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Bibliography on: Holobiont

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ESP: PubMed Auto Bibliography 17 Sep 2021 at 01:30 Created: 


Holobionts are assemblages of different species that form ecological units. Lynn Margulis proposed that any physical association between individuals of different species for significant portions of their life history is a symbiosis. All participants in the symbiosis are bionts, and therefore the resulting assemblage was first coined a holobiont by Lynn Margulis in 1991 in the book Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Holo is derived from the Ancient Greek word ὅλος (hólos) for “whole”. The entire assemblage of genomes in the holobiont is termed a hologenome.

Created with PubMed® Query: holobiont OR hologenome NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-09-14

Waterworth SC, Parker-Nance S, Kwan JC, et al (2021)

Comparative Genomics Provides Insight into the Function of Broad-Host Range Sponge Symbionts.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

The fossil record indicates that the earliest evidence of extant marine sponges (phylum Porifera) existed during the Cambrian explosion and that their symbiosis with microbes may have begun in their extinct ancestors during the Precambrian period. Many symbionts have adapted to their sponge host, where they perform specific, specialized functions. There are also widely distributed bacterial taxa such as Poribacteria, SAUL, and Tethybacterales that are found in a broad range of invertebrate hosts. Here, we added 11 new genomes to the Tethybacterales order, identified a novel family, and show that functional potential differs between the three Tethybacterales families. We compare the Tethybacterales with the well-characterized Entoporibacteria and show that these symbionts appear to preferentially associate with low-microbial abundance (LMA) and high-microbial abundance (HMA) sponges, respectively. Within these sponges, we show that these symbionts likely perform distinct functions and may have undergone multiple association events, rather than a single association event followed by coevolution. IMPORTANCE Marine sponges often form symbiotic relationships with bacteria that fulfil a specific need within the sponge holobiont, and these symbionts are often conserved within a narrow range of related taxa. To date, there exist only three known bacterial taxa (Entoporibacteria, SAUL, and Tethybacterales) that are globally distributed and found in a broad range of sponge hosts, and little is known about the latter two. We show that the functional potential of broad-host range symbionts is conserved at a family level and that these symbionts have been acquired several times over evolutionary history. Finally, it appears that the Entoporibacteria are associated primarily with high-microbial abundance sponges, while the Tethybacterales associate with low-microbial abundance sponges.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Fernández-González AJ, Ramírez-Tejero JA, Nevado-Berzosa MP, et al (2021)

Coupling the endophytic microbiome with the host transcriptome in olive roots.

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 19:4777-4789 pii:S2001-0370(21)00366-4.

The connection between olive genetic responses to environmental and agro-climatic conditions and the composition, structure and functioning of host-associated, belowground microbiota has never been studied under the holobiont conceptual framework. Two groups of cultivars growing under the same environmental, pedological and agronomic conditions, and showing highest (AH) and lowest (AL) Actinophytocola relative abundances, were earlier identified. We aimed now to: i) compare the root transcriptome profiles of these two groups harboring significantly different relative abundances in the above-mentioned bacterial genus; ii) examine their rhizosphere and root-endosphere microbiota co-occurrence networks; and iii) connect the root host transcriptome pattern to the composition of the root microbial communities by correlation and co-occurrence network analyses. Significant differences in olive gene expression were found between the two groups. Co-occurrence networks of the root endosphere microbiota were clearly different as well. Pearson's correlation analysis enabled a first portray of the interaction occurring between the root host transcriptome and the endophytic community. To further identify keystone operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and genes, subsequent co-occurrence network analysis showed significant interactions between 32 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 19 OTUs. Overall, negative correlation was detected between all upregulated genes in the AH group and all OTUs except of Actinophytocola. While two groups of olive cultivars grown under the same conditions showed significantly different microbial profiles, the most remarkable finding was to unveil a strong correlation between these profiles and the differential gene expression pattern of each group. In conclusion, this study shows a holistic view of the plant-microbiome communication.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Nobre T (2021)

Olive fruit fly and its obligate symbiont Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Two new symbiont haplotypes in the Mediterranean basin.

PloS one, 16(9):e0256284 pii:PONE-D-21-11736.

The olive fruit fly, specialized to become monophagous during several life stages, remains the most important olive tree pest with high direct production losses, but also affecting the quality, composition, and inherent properties of the olives. Thought to have originated in Africa is nowadays present wherever olive groves are grown. The olive fruit fly evolved to harbor a vertically transmitted and obligate bacterial symbiont -Candidatus Erwinia dacicola- leading thus to a tight evolutionary history between olive tree, fruit fly and obligate, vertical transmitted symbiotic bacterium. Considering this linkage, the genetic diversity (at a 16S fragment) of this obligate symbiont was added in the understanding of the distribution pattern of the holobiont at nine locations throughout four countries in the Mediterranean Basin. This was complemented with mitochondrial (four mtDNA fragments) and nuclear (ten microsatellites) data of the host. We focused on the previously established Iberian cluster for the B. oleae structure and hypothesised that the Tunisian samples would fall into a differentiated cluster. From the host point of view, we were unable to confirm this hypothesis. Looking at the symbiont, however, two new 16S haplotypes were found exclusively in the populations from Tunisia. This finding is discussed in the frame of host-symbiont specificity and transmission mode. To understand olive fruit fly population diversity and dispersion, the dynamics of the symbiont also needs to be taken into consideration, as it enables the fly to, so efficiently and uniquely, exploit the olive fruit resource.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Paix B, Potin P, Schires G, et al (2021)

Synergistic effects of temperature and light affect the relationship between Taonia atomaria and its epibacterial community: a controlled conditions study.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

In a context of global warming, this study aimed to assess the effect of temperature and irradiance on the macroalgal Taonia atomaria holobiont dynamics. We developed an experimental set up using aquaria supplied by natural seawater with three temperatures combined with three irradiances. The holobiont response was monitored over 14 days using a multi-omics approach coupling algal surface metabolomics and metabarcoding. Both temperature and irradiance appeared to shape the microbiota and the surface metabolome, but with a distinct temporality. Epibacterial community firstly changed according to temperature, and later in relation to irradiance, while the opposite occurred for the surface metabolome. An increased temperature revealed a decreasing richness of the epiphytic community together with an increase of several bacterial taxa. Irradiance changes appeared to quickly impact surface metabolites production linked with the algal host photosynthesis (e.g. mannitol, fucoxanthin, DMSP), which was hypothesized to explain modifications of the structure of the epiphytic community. Algal host may also directly adapt its surface metabolome to changing temperature with time (e.g. lipids content) but also in response to changing microbiota (e.g. chemical defenses). Finally, this study brought new insights highlighting complex direct and indirect responses of seaweeds and their associated microbiota under changing environments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Marasco R, Fusi M, Rolli E, et al (2021)

Aridity modulates belowground bacterial community dynamics in olive tree.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Aridity negatively affects the diversity and abundance of edaphic microbial communities and their multiple ecosystem services, ultimately impacting vegetation productivity and biotic interactions. Investigation about how plant-associated microbial communities respond to increasing aridity is of particular importance, especially in light of the global climate change predictions. To assess the effect of aridity on plant associated bacterial communities, we investigated the diversity and co-occurrence of bacteria associated with the bulk soil and the root system of olive trees cultivated in orchards located in higher, middle and lower arid regions of Tunisia. The results indicated that the selective process mediated by the plant root system is amplified with the increment of aridity, defining distinct bacterial communities, dominated by aridity-winner and aridity-loser bacteria negatively and positively correlate with increasing annual rainfall, respectively. Aridity regulated also the co-occurrence interactions among bacteria by determining specific modules enriched with one of the two categories (aridity-winners or aridity-losers), which included bacteria with multiple PGP functions against aridity. Our findings provide new insights into the process of bacterial assembly and interactions with the host plant in response to aridity, contributing to understand how the increasing aridity predicted by climate changes may affect the resilience of the plant holobiont. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Ahmed T, Noman M, Rizwan M, et al (2021)

Green molybdenum nanoparticles-mediated bio-stimulation of Bacillus sp. strain ZH16 improved the wheat growth by managing in planta nutrients supply, ionic homeostasis and arsenic accumulation.

Journal of hazardous materials, 423(Pt A):127024 pii:S0304-3894(21)01992-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The present work mechanistically addressed the problem of arsenic (As) contamination in agricultural soils by using locally isolated Bacillus sp. strain ZH16 and biogenic molybdenum nanoparticles (MoNPs) simultaneously for the first time. The interactions of MoNPs with strain ZH16 and ZH16-inoculated wheat plants were examined under As non-spiked and spiked conditions. The biogenic MoNPs showed efficient biocompatibility with strain ZH16 by promoting indole-3-acetic acid synthesis, phosphate solubilization and ACC deaminase activity without and with As stress. The results from greenhouse experiment revealed that co-application of biogenic MoNPs and bacterial strain ZH16 significantly promoted the morphological parameters, nutrients content and ionic balance of wheat plants under normal and As spiked conditions. Furthermore, combining the bacterial strain ZH16 with biogenic MoNPs dramatically reduced As translocation in plants (30.3%) as compared to ZH16-inoculated wheat plants. Conclusively, our results elucidate the importance of synergistic application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and biogenic MoNPs to counteract global food safety issues in a sustainable manner. The biogenic NPs could serve as stabilizing agent for PGPR by facilitating their colonization in plant holobiont regardless of environmental conditions. These novel advancements will provide new insights into nano-oriented PGPR research in the agricultural sector.

RevDate: 2021-09-04

Filek K, Trotta A, Gračan R, et al (2021)

Characterization of oral and cloacal microbial communities of wild and rehabilitated loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta).

Animal microbiome, 3(1):59.

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities of wild animals are being increasingly investigated to provide information about the hosts' biology and promote conservation. Loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) are a keystone species in marine ecosystems and are considered vulnerable in the IUCN Red List, which led to growing efforts in sea turtle conservation by rescue centers around the world. Understanding the microbial communities of sea turtles in the wild and how affected they are by captivity, is one of the stepping stones in improving the conservation efforts. Describing oral and cloacal microbiota of wild animals could shed light on the previously unknown aspects of sea turtle holobiont biology, ecology, and contribute to best practices for husbandry conditions.

RESULTS: We describe the oral and cloacal microbiota of Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles by 16S rRNA gene sequencing to compare the microbial communities of wild versus turtles in, or after, rehabilitation at the Adriatic Sea rescue centers and clinics. Our results show that the oral microbiota is more sensitive to environmental shifts than the cloacal microbiota, and that it does retain a portion of microbial taxa regardless of the shift from the wild and into rehabilitation. Additionally, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated oral and cloacal microbiota, while Kiritimatiellaeota were abundant in cloacal samples. Unclassified reads were abundant in the aforementioned groups, which indicates high incidence of yet undiscovered bacteria of the marine reptile microbial communities.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide the first insights into the oral microbial communities of wild and rehabilitated loggerhead sea turtles, and establish a framework for quick and non-invasive sampling of oral and cloacal microbial communities, useful for the expansion of the sample collection in wild loggerhead sea turtles. Finally, our investigation of effects of captivity on the gut-associated microbial community provides a baseline for studying the impact of husbandry conditions on turtles' health and survival upon their return to the wild.

RevDate: 2021-09-02

Meunier V, Geissler L, Bonnet S, et al (2021)

Microbes support enhanced nitrogen requirements of coral holobionts in a high CO2 environment.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Ocean acidification is posing a threat to calcifying organisms due to the increased energy requirements of calcification under high CO2 conditions. The ability of scleractinian corals to cope with future ocean conditions will thus depend on their ability to fulfill their carbon requirement. However, the primary productivity of coral holobionts is limited by low nitrogen (N) availability in coral reef waters. Here, we employed CO2 seeps of Tutum Bay (Papua New Guinea) as a natural laboratory to understand how coral holobionts offset their increased energy requirements under high CO2 conditions. Our results demonstrate for the first time that under high pCO2 conditions, N assimilation pathways of Pocillopora damicornis are jointly modified. We found that diazotroph-derived N assimilation rates in the Symbiodiniaceae were significantly higher in comparison to an ambient CO2 control site, concomitant with a restructured diazotroph community and the specific prevalence of an alpha-proteobacterium. Further, corals at the high CO2 site also had increased feeding rates on picoplankton and in particular exhibited selective feeding on Synechococcus sp., known to be rich in N. Given the high abundance of picoplankton in oligotrophic waters at large, our results suggest that corals exhibiting flexible diazotrophic communities and capable of exploiting N-rich picoplankton sources to offset their increased N requirements may be able to cope better in a high pCO2 world.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Kapun M, Nunez JCB, Bogaerts-Márquez M, et al (2021)

Drosophila Evolution over Space and Time (DEST) - A New Population Genomics Resource.

Molecular biology and evolution pii:6361628 [Epub ahead of print].

Drosophila melanogaster is a leading model in population genetics and genomics, and a growing number of whole-genome datasets from natural populations of this species have been published over the last years. A major challenge is the integration of disparate datasets, often generated using different sequencing technologies and bioinformatic pipelines, which hampers our ability to address questions about the evolution of this species. Here we address these issues by developing a bioinformatics pipeline that maps pooled sequencing (Pool-Seq) reads from D. melanogaster to a hologenome consisting of fly and symbiont genomes and estimates allele frequencies using either a heuristic (PoolSNP) or a probabilistic variant caller (SNAPE-pooled). We use this pipeline to generate the largest data repository of genomic data available for D. melanogaster to date, encompassing 271 previously published and unpublished population samples from over 100 locations in > 20 countries on four continents. Several of these locations have been sampled at different seasons across multiple years. This dataset, which we call Drosophila Evolution over Space and Time (DEST), is coupled with sampling and environmental meta-data. A web-based genome browser and web portal provide easy access to the SNP dataset. We further provide guidelines on how to use Pool-Seq data for model-based demographic inference. Our aim is to provide this scalable platform as a community resource which can be easily extended via future efforts for an even more extensive cosmopolitan dataset. Our resource will enable population geneticists to analyze spatio-temporal genetic patterns and evolutionary dynamics of D. melanogaster populations in unprecedented detail.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Wahdan SFM, Tanunchai B, Wu YT, et al (2021)

Deciphering Trifolium pratense L. holobiont reveals a microbiome resilient to future climate changes.

MicrobiologyOpen, 10(4):e1217.

The plant microbiome supports plant growth, fitness, and resistance against climate change. Trifolium pratense (red clover), an important forage legume crop, positively contributes to ecosystem sustainability. However, T. pratense is known to have limited adaptive ability toward climate change. Here, the T. pratense microbiomes (including both bacteria and fungi) of the rhizosphere and the root, shoot, and flower endospheres were comparatively examined using metabarcoding in a field located in Central Germany that mimics the climate conditions projected for the next 50-70 years in comparison with the current climate conditions. Additionally, the ecological functions and metabolic genes of the microbial communities colonizing each plant compartment were predicted using FUNGuild, FAPROTAX, and Tax4Fun annotation tools. Our results showed that the individual plant compartments were colonized by specific microbes. The bacterial and fungal community compositions of the belowground plant compartments did not vary under future climate conditions. However, future climate conditions slightly altered the relative abundances of specific fungal classes of the aboveground compartments. We predicted several microbial functional genes of the T. pratense microbiome involved in plant growth processes, such as biofertilization (nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, and siderophore biosynthesis) and biostimulation (phytohormone and auxin production). Our findings indicated that T. pratense microbiomes show a degree of resilience to future climate changes. Additionally, microbes inhabiting T. pratense may not only contribute to plant growth promotion but also to ecosystem sustainability.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Rumbou A, Vainio EJ, C Büttner (2021)

Towards the Forest Virome: High-Throughput Sequencing Drastically Expands Our Understanding on Virosphere in Temperate Forest Ecosystems.

Microorganisms, 9(8): pii:microorganisms9081730.

Thanks to the development of HTS technologies, a vast amount of genetic information on the virosphere of temperate forests has been gained in the last seven years. To estimate the qualitative/quantitative impact of HTS on forest virology, we have summarized viruses affecting major tree/shrub species and their fungal associates, including fungal plant pathogens, mutualists and saprotrophs. The contribution of HTS methods is extremely significant for forest virology. Reviewed data on viral presence in holobionts allowed us a first attempt to address the role of virome in holobionts. Forest health is dependent on the variability of microorganisms interacting with the host tree/holobiont; symbiotic microbiota and pathogens engage in a permanent interplay, which influences the host. Through virus-virus interplays synergistic or antagonistic relations may evolve, which may drastically affect the health of the holobiont. Novel insights of these interplays may allow practical applications for forest plant protection based on endophytes and mycovirus biocontrol agents. The current analysis is conceived in light of the prospect that novel viruses may initiate an emergent infectious disease and that measures for the avoidance of future outbreaks in forests should be considered.

RevDate: 2021-08-27

Malassigné S, Minard G, Vallon L, et al (2021)

Diversity and Functions of Yeast Communities Associated with Insects.

Microorganisms, 9(8): pii:microorganisms9081552.

Following the concept of the holobiont, insect-microbiota interactions play an important role in insect biology. Many examples of host-associated microorganisms have been reported to drastically influence insect biological processes such as development, physiology, nutrition, survival, immunity, or even vector competence. While a huge number of studies on insect-associated microbiota have focused on bacteria, other microbial partners including fungi have been comparatively neglected. Yeasts, which establish mostly commensal or symbiotic relationships with their host, can dominate the mycobiota of certain insects. This review presents key advances and progress in the research field highlighting the diversity of yeast communities associated with insects, as well as their impact on insect life-history traits, immunity, and behavior.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Motaung TE, ET Steenkamp (2021)

Extracellular Vesicles in Teasing Apart Complex Plant-Microbiota Links: Implications for Microbiome-Based Biotechnology.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are subcellular carriers of bioactive compounds with a complex array of functional effects on target cells. In mammals, circulating bodily fluid microbiota EVs (mbEVs) deliver cargo from source cells and adversely or favorably alter the physiology of the same source, neighboring, and distant recipient cells in an autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine fashion, respectively. Plant mbEVs may similarly mediate these interactive effects within the holobiont framework. However, the majority of plant EV research has focused on a small number of individual microbes, thus failing to reflect the importance of EVs in a community and consequently leaving a wide gap in scientific knowledge. Addressing this gap should entail a systems-level approach that combines vesicle characterization with microbiome analyses. This would certainly usher in a new age in microbial biotechnology entailing EVs as a microbiome manipulation strategy, a biomarker for stable microbiomes, and a diagnostic tool for plant infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Garg N (2021)

Metabolomics in Functional Interrogation of Individual Holobiont Members.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Eukaryotes and their environments serve as petri dishes, hosting an abundant and a rich prokaryotic microbiome. The assemblage of a eukaryotic host and its microbiome is referred to as a holobiont. The holobiont's microbiome interacts within itself, with the environment, and with the host at the chemical level through production of specialized metabolites resulting in homeostasis or dysbiosis. These interactions are triggered by a multitude of factors, such as community composition, age, presence of nutrients, xenobiotics, and change in physical conditions, such as temperature and oxygen. Understanding how holobionts respond and adapt to diverse triggers is necessary to uncover mechanisms of resilience or susceptibility to dysbiosis and to modulate the collective functioning of microbiome in health and disease. This article highlights the challenges associated with uncovering chemical contributions of individual holobiont members and the applicability of metabolomics-based approaches to uncover chemical signatures of microbial processes in the natural environment.

