecal contents. We found that castration significantly decreased ADG, DMI, and G/F in cattle (P < 0.05). The serum testosterone, thyroxine, growth hormone (P < 0.05), and triiodothyronine (P < 0.01) concentrations significantly decreased in the steer group when compared to those of the bull group. The activities of cellulase, xylanase, pectinase, and β-glucosidase (P < 0.05) significantly decreased in the steer group, whereas the activities of lipase and α-amylase significantly increased. Moreover, castration significantly decreased the relative abundance of Ruminococcaceae_bacterium, Treponema_porcinum, Oscillibacter_sp. (P < 0.05), and Alistipes_senegalensis (P < 0.01), whereas the relative abundance of Phocaeicola_plebeius (P < 0.05) was significantly increased. Also, the relative abundance of Phocaeicola_plebeius was negatively correlated with testosterone levels, and the function of the cecal microbiota was enriched in the GH29 and GH97 families in the steer group. Metabolomic analysis indicated that castration increased the levels of L-valine, L-phenylalanine, L-aspartic acid, L-isoleucine, L-lysine, methionine, L-glutamic acid, and L-leucine, while decreasing the levels of α-ketoglutaric acid through the 2-oxocarboxylic acid metabolism pathway. Additionally, α-Ketoglutaric acid was negatively correlated with Oscillibacter_sp. (P < 0.01). Overall, castration can inhibit cattle growth by altering the composition of the cecal microbiota. Therefore, this study provides a theoretical and practical basis for improving the growth performance of steers.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Sadak MS, Sekara A, Al-Ashkar I, et al (2022)

Exogenous aspartic acid alleviates salt stress-induced decline in growth by enhancing antioxidants and compatible solutes while reducing reactive oxygen species in wheat.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:987641.

Salinity is the primary environmental stress that adversely affects plants' growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Published research validated the role of aspartic acid in improving plant tolerance against salinity stress. Therefore, in the present work, factorial pot trials in a completely randomized design were conducted to examine the potential role of exogenous application of aspartic acid (Asp) in increasing the tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants against salt stress. Wheat plants were sown with different levels of salinity (0, 30, or 60 mM NaCl) and treated with three levels of exogenous application of foliar spray of aspartic acid (Asp) (0, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 mM). Results of the study indicated that salinity stress decreased growth attributes like shoot length, leaf area, and shoot biomass along with photosynthesis pigments and endogenous indole acetic acid. NaCl stress reduced the total content of carbohydrates, flavonoid, beta carotene, lycopene, and free radical scavenging activity (DPPH%). However, Asp application enhanced photosynthetic pigments and endogenous indole acetic acid, consequently improving plant leaf area, leading to higher biomass dry weight either under salt-stressed or non-stressed plants. Exogenous application of Asp, up-regulate the antioxidant system viz. antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and nitrate reductase), and non-enzymatic antioxidants (ascorbate, glutathione, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, beta carotene, lycopene) contents resulted in declined in reactive oxygen species (ROS). The decreased ROS in Asp-treated plants resulted in reduced hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and aldehyde under salt or non-salt stress conditions. Furthermore, Asp foliar application increased compatible solute accumulation (amino acids, proline, total soluble sugar, and total carbohydrates) and increased radical scavenging activity of DPPH and enzymatic ABTS. Results revealed that the quadratic regression model explained 100% of the shoot dry weight (SDW) yield variation. With an increase in Asp application level by 1.0 mM, the SDW was projected to upsurge through 956 mg/plant. In the quadratic curve model, if Asp is applied at a level of 0.95 mM, the SDW is probably 2.13 g plant-1. This study concluded that the exogenous application of aspartic acid mitigated the adverse effect of salt stress damage on wheat plants and provided economic benefits.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Bright Esegbuyota I, Hope O, G Oyama (2022)

Occurrence of New Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase 1 Producing Enterococcus Species in Oghara Water Nexus: An Emerging Environmental Implications of Resistance Dynamics.

Microbiology insights, 15:11786361221133731 pii:10.1177_11786361221133731.

Various members of the enteric bacteria in recent times are evolving diverse survival mechanisms for antibiotic therapy resulting in failure of treatment in infection and disease cases. The Enterococcus species are potential strains implicated in gastrointestinal tract infection and are recently evolving in the resistance mechanism. The study evaluates the occurrence of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) amongst Enterococcus species using the phenotypic and genomic characterization of environmental strains in the Oghara water nexus. Presumptive isolates of Enterococcus species were retrieved from various sampled water sources and confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was conducted on confirmed isolates using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion methods. The result reveals 63 genus isolates confirmed Enterococcus species, of which 42 (67%) were Enterococcus faecium, 15 (23%) were Enterococcus faecalis, and 6 (10%) were other Enterococcus species. Fourteen among the E. faecalis isolates show resistance to Ertapenem-EDTA, while 17 (44.8%) of the E. faecium show resistance to Ertapenem-EDTA to presumptively reveal their NDM-1 phenotype. The PCR detection of the NDM-1 gene further confirmed 23 (36.5%) isolates as positive genotypes amongst the isolates that previously showed presumptive NDM-1 phenotype. It was also observed that 10 (15.9%) of Enterococcus faecium members harbored the NDM-1 genotype, whereas 8 (12.7%) members of the Enterococcus faecalis harbored the NDM-1 genotype. The observation of such resistance determinants necessitates a call for the adroit application of relevant therapeutics in the management of related infections and an environmental health caution to prevent the spread of such resistance potential enteric bacteria pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Kinsella CM, Deijs M, Becker C, et al (2022)

Host prediction for disease-associated gastrointestinal cressdnaviruses.

Virus evolution, 8(2):veac087 pii:veac087.