RevDate: 2021-08-24

Leite MFA, Dimitrov MR, Freitas-Iório RP, et al (2021)

Rearranging the sugarcane holobiont via plant growth-promoting bacteria and nitrogen input.

The Science of the total environment, 800:149493 pii:S0048-9697(21)04567-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The development and productivity of plants are governed by their genetic background, nutrient input, and the microbial communities they host, i.e. the holobiont. Accordingly, engineering beneficial root microbiomes has emerged as a novel and sustainable approach to crop production with reduced nutrient input. Here, we tested the effects of six bacterial strains isolated from sugarcane stalks on sugarcane growth and physiology as well as the dynamics of prokaryote community assembly in the rhizosphere and root endosphere under two N fertilization regimes. All six strains, Paraburkholderia caribensis IAC/BECa 88, Kosakonia oryzae IAC/BECa 90, Kosakonia radicincitans IAC/BECa 95, Paraburkholderia tropica IAC/BECa 135, Pseudomonas fluorescens IAC/BECa 141 and Herbaspirillum frisingense IAC/BECa 152, increased in shoot and root dry mass, and influenced the concentration and accumulation of important macro- and micronutrients. However, N input reduced the impact of inoculation by shifting the sugarcane microbiome (rhizosphere and root endosphere) and weakening the co-dependence between soil microbes and sugarcane biomass and nutrients. The results show that these beneficial microbes improved plant nutrient uptake conditioned to a reduced N nutrient input. Therefore, reduced fertilization is not only desirable consequence of bacterial inoculation but essential for higher impact of these beneficial bacteria on the sugarcane microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-08-19

Schapheer C, Pellens R, R Scherson (2021)

Arthropod-Microbiota Integration: Its Importance for Ecosystem Conservation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:702763.

Recent reports indicate that the health of our planet is getting worse and that genuine transformative changes are pressing. So far, efforts to ameliorate Earth's ecosystem crises have been insufficient, as these often depart from current knowledge of the underlying ecological processes. Nowadays, biodiversity loss and the alterations in biogeochemical cycles are reaching thresholds that put the survival of our species at risk. Biological interactions are fundamental for achieving biological conservation and restoration of ecological processes, especially those that contribute to nutrient cycles. Microorganism are recognized as key players in ecological interactions and nutrient cycling, both free-living and in symbiotic associations with multicellular organisms. This latter assemblage work as a functional ecological unit called "holobiont." Here, we review the emergent ecosystem properties derived from holobionts, with special emphasis on detritivorous terrestrial arthropods and their symbiotic microorganisms. We revisit their relevance in the cycling of recalcitrant organic compounds (e.g., lignin and cellulose). Finally, based on the interconnection between biodiversity and nutrient cycling, we propose that a multicellular organism and its associates constitute an Ecosystem Holobiont (EH). This EH is the functional unit characterized by carrying out key ecosystem processes. We emphasize that in order to meet the challenge to restore the health of our planet it is critical to reduce anthropic pressures that may threaten not only individual entities (known as "bionts") but also the stability of the associations that give rise to EH and their ecological functions.

RevDate: 2021-08-16

Kostygov AY, Alves JMP, V Yurchenko (2021)

Editorial: Symbioses Between Protists and Bacteria/Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:709184.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Ferreira V, Pavlaki MD, Martins R, et al (2021)

Effects of nanostructure antifouling biocides towards a coral species in the context of global changes.

The Science of the total environment, 799:149324 pii:S0048-9697(21)04397-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofouling prevention is one of the biggest challenges faced by the maritime industry, but antifouling agents commonly impact marine ecosystems. Advances in antifouling technology include the use of nanomaterials. Herein we test an antifouling nano-additive based on the encapsulation of the biocide 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) in engineered silica nanocontainers (SiNC). The work aims to assess the biochemical and physiological effects on the symbiotic coral Sarcophyton cf. glaucum caused by (1) thermal stress and (2) DCOIT exposure (free or nanoencapsulated forms), in a climate change scenario. Accordingly, the following hypotheses were addressed: (H1) ocean warming can cause toxicity on S. cf. glaucum; (H2) the nanoencapsulation process decreases DCOIT toxicity towards this species; (H3) the biocide toxicity, free or encapsulated forms, can be affected by ocean warming. Coral fragments were exposed for seven days to DCOIT in both free and encapsulated forms, SiNC and negative controls, under two water temperature regimes (26 °C and 30.5 °C). Coral polyp behavior and photosynthetic efficiency were determined in the holobiont, while biochemical markers were assessed individually in the endosymbiont and coral host. Results showed transient coral polyp retraction and diminished photosynthetic efficiency in the presence of heat stress or free DCOIT, with effects being magnified in the presence of both stressors. The activity of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were modulated by temperature in each partner of the symbiosis. The shifts in enzymatic activity were more pronounced in the presence of free DCOIT, but to a lower extent for encapsulated DCOIT. Increased levels of oxidative damage were detected under heat conditions. The findings highlight the physiological constrains elicited by the increase of seawater temperature to symbiotic corals and demonstrate that DCOIT toxicity can be minimized through encapsulation in SiNC. The presence of both stressors magnifies toxicity and confirm that ocean warming enhances the vulnerability of tropical photosynthetic corals to local stressors.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Schneider T (2021)

The holobiont self: understanding immunity in context.

History and philosophy of the life sciences, 43(3):99.

Both concepts of the holobiont and the immune system are at the heart of an ongoing scientific and philosophical examination concerning questions of the organism's individuality and identity as well as the relations between organisms and their environment. Examining the holobiont, the question of boundaries and individuality is challenging because it is both an assemblage of organisms with physiological cohesive aspects. I discuss the concept of immunity and the immune system function from the holobiont perspective. Because of the host-microbial close relations of codependence and interdependence, the holobiont is more often than not confused with the host, as the host is the domain in which this entity exists. I discuss the holobiont unique ecological characteristics of microbial assemblages connected to a host in a network of interactions in which the host is one of the organisms in the community but also its landscape. Therefore, I suggest viewing the holobiont as a host-ecosystem and discuss the implication of such a view on the concept of immunity and the meaning of protection. Furthermore, I show that viewing the holobiont as a host ecosystem opens the possibility of using the same ecological definition of boundaries and immunity dealing with an ecological system. Thus, the holobiont's boundaries and immunity are defined by the persistence of its complex system of interactions integrating existing and new interactions. This way of thinking presents a notion of immunity that materializes as the result of the complex interdependence relations between the different organisms composing the holobiont similar to that of an ecosystem. Taking this view further, I discuss the notion of immunogenicity that is ontologically heterogeneous with various causal explanations of the processes of tolerance and targeted immune response. Finally, I discuss the possible conceptualization of already existing and new biomedical practices.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Legüe M, Aguila B, A Calixto (2021)

Interspecies RNA Interactome of Pathogen and Host in a Heritable Defensive Strategy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:649858.

Communication with bacteria deeply impacts the life history traits of their hosts. Through specific molecules and metabolites, bacteria can promote short- and long-term phenotypic and behavioral changes in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The chronic exposure of C. elegans to pathogens promotes the adaptive behavior in the host's progeny called pathogen-induced diapause formation (PIDF). PIDF is a pathogen avoidance strategy induced in the second generation of animals infected and can be recalled transgenerationally. This behavior requires the RNA interference machinery and specific nematode and bacteria small RNAs (sRNAs). In this work, we assume that RNAs from both species co-exist and can interact with each other. Under this principle, we explore the potential interspecies RNA interactions during PIDF-triggering conditions, using transcriptomic data from the holobiont. We study two transcriptomics datasets: first, the dual sRNA expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and C. elegans in a transgenerational paradigm for six generations and second, the simultaneous expression of sRNAs and mRNA in intergenerational PIDF. We focus on those bacterial sRNAs that are systematically overexpressed in the intestines of animals compared with sRNAs expressed in host-naïve bacteria. We selected diverse in silico methods that represent putative mechanisms of RNA-mediated interspecies interaction. These interactions are as follows: heterologous perfect and incomplete pairing between bacterial RNA and host mRNA; sRNAs of similar sequence expressed in both species that could mimic each other; and known or predicted eukaryotic motifs present in bacterial transcripts. We conclude that a broad spectrum of tools can be applied for the identification of potential sRNA and mRNA targets of the interspecies RNA interaction that can be subsequently tested experimentally.

RevDate: 2021-08-07

Barra Caracciolo A, V Terenzi (2021)

Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Heavy Metals.

Microorganisms, 9(7): pii:microorganisms9071462.

The rhizosphere is a microhabitat where there is an intense chemical dialogue between plants and microorganisms. The two coexist and develop synergistic actions, which can promote plants' functions and productivity, but also their capacity to respond to stress conditions, including heavy metal (HM) contamination. If HMs are present in soils used for agriculture, there is a risk of metal uptake by edible plants with subsequent bioaccumulation in humans and animals and detrimental consequences for their health. Plant productivity can also be negatively affected. Many bacteria have defensive mechanisms for resisting heavy metals and, through various complex processes, can improve plant response to HM stress. Bacteria-plant synergic interactions in the rhizosphere, as a homeostatic ecosystem response to HM disturbance, are common in soil. However, this is hard to achieve in agroecosystems managed with traditional practices, because concentrating on maximizing crop yield does not make it possible to establish rhizosphere interactions. Improving knowledge of the complex interactions mediated by plant exudates and secondary metabolites can lead to nature-based solutions for plant health in HM contaminated soils. This paper reports the main ecotoxicological effects of HMs and the various compounds (including several secondary metabolites) produced by plant-microorganism holobionts for removing, immobilizing and containing toxic elements.

RevDate: 2021-08-06

Herrera M, Liew YJ, Venn A, et al (2021)

New Insights From Transcriptomic Data Reveal Differential Effects of CO2 Acidification Stress on Photosynthesis of an Endosymbiotic Dinoflagellate in hospite.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:666510.

Ocean acidification (OA) has both detrimental as well as beneficial effects on marine life; it negatively affects calcifiers while enhancing the productivity of photosynthetic organisms. To date, many studies have focused on the impacts of OA on calcification in reef-building corals, a process particularly susceptible to acidification. However, little is known about the effects of OA on their photosynthetic algal partners, with some studies suggesting potential benefits for symbiont productivity. Here, we investigated the transcriptomic response of the endosymbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467) in the Red Sea coral Stylophora pistillata subjected to different long-term (2 years) OA treatments (pH 8.0, 7.8, 7.4, 7.2). Transcriptomic analyses revealed that symbionts from corals under lower pH treatments responded to acidification by increasing the expression of genes related to photosynthesis and carbon-concentrating mechanisms. These processes were mostly up-regulated and associated metabolic pathways were significantly enriched, suggesting an overall positive effect of OA on the expression of photosynthesis-related genes. To test this conclusion on a physiological level, we analyzed the symbiont's photochemical performance across treatments. However, in contrast to the beneficial effects suggested by the observed gene expression changes, we found significant impairment of photosynthesis with increasing pCO2. Collectively, our data suggest that over-expression of photosynthesis-related genes is not a beneficial effect of OA but rather an acclimation response of the holobiont to different water chemistries. Our study highlights the complex effects of ocean acidification on these symbiotic organisms and the role of the host in determining symbiont productivity and performance.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Voolstra CR, Valenzuela JJ, Turkarslan S, et al (2021)

Contrasting heat stress response patterns of coral holobionts across the Red Sea suggest distinct mechanisms of thermal tolerance.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Corals from the northern Red Sea, in particular the Gulf of Aqaba (GoA), have exceptionally high bleaching thresholds approaching >5℃ above their maximum monthly mean (MMM) temperatures. These elevated thresholds are thought to be due to historical selection, as corals passed through the warmer Southern Red Sea during recolonization from the Arabian Sea. To test this hypothesis, we determined thermal tolerance thresholds of GoA versus central Red Sea (CRS) Stylophora pistillata corals using multi-temperature acute thermal stress assays to determine thermal thresholds. Relative thermal thresholds of GoA and CRS corals were indeed similar and exceptionally high (~7℃ above MMM). However, absolute thermal thresholds of CRS corals were on average 3℃ above those of GoA corals. To explore the molecular underpinnings, we determined gene expression and microbiome response of the coral holobiont. Transcriptomic responses differed markedly, with a strong response to the thermal stress in GoA corals and their symbiotic algae versus a remarkably muted response in CRS colonies. Concomitant to this, coral and algal genes showed temperature-induced expression in GoA corals, while exhibiting fixed high expression (front-loading) in CRS corals. Bacterial community composition of GoA corals changed dramatically under heat stress, whereas CRS corals displayed stable assemblages. We interpret the response of GoA corals as that of a resilient population approaching a tipping point in contrast to a pattern of consistently elevated thermal resistance in CRS corals that cannot further attune. Such response differences suggest distinct thermal tolerance mechanisms that may affect the response of coral populations to ocean warming.

RevDate: 2021-07-31

Haydon TD, Suggett DJ, Siboni N, et al (2021)

Temporal Variation in the Microbiome of Tropical and Temperate Octocorals.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial members of the coral holobiont play an important role in determining coral fitness. However, most knowledge of the coral microbiome has come from reef-building scleractinian corals, with far less known about the nature and importance of the microbiome of octocorals (subclass Octocorallia), which contribute significantly to reef biodiversity and functional complexity. We examined the diversity and structure of the bacterial component of octocoral microbiomes over summer and winter, with a focus on two temperate (Erythropodium hicksoni, Capnella gaboensis; Sydney Harbour) and two tropical (Sinularia sp., Sarcophyton sp.; Heron Island) species common to reefs in eastern Australia. Bacterial communities associated with these octocorals were also compared to common temperate (Plesiastrea versipora) and tropical (Acropora aspera) hard corals from the same reefs. Using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing, bacterial diversity was found to be heterogeneous among octocorals, but we observed changes in composition between summer and winter for some species (C. gaboensis and Sinularia sp.), but not for others (E. hicksoni and Sarcophyton sp.). Bacterial community structure differed significantly between all octocoral species within both the temperate and tropical environments. However, on a seasonal basis, those differences were less pronounced. The microbiomes of C. gaboensis and Sinularia sp. were dominated by bacteria belonging to the genus Endozoicomonas, which were a key conserved feature of their core microbiomes. In contrast to previous studies, our analysis revealed that Endozoicomonas phylotypes are shared across different octocoral species, inhabiting different environments. Together, our data demonstrates that octocorals harbour a broad diversity of bacterial partners, some of which comprise 'core microbiomes' that potentially impart important functional roles to their hosts.

RevDate: 2021-07-31

Gaete A, Pulgar R, Hodar C, et al (2021)

Tomato Cultivars With Variable Tolerances to Water Deficit Differentially Modulate the Composition and Interaction Patterns of Their Rhizosphere Microbial Communities.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:688533.

Since drought is the leading environmental factor limiting crop productivity, and plants have a significant impact in defining the assembly of plant-specific microbial communities associated with roots, we aimed to determine the effect of thoroughly selected water deficit tolerant and susceptible Solanum lycopersicum cultivars on their rhizosphere microbiome and compared their response with plant-free soil microbial communities. We identified a total of 4,248 bacterial and 276 fungal different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in soils by massive sequencing. We observed that tomato cultivars significantly affected the alpha and beta diversity of their bacterial rhizosphere communities but not their fungal communities compared with bulk soils (BSs), showing a plant effect exclusively on the bacterial soil community. Also, an increase in alpha diversity in response to water deficit of both bacteria and fungi was observed in the susceptible rhizosphere (SRz) but not in the tolerant rhizosphere (TRz) cultivar, implying a buffering effect of the tolerant cultivar on its rhizosphere microbial communities. Even though water deficit did not affect the microbial diversity of the tolerant cultivar, the interaction network analysis revealed that the TRz microbiota displayed the smallest and least complex soil network in response to water deficit with the least number of connected components, nodes, and edges. This reduction of the TRz network also correlated with a more efficient community, reflected in increased cooperation within kingdoms. Furthermore, we identified some specific bacteria and fungi in the TRz in response to water deficit, which, given that they belong to taxa with known beneficial characteristics for plants, could be contributing to the tolerant phenotype, highlighting the metabolic bidirectionality of the holobiont system. Future assays involving characterization of root exudates and exchange of rhizospheres between drought-tolerant and susceptible cultivars could determine the effect of specific metabolites on the microbiome community and may elucidate their functional contribution to the tolerance of plants to water deficit.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Kaur J, J Sharma (2021)

Orchid Root Associated Bacteria: Linchpins or Accessories?.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:661966.

Besides the plant-fungus symbiosis in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM) plants, many endorhizal and rhizosphere bacteria (Root Associated Bacteria, or RAB) also enhance plant fitness, diversity, and coexistence among plants via bi- or tripartite interactions with plant hosts and mycorrhizal fungi. Assuming that bacterial associations are just as important for the obligate mycorrhizal plant family Orchidaceae, surprisingly little is known about the RAB associated with orchids. Herein, we first present the current, underwhelming state of RAB research including their interactions with fungi and the influence of holobionts on plant fitness. We then delineate the need for novel investigations specifically in orchid RAB ecology, and sketch out questions and hypotheses which, when addressed, will advance plant-microbial ecology. We specifically discuss the potential effects of beneficial RAB on orchids as: (1) Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), (2) Mycorrhization Helper Bacteria (MHB), and (3) constituents of an orchid holobiont. We further posit that a hologenomic view should be considered as a framework for addressing co-evolution of the plant host, their obligate Orchid Mycorrhizal Fungi (OMF), and orchid RAB. We conclude by discussing implications of the suggested research for conservation of orchids, their microbial partners, and their collective habitats.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Bednarz VN, van de Water JAJM, Grover R, et al (2021)

Unravelling the Importance of Diazotrophy in Corals - Combined Assessment of Nitrogen Assimilation, Diazotrophic Community and Natural Stable Isotope Signatures.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:631244.

There is an increasing interest in understanding the structure and function of the microbiota associated with marine and terrestrial organisms, because it can play a major role in host nutrition and resistance to environmental stress. Reef-building corals live in association with diazotrophs, which are microbes able to fix dinitrogen. Corals are known to assimilate diazotrophically-derived nitrogen (DDN), but it is still not clear whether this nitrogen source is derived from coral-associated diazotrophs and whether it substantially contributes to the coral's nitrogen budget. In this study, we aimed to provide a better understanding of the importance of DDN for corals using a holistic approach by simultaneously assessing DDN assimilation rates (using 15N2 tracer technique), the diazotrophic bacterial community (using nifH gene amplicon sequencing) and the natural δ15N signature in Stylophora pistillata corals from the Northern Red Sea along a depth gradient in winter and summer. Overall, our results show a discrepancy between the three parameters. DDN was assimilated by the coral holobiont during winter only, with an increased assimilation with depth. Assimilation rates were, however, not linked to the presence of coral-associated diazotrophs, suggesting that the presence of nifH genes does not necessarily imply functionality. It also suggests that DDN assimilation was independent from coral-associated diazotrophs and may instead result from nitrogen derived from planktonic diazotrophs. In addition, the δ15N signature presented negative values in almost all coral samples in both seasons, suggesting that nitrogen sources other than DDN contribute to the nitrogen budget of corals from this region. This study yields novel insight into the origin and importance of diazotrophy for scleractinian corals from the Northern Red Sea using multiple proxies.

RevDate: 2021-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Paglia L (2021)

From native core micriobiome to milk-oriented microbiome.

European journal of paediatric dentistry, 22(2):89.

The human microbiome is the full set of microorganisms (microbiota) present on and in our body. Its importance is such that the human being has been defined as a holobiont, that is, a superorganism made up of human eukaryotic cells and microbial cells. A balanced microbiota (eubiosis) is a prerequisite for health and well-being; on the contrary, an altered microbiota (dysbiosis) is the cause of pathological conditions. This concept is the cornerstone of the "microbiota revolution": Currently there is no disease that cannot be re- interpreted as a function of microbiome. While all human beings have similar DNA, it is the microbiome that make every person genetically unique; therefore the microbiome is the variable component of the genome which characterises each one of us. About one third of the microbiome is common to all individuals, while two thirds are specific to each subject and constitute a sort of fingerprint that forms and stabilises in the first 2-3 years of life. This timeframe is extremely important since it has been shown that the structure of the microbiome is already acquired in the embryonic-fetal period, it is completed within 3 years and lasts a lifetime. The native core microbiome is the first microbiota and characterises individuals for their whole life. It is affected by four main variables: The quality of family and social life of the mother-to-be, the intake of drugs during pregnancy, as well as the type of birth and breastfeeding. It is renowned that breast milk is a complex, unique and essential food for the growth of the child, but one of its functions - which is still under investigation today - is to feed and guide the formation of the microbiome of the newborn even after the introduction of solid foods, during the first 3 years of life. This function is carried out by the over one hundred different types of oligosaccharides that are present in breast milk, which is why these days we talk about the so-called MOM (milk-oriented microbiome). The correct formation of the microbiome affects the entire life of an individual. This is a more than valid reason to promote breastfeeding even after eruption of baby teeth and throughout the weaning period. The role of pediatric dentists, together with hygienists and pediatricians, is to spread and stress out the importance of oral hygiene so that breastfeeding can only bring benefits and not carious lesions!

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Thompson HF, T Gutierrez (2021)

Detection of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria on deepwater corals of the northeast Atlantic using CARD-FISH.

Journal of microbiological methods, 187:106277.

Recently, studies have begun to identify oil-degrading bacteria and host-taxon specific bacterial assemblages associated with the coral holobiont, including deep-sea cold-water corals, which are thought to provide metabolic functions and additional carbon sources to their coral hosts. Here, we describe the identification of Marinobacter on the soft tissue of Lophelia pertusa coral polyps by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH). L. pertusa samples from three reef sites in the northeast Atlantic (Logachev, Mingulay and Pisces) were collected at depth by vacuum seal to eliminate contamination issues. After decalcification, histological processing and sagittal sectioning of the soft coral polyp tissues, the 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide HRP-labelled probe Mrb-0625-a, and Cyanine 3 (Cy3)-labelled tyramides, were used to identify members of the hydrocarbon-degrading genus Marinobacter. Mrb-0625-a-hybridized bacterial cell signals were detected in different anatomical sites of all polyps collected from each of the three reef sites, suggesting a close, possibly intimate, association between them, but the purpose of which remains unknown. We posit that Marinobacter, and possibly other hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria associated with Lophelia, may confer the coral with the ability to cope with toxic levels of hydrocarbons in regions of natural oil seepage and where there is an active oil and gas industry presence.

RevDate: 2021-07-21

Glaze TD, Erler DV, HMP Siljanen (2021)

Microbially facilitated nitrogen cycling in tropical corals.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Tropical scleractinian corals support a diverse assemblage of microbial symbionts. This 'microbiome' possesses the requisite functional diversity to conduct a range of nitrogen (N) transformations including denitrification, nitrification, nitrogen fixation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). Very little direct evidence has been presented to date verifying that these processes are active within tropical corals. Here we use a combination of stable isotope techniques, nutrient uptake calculations and captured metagenomics to quantify rates of nitrogen cycling processes in a selection of tropical scleractinian corals. Denitrification activity was detected in all species, albeit with very low rates, signifying limited importance in holobiont N removal. Relatively greater nitrogen fixation activity confirms that corals are net N importers to reef systems. Low net nitrification activity suggests limited N regeneration capacity; however substantial gross nitrification activity may be concealed through nitrate consumption. Based on nrfA gene abundance and measured inorganic N fluxes, we calculated significant DNRA activity in the studied corals, which has important implications for coral reef N cycling and warrants more targeted investigation. Through the quantification and characterisation of all relevant N-cycling processes, this study provides clarity on the subject of tropical coral-associated biogeochemical N-cycling.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Schmittmann L, Franzenburg S, L Pita (2021)

Individuality in the Immune Repertoire and Induced Response of the Sponge Halichondria panicea.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:689051.

The animal immune system mediates host-microbe interactions from the host perspective. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and the downstream signaling cascades they induce are a central part of animal innate immunity. These molecular immune mechanisms are still not fully understood, particularly in terms of baseline immunity vs induced specific responses regulated upon microbial signals. Early-divergent phyla like sponges (Porifera) can help to identify the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of immune signaling. We characterized both the expressed immune gene repertoire and the induced response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in Halichondria panicea, a promising model for sponge symbioses. We exposed sponges under controlled experimental conditions to bacterial LPS and performed RNA-seq on samples taken 1h and 6h after exposure. H. panicea possesses a diverse array of putative PRRs. While part of those PRRs was constitutively expressed in all analyzed sponges, the majority was expressed individual-specific and regardless of LPS treatment or timepoint. The induced immune response by LPS involved differential regulation of genes related to signaling and recognition, more specifically GTPases and post-translational regulation mechanisms like ubiquitination and phosphorylation. We have discovered individuality in both the immune receptor repertoire and the response to LPS, which may translate into holobiont fitness and susceptibility to stress. The three different layers of immune gene control observed in this study, - namely constitutive expression, individual-specific expression, and induced genes -, draw a complex picture of the innate immune gene regulation in H. panicea. Most likely this reflects synergistic interactions among the different components of immunity in their role to control and respond to a stable microbiome, seawater bacteria, and potential pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-07-04

Posadas N, Baquiran JIP, Nada MAL, et al (2021)

Microbiome diversity and host immune functions influence survivorship of sponge holobionts under future ocean conditions.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

The sponge-associated microbial community contributes to the overall health and adaptive capacity of the sponge holobiont. This community is regulated by the environment and the immune system of the host. However, little is known about the effect of environmental stress on the regulation of host immune functions and how this may, in turn, affect sponge-microbe interactions. In this study, we compared the bacterial diversity and immune repertoire of the demosponge, Neopetrosia compacta, and the calcareous sponge, Leucetta chagosensis, under varying levels of acidification and warming stress based on climate scenarios predicted for 2100. Neopetrosia compacta harbors a diverse microbial community and possesses a rich repertoire of scavenger receptors while L. chagosensis has a less diverse microbiome and an expanded range of pattern recognition receptors and immune response-related genes. Upon exposure to RCP 8.5 conditions, the microbiome composition and host transcriptome of N. compacta remained stable, which correlated with high survival (75%). In contrast, tissue necrosis and low survival (25%) of L. chagosensis was accompanied by microbial community shifts and downregulation of host immune-related pathways. Meta-analysis of microbiome diversity and immunological repertoire across poriferan classes further highlights the importance of host-microbe interactions in predicting the fate of sponges under future ocean conditions.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Van Gerrewey T, El-Nakhel C, De Pascale S, et al (2021)

Root-Associated Bacterial Community Shifts in Hydroponic Lettuce Cultured with Urine-Derived Fertilizer.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Recovery of nutrients from source-separated urine can truncate our dependency on synthetic fertilizers, contributing to more sustainable food production. Urine-derived fertilizers have been successfully applied in soilless cultures. However, little is known about the adaptation of the plant to the nutrient environment. This study investigated the impact of urine-derived fertilizers on plant performance and the root-associated bacterial community of hydroponically grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Shoot biomass, chlorophyll, phenolic, antioxidant, and mineral content were associated with shifts in the root-associated bacterial community structures. K-struvite, a high-performing urine-derived fertilizer, supported root-associated bacterial communities that overlapped most strongly with control NPK fertilizer. Contrarily, lettuce performed poorly with electrodialysis (ED) concentrate and hydrolyzed urine and hosted distinct root-associated bacterial communities. Comparing the identified operational taxonomic units (OTU) across the fertilizer conditions revealed strong correlations between specific bacterial genera and the plant physiological characteristics, salinity, and NO3-/NH4+ ratio. The root-associated bacterial community networks of K-struvite and NPK control fertilized plants displayed fewer nodes and node edges, suggesting that good plant growth performance does not require highly complex ecological interactions in hydroponic growth conditions.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Bona E, Massa N, Toumatia O, et al (2021)

Climatic Zone and Soil Properties Determine the Biodiversity of the Soil Bacterial Communities Associated to Native Plants from Desert Areas of North-Central Algeria.

Microorganisms, 9(7):.

Algeria is the largest country in Africa characterized by semi-arid and arid sites, located in the North, and hypersaline zones in the center and South of the country. Several autochthonous plants are well known as medicinal plants, having in common tolerance to aridity, drought and salinity. In their natural environment, they live with a great amount of microbial species that altogether are indicated as plant microbiota, while the plants are now viewed as a "holobiont". In this work, the microbiota of the soil associated to the roots of fourteen economically relevant autochthonous plants from Algeria have been characterized by an innovative metagenomic approach with a dual purpose: (i) to deepen the knowledge of the arid and semi-arid environment and (ii) to characterize the composition of bacterial communities associated with indigenous plants with a strong economic/commercial interest, in order to make possible the improvement of their cultivation. The results presented in this work highlighted specific signatures which are mainly determined by climatic zone and soil properties more than by the plant species.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Fetsiukh A, Conrad J, Bergquist J, et al (2021)

Silica Particles Trigger the Exopolysaccharide Production of Harsh Environment Isolates of Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria and Increase Their Ability to Enhance Wheat Biomass in Drought-Stressed Soils.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(12):.

In coming decades, drought is expected to expand globally owing to increased evaporation and reduced rainfall. Understanding, predicting, and controlling crop plants' rhizosphere has the potential to manipulate its responses to environmental stress. Our plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are isolated from a natural laboratory, 'The Evolution Canyon', Israel, (EC), from the wild progenitors of cereals, where they have been co-habituating with their hosts for long periods of time. The study revealed that commercial TM50 silica particles (SN) triggered the PGPR production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) containing D-glucuronate (D-GA). The increased EPS content increased the PGPR water-holding capacity (WHC) and osmotic pressure of the biofilm matrix, which led to enhanced plant biomass in drought-stressed growth environments. Light- and cryo-electron- microscopic studies showed that, in the presence of silica (SN) particles, bacterial morphology is changed, indicating that SNs are associated with significant reprogramming in bacteria. The findings encourage the development of large-scale methods for isolate formulation with natural silicas that ensure higher WHC and hyperosmolarity under field conditions. Osmotic pressure involvement of holobiont cohabitation is also discussed.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Mkaouar H, Mariaule V, Rhimi S, et al (2021)

Gut Serpinome: Emerging Evidence in IBD.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(11):.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are incurable disorders whose prevalence and global socioeconomic impact are increasing. While the role of host genetics and immunity is well documented, that of gut microbiota dysbiosis is increasingly being studied. However, the molecular basis of the dialogue between the gut microbiota and the host remains poorly understood. Increased activity of serine proteases is demonstrated in IBD patients and may contribute to the onset and the maintenance of the disease. The intestinal proteolytic balance is the result of an equilibrium between the proteases and their corresponding inhibitors. Interestingly, the serine protease inhibitors (serpins) encoded by the host are well reported; in contrast, those from the gut microbiota remain poorly studied. In this review, we provide a concise analysis of the roles of serine protease in IBD physiopathology and we focus on the serpins from the gut microbiota (gut serpinome) and their relevance as a promising therapeutic approach.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Salsbery ME, JP DeLong (2021)

Thermal adaptation in a holobiont accompanied by phenotypic changes in an endosymbiont.

Evolution; international journal of organic evolution [Epub ahead of print].

How and if organisms can adapt to changing temperatures has drastic consequences for the natural world. Thermal adaptation involves finding a match between temperatures permitting growth and the expected temperature distribution of the environment. However, if and how this match is achieved, and how tightly linked species change together, is poorly understood. Paramecium bursaria is a ciliate that has a tight physiological interaction with endosymbiotic green algae (zoochlorellae). We subjected a wild population of P. bursaria to a cold and warm climate (20 and 32℃) for ∼300 generations. We then measured the thermal performance curve (TPC) for intrinsic rate of growth (rmax) for these evolved lines across temperatures. We also evaluated number and size of the zoochlorellae populations within paramecia cells. TPCs for warm-adapted populations were shallower and broader than TPCs of cold-adapted populations, indicating that the warm populations adapted by moving along a thermal generalist/specialist trade off rather than right-shifting the TPC. Zoochlorellae populations within cold-adapted paramecia had fewer and larger zoochlorellae than hot-adapted paramecia, indicating phenotypic shifts in the endosymbiont accompany thermal adaptation in the host. Our results provide new and novel insight into how species involved in complex interactions will be affected by continuing increasing global temperatures.

RevDate: 2021-07-12
CmpDate: 2021-07-12

Ingham AC, Kielsen K, Mordhorst H, et al (2021)

Microbiota long-term dynamics and prediction of acute graft-versus-host disease in pediatric allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

Microbiome, 9(1):148.

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) exhibit changes in their gut microbiota and are experiencing a range of complications, including acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). It is unknown if, when, and under which conditions a re-establishment of microbial and immunological homeostasis occurs. It is also unclear whether microbiota long-term dynamics occur at other body sites than the gut such as the mouth or nose. Moreover, it is not known whether the patients' microbiota prior to HSCT holds clues to whether the patient would suffer from severe complications subsequent to HSCT. Here, we take a holobiont perspective and performed an integrated host-microbiota analysis of the gut, oral, and nasal microbiota in 29 children undergoing allo-HSCT.

RESULTS: The bacterial diversity decreased in the gut, nose, and mouth during the first month and reconstituted again 1-3 months after allo-HSCT. The microbial community composition traversed three phases over 1 year. Distinct taxa discriminated the microbiota temporally at all three body sides, including Enterococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Blautia spp. in the gut. Of note, certain microbial taxa appeared already changed in the patients prior to allo-HSCT as compared with healthy children. Acute GvHD occurring after allo-HSCT could be predicted from the microbiota composition at all three body sites prior to HSCT. The reconstitution of CD4+ T cells, TH17, and B cells was associated with distinct taxa of the gut, oral, and nasal microbiota.

CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals for the first time bacteria in the mouth and nose that may predict aGvHD. Monitoring of the microbiota at different body sites in HSCT patients and particularly through involvement of samples prior to transplantation may be of prognostic value and could assist in guiding personalized treatment strategies. The identification of distinct bacteria that have a potential to predict post-transplant aGvHD might provide opportunities for an improved preventive clinical management, including a modulation of microbiomes. The host-microbiota associations shared between several body sites might also support an implementation of more feasible oral and nasal swab sampling-based analyses. Altogether, the findings suggest that the microbiota and host factors together could provide actionable information to guiding precision medicine. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Capistrant-Fossa KA, Morrison HG, Engelen AH, et al (2021)

The microbiome of the habitat-forming brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) has similar cross-Atlantic structure that reflects past and present drivers1.

Journal of phycology [Epub ahead of print].