Metagenomic techniques have facilitated the discovery of thousands of viruses, yet because samples are often highly biodiverse, fundamental data on the specific cellular hosts are usually missing. Numerous gastrointestinal viruses linked to human or animal diseases are affected by this, preventing research into their medical or veterinary importance. Here, we developed a computational workflow for the prediction of viral hosts from complex metagenomic datasets. We applied it to seven lineages of gastrointestinal cressdnaviruses using 1,124 metagenomic datasets, predicting hosts of four lineages. The Redondoviridae, strongly associated to human gum disease (periodontitis), were predicted to infect Entamoeba gingivalis, an oral pathogen itself involved in periodontitis. The Kirkoviridae, originally linked to fatal equine disease, were predicted to infect a variety of parabasalid protists, including Dientamoeba fragilis in humans. Two viral lineages observed in human diarrhoeal disease (CRESSV1 and CRESSV19, i.e. pecoviruses and hudisaviruses) were predicted to infect Blastocystis spp. and Endolimax nana respectively, protists responsible for millions of annual human infections. Our prediction approach is adaptable to any virus lineage and requires neither training datasets nor host genome assemblies. Two host predictions (for the Kirkoviridae and CRESSV1 lineages) could be independently confirmed as virus-host relationships using endogenous viral elements identified inside host genomes, while a further prediction (for the Redondoviridae) was strongly supported as a virus-host relationship using a case-control screening experiment of human oral plaques.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Barquero A, Marini S, Boucher C, et al (2022)

KARGAMobile: Android app for portable, real-time, easily interpretable analysis of antibiotic resistance genes via nanopore sequencing.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 10:1016408 pii:1016408.

Nanopore technology enables portable, real-time sequencing of microbial populations from clinical and ecological samples. An emerging healthcare application for Nanopore includes point-of-care, timely identification of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to help developing targeted treatments of bacterial infections, and monitoring resistant outbreaks in the environment. While several computational tools exist for classifying ARGs from sequencing data, to date (2022) none have been developed for mobile devices. We present here KARGAMobile, a mobile app for portable, real-time, easily interpretable analysis of ARGs from Nanopore sequencing. KARGAMobile is the porting of an existing ARG identification tool named KARGA; it retains the same algorithmic structure, but it is optimized for mobile devices. Specifically, KARGAMobile employs a compressed ARG reference database and different internal data structures to save RAM usage. The KARGAMobile app features a friendly graphical user interface that guides through file browsing, loading, parameter setup, and process execution. More importantly, the output files are post-processed to create visual, printable and shareable reports, aiding users to interpret the ARG findings. The difference in classification performance between KARGAMobile and KARGA is minimal (96.2% vs. 96.9% f-measure on semi-synthetic datasets of 1 million reads with known resistance ground truth). Using real Nanopore experiments, KARGAMobile processes on average 1 GB data every 23-48 min (targeted sequencing - metagenomics), with peak RAM usage below 500MB, independently from input file sizes, and an average temperature of 49°C after 1 h of continuous data processing. KARGAMobile is written in Java and is available at https://github.com/Ruiz-HCI-Lab/KargaMobile under the MIT license.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Jiang C, Chen H, Grossart HP, et al (2022)

Frequency of occurrence and habitat selection shape the spatial variation in the antibiotic resistome in riverine ecosystems in eastern China.

Environmental microbiome, 17(1):53.

BACKGROUND: Riverine ecosystems are one of the most important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment, but the occurrence and controlling factors of ARG distribution in different habitats of riverine ecosystems remain poorly understood. In this study, a metagenomic approach was used to characterize ARG types and their abundance in different habitats (rhizosphere soil, surface bulk soil, bottom bulk soil, and sediment) of riverine ecosystems in eastern China. Sampling sites were located along different rivers of eastern China, which are geographically isolated. Differences in bacterial communities, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), pattern and intensity of human activities, climate, and other environmental factors at the sampling sites and habitats were expected to affect ARG occurrence.

RESULTS: ARGs were observed with high variations in diversity (44-206 subtypes) and abundance (6.85-105.68 ×/Gb). There were significant south-north differences in ARG occurrence in the same habitat, except for surface bulk soil. And the significant difference was found in ARGs among four southern habitats. South-north differences in ARGs of the same habitat were mainly attributed to the combination of different occurrence frequencies and habitat selections of ARGs. Differences in ARG profiles among the four habitats in the south and the north were both mainly attributed to the different occurrence frequencies of ARGs. Bacterial communities and MGEs (Mobile genetic elements) could account for the observed variance in the resistome of riverine ecosystems across eastern China. The co-occurrences of specific ARGs with bacterial communities and MGEs were more frequent at the northern sampling sites than in the south, and co-occurrence patterns (i.e. ARGs and bacterial communities or ARGs and MGEs) varied between the habitats. Moreover, building land in all habitats, except bulk soils, showed significant positive correlations with ARG abundance.

CONCLUSION: This study reveals a high variance in the resistome of riverine ecosystems in eastern China and its controlling factors. We appeal to the importance of assessment of ARGs in the riverine ecosystem and the need for future prevention and intervention of ARG spread.

RevDate: 2022-11-03

Slizovskiy IB, Oliva M, Settle JK, et al (2022)

Target-enriched long-read sequencing (TELSeq) contextualizes antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomes.

Microbiome, 10(1):185.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomic data can be used to profile high-importance genes within microbiomes. However, current metagenomic workflows produce data that suffer from low sensitivity and an inability to accurately reconstruct partial or full genomes, particularly those in low abundance. These limitations preclude colocalization analysis, i.e., characterizing the genomic context of genes and functions within a metagenomic sample. Genomic context is especially crucial for functions associated with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) via mobile genetic elements (MGEs), for example antimicrobial resistance (AMR). To overcome this current limitation of metagenomics, we present a method for comprehensive and accurate reconstruction of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and MGEs from metagenomic DNA, termed target-enriched long-read sequencing (TELSeq).

RESULTS: Using technical replicates of diverse sample types, we compared TELSeq performance to that of non-enriched PacBio and short-read Illumina sequencing. TELSeq achieved much higher ARG recovery (>1,000-fold) and sensitivity than the other methods across diverse metagenomes, revealing an extensive resistome profile comprising many low-abundance ARGs, including some with public health importance. Using the long reads generated by TELSeq, we identified numerous MGEs and cargo genes flanking the low-abundance ARGs, indicating that these ARGs could be transferred across bacterial taxa via HGT.

CONCLUSIONS: TELSeq can provide a nuanced view of the genomic context of microbial resistomes and thus has wide-ranging applications in public, animal, and human health, as well as environmental surveillance and monitoring of AMR. Thus, this technique represents a fundamental advancement for microbiome research and application. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Vermeulen R, Van Staden ADP, van Zyl LJ, et al (2022)

Unusual Class I Lanthipeptides from the Marine Bacteria Thalassomonas viridans.