Latitudinal diversity gradients have provided many insights into species differentiation and community processes. In the well-studied intertidal zone, however, little is known about latitudinal diversity in microbiomes associated with habitat-forming hosts. We investigated microbiomes of Fucus vesiculosus because of deep understanding of this model system and its latitudinally large, cross-Atlantic range. Given multiple effects of photoperiod, we predicted that cross-Atlantic microbiomes of the Fucus microbiome would be similar at similar latitudes and correlate with environmental factors. We found that community structure and individual amplicon sequencing variants (ASVs) showed distinctive latitudinal distributions, but alpha diversity did not. Latitudinal differentiation was mostly driven by ASVs that were more abundant in cold temperate to subarctic (e.g., Granulosicoccus_t3260, Burkholderia/Caballeronia/Paraburkholderia_t8371) or warm temperate (Pleurocapsa_t10392) latitudes. Their latitudinal distributions correlated with different humidity, tidal heights, and air/sea temperatures, but rarely with irradiance or photoperiod. Many ASVs in potentially symbiotic genera displayed novel phylogenetic biodiversity with differential distributions among tissues and regions, including closely related ASVs with differing north-south distributions that correlated with Fucus phylogeography. An apparent southern range contraction of F. vesiculosus in the NW Atlantic on the North Carolina coast mimics that recently observed in the NE Atlantic. We suggest cross-Atlantic microbial structure of F. vesiculosus is related to a combination of past (glacial-cycle) and contemporary environmental drivers.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Dellisanti W, Chung JTH, Chow CFY, et al (2021)

Experimental Techniques to Assess Coral Physiology in situ Under Global and Local Stressors: Current Approaches and Novel Insights.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:656562.

Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to global changes in the marine environment. The increasing frequency of massive bleaching events in the tropics is highlighting the need to better understand the stages of coral physiological responses to extreme conditions. Moreover, like many other coastal regions, coral reef ecosystems are facing additional localized anthropogenic stressors such as nutrient loading, increased turbidity, and coastal development. Different strategies have been developed to measure the health status of a damaged reef, ranging from the resolution of individual polyps to the entire coral community, but techniques for measuring coral physiology in situ are not yet widely implemented. For instance, while there are many studies of the coral holobiont response in single or limited-number multiple stressor experiments, they provide only partial insights into metabolic performance under more complex and temporally and spatially variable natural conditions. Here, we discuss the current status of coral reefs and their global and local stressors in the context of experimental techniques that measure core processes in coral metabolism (respiration, photosynthesis, and biocalcification) in situ, and their role in indicating the health status of colonies and communities. We highlight the need to improve the capability of in situ studies in order to better understand the resilience and stress response of corals under multiple global and local scale stressors.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Campana S, Busch K, Hentschel U, et al (2021)

DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) identifies marine sponge-associated bacteria actively utilizing dissolved organic matter (DOM).

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Sponges possess exceptionally diverse associated microbial communities and play a major role in (re)cycling of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in marine ecosystems. Linking sponge-associated community structure with DOM utilization is essential to understand host-microbe interactions in the uptake, processing, and exchange of resources. We coupled, for the first time, DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in a sponge holobiont to identify which symbiotic bacterial taxa are metabolically active in DOM uptake. Parallel incubation experiments with the sponge Plakortis angulospiculatus were amended with equimolar quantities of unlabelled (12 C) and labelled (13 C) DOM. Seven bacterial amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), belonging to the phyla PAUC34f, Proteobacteria, Poribacteria, Nitrospirae, and Chloroflexi, were identified as the first active consumers of DOM. Our results support the predictions that PAUC34f, Poribacteria, and Chloroflexi are capable of organic matter degradation through heterotrophic carbon metabolism, while Nitrospirae may have a potential mixotrophic metabolism. We present a new analytical application of DNA-SIP to detect substrate incorporation into a marine holobiont with a complex associated bacterial community and provide new experimental evidence that links the identity of diverse sponge-associated bacteria to the consumption of DOM.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Sweet M, Villela H, Keller-Costa T, et al (2021)

Insights into the Cultured Bacterial Fraction of Corals.

mSystems, 6(3):e0124920.

Bacteria associated with coral hosts are diverse and abundant, with recent studies suggesting involvement of these symbionts in host resilience to anthropogenic stress. Despite their putative importance, the work dedicated to culturing coral-associated bacteria has received little attention. Combining published and unpublished data, here we report a comprehensive overview of the diversity and function of culturable bacteria isolated from corals originating from tropical, temperate, and cold-water habitats. A total of 3,055 isolates from 52 studies were considered by our metasurvey. Of these, 1,045 had full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, spanning 138 formally described and 12 putatively novel bacterial genera across the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria phyla. We performed comparative genomic analysis using the available genomes of 74 strains and identified potential signatures of beneficial bacterium-coral symbioses among the strains. Our analysis revealed >400 biosynthetic gene clusters that underlie the biosynthesis of antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and other secondary metabolites. Moreover, we uncovered genomic features-not previously described for coral-bacterium symbioses-potentially involved in host colonization and host-symbiont recognition, antiviral defense mechanisms, and/or integrated metabolic interactions, which we suggest as novel targets for the screening of coral probiotics. Our results highlight the importance of bacterial cultures to elucidate coral holobiont functioning and guide the selection of probiotic candidates to promote coral resilience and improve holistic and customized reef restoration and rehabilitation efforts. IMPORTANCE Our paper is the first study to synthesize currently available but decentralized data of cultured microbes associated with corals. We were able to collate 3,055 isolates across a number of published studies and unpublished collections from various laboratories and researchers around the world. This equated to 1,045 individual isolates which had full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences, after filtering of the original 3,055. We also explored which of these had genomes available. Originally, only 36 were available, and as part of this study, we added a further 38-equating to 74 in total. From this, we investigated potential genetic signatures that may facilitate a host-associated lifestyle. Further, such a resource is an important step in the selection of probiotic candidates, which are being investigated for promoting coral resilience and potentially applied as a novel strategy in reef restoration and rehabilitation efforts. In the spirit of open access, we have ensured this collection is available to the wider research community through the web site with the hope many scientists across the globe will ask for access to these cultures for future studies.

RevDate: 2021-06-24

Yu X, Yu K, Liao Z, et al (2021)

Seasonal fluctuations in symbiotic bacteria and their role in environmental adaptation of the scleractinian coral Acropora pruinosa in high-latitude coral reef area of the South China Sea.

The Science of the total environment, 792:148438 pii:S0048-9697(21)03510-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Coral-associated bacterial communities are paramount for coral ecosystems and holobiont health. However, the role of symbiotic bacteria in the adaptation of high-latitude corals to seasonal fluctuations remains underexplored. Therefore, we used 16S rRNA-based high-throughput sequencing to analyze the symbiotic bacterial diversity, composition, and core bacterial community in high-latitude coral and explored the seasonal fluctuation characteristics of symbiotic bacterial communities. We found that bacterial richness and α-diversity changed significantly across different seasons. Additionally, the community structure recombined seasonally, with different dominant bacterial phyla and genera in different seasons. However, the symbiotic bacterial community structures of Acropora pruinosa in winter and spring were similar. Proteobacteria were the dominant bacteria in spring, autumn, and winter. In summer, the dominant bacterial taxa were Bacteroidota and Proteobacteria. Ralstonia was the dominant bacterial genus in spring and winter, whereas in autumn, BD1-7_clade was dominant. Linear discriminant analysis effect size identified 20 abundant genera between the different groups. Core microbiome analysis revealed that 12 core bacterial operational taxonomic units were associated with A. pruinosa in all seasons, seven of which varied with the seasons, changing between dominant and rare. Distance-based redundancy and variation partitioning analyses revealed that sea surface temperature was the major contributor of variation in the microbial community structure. We hypothesized that the high diversity and abundance of symbiotic bacteria and the increase in Prosthecochloris abundance in coral in summer can help A. pruinosa maintain its physiological functions, ameliorating the negative physiological effects of the decrease in Symbiodiniaceae density under high-temperature stress. Thus, the rapid reorganization of the symbiotic bacterial community structure and core microflora in different seasons may allow the corals to adapt to large seasonal environmental fluctuations. In conclusion, seasonal variation of bacteria plays an important role in coral adaptation to large environmental fluctuations.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Nguyen KU, Zhang R, Taniguchi M, et al (2021)

Fluorescence Assay for Tolyporphins Amidst Abundant Chlorophyll in Crude Cyanobacterial Extracts.

Photochemistry and photobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Tolyporphins are distinctive tetrapyrrole natural products found singularly in a filamentous cyanobacterial-microbial holobiont (termed HT-58-2) from Micronesia. The absorption and fluorescence features of tolyporphins resemble those of chlorophyll a, complicating direct analysis of culture samples. Treatment of the crude (unfractionated) organic extract (CH2 Cl2 /2-propanol, 1:1) of HT-58-2 cultures with NaBH4 in methanol causes reduction of the peripheral ketone auxochromes, whereupon tolyporphins (predominantly 7,17-dioxobacteriochlorins) exhibit a bathochromic shift (λabs ~ 676 → ~ 700 nm) and chlorophyll a (a 131 -oxochlorin) exhibits a hypsochromic shift (λabs 665 → 634 nm). Fluorescence excitation spectroscopy (at 368 and 491 nm with λem 710 nm) enabled detection of reduced tolyporphins amidst abundant reduced chlorophyll a (1:19 ratio), a detection sensitivity >5 times that without reduction. The resulting assay combines simple sample preparation from non-axenic cultures at microscale quantities (2 mL, 2 μm), absence of any fractionation procedures, and fluorescence detection. Tolyporphins were readily detected in cultures of HT-58-2 at reasonable growth periods in the absence of environmental stressors, which was not possible previously.

RevDate: 2021-06-22

Brahmi C, Chapron L, Le Moullac G, et al (2021)

Effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 on the respiration, biomineralization and photophysiology of the giant clam Tridacna maxima.

Conservation physiology, 9(1):coab041.

Many reef organisms, such as the giant clams, are confronted with global change effects. Abnormally high seawater temperatures can lead to mass bleaching events and subsequent mortality, while ocean acidification may impact biomineralization processes. Despite its strong ecological and socio-economic importance, its responses to these threats still need to be explored. We investigated physiological responses of 4-year-old Tridacna maxima to realistic levels of temperature (+1.5°C) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) (+800 μatm of CO2) predicted for 2100 in French Polynesian lagoons during the warmer season. During a 65-day crossed-factorial experiment, individuals were exposed to two temperatures (29.2°C, 30.7°C) and two pCO2 (430 μatm, 1212 μatm) conditions. The impact of each environmental parameter and their potential synergetic effect were evaluated based on respiration, biomineralization and photophysiology. Kinetics of thermal and/or acidification stress were evaluated by performing measurements at different times of exposure (29, 41, 53, 65 days). At 30.7°C, the holobiont O2 production, symbiont photosynthetic yield and density were negatively impacted. High pCO2 had a significant negative effect on shell growth rate, symbiont photosynthetic yield and density. No significant differences of the shell microstructure were observed between control and experimental conditions in the first 29 days; however, modifications (i.e. less-cohesive lamellae) appeared from 41 days in all temperature and pCO2 conditions. No significant synergetic effect was found. Present thermal conditions (29.2°C) appeared to be sufficiently stressful to induce a host acclimatization response. All these observations indicate that temperature and pCO2 are both forcing variables affecting T. maxima's physiology and jeopardize its survival under environmental conditions predicted for the end of this century.

RevDate: 2021-06-22

Marín O, González B, MJ Poupin (2021)

From Microbial Dynamics to Functionality in the Rhizosphere: A Systematic Review of the Opportunities With Synthetic Microbial Communities.

Frontiers in plant science, 12:650609.

Synthetic microbial communities (SynComs) are a useful tool for a more realistic understanding of the outcomes of multiple biotic interactions where microbes, plants, and the environment are players in time and space of a multidimensional and complex system. Toward a more in-depth overview of the knowledge that has been achieved using SynComs in the rhizosphere, a systematic review of the literature on SynComs was performed to identify the overall rationale, design criteria, experimental procedures, and outcomes of in vitro or in planta tests using this strategy. After an extensive bibliography search and a specific selection process, a total of 30 articles were chosen for further analysis, grouping them by their reported SynCom size. The reported SynComs were constituted with a highly variable number of members, ranging from 3 to 190 strains, with a total of 1,393 bacterial isolates, where the three most represented phyla were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Only four articles did not reference experiments with SynCom on plants, as they considered only microbial in vitro studies, whereas the others chose different plant models and plant-growth systems; some of them are described and reviewed in this article. Besides, a discussion on different approaches (bottom-up and top-down) to study the microbiome role in the rhizosphere is provided, highlighting how SynComs are an effective system to connect and fill some knowledge gaps and to have a better understanding of the mechanisms governing these multiple interactions. Although the SynCom approach is already helpful and has a promising future, more systematic and standardized studies are needed to harness its full potential.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Silva CBP, Elias-Oliveira J, McCarthy CG, et al (2021)

Ethanol: striking the cardiovascular system by harming the gut microbiota.

American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology, 321(2):H275-H291.

Ethanol consumption represents a significant public health problem, and excessive ethanol intake is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. The mechanisms underlying the effects of ethanol on the cardiovascular system are complex and not fully comprehended. The gut microbiota and their metabolites are indispensable symbionts essential for health and homeostasis and therefore, have emerged as potential contributors to ethanol-induced cardiovascular system dysfunction. By mechanisms that are not completely understood, the gut microbiota modulates the immune system and activates several signaling pathways that stimulate inflammatory responses, which in turn, contribute to the development and progression of CVD. This review summarizes preclinical and clinical evidence on the effects of ethanol in the gut microbiota and discusses the mechanisms by which ethanol-induced gut dysbiosis leads to the activation of the immune system and cardiovascular dysfunction. The cross talk between ethanol consumption and the gut microbiota and its implications are detailed. In summary, an imbalance in the symbiotic relationship between the host and the commensal microbiota in a holobiont, as seen with ethanol consumption, may contribute to CVD. Therefore, manipulating the gut microbiota, by using antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation might prove a valuable opportunity to prevent/mitigate the deleterious effects of ethanol and improve cardiovascular health and risk prevention.

RevDate: 2021-06-24

Rolli E, Vergani L, Ghitti E, et al (2021)

'Cry-for-help' in contaminated soil: a dialogue among plants and soil microbiome to survive in hostile conditions.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

An open question in environmental ecology regards the mechanisms triggered by root chemistry to drive the assembly and functionality of a beneficial microbiome to rapidly adapt to stress conditions. This phenomenon, originally described in plant defence against pathogens and predators, is encompassed in the 'cry-for-help' hypothesis. Evidence suggests that this mechanism may be part of the adaptation strategy to ensure the holobiont fitness in polluted environments. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were considered as model pollutants due to their toxicity, recalcitrance and poor phyto-extraction potential, which lead to a plethora of phytotoxic effects and rise environmental safety concerns. Plants have inefficient detoxification processes to catabolize PCBs, even leading to by-products with a higher toxicity. We propose that the 'cry-for-help' mechanism could drive the exudation-mediated recruitment and sustainment of the microbial services for PCBs removal, exerted by an array of anaerobic and aerobic microbial degrading populations working in a complex metabolic network. Through this synergistic interaction, the holobiont copes with the soil contamination, releasing the plant from the pollutant stress by the ecological services provided by the boosted metabolism of PCBs microbial degraders. Improving knowledge of root chemistry under PCBs stress is, therefore, advocated to design rhizoremediation strategies based on plant microbiome engineering.

RevDate: 2021-06-19

Vallet M, Kaftan F, Grabe V, et al (2021)

A new glance at the chemosphere of macroalgal-bacterial interactions: In situ profiling of metabolites in symbiosis by mass spectrometry.

Beilstein journal of organic chemistry, 17:1313-1322.

Symbiosis is a dominant form of life that has been observed numerous times in marine ecosystems. For example, macroalgae coexist with bacteria that produce factors that promote algal growth and morphogenesis. The green macroalga Ulva mutabilis (Chlorophyta) develops into a callus-like phenotype in the absence of its essential bacterial symbionts Roseovarius sp. MS2 and Maribacter sp. MS6. Spatially resolved studies are required to understand symbiont interactions at the microscale level. Therefore, we used mass spectrometry profiling and imaging techniques with high spatial resolution and sensitivity to gain a new perspective on the mutualistic interactions between bacteria and macroalgae. Using atmospheric pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation high-resolution mass spectrometry (AP-SMALDI-HRMS), low-molecular-weight polar compounds were identified by comparative metabolomics in the chemosphere of Ulva. Choline (2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethan-1-aminium) was only determined in the alga grown under axenic conditions, whereas ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid) was found in bacterial presence. Ectoine was used as a metabolic marker for localisation studies of Roseovarius sp. within the tripartite community because it was produced exclusively by these bacteria. By combining confocal laser scanning microscopy (cLSM) and AP-SMALDI-HRMS, we proved that Roseovarius sp. MS2 settled mainly in the rhizoidal zone (holdfast) of U. mutabilis. Our findings provide the fundament to decipher bacterial symbioses with multicellular hosts in aquatic ecosystems in an ecologically relevant context. As a versatile tool for microbiome research, the combined AP-SMALDI and cLSM imaging analysis with a resolution to level of a single bacterial cell can be easily applied to other microbial consortia and their hosts. The novelty of this contribution is the use of an in situ setup designed to avoid all types of external contamination and interferences while resolving spatial distributions of metabolites and identifying specific symbiotic bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-06-11

Sugiyama A (2021)

Flavonoids and saponins in plant rhizospheres: roles, dynamics, and the potential for agriculture.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry pii:6296414 [Epub ahead of print].

Plants are in constant interaction with a myriad of soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere, an area of soil in close contact with plant roots. Recent research has highlighted the importance of plant specialized metabolites (PSMs) in shaping and modulating the rhizosphere microbiota; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the establishment and function of the microbiota mostly remain unaddressed. Flavonoids and saponins are a group of PSMs whose biosynthetic pathways have largely been revealed. Although these PSMs are abundantly secreted into the rhizosphere and exert various functions, the secretion mechanisms have not been clarified. This review summarizes the roles of flavonoids and saponins in the rhizosphere with a special focus on interactions between plants and the rhizosphere microbiota. Furthermore, this review introduces recent advancements in the dynamics of these metabolites in the rhizosphere and indicates potential applications of PSMs for crop production and discusses perspectives in this emerging research field.

RevDate: 2021-06-12

Tilstra A, Roth F, El-Khaled YC, et al (2021)

Relative abundance of nitrogen cycling microbes in coral holobionts reflects environmental nitrate availability.

Royal Society open science, 8(6):201835.