ACS synthetic biology [Epub ahead of print].

A novel class I lanthipeptide produced by the marine bacterium Thalassomonas viridans XOM25T was identified using genome mining. The putative lanthipeptides were heterologously coexpressed in Escherichia coli as GFP-prepeptide fusions along with the operon-encoded class I lanthipeptide modification machinery VdsCB. The core peptides, VdsA1 and VdsA2, were liberated from GFP using the NisP protease, purified, and analyzed by collision-induced tandem mass spectrometry. The operon-encoded cyclase and dehydratase, VdsCB, exhibited lanthipeptide synthetase activity via post-translational modification of the VdsA1 and VdsA2 core peptides. Modifications were directed by the conserved double glycine leader containing prepeptides of VdsA1 and VdsA2.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Yao JC, Yao GJ, Wang ZH, et al (2022)

Bioaugmentation of intertidal sludge enhancing the development of salt-tolerant aerobic granular sludge.

Journal of environmental management, 325(Pt B):116394 pii:S0301-4797(22)01967-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Three parallel bioreactors were operated with different inoculation of activated sludge (R1), intertidal sludge (ItS) (R2), and ItS-added AS (R3), respectively, to explore the effects of ItS bioaugmentation on the formation of salt-tolerant aerobic granular sludge (SAGS) and the enhancement of COD removal performance. The results showed that compared to the control (R1-2), R3 promoted a more rapid development of SAGS with a cultivation time of 25 d. Following 110-day cultivation, R3 exhibited a higher granular diameter of 1.3 mm and a higher hydrophobic aromatic protein content than that in control. Compared to the control, the salt-tolerant performance in R3 was also enhanced with the COD removal efficiency of 96.4% due to the higher sludge specific activity of 14.4 g·gVSS-1·d-1 and the salinity inhibition constant of 49.3 gL-1. Read- and genome-resolved metagenomics together indicated that a higher level of tryptophan/tyrosine synthase gene (trpBD, tyrBC) and enrichment of the key gene hosts Rhodobacteraceae, Marinicella in R3, which was about 5.4-fold and 1.4-fold of that in control, could be the driving factors of rapid development of SAGS. Furthermore, the augmented salt-tolerant potential in R3 could result from that R1 was dominated by Rhodospirillaceae, Bacteroidales, which carried more trehalose synthase gene (otsB, treS), while the dominant members Rhodobacteraceae, Marinicella in R3 were main contributors to the glycine betaine synthase gene (ectC, betB, gbsA). This study could provide deeper insights into the rapid development and improved salt-tolerant potential of SAGS via bioaugmentation of intertidal sludge, which could promote the application of hypersaline wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Battat R, Scherl EJ, Lukin D, et al (2022)

Increased Primary Bile Acids with Ileocolonic Resection Impact Ileal Inflammation and Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:6794155 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Most Crohn's disease (CD) patients require surgery. Ileitis recurs after most ileocolectomies and is a critical determinant for outcomes. The impact of ileocolectomy-induced bile acid (BA) perturbations on intestinal microbiota and inflammation are unknown. We characterized relationships between ileocolectomy, stool BA, microbiota, and intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

METHODS: Validated IBD clinical and endoscopic assessments were prospectively collected. Stool primary and secondary BA concentrations were compared based on ileocolectomy and ileitis status. Primary BA thresholds for ileitis were evaluated. Metagenomic sequencing profiled microbial composition and function. Relationships between ileocolectomy, BA and microbiota were assessed.

RESULTS: In 166 patients, elevated primary and secondary BA existed with ileocolectomy. With ileitis, only primary BA (795 nMol/g vs 398 nMol/g, p=0.009) were higher compared to without ileitis. The optimal primary BA threshold (≥228nMol/g) identified ileitis on multivariable analysis (OR=2.3, p=0.04). Microbial diversity, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and O-acetylhomoserine aminocarboxypropyltransferase (MetY) were decreased with elevated primary BA. Amongst ileocolectomy patients, only those with elevated primary BA had diversity, F.prausnitzii and MetY reductions. Those with both ileocolectomy and intermediate (p=0.002) or high (≥228nMol/g, p=9.1e-11)) primary BA had reduced F.prausnitzii compared to without ileocolectomy. Those with ileocolectomy and low (<29.2nMol/g) primary BA had similar F.prausnitzii as those without ileocolectomy (P=0.13). MetY was reduced with ileitis (p=0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: Elevated primary bile acids were associated with ileitis, and reduced microbial diversity, F.prausnitzii abundance, and enzymatic abundance of MetY (acetate and L-methionine producing enzyme expressed by F.prausnitzii) and were the only factor associated with these findings after ileocolectomy.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Litvintseva AP, Bakhiet S, Gade L, et al (2022)

Genomics and metagenomics of Madurella mycetomatis, a causative agent of black grain mycetoma in Sudan.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 16(11):e0010787 pii:PNTD-D-22-00051.

Madurella mycetomatis is one of the main causative agents of mycetoma, a debilitating neglected tropical disease. Improved understanding of the genomic diversity of the fungal and bacterial causes of mycetoma is essential to advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, we describe a high-quality genome assembly of M. mycetomatis and results of the whole genome sequence analysis of 26 isolates from Sudan. We demonstrate evidence of at least seven genetically diverse lineages and extreme clonality among isolates within these lineages. We also performed shotgun metagenomic analysis of DNA extracted from mycetoma grains and showed that M. mycetomatis reads were detected in all sequenced samples with the average of 11,317 reads (s.d. +/- 21,269) per sample. In addition, 10 (12%) of the 81 tested grain samples contained bacterial reads including Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. and others.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Ahlqvist J, Linares-Pastén JA, Jasilionis A, et al (2022)

Crystal structure of DNA polymerase I from Thermus phage G20c.

Acta crystallographica. Section D, Structural biology, 78(Pt 11):1384-1398.

This study describes the structure of DNA polymerase I from Thermus phage G20c, termed PolI_G20c. This is the first structure of a DNA polymerase originating from a group of related thermophilic bacteriophages infecting Thermus thermophilus, including phages G20c, TSP4, P74-26, P23-45 and phiFA and the novel phage Tth15-6. Sequence and structural analysis of PolI_G20c revealed a 3'-5' exonuclease domain and a DNA polymerase domain, and activity screening confirmed that both domains were functional. No functional 5'-3' exonuclease domain was present. Structural analysis also revealed a novel specific structure motif, here termed SβαR, that was not previously identified in any polymerase belonging to the DNA polymerases I (or the DNA polymerase A family). The SβαR motif did not show any homology to the sequences or structures of known DNA polymerases. The exception was the sequence conservation of the residues in this motif in putative DNA polymerases encoded in the genomes of a group of thermophilic phages related to Thermus phage G20c. The structure of PolI_G20c was determined with the aid of another structure that was determined in parallel and was used as a model for molecular replacement. This other structure was of a 3'-5' exonuclease termed ExnV1. The cloned and expressed gene encoding ExnV1 was isolated from a thermophilic virus metagenome that was collected from several hot springs in Iceland. The structure of ExnV1, which contains the novel SβαR motif, was first determined to 2.19 Å resolution. With these data at hand, the structure of PolI_G20c was determined to 2.97 Å resolution. The structures of PolI_G20c and ExnV1 are most similar to those of the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I (PDB entry 2kzz) from Escherichia coli, DNA polymerase I from Geobacillus stearothermophilus (PDB entry 1knc) and Taq polymerase (PDB entry 1bgx) from Thermus aquaticus.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Salamon D, Zapała B, Krawczyk A, et al (2022)

Comparison of iSeq and MiSeq as the two platforms for 16S rRNA sequencing in the study of the gut of rat microbiome.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Amplicon-based next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S) regions is a culture-free method used to identify and analyze Procaryota occurring within a given sample. The prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene contains conserved regions and nine variable regions (V1-V9) frequently used for phylogenetic classification of genus or species in diverse microbial populations. This work compares the accuracy and efficacy of two platforms, iSeq and MiSeq from Illumina, used in sequencing 16S rRNA. The most important similarities and differences of 16S microbiome sequencing in 20 fecal rat samples were described. Genetic libraries were prepared according to 16S Metagenomic Sequencing Library Preparation (Illumina) for the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S. The species richness obtained using iSeq technology was lower compared to MiSeq. At the second taxonomy level (L2), the abundance of taxa was comparable for both platforms. At the L7, the taxa abundance was significantly different, and the number of taxa was higher for the MiSeq. The alpha diversity was lower for iSeq than for MiSeq, starting from the order to the species level. The beta diversity estimation revealed statistically significant differences in microbiota diversity starting from the class level to the species level in samples sequenced on two investigated platforms. This work disclosed that the iSeq platform could be used to evaluate the bacterial profile of the samples to characterize the overall profile. The MiSeq System seems to be better for a detailed analysis of the differences in the microbiota composition. KEY POINTS: • iSeq platform allows to shorten the sequencing time three times compared to the MiSeq. • iSeq can only be used for an initial and quick microbiome assessment. • MiSeq is better for a detailed analysis of the differences in the microbiota composition.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Jia Z, Lipus D, Bartholomäus A, et al (2022)

Metagenome-Assembled Genome of a Putative Methanogenic Methanosarcina sp. Strain Enriched from Terrestrial High-CO2 Subsurface Sediments.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

A metagenome-assembled genome (MAG), named Methanosarcina sp. strain ERenArc_MAG2, was obtained from a 3-month-old H2/CO2 atmosphere enrichment culture, originally inoculated with 60-m deep drill core sediment collected from the tectonic Eger Rift terrestrial subsurface. Annotation of the recovered draft genome revealed putative archaeal methanogenesis genes in the deep biosphere.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Zhang XX, Lv QB, Yan QL, et al (2022)

A Catalog of over 5,000 Metagenome-Assembled Microbial Genomes from the Caprinae Gut Microbiota.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Most microbiome studies regarding the ruminant digestive tract have focused on the rumen microbiota, whereas only a few studies were performed on investigating the gut microbiota of ruminants, which limits our understanding of this important component. Herein, the gut microbiota of 30 Caprinae animals (sheep and goats) from six provinces in China was characterized using ultradeep (>100 Gbp per sample) metagenome shotgun sequencing. An inventory of Caprinae gut microbial species containing 5,046 metagenomic assembly genomes (MAGs) was constructed. Particularly, 2,530 of the genomes belonged to uncultured candidate species. These genomes largely expanded the genomic repository of the current microbes in the Caprinae gut. Several enzymes and biosynthetic gene clusters encoded by these Caprinae gut species were identified. In summary, our study extends the gut microbiota characteristics of Caprinae and provides a basis for future studies on animal production and animal health. IMPORTANCE We constructed a microbiota catalog containing 5,046 MAGs from Caprinae gut from six regions of China. Most of the MAGs do not overlap known databases and appear to be potentially new species. We also characterized the functional spectrum of these MAGs and analyzed the differences between different regions. Our study enriches the understanding of taxonomic, functional, and metabolic diversity of Caprinae gut microbiota. We are confident that the manuscript will be of utmost interest to a wide range of readers and be widely applied in future research.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Wu Y, Jha R, Li A, et al (2022)

Probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082) Supplementation Relieves Ulcerative Colitis by Affecting Intestinal Barrier Functions, Immunity-Related Gene Expression, Gut Microbiota, and Metabolic Pathways in Mice.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Probiotics can effectively improve ulcerative colitis (UC), but the mechanism is still unclear. Here, shotgun metagenome and transcriptome analyses were performed to explore the therapeutic effect and the mechanism of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum HNU082 (Lp082) on UC. The results showed that Lp082 treatment significantly ameliorated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mice, which was manifested as increases in body weight, water intake, food intake, and colon length and decreases in disease activity index (DAI), immune organ index, inflammatory factors, and histopathological scores after Lp082 intake. An in-depth study discovered that Lp082 could improve the intestinal mucosal barrier and relieve inflammation by cooptimizing the biological barrier, chemical barrier, mechanical barrier, and immune barrier. Specifically, Lp082 rebuilt the biological barrier by regulating the intestinal microbiome and increasing the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Lp082 improved the chemical barrier by reducing intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and increasing goblet cells and mucin2. Lp082 ameliorated the mechanical barrier by increasing zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), zonula occludens-2 (ZO-2), and occludin while decreasing claudin-1 and claudin-2. Lp082 optimized the immune barrier by reducing the content of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and increasing IL-10, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and TGF-β2, inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, probiotic Lp082 can play a protective role in a DSS-induced colitis mouse model by protecting the intestinal mucosal barrier, attenuating the inflammatory response, and regulating microbial imbalance. This study provides support for the development of probiotic-based microbial products as an alternative treatment strategy for UC. IMPORTANCE Many studies have focused on the therapeutic effect of probiotics on ulcerative colitis (UC), but few studies have paid attention to the mechanism of probiotics, especially the therapeutic effect. This study suggests that Lp082 has a therapeutic effect on colitis in mice. Its mechanisms of action include protecting the mucosal barrier and actively modulating the gut microbiome, modulating inflammatory pathways, and reducing neutrophil infiltration. Our study enriches the mechanism and provides a new prospect for probiotics in the treatment of colitis, helps to deepen the understanding of the intestinal mucosal barrier, and provides guidance for the future probiotic treatment of human colitis.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Zhao C, Dimitrov B, Goldman M, et al (2022)

MIDAS2: Metagenomic Intra-species Diversity Analysis System.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6793850 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: The Metagenomic Intra-Species Diversity Analysis System (MIDAS) is a scalable metagenomic pipeline that identifies single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and gene copy number variants (CNVs) in microbial populations. Here, we present MIDAS2, which addresses the computational challenges presented by increasingly large reference genome databases, while adding functionality for building custom databases and leveraging paired-end reads to improve SNV accuracy. This fast and scalable reengineering of the MIDAS pipeline enables thousands of metagenomic samples to be efficiently genotyped.

AVAILABILITY: The source code is available at https://github.com/czbiohub/MIDAS2.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Hill SC, François S, Thézé J, et al (2022)

Impact of host age on viral and bacterial communities in a waterbird population.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Wildlife harbour pathogens that can harm human or livestock health and are the source of most emerging infectious diseases. It is rarely considered how changes in wildlife population age-structures or how age-stratified behaviours might alter the level of pathogen detection within a species, or risk of spillover to other species. Micro-organisms that occur in healthy animals can be an important model for understanding and predicting the dynamics of pathogens of greater health concern, which are hard to study in wild populations due to their relative rarity. We therefore used a metagenomic approach to jointly characterise viral and prokaryotic carriage in faeces collected from a healthy wild bird population (Cygnus olor; mute swan) that has been subject to long-term study. Using 223 samples from known individuals allowed us to compare differences in prokaryotic and eukaryotic viral carriage between adults and juveniles at an unprecedented level of detail. We discovered and characterised 77 novel virus species, of which 21% belong putatively to bird-infecting families, and described the core prokaryotic microbiome of C. olor. Whilst no difference in microbiota diversity was observed between juveniles and adult individuals, 50% (4/8) of bird-infecting virus families (picornaviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses and bornaviruses) and 3.4% (9/267) of prokaryotic families (including Helicobacteraceae, Spirochaetaceae and Flavobacteriaceae families) were differentially abundant and/or prevalent between juveniles and adults. This indicates that perturbations that affect population age-structures of wildlife could alter circulation dynamics and spillover risk of microbes, potentially including pathogens.

RevDate: 2022-11-02

Tierney BT, Versalovic J, Fasano A, et al (2022)

Functional response to a microbial synbiotic in the gastrointestinal system of children: a randomized clinical trial.

Pediatric research [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Oral microbial therapy has been studied as an intervention for a range of gastrointestinal disorders. Though research suggests that microbial exposure may affect the gastrointestinal system, motility, and host immunity in a pediatric population, data have been inconsistent, with most prior studies being in neither a randomized nor placebo-controlled setting. The aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy of a synbiotic on increasing weekly bowel movements (WBMs) in constipated children.

METHODS: Sixty-four children (3-17 years of age) were randomized to receive a synbiotic (n = 33) comprising mixed-chain length oligosaccharides and nine microbial strains, or placebo (n = 31) for 84 days. Stool microbiota was analyzed on samples collected at baseline and completion. The primary outcome was a change from baseline of WBMs in the treatment group compared to placebo.

RESULTS: Treatment increased (p < 0.05) the number of WBMs in children with low baseline WBMs, despite broadly distinctive baseline microbiome signatures. Sequencing revealed that low baseline microbial richness in the treatment group significantly anticipated improvements in constipation (p = 0.00074).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the potential for (i) multi-species-synbiotic interventions to improve digestive health in a pediatric population and (ii) bioinformatics-based methods to predict response to microbial interventions in children.

IMPACT: Synbiotic microbial treatment improved the number of spontaneous weekly bowel movements in children compared to placebo. Intervention induced an increased abundance of bifidobacteria in children, compared to placebo. All administered probiotic species were enriched in the gut microbiome of the intervention group compared to placebo. Baseline microbial richness demonstrated potential as a predictive biomarker for response to intervention.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Deng F, Chen Y, Sun QS, et al (2022)

Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy in patients: A case-control study.

Journal of medical virology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Myocardial injury is a major complication of sepsis and a key factor affecting prognosis. Therefore, early and accurate diagnosis and timely management of sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy (SICM) are of great significance for the prevention and treatment of sepsis. The gut microbiota has been shown to be closely associated with sepsis or myocardial injury, but the association between the gut microbiota and SICM is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the link between gut microbiota composition and SICM.

METHODS: A case-control and single-centre study of clinical features and gut microbiota profiles by Metagenome and Virome was conducted in SICM patients (n = 15) and sepsis-uninduced cardiomyopathy patients (SNICM, n = 16).

RESULTS: Compared with SNICM patients, SICM patients showed significant myocardial injury and higher 28-day mortality, SOFA scores, lactate levels, and infection levels on admission. Meanwhile, differences in the composition of gut bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses were analysed between the 2 groups. Differential gut bacteria or viruses were found to have a good predictive effect on SICM. Furthermore, gut bacteria and viruses that differed between the 2 groups were strongly related. The abundance of Cronobacter and Cronobacter phage was higher in the SICM group than in the SNICM group, and the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that Cronobacter and Cronobacter phage both had a good predictive effect on SICM.