Recent research suggests that nitrogen (N) cycling microbes are important for coral holobiont functioning. In particular, coral holobionts may acquire bioavailable N via prokaryotic dinitrogen (N2) fixation or remove excess N via denitrification activity. However, our understanding of environmental drivers on these processes in hospite remains limited. Employing the strong seasonality of the central Red Sea, this study assessed the effects of environmental parameters on the proportional abundances of N cycling microbes associated with the hard corals Acropora hemprichii and Stylophora pistillata. Specifically, we quantified changes in the relative ratio between nirS and nifH gene copy numbers, as a proxy for seasonal shifts in denitrification and N2 fixation potential in corals, respectively. In addition, we assessed coral tissue-associated Symbiodiniaceae cell densities and monitored environmental parameters to provide a holobiont and environmental context, respectively. While ratios of nirS to nifH gene copy numbers varied between seasons, they revealed similar seasonal patterns in both coral species, with ratios closely following patterns in environmental nitrate availability. Symbiodiniaceae cell densities aligned with environmental nitrate availability, suggesting that the seasonal shifts in nirS to nifH gene abundance ratios were probably driven by nitrate availability in the coral holobiont. Thereby, our results suggest that N cycling in coral holobionts probably adjusts to environmental conditions by increasing and/or decreasing denitrification and N2 fixation potential according to environmental nitrate availability. Microbial N cycling may, thus, extenuate the effects of changes in environmental nitrate availability on coral holobionts to support the maintenance of the coral-Symbiodiniaceae symbiosis.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Pootakham W, Mhuantong W, Yoocha T, et al (2021)

Taxonomic profiling of Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities associated with Indo-Pacific corals in the Gulf of Thailand using PacBio sequencing of full-length ITS and 16S rRNA genes.

Genomics, 113(4):2717-2729.

Corals live with complex assemblages of microbes including bacteria, the dinoflagellate Symbiodiniaceae, fungi and viruses in a coral holobiont. These coral-associated microorganisms play an important role in their host fitness and survival. Here, we investigated the structure and diversity of algal and bacterial communities associated with five Indo-Pacific coral species, using full-length 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences. While the dinoflagellate communities associated with Poriteslutea were dominated with Symbiodiniaceae genus Cladocopium, the other four coral hosts were associated mainly with members of the Durusdinium genus, suggesting that host species was one of the underlying factors influencing the structure and composition of dinoflagellate communities associated with corals in the Gulf of Thailand. Alphaproteobacteria dominated the microbiomes of Pocillopora spp. while Pavonafrondifera and P. lutea were associated primarily with Gammaproteobacteria. Finally, we demonstrated a superior performance of full-length 16S rRNA sequences in achieving species-resolution taxonomic classification of coral-associated microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-06-25
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Röthig T, Puntin G, Wong JCY, et al (2021)

Holobiont nitrogen control and its potential for eutrophication resistance in an obligate photosymbiotic jellyfish.

Microbiome, 9(1):127.

BACKGROUND: Marine holobionts depend on microbial members for health and nutrient cycling. This is particularly evident in cnidarian-algae symbioses that facilitate energy and nutrient acquisition. However, this partnership is highly sensitive to environmental change-including eutrophication-that causes dysbiosis and contributes to global coral reef decline. Yet, some holobionts exhibit resistance to dysbiosis in eutrophic environments, including the obligate photosymbiotic scyphomedusa Cassiopea xamachana.

METHODS: Our aim was to assess the mechanisms in C. xamachana that stabilize symbiotic relationships. We combined labelled bicarbonate (13C) and nitrate (15N) with metabarcoding approaches to evaluate nutrient cycling and microbial community composition in symbiotic and aposymbiotic medusae.

RESULTS: C-fixation and cycling by algal Symbiodiniaceae was essential for C. xamachana as even at high heterotrophic feeding rates aposymbiotic medusae continuously lost weight. Heterotrophically acquired C and N were readily shared among host and algae. This was in sharp contrast to nitrate assimilation by Symbiodiniaceae, which appeared to be strongly restricted. Instead, the bacterial microbiome seemed to play a major role in the holobiont's DIN assimilation as uptake rates showed a significant positive relationship with phylogenetic diversity of medusa-associated bacteria. This is corroborated by inferred functional capacity that links the dominant bacterial taxa (~90 %) to nitrogen cycling. Observed bacterial community structure differed between apo- and symbiotic C. xamachana putatively highlighting enrichment of ammonium oxidizers and nitrite reducers and depletion of nitrogen-fixers in symbiotic medusae.

CONCLUSION: Host, algal symbionts, and bacterial associates contribute to regulated nutrient assimilation and cycling in C. xamachana. We found that the bacterial microbiome of symbiotic medusae was seemingly structured to increase DIN removal and enforce algal N-limitation-a mechanism that would help to stabilize the host-algae relationship even under eutrophic conditions. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-06-06

Moitinho-Silva L, Wegener M, May S, et al (2021)

Short-term physical exercise impacts on the human holobiont obtained by a randomised intervention study.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):162.

BACKGROUND: Human well-being has been linked to the composition and functional capacity of the intestinal microbiota. As regular exercise is known to improve human health, it is not surprising that exercise was previously described to positively modulate the gut microbiota, too. However, most previous studies mainly focused on either elite athletes or animal models. Thus, we conducted a randomised intervention study that focused on the effects of different types of training (endurance and strength) in previously physically inactive, healthy adults in comparison to controls that did not perform regular exercise. Overall study duration was ten weeks including six weeks of intervention period. In addition to 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of longitudinally sampled faecal material of participants (six time points), detailed body composition measurements and analysis of blood samples (at baseline and after the intervention) were performed to obtain overall physiological changes within the intervention period. Activity tracker devices (wrist-band wearables) provided activity status and sleeping patterns of participants as well as exercise intensity and heart measurements.

RESULTS: Different biometric responses between endurance and strength activities were identified, such as a significant increase of lymphocytes and decrease of mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) only within the strength intervention group. In the endurance group, we observed a significant reduction in hip circumference and an increase in physical working capacity (PWC). Though a large variation of microbiota changes were observed between individuals of the same group, we did not find specific collective alterations in the endurance nor the strength groups, arguing for microbiome variations specific to individuals, and therefore, were not captured in our analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: We could show that different types of exercise have distinct but moderate effects on the overall physiology of humans and very distinct microbial changes in the gut. The observed overall changes during the intervention highlight the importance of physical activity on well-being. Future studies should investigate the effect of exercise on a longer timescale, investigate different training intensities and consider high-resolution shotgun metagenomics technology.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: DRKS, DRKS00015873 . Registered 12 December 2018; Retrospectively registered.

RevDate: 2021-07-23
CmpDate: 2021-07-23

Liu Y, Palaniveloo K, Alias SA, et al (2021)

Species Diversity and Secondary Metabolites of Sarcophyton-Associated Marine Fungi.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(11):.

Soft corals are widely distributed across the globe, especially in the Indo-Pacific region, with Sarcophyton being one of the most abundant genera. To date, there have been 50 species of identified Sarcophyton. These soft corals host a diverse range of marine fungi, which produce chemically diverse, bioactive secondary metabolites as part of their symbiotic nature with the soft coral hosts. The most prolific groups of compounds are terpenoids and indole alkaloids. Annually, there are more bio-active compounds being isolated and characterised. Thus, the importance of the metabolite compilation is very much important for future reference. This paper compiles the diversity of Sarcophyton species and metabolites produced by their associated marine fungi, as well as the bioactivity of these identified compounds. A total of 88 metabolites of structural diversity are highlighted, indicating the huge potential these symbiotic relationships hold for future research.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Bourgin M, Kriaa A, Mkaouar H, et al (2021)

Bile Salt Hydrolases: At the Crossroads of Microbiota and Human Health.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

The gut microbiota has been increasingly linked to metabolic health and disease over the last few decades. Several factors have been suggested to be involved in lipid metabolism and metabolic responses. One mediator that has gained great interest as a clinically important enzyme is bile salt hydrolase (BSH). BSH enzymes are widely distributed in human gastrointestinal microbial communities and are believed to play key roles in both microbial and host physiology. In this review, we discuss the current evidence related to the role of BSHs in health and provide useful insights that may pave the way for new therapeutic targets in human diseases.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Miller WB, Enguita FJ, AL Leitão (2021)

Non-Random Genome Editing and Natural Cellular Engineering in Cognition-Based Evolution.

Cells, 10(5):.

Neo-Darwinism presumes that biological variation is a product of random genetic replication errors and natural selection. Cognition-Based Evolution (CBE) asserts a comprehensive alternative approach to phenotypic variation and the generation of biological novelty. In CBE, evolutionary variation is the product of natural cellular engineering that permits purposive genetic adjustments as cellular problem-solving. CBE upholds that the cornerstone of biology is the intelligent measuring cell. Since all biological information that is available to cells is ambiguous, multicellularity arises from the cellular requirement to maximize the validity of available environmental information. This is best accomplished through collective measurement purposed towards maintaining and optimizing individual cellular states of homeorhesis as dynamic flux that sustains cellular equipoise. The collective action of the multicellular measurement and assessment of information and its collaborative communication is natural cellular engineering. Its yield is linked cellular ecologies and mutualized niche constructions that comprise biofilms and holobionts. In this context, biological variation is the product of collective differential assessment of ambiguous environmental cues by networking intelligent cells. Such concerted action is enabled by non-random natural genomic editing in response to epigenetic impacts and environmental stresses. Random genetic activity can be either constrained or deployed as a 'harnessing of stochasticity'. Therefore, genes are cellular tools. Selection filters cellular solutions to environmental stresses to assure continuous cellular-organismal-environmental complementarity. Since all multicellular eukaryotes are holobionts as vast assemblages of participants of each of the three cellular domains (Prokaryota, Archaea, Eukaryota) and the virome, multicellular variation is necessarily a product of co-engineering among them.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Lyu D, Msimbira LA, Nazari M, et al (2021)

The Coevolution of Plants and Microbes Underpins Sustainable Agriculture.

Microorganisms, 9(5):.

Terrestrial plants evolution occurred in the presence of microbes, the phytomicrobiome. The rhizosphere microbial community is the most abundant and diverse subset of the phytomicrobiome and can include both beneficial and parasitic/pathogenic microbes. Prokaryotes of the phytomicrobiome have evolved relationships with plants that range from non-dependent interactions to dependent endosymbionts. The most extreme endosymbiotic examples are the chloroplasts and mitochondria, which have become organelles and integral parts of the plant, leading to some similarity in DNA sequence between plant tissues and cyanobacteria, the prokaryotic symbiont of ancestral plants. Microbes were associated with the precursors of land plants, green algae, and helped algae transition from aquatic to terrestrial environments. In the terrestrial setting the phytomicrobiome contributes to plant growth and development by (1) establishing symbiotic relationships between plant growth-promoting microbes, including rhizobacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, (2) conferring biotic stress resistance by producing antibiotic compounds, and (3) secreting microbe-to-plant signal compounds, such as phytohormones or their analogues, that regulate aspects of plant physiology, including stress resistance. As plants have evolved, they recruited microbes to assist in the adaptation to available growing environments. Microbes serve themselves by promoting plant growth, which in turn provides microbes with nutrition (root exudates, a source of reduced carbon) and a desirable habitat (the rhizosphere or within plant tissues). The outcome of this coevolution is the diverse and metabolically rich microbial community that now exists in the rhizosphere of terrestrial plants. The holobiont, the unit made up of the phytomicrobiome and the plant host, results from this wide range of coevolved relationships. We are just beginning to appreciate the many ways in which this complex and subtle coevolution acts in agricultural systems.

RevDate: 2021-07-16
CmpDate: 2021-06-02

Medina Munoz M, Brenner C, Richmond D, et al (2021)

The holobiont transcriptome of teneral tsetse fly species of varying vector competence.

BMC genomics, 22(1):400.

BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies are the obligate vectors of African trypanosomes, which cause Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis. Teneral flies (newly eclosed adults) are especially susceptible to parasite establishment and development, yet our understanding of why remains fragmentary. The tsetse gut microbiome is dominated by two Gammaproteobacteria, an essential and ancient mutualist Wigglesworthia glossinidia and a commensal Sodalis glossinidius. Here, we characterize and compare the metatranscriptome of teneral Glossina morsitans to that of G. brevipalpis and describe unique immunological, physiological, and metabolic landscapes that may impact vector competence differences between these two species.

RESULTS: An active expression profile was observed for Wigglesworthia immediately following host adult metamorphosis. Specifically, 'translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis' followed by 'coenzyme transport and metabolism' were the most enriched clusters of orthologous genes (COGs), highlighting the importance of nutrient transport and metabolism even following host species diversification. Despite the significantly smaller Wigglesworthia genome more differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between interspecific isolates (n = 326, ~ 55% of protein coding genes) than between the corresponding Sodalis isolates (n = 235, ~ 5% of protein coding genes) likely reflecting distinctions in host co-evolution and adaptation. DEGs between Sodalis isolates included genes involved in chitin degradation that may contribute towards trypanosome susceptibility by compromising the immunological protection provided by the peritrophic matrix. Lastly, G. brevipalpis tenerals demonstrate a more immunologically robust background with significant upregulation of IMD and melanization pathways.

CONCLUSIONS: These transcriptomic differences may collectively contribute to vector competence differences between tsetse species and offers translational relevance towards the design of novel vector control strategies.

RevDate: 2021-05-31

Traylor-Knowles N (2021)

Unlocking the single-cell mysteries of a reef-building coral.

Cell, 184(11):2802-2804.

Coral reefs are one of the most important ecosystems in the world but least understood from a cellular level. In this issue of Cell, Levy et al. unravel the single-cell gene expression of the coral holobiont and open the doors to better understand the novel diversity of cell types.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Manriquez B, Muller D, C Prigent-Combaret (2021)

Experimental Evolution in Plant-Microbe Systems: A Tool for Deciphering the Functioning and Evolution of Plant-Associated Microbial Communities.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:619122.

In natural environments, microbial communities must constantly adapt to stressful environmental conditions. The genetic and phenotypic mechanisms underlying the adaptive response of microbial communities to new (and often complex) environments can be tackled with a combination of experimental evolution and next generation sequencing. This combination allows to analyse the real-time evolution of microbial populations in response to imposed environmental factors or during the interaction with a host, by screening for phenotypic and genotypic changes over a multitude of identical experimental cycles. Experimental evolution (EE) coupled with comparative genomics has indeed facilitated the monitoring of bacterial genetic evolution and the understanding of adaptive evolution processes. Basically, EE studies had long been done on single strains, allowing to reveal the dynamics and genetic targets of natural selection and to uncover the correlation between genetic and phenotypic adaptive changes. However, species are always evolving in relation with other species and have to adapt not only to the environment itself but also to the biotic environment dynamically shaped by the other species. Nowadays, there is a growing interest to apply EE on microbial communities evolving under natural environments. In this paper, we provide a non-exhaustive review of microbial EE studies done with systems of increasing complexity (from single species, to synthetic communities and natural communities) and with a particular focus on studies between plants and plant-associated microorganisms. We highlight some of the mechanisms controlling the functioning of microbial species and their adaptive responses to environment changes and emphasize the importance of considering bacterial communities and complex environments in EE studies.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Maire J, Blackall LL, MJH van Oppen (2021)

Microbiome characterization of defensive tissues in the model anemone Exaiptasia diaphana.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):152.

BACKGROUND: Coral reefs are among the most diverse and productive ecosystems on Earth. This success relies on the coral's association with a wide range of microorganisms, including dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae that provide coral hosts with most of their organic carbon requirements. While bacterial associates have long been overlooked, research on these microorganisms is gaining traction, and deciphering bacterial identity and function is greatly enhancing our understanding of cnidarian biology. Here, we investigated bacterial communities in defensive tissues (acontia) of the coral model, the sea anemone Exaiptasia diaphana. Acontia are internal filaments that are ejected upon detection of an external threat and release toxins to repel predators.

RESULTS: Using culturing techniques and 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding we identified bacterial communities associated with acontia of four Great Barrier Reef-sourced E. diaphana genotypes. We show that bacterial communities are similar across genotypes, and dominated by Alteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Saprospiraceae. By analyzing abundant amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) from metabarcoding data from acontia and comparing these to data from whole anemones, we identified five potentially important bacterial genera of the acontia microbiome: Vibrio, Sulfitobacter, Marivita, Alteromonas, and Lewinella. The role of these bacteria within the acontia remains uninvestigated but could entail assistance in defense processes such as toxin production.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into potential bacterial involvement in cnidarian defense tissues and highlights the need to study bacterial communities in individual compartments within a holobiont.

RevDate: 2021-05-23

Zhang Y, Yang Q, Ling J, et al (2021)

Correction to: Shifting the microbiome of a coral holobiont and improving host physiology by inoculation with a potentially beneficial bacterial consortium.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):150.

RevDate: 2021-05-28
CmpDate: 2021-05-28

Zhang Y, Yang Q, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

The diversity and metabolic potential of the microbial functional gene associated with Porites pukoensis.

Ecotoxicology (London, England), 30(5):986-995.

Coral reef ecosystems usually distribute in oligotrophic tropical and subtropical marine environments, but they possess great biodiversity and high productivity. It may attribute to its efficient internal nutrient cycle system. However, the knowledge of functional microbial community structure is still limited. In this study, both functional gene array (Geochip 5.0) and nifH Illumina sequencing were used to profile the overall functional genes and diazotrophic communities associated with coral Porites pukoensis. More than 7500 microbial functional genes were detected from archaea, bacteria, and fungi. Most of these genes are related to the transformation of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus, providing evidence that microbes in the coral holobiont play important roles in the biogeochemical cycle of coral reef ecosystems. Our results indicated a high diversity of diazotrophs associated with corals. The dominant diazotrophic groups were related to phyla Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. And the dominant diazotrophic communities were divided into four clusters. They were affiliated with nifH sequences from genera Zymomonas, Halorhodospira, Leptolyngbya, Trichormus, and Desulfovibrio, indicating these groups may play a more important role in the nitrogen-fixing process in the coral holobiont. This study revealed functional gene diversity and suggested the roles they played in the biogeochemical cycling of the coral holobiont.

RevDate: 2021-07-23
CmpDate: 2021-06-22

Aguirre-von-Wobeser E (2021)

Type II Photosynthetic Reaction Center Genes of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Bark Microbial Communities are Dominated by Aerobic Anoxygenic Alphaproteobacteria.

Current microbiology, 78(7):2623-2630.