CONCLUSIONS: SICM patients may have specific gut microbiota signatures, and Cronobacter and Cronobacter phages have a good ability to identify and diagnose SICM. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Karakan T, Gundogdu A, Alagözlü H, et al (2022)

Artificial intelligence-based personalized diet: A pilot clinical study for irritable bowel syndrome.

Gut microbes, 14(1):2138672.

We enrolled consecutive IBS-M patients (n = 25) according to Rome IV criteria. Fecal samples were obtained from all patients twice (pre-and post-intervention) and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was performed. Six weeks of personalized nutrition diet (n = 14) for group 1 and a standard IBS diet (n = 11) for group 2 were followed. AI-based diet was designed based on optimizing a personalized nutritional strategy by an algorithm regarding individual gut microbiome features. The IBS-SSS evaluation for pre- and post-intervention exhibited significant improvement (p < .02 and p < .001 for the standard IBS diet and personalized nutrition groups, respectively). While the IBS-SSS evaluation changed to moderate from severe in 78% (11 out of 14) of the personalized nutrition group, no such change was observed in the standard IBS diet group. A statistically significant increase in the Faecalibacterium genus was observed in the personalized nutrition group (p = .04). Bacteroides and putatively probiotic genus Propionibacterium were increased in the personalized nutrition group. The change (delta) values in IBS-SSS scores (before-after) in personalized nutrition and standard IBS diet groups are significantly higher in the personalized nutrition group. AI-based personalized microbiome modulation through diet significantly improves IBS-related symptoms in patients with IBS-M. Further large-scale, randomized placebo-controlled trials with long-term follow-up (durability) are needed.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Lei B, Xu Y, Lei Y, et al (2022)

CRAMdb: a comprehensive database for composition and roles of microbiome in animals.

Nucleic acids research pii:6786202 [Epub ahead of print].

CRAMdb (a database for composition and roles of animal microbiome) is a comprehensive resource of curated and consistently annotated metagenomes for non-human animals. It focuses on the composition and roles of the microbiome in various animal species. The main goal of the CRAMdb is to facilitate the reuse of animal metagenomic data, and enable cross-host and cross-phenotype comparisons. To this end, we consistently annotated microbiomes (including 16S, 18S, ITS and metagenomics sequencing data) of 516 animals from 475 projects spanning 43 phenotype pairs to construct the database that is equipped with 9430 bacteria, 278 archaea, 2216 fungi and 458 viruses. CRAMdb provides two main contents: microbiome composition data, illustrating the landscape of the microbiota (bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses) in various animal species, and microbiome association data, revealing the relationships between the microbiota and various phenotypes across different animal species. More importantly, users can quickly compare the composition of the microbiota of interest cross-host or body site and the associated taxa that differ between phenotype pairs cross-host or cross-phenotype. CRAMdb is freely available at (http://www.ehbio.com/CRAMdb).

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Gil JC, SM Hird (2022)

Multiomics Characterization of the Canada Goose Fecal Microbiome Reveals Selective Efficacy of Simulated Metagenomes.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

16S rRNA amplicon sequences are predominantly used to identify the taxonomic composition of a microbiome, but they can also be used to generate simulated metagenomes to circumvent costly empirical shotgun sequencing. The effectiveness of using "simulated metagenomes" (shotgun metagenomes simulated from 16S rRNA amplicons using a database of full genomes closely related to the amplicons) in nonmodel systems is poorly known. We sought to determine the accuracy of simulated metagenomes in a nonmodel organism, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis), by comparing metagenomes and metatranscriptomes to simulated metagenomes derived from 16S amplicon sequencing. We found significant differences between the metagenomes, metatranscriptomes, and simulated metagenomes when comparing enzymes, KEGG orthologies (KO), and metabolic pathways. The simulated metagenomes accurately identified the majority (>70%) of the total enzymes, KOs, and pathways. The simulated metagenomes accurately identified the majority of the short-chain fatty acid metabolic pathways crucial to folivores. When narrowed in scope to specific genes of interest, the simulated metagenomes overestimated the number of antimicrobial resistance genes and underestimated the number of genes related to the breakdown of plant matter. Our results suggest that simulated metagenomes should not be used in lieu of empirical sequencing when studying the functional potential of a nonmodel organism's microbiome. Regarding the function of the Canada goose microbiome, we found unexpected amounts of fermentation pathways, and we found that a few taxa are responsible for large portions of the functional potential of the microbiome. IMPORTANCE The taxonomic composition of a microbiome is predominately identified using amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, but as a single marker, it cannot identify functions (genes). Metagenome and metatranscriptome sequencing can determine microbiome function but can be cost prohibitive. Therefore, computational methods have been developed to generate simulated metagenomes derived from 16S rRNA sequences and databases of full-length genomes. Simulated metagenomes can be an effective alternative to empirical sequencing, but accuracy depends on the genomic database used and whether the database contains organisms closely related to the 16S sequences. These tools are effective in well-studied systems, but the accuracy of these predictions in a nonmodel system is less known. Using a nonmodel bird species, we characterized the function of the microbiome and compared the accuracy of 16S-derived simulated metagenomes to sequenced metagenomes. We found that the simulated metagenomes reflect most but not all functions of empirical metagenome sequencing.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Zaramela LS, Tjuanta M, Moyne O, et al (2022)

synDNA-a Synthetic DNA Spike-in Method for Absolute Quantification of Shotgun Metagenomic Sequencing.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiome studies have the common goal of determining which microbial taxa are present, respond to specific conditions, or promote phenotypic changes in the host. Most of these studies rely on relative abundance measurements to drive conclusions. Inherent limitations of relative values are the inability to determine whether an individual taxon is more or less abundant and the magnitude of this change between the two samples. These limitations can be overcome by using absolute abundance quantifications, which can allow for a more complete understanding of community dynamics by measuring variations in total microbial loads. Obtaining absolute abundance measurements is still technically challenging. Here, we developed synthetic DNA (synDNA) spike-ins that enable precise and cost-effective absolute quantification of microbiome data by adding defined amounts of synDNAs to the samples. We designed 10 synDNAs with the following features: 2,000-bp length, variable GC content (26, 36, 46, 56, or 66% GC), and negligible identity to sequences found in the NCBI database. Dilution pools were generated by mixing the 10 synDNAs at different concentrations. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing showed that the pools of synDNAs with different percentages of GC efficiently reproduced the serial dilution, showing high correlation (r = 0.96; R2 ≥ 0.94) and significance (P < 0.01). Furthermore, we demonstrated that the synDNAs can be used as DNA spike-ins to generate linear models and predict with high accuracy the absolute number of bacterial cells in complex microbial communities. IMPORTANCE The synDNAs designed in this study enable accurate and reproducible measurements of absolute amount and fold changes of bacterial species in complex microbial communities. The method proposed here is versatile and promising as it can be applied to bacterial communities or genomic features like genes and operons, in addition to being easily adaptable by other research groups at a low cost. We also made the synDNAs' sequences and the plasmids available to encourage future application of the proposed method in the study of microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

de Frémont GM, Salmona M, Maillet F, et al (2022)

Human adenoviral (HAdV) chronic arthritis expands the infectious spectrum of primary agammaglobulinemia.

Virology journal, 19(1):172.

Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are a heterogeneous entity with an increasing number of late diagnoses. Besides infections, inflammatory manifestations are a growing part of the clinical landscape of IEI. These complications are of unknown causes and often lead to the prescription of immunosuppressive agents that worsen the underlying immune defect. We here report the case of an adult patient diagnosed with chronic Human Adenovirus C-1 arthritis in the setting of primary agammaglobulinemia. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing led to the correct diagnosis and high-dose intravenous immunoglobulins resulted in complete recovery. This observation gives new insights into adenoviral immunity and underlines the importance of metagenomics in the diagnosis of inflammatory manifestations in immunocompromised patients.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Fujimoto K, Miyaoka D, S Uematsu (2022)

Characterization of the human gut virome in metabolic and autoimmune diseases.

Inflammation and regeneration, 42(1):32.

The intestinal microbiome is dominated by bacteria and plays a pivotal role in the occurrence and development of disease, including several metabolic and autoimmune disorders. While intestinal viral communities, primarily made up of bacteriophages, are also thought to play a role in disease pathogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract, they have received much less attention than intestinal bacteria. Thus, there is limited information about the relationship between bacteriophages and disease. This review explores a potential role for the intestinal viral microbiome in various metabolic and autoimmune diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Monroig V, KM Tarquinio (2022)

Diabetic ketoacidosis and coronavirus disease 2019-associated mucormycosis: a case report.

Journal of medical case reports, 16(1):400.

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis is a rare, life-threatening fungal infection that affects immunocompromised hosts. Diabetes mellitus is a common predisposing condition and most often presents with rhino-orbital-cerebral infection. Association with coronavirus disease 2019 infection was revealed following a resurgence in cases of mucormycosis during the second wave of the pandemic wherein poorly controlled diabetes mellitus was the most significant risk factor in the affected population. Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis has a high mortality rate, and cerebral involvement is a poor prognostic factor. Herein, we report a case of newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus with concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 infection complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis and rhinocerebral mucormycosis at presentation, describe the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, and discuss the interventions that ultimately resulted in a favorable clinical response.

CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a previously healthy 13-year-old African American female patient with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus and concurrent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection whose disease course was complicated by rhinocerebral mucormycosis. She presented with fever, altered mental status, and Kussmaul respirations and was diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis with concern for cerebral edema. Concern for infectious cerebritis arose due to recurring fevers and persistently altered mental status despite correction of her metabolic derangements. This raised concern for infectious cerebritis and prompted evaluation with serial head imaging, lumbar puncture, and initiation of broad empiric antimicrobial regimen. Head imaging revealed an evolving cerebral abscess, and fungal deoxyribonucleic acid was identified on blood metagenomics testing, which ultimately confirmed the diagnosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Treatment was challenging as she required surgical debridement of the frontal lobe and aggressive antifungal therapy complicated by electrolyte derangements and electrocardiogram changes that necessitated modification of the antimicrobial regimen. Despite these challenges and high mortality rate, the patient was discharged from the hospital in stable condition to inpatient rehabilitation service for reconditioning after prolonged hospitalization.

CONCLUSION: Rhinocerebral mucormycosis mortality is associated with delays in therapeutic interventions, thus a high index of suspicion and early recognition were essential for timely initiation of antifungal therapy and surgical debridement.

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Das A, MC Schatz (2022)

Sketching and sampling approaches for fast and accurate long read classification.

BMC bioinformatics, 23(1):452.

BACKGROUND: In modern sequencing experiments, quickly and accurately identifying the sources of the reads is a crucial need. In metagenomics, where each read comes from one of potentially many members of a community, it can be important to identify the exact species the read is from. In other settings, it is important to distinguish which reads are from the targeted sample and which are from potential contaminants. In both cases, identification of the correct source of a read enables further investigation of relevant reads, while minimizing wasted work. This task is particularly challenging for long reads, which can have a substantial error rate that obscures the origins of each read.

RESULTS: Existing tools for the read classification problem are often alignment or index-based, but such methods can have large time and/or space overheads. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of several sampling and sketching-based approaches for read classification. In these approaches, a chosen sampling or sketching algorithm is used to generate a reduced representation (a "screen") of potential source genomes for a query readset before reads are streamed in and compared against this screen. Using a query read's similarity to the elements of the screen, the methods predict the source of the read. Such an approach requires limited pre-processing, stores and works with only a subset of the input data, and is able to perform classification with a high degree of accuracy.

CONCLUSIONS: The sampling and sketching approaches investigated include uniform sampling, methods based on MinHash and its weighted and order variants, a minimizer-based technique, and a novel clustering-based sketching approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these techniques both in identifying the source microbial genomes for reads from a metagenomic long read sequencing experiment, and in distinguishing between long reads from organisms of interest and potential contaminant reads. We then compare these approaches to existing alignment, index and sketching-based tools for read classification, and demonstrate how such a method is a viable alternative for determining the source of query reads. Finally, we present a reference implementation of these approaches at https://github.com/arun96/sketching .

RevDate: 2022-11-01

Alessandri G, Fontana F, Mancabelli L, et al (2022)

Exploring species-level infant gut bacterial biodiversity by meta-analysis and formulation of an optimized cultivation medium.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):88.