The tree bark environment is an important microbial habitat distributed worldwide on thrillions of trees. However, the microbial communities of tree bark are largely unknown, with most studies on plant aerial surfaces focused on the leaves. Recently, we presented a metagenomic study of bark microbial communities from avocado. In these communities, oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis genes were very abundant, especially when compared to rhizospheric soil from the same trees. In this work, Evolutionary Placement Algorithm analysis was performed on metagenomic reads orthologous to the PufLM gene cluster, encoding for the bacterial type II photosynthetic reaction center. These photosynthetic genes were found affiliated to different groups of bacteria, mostly aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic Alphaproteobacteria, including Sphingomonas, Methylobacterium and several Rhodospirillales. These results suggest that anoxygenic photosynthesis in avocado bark microbial communities functions primarily as additional energy source for heterotrophic growth. Together with our previous results, showing a large abundance of cyanobacteria in these communities, a picture emerges of the tree holobiont, where light penetrating the tree canopies and reaching the inner stems, including the trunk, is probably utilized by cyanobacteria for oxygenic photosynthesis, and the far-red light aids the growth of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-08-02

Nagpal J, JF Cryan (2021)

Host genetics, the microbiome & behaviour-a 'Holobiont' perspective.

Cell research, 31(8):832-833.

RevDate: 2021-05-19
CmpDate: 2021-05-19

Doering T, Wall M, Putchim L, et al (2021)

Towards enhancing coral heat tolerance: a "microbiome transplantation" treatment using inoculations of homogenized coral tissues.

Microbiome, 9(1):102.

BACKGROUND: Microbiome manipulation could enhance heat tolerance and help corals survive the pressures of ocean warming. We conducted coral microbiome transplantation (CMT) experiments using the reef-building corals, Pocillopora and Porites, and investigated whether this technique can benefit coral heat resistance while modifying the bacterial microbiome. Initially, heat-tolerant donors were identified in the wild. We then used fresh homogenates made from coral donor tissues to inoculate conspecific, heat-susceptible recipients and documented their bleaching responses and microbiomes by 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding.

RESULTS: Recipients of both coral species bleached at lower rates compared to the control group when exposed to short-term heat stress (34 °C). One hundred twelve (Pocillopora sp.) and sixteen (Porites sp.) donor-specific bacterial species were identified in the microbiomes of recipients indicating transmission of bacteria. The amplicon sequence variants of the majority of these transmitted bacteria belonged to known, putatively symbiotic bacterial taxa of corals and were linked to the observed beneficial effect on the coral stress response. Microbiome dynamics in our experiments support the notion that microbiome community evenness and dominance of one or few bacterial species, rather than host-species identity, were drivers for microbiome stability in a holobiont context.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that coral recipients likely favor the uptake of putative bacterial symbionts, recommending to include these taxonomic groups in future coral probiotics screening efforts. Our study suggests a scenario where these donor-specific bacterial symbionts might have been more efficient in supporting the recipients to resist heat stress compared to the native symbionts present in the control group. These findings urgently call for further experimental investigation of the mechanisms of action underlying the beneficial effect of CMT and for field-based long-term studies testing the persistence of the effect. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-05-27
CmpDate: 2021-05-27

Rinkevich B (2021)

Augmenting coral adaptation to climate change via coral gardening (the nursery phase).

Journal of environmental management, 291:112727.

Unceasing climate change and anthropogenic impacts on coral reefs worldwide lead the needs for augmenting adaptive potential of corals. Currently, the most successful approach for restoring degraded reefs is 'coral gardening', where corals are farmed in underwater nurseries, then outplanted to damaged reefs. Dealing with enhanced coral adaptation, the 'coral gardening' approach is conceptually structured here within a hierarchical list of five encircling tiers that include all restoration activities, focusing on the nursery phase. Each tier encompasses all the activities performed in the levels below it hierarchically. The first is the 'coral mariculture' tier, followed by the 'ecological engineering' tier. The third is the adaptation-based reef restoration (ABRR) tier, preceding the fourth ('ecosystem seascape') and the fifth ('ecosystem services') tiers. The ABRR tier is further conceptualized and its constituent five classes (phenotypic plasticity, assisted migration, epigenetics, coral chimerism, holobiont modification) are detailed. It is concluded that the nursery phase of the 'gardening' tenet may further serve as a platform to enhance the adaptation capacities of corals to climate change through the five ABBR classes. Employing the 'gardening' tiers in reef restoration without considering ABRR will scarcely be able to meet global targets for healthy reef ecosystems in the future.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

Swain TD, Lax S, Gilbert J, et al (2021)

A Phylogeny-Informed Analysis of the Global Coral-Symbiodiniaceae Interaction Network Reveals that Traits Correlated with Thermal Bleaching Are Specific to Symbiont Transmission Mode.

mSystems, 6(3):.

The complex network of associations between corals and their dinoflagellates (family Symbiodiniaceae) are the basis of coral reef ecosystems but are sensitive to increasing global temperatures. Coral-symbiont interactions are restricted by ecological and evolutionary determinants that constrain partner choice and influence holobiont response to environmental stress; however, little is known about how these processes shape thermal resilience of the holobiont. Here, we built a network of global coral-Symbiodiniaceae associations, mapped species traits (e.g., symbiont transmission mode and biogeography) and phylogenetic relationships of both partners onto the network, and assigned thermotolerance to both host and symbiont nodes. Using network analysis and phylogenetic comparative methods, we determined the contribution of species traits to thermal resilience of the holobiont, while accounting for evolutionary patterns among species. We found that the network shows nonrandom interactions among species, which are shaped by evolutionary history, symbiont transmission mode (horizontally transmitted [HT] or vertically transmitted [VT] corals) and biogeography. Coral phylogeny, but not Symbiodiniaceae phylogeny, symbiont transmission mode, or biogeography, was a good predictor of thermal resilience. Closely related corals have similar Symbiodiniaceae interaction patterns and bleaching susceptibilities. Nevertheless, the association patterns that explain increased host thermal resilience are not generalizable across the entire network but are instead unique to HT and VT corals. Under nonstress conditions, thermally resilient VT coral species associate with thermotolerant phylotypes and limit their number of unique symbionts and overall symbiont thermotolerance diversity, while thermally resilient HT coral species associate with a few host-specific symbiont phylotypes.IMPORTANCE Recent advances have revealed a complex network of interactions between coral and Symbiodiniaceae. Specifically, nonrandom association patterns, which are determined in part by restrictions imposed by symbiont transmission mode, increase the sensitivity of the overall network to thermal stress. However, little is known about the extent to which coral-Symbiodiniaceae network resistance to thermal stress is shaped by host and symbiont species phylogenetic relationships and host and symbiont species traits, such as symbiont transmission mode. We built a frequency-weighted global coral-Symbiodiniaceae network and used network analysis and phylogenetic comparative methods to show that evolutionary relatedness, but not transmission mode, predicts thermal resilience of the coral-Symbiodiniaceae holobiont. Consequently, thermal stress events could result in nonrandom pruning of susceptible lineages and loss of taxonomic diversity with catastrophic effects on community resilience to future events. Our results show that inclusion of the contribution of evolutionary and ecological processes will further our understanding of the fate of coral assemblages under climate change.

RevDate: 2021-05-27

Embacher J, Neuhauser S, Zeilinger S, et al (2021)

Microbiota Associated with Different Developmental Stages of the Dry Rot Fungus Serpula lacrymans.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 7(5):.

The dry rot fungus Serpula lacrymans causes significant structural damage by decaying construction timber, resulting in costly restoration procedures. Dry rot fungi decompose cellulose and hemicellulose and are often accompanied by a succession of bacteria and other fungi. Bacterial-fungal interactions (BFI) have a considerable impact on all the partners, ranging from antagonistic to beneficial relationships. Using a cultivation-based approach, we show that S. lacrymans has many co-existing, mainly Gram-positive, bacteria and demonstrate differences in the communities associated with distinct fungal parts. Bacteria isolated from the fruiting bodies and mycelia were dominated by Firmicutes, while bacteria isolated from rhizomorphs were dominated by Proteobacteria. Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were less abundant. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that bacteria were not present biofilm-like, but occurred as independent cells scattered across and within tissues, sometimes also attached to fungal spores. In co-culture, some bacterial isolates caused growth inhibition of S. lacrymans, and vice versa, and some induced fungal pigment production. It was found that 25% of the isolates could degrade pectin, 43% xylan, 17% carboxymethylcellulose, and 66% were able to depolymerize starch. Our results provide first insights for a better understanding of the holobiont S. lacrymans and give hints that bacteria influence the behavior of S. lacrymans in culture.

RevDate: 2021-05-22

Savary R, Barshis DJ, Voolstra CR, et al (2021)

Fast and pervasive transcriptomic resilience and acclimation of extremely heat-tolerant coral holobionts from the northern Red Sea.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(19):.

Corals from the northern Red Sea and Gulf of Aqaba exhibit extreme thermal tolerance. To examine the underlying gene expression dynamics, we exposed Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Aqaba to short-term (hours) and long-term (weeks) heat stress with peak seawater temperatures ranging from their maximum monthly mean of 27 °C (baseline) to 29.5 °C, 32 °C, and 34.5 °C. Corals were sampled at the end of the heat stress as well as after a recovery period at baseline temperature. Changes in coral host and symbiotic algal gene expression were determined via RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Shifts in coral microbiome composition were detected by complementary DNA (cDNA)-based 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. In all experiments up to 32 °C, RNA-Seq revealed fast and pervasive changes in gene expression, primarily in the coral host, followed by a return to baseline gene expression for the majority of coral (>94%) and algal (>71%) genes during recovery. At 34.5 °C, large differences in gene expression were observed with minimal recovery, high coral mortality, and a microbiome dominated by opportunistic bacteria (including Vibrio species), indicating that a lethal temperature threshold had been crossed. Our results show that the S. pistillata holobiont can mount a rapid and pervasive gene expression response contingent on the amplitude and duration of the thermal stress. We propose that the transcriptomic resilience and transcriptomic acclimation observed are key to the extraordinary thermal tolerance of this holobiont and, by inference, of other northern Red Sea coral holobionts, up to seawater temperatures of at least 32 °C, that is, 5 °C above their current maximum monthly mean.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Zilber-Rosenberg I, E Rosenberg (2021)

Microbial driven genetic variation in holobionts.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:6261188 [Epub ahead of print].

Genetic variation in holobionts, (host and microbiome), occurring by changes in both host and microbiome genomes, can be observed from two perspectives: observable variations and the processes that bring about the variation. The observable includes the enormous genetic diversity of prokaryotes, which gave rise to eukaryotic organisms. Holobionts then evolved a rich microbiome with a stable core containing essential genes, less so common taxa, and a more diverse non-core enabling considerable genetic variation. The result being that, the human gut microbiome, for example, contains 1,000 times more unique genes than are present in the human genome. Microbial driven genetic variation processes in holobionts include: (1) Acquisition of novel microbes from the environment, which bring in multiple genes in one step, (2) amplification/reduction of certain microbes in the microbiome, that contribute to holobiont` s adaptation to changing conditions, (3) horizontal gene transfer between microbes and between microbes and host, (4) mutation, which plays an important role in optimizing interactions between different microbiota and between microbiota and host. We suggest that invertebrates and plants, where microbes can live intracellularly, have a greater chance of genetic exchange between microbiota and host, thus a greater chance of vertical transmission and a greater effect of microbiome on evolution of host than vertebrates. However, even in vertebrates the microbiome can aid in environmental fluctuations by amplification/reduction and by acquisition of novel microorganisms.

RevDate: 2021-08-06
CmpDate: 2021-08-06

Wong KH, Goodbody-Gringley G, de Putron SJ, et al (2021)

Brooded coral offspring physiology depends on the combined effects of parental press and pulse thermal history.

Global change biology, 27(13):3179-3195.

Reef-building corals respond to the temporal integration of both pulse events (i.e., heat waves) and press thermal history (i.e., local environment) via physiological changes, with ecological consequences. We used a "press-pulse-press" experimental framework to expose the brooding coral Porites astreoides to various thermal histories to understand the physiological response of temporal dynamics within and across generations. We collected adult colonies from two reefs (outer Rim reef and inner Patch reef) in Bermuda with naturally contrasting thermal regimes as our initial "press" scenario, followed by a 21-day ex situ "pulse" thermal stress of 30.4°C during larval brooding, and a "press" year-long adult reciprocal transplant between the original sites. Higher endosymbiont density and holobiont protein was found in corals originating from the lower thermal variability site (Rim) compared to the higher thermal variability site (Patch). The thermal pulse event drove significant declines in photosynthesis, endosymbiont density, and chlorophyll a, with bleaching phenotype convergence for adults from both histories. Following the reciprocal transplant, photosynthesis was higher in previously heated corals, indicating recovery from the thermal pulse. The effect of origin (initial press) modulated the response to transplant site for endosymbiont density and chlorophyll a, suggesting contrasting acclimation strategies. Higher respiration and photosynthetic rates were found in corals originating from the Rim site, indicating greater energy available for reproduction, supported by larger larvae released from Rim corals post-transplantation. Notably, parental exposure to the pulse thermal event resulted in increased offspring plasticity when parents were transplanted to foreign sites, highlighting the legacy of the pulse event and the importance of the environment during recovery in contributing to cross-generational or developmental plasticity. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the role of historical disturbance events in driving differential outcomes within and across generations, which is of critical importance in forecasting reef futures.

RevDate: 2021-04-30

Harman G, Khadka R, Doni F, et al (2020)

Benefits to Plant Health and Productivity From Enhancing Plant Microbial Symbionts.

Frontiers in plant science, 11:610065.

Plants exist in close association with uncountable numbers of microorganisms around, on, and within them. Some of these endophytically colonize plant roots. The colonization of roots by certain symbiotic strains of plant-associated bacteria and fungi results in these plants performing better than plants whose roots are colonized by only the wild populations of microbes. We consider here crop plants whose roots are inhabited by introduced organisms, referring to them as Enhanced Plant Holobionts (EPHs). EPHs frequently exhibit resistance to specific plant diseases and pests (biotic stresses); resistance to abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, and flooding; enhanced nutrient acquisition and nutrient use efficiency; increased photosynthetic capability; and enhanced ability to maintain efficient internal cellular functioning. The microbes described here generate effects in part through their production of Symbiont-Associated Molecular Patterns (SAMPs) that interact with receptors in plant cell membranes. Such interaction results in the transduction of systemic signals that cause plant-wide changes in the plants' gene expression and physiology. EPH effects arise not only from plant-microbe interactions, but also from microbe-microbe interactions like competition, mycoparasitism, and antibiotic production. When root and shoot growth are enhanced as a consequence of these root endophytes, this increases the yield from EPH plants. An additional benefit from growing larger root systems and having greater photosynthetic capability is greater sequestration of atmospheric CO2. This is transferred to roots where sequestered C, through exudation or root decomposition, becomes part of the total soil carbon, which reduces global warming potential in the atmosphere. Forming EPHs requires selection and introduction of appropriate strains of microorganisms, with EPH performance affected also by the delivery and management practices.

RevDate: 2021-05-20

Zhang Y, Yang Q, Ling J, et al (2021)

Shifting the microbiome of a coral holobiont and improving host physiology by inoculation with a potentially beneficial bacterial consortium.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):130.

BACKGROUND: The coral microbiome plays a key role in host health by being involved in energy metabolism, nutrient cycling, and immune system formation. Inoculating coral with beneficial bacterial consortia may enhance the ability of this host to cope with complex and changing marine environments. In this study, the coral Pocillopora damicornis was inoculated with a beneficial microorganisms for corals (BMC) consortium to investigate how the coral host and its associated microbial community would respond.

RESULTS: High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed no significant differences in bacterial community α-diversity. However, the bacterial community structure differed significantly between the BMC and placebo groups at the end of the experiment. Addition of the BMC consortium significantly increased the relative abundance of potentially beneficial bacteria, including the genera Mameliella and Endozoicomonas. Energy reserves and calcification rates of the coral host were also improved by the addition of the BMC consortium. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated that inoculation of coral with the exogenous BMC consortium improved the physiological status of the host by shifting the coral-associated microbial community structure.

CONCLUSIONS: Manipulating the coral-associated microbial community may enhance the physiology of coral in normal aquarium conditions (no stress applied), which may hypothetically contribute to resilience and resistance in this host.

RevDate: 2021-07-19

Mayer T, Mari A, Almario J, et al (2021)

Obtaining deeper insights into microbiome diversity using a simple method to block host and nontargets in amplicon sequencing.

Molecular ecology resources, 21(6):1952-1965.

Profiling diverse microbiomes is revolutionizing our understanding of biological mechanisms and ecologically relevant problems, including metaorganism (host + microbiome) assembly, functions and adaptation. Amplicon sequencing of multiple conserved, phylogenetically informative loci has therefore become an instrumental tool for many researchers. Investigations in many systems are hindered, however, since essential sequencing depth can be lost by amplification of nontarget DNA from hosts or overabundant microorganisms. Here, we introduce "blocking oligos", a low-cost and flexible method using standard oligonucleotides to block amplification of diverse nontargets and software to aid their design. We apply them primarily in leaves, where exceptional challenges with host amplification prevail. A. thaliana-specific blocking oligos applied in eight different target loci reduce undesirable host amplification by up to 90%. To expand applicability, we designed universal 16S and 18S rRNA gene plant blocking oligos for targets that are conserved in diverse plant species and demonstrate that they efficiently block five plant species from five orders spanning monocots and dicots (Bromus erectus, Plantago lanceolata, Lotus corniculatus, Amaranth sp., Arabidopsis thaliana). These can increase alpha diversity discovery without biasing beta diversity patterns and do not compromise microbial load information inherent to plant-derived 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data. Finally, we designed and tested blocking oligos to avoid amplification of 18S rRNA genes of a sporulating oomycete pathogen, demonstrating their effectiveness in applications well beyond plants. Using these tools, we generated a survey of the A. thaliana leaf microbiome based on eight loci targeting bacterial, fungal, oomycete and other eukaryotic microorganisms and discuss complementarity of commonly used amplicon sequencing regions for describing leaf microbiota. This approach has potential to make questions in a variety of study systems more tractable by making amplicon sequencing more targeted, leading to deeper, systems-based insights into microbial discovery. For fast and easy design for blocking oligos for any nontarget DNA in other study systems, we developed a publicly available R package.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Mach N, Moroldo M, Rau A, et al (2021)

Understanding the Holobiont: Crosstalk Between Gut Microbiota and Mitochondria During Long Exercise in Horse.

Frontiers in molecular biosciences, 8:656204.

Endurance exercise has a dramatic impact on the functionality of mitochondria and on the composition of the intestinal microbiome, but the mechanisms regulating the crosstalk between these two components are still largely unknown. Here, we sampled 20 elite horses before and after an endurance race and used blood transcriptome, blood metabolome and fecal microbiome to describe the gut-mitochondria crosstalk. A subset of mitochondria-related differentially expressed genes involved in pathways such as energy metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation was discovered and then shown to be associated with butyrate-producing bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family, especially Eubacterium. The mechanisms involved were not fully understood, but through the action of their metabolites likely acted on PPARγ, the FRX-CREB axis and their downstream targets to delay the onset of hypoglycemia, inflammation and extend running time. Our results also suggested that circulating free fatty acids may act not merely as fuel but drive mitochondrial inflammatory responses triggered by the translocation of gut bacterial polysaccharides following endurance. Targeting the gut-mitochondria axis therefore appears to be a potential strategy to enhance athletic performance.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Berg G, Kusstatscher P, Abdelfattah A, et al (2021)

Microbiome Modulation-Toward a Better Understanding of Plant Microbiome Response to Microbial Inoculants.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:650610.

Plant-associated microorganisms are involved in important functions related to growth, performance and health of their hosts. Understanding their modes of action is important for the design of promising microbial inoculants for sustainable agriculture. Plant-associated microorganisms are able to interact with their hosts and often exert specific functions toward potential pathogens; the underlying in vitro interactions are well studied. In contrast, in situ effects of inoculants, and especially their impact on the plant indigenous microbiome was mostly neglected so far. Recently, microbiome research has revolutionized our understanding of plants as coevolved holobionts but also of indigenous microbiome-inoculant interactions. Here we disentangle the effects of microbial inoculants on the indigenous plant microbiome and point out the following types of plant microbiome modulations: (i) transient microbiome shifts, (ii) stabilization or increase of microbial diversity, (iii) stabilization or increase of plant microbiome evenness, (iv) restoration of a dysbiosis/compensation or reduction of a pathogen-induced shift, (v) targeted shifts toward plant beneficial members of the indigenous microbiota, and (vi) suppression of potential pathogens. Therefore, we suggest microbiome modulations as novel and efficient mode of action for microbial inoculants that can also be mediated via the plant.

RevDate: 2021-04-28

Costa RM, Cárdenas A, Loussert-Fonta C, et al (2021)

Surface Topography, Bacterial Carrying Capacity, and the Prospect of Microbiome Manipulation in the Sea Anemone Coral Model Aiptasia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:637834.

Aiptasia is an emerging model organism to study cnidarian symbioses due to its taxonomic relatedness to other anthozoans such as stony corals and similarities of its microalgal and bacterial partners, complementing the existing Hydra (Hydrozoa) and Nematostella (Anthozoa) model systems. Despite the availability of studies characterizing the microbiomes of several natural Aiptasia populations and laboratory strains, knowledge on basic information, such as surface topography, bacterial carrying capacity, or the prospect of microbiome manipulation is lacking. Here we address these knowledge gaps. Our results show that the surface topographies of the model hydrozoan Hydra and anthozoans differ substantially, whereas the ultrastructural surface architecture of Aiptasia and stony corals is highly similar. Further, we determined a bacterial carrying capacity of ∼104 and ∼105 bacteria (i.e., colony forming units, CFUs) per polyp for aposymbiotic and symbiotic Aiptasia anemones, respectively, suggesting that the symbiotic status changes bacterial association/density. Microbiome transplants from Acropora humilis and Porites sp. to gnotobiotic Aiptasia showed that only a few foreign bacterial taxa were effective colonizers. Our results shed light on the putative difficulties of transplanting microbiomes between cnidarians in a manner that consistently changes microbial host association at large. At the same time, our study provides an avenue to identify bacterial taxa that exhibit broad ability to colonize different hosts as a starting point for cross-species microbiome manipulation. Our work is relevant in the context of microbial therapy (probiotics) and microbiome manipulation in corals and answers to the need of having cnidarian model systems to test the function of bacteria and their effect on holobiont biology. Taken together, we provide important foundation data to extend Aiptasia as a coral model for bacterial functional studies.

RevDate: 2021-06-22
CmpDate: 2021-06-22

Saborío-Montero A, López-García A, Gutiérrez-Rivas M, et al (2021)

A dimensional reduction approach to modulate the core ruminal microbiome associated with methane emissions via selective breeding.

Journal of dairy science, 104(7):8135-8151.

The rumen is a complex microbial system of substantial importance in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and feed efficiency. This study proposes combining metagenomic and host genomic data for selective breeding of the cow hologenome toward reduced methane emissions. We analyzed nanopore long reads from the rumen metagenome of 437 Holstein cows from 14 commercial herds in 4 northern regions in Spain. After filtering, data were treated as compositional. The large complexity of the rumen microbiota was aggregated, through principal component analysis (PCA), into few principal components (PC) that were used as proxies of the core metagenome. The PCA allowed us to condense the huge and fuzzy taxonomical and functional information from the metagenome into a few PC. Bivariate animal models were applied using these PC and methane production as phenotypes. The variability condensed in these PC is controlled by the cow genome, with heritability estimates for the first PC of ~0.30 at all taxonomic levels, with a large probability (>83%) of the posterior distribution being >0.20 and with the 95% highest posterior density interval (95%HPD) not containing zero. Most genetic correlation estimates between PC1 and methane were large (≥0.70), with most of the posterior distribution (>82%) being >0.50 and with its 95%HPD not containing zero. Enteric methane production was positively associated with relative abundance of eukaryotes (protozoa and fungi) through the first component of the PCA at phylum, class, order, family, and genus. Nanopore long reads allowed the characterization of the core rumen metagenome using whole-metagenome sequencing, and the purposed aggregated variables could be used in animal breeding programs to reduce methane emissions in future generations.

RevDate: 2021-05-06
CmpDate: 2021-05-06

Cambon-Bonavita MA, Aubé J, Cueff-Gauchard V, et al (2021)

Niche partitioning in the Rimicaris exoculata holobiont: the case of the first symbiotic Zetaproteobacteria.

Microbiome, 9(1):87.

BACKGROUND: Free-living and symbiotic chemosynthetic microbial communities support primary production and higher trophic levels in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata, which dominates animal communities along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, houses a complex bacterial community in its enlarged cephalothorax. The dominant bacteria present are from the taxonomic groups Campylobacteria, Desulfobulbia (formerly Deltaproteobacteria), Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and some recently discovered iron oxyhydroxide-coated Zetaproteobacteria. This epibiotic consortium uses iron, sulfide, methane, and hydrogen as energy sources. Here, we generated shotgun metagenomes from Rimicaris exoculata cephalothoracic epibiotic communities to reconstruct and investigate symbiotic genomes. We collected specimens from three geochemically contrasted vent fields, TAG, Rainbow, and Snake Pit, to unravel the specificity, variability, and adaptation of Rimicaris-microbe associations.

RESULTS: Our data enabled us to reconstruct 49 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from the TAG and Rainbow vent fields, including 16 with more than 90% completion and less than 5% contamination based on single copy core genes. These MAGs belonged to the dominant Campylobacteria, Desulfobulbia, Thiotrichaceae, and some novel candidate phyla radiation (CPR) lineages. In addition, most importantly, two MAGs in our collection were affiliated to Zetaproteobacteria and had no close relatives (average nucleotide identity ANI < 77% with the closest relative Ghiorsea bivora isolated from TAG, and 88% with each other), suggesting potential novel species. Genes for Calvin-Benson Bassham (CBB) carbon fixation, iron, and sulfur oxidation, as well as nitrate reduction, occurred in both MAGs. However, genes for hydrogen oxidation and multicopper oxidases occurred in one MAG only, suggesting shared and specific potential functions for these two novel Zetaproteobacteria symbiotic lineages. Overall, we observed highly similar symbionts co-existing in a single shrimp at both the basaltic TAG and ultramafic Rainbow vent sites. Nevertheless, further examination of the seeming functional redundancy among these epibionts revealed important differences.

CONCLUSION: These data highlight microniche partitioning in the Rimicaris holobiont and support recent studies showing that functional diversity enables multiple symbiont strains to coexist in animals colonizing hydrothermal vents. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Aldana M, R Robeva (2021)

New Challenges in Systems Biology: Understanding the Holobiont.

Frontiers in physiology, 12:662878.

RevDate: 2021-04-11

Li S, Roger LM, Kumar L, et al (2021)

Digital image processing to detect subtle motion in stony coral.

Scientific reports, 11(1):7722.

Coral reef ecosystems support significant biological activities and harbor huge diversity, but they are facing a severe crisis driven by anthropogenic activities and climate change. An important behavioral trait of the coral holobiont is coral motion, which may play an essential role in feeding, competition, reproduction, and thus survival and fitness. Therefore, characterizing coral behavior through motion analysis will aid our understanding of basic biological and physical coral functions. However, tissue motion in the stony scleractinian corals that contribute most to coral reef construction are subtle and may be imperceptible to both the human eye and commonly used imaging techniques. Here we propose and apply a systematic approach to quantify and visualize subtle coral motion across a series of light and dark cycles in the scleractinian coral Montipora capricornis. We use digital image correlation and optical flow techniques to quantify and characterize minute coral motions under different light conditions. In addition, as a visualization tool, motion magnification algorithm magnifies coral motions in different frequencies, which explicitly displays the distinctive dynamic modes of coral movement. Specifically, our assessment of displacement, strain, optical flow, and mode shape quantify coral motion under different light conditions, and they all show that M. capricornis exhibits more active motions at night compared to day. Our approach provides an unprecedented insight into micro-scale coral movement and behavior through macro-scale digital imaging, thus offering a useful empirical toolset for the coral research community.

RevDate: 2021-05-20

Catania F, Baedke J, Fábregas-Tejeda A, et al (2021)

Global climate change, diet, and the complex relationship between human host and microbiome: Towards an integrated picture.

BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 43(6):e2100049.

Dietary changes can alter the human microbiome with potential detrimental consequences for health. Given that environment, health, and evolution are interconnected, we ask: Could diet-driven microbiome perturbations have consequences that extend beyond their immediate impact on human health? We address this question in the context of the urgent health challenges posed by global climate change. Drawing on recent studies, we propose that not only can diet-driven microbiome changes lead to dysbiosis, they can also shape life-history traits and fuel human evolution. We posit that dietary shifts prompt mismatched microbiome-host genetics configurations that modulate human longevity and reproductive success. These mismatches can also induce a heritable intra-holobiont stress response, which encourages the holobiont to re-establish equilibrium within the changed nutritional environment. Thus, while mismatches between climate change-related genetic and epigenetic configurations within the holobiont increase the risk and severity of diseases, they may also affect life-history traits and facilitate adaptive responses. These propositions form a framework that can help systematize and address climate-related dietary challenges for policy and health interventions.

RevDate: 2021-04-07

Cross KL, Leigh BA, Hatmaker EA, et al (2021)

Genomes of Gut Bacteria from Nasonia Wasps Shed Light on Phylosymbiosis and Microbe-Assisted Hybrid Breakdown.

mSystems, 6(2):.

Phylosymbiosis is a cross-system trend whereby microbial community relationships recapitulate the host phylogeny. In Nasonia parasitoid wasps, phylosymbiosis occurs throughout development, is distinguishable between sexes, and benefits host development and survival. Moreover, the microbiome shifts in hybrids as a rare Proteus bacterium in the microbiome becomes dominant. The larval hybrids then catastrophically succumb to bacterium-assisted lethality and reproductive isolation between the species. Two important questions for understanding phylosymbiosis and bacterium-assisted lethality in hybrids are (i) do the Nasonia bacterial genomes differ from other animal isolates and (ii) are the hybrid bacterial genomes the same as those in the parental species? Here, we report the cultivation, whole-genome sequencing, and comparative analyses of the most abundant gut bacteria in Nasonia larvae, Providencia rettgeri and Proteus mirabilis Characterization of new isolates shows Proteus mirabilis forms a more robust biofilm than Providencia rettgeri and that, when grown in coculture, Proteus mirabilis significantly outcompetes Providencia rettgeri Providencia rettgeri genomes from Nasonia are similar to each other and more divergent from pathogenic, human associates. Proteus mirabilis from Nasonia vitripennis, Nasonia giraulti, and their hybrid offspring are nearly identical and relatively distinct from human isolates. These results indicate that members of the larval gut microbiome within Nasonia are most similar to each other, and the strain of the dominant Proteus mirabilis in hybrids is resident in parental species. Holobiont interactions between shared, resident members of the wasp microbiome and the host underpin phylosymbiosis and hybrid breakdown.IMPORTANCE Animal and plant hosts often establish intimate relationships with their microbiomes. In varied environments, closely related host species share more similar microbiomes, a pattern termed phylosymbiosis. When phylosymbiosis is functionally significant and beneficial, microbial transplants between host species and host hybridization can have detrimental consequences on host biology. In the Nasonia parasitoid wasp genus, which contains a phylosymbiotic gut community, both effects occur and provide evidence for selective pressures on the holobiont. Here, we show that bacterial genomes in Nasonia differ from other environments and harbor genes with unique functions that may regulate phylosymbiotic relationships. Furthermore, the bacteria in hybrids are identical to those in parental species, thus supporting a hologenomic tenet that the same members of the microbiome and the host genome impact phylosymbiosis, hybrid breakdown, and speciation.

RevDate: 2021-05-15

Lyu D, Zajonc J, Pagé A, et al (2021)

Plant Holobiont Theory: The Phytomicrobiome Plays a Central Role in Evolution and Success.

Microorganisms, 9(4):.

Under natural conditions, plants are always associated with a well-orchestrated community of microbes-the phytomicrobiome. The nature and degree of microbial effect on the plant host can be positive, neutral, or negative, and depends largely on the environment. The phytomicrobiome is integral for plant growth and function; microbes play a key role in plant nutrient acquisition, biotic and abiotic stress management, physiology regulation through microbe-to-plant signals, and growth regulation via the production of phytohormones. Relationships between the plant and phytomicrobiome members vary in intimacy, ranging from casual associations between roots and the rhizosphere microbial community, to endophytes that live between plant cells, to the endosymbiosis of microbes by the plant cell resulting in mitochondria and chloroplasts. If we consider these key organelles to also be members of the phytomicrobiome, how do we distinguish between the two? If we accept the mitochondria and chloroplasts as both members of the phytomicrobiome and the plant (entrained microbes), the influence of microbes on the evolution of plants becomes so profound that without microbes, the concept of the "plant" is not viable. This paper argues that the holobiont concept should take greater precedence in the plant sciences when referring to a host and its associated microbial community. The inclusivity of this concept accounts for the ambiguous nature of the entrained microbes and the wide range of functions played by the phytomicrobiome in plant holobiont homeostasis.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Cuffaro B, Assohoun ALW, Boutillier D, et al (2021)

Identification of New Potential Biotherapeutics from Human Gut Microbiota-Derived Bacteria.

Microorganisms, 9(3):.

The role of the gut microbiota in health and disease is well recognized and the microbiota dysbiosis observed in many chronic diseases became a new therapeutic target. The challenge is to get a better insight into the functionality of commensal bacteria and to use this knowledge to select live biotherapeutics as new preventive or therapeutic products. In this study, we set up a screening approach to evaluate the functional capacities of a set of 21 strains isolated from the gut microbiota of neonates and adults. For this purpose, we selected key biological processes involved in the microbiome-host symbiosis and known to impact the host physiology i.e., the production of short-chain fatty acids and the ability to strengthen an epithelial barrier (Caco-2), to induce the release of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine after co-culture with human immune cells (PBMC) or to increase GLP-1 production from STC-1 endocrine cell line. This strategy highlighted fifteen strains exhibiting beneficial activities among which seven strains combined several of them. Interestingly, this work revealed for the first time a high prevalence of potential health-promoting functions among intestinal commensal strains and identified several appealing novel candidates for the management of chronic diseases, notably obesity and inflammatory bowel diseases.

RevDate: 2021-04-22
CmpDate: 2021-04-22

Mariaule V, Kriaa A, Soussou S, et al (2021)

Digestive Inflammation: Role of Proteolytic Dysregulation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(6):.

Dysregulation of the proteolytic balance is often associated with diseases. Serine proteases and matrix metalloproteases are involved in a multitude of biological processes and notably in the inflammatory response. Within the framework of digestive inflammation, several studies have stressed the role of serine proteases and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) as key actors in its pathogenesis and pointed to the unbalance between these proteases and their respective inhibitors. Substantial efforts have been made in developing new inhibitors, some of which have reached clinical trial phases, notwithstanding that unwanted side effects remain a major issue. However, studies on the proteolytic imbalance and inhibitors conception are directed toward host serine/MMPs proteases revealing a hitherto overlooked factor, the potential contribution of their bacterial counterpart. In this review, we highlight the role of proteolytic imbalance in human digestive inflammation focusing on serine proteases and MMPs and their respective inhibitors considering both host and bacterial origin.

RevDate: 2021-04-03

Bo TB, KD Kohl (2021)

Stabilization and optimization of host-microbe-environment interactions as a potential reason for the behavior of natal philopatry.

Animal microbiome, 3(1):26.

Many animals engage in a behavior known as natal philopatry, where after sexual maturity they return to their own birthplaces for subsequent reproduction. There are many proposed ultimate factors that may underlie the evolution of natal philopatry, such as genetic optimization, suitable living conditions, and friendly neighbors, which can improve the survival rates of offspring. However, here we propose that a key factor that has been overlooked could be the colonization of gut microbiota during early life and the effects these microorganisms have on host performance and fitness. In addition to the bacteria transmitted from the mother to offspring, microbes from the surrounding environment also account for a large proportion of the developing gut microbiome. While it was long believed that microbial species all have global distributions, we now know that there are substantial geographic differences and dispersal limitations to environmental microbes. The establishment of gut microbiota during early life has enormous impacts on animal development, including energy metabolism, training of the immune system, and cognitive development. Moreover, these microbial effects scale to influence animal performance and fitness, raising the possibility for natural selection to act on the integrated combination of gut microbial communities and host genetics (i.e. the holobiont). Therefore, in this paper, we propose a hypothesis: that optimization of host-microbe-environment interactions represents a potentially important yet overlooked reason for natal philopatry. Microbiota obtained by natal philopatry could help animals adapt to the environment and improve the survival rates of their young. We propose future directions to test these ideas, and the implications that this hypothesis has for our understanding of host-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2021-03-27

Zhu L, Zhang Z, Chen H, et al (2021)

Gut microbiomes of bigheaded carps and hybrids provide insights into invasion: A hologenome perspective.

Evolutionary applications, 14(3):735-745.

Gut microbiomes play an essential role in host survival and local adaptation and thus can facilitate the invasion of host species. Biological invasions have been shown to be linked to the genetic properties of alien host species. It is thus plausible that the holobiont, the host, and its associated microbiome act as an entity to drive invasion success. The bighead carp and silver carp (bigheaded carps), invasive species that exhibit extensive hybridization in the Mississippi River Basin (MRB), provided a unique model to test the holobiont hypothesis of invasion. Here, we investigated the microbiomes of foreguts and hindguts in bigheaded carps and their reciprocal hybrids reared in aquaculture ponds using 16S amplicons and the associated gene prediction. We found an admixed pattern in the gut microbiome community in bigheaded carp hybrids. The hybrid gut microbiomes showed special characteristics such as relatively high alpha diversity in the foregut, an increasing dissimilarity between foreguts and hindguts, and a remarkable proportion of genes coding for putative enzymes related to their digestion of main food resources (Cyanobacteria, cellulose, and chitin). The pond-reared hybrids had advantageous features in genes coding for putative enzymes related to their diet. The above results collectively suggested that the gut microbiomes of hybrids could be beneficial to their local adaptation (e.g., food resource utilization), which might have facilitated their invasion in the MRB. The gut microbial findings, along with the intrinsic genomic features likely associated with life-history traits revealed in our recent study, provide preliminary evidence supporting the holobiont hypothesis of invasion.

RevDate: 2021-04-15
CmpDate: 2021-04-15

Keller-Costa T, Lago-Lestón A, Saraiva JP, et al (2021)

Metagenomic insights into the taxonomy, function, and dysbiosis of prokaryotic communities in octocorals.

Microbiome, 9(1):72.

BACKGROUND: In octocorals (Cnidaria Octocorallia), the functional relationship between host health and its symbiotic consortium has yet to be determined. Here, we employed comparative metagenomics to uncover the distinct functional and phylogenetic features of the microbiomes of healthy Eunicella gazella, Eunicella verrucosa, and Leptogorgia sarmentosa tissues, in contrast with the microbiomes found in seawater and sediments. We further explored how the octocoral microbiome shifts to a pathobiome state in E. gazella.

RESULTS: Multivariate analyses based on 16S rRNA genes, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs), Protein families (Pfams), and secondary metabolite-biosynthetic gene clusters annotated from 20 Illumina-sequenced metagenomes each revealed separate clustering of the prokaryotic communities of healthy tissue samples of the three octocoral species from those of necrotic E. gazella tissue and surrounding environments. While the healthy octocoral microbiome was distinguished by so-far uncultivated Endozoicomonadaceae, Oceanospirillales, and Alteromonadales phylotypes in all host species, a pronounced increase of Flavobacteriaceae and Alphaproteobacteria, originating from seawater, was observed in necrotic E. gazella tissue. Increased abundances of eukaryotic-like proteins, exonucleases, restriction endonucleases, CRISPR/Cas proteins, and genes encoding for heat-shock proteins, inorganic ion transport, and iron storage distinguished the prokaryotic communities of healthy octocoral tissue regardless of the host species. An increase of arginase and nitric oxide reductase genes, observed in necrotic E. gazella tissues, suggests the existence of a mechanism for suppression of nitrite oxide production by which octocoral pathogens may overcome the host's immune system.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to employ primer-less, shotgun metagenome sequencing to unveil the taxonomic, functional, and secondary metabolism features of prokaryotic communities in octocorals. Our analyses reveal that the octocoral microbiome is distinct from those of the environmental surroundings, is host genus (but not species) specific, and undergoes large, complex structural changes in the transition to the dysbiotic state. Host-symbiont recognition, abiotic-stress response, micronutrient acquisition, and an antiviral defense arsenal comprising multiple restriction endonucleases, CRISPR/Cas systems, and phage lysogenization regulators are signatures of prokaryotic communities in octocorals. We argue that these features collectively contribute to the stabilization of symbiosis in the octocoral holobiont and constitute beneficial traits that can guide future studies on coral reef conservation and microbiome therapy. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-03-24

Campos AB, Cavalcante LC, de Azevedo AR, et al (2021)

CPR and DPANN Have an Overlooked Role in Corals' Microbial Community Structure.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding how microbial communities are structured in coral holobionts is important to estimate local and global impacts and provide efficient environment management strategies. Several studies investigated the relationship between corals and their microbial communities, including the environmental drivers of shifts in this relationship, associated with diseases and coral cover loss. However, these studies are often geographically or taxonomically restricted and usually focused on the most abundant microbial groups, neglecting the rare biosphere, including archaea in the group DPANN and the recently discovered bacterial members of the candidate phyla radiation (CPR). Although it is known that rare microbes can play essential roles in several environments, we still lack understanding about which taxa comprise the rare biosphere of corals' microbiome. Here, we investigated the host-related and technical factors influencing coral microbial community structure and the importance of CPR and DPANN in this context by analyzing more than a hundred coral metagenomes from independent studies worldwide. We show that coral genera are the main biotic factor shaping coral microbial communities. We also detected several CPR and DPANN phyla comprising corals' rare biosphere for the first time and showed that they significantly contribute to shaping coral microbial communities.

RevDate: 2021-05-11

Baum L, Nguyen MTHD, Jia Y, et al (2021)

Characterization of a novel roseophage and the morphological and transcriptional response of the sponge symbiont Ruegeria AU67 to infection.

Environmental microbiology, 23(5):2532-2549.

Sponges have recently been recognized to contain complex communities of bacteriophages; however, little is known about how they interact with their bacterial hosts. Here, we isolated a novel phage, called Ruegeria phage Tedan, and characterized its impact on the bacterial sponge symbiont Ruegeria AU67 on a morphological and molecular level. Phage Tedan was structurally, genomically and phylogenetically characterized to be affiliated with the genus Xiamenvirus of the family Siphoviridae. Through microscopic observations and transcriptomic analysis, we show that phage Tedan upon infection induces a process leading to metabolic and morphological changes in its host. These changes would render Ruegeria AU67 better adapted to inhabit the sponge holobiont due to an improved utilization of ecologically relevant energy and carbon sources as well as a potential impediment of phagocytosis by the sponge through cellular enlargement. An increased survival or better growth of the bacterium in the sponge environment will likely benefit the phage reproduction. Our results point towards the possibility that phages from host-associated environments require, and have thus evolved, different strategies to interact with their host when compared to those phages from free-living or planktonic environments.

RevDate: 2021-05-14

Lemay MA, Davis KM, Martone PT, et al (2021)

Kelp-associated Microbiota are Structured by Host Anatomy.

Journal of phycology [Epub ahead of print].

Seaweed-associated microbiota are essential for the health and resilience of nearshore ecosystems, marine biogeochemical cycling, and host health. Yet much remains unknown about the ecology of seaweed-microbe symbioses. In this study, we quantified fine-scale patterns of microbial community structure across distinct anatomical regions of the kelp Laminaria setchellii. These anatomical regions represent a gradient of tissue ages: perennial holdfasts can be several years old, whereas stipe epicortex and blades are younger annual structures. Within blades, new growth occurs at the base, while the blade tips may be several months old and undergoing senescence. We hypothesized that microbial communities will differ across anatomical regions (holdfast, stipe, blade base, and blade tip), such that younger tissues will harbor fewer microbes that are more consistent across replicate individuals. Our data support this hypothesis, with the composition of bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and microeukaryote (18S rRNA gene) communities showing significant differences across the four anatomical regions, with the surfaces of older tissues (holdfast and blade tips) harboring significantly greater microbial richness compared to the younger tissues of the meristematic region. Additional samples collected from the surfaces of new L. setchellii recruits (<1y old) also showed differences in microbial community structure across anatomical regions, which demonstrates that these microbial differences are established early. We also observed this pattern in two additional algal species, suggesting that microbial community structure across host anatomy may be a common feature of the seaweed microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-07-07

Fiuza BSD, Fonseca HF, Meirelles PM, et al (2021)

Understanding Asthma and Allergies by the Lens of Biodiversity and Epigenetic Changes.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:623737.

Exposure to different organisms (bacteria, mold, virus, protozoan, helminths, among others) can induce epigenetic changes affecting the modulation of immune responses and consequently increasing the susceptibility to inflammatory diseases. Epigenomic regulatory features are highly affected during embryonic development and are responsible for the expression or repression of different genes associated with cell development and targeting/conducting immune responses. The well-known, "window of opportunity" that includes maternal and post-natal environmental exposures, which include maternal infections, microbiota, diet, drugs, and pollutant exposures are of fundamental importance to immune modulation and these events are almost always accompanied by epigenetic changes. Recently, it has been shown that these alterations could be involved in both risk and protection of allergic diseases through mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which can enhance Th2 responses and maintain memory Th2 cells or decrease Treg cells differentiation. In addition, epigenetic changes may differ according to the microbial agent involved and may even influence different asthma or allergy phenotypes. In this review, we discuss how exposure to different organisms, including bacteria, viruses, and helminths can lead to epigenetic modulations and how this correlates with allergic diseases considering different genetic backgrounds of several ancestral populations.

RevDate: 2021-07-17
CmpDate: 2021-05-20

Cornwell BH, L Hernández (2021)

Genetic structure in the endosymbiont Breviolum 'muscatinei' is correlated with geographical location, environment and host species.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 288(1946):20202896.

Corals and cnidarians form symbioses with dinoflagellates across a wide range of habitats from the tropics to temperate zones. Notably, these partnerships create the foundation of coral reef ecosystems and are at risk of breaking down due to climate change. This symbiosis couples the fitness of the partners, where adaptations in one species can benefit the holobiont. However, the scales over which each partner can match their current-and future-environment are largely unknown. We investigated population genetic patterns of temperate anemones (Anthopleura spp.) and their endosymbiont Breviolum 'muscatinei', across an extensive geographical range to identify the spatial scales over which local adaptation is possible. Similar to previously published results, two solitary host species exhibited isolation by distance across hundreds of kilometres. However, symbionts exhibited genetic structure across multiple spatial scales, from geographical location to depth in the intertidal zone, and host species, suggesting that symbiont populations are more likely than their hosts to adaptively mitigate the impact of increasing temperatures.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Buffington SA, Dooling SW, Sgritta M, et al (2021)

Dissecting the contribution of host genetics and the microbiome in complex behaviors.

Cell, 184(7):1740-1756.e16.

The core symptoms of many neurological disorders have traditionally been thought to be caused by genetic variants affecting brain development and function. However, the gut microbiome, another important source of variation, can also influence specific behaviors. Thus, it is critical to unravel the contributions of host genetic variation, the microbiome, and their interactions to complex behaviors. Unexpectedly, we discovered that different maladaptive behaviors are interdependently regulated by the microbiome and host genes in the Cntnap2-/- model for neurodevelopmental disorders. The hyperactivity phenotype of Cntnap2-/- mice is caused by host genetics, whereas the social-behavior phenotype is mediated by the gut microbiome. Interestingly, specific microbial intervention selectively rescued the social deficits in Cntnap2-/- mice through upregulation of metabolites in the tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis pathway. Our findings that behavioral abnormalities could have distinct origins (host genetic versus microbial) may change the way we think about neurological disorders and how to treat them.

RevDate: 2021-04-20

Borrero de Acuña JM, P Bernal (2021)

Plant holobiont interactions mediated by the type VI secretion system and the membrane vesicles: promising tools for a greener agriculture.

Environmental microbiology, 23(4):1830-1836.

A deeper understanding of the complex relationship between plants and their microbiota is allowing researchers to appreciate a plethora of possibilities to improve crops using chemical-free alternatives based on beneficial microorganisms. An increase in crop yield from the promotion of plant growth or even simultaneous protection of the plants from the attack of phytopathogens can be achieved in the presence of different plant-associated microorganisms known as plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and biocontrol agents (BCAs), respectively. Thus, the study of the great diversity of plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions is an attention-grabbing topic covering studies of interactions since the plant seed and through all developmental stages, from root to shoot. The intricate communication systems that plant holobionts co-evolved has resulted in many different strategies and interplays between these organisms shaping the bacterial communities and the plant fitness simultaneously. Herein, we emphasize two understudied delivery systems existing in plant-associated bacteria: the type VI secretion system (T6SS) and the membrane vesicles with a huge potential to boost a highly demanded and necessary green agriculture.

RevDate: 2021-07-06
CmpDate: 2021-07-06

Varasteh T, Tschoeke D, Garcia G, et al (2021)

Insights into the genomic repertoire of Aquimarina litoralis CCMR20, a symbiont of coral Mussismilia braziliensis.

Archives of microbiology, 203(5):2743-2746.

Aquimarina litoralis CCMR20 originated from the coral Mussismilia braziliensis (Sebastião Gomes Reef, Brazil, summer 2010). To gain new insights into the genomic repertoire associated with symbioses, we obtained the genome sequence of this strains using Illumina sequencing. CCMR20 has a genome size of 6.3 Mb, 32.6%GC, and 5513 genes (37 tRNA and 4 rRNA). A more fine-grained examination of the gene repertoire of CCMR20 disclosed genes engaged with symbiosis (heterotrophic carbon metabolism, CAZymes, B-vitamins group, carotenoid pigment and antioxidant molecules production). Genomic evidence further expand the possible relevance of this symbiont in the health of Mussismilia holobiont.Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/ENA/GeneBank under the accession number WEKL00000000.

RevDate: 2021-03-16

Palladino G, Rampelli S, Scicchitano D, et al (2021)

Impact of Marine Aquaculture on the Microbiome Associated with Nearby Holobionts: The Case of Patella caerulea Living in Proximity of Sea Bream Aquaculture Cages.

Microorganisms, 9(2):.

Aquaculture plays a major role in the coastal economy of the Mediterranean Sea. This raises the issue of the impact of fish cages on the surrounding environment. Here, we explore the impact of aquaculture on the composition of the digestive gland microbiome of a representative locally dwelling wild holobiont, the grazer gastropod Patella caerulea, at an aquaculture facility located in Southern Sicily, Italy. The microbiome was assessed in individuals collected on sea bream aquaculture cages and on a rocky coastal tract located about 1.2 km from the cages, as the control site. Patella caerulea microbiome variations were explained in the broad marine metacommunity context, assessing the water and sediment microbiome composition at both sites, and characterizing the microbiome associated with the farmed sea bream. The P. caerulea digestive gland microbiome at the aquaculture site was characterized by a lower diversity, the loss of microorganisms sensitive to heavy metal contamination, and by the acquisition of fish pathogens and parasites. However, we also observed possible adaptive responses of the P. caerulea digestive gland microbiome at the aquaculture site, including the acquisition of putative bacteria able to deal with metal and sulfide accumulation, highlighting the inherent microbiome potential to drive the host acclimation to stressful conditions.


ESP Quick Facts

ESP Origins

In the early 1990's, Robert Robbins was a faculty member at Johns Hopkins, where he directed the informatics core of GDB — the human gene-mapping database of the international human genome project. To share papers with colleagues around the world, he set up a small paper-sharing section on his personal web page. This small project evolved into The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Support

In 1995, Robbins became the VP/IT of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA. Soon after arriving in Seattle, Robbins secured funding, through the ELSI component of the US Human Genome Project, to create the original ESP.ORG web site, with the formal goal of providing free, world-wide access to the literature of classical genetics.

ESP Rationale

Although the methods of molecular biology can seem almost magical to the uninitiated, the original techniques of classical genetics are readily appreciated by one and all: cross individuals that differ in some inherited trait, collect all of the progeny, score their attributes, and propose mechanisms to explain the patterns of inheritance observed.

ESP Goal

In reading the early works of classical genetics, one is drawn, almost inexorably, into ever more complex models, until molecular explanations begin to seem both necessary and natural. At that point, the tools for understanding genome research are at hand. Assisting readers reach this point was the original goal of The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project.

ESP Usage

Usage of the site grew rapidly and has remained high. Faculty began to use the site for their assigned readings. Other on-line publishers, ranging from The New York Times to Nature referenced ESP materials in their own publications. Nobel laureates (e.g., Joshua Lederberg) regularly used the site and even wrote to suggest changes and improvements.

ESP Content

When the site began, no journals were making their early content available in digital format. As a result, ESP was obliged to digitize classic literature before it could be made available. For many important papers — such as Mendel's original paper or the first genetic map — ESP had to produce entirely new typeset versions of the works, if they were to be available in a high-quality format.

ESP Help

Early support from the DOE component of the Human Genome Project was critically important for getting the ESP project on a firm foundation. Since that funding ended (nearly 20 years ago), the project has been operated as a purely volunteer effort. Anyone wishing to assist in these efforts should send an email to Robbins.

ESP Plans

With the development of methods for adding typeset side notes to PDF files, the ESP project now plans to add annotated versions of some classical papers to its holdings. We also plan to add new reference and pedagogical material. We have already started providing regularly updated, comprehensive bibliographies to the ESP.ORG site.

Electronic Scholarly Publishing
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Bellingham, WA 98226

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Papers in Classical Genetics

The ESP began as an effort to share a handful of key papers from the early days of classical genetics. Now the collection has grown to include hundreds of papers, in full-text format.

Digital Books

Along with papers on classical genetics, ESP offers a collection of full-text digital books, including many works by Darwin (and even a collection of poetry — Chicago Poems by Carl Sandburg).


ESP now offers a much improved and expanded collection of timelines, designed to give the user choice over subject matter and dates.


Biographical information about many key scientists.

Selected Bibliographies

Bibliographies on several topics of potential interest to the ESP community are now being automatically maintained and generated on the ESP site.

ESP Picks from Around the Web (updated 07 JUL 2018 )