In vitro gut cultivation models provide host-uncoupled, fast, and cost-efficient solutions to investigate the effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors impacting on both composition and functionality of the intestinal microbial ecosystem. However, to ensure the maintenance and survival of gut microbial players and preserve their functions, these systems require close monitoring of several variables, including oxygen concentration, pH, and temperature, as well as the use of a culture medium satisfying the microbial nutritional requirements. In this context, in order to identify the macro- and micro-nutrients necessary for in vitro cultivation of the infant gut microbiota, a meta-analysis based on 1669 publicly available shotgun metagenomic samples corresponding to fecal samples of healthy, full-term infants aged from a few days to three years was performed to define the predominant species characterizing the "infant-like" gut microbial ecosystem. A subsequent comparison of growth performances was made using infant fecal samples that contained the most abundant bacterial taxa of the infant gut microbiota, when cultivated on 18 different culture media. This growth analysis was performed by means of flow cytometry-based bacterial cell enumeration and shallow shotgun sequencing, which allowed the formulation of an optimized growth medium, i.e., Infant Gut Super Medium (IGSM), which maintains and sustains the infant gut microbial biodiversity under in vitro growth conditions. Furthermore, this formulation was used to evaluate the in vitro effect of two drugs commonly used in pediatrics, i.e., acetaminophen and simethicone, on the taxonomic composition of the infant gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Kamani J, González-Miguel J, Msheliza EG, et al (2022)

Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) and Their Bat Flies (Cyclopodia greefi) in Nigeria Host Viruses with Multifarious Modes of Transmission.

Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) [Epub ahead of print].

Background: Bat flies (Diptera: Hippoboscoidea: Nycteribiidae and Streblidae) are increasingly appreciated as hosts of "bat-associated" viruses. We studied straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) and their nycteribiid bat flies (Cyclopodia greefi) in Nigeria to investigate the role of bat flies in vectoring or maintaining viruses. Methods: We captured bats and bat flies across northern Nigeria. We used metagenomics to identify viruses in 40 paired samples (20 flies from 20 bats). We characterized viruses using genomic and phylogenetic methods, and we compared infection frequencies in bats and their bat flies. Results: In 20 bats, we detected two individuals (10%) infected with eidolon helvum parvovirus 1 (BtPAR4) (Parvoviridae; Tetraparvovirus), previously described in Ghana, and 10 bats (50%) with a novel parvovirus in the genus Amdoparvovirus (Parvoviridae). The amdoparvoviruses include Aleutian disease virus of mink and viruses of other carnivores but have not previously been identified in bats or in Africa. In 20 paired bat flies (each fly from 1 bat) all (100%) were infected with a novel virus in the genus Sigmavirus (Rhabdoviridae). The sigmaviruses include vertically transmitted viruses of dipterans. We did not detect BtPAR4 in any bat flies, and we did not detect the novel sigmavirus in any bats. However, we did detect the novel amdoparvovirus in 3 out of 20 bat flies sampled (15%), including in 2 bat flies from bats in which we did not detect this virus. Discussion: Our results show that bats and their bat flies harbor some viruses that are specific to mammals and insects, respectively, and other viruses that may transmit between bats and arthropods. Our results also greatly expand the geographic and host range of the amdoparvoviruses and suggest that some could be transmitted by arthropods. Bat flies may serve as biological vectors, mechanical vectors, or maintenance hosts for "bat-associated" viruses.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Schmidt EW, Z Lin (2022)

Translating Marine Symbioses toward Drug Development.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Chemists have studied marine animals for the better part of a century because they contain a diverse array of bioactive compounds. Tens of thousands of compounds have been reported, many with elaborate structural motifs and biological mechanisms of action found nowhere else. The challenge holding back the field has long been that of supply. Compounds are sometimes obtained by cultivating marine animals or by wild harvest, but this often presents logistical and environmental challenges. Some of the most medically important marine animal compounds are supplied by synthesis, often through multistep procedures that delay drug development. A relatively small number of such agents have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, often after a heroic effort. In a recent mBio paper, Uppal and coworkers (https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01524-22) address key hurdles underlying the supply issue, discovering an uncultivated new bacterial genus from a marine sponge and reconstituting the biosynthetic pathway for expression.

RevDate: 2022-10-31

Bauer MJ, Peri AM, Lüftinger L, et al (2022)

Optimized Method for Bacterial Nucleic Acid Extraction from Positive Blood Culture Broth for Whole-Genome Sequencing, Resistance Phenotype Prediction, and Downstream Molecular Applications.

Journal of clinical microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The application of direct metagenomic sequencing from positive blood culture broth may solve the challenges of sequencing from low-bacterial-load blood samples in patients with sepsis. Forty prospectively collected blood culture broth samples growing Gram-negative bacteria were extracted using commercially available kits to achieve high-quality DNA. Species identification via metagenomic sequencing and susceptibility prediction via a machine-learning algorithm (AREScloud) were compared to conventional methods and other rapid diagnostic platforms (Accelerate Pheno and blood culture identification [BCID] panel). A two-kit method (using MolYsis Basic and Qiagen DNeasy UltraClean kits) resulted in optimal extractions. Taxonomic profiling by direct metagenomic sequencing matched conventional identification in 38/40 (95%) samples. In two polymicrobial samples, a second organism was missed by sequencing. Prediction models were able to accurately infer susceptibility profiles for 6 common pathogens against 17 antibiotics, with an overall categorical agreement (CA) of 95% (increasing to >95% for 5/6 of the most common pathogens, if Klebsiella oxytoca was excluded). The performance of whole-genome sequencing (WGS)-antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) was suboptimal for uncommon pathogens (e.g., Elizabethkingia) and some β-lactamase inhibitor antibiotics (e.g., ticarcillin-clavulanate). The time to pathogen identification was the fastest with BCID (1 h from blood culture positivity). Accelerate Pheno provided a susceptibility result in approximately 8 h. Illumina-based direct sequencing methods provided results in time frames similar to those of conventional culture-based methods. Direct metagenomic sequencing from blood cultures for pathogen detection and susceptibility prediction is feasible. Additional work is required to optimize algorithms for uncommon species and complex resistance genotypes as well as to streamline methods to provide more rapid results.

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ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).

Timelines

ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.

Biographies

Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